• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Friedensverhandlungen zwischen...
 Konsulatsberichte uber die Philippinen...
 Audere Notizen uber die Philip...
 Verhandlungen uber die Entschadigungs-anspruche...
 Verhandlungen uber die Beschwerden...
 Verhandlungen in Bloemfontein zwischen...
 Weitere Verhandlungen zwischen...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover














Group Title: Staatsarchiv
Title: Das Staatsarchiv
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098568/00031
 Material Information
Title: Das Staatsarchiv
Physical Description: v. : ; 24-25 cm.
Language: German
Creator: Institut für Auswärtige Politik (Germany)
Institut für Ausländisches Öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht (Germany)
Germany -- Auswärtiges Amt
Publisher: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft etc.
Place of Publication: Leipzig etc
Leipzig etc
 Subjects
Subject: History, Modern -- Sources -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1.-86. Bd., Juli 1861-1919; n.F., 1.- Bd., 1928-
Numbering Peculiarities: Publication suspended 1920-1927.
General Note: "Sammlung der offiziellen Aktenstücke zur Aussenpolitik der Gegenwart."
General Note: "In Verbindung mit dem Institut für Auswärtige Politik, Hamburg, und dem Institut für Ausländisches Öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht, Berlin, und mit Unterstützung des Auswärtigen Amtes herausgegeben von Friedrich Thimme.
General Note: Has occasional supplements.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098568
Volume ID: VID00031
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01766397

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Friedensverhandlungen zwischen den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika und Spanien 1898 und Dokumente uber die Philippinen
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
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    Konsulatsberichte uber die Philippinen vor und aus dem Kriege
        Page 108
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    Audere Notizen uber die Philippinen
        Page 119
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    Verhandlungen uber die Entschadigungs-anspruche der Sudafrikanischen Republik fur den Einfall Jamesons
        Page 202
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    Verhandlungen uber die Beschwerden der Auslander
        Page 218
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    Verhandlungen in Bloemfontein zwischen Kruger und Milner
        Page 263
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    Weitere Verhandlungen zwischen Grofsbritannien, der Sudafrikanischen Republik und dem Oranje - Freistaat bis zum Ausbruch des Krieges
        Page 296
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    Back Matter
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
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    Back Cover
        Page 353
        Page 354
Full Text





















































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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http://www.archive.org/detaits/staatsarchiv63inst









Das Staatsarchiv.



Sammlung


der ofliciellen Actenstiicke
zur

Geschichte der Gegenwart.


Begrtlndet

Acgrvidi onl ld
Aegidi iind Klauliold.


Herausgegeben
von


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Dreiiundsechzigster Band.


Verlag von Duncker & Humblot.
1900.
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Inhaltsverzeichnis.


Biindnisse, Vertriige, Konventionen, Protokollo etc.
1898. Dezbr. 10. Vereinigte Staaten und Spanien, Friedensvertrag . 11988.

Friedensverhandlungen zwischen den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika
und Spanien 1898 und Dokunente iiber die Philippinen.
1898. Juli 22. Spanien, Der Minister des Auswirtigen an den Prasidenten
der Vereinigten Staaten durch Vermittlung des franzis.
Botschafters in Washington. Spanien ist zur Einstellung
der Feindseligkeiten bereit . . . . .. 11962.
30. Vereinigte Staaten, Der Staatssekretir des Auswartigen an
den spanischen Minister des Auswartigen. Antwort auf
das Vorige .. . .. ...... . 11963
Aug. 7. Spanien. Der Minister des Auswartigen an den Minister des
Auswirtigen der Vereinigten Staaten. Spanien nimmt
die amerikanischen Bedingungen an . . . .. 11964.
S 12. Vereinigte Staaten und Spanien, Prliminarfrieden . 11965.
Oktbr. 1. Protokoll der ersten Sitzung der Friedenskonferenz.
Einleitendes . . . . . . . . 11966.
S. 3. 2. Sitzung. Geschaftsordnung . . . .. 11967.
7. Debatte fiber Cuba und Portorico .. ... .11968.
11. 4. Sitzung. Cuba und Portorico . .... .. 11969.
S14. 5. Sitzung. Cubanische Schuldfrage-. ... . 11970.
S 17. 6. Sitzung. Verstarlkung der amerikanischen Garnison
von Manila. Cuba . .. ... ....... 11971.
21. 7. Sitzung. Dasselbe .. . . ... .11972.
24. 8. Sitzung. Ablehnung der spanischen Forderungen 11973.
S 26. 9. Sitzung. Schuldfrage fiar Cuba und Portorico 11974.
S 27. 10. Sitzung. Discussion iiber Cuba und Portorico 11975.
S 31. 11. Sitzung. Amerika verlangt die Philippinen .11976.
,, Novbr. 4. 12. Sitzung. Antwort der Spanier auf das Vorige .11977.
S 9. 13. Sitzung. Replik der Spanier ...... 11978.
16. 14. Sitzung. Fortsetzung der Debatte . .. 11979.
S 21. 15. Sitzung. Die Amerikaner machen Konzessionen,
um zum Schlulf zu kommen . . ... 11980.
28. 16. Sitzung. Antwort der Spanier auf den ameri-
kanischen Vorschlag .. . . ..... .11981.
S 30. 17. Sitzung. Vorleguug eines Friedensentwurfs 11982.
Dezhr. 2. 18. Sitzung. Diskussion fiber den Entwurf 11083.
5. 19. Sitzung. Dasselbe . ..... . . 11984.
6. 20. Sitzung. Diskussiou iiber die Fassuug der Artikel 11985.
8. 21. Sitznng. Fortsetznng derselben Diskussion .11986.
10. 22. Sitzung. Unterzeichnung des Friedeus 11987.
S10. -- Friedensvertrag .. . . .... .11988.






IV Sachregister: Kon'sulatsberichte undl .ul.... iN.-2 i iLt.Iu ll .11,z Pi';li|I..Ic, i ir ..

Konsulatsberichte tiber die Philiilapinlleu or 1111d ansI dlemn lriege.
1898. Febr. 22. Vereinigte Staaten, Der Konsul in 3M rii.. .,n das Ministerium
des Auswmrtigen. Auf den Philippinen herrschtBairgerkrieg l1I -'
Mirz 27. Derselbe an Dasselbe. Die Lage auf den Philippinen
verschlechtert sich . . . . . . .
Mai 4. Der Konsul in Manila an den Minister des Auswartigen.
Bericht iiber die Seeschlacht bei Cavite . . 11Ii
12. Derselbe an Densellen. Grausamkeiten der Spanier.
Verhiltuis der Eingeborenen zu den Amerikanern . 11',''
Juni 10. Philippinen. Aguinaldo an den Prasidenten der Vereinigten
Staaten. Protest gegen Annexion oder Verkauf der
Philippinen . . . . . . . . 1 '
16. Vereinigte Staaten, Der Konsul in Manila an den Minister
des Auswartigen. Thitigkeit Aguinaldos . . . '.
Juli 2. Derselbe an Denselben. Vorschlage far den Fall einer
langeren Okkupation der Philippinen . .. .. 11 'i-

Andere Notizen fiber die Philippinen.
1898. Juli 4. Vereinigte Staaten, General Anderson an Aguinaldo. Wiinscht
gute Beziehungen zu den Philippinos . . . I'
,, Juli. Philippinen. Aguinaldo an General Anderson. Antwort auf
das Vorige .. 1'-'...i '.
Aug. 27. Vereinigte Staaten. Denkschrift des Generals F. V. Greene.
Hafs zwischen Spaniern und Philippinos . . . ..
29. Bericht des Major F. S. Bourns an den General Merritt.
Beschreibung der Inseln .. ......... . 11-'7.
S 29. Bericht des Majors J. F. Bell an General Merritt. Streit-
krafte der Philippinen . . . . . . -
S29. Bericht des Admirals Dewey. Maritime Verhaltnisse i i'r
S29. Belgien. Der belgische Konsul in Manila fiber die Zu-
kunft der Philippinen .. . . .... . '.".'
,, August. Vereinigte Staaten. Skizze der Okonomischen Lage der
Philippinen. Von Max Tornow . . . . I
,, Septbr. 15. Denkschrift des Geologen George F. Becker uber die
Mineralien der Philippinen . . . . . .1'.
S 30. Denkschrift des Stabschefs F. V. Greene tiber die Lage
auf den Philippinen am 30. August 1898. Bevilkerung,
Verwaltung, Produkte. Proklamationen Aguiualdos
als Anlagen ........ '.. .ii ..

Siidafrikanische Republik und Grofsbritannien.
Verhandlungen fiber die Entsebhdigungsanspriiche der Stidafrikanisi lr ti
Republik fiir den Einfall Jamesons.
1897. Febr. 20. Grofsbritannienf, DerGouverneur von Kapland an den Kolonial-
minister. Ubersendet die Entschadigungsforderung der
Stidafrikanischen Republik ....... . .'.I I..
S April 10. Der Kolonialminister an den Gouverneur von Kapland.
Vorbehalte gegen die Ansprtche der Siidafrikanischen
Republik . . . . . . . . .
1898. Febr. 4. Das Kolonialamt an die Britische Siidafrikanische Gesell-
schaft. Die Gesellschaft soil die Stidafrikanische Republik
um unhere Auskunft ersuchen . . . . . .
,, Nrz 4. Die Britische Sidafrikanische Gesellschaft an das Kolonial-
amt. Antwort auf das Vorige . ..... 1 .'..1II.
S15. Der Kolonialminister an den Gouverneur der Kapkolonie.
Er soll mit der Saidafrikanischen Republik verhandeln 1'
April 6. Der Agent in Pretoria an den Staatssekrettr der Sad-
afrikauischen Republik. Fordert Aufseruugen iiber die
Anspriiche ........... .1'2''
Mai 5. Stidafrikanische Republik, Das Staatsdepartement an den
englischen Agenten. Antwort auf das Vorige . . .I'1'






Sachregister: Siidafrikanische Republik und Grofsbritannien.


1898. Juli 1. Grofsbritannien. Der Kolonialminister an den Gouverneur
der Kapkolonie. Die englische Regierung lehut eine
weitere Intervention ab, bevor die Stidafrikanische Re-
publik ihre Forderung nicht begriindet hat .. . 12013.
Novbr. 9. Siidafrikanische Republik, Das Auswartige Amt an den eng-
lischen Agenten in Pretoria. Ubcrsendet die verlangte
Specifikation der Forderungen . ...... .. 12014.
S12. Grofsbritannien. Der Agent in Pretoria an den Gouvernenr
der Kapkolonie. Bemerkungen zum Vorigen . .12015.
1899. Mai 10. Die BritischeSitdafrikanische Gesellschaft an das Kolonial-
amt. Bemerkungen zu den Anspriichen der Siidafrikan.
Republik . . . . . . . 12016.
13. Der Kolonialminister an den Gouverneur der Kapkolonie.
Er stimmt der Britischen Stidafrikanischen Gesellschaft zu 12017.

Verhandlungen tiber die Beschwerden der Auslander.
1897. Aug. 5. Siidafrikanische Republik, Bericht der Industriekommission
an die Regierung . . . . . . 12018.
1899. Marz. Grofsbritannien. Petition britischer in der Sidafrikanischen
Republik anshssigcr Unterthanen an die K6nigin um Ab-
stellung von MifsbrAuchen in der Republik . .. 12019.
27. Siidafrikanische Republik, Rede des Prisidenten fiber die
Beschwerde der Auslander . . . . .. 12020.
1899. Mai 4. Grofsbritannien. Der Gouverneur der Kapkolonie an den
Kolonialminister. Lage in der Siidafrikanischen Republik.
Fordert Einschreiten der englischen Regierung. .. 12021.
S 5. Der Generalkonsul in der Stidafrikanischen Republik an
das Kolonialamt. Ubersendet eine Gegenpetition zu
Nr. 12019 . . . . . . . . . 12022.
S 10. Der Kolonialminister an den Gouverneur der Kapkolonie.
Antwort auf die Petition Nr. 12019. Die Beschwerden
fiber die Beschrinkung der politischen Rechte sind be-
griindet. Verhandlungen swollen mit der Republik ange-
kntipft werden . . . . . 12023.
10. Der Gouverneur der Kapkolonie an den Kolonialminister.
Die Prtsidcnten des Oranje Freistaats und der Siid-
afrikanischen Republik haben ihm eine Zusammenkunft
vorgeschlagen .... . ....12024.
S 12. Der Kolonialminister an den Gouverneur der Kapkolonie.
Genehmigung der Zusammenkunft . . . .. .12025.
S 16. Der Gouverneur der Kapkolonie an den Kolonialminister.
Kriiger verlangt Unantastbarkeit der Unabhangigkeit der
Republik . . . . . . . 12026.
S 24. Der Kolonialminister an den Gouverneur der Kapkolonie.
Instruction fiir die Zusammenkunft . ..... 12027.

Verhandlungen in Bloemfontein zwischen Krtiger und Milner. Juni 1899.
1899. Jnni 1. Grofsbritannien, Der Gouverneur der Kapkolonie an den Prr-
sidenten der Stidafrikanischen Republik. Schligt die Er-
teilung des Bfirgerrechts an die seit fiinf Jabren An-
sassigen vor ........... 12029.
2. Siidafrikanische Republik, Der Prasident an den Gouverneur
der Kapkolonie. Antwort auf das Vorige .. . 12030.
S 3. Grofsbritannien. Der Gouverneur der Kapkolonic an den
Prisidenten der Stidafrikanischen Republik. Die ange-
botenen Zugestandnisse geniigen nicht .. . .. .12031.
3. Siidafrikanische Republik. Der Prasident an den Gouverneur
der Kapkolonie. Erhbhung der Abgeordneten fiir die
Goldfelder. Ablehnung weiterer Konzessionen .... 12032.
5. Grofsbritannien, Der Gouverneur der Kapkolonie an den
Prasidenten der Stidafrikanischen Republik. Fordert
weitere Zugestandnisse; die bisherigen sind unannelimbar 12033,






S i.':.r_,:l .wr- Si.I.,lrffili-. he Republik und Grofsbritannien.


,, 2.

,4.


5.

,, 8.
10.

10.

,, ,, 12.


G'r:l'ibntanrinni1. D-r Gouverneur der Kapkolonie an den
Kolonialminister. Korrespondenz mit dem Oranje-Freistaat
tiber die Ansammlung britischer Truppen . . 12060.
- Derselbe an Denselben. Der Prisident der Siidafrikan.
Republik halt den Krieg for unvermeidlich . .. 12061.
- Der Gouverneur der Kapkolonie an den Kolonialminister.
Der Prasident des Oranje-Freistaats verlangt eine Ant-
wort auf Nr. 12060. Entwurf einer Antwort . . 12062.
- Derselbe an Denselben. Weitere Verhandlungen mit
dem Oranje-Freistaat . . . . . .. 12063.
- Derselbe an Denselben. Dasselbe . . . .. 12064.
- Der Gouverneur der Kapkolonie an den Kolonialminister.
Ultimatum der Siidafrikanischen Republik . .. 12065.
- Der Kolonialminister an den Gouverneur der Kapkolonie.
Das Ultimatum ist undiskutierbar . . . ... 12066.
- Der Gouverneur der Kapkolonie an den Kolonialminister.
Letzte Verhandlung mit dem Oranje-Freistaat. Er nimmt
am Kriege tell . . ........ . .12067.

















Friedensverhandlungen zwischen den Ver-

einigten Staaten von Amerika und Spanien 1898

und Dokumente hiber die Philippinen.*)

Nr. 11962. SPANIEN. Der Minister des Auswirtigen an den
Prasidenton der Vereinigten Staaten durch Ver-
mittlung des franz6s. Botschafters in Washington.
S Spanien ist zur Einstellung der Feindseligkeiten
bereit.
Madrid, July 22, 1898.
Mr. President: Since three months the American people and the Spanish Nr. 11962.
nation are at war because Spain did not consent to grant independence to Sp"aion.
22. Juli 1898.
Cuba and to withdraw her troops therefrom. I1 Spain faced with resignation
such uneven strife, and only endeavored to defend her possessions with no
other hope than to oppose, in the measure of her strength, the undertaking
of the United States, and to protect her honor. || Neither the trials which
adversity has made us endure nor the realization that but faint hope is left
us could deter us from struggling till the exhaustion of our very last resources.
This stout purpose, however, does not blind us, and we are fully aware of
the responsibilities which would weigh upon both nations in the eyes of the
civilized world were this war to be continued. || This war not only inflicts
upon the two peoples who wage it the hardships inseparable from all armed
conflict, but also dooms to useless suffering and unjust sacrifices the inhabi-
tants of a territory to which Spain is bound by secular ties that can be for-
gotten by no nation either of the old or of the new world. |1 To end cala-
mities already so great and to avert evils still greater, our countries might
mutually endeavor to find upon which conditions the present struggle could
be terminated otherwise than by force of arms.
Spain believes this understanding possible, and hopes that this view is
also harbored by the Government of the United States. All true friends of
both nations share no doubt the same hope. Sp Spain wishes to show again that

*) Die folgenden Aktensticke bis Nr. 12005 sind entnommen der Botschaft des
Prasidenten der Vereinigtcn Staaten an den Senat. January 1899.
L I '. ,u., LX I. 1






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itu.',tin i th t !li l I,'-L :'ri. iii- ,lur. ..I 1| F..,r .irS til. ;. *'i.-l ii.it of the Nr. 11963.
Vereinigtu
Iiilt, -:. t, -, ,,,t ,, J ,.[' ,..i],i l,, thi -,i. l,.t iliti,.: ,I, tilllu, lit'l by the Staaten.
*: .':ICi.. *:.*1 l I :I'.:' '. il ti *:'jit. iil artii. i t rl',: .iti i I _;-i I t oli obli- o.Juni 1 s.
*. i.,,I ,,f uiI, iti In y. ;, iit a | .,ilt .5i .it Il ,.'ti, r'.. i, I i .,t i it.lhli. ,1 S pain
I.i.1 ,.,l'l .t I.,l. u I':o r,.v r n J..J thi- .ititiltii. : :,.ulI t-.. i.ihA 'n I I...- tii,. iint. i l. T he
cl, t., h ..tt ..,ir t' i .. .,i t. l f til,: ti rrittii. 'i--_t I, ,y i I lId sw ord,
.lI ilv u t ,,i,: r t. dt'iJi- l. ,i l VIi, l-nll !, v,.I i.L: t,: \ 1 li, h -.11l I4 |IL lle could
i.t I.[ : iilIJ i ht':1 l. ihl.l ,i'r tlittI' ,c t:. tit. dti el.iiid'J i t' ilinii.ut3 they
detefrmiitdt to rcmioAe tiit catu.te it th Ettlecti of vhich they had becuine so
deeply involved. I| To this end the President, with the authority of Congress,
presented to Spain a demand for the withdrawal of her land and naval forces
from Cuba, in order that tile people of the island might be enabled to form
a government of their own. To this demand Spain replied by severing diplo-
matic relations with the United States, and by declaring that she considered
the action of this Government as creating a state of war between the two
countries. I| The President could not but feel sincere regret that the local
question as to the peace and good government of Cuba should thus have been
transformed and enlarged into a general conflict of arms between two great
peoples. Nevertheless, having accepted the issue with all the hazards which
it involved, he has, in the exercise of his duty, and of the rights which the
state of war confers, prosecuted hostilities by land and sea, in order to secure
at the earliest possible moment an honorable peace. In so doing he has been
compelled to avail himself unsparingly of the lives and fortunes which his
countrymen have placed at his command; and untold burdens and sacrifices,
far transcending any material estimation, have been imposed upon them. 11 That
as the result of the patriotic exertions of the people of the United States the
strife has, as your excellency observes, proved unequal, inclines the President
to offer a brave adversary generous terms of peace. II The President therefore
responding to your excellency's request, will state the terms of peace which
will be accepted by him at the present time, subject to the approval of the
Senate of the United States hereafter. 1I Your excellency in discussing the
question of Cuba intimates that Spain has desired to spare the island the
dangers of premature independence. The Government of the United States
has not shared the apprehensions of Spain in this regard, but it recognizes
the fact that in the distracted and prostrate condition of the island, aid and
guidance will be necessary, and these it is prepared to give.
The United States will require: First. The relinquishment by Spain of
all claim of sovereignty over or title to Cuba and her immediate evacuation
of the island. 1| Second. The President, desirous of exhibiting signal genero-
sity, will not now put forward any demand for pecuniary indemnity. Never-
theless he can not be insensible to the losses and expenses of the United
States incident to the war or to the claims of our citizens for injuries to
th-ir p1-rs.-.s and property during the late insurrection in Cuba. He must,
1*






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In it,. .LIl iJr! I'tl l -i l .' i t .ri ir.r, uil I i i t 'lIII' inll i,. ti e, tile Nr. 11964.
ia, i,'II n'rllrilJl.' ji ii'1- i ei ',fl rnlII '..1 f r l I l'. i-li ;. i ir rllf l ni:t have 7 Aung. g18.
l llj, r:.i l *:.l ilh, 'i..' ij.Jll ll .'I- ipq iir':- I1 il;ik r:. k lli .1I .iii i.. l. l l 1 vereign
powers, provide for rules which will insure order and protect against all risks
the Spanish residents, as well as the Cuban natives still loyal to the mother
country. II In the name of the nation the Spanish Government hereby relin-
quishes all claim of sovereignty over or title to Cuba, and engages to the
irremeable evacuation of the island, subject to the approval of the Cortes -
a reserve which we likewise make with regard to the other proffered terms
- just as these terms will have to be ultimately approved by the Senate of
the United States. I| The United States require, as an indemnity for an equi-
valent to the sacrifices they have borne during this short war, the cession of
Porto Rico and of the other islands now under the sovereignty of Spain in
the West Indies, and also the cession of an island in the Ladrones, to be
selected by the Federal Government. I| This demand strips us of the very last
memory of a glorious past, and expels us at once from the prosperous Island
of Porto Rico and from the Western Hemisphere, which became peopled and
civilized through the proud deeds of our ancestors. It might, perhaps, have
been possible to compensate by some other cession for the injuries sustained
by the United States. However, the inflexibility of the demand obliges us to
cede, and we shall cede, the Island of Porto Rico and the other islands
belonging to the Crown of Spain in the West Indies, together with one of tile
islands of the archipelago of the Ladrones, to be selected by the American
Government. II The terms relating to the Philippines seem, to our under-
standing, to be quite indefinite. On the -one hand, the ground on which tile
United States believe themselves entitled to occupy the bay, the harbor, and
the city of Manila, pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace, can not be
that of conquest, since in spite of the blockade maintained on sea by the
American fleet, in spite of the siege established on land by a native supported
and provided for by the American admiral, Manila still holds its own, and
the Spanish standard still waves over the city. On the other hand, the whole
archipelago of the Philippines is in the power and under the sovereignty of
Spain. Therefore the Government of Spain thinks that the temporary occu-
pation of Manila should constitute a guaranty. It is stated that the treaty of
peace shall determine the control, disposition, and government of the Philip-
pines; but as the intentions of the Federal Government by regression remain
veiled, therefore the Spanish Government must declare that, while accepting
the third condition, they do not a priori renounce the sovereignty of Spain
over the archipelago, leaving it to the negotiators to agree as to such reforms
which the condition of these possessions and the level of culture of their
natives may render desirable. 11 The Government of Her Majesty accepts the
third condition, with the above-mentioned declarations. || Such are the state-
ments and observations which the Spanish Government has the honor to







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A rt l l.'t. IV.
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'l. l. ,r t i. lil tll .l h: i :l l" l I .i.l I ,. lt : ii lli I -li .Ill i. ': I l lJ I -

ii...il il* .: L i i ..[A il, I l i. [I I I I Ii i .-i 4. |..-ii l l I -- I C( -iTrI. ..I 'I a 'r,: l-.i -
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l,-: ;~i L I .r i'. u I.li' ,LtJ I )l ii iiiii. r a.: l I. ri, jr .j i l Ii . r.li I,. lnf: Q In .U I I.l.llt Nr. 11965.
'i I t. Ie t reinigte
1.1 t.'lll fll il, ,i,: ,.. 1i1* : ot,:,,x1l,., ,I',1 1111', ,lfl 'i'i1r' ,gili I,.'.r,,td tiltli I tl'hr te Sl. mtU .te
.I..ll1 i .1 la n.itn. tolJi k I_ I',* I ,1l',..,t.,.,.il rea'l' .h olll'ul j ) t f ln t" .1l tO MO nd lSpanie n
1:1 O l al r ll I . l ii . 11. 101 1 r. I .ll 12.Aug.1898.
111i: 1,.:1- l *I.-, :1 Intr l. il. E.- ..m ll I. riilrlt i .. l. I .. .' ...l -ri l i FE p. i l:.II il ons
les Indes Occidentales.
Article V.
Les Etats-Unis et I'Espagne nommeront, pour traiter de la paix, cinq
commissaires au plus pour chaque pays; les commissaires ainsi nomm6s de-
vront se rencontrer a Paris, le ler Octobre 1898, au plus tard, et proc6der
A la n6gociation et A la conclusion d'un trait de paix; ce trait sera sujet
a ratification, selon les forms constitutionnelles de chacun des deux pays.

Article VI.
A la conclusion et a la signature do ce protocole, les hostilit6s entire
les deux pays devront &tre suspendues, et des ordres A cet effet devront btre
donn6s aussitot que possible par chacun des deux Gonvernements aux com-
mandants de ses forces de terre et de mer.
Fait a Washington, en double exemplaire, anglais et frangais, par les
Soussignes qui y out appos6 leur signature et lear sceau, le 12 AoUt 1898.
[seal.] William R. Day.
[seal.] Jules Cambon.



Nr. 11966. VEREINIGTE STAATEN und SPANIEN. Protokoll
der ersten Sitzung der Friedenskonferenz. Ein-
Icitendes.
1. Oktober 1898.
Present: On the part of the United Staates, Messrs: Day, Davis, Frye, Nr. 1196
Gray, Reid. jj On the part of Spain Messrs: Montero-Rios, Abarzuza, Garnica, r irlie
Villa-Urrutia Cerero. 11 There was present, as Secretary of the United States unlIsi.aien,.
Commission, Mr. Moore, and as Interpreter of the same Commission, Mr. Fer- 1. Okt. I'8.
gusson. MI Ir. Ojeda, Secretary of the Spanish Commission, not having arrived
in Paris, his duties were, on motion of Mr. Montero Rios, the American
Commissioners assenting, discharged by Mr. Villa-Urrutia. || The commissions
and full power of the American Commissioners were exhibited to the Spanish
Commissioners and copies given to them. |h The commission of the American
Secretary was also exhibited, and a copy furnished to the Spanish Com-
missoners. || The commissions, which where also full powers, of the Spanish
Commissioners were exhibited, and copies given to the American Commissio-
ners. 11 It was resolved that the protocols of the Conferences should be kept
in English and in Spanish by the respective Secretaries, and that in the event
of a disagreement between them it should be settled by the Commissioners,






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missioners, understanding that such statu quo was altered aud continues being
altered with daily increasing gravity to the prejudice of Spain by the Tagalo
rebels, who formed during the campaign and still form an auxiliary force to
the regular American troops, demand of the American Commissioners that
jointly with the undersigned they be pleased to declare that the authorities
and officers of the American forces in the Philippine Islands must at once
proceed fully and absolutely to restore the said status quo in the territories
they may occupy, and must abstain from preventing, by any means, direct
or indirect, the restoration thereof by the Spanish authorities and forces in
the territory not occupied by those of the United States. |I The Spanish Com-
missioners reserve the right to insist again upon this matter as well as upon
the rights that may attach to Spain through the effect of the said alteration
which the statu quo of August 12 last has suffered or may continue to suffer
in the Philippines until its restoration.
True copy: Emilio de Ojeda.



Nr. 11967. VEREINIGTE STAATEN und SPANIEN. 2. Sitzung.
Geschllbftsordnung.
3. October 1898.
Messrs. Gray and Villa-Urratia, as a committee on procedure, reported Nr. 19I7?.
that they had, after conferring together, decided that it was not advisable at Voinigto
present to recommend the adoption of any rules in addition to those already unn Spanien.
determined upon or still under discussion. I| The question of annexing to the"~'Ot3. s8s-
protocol memoranda on points of importance was then discussed. |I The Spanish
Commissioners proposed that the Commissioners on either side should have
the privilege of filing memoranda on points which they should deem to be of
sufficient importance to justify such action, the memoranda so filed to be
annexed to the protocols. |I The American Commissioners proposed that the
right should be reserved to the Commissioners on either side to present me-
moranda on points which they might deem of sufficient importance to justify
them in so doing, the question of annexing such memoranda to the protocol
to be determined in each ease by the Joint Commission. |I No agreement having
been reached, it was decided to refer the matter to the Secretaries for their
consideration and adjustment, subject to the further action of the Commission.|l
The American Commissioners then read their reply to the communication
presented by the Spanish Commissioners at the first conference in relation to
the preservation of the status quo in the Philippines. A copy of the reply
is hereto annexed. I| The Spanish Commissioners reserved the right to put in







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i1 j iieIt i I.al.aullulgd.-:r,. i I-,:u .. \v,.i. .i. r l.t:a.Lt. .1\1 r l A L. S.panien 1898 etc. 11

while, in respect of other questions of fact, the reports in the possession of Nr. 11967.
the Spanish Government were so entirely at variance with authentic infor- Vreinigte
Staaten
mation in the possession of the United States as to compel the conclusion und Spanion.
that at least some of these reports were not of an official character. In. okt'. 9s.
respect of questions of law, the views of the two Governments were also at
variance. 1i The American Commissioners, therefore, with a view to prevent the
diversion and failure of the present negotiations, as well as on the ground
of a want of power, deem themselves obliged to reply that the questions in-
volved in the present proposals and demands of the Spanish Commissioners
having heretofore been presented to the Government of the United States and
answered in notes of the Department of State, any further demands as to
military operations in the Philippines must be addressed by the Government
of-Spain to the Government of the United States at Washington, and conse-
quently that they cannot join in the proposed declarations.
True copy: J. B. Moore.


Nr. 11968. VEREINIGTE STAATEN und SPANIEN.-Debatte fiber
Cuba und Portorico.
7. Oktober 1898.
On the question of procedure referred to them at the last conference Nr. t10s.
the Secretaries made the following report; I ,,Where a proposition is presented VereiniSte
Staaton
and rejected, the side presenting it shall have the right to file a brief memo-undSpanien.
randum giving its reasons in support of such proposition, and the other side 7. Okt. ls98
shall have the right to file a brief reply, the written discussion to be confined
to such memorandum and reply, which are to be annexed to the protocol."'i
This report was adopted by unanimous consent. || The Spanish Commissioners
then presented, in pursuance of the reservation made by them at the last
conference, a reply to the American answer on the subject of the status quo
in the Philippines, at the same time stating that the reply was presented for
the purpose of reserving the right to bring up the subject hereafter. H The
reply was received and filed; copy and translation are hereto annexed. Ti The
Spanish Commissioners then presented, as an amendment to the American
proposals, a set of articles, in Spanish, copy and translation of which are
hereto annexed, in relation to Cuba and Porto Rico. 1h The American Com-
missioners, in order to afford opportunity for the translation and consideration
of the articles, moved that the conference be adjourned till Tuesday,
October 11, at two o'clock, p. m.

Anlage.
Spanischer Friedensentwurf.
Article I.
Her Majesty the Catholic Queen, in the name and representation of
Spain, and thereunto constitutionally authorized by the Cortes of the Kingdom,






1 1' rn... u- .' -r i Illun'-il i -i l- i .1 'I :lra. .l I t ..I u i.. Aki i la i Spanien Il ri'- ..

Nr i -. relinquishes her sovereignty over thi Island i l c C('i ... trnll-I riiil'i it ti. tl..
;,,.. United States of America, which ac':p' r. it l n :i1.1 thal t1,:y m.ay ill tlir
i .....turn transfer it at the proper time 1.. ti,,- i:'il.,It I..i tI. l. pon li.: e.' n iti..nl -
established in this treaty, the Uni:,dl SL't.it fr..n i Ii .:il,.y tel:t a:; -,...u
as they are ratified they will always a I 'Itll l ll ll'. i:,ml. .ld \\itlr.

Ar:i. k II.
The relinquishment and transf'.r miir!. livy Iir i(' ',i.dit: MIa,.4Y. .,i'i
accepted by the United States of Ai.o:-u a. .:.i i.i : | 1 .. All thi. Ir:r,.,.a-
tives, powers and rights, which, as anl iritrL'ral r' r ..,* il.r -.:. ii.-igiti, Iii .l..i.
to Iler Catholic Majesty both over tlh.! Il:rl. .I' .:'u. iil. 1 tnhi It. ilialli-
tants; I| 2nd. All charges and obli:-iti':,m .'.t :i L.ry liin ini ''.l't n. it llh.
time of the ratification of this treaty I f [".i..,'-. '.hlii n li. th i'r.it, n -,i ain
and her authorities in the Island (.1I 'il',:i j:-iy Ii-r i:.,'i'..tr l' Il' I'llly in
the exercise of the sovereignty herel:, i iiiui-h.i:. anr, f'ra.i-!rir ,,i.i i..IJI
as such constitute an integral part tll:ir ..,i.

A rtiel. Ill.
In compliance with the proviii.. ,I' tif i, I |. ji'c.:l n .1' F :t itr .l; lie?
Catholic Majesty, acting in the same rI'.lr,-:italnt'. .lar.l ..'ir %\iti, nhlii.i -Ib
has entered into this treaty, relinqui .,i: anid tral,.-~:r i-. ti,' U ti ii.,l Slat-.'
which accept them, upon the conditi... l al-i- atar .,- i all il,. h'i liln--., vMlC.ir-
ves, barracks, fortresses, establishme:t-. iilii,] c ,wa. e.intnltiirii i,:,i. ajil, all
other immovable property which a. ,i..r.iiug r.. i.in attaicn:,ih i:. ti, iilli..
domain, and which so attaching belc.ir-, to ii,...in .I A 1ipai in tli.- I:laiil
of Cuba. | All immovable property situaitld iii th- I-laiid ...I I il'.i. Fri i.hi lillrr
the civil law belongs to the state as i trirniiiial 'p..' t i,- .iii. all r. liir .'1i.l
property of whatsoever kind, which rI. I... I.li ratti li,.ti...i] i I 1 l n ir.: nt tr...iy
have been peacefully enjoyed and iel it i ..iir .rlni I Jr''.:i'\i"'c-. 11iiii i-
palities, public and private establish riiii-,. t .. I.' i.: ti'...Il a ri ',.'i i] ,: .'i.I.itin:',Ii.
or any other collective bodies lawfull; i ir,..rl..,r.iti ,~lr i .n iri lf1:1l niitii..-
rity to acquire and hold property i: ti, .- lai.. ii l I'f ("'i i.. ,.'l ly pi uat- III-
dividuals, whatsoever their national' ,, v.are .r' ,l .'ii. '..in'l l I'ifrini il al i.f. :
relinquishment and transfer. || Her '.'atli.ili: Mal -tN l'i ril 'r irliin.ir l- .1 anmi
transfers to the United States all r.'lat ti lI. I .... .i nlt .-I, Vi ,r l.L :x s I'l-,-
sively relating to the sovereignty hr Ilr.. !i:lli.iii idi -' ai'i a...tj't'..l. i., I-
found in the archives of the Peninst.i. 'ail ..l .'i-uiI ,aui n .I 1'. )". IC, It d'-
livered to the United States by t l', S n.ii-,.n i.i.. .:r't.ii:t. C('ir.' 4. .. ,1.
portions of other documents and pal.,i-r r-:.lattiii 1i... ..ir i *l.i. ri 1..' fi- I.,
the Island of Cuba, but relating to trl. -,i\A :i.i:uty avl.r'' 'ad liiIch irJ.y :r;i't
in the said archives, shall be give, t, .. ii. .iiiitt.it.l St.na '- *.'.hlierr- di i rl.-
A similar rule shall be reciprocal i .'h ll ,i- i i i I ,I. r ', | ':ri, r .~ llr.l
documents and papers foreign, in v.hlk. ur iii |i t, t...i i I-:.lanid I.f ('InLa.






lt'r,-.:l,.uv- I- _, u. ill I .u I >. i ,- l u ,I V ,.l.u -t.I .Ltt:lt % A i_, il.. .1 'ptu ,. lI I, L ,1 13

lhi,:h i Ii l .i i Ili tile it. ,'e ,i t1I l Itt,'r <1d .,' 1 1t r,-r,:It tI.. tlIi ,panish Nr. 6noes..
.;..,.. rn E, In it. .1 .-rl .'hli -: :i -,J ...l'l].. I; l ri... r.l. .. % :\ .l t ii,; .I -I.J jI .li.:i l,. w h ich v treoiligt
ari: It lhe ii l ii .lj l .f thi' G O .'l lrml lint ..f S lkain ardll it: .litli.'lit i : n1 th und5panien.
Ilchid .i f t'ul. :'udJ ul hic r t-- t... tih-: ,i l i-laid ,or it- iljliil.,tj. it and to 7 O O 18
thi ir rieht- arnal ipr pi -i ty., : ill lI.i ,t thei- hl:i. .il -,I' tih, Lliit,.il St.,I i with
thie .i r .- ri.'ht s ,d .lli;iati.i: I Iii., ai tt:ilh i -i thi ri 'hvlii it th.- d lisposal
.4' lr- S i,: li .:.L'. riiiaiit 'il ,t aii ,l tl ..Ilaiart'. F['il te j ti-nt.ii Spiniards
Is.l (Culi. j a tlik hli.ll Il entitlt i rt i m .tl,.- a.i:':)or liae t.. l.\ .iuth l .ticated
l ie.s 'l .i. nihtr.i-', ll :, :i u I)thl.r in-ti ornt iit ii c iiinIh i pdi oi tih notarial
regise'. rs i t. tilh ijr in til : i u t....1 ..( thi- *:-\*:t'utiH "- oin. thlr- judicial
archives, be the same e either in Spain or in the Island of Cuba.

Article IV.
In order to establish the charges and obligations of all kinds which the
Crown of Spain cedes and transfers as a part of its sovereignty over the
Island of Cuba to tile United States, and which the latter accept, the two
rules following will be observed: 1| First: The charges and obligations to be
transferred must have been levied and imposed in constitutional form and in
the exercise of its legitimate powers by the Crown of Spain, as the sovereign
of the Island of Cuba, or by its lawful authorities in the exercise of their
respective powers prior the ratification of this treaty. 1 Second: The creation
or establishment of such charges or obligations must have been for the ser-
vice of the Island of Cuba, or chargeable to its own individual treasury.

Article V.
Pursuant to the provisions of the foregoing article, there shall be em-
braced in the said transfer all debts, of whatsoever kind, lawful charges, the
salaries or allowances of all employes, civil and ecclesiastical, who shall con-
tinue to render services in the Island of Cuba, and all pensions in the civil
and military services and of widows and orphans; provided that they conform
to the requirements prescribed in the foregoing article.

Article VI.
Her Catholic Majesty, in the name and representation of Spain, and
thereunto constitutionally empowered by the Cortes of the Kingdom, cedes to
the United States of America, and the latter accept for themselves, the
sovereignty over the Island of Porto Rico and the other islands now belonging
to the Crown of Spain in the West Indies.

Article VII.
This cession of the sovereignty over the territory and inhabitants of
Porto Rico and the other islands mentioned, is understood to embrace the
cession of the rights and obligations, property and documents relating to the






14 u 'Fri.'- iit.-T, 1., A M. 1 1l .1' ,* h..u \', iI i.', I, 11 '. ,\tn. i1, 1 I. iiiii n -'j .,'.

"., II.,: ,. e r'. Il ",i ) I' i *il l iI i1_1 Lid ':. I- ILilj r I ll nII ; t i. : t o'I ,i'.",l i i; ,, I l,
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..'. . .. *,C ,., t ( '}.i,. .,1,. i i l:! 1 1 i III frilit.- I! t, V IhII..I IV ,. t 11 lh 11 i,,Vt'.
. ".I .Ii ,. ,], ,.a.j ': F I. l i l t i .- I .,.




Nr. 1]t1!.i. VEREINIGTE STAATEN und SPANIEN. 4. .
l.',jh :- 1 nJ, I',:rto ri,',...
11. i:il: 1 .I.r -1 L -.i
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\\ Ir. II i u l l ti ia l ,,I G u.in i u lth I.. ir>o'.n I| The: i. r a. ilj

if -t.,.I tlh," ,i ?:ti. ., ll ,)t' t P1'. [ i li.. C n ti l lrl-.i ,ti l I,:l ,. II '] @ ,ar ihlyl
li li ri l-i l in F i i l.'.i i lt i It i r li uil i t ll, rillr- iill i ti'.:t'I fo l i ll i l lii
rii ut i. i r F I ..l': iji ')!_ H:~ ~ r~: li'- pa'f i l .,I [.:ir nnii. i.'ii 'iil i I 'li. ll e i..l' l | !i l
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r i',r:ien ItIlln i ii i ee t '' I thil-in jI t '. i t liliiiu i111 Arri.i-r 'c i 1 I iii:ll li:ieii r ll- ii-
*liiii:.1 'i \h.1 lr iet r t:h S .aii: l, ; Ci:rOnll m i ;.-_ j ri.: c.,L-i i l. l.:h.I Ii. ir |.r,.l .-: it ii.t aj
l'i.iill ti j-' i? I 'l. | T lI.- h lt e" u iiin ~ie :'.e-r r': rli- ..J tl,. rii'- r i'l:ii J
-:1 i'..ith li ti h i \,.I. t,.r1 II lii A ['i- i--Ian r.:-|l- .11.l tlht their u eii'': i.'[il 'ldi
Ilhr,.J',., .,I .,' l'o r I 5 1, ,1 ta-tit ,,I It l. r -loorl.,rIsl.lJmL l ", b ut th ,l, Ii.fo r,
Ill r-. '. i ii l'' i r thei, .reI t,, i.t , irn i .:i ii: eri tr. .i t i'iir : ti,.i iii '., i

., it i:r. ll,, +ili,., t in rn i, llt i nirit iI nn; .l, ',r ... i, iil t :in d r.: ijl,:r I lh linit- ..,I
i, i,,:-r rii>.irrl, rii yiilij'.'..' _: i y. 11 111i.' .- ii '-rii i i-'ii un i-. ii.,iIe ri' -ai.. .l that thi,-
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t- iit :-r rij :i t c l.i. 1 : i ,'i ,M.r. Oi J A li a i l t I | tli rn 111 i]. lill tii,
iitr j,; i-i t .. l r l ,i:i ati;t l ,r A' tha t ri-- ht. T I,.i m ,ner i r,,. ,i.,,
':,-.: i| i iIi ii -l 'iLt "..Il ,f,1 h ,i:, l .. r't,: A l i l,, ', -. thL n i .-, i. 11 T h .-
rl,:al.liL'-' h. l ..i.. ij .. t.iii]. t -1. [l ie lIn ..i ..-I iii .',.,t*tnu u _i ih, .l -: t, l th- llt : ir
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.|- i l Ir. i C. ,ill riF t i- I t.: r ll ri l j' -l r,l ti'I*il i t wl i t. l ,- i ll -.- i, 1:i lr
I I-I I i ..:i h i n.l V ii li.. irj.. i ti IIII \Irl. i t i l ru (l'- r li.- A r. i.:-nr i. i Cit irn-
li i ".r.-,: r-. V. l.'h itil, .l I'.1 1 i. l: .- ,i n t i[i :i :ly alti th, I ta ni l i -. h i iI..- I,
rI-.l.iirr:, 1 .*ii 11 .,l t .lr.. 'r,: ,.i l. rh ,. ,. rr i..- r. C uilrli t li ,i :. i l I li.
tl, I tij Alii i.U i : rI .e .'t.:- ,.1 thi t II : fi:i Oji ,iili li |it . It li. '. I i n l-oth
i.,?_ adIl., ,. iI r ,: I I .,l, .1 i ll I,. 1 1 ,,,i th ., r,rI_ 1. t ',C f: 'o r th' C'.'pi -I oI"
]i r ; *', ,', ll: .:' ,--, lo r ,:i l J ,i:,.. .I t d I . II l'h \ im .',t il C ,.,i -l 'l i ]''t?,'r-"l i.t :i, .l
that th,:'. ,, rf l ,. ,ly t": l'.' 10 Ilti. rll.. I.,, in i'.'ui.I | ]h : p.itiilt COi, -
rlil-s miii h *; ;n [,_t t ,i l, v, thi A r iJ f i. .ii C.,,Ui lm -.'.Iul l'I' I% i: ih | t,., r, I l: l ,:.,
I .h |.i .l inr. rII.u ., t ,., .ir l r 1" )II l, 1 t1 .- a viI,,' .] to | l,,:,-. p I:,I, lh : ii, r.'l ,l --
,'1i -.. .,r tll I lli: r.|.ly \ ,t- bI. f.t':,'r: thi, _'il i n.' nii. ,i. || T thlit I til. A ri\i.'rii''






l'i-'\ [I .-.,I -li ,,llo- lr'. -",:t i "A !.h.- 11 .I V .-I i ILu S.I it'll \. A ni.- il. i 1 11 l[- u I"t 1- ,.L<. d5

Commissioners assented. |I The President of the Spanish Commission then stated Nr. 1199o.
that from the rapid reading of the paper presented by the American Commis- Vereitigto
StanAteo
sioners at the opening of the session, they had derived the impression thatnndspanien.
those Commissioners were laboring under a misapprehension as to the stipu- 11.kt. 8s.8
lation in the Spanish articles touching Spain's relinquishment of sovereignty
over Cuba. In proposing that the sovereignty should be relinquished to the
United States in order that the latter might transfer it to the Cuban people,
Spain had merely conformed to the letter and spirit of tlhe joint resolution
of the American Congress; but it was not her intention to impose upon the
United States an obligation to make such transfer, as was shown by the fact
that it was said in the articles that the United States ,,may" transfer the
sovereignty, not that they were bound to do it. I1 The American Commissioners
replied that the language employed in the article would, under the American
law, impress the relinquishment with a trust. || The Spanish Commissioners
said that if the phraseology would, under American law convey that meaning,
they would change it in the sense in which they had just suggested.


Anlage.
Amerikanischl Antwort auf Anlage 11968.
The American Commissioners, when they presented in the conference of
the 3rd instant a draft of articles for the relinquishment by Spain of sover-
eignty over and title to Cuba and for the cession of Porto Rico and other
islands in the West Indies, and the Island of Guam in the Ladrones, stated
that the disposition of these subjects was determined by the Protocol of
August 12, 1898. || The two articles of the Protocol relating to these subjects
are brief, and, as it seems to the American Commissioners, easy of compre-
hension and readily to be carried into effect. || They are: I1 "Article I. Spain
will relinquish all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba. "A "Article IT.
Spain will cede to the United States the island of Porto Rico and other
islands now under Spanish sovereignty inl the West Indies, and also an island
in the Ladrones to be selected by the United States." I| The American Com-
missioners were careful, in the articles proposed by them, to express the
relinquishment or cession, as the case might be, in the very words of the
Protocol, merely adding thereto the usual subsidiary and incidental clauses
touching public property and archives, with a view to making the treaty
effectual, and preserving evidence of public and private property rights. I| The
American Commissioners regret to find in the articles presented by the Spanish
Commissioners on the 7th instant a departure from the terms of the Protocol
in the following particulars: 1I To the unconditional engagement of the Pro-
tocol to relinquish all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba, they have
proposed conditions: |I 1. That Spain shall transfer her sovereignty over the
island to the United States, and that the United States "shall in their turn






VI F-I. J. l .l I:' .ill.1 I. Ii, it -,. I- ,- -I:, ,.. ,I \V r..1 t .i 1 [1 rt A r i ll.:I. u1 4 .j, [lien I .'.i-. i,..

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hi' ,- it .rii tl H ':.e I 1 li I lit l. I 111 t IIll. ui t i.'i, itt l li -i. I :. li i r .i il ui l _.-Lt I'f t Ci l
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.m ir ii ..t1i ll c It;e 1 Ueg t ill itml .l.lr ii, i, ttl l,,,:, .:I i hiit I lill. II l -,m l i ).i.t
to, .It. "ir I. 11 l.. l li( At ll iO I I. ut fi l i '. thl i l I .'-ll i .r li. li.- i .it a. | r l .l :.-
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.1 n ;mi r. t Iiaiiril i l iltv c 1i l fi I t I Si .t. I i \m .li:iiilm lund i. ii.)1. 1.II.
i It i 1i 1 lnti ti ,li t.i i ni l i. .. tr' thi_ l i, .n ii r I' ?. 11,, ,-ft tl h ii j t,
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Fir'lten.t rhand.linrgen z- : !,i:-i.1 Vrin .l u.tenv.Amerika u. Spanien 1898 etc. 17

ijti:.n.1:il t,, ., u'rt, .idj. ;i, tl,..:- Am. rii.an iCommissioners believe, would effec- Nr. 11969.
tiall. -ci i.; rti- ..ij,.t ,.I Il.jie. r l l- *';iiil of furnishing to those in interest Veroinigte
9 Staaten
i'. il e .:le l 1' tiltlr t. r.. i rli:rry il thL i1.l aii' in question. I| In the articles sub- unlSpanien.
i' t-.,.I 1.;, the S l.-ai.li I:':r inni ,...ir-. it is provided that documents and '11 0to 1898.
I'l'ri '- r':l1ini t.' .i, L'r1 -i liy t[. I, ..uI.I in the archives of the Peninsula
hl.ll I1 liii 'ih,: I t,. tih: I Ujl[ l r: ll .: .ll, O.) "copies of such portions of other
dclt.nlii:,l .ii al J I,,a-' iiltlr tj I ..tllh r sllu jects foreign to the Island of Cuba
n n tih : ., Mrt.r ly .i,,.,r.:' .,I I --s m Ir.i x';i in the said archives." I It is diffi-
'*lit f.:.r thie Aniii: a i1: i to unuIo. i zir; n this latter clause; perhaps its exact
Ilre.l iiiii i i lt ,'1iv,.v.: .1 ill tlie -:ri l1;i, translation of the Spanish text. I| It
is to be further ubserved that ii thhe piuvsions of the Spanish articles relating
to the furnishing of record evidence of titles to lands in Cuba and Porto
Rico, it is stipulated that the archives and records shall be at the disposal
of the United States "with the same rights and obligations as now attach to
them while at the disposal of the Spanish Government and its said (insular)
authorities." This restriction, the object of which is not perceived, would
seem to limit the control over archives and official records, after Spain's
relinquishment of sovereignty, to the same power, both in kind and in extent,
as was formerly possessed by the Spanish Government. This appears to be
inconsistent with the right of control which every sovereign power should
possess over its archives and official records. j] All the conditions and quali-
fications above referred to are by general reference incorporated in the
articles relating to the cession of Porto Rico and other islands in the West
Indies, and render these articles equally inadmissible.
True Copy: J. B. Moore.



Nr. 11970. VEREINIGTE STAATEN und SPANIEN. 5. Sitzung.
Cubanische Schuldfrage.
14. Oktober 1898.
The American Commissioners presented a reply to the memorandum sub- r. i7'0o.
mitted by the Spanish Commissioners at the last session on the relinquishment staaten
of sovereignty over Cuba and the transfer of debts. The paper was read, Jl0Spanion.
and a copy of it is hereto annexed. I| The Spanish Commissioners, referring to
the paper in which the American Commissioners rejected at the conference
of the 11th instant the articles presented by the Spanish Commissioners at
tile conference of the 7th, on the subject of Cuba and Porto-Rico, called at-
tention to the following sentence: 1] "To the American Commissioners this
appears to be not a proposition to 'relinquish all claim of sovereignty over
and title to Cuba,' but in substance a proposition to 'transfer' to the United
States and in turn to Cuba a mass of Spanish charges and obligations." 1( The
Spanish Commissioners desired a modification of this sentence on the ground
that it might be thought to imply that they were not acting in good faith.
Staatsarchiv LIII1. 2


M






.. Fr -i'-l r i. I i hilliti tj ,I i ,.1 ii *IV. i n j II ,,t hI .\ U I A jll ii' .& UIi L 1U 0')i i' .

., 'l+1. ,."I' t .\lr iillt .i l '. lr .., ll ili .l I.i t i h 1 l- il li.it 1J tl il li I' IIlii: ,:l l ICI I i,
L -. n .L U ,I .D. r i II. .1.l illl lt i I, t |iL. U it 11 a li li t : I l ii llj h Ill ji.h i",ll
*l u.... .'" i ,i i, b iul lrs, t 'l':, ,Ilt ill it i'i t it .'I It lli. I : II ig t A.llI tl' it.llt _.,iC -
Ii I.l. i e uII .) It l il .. 1 l : 1. t, ltl il t t II I. lI :l il ll '1 i. 0I'l l l l li t i a ll 'l i i .1 '
,O) .itl ~ hl ,.,V,.r .all- Iltl: I Il l I.,- 1Cill h I Lit l I II IP, ...i lt.i,.ll hJ '1 '.1ll f._,II'

a,: iid. | ih U a.m tria Cl ih 1U! j t,_r Itl IuJ-i :ri i -n 11.. Li .Nui Itl ,,I, i .1ted t a,,
w ll-.il l o IIt l l ess i l ,d l II I f il h T, t h l lli :i n l lilfi.- ly iti aS Ihl l t.i.,
SM nid.'"ay th 1 attvr ,fO tb r,..u a ,i. l 'clo 1 I, Th SpasuihhC -tsi.ur
'tuie ne tHi. agel.ir tler. toi l e rWi' ll .- ali,.'o k u-i -eii i l I lli. aiUe-i lii.d uilrr cuiJ-
]i il jll, tlhel1-, l :ll,- it S'.1 Ai i a TII E10t' il t ll It .ll.liD I 'II IC z-Ijiull Ii-.
.1i;rt. d tI-, lItil ii l I lh, '1 r d in. trir ii hu1Cill Il". I lII. 1'. t1l.: 0irtjl'.- i.tl ;liL ':I Il
tI tll.lll. J i l i C.h : I".: t;( ii i ll 1 )';pl I. iill. t' lil'r l,;.I'. i- nli,.li t':
I .l lal I I1 I l 1i jui I rfl t i u s'h i ,t.l ul' tC l i .': is.s n te.i .li lh 1, !'!i Ifll.i
IY'el~lllileid.l 110 rll 1':llas~rin::Ili I. .ell ffilif lLI _I elitilj l 1 IIll Itli lia ill
V rel.,iiJ. Ia lf i A ir u r..o I- t, ii ,iL n i .. r. l d sr Id b i n it. atti leAn .,I ii
u 'i.,rj miss ioner the' fat,',::dvJl tht e had rci vd fir.om:'h-. i U'-, :.i>t t l,, i t i, riii ,'; yi,. -.,i 'i



,, I,..i l', _l,,.,.iill _,i,-. r, -.lhf le h ,l ii., thi, h ,ii .l lSlt e -- w 1.'i': ,xh.i -te',
.'I tle iit ll ^ 1 1 1 i i ';.: nii Lit l i I.) i i i A lbiie I I; n lIl he| A: Ii 1 I ,. i Lt i E I'.-.Ii v .) i iu
A\ltllh)II 'I l~l,,i )Il lit lllh I I .11 0 (:,;Jtt.,l II)IOf li, Ithr A lllrTl ,;.AI I',.I1W -
Lulr :IO L' 1 l tj l.k,. I ,l I': ti:'.', .l Il, lh th, u[li .L i It uhll i, h ltjr
.i .1 1 t.s 5 u d l.,]1- ig'11 1,IJ.1 t. ohi 3 ila ,l ,\ .,1 'l I' [be _-.1 -l yt .i i. ..l hld js itc'lh
],1.l.,. ,t t it I T II Sp1-1 ish i ",r rI C n -iri s _u.:.".' ,, th't1 l l II i ,, J'l I:tE iiii-i it
,.:,n l.i l," p.rI i.. .l O II I., f1ir irt P|.:ii t, it ._..ni. :, l ruoIi e I, e. :. t IJi 4:,i.u the
oeiond. 1 Jhe Aimuricai Co luiu.oiuu,.'r,, COniCUi.i ig iiin ht lo\, piopuaped that,
owing to the lateness of the hour, the conference be adjourned to continue
the discussion of the first point at the next session, which should be held on
Monday, the 17th of October, at two o'clock, p. m. I The Spanish Com-
missioners agreeing, the conference was adjourned accordingly.




Nr1. 11971. VEREINIGTE STAATEN und SPANIEN. 6. Sitzung.
Verstdrkung dcr amerikanischen Garnison -yvon
Manila. Cuba.
17. Oktober 1898.
Nr. 11971. The President of the Spanish Commissioners stated that, without making
Vereinigte any formal protest, he desired to bring to the atkiiitii .-if lth. Aij.ri,..,I
Staaten
undSpanien. Commissioners the fact that he had received from hi. l,,:,i.,IIIIIo:it A, tlr.h;_r-i"i.
7.osit.s898.referring to reports to the effect that two America:, iiej-,,l-n.: ,:r.. ,liit
to leave American ports with reinforcements of t:u,.,[,. I.-,r tl, ; llri:,Jlu .t1
Manila, and tliat Spanish prisoners in the possessioii -,l the at.i I l..1, i ll-
treated. He would not read thile telegram, but as -r,.l. riTirti Iredi.d t,)
excite the public mind and embarrass the efforts to est:bli.ih (i.ce n.: J :i..d~cnuri






Frirdtns\rrh. i 1llun'II :L ..i ii' .l rn I \- reD.i.'r i. leu v. A i,. rta Ii '-. ii' I I: -'- rt,:. 19

between the two nations, lie hoped that the American Commissioners would Nr. 11971.
bring the matter to the knowledge of their Government. 1| The President of the V'oiigto
American Commission replied that the American Commissioners possessed neither undSpanion.
information nor instructions such as would enable them to deal with the sub- 1. Ott'. 18
ject, which properly belonged to the two Governments, but that, prompted by
motives similar to those avowed by the President of the Spanish Commission,
they would communicate to their Government the fact that the reports in
question had been brought to their attention. T| The discussion of the business
before the Joint Commission having been resumed, the Spanish Commissioners
stated that although the articles presented by them were not couched in the
same words as the Protocol of August 12, 1898, and the propositions in the
notes preceding its conclusion, the sense was in their opinion, the same Still,
they were ready to withdraw their articles, and to substitute for them articles
more nearly in conformity with the language of the Protocol. I| The American
Commissioners, in response to this statement, presented a paper, copy of which
is hereto annexed, in which, while recognizing the fact that the Government
of the United States assumed all responsibilities for protection of life and
property that legally attach to it during the occupation of Cuba, they finally
declined to assume the burden of the so-called Cuban debt, either for the
United States or for Cuba, and offered as a substitute for the articles pre-
viously presented by them the precise stipulations of Articles I and II of the
Protocol, as to Cuba, Porto Rico, and other islands in the West Indies, and
the islands to be ceded in the Ladrones. I| The Spanish Commissioners stated
that they reserved the right to examine this proposal and to present another
draft of articles which should conform to the Protocol.




Nr. 11972. VEREINIGTE STAATEN und SPANIEN. 7. Sitzung.
Dasselbe.
21. Oktober 1898.
The American Commissioners stated that they had telegraphed to their Nr. 1192.
Vereinigte
Government the representations made to them by the Spanish Commissioners staaten
at the last session, as to the reports of the sending of two American men-u"dSpani""'.
21. Okt. 189.
of-war with reinforcements for the garrison at Manila and of the ill treatment
of Spanish prisoners by the Tagalos, but that they had as yet received no
reply, probably because of the absence of the President from Washington. |
The Spanish Commissioners expressed their thanks for the action of the
American Commissioners. |1 The Spanish Commissioners stated that they regretted
to reject the proposals presented by the American Commissioners at the last
session, and that they therefore presented certain articles as a substitute for
the articles previously submitted by them in relation to (Cba and Porto Rico.







21. I- li]'. ni-.t ili..,,i fii.i :'- n Z l ~ ,r I I rI V, r.liu m I.L L .,\m lll:' II I: lllt IS i 1~ l't

A ri lIa vr.
N TII" .1, iij a ,llihe \,.,',dr ,-I.;lii:' ,: i ib r 'Hli, a illI ['l.,r i'rt ,it ,.
Article I.




Sltli- ii ( '111 u I .l9 U.iS iIi -i Zi IIi I Iii i i a llt Au 111 I '.lli u l tii l
. l r,... Co ., Io I.~ll K i, I-[ll i :d' Il of ll.:],; ii h II I soQL I, ri li f f,, *\ll
,11.1 I l It. b -'1110 1I T he I.i I ,l,-1 -.ttez ..,f ll Ir1,.:-,, ,f1. ; ,1 ,lnt i. 1l ,-
rin r. i rO l-\'. thll.- .lani l u.I i'uli:i Iruu 'Spain i1. lI:t ii 31. 1 aiii l iiiriiar e r nt il
li: il t, I n i I Iii h e ir o lli It'ii r..] j i i \- '.l rL iii l.l ii ili tI I'll l.til tl, i l .ut" ru t.1l-
IZ' .s, tlu. t h\,i'. t i.li tio l'i.,I .111rt u L._ l-ii acl it i.'.> i r' I l util i.ll": ,it.

A r ti i Ile 11.



.I' t. a.iu rnii l I III :, it t rl ,ii: Ct. I II l '. *,thili i bl ia e uJ .1iI I ril oIf l it
.-r.. 1.*r. i-nty .. "' l- l I'>1 MI u ,i o 1f ('ul..a 1.11l 11 i IIl .Ia.Itali t.. 11 2. All pe-nmijua ry
fIr', ii'. l i. ti lli t. lli' li gJihl. tlu.i .ru t i tig' ratit]cittulo ii .I t rl e n l il luli'
i 1.;i t ii r thl. i, tt'lr II ii I ti Tii illuil; ti il i tli 'r 'liill ]'i lfl.rn.', l / l!tI 3hi
c.ioli llll ..lI tlhflr ( ritiTtii, iil lir u b hlt l rl I jil l llt l. i ; limit i t\i ;i i a Iillr l '-
till..' o jlit ,. t. ll i I- i orn t bI4. lI .)1 i ,rati a i-R i.l irly i a.i ii l ,iill fi'l :iIIl-
e;i-a le to tihe ITrea iiry eti m t. F'P tiii u iit andl i il i.i c i iiiv tl : 1i j tI ru 'l)'
:I1.l ii l '.lI t ly i3 C.' bi n. 11 To v I li;-i t1ii i s riku h :i i 1iii. .ll l i1i i 1t i .i1 ll tt e
It'...r:p oil ir al: iiih, till: i.1j11 In i ,i 'ultjr :-' ti. .ii I'i .tei -hil:ll l i. I t il- U '.llj -
viii di .1 .,i '' 1:ii iuir l- l t ;ljl iI l.i] l t! v [ ,i ir il.-ll iii 'i i,.Ili ir i, i t li I ii
i1 r tfhi- pruii "r itircle .at' 1lr te.iij .

A i I tle 11.
uII ibell,-IIil.,. 11. lh-: ;ti IIl; tllll-1 J1f till, IV .iu pl-i, ;,.,llii I artiw le.;, lier
Catll.iic'.'ic tlat l i il'e r.''iI tiit tii I: li rat-er %%t ill I I i [[ i 1 Cl oul. lji le
t li 1 tr iy r fliii. i| i- rs14 riiJ H il't '.. r i0 thi ui lli. i l t :,U i i;iti.: iL!! r1 1 bl ii illtiiI-' ,
Sl r'.1-l ti .. rihitick. mlot t -S e l..l iaI iri.Lii rg iii. iC in;-l- .. i .A a.b ll llt i'er illnir.-v'ih l
1 ,ii 1. ,tpir t. . I .: i ie t,.,il'.Ifirrnitj i t il l% I tt ,ll. I.il l. I. 11.11 i i j II, ;i lu l l iitli.
irl.' ,.It I ( l l. 'i I al u'lu alin. elo Ir. ,; t io 1 i C r. i .v .it 1;iiM r n till. J i['u.- i
l I II ll.l I. ] lTh .r ii r"l,. art: I I ..tI n|, '1. I It l ro i h li I e-li ii l I trli ,ir lt ;i, t ri,..t, ffr




,tllll,., .l .1 II|, ll, .r ta t13 h 11 .lvl ~ l :Ii-. [ I Ii I .-, i f1 tll I r l l' l 1 1 | ih ; ii- I l
|*if 1) I I i ili I-.lin i. .-I 'i il. llil |.i I\ rii' i r Iili ] I, u lit aI r I: I 1c 1t C I I I:
rltli]..i].ilir li| It-r C tailr.) la] .i t ; i. l i'lql it i i -l- -m-l n it lii ler; t o" tl : liuitrud
s. .ia.I. z. v. lii- l tlt .., i+ l lt I ... 1. l, i' r ,v l .i I :I I:. r l i h lh t el, .i r I t' l l ll
dii ..iIn,:[it$ 1 'tl i tl .I i ,. l x .I i % l. l' ri t,, lhII 1 (:ri : ifg iLjI tra iO.f lir-,'1 a lln
rt"'.'- r. t' l, l 1 )0 all tU rigliti. mt lich uj q u: x is.n tI jre Ith,- Irh,: I o t I, Pt. 't1 u-







rl'..-'ll' i .i i Iu.Il]1 -.ii- .~- .- ti,.hr, .. \ l .*in. S.lI.S t ri'.- 1 Am.\ eri:.1 .I I trul 1-t i el'.. 21

subl. .opies of the part relative to the said sovereignty which may appear Nr. 11972.
ir othl:r documents, and titles which refer moreover to other matters distinct Verei to
Irno the Island of Cuba or its sovereignty and rights, existing in saidundspanien.
Ir.h,. .i must also be furnished when the United States shall require the 21..1898".
.. A like rule must be reciprocally observed with respect to Spain in so
Ilr a. relates to documents and titles unconnected in whole or in part with
tih Ibland of Cuba that may now be in its archives and which are of interest
l.. li, Spanish Government. 1I All official archives and records, executive as
,,.ll a, judicial, at the disposal of the Government of Spain and of its autho-
iiiis 1in the Island of Cuba, and which refer to the said island or its inhabi-
ltair, tloir rights and property, shall remain without any reservation whatever
.1" thi kind at the disposal of the United States, to preserve the same or
dispose of them with the same authority exercised over them up to the
present time by the Spanish Government and its authorities. Private parties,
Spaniards as well as Cubans, shall have the right to make in accordance
with law authenticated copies of the contracts, wills, and other instruments
forming part of notarial protocols or files, all of which may be in the executive
and judicial archives, be the latter in Spain or in the Island of Cuba.

Article IV.
As compensation for the losses and expenses occasioned the United States
by the war and for the claims of its citizens by reason of the injuries and
damages they may have suffered in their persons and property during the
last insurrection in Cuba, Her Catholic Majesty, in the name and represen-
tation of Spain, and thereunto constitutionally authorized by the Cortes of the
Kingdom, cedes to the United States of America, and the latter accept for
themselves, the Island of Pnrto Pico and the other islands now under Spanish
S-....reighiry ii ill,: \\I r l.1li., ;also the Island of Guam in the Mariana
-., La.'.1ro .-, Ai rchli! li,.l.., ih li -llnd selected by the United States of
.A erl.-.i in %ilii . 1, tlh I.r..,i l; ..u of Article II of the Protocol signed in
\ :t~lllhIt' .ll I*.'U A. i'llast 12 la t.

A, ttle V.
I. ,i,'i...u ,I i ti ,. 1 i ,.re.ignty over the territory and inhabitants of
I'IAt.i., lIc, 111.I tihe t)lhr il.'ii.l mItntioned is understood to embrace the
I:f4iou .i tlie ri&lct ,inl 111llidarn.'u property and documents relating to the
s.\ii,. ii'tly I.,f ,id ilandS' .Aihk. iii all respects to the relinquishment and
Tr.in,-i oul thi- ,.iv-rerglty o-f Itl: Iland of Cuba as defined in the foregoing
a: til,>:'h -.







J.] rri.,ll-..- i. LIi. aill 'i I I l:t.iLu I \ r, i" 't..Lti 'le A ni. ti i.t I .? .ilitiru L1 .'I ,-i

Ni. 11i173. VEREINIGTE STAATEN uind SPANIEN. 8. Sitrulng.
Abl.hil>ii ig de q.r fl aiist'JeJu lu orrdii, ru igei.
24 Okti..t.- r l 9-.
II :. TIhi. A.uirri, n ll l ..'l.m I .-iil..l lirs itati-d tihalt they had carelif lly c-..nsIiller lI
\......h.. g L tile~ telierl1 lby thie Spain:i C'.,irliir k ioiiers at th,: litt rneettiuL. by
i,. ... r. hN i i -p. II i twj Sp i ias i10 ri liiji ll I -uf ret'l ity .'i er I.' il.a, ill.,l Ir l.li uliill
Si'iit W.i to n- ac.- pted b) thI Unit' d State antid i t 1 ... iL.'Iiind silch hlli.itw'
and .bli'antiions. Ou ttaiji in: at the rattil.atiori ut tLie tr,.:ity a shouldI bh, lh:l
bl nintl li- i.iii lei t to I, : piri.le. rl a rinl ie l ui tri.l cl.r ._ lili: I tii the i:i .1 Si, l
..i tlhe l': uith 'il.. l.It t.., 1.e I, r. ap:rly IrJ Ic.'ciliarl 'uban, and that i: .y r.in it
re ,:'t the a'ti .. tle II I : .il l olil' ;:II :. ill a i all ; irticl-? tb.a r'I ,li.iii :' l tI 0
niiiteid S.t:;les ti da .i AIT (ilticinr l.r itMe'li or 'or i.'ll the oi.-call i'J illali

leli q il .ihjld it..\ -l' :i i t.r U.l r .ti l til t. i ll ,' ;l a.ii l l, i'. -i ti illa i. .i ii,, by ilclj
thi,: Uih ted .t.1 tt.- l, 011 1111110 the u ,l iga .n i s. I, t h S p p w ti,, ,,I hf,_


ati:lI dial theI .t.tith leot i fl llSii l sli i.t care 1- tie | iirent.'i'i IiI
;i IJ ll [r,.ij',l. i i l ,,.,.''l I,,+ it; 0.l ',,:,:,l, n..l l ,.0 h. ,,+li.mp L ,:h ,Ir. ll:i(.\ l1l|'ll ] r.' ,,i ] 'i l
'risit ii i | A t'ii [Iij lh di 're, I-_i.,.ii talt,' ['r,:_
v'iieh lit.; relhi I'IIi.MIl t of V,.,',. ,:i ,,tll1 q \ 5 %ast il't:_edJ, I ., luni.J ai it ernil.,lCii .Il

Iri.s -_. itl:d l:.i th e: I l l h l e r l:; t I.I l tIJ Arnii .: i'.,taln iii ..ii. rlli II' .'
Ili-il. il. n i iit. h .ll ir ll ul h,: ll er telli Ol 'ii; il f t lhe :|.,' I I l]l ( l'ui ll .iii- l nl
li tit if i t i-ll .. i. tro 1,iTy- lh I l IIIt 10 _'li,-ll ( ',.I ui lj 5- ioilt. r %,I .Ul i u l I t: ItI.I l .II-
5il.,.r 1 .thI y a l Ii le .ai t) i.' l l.,t ,in>1 r'l't,. lL'.. 11I \li.i. lh C'..L it. i, i t iil lIlk lusii .,i
I'-r Ihle 5 .i-iit itl[o vf .i Ii nLIle tlJi],: :-. hIy (t 0 L'iItc ld t St rt,.-s ur I('Ii..li.a, .,r L.lth.

NPi. 1117-1. VEREINIOTE STAATEN und SPANIEN. '. i- l .1i1Y.
,-.' Iiit 'ri ',. t r I_ .ii l in d [',ii r' 1 to r i r :1

:r. il':-. T he I ie:tlil: iz'. lnii I II.,- i i i'i lk:, l iin i de lir i'i l l]' ia ri,:r ni.,randlimi ', .'.o

'" "' i.,i' the at tich', |Ir.. i l t ,d ly thiii jil tihc l 5r. .' Iilt.iAl'i iiJul rej iE'c d I. i
Illt A nw rit'1ill l.,u' nir loi I .-t:i i 5 i l illi, | I I AOIil theii 2.'...]iii tii i i* :ea
.tl: led tha llth>y .*. ild filo wu id ri, IllI,- rl, a % ritteu rp[l %%hichi diuil-I I..
,l 111 i'.,. l i li l illi r r to., tir III-
'l ._ V dilir .'i'e F t II.' lin n III l. i ill h A .\ : e l I I. '..eiiit 't..ir S ;t ti(i cl' e .e ofi Ill':
l. t -,i.,il-.till. I Pe Ijlulk ,, y i >:'uJ,,': 1) ..,l"T i-: I il i '. ,.[in li ti..i. hli i ll:.' ',_. e.,illie
a.L' li ullaid With thli ,li;ttluoll |Ir,.ieal.'ili l .l A, th, rn irt th, i ite oSf Il.1 la-t
col>hr.itlCi. 1.' thit I 're-i'l.iil ol i the Ani:ri.'i' l It.O li -I oriJn liha lii read it
i lit i j i I. il ..rii:r t,.. lhiid..r.ttilI \\tli l ., ll l<.;'i l i It'- [Iniit ih ii, 1 jai l it.
5'j7o j;: I|**i o. iii Tj rir illi t iI thir.' tc..i li:i .n.'t: l.iby lithe I o t'..nirfltii ,i iti' .1i
the 14th l t tilli r.inith it twas re:-i.,l'., i at lie. gi:'[tg ..nlelli t i:,l,.llie l iloili ,
arti' le Ih..til' heI (Oli]idtri:e.l ; tile- Ilj.l e.p.'r'-.lUti -.,I' tli ': 4 ii: tliI Ojileili






F .i,.h .~- i..ll n ii .-. 1 .. ,-rn 1 \'ierir, SlA.irn v. Amerikau. Spanien 1898 etc. 23

of either Government on the points and matter contained therein, until after Nr. 11974.
an agreement should be reached on all other articles of the treaty, or in VeSrengt
other words upon the whole of it: II "Considering therefore that the question undSpanion
propounded by the President of the American Commission cannot now be 26 kt 1
given any answer, which without violation of the resolution unanimously
adopted by the two Commissions at the aforesaid conference of the 14th
instant, may involve the final approval of the article or articles to which the
question refers: II "Considering furthermore that even in case such resolution
as the above had not been agreed upon by the Commissioners, its adoption
would have been required by the very nature and essence of the mission
entrusted to them, which is to frame a treaty of peace, settling not only the
question of the Antilles but also that of the Philippine Islands and all other
questions, even of lesser importance, which may exist between the two High
Contracting Parties: II "Considering that this treaty is not to be framed, as
no other treaty has, or can, be ever framed, upon the exclusive basis of
strict justice, as understood by each party, but also upon the basis of the
advantage to be derived by either or by both, thus modifying in harmony
there with the demands of strict law; and that, therefore, the Spanish Com-
missioners, although understanding that strict law decides the question of the
Cuban debt in their favor, are in duty bound and are willing to moderate
the said strictness in view of the advantages which Spain may derive from
other stipulations of the treaty which, without being prejudicial to the United
States, may be favorable to Spain; ]| "Considering therefore that the article or
articles to which the President of the American Commission refers can not at
this time be the subject of final approval, since they must remain subject to
the others to be included in the same treaty, meeting the approval of both
High Parties:- j| "The Spanish Commissioners answer the said question by
stating that, reiterating their conviction that pursuant to law the colonial
obligations of Cuba and Puerto Rico must follow these islands and their
sovereignty, they do not refuse 'to consider any articles as to Cuba and
Puerto Rico which contain no provision for the assumption of indebtedness by
the United States, or Cuba, or both', subordinating the final approval of such
articles to that of the others which are to form the complete treaty, and they,
therefore, invite the American Commissioners to enter upon the discussion of
the other points to be embodied in the Treaty, and, at the outset, to take up
the discussion of the Philippine Archipelago, and to propose to the Spanish
Commissioners what they understand should be agreed upon in said Treaty
with respect to this subject." ]| The American Commissioners, after the reading
of this paper, inquired whether they were to understand that the Spanish
Commissioners accepted the articles previously presented by them as to Cuba,
Porto Rico, and Guam. 11 The Spanish Commissioners replied that they accepted
them in the sense stated in the paper provisionally, subject to the con-
clusion of a treaty of peace.






24 F i ;i,.hi .u. rh n o nlln-I, n z.A ;. i.-.' .1 V.-rin. Siria.1 it At. ii' rilm i Sp. I..in 1l'.e ? et'

NI'. 11975. VEREINIGTE STAATEN und SPANIEN. I". Silt. Inig.
L i l-l itil zit i ul., i C ulia Findi 'o r tii c: .
27 Oktnlonr I13'

I.. 19.:_ Thi ,\ ill ~. Iel il C 'nini.: iiL rir / ..' -i illllt, l tli,:ir lNi ltlrn r,:l|' ", ': i ,y u wh Wli lchi
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,t Iil,,, :i. ',. Ir 4- S L ,r:,L Ii) 1 f 1. lit i iTelt iit ti; \hI h tlh:y i r'-I:- i t':, l :,i h1 tl 2 1 it.
iiit it. iil" A ,f li ,.li v1 I['I-ri >:i 'lI' i c I l. ti ] ,t.l Le Aiii' ir n i.tiirth C- riin, h i fi'.'ii .



il. a..rtic.'l s I ir,'- itr. -.1 ly thli,- Anm : ri,.at: Ctni,-, m atio r,:i ] ', .1,i'l 1h1 l they r,:t',f
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.-it r i,. %: nta .oliti_ IJltluIall I 1|>iI th, tril pf r.i l % .,i" 1ir. f I I' I I, -j i.e i-: f.Ij il ,:1 i
ol j,:,.ri.-ij. ; lI.>: [ i theserl i ..r .ily utl,,:r artI .i':- an. l ,l : I ,.id ly a; thl lilr'-
nrtri.l: 0t the .\nir : -,in pr,.j-' 't 1.13 Flit: I. ,u:, : a ,h i li di rf,:r, c, in dipimnati,:
l'I.rilD, ;, tll. irli t ]i. 1,' .r.it ilh 'A h th 'l Sf i .,,; i-ii Srlid].'e:; l irt ti.1t h1,- ,1,1 tiot
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ti:, ., :1 A,-ti.it 12, 1i 9SS. | T l,: Prti', J,:nit ,.f thI,. SpL. nilh C. nitoi-.ion re-l,,. tell
III t OR .- l f 'ti V.r wv ,lr.lI.I 'f t ,t'r o >l [el : uthi r : rti't;.': %1.a, it ni.ith'r ,I
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.t' ItoiJ,: Itnh ll l'..I th,- *, >,i j: iii 4I the :ItI, .ilitid tihI' illij il :4 5I u l' t-i.I ,1 ,i hlit ijy' it
1,1 A i ,ri..ir i.ll..ti 11 T it. ['':]-.'l >lt I Ul the A njri:ric.ll ',.: r rm ii-i:oll r .pilit,
that tit: art l'h:- :h u, ldi rtLij. a41 heii tl,:.y were i,. l"'--,. .nil I ..- ;i,,iil. r.I:l
a C ,i jl~l :,* ,l 1)1" I, II 'I Ilt, .tiJiJll l 'li tll'l t i 'L l A. ll ii '.t ', llUt i .ll':l '-
didi t1ul n1 :.. 1 :1 U liJ* :t I ,.i l t lIj i.t I ..illdt B1 :t a|.|,.] ,' ill n u[ie l?, j r, II. l,.,ri
I-I lt l r :.r- y tIli:t t6: _,.-*: i I m Po< r:iii l, I I'u rLu iJ I l ,: i l,: it i -lai,1-- .l,.v:
Il .k I I_ i.J to ,i h .'.1, l l llh i n nli.Tillity 'Gi t,.0 lusis5 ,lldl ilijilln it i'- f A ll,-
r ii ii.t iz, ij. i t h ,: a..: F it 1I' lI. i\t; tl. T hi' -.ho % .it l Lbe,:n X 4'. ':.1":J lit






-ri':,lrl~,i.r il 'i.ll 'i 11 . l i_ I ,I. Vi I. S 11.'. ii r. .\rE ILl; II i, .ii l -it '- 1 25

till-r .tL adi.lr.I : .* ..l I1 i. S .1 11m li L;:'. rinl l 'nt I'*, tll;i ill' ti li,'ni.illi I 1.t1' the Nr.11975.
I'lm l.Iijllt jil lhII. .Jnllit ll.l .1.1. 1 tll r .\r I\ r it.lll (n ui !'.i il-jll Ii I r,.,:. ll ized Verenigte
Staaten
ii. li. i: i illl IL t. Ill i li. '.u i. ,.li .J. l l .- ..'[ lit ,.,I' t I l,.- i I. lli Coi m -undlSpanien.
Ill i iill :. |l.l lid It .1. IlliO t i IIl t d ll II, : l |, 1 ll ll4,l-F III ." I llt.t, i,,lt to 27" 0kt 18,8.
1t.1 i Ili I'd ; li .it i it. i ,in t hi.: .i .I i i I l .. r ( if i lt uliIl I.. .ni ut.i r-d in
i l.I |r,:.t,,',:.l. |I '' r.. ni,|.,, r ,lf th |..1 1llll-_1 C ,ll) nlin ,.:ii Ilhl.'. nIllilI :il ..h,..tlher
tle American Commissioners were ready to answer tie written proposal pre-
sented by the Spanish Commissioners at the last session, in which they
accepted conditionally the two articles of the American draft. j1 The President
of the American Commission said that he understood that in the said pro-
posal the American Commissioners were invited to present their propositions
in regard to the Philippine Islands, and said that as this matter was of
capital importance, and as the American Commissiuners were not yet ready
to submit a proposal in regard to it, lie would propose an adjournment in
order that they might have an opportunity to do so, and would suggest that
in the mean time the Secretaries should endeavor to agree on the terms of
the article relating to public property, archives and records in Cuba, Porto
Rico and other islands in the West Indies, and Guam, for submission to the
Joint Commission.
This suggestion was adopted, as well as the proposal for an adjourn-
ment; and it was agreed, on motion of the American Commissioners, that the
Joint Commission should meet.again on Monday the 31st of October, at two
o'clock, p. m., when the American Commissioners should present a proposal on
the subject of the Philippines; and that if by that time the American Com-
missioners were not prepared to do so the meeting should be postponed to a
later day.


Nr. 11976. VEREINIGTE STAATEN und SPANIEN. 11. Sitzung.
Amerika verlangt die Philippinen.
31. Oktnhcr 1898.
The American Commissioners stated that, in accordance with the under- Nr. 110;6.
standing expressed in the protocol which had just been read, they were pre- vereinigt
S tataen
pared to present their proposal on the subject of the Philippines. The pro-nndSpaniei.
posal was read in English and translated into Spanish, and delivered to thesi.o01't.1'
Spanish Commissioners. It was as follows: I| "The American Commissioners,
having been invited by the Spanish Commissioners at the last conference to
present a proposition in regard to the Philippine Islands, beg to submit the
following article on that subject: I| 'Spain hereby cedes to the United States
the archipelago known as the Philippine Islands, and lying within the follo-
wing line: A line running along the parallel of latitude 21 30' North from
the 118th to the 127th degree meridian of longitude East of Greenwich,
thence along the 127th degree meridian of longitude East of Greenwich to







.*-s rn -. r I l r i,.. n it. .-;. '; t a S A m er i .. ii |. ni.- lt ,.' w

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lan t. I .: ..I 7 4'. N i rti l I it iint,:Ir l :Cri I i i'. lI I 1J lv. le l: I IA. rl i in
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il.-~:.I ,1'1 i rI .rei='h: LI .1 I' ;l r t l,,- ,l.rop h. I ., al I fl r. th, t I flni (,,_, Il l,]n l ci..,'t
t 11,I ,i: I I i j i ir3 : |I, u I'mIn t li-.? ',n ,, i i -nh .v tit ',i rii-id Sl at, ; ,,c, f i n .,J i,,,i

11,,l. I. i. : :r ,m: ii 1 S. i. F iruiny tli-. 4lth oI N., .'i l i,.. r, .10 t: ..o 'ii -'1:o :l; |i. rno .
SrI illwn ]ife li] ic'? t": .1 1l0lll, (iI'0 .1 Tli. til):nl irit, it ir l: i| i: -1iI r .1I r i .
'Al i l i, ,. .r'il n ii. Ml.,? -:n-il .]'.h ,: n .. I w.d-,.r.lil,-I y ,Il |i..I rn. -:i J.



NI-. I l'.77 VEREINIGTE STAATEN iiud SPANIEN. 12. Pilnlit-'.
Aill : I,]T i l tI S' i i :In I It .i \ u i p :.
4. N' ,.rd ni.. I '. -

X-1 iIi I- i, P r i_ l I 0 -t il' ti h Aliin i 'i- 'i., l '.il l. in I,.t.-i: i l [ILll .i I l i t .: I't ll
I n '" i ll ri-,1 Illr: I' n ll i:I i 'o 1 1 --[1 llirll lll il:: rl l' t il- f If Iivi t i II
'i .. ... I' i i ,i -r.:. t: : l .: i l.ry i:l' i -11. 1[ ll :nr i n r i .n, l, l ] i: 1' l'-
i bt *,i, | I i r., :,i, I| i, : A ., ii; i,?11i r i I l|l l,, .= 1 1 tl ni, ii;n II ',* \ l .l i..i,.rl.^ ndi, I :1,, 1,,


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i h i al i tit n i l iJ, I l .i 'u 'u r ; li Q It I n P -I I Ih tI i I 1 1 t li d .. vll: r 1', t I,: "' i I ,

A. riI inll..l i .'Ii u rC t Il I .I Ti ; i l-" ir,:i .ain li.l :,,ni iir(:ii ti i till T uiliy, tin. h ,1'
N..,.,..Il t o,, .,',.lI, :lV, ,p. rn. | T hi- Spin i ,1 i rnr, il iri, :in cr:., .d tih,
"i l -l.ll i i II i I l, I l .11, ]l Ilt, iS ltii.-ir i; a l,:r ,,-. il. : .:i iI: l. ilig fi', nl I1c3.111
I Olj.i,.i li, 1,l ..1, p t I,'i', ii' l ,-i ,l ., llt .*,I. p r,., ,., II, r1l, ] n ;rn iP, l, Rih t r li,'
..,,:.,i |i i', ',,., i |,:- i' l.ht tf> .lihliin t ,-1 ri, t r ii, r.-ill] lllJ in rillt i,'- illn u |pp'i, 't ,, :li






Fri... ,i-nierrh in[ll,,. .n .wi'e, I eu \,.I,.in Si lii :n % Am il .i Ij .aibti U r I '-'- e..' 27

i.'.nit r-i.'rl:'":'-p .l. Ill.. Ain '-ric.n (Cl ninm 'i.i.n':r ; ]lil.u I i,.-j.:.t it. 1| Theil Com- Nr. 117T; .
t, iI" .li ri,. i'.'.'IICU lI:' 'Il: ii" |,i infl,.l Up i, th,-' nlt iiatf, .' h :' II '. Il : ad- (1 Vere igt
I I Staaten
jou:irn 'l' t.. t1-e dly j'r ':'Iu-ly ti -il,. und Spanien.
4. Nov. 1898.

An agI.
Gegenvorschlag der Spanier.
The Spanish Commission has read with great surprise the proposition
presented by the American Commission at the meeting held on the 31st of
October, ultimo. || The only article which said proposition contains is reduced
to providing for the cession by Spain to the United States of the archipelago
known as the Philippine Islands, situated within the perimeter geographically
determined in its text. II But in addition thereto the proposition contains two
paragraphs, not intended to form a part of the article, the second of which
is of such importance as to demand from the Spanish Commission to deal
with it specially in this paper. |1 The Spanish Commissioners have stated that
the American proposition excited in them great surprise, and it is their duty
to set forth the reasons which explain that feeling. ]| From the first to the
last conference, the American Commissioners have been alleging constantly -
and that allegation was the principal ground upon which their drafts relating
to Cuba and Porto Rico were based that in their conferences the two
Commissions have to abide by the bases established in the preliminaries of
peace agreed upon and signed on the 12th of August ultimo. The same was
said and continues to be said by the Spanish Commissioners. One difference,
however, has existed in this respect between the two Commissions, and this
has been that the American Commissioners understand that the Protocol
should be construed according to its letter, strictly, and without taking into
consideration any data, antecedent or document. For this reason, as the words
"Debt of Cuba, or of Porto Rico" were not written on the Protocol, they have
deemed that Spain should transmit or cede her sovereignty over the islands,
but should retain the latter's obligations. The Spanish Commissioners under-
stand, on the contrary, that for determining the literal meaning of the Pro-
tocol it is necessary not only to bear in mind the general rules of inter-
national law as to the interpretation of treaties, but also the negotiations
carried on between the two parties which culminated in this agreement, and
in which the interpretation of the latter had been given beforehand and
officially. 1i Therefore the proposition relating to the cession by Spain to the
United States of the Philippine Islands, besides not being included in or
covered by the articles of the Protocol, appears to be in open contradiction
of its terms. In the opinion of the Spanish Commission it is a flagrant vio-
lation of the agreement. 1| The Protocol contains six articles, and only one, the
third, refers to the Philippine Archipelago. Literally. translated (into Spanish)
from the official French text, it reads as follows: || "The United States









-l. ll '..''Iii y. .'l I1i.iih] tihe ,.i y. ily i l- ay .i d.Il I i[ : l arl ,-r ul' \; nil., i'l.llii'-'
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.li!' .-.. ri~ ~ ..I1.lli I..n i :.w ii .b.i u d. Verein.Staaten v.Amerika u. Spanien 1898 etc. 29

Li.-itii. :ii ..,i- !.,..l .' it 1.-\.. .1~..i.ate Crowder, the following was said: | "The Nr. 11 ;77.
i.tlrul .'I' rti. ari -imlrr.-iii r..d by the Spanish forces shall take place when ver"inigte
Staater
thi, a...f i t i.- lit. I .li,:u' the American army evacuates." |I Therefore itundSpanion.
'-ui: ,lp'..lt .l':..l l.i ril i~ l .:I signed this agreement that the American forces 'Nov. 18.s
did not permanently occupy the place, as they anticipated the case that they
would have to evacuate it. And if they anticipated this, it is clear that they
understood their occupation of the place to be merely provisional. II True it is
that the words "inspection, disposition and government of the Philippine
Islands" have not a clear meaning. The Spanish Government and its repre-
sentative at Washington had noticed this fact and asked for the proper ex-
planation thereof (which was not given) by the American Government, before
the Protocol was signed. But whatever construction may now be placed upon
these words, the fact is that in no case can their meaning be so stretched as
to involve in any way the idea of cession of the sovereignty of Spain over
the archipelago. Such a cession or acquisition in perpetuum of the archipe-
]ago by the United States, had it been agreed upon in the Protocol, would
have been in contradiction with the mere temporary occupation of Manila,
which at the same time was agreed upon in the same clause of that instru-
ment. || Nor could the said construction ever be admitted as valid, under the
rules of interpretation of treaties, because the said admission would result in
benefiting a party who refused to explain, when asked at the proper time to
do so, the meaning of the words which even then were considered ambiguous
and indeterminate. Even if this were not the case, the rule which the
Spanish Commission understand to have been applied to them without reason,
set forth by the American Commissioners in their last "memorandum", namely,
that "the abstention of Spain from proposing in the Protocol the condition of
the transfer of the debt precluded her from proposing it now", would be
applicable to the case. The United States abstained from proposing to Spain
in the Protocol, frankly and openly, as frankly and openly as all things must
be set forth in all treaties, which must never be concluded unless to be
understood and complied with in good faith, the cession of her sovereignty
over the archipelago. They did not do it, and they became thereby precluded
from proposing it now. 11 All the foregoing statements must really be con-
sidered in excess of necessity, as it is a fact, perfectly well known to tile
American Commissioners, that when the Protocol was signed at Washington
the most worthy President of the Union not only had no idea that Spain
would have to cede the Philippine Archipelago to the United States, but
entertained, on the contrary, an opposite idea, namely, that Spain would retain
her sovereignty over it.
In the conference held on August 4 last, between Mr. Cambon, Ambas-
sador from France, and President McKinley, in the presence of the United
States Secretary of State, Mr. Cambon made some remarks as to the cession
of Porto Rico in compensation for the expenses of the war, and the President,






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l'lili|.'ii I ljii ." ||IO H Furkhir i Mi i : "T e Aladrpil GQ.. nmn.it Cani Ri t
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F'r :i.ii . i I .. i .l l .I i ,. i. ". .. .1- V ..I. lu. ItI l rl H .\ I jli In t .,,,!'. uI 1,: 2 ti ., 3 1

former by the American fleet, the latter by forces commanded by a native Nr. 11'.77.
encouraged and assisted by the American Admiral, the Spanish flag has not Verinig"to
been lowered. In the second place, the Philippine Archipelago is wholly in uniSpanien.
the power and under the sovereignty of Spain. The Spanish Government 4 No.dS'"9.
understands, therefore, that the temporary occupation of Manila must constitute
a guarantee. The treaty of peace, it is said, shall determine the intervention,
disposition and government of the Philippine Islands, and as the intention of
the Federal Government is too much veiled in this clause, it is important for
this Government to state that while accepting the 3d basis, it does not re-
linquish a priori the entire sovereignty over the Philippine Archipelago, and
leaves to the negotiators the care to stipulate in regard to such reforms as
it may be advisable to introduce there, in view of the situation of those
possessions and the degree of cultivation of their inhabitants. Tile Govern-
ment of Her Majesty accepts the 3d clause as supplemented by the aforesaid
declaration."
It appears very plainly that the Spanish Government did not accept the
only item of the Protocol which relates to the Philippine Islands, except in
so far as it meant that the occupation of Manila should be only temporary
and in the nature of a guarantee, and that the intervention, disposition and
government spoken of in tile item should refer to the interior regime and
administration of the government of the said islands, and not to the entire
sovereignty, which Spain expressly reserved and was entitled to retain.' Against
this construction placed beforehand by the Government of Her Catholic Majesty
upon tile 3d basis of the Protocol, a construction upon which exclusively
it was accepted, the Washington Government said or suggested nothing,
before signing the instrument. On the contrary, the Secretary of State of the
United States, when sending to the French Ambassador the draft of the Pro-
tocol which was to be signed, said to him in a letter that the note of the
Spanish Government (the one in which the above quoted phrases appear) con-
tained in its spirit the acceptance by Spain of the conditions proposed by the
United States. Therefore, the third condition had been framed by the Ame-
rican Government. in the same sense in which it had been understood by the
Spanish Government. Otherwise it would have been impossible for the Secre-
tary of State of the United States to say, upon examination of the note in
which the Spanish Government explained the only meaning of the article which
would be acceptable to it, that the Spanish Government did accept it. I| The
result is that while the United States may now come and claim the said so-
vereignty, the claim can never be founded upon the Protocol.
And what other title, different from that agreement, can they allege,
against the will of Spain, to be vested in them? 1I The bases upon which the
United States agreed to make peace with Spain, or, in other words, the con-
itions which the United States imposed upon Spain for the reestablishment of
peace between the two countries, were set forth in the Protocol. An imme-






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lo.t botiri .l it-elf to I.'.' th t.i ni,., *-! --: u i.ii' ril that i ,., ly 11 thi e :v,:rit
tli.it Th( re +ahU -_ l J, t.i ,:-- luortv.r-, ., .1 : li I ll ,.i--n til ti .' ,t li.i :ii It "hO
r n l,. I,- -i. i-.01, 11i i i i ,,ii i, .il A .t i, -r,,.v ti, n, .1l ,iut3 l iestil Ulp :, ,: ..i y
h l j,- ,l,.li l' t.,l' r, .,1r.1. lili hi:r I h,: l i,.-i i .,i th :. li, li lr (*I hi r o \1til ,l:l'l .! t i :.
.oulh l not buit see .'t a i lr igir Il]i, lh,-ir i!ifit,'r tsi iu tlJ- fa.c(t lii. |,t-ill, %ltlihol






l- j.-. ,lli- lIUll. in .uI 1, L h J l \II. ' ,ru. L 11 l. l .. -i t l -. ,i N -t l -'.-' ..'j

being bound thereto, should overburden her treasury with other heavy obli- Nr. lln7;.
gations for which it would be liable jointly with her own, and running the Vmorinig
risk of her resources being insufficient to meet them all. The debt and obli-undSpa;nien.
nations of the colonies which directly interest her are those not enjoying the "* Nov. ls
privilege of security, because with respect to these she is primarily bound,
and she understands that it is not just that when she has contracted them
for her colonies she should continue, after losing them, burdened with such
charges, which are, after all, a small part of the immense capital invested in
those colonies which was furnished from her own resources. I1 Let it be under-
stood therefore, and the Spanish Commissioners hope there will be no neces-
sity to repeat it, that Spain cannot and ought not, since respect for the
rights of others forbids it, to agree in this treaty or in any to anything the
impairment or suppression or even disregard of the private rights of others
against the will of their legitimate and special proprietors.
Still more with respect to the unprivileged (unsecured) colonial debt,
their dignity and the respect due to their own selves likewise forbid them
accepting the bases which stand out in the paragraph of the proposition under
consideration, which consists of the looking into the investment Spain may
have made of tile proceeds resulting from the creating of such debts. This
would be equivalent to submitting to the judgment of a foreign power the
acts of her internal government. Judicious or not (and the Commissioners
understand they have all been judicious) they were perfectly legitimate acts
and they are protected by her sovereignty. j| And even in the inadmissible
hypothesis that such judiciousness were wanting in them, the Spanish Commis-
sioners do not know that there is anyone who can cause the legitimacy of a
legally contracted debt to depend upon the investment, good or bad, which
after its creation, the debtor may have made of its proceeds. II The Spanish
Commissioners cannot close this paper without calling the attention of the
honorable American Commissioners to a point which cannot but be resolved
in the treaty, in obedience to the stipulations of the 6th basis of the Pro-
tocol, which is as follows: "Upon tie conclusion and signing of this Protocol,
hostilities between the two countries shall be suspended, and notice to that
effect shall be given as soon as possible by each Government to the comman-
ders of its military and naval forces." (I Even before the signing of the Pro-
tocol the President of the Union, after apprising tile Ambassador of France
on the 30th of July last of the conditions the United States imposed on
Spain for restoring peace therewith, said to him that he consented to granting
the suspension of hostilities as soon as the "Spanish Minister of State should
make known to the Ambassador of France, his representative Washington,
that he accepted the negotiations upon the bases suggested by tile Federal
Government; and authorized the said Ambassador to sign in his name the
I.r:liiiii.ly minuilitn. Oich put an end to the hostilities." ji The Spanish Go-
,.runji.ut na:,.I. Iii..,.u its agreement to such bases, and authorized the Am-
l- L c. hA'h L .111. "3






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j all i t I l l ll'. I I. I ,I .v ilt.: i I, ll, ,ill .tl\ n.,l .tlj1J i'l c -,'i I 1.I tIll I il i l lN% ll':.l B ,'i ,
1111 l1.. i.lsilI AI.. lll l,:.1 sll'. 1' 1. L tl. ,' .. hd -\M.I ri O i-. \ltl':I i : .1 ,i ],ie i .l b il ,it l tll ,






I- li i.'.,it. rliu, lluun rnu ii-I.. t u d V .r,-i Sr., t I'u . in.J iii I i 1I- ..! '.LI i- ,II .. .35

oflenlt 01o highway rubblry, twou otlies clhalged \ritl deIsrtion; six cllalt;Ld Nr. 11'07.
with contempt of authority; another charged with assault and robbery, and IVorei'igto
SLaaton
three others charged with homicide. As is seen, all these prisoners were in undSpanien.
jail for common crimes. This unheard of act was communicated to the Go- 4.Nov. 1ss.
vernment of Her Catholic Majesty by the Commandant General's Office of the
station of Manila. II Very well; it becomes necessary to examine all these acts
from the standpoint of their legality and with relation to what was agreed
on in Article VI of the Protocol, which constituted a formal obligation for
both Governments. I| When was the suspension of hostilities agreed on in said
Article VI to go into effect? The answer is not doubtful. The text is clear
and explicit: the hostilities were to be suspended upon the conclusion and
signing of the Protocol. This occurred on the afternoon of August 12. There-
fore from that afternoon the warlike acts which either of the belligerents
should commit were to be held as not done in order to restore the statn quo
ante at the moment of signing the Protocol. 1| It is idle, and may even be an
insult to the great learning of the American Commission, to expound here the
doctrine, not only admitted without contradiction since the time of Grotius in
international law and usage, and to which all the learned Anglo-American
treatise-writers have given their assent and support, but which is furthermore
raised in the United States to the category of established law in article 140
of the Instructions to Armies in the Field, which reads as follows: "The
armistice binds the belligerents from the day agreed upon between them for
its going into effect; but the officers of the two armies are not responsible
for this except from the day upon which they are officially notified of the
armistice." i1 The day when it was to go into effect determined in Article VI
of the Protocol was that on which it should be concluded and signed. There
it says verbatim: "Upon the conclusion and signing of this Protocol, hostilities
between the two countries shall be suspended."
General Merritt and the Admiral of the squadron may not be personally
responsible for the blood they unnecessarily shed on the 13th if they had no
official notice then of the Protocol which had been signed on the previous
day in Washington; but this does not conflict, as one of the most learned
writers on international law says, with military honor, demanding that they
scrupulously abstain from profiting by any advantage that may be gained
through the ignorance of troops who may not yet have been informed of the
armistice. In cases like this the belligerent power whose forces through igno-
rance commit a warlike act, cannot profit by its advantages, and should restore
things to the statu quo ante, indemnifying the belligerent injured for the
damages and injuries he may have suffered through said warlike act, and
restoring, as is said by the learned Anglo-American publicist Dudley Field,
all prizes taken in violation of the armistice. II This is so elementary and
common in the United States that in their colleges the work entitled "Ele-
ments of International Law and Laws of war", written by Major General






a ri.'.J u : i tl u .llu u.1. u ,, Ii i . V 1 1lu j, : i '. l n l .\lj ..- l i ,.toi 'l 1- I

.-. II.';. Halleck, serves as a text-book, and in the Philadelphia '.h1.'li .i th, :r,:. I.,- I -
'. ?. 283, appears the following:
I"' ''"'"" "The truce binds the contracting parties from th: ii.i..i..,,i -..' iit ,..'i-
N .,
clusion unless otherwise specially stipulated; but it does iinr Iit .I rl, illli.i-
duals of a nation to the extent of making them personal; r': 'j;p.io i .il fr t
rupture until they have actual and positive notice there':'t. II. '.: -'i i -.|i.tl, I
individuals without knowledge of the suspension of hos:lit,:., I- *ILI i an :,\
or destroy his property, they do not by such acts commnil :I ,.,ln:. i .,r .1':
they bound to pecuniary indemnity, but if prisoners or 'I:.- .ir',. tal;i:n hI:
sovereign is bound to immediately release the former and r..itrr.: ilI: 1I'i_.'
The American Government has not released, up to this ini.... il,: ilip-.,'"1'
garrison of Manila, nor has it reduced its military occri,.,- i. I tii: limit ':'I
a simple right to garrison it, which is, according to Artiil,: Ill of til.:' Pr.-
tocol, the only thing it had a right to do as a guaranty untII thl :i-'nii.i; <.'t
the treaty of peace. I| The Spanish Commissioners, their t..ir.. i, I, l'hli.:C I,:
what was expressly agreed to in the Protocol, underst.,.Il ili.lt iI in r'I I. '.i
peace ought to embody: II 1st The immediate delivery ,Il' l,,: II-.'l:.: t.:, II,:
Spanish Government. II 2nd The immediate release of tl,: a;l ri-..u ...I' rI.
same. 11 3rd The return to the Spanish Government of all tl.. l',i-l- I 1t 1~'il'l:
property taken be the American army since its occupari... '...I tI,:- pl.Ii.', i'i
of the taxes of every kind collected or to be collect-..I iq' t.'. ltl- rhiii ..,'
returning the same. 1I 4th The obligation on the part of' ll: Liniteid 1.lt..- to
indemnify Spain for the serious damage occasioned lhr L;, rHi l.r, iii nr .,u i .i
prisoners of the said troops, to which detention is dio: Ill.. i|.r.:.i.linii .ihii
impunity of the Tagalo insurrection in the island of L.'i:u .,.]II' : i111%.-i4i n
of the Visayas islands, and because, moreover, to this -i-,m IIa ni h.- li,.-.1i
due the ill-treatment of thousands of Spanish prisoner. i.i..il .,iinI unlit'r?.
treatment to which the Tagalo insurgents have continu(.l r~. il.lI''.t ihIIin \.ili
impunity.
In virtue of what has been said the Spanish Comtiih-ti.~ i (1. .ii.' n.'r
to make to the American Commission the following pr l..l.itiin:
First. That it cannot accept the propositions it I.,,. I nrt:e-.' l ,I-lII,-
for the cession of the sovereignty of the Philippine Ar'li.la-l.rl ... i.: Iii': ll..t'.
States, as it understands that this is contrary to the ilioji.Irii: ..i 4 ...
agreed upon in the Protocol of Washington.
Second. In consequence of this it invites the Auiiin:.li ::ii (',.l' nl ll1 'ii I'.
present, in accordance with the stipulations of Articl*-. Ill IIli VI I:,' ll1:
Protocol, a proposition concerning the control, disposiiuP n iiI '_'..':ru-IIuMlt -"t
the Philippine Archipelago and concerning the obligat,.im \>ntli.h, '.: 1i.: ipl(
been said, it is the duty of the United States to contract 1I.:.111.iii': .1 tl. .act
of war committed by its troops after the signing of thi. l',i:o..uI in I'..rl'ly
seizing the city of Manila and performing acts beyond II'.. o-'I ? .:.f tl".: .'nil







Friedensverhandlungen zwischen d. Verein. Staaten v. Amerika u. Spanien 1898 etc. 37

rights the United States could exercise in that city, its bay and harbor, pur- Nr. 11;77.
suant to the stipulations of the said Article II of the Protocol. oreoinitte
True copy: Emilio de Ojcda. undSpanien.
4. Nov. 1898.


Nr. 11978. VEREINIGTE STAATEN und SPANIEN. 13. Sitzung.
Replik der Amerikaner.
9. November 1898.
The American Commissioners presented an Answer to the Counter Pro- Nr. 1978.
Vereinigte
position submitted by the Spanish Commissioners on the 4th instant in rela- state,,
tion to the Philippines. A copy of the Answer is hereto annexed. |j The" uSpanien.
Spanish Commissioners stated that they would examine the answer, but that9. No
its length and the necessity of having it carefully translated made it impos-
sible for them at the moment definitely to state what time would be needed
for a reply; and the proposed either to advise the American Commissioners
later in the day when the Commission might meet again, or at once to de-
signate a day without prejudice to asking for a postponement, should it be
necessary and should the nature of the document require it. || The American
Commissioners preferring the latter course, the conference was adjourned till
Saturday the 12th of 'November at two o'clock, p. m., with the understanding
that the Spanish Commissioners might if necessary ask for a postponement.


Anlage.
Antwort der Amerikaner auf Anlage 11977.
The American Commissioners, replying to the Spanish proposition of the
4th instant, will proceed at once to the examination of the grounds on which
the Spanish Commissioners endeavor to justify their expression of surprise at
the American proposals of the 31st of October on the subject of the Philip-
pines. || The Spanish argument sets out with the erroneous assumption that
the United States bases its demands in respect of the Philippines upon the
terms of the Protocol in the same sense as it bases its demands in regard
to Cuba and Porto Rico upon the terms of the same instrument; and, pro-
ceeding upon this assumption, it finds in the position of the United Staates
on the two subjects an inconsistency. The United States, it declares, adhered,
in respect of Cuba and Porto Rico, to the "letter" of the Protocol, while in
the case of the Philippines, it has presented a demand "not included in or
covered by the articles" of that agreement. | The American Commissioners are
not disturbed by this charge of inconsistency, since they deem it obviously
groundless. They based their demands in regard to Cuba and Porto Rico
upon the precise terms of the Protocol, because it was in those very terms
that the United States had made its demands and Spain had conceded them,
by promising to "relinquish all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba",







38 Friedensverband '.n-.,.' % i..:..i .1. V'-I.' -in Sr.i
:, ,. and to "cede" to ihe LI ti.,I st,1- l'...ilt. I'H:.:. a it -. rta ,i' .:.ther ilan.k
'' "rl'.I The United States, in, hlllliilng II.:.n tilHe l...'rJ ..If the l'r t,:,...,l ,:. thr -O ui-
..L. -....,. r,.jects, m erely asked hli t il. ir-:irt ]: ,'.l i ,:, ,.-u, .:' ':;" '': the case of the Plhliippluei Hllt- ULtnl .e.l her .. t.-i. t i, .: the lI- city, an,
harbor of M anila, c.lin.:. i-i.lf. t... *l ,ii.inili -' l.it i lh. i ul.i'it t hill I l., .lt
in the widest and f nille-t :,:n ,. tr fllii e I,. :i r;.'t l,..l, \\ lil i t .I I 11 i .:t, \ ill
the exception referr..I t., ,t ini llI *i ..i .ifie ,'l'.:. Ii L IIt iL.:t3.-'J Ari.l -,. ur-,l
tile right to dem anl l,, it l,,:.itio:i Wti..r..I.,,.. i., n,., ti h.t itr ir,.E|i. l
demands in respect ...I ihe. [Philipiites: Irt,. Zlvi.iieall .( .:.ti in tlt- PI'i.:..: l
but that they are ti.:tlli l` y .I l itn.lu le,.I iI Il,. i hlit v ilh it t ,.illn '-
pressly reserved an I se. ir.neti to:i ui l:;. Ii.iuii .l ii il th,. 1litijI |I l'itlini ; i.le.
however, the errol ,.li.: .i :UIlp 'tI: lf i bl.lh ,li .ti.e Ii.i juit t ll 1.i :n it
appears that the Sp li-l Ci:illih':-ll -.i,': n In .; 'lt'r ,.Ijt tllh Anitil.1.M i: mllll llli.:.:F
as to the scope a l, it.-'t ii' ,.,f thi. tOli.l Arti.I.: ...f Il. Pr,:it,....l t i ir tl 1,i
the representatives ..,f il tiv... .il;, Ir.. irtl i l., jllgt.,h 'iii thti 12 lt ...l'
August, 1898. Thi; .rii..t i: a. I- lw:i X ,\\ ,,:i,. 1,. 'llI.. Lilirl... ates
will occupy and hold til.. :it\, I,.iy a.lI hJ.I I r i M ai i i;l .. l |.I .i lir tile.- :oi-
clusion of a treaty ...' I-.':-ct, .Vliilhi VIh ll .l..*,i i-r in .. lih. I ....tI .:.l d:l l ll. in
and government of til. lIlill l'iit- I| t llS; l I T i .,Si llj .ii. ii si .rI '.:. ntI'l thA.t
ill the negotiation IIni :-:ltll.mri r I I i t.i ry ii. i.I,.t thi, -i ti,.l.. I...l iiih,. c1 r1
be demanded by th l. iit.-.1 .l.i .. v. hkh ti,-u the .....r,.-h^ny ..,1f S|i, n
over the islands, andl litt .1 I'II ,:...iltl i i :i.i I l .' IIrt .:. I tIhi : l i;i 1. c: i
require only such ch l.-,r ..< in tlit: .-.:..,!.;i. in r1 ...I II.. isl-,.1l0. r.....,imI ih ."41-
m inistration and kindit-j t' ie.I l-". 1i ,Ij Il.rt ini It i1ilinl lIt Si- .. llih t Io.erClllll y.|l
It is the contention :i, tihv in t .:.t tin.. liiiil-,i S1.tt,:: iihit thin Artile It.- \,.-.
to the determination I.t tlie tI IIy ..If pcitl. tli- enil lit CIljt I ...I t it 110111n.
over ln ent and soC'r i'.le l lt\ :it IIt rilll-|ltl ilt:. nI.i...-; lll Iitil.i..t:i il Lh..
term s used in the 1'r.:it.:.. . l 'T he Sl .'lni-hli tl.',.l ... I i.,ret- i ll..,t t il r ,i..,I -
tention upon two gr.,.llnlI Fiii t ti.It til. nli-,.I.,llI' lt ilt \ I.:!.l S ii ii 1cl i
as to include the s...i... hI ..I S.,iiii ir, th< Pf' lilipsi S.l.l:.itt, tlal tl'l
history of the negotl.itlin.l .iit- thi II :: l'..lti, I In.i l I S 11 I I ] ilI ...lII
thereof, preclude theit ili.ti. Stl .. I ': I I r'.ll iihail it: I I.r111 i. k It i a .A Ir ,lilil.
of law no less app :.ll.iI t.:i iIIterI i.:.iI.l .IieuN i t I,..- itlln i., I.r Iti. tcl.hit .i-
versics that where theil rI.-: ilr t ,,f Iln.l -..,i[.ll. ji hz l' Ci.enI *,.;l ifi' l, l in ,1 i. I t.- in
compact, the term s ...I i,.1Ci ,i.! I..: C In .l1111 ,tll. t 1 il l .lt i til.. I.2ltlW' .
Thie reasons upon hi.hi. Il .i l i .:.:lll 1 r1 1i ; I : ;ill j I tI l t11 ,Il Ih I ,X IJ t.:ll
recapitulation here. \\ i. ll l i.'i S.l.t. I iiL'ht ii ell i :- its ,a-,. ]i| il
a construction of t lit tl llr: it...tI, i lt hi.S I li il,..iltir: .1 alV.:..I t[i.. 1 Inllh. t
exanm nation and the in...: .1 ,i,,, I, ; lili y ,f tHi.. i.,,I.:.tii]i...ii- \.l, :lh ii -, :......
tle m making of the Pr'i .lv: il.: i 1i ti.n y I,.iii -_e ,..* 1., n.1k,. :.1,. 11 tii. iil ..,. l'I
the parties to lea ,_. I, ihi. Ii .t ,-, h,. ,I, , .: . .:., ,tt ..n th,. fill,.--t
oplpoitunity to dis:,.:, .:,f tii. ..\,. itti ,.1 i .uinJ ..,, i .:. r ii, f thi.. I'llil i .|i.,.
Islands in such a i11n1hl. i1 III I.i Q t I- h I- ... l.l i. III 1,1. Ir-a.ll.






Friedensverhandlungen zwischen d. Verein. Staaten v. Amerika u. Spanien 1898 etc. 39

The two Governments being at war, negotiations with a view of obtaining Nr. 1197s.
a treaty of peace were opened by the Government of Spain through the erei igt
Minister of State addressing to the President of the United States, in thoundSpanion.
name of the Government of Her Majesty the Queen Regent, a note dated the9" .o"'. 9.
22nd of Juli, 1898, which it is not necessary to set out in full here. It is
sufficient to say that therein the President of the United States is asked to
name the terms upon which peace may be had between the two countries.
This note was presented to the President of the United States of the 26th day
of July, 1898, by Mr. Cambon, Ambassador of the French Republic at
Washington, authorized to make the application, and represent the Spanish
Government in the subsequent negotiations which led up to the execution of
the Protocol. At that meeting the President received the note of July 22
from the Spanish Government and advised Mr. Cambon that after consultation
with his Cabinet he would prepare an answer which could be transmitted to
the Spanish Government. On July 30, following, the terms of peace having
been carefully considered and agreed upon by the President and his Cabinet,
the President received Mr. Cambon at the Executive Mansion in Washington,
at which meeting were also present Mr. Thidbaut, Secretary of the French
Embassy of Washington, and the then Secretary of State of the United States.
The answer of the President to the communication of the Spanish Government,
dated July 30, 1898, was then read to Mr. Cambon. This note was in the
exact form in which it was afterwards signed and delivered to Mr. Cambon
to be sent to the Spanish Government, with a single exception. After some
discussion of the terms of the note as to Cuba, and Porto Rico and other
West Indian islands, Mr. Cambon said lie did not know what the Spanish
Government would desire as to the Philippines, and no matter what the note
might say as to the Commission, the Spanish Government would regard the
purpose of the United States as being fixed to acquire not only Cuba and
Porto Rico, hut the Philippines as well. The President said that as to the
Philippines the note expressed the purposes of this Government, and their
final disposition would depend upon the treaty to be negotiated by the Com-
missioners and ratified by the interested Governments. 11 After further discussion,
in which the President reiterated that the treaty must determine the fate of
the Philippines, and the note of the President on that subject reading then
as now with the single exception that the word "possession" was then in
Article III, so that it read "control, possession and government of the Philip-
pines", where it now reads "control, disposition and government of the Philip-
pines" Mr. Cambon said that the word "possession" translated into Spanish
in such a way as to be regarded as of a severe and threatening nature, and
suggested a change in that word. He suggested the word "condition". The
President declined to change the word except for a word of similar import or
meaning. The word "disposition" being suggested, after considerable talk the
President consented that that word, not changing the meaning, being indeed







4.i T I r I.ib Itrhr l ilnr --l i .. i,-I: l.- i \'r I it. v A it O: r..\ n Ir i ll I. i .ui Ii. I l 'i..

, broader one and including possession, might be substitu::il. Tli.A,, Il.n tli.
.ir.te at the close of the interview of July 30, in exacy:i ill: I.iiri It i n.
.i iginally cast with the single change of the word "dispositi:" I,., **r:,: ,:.-i.,ii"
..-is delivered to Mr. Cambon to be communicated to tli Sljani i I~eivrii-
[il:nt. 11 Oi Wednesday, August 3, in the afternoon, Mr. C.unt.., I b:niii, inli-
ni.-ted a desire for a further interview with the President, .nii.thI-i r-tll:rii
i..iween the same persons was held at the Executive Marni'.ii. AMi. '.iiil.,.n
:ald the Spanish Government had received the answer of tl,. Pi-':idl iit. anr.
that it was regarded by Spain as very severe. After asl;iing .a nriluti..l.i.n
as to Porto Rico, to which the President promptly ausv.srr-.l lit Ih: ....
not consent, Mr. Cambon said there was a disposition 1,. I...li., iln S.,1,in
that the United States intended to take the Philippine group: tliat tli. >l...liih
Government appreciated that reforms were necessary in th. ;.*'.:rimiin:mn: tli.,i
American privileges should be granted; but that Spanish ,.,.reiriny i.iuiill
not be interfered with was a matter which Spain would in:l:. 'ili-r. '1T,
President answered that the question of Cuba, Porto Ri.... ilti ,ilier W\\'-.
India islands, and the Ladrones, admitted of no negotiation: Ii,.ti ti:.- iIli-
sition of tile Philippine Islands, as he had already said to Mr. I',.ir.lb.n, ro iit
depend upon the treaty which might be negotiated, and r l,.t h1 .... ill ii.t
make any change in the terms theretofore submitted. Mr. Canil.i. ..illi
attention to the wording of the note as to the possession i.' tli,- i.ity, l.,,ay
and harbor of Manila to be retained during the pendency ..I ti'e r:iati .il
asked what was to be done with them afterwards. The 'Pr. :i.-lit i Il hit,
must depend upon the terms of the treaty. i| This is the saim. ,i I l.... :.illiluri
to in the memorandum of the Spanish Commissioners as liilg ..e .:un'r.'l '.n
the 4th of August. It in fact occurred on tile afternoon ':.i A.ili t .:1. tlh'
difference in date arising from the fact, no doubt, that it t. ri rie-..ro,-i :,ii 1
4th of August. This can make but little difference, as Iti:.I: T.- i.t .:.Lit
interview at that time. 1[ In reporting the conversations, iil i.- rii'-riii tI h
memoranda made by Mr. Cambon with those made by ti..: re,:.ri::. :lntl.l:. .I
the American Government then present, it must be b...r..,: i iiiuii.1 tl.
Mr. Cambon did not speak or understand English, but coniriiiiiii..itt.1 i.ii, rl..
President through the medium of an interpreter, his Secret:'*; .i.iui thlt iitli,:I
of the American representatives understood or spoke tlh: Fie.:l, I.ii-.a.i.-.
Making this allowance, it is perfectly apparent that the \Anml:. Il i1. :ii.:lt
even in the versi m reported and transcribed in the i.-i ....li11 ,),.i .1 th1i.
Spanish Commission, at all times maintained that the trel ,fI' 4 p... :0h..ild
determine the control, disposition and government of tlh- Il lilp'i.:-. I'll
President did say that the Philippine question was the oilt '% .u i I ,t .:1,ii. il,'
negotiation and settlement in the treaty. It is undoubtc.ii tn1.i tlii: It i,.,-
not then fully settled in his own mind as to what disposinr.iii -'l.l'bi L'- ,..!iij
of the Philippines. Had it been, there would have been jil'liiiZ t..' i'.:.' t1.,
negotiation and settlement in the treaty. It was the purp.,-:. .l' thi,: l'n.-. l~t






I- 1 .-i1- .L lI:i l'- li l.: i ; *.-; *. li i- i I Id V I.-.ii. .i t-.u % A Dr -ril- J .I I I nS p I. *, .* [ -11

in everything written and spoken to leave to the negotiators of the treaty the Nr. 19o;8.
most ample freedom with reference to the Philippines, and to settle, if their Vereiigto
StaUaten
negotiations should result in an agreement, the control, disposition and govern- ind Spanicn.
meant of those islands in the treaty of peace. When Mr. Cambon spoke of No. 189s.
Spain's purpose to retain sovereignty over those islands, the President did say
he wanted it clearly understood that no ambiguity should remain upon that
point, but that the whole matter should be decided as set forth in the treaty
of peace, which should determine the control, disposition and government of
the Philippine Islands. He certainly did not use the word "intervention" nor
limit the subject of negotiation to ,,advantages" in the Philippines; nor can
it be claimed that any report was made to the Spanish Government of the
precise English words used by the President. In the same paragraph quoted
in the memorandum of the Spanish Commission in which it is said he used
the words above quoted, it is added that the President also said the negotia-
tors should decide upon the "intervention" (contrble), disposition and govern-
ment of the Philippine Islands. Even this version of the conversation is ample
proof that the President showed no uncertainty as to the scope and meaning
of the terms used. He did say in substance, in reply to the inquiry of
1Mr. Cambon as to whether the United States had prejudged the matter of
the Philippine Islands and the rights to be acquired therein by the United
States, that the case had not been prejudged either as to the United States
or as to Spain. The whole matter would be left to the Commission for ne-
gotiation, and to be settled by the treaty of peace. In the meantime the United
States would insist upon holding Manila as laid down in the note, and its dis-
position thereafter would depend upon the terms of the treaty. This is
reported in the quotation in the Spanish note as the utterance of the Presi-
dent that ,,the Madrid Government can rest assured that up to now nothing
is decided a priori in my own mind against Spain, nor do I consider anything
decided by it against the United States". This may not be an unfair inter-
pretation, though not the exact words used by the President. It shows clearly
that he did not regard the United States as limited to "advantages in the
Philippines", but the whole matter, being undecided in the President's mind,
was left open in accordance with the terms of the note. The case was not
decided in advance in any of its aspects either for or against either
government.
Great stress is laid in the Spanish memorandum upon the allegation that
the President had not then determined to take the Philippine group, and
indeed did not intend to do so. It is utterly immaterial to inquire as to what
either Government would then have insisted upon. There was a mutual agree-
ment that the question should not then be decided. Opportunity for full
investigation was reserved, the final conclusion to be arrived at as the result
of the negotiations now in progress, in the treaty of peace to be here con-
cluded. 11 Further conversation as to the number of Commissioners, the place









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not in advance of the negotiations for peace renounce her sovereignty over Nr. 119;8.
the archipelago. She did this, by her own declaration, for the reason that stVeiito
the intentions of the United States were "veiled"; clearly perceiving that byundSpanien.
the terms of the demand the United States would have the right, if it saw9. No. 189
fit to exercise it, to ask that she yield her sovereignty over the group, and
that her sovereignty was thus put in jeopardy, she took the precaution to say
that she did not intend, in assuming the chance of such a demand, to concede
it in advance.
The American Commissioners do not deny that this may be a fair con-
struction of this particular paragraph of the Duke's note. The representatives
of the United States were not willing, however, to leave anything to con-
struction. When therefore the Duke's answer was read to the President it
was immediately objected to by him and the Secretary of State, in that it
was vague and indefinite, purporting to accept the terms laid down in the
note of the United States, while requiring some modification. In referring to
the Philippines, while in one paragraph it stated the acceptance of the terms,
in another it seemed to retain the full right of sovereignty, with such reforms,
etc., as that Government might see fit to grant. The unsatisfactory character
of this answer is more clearly shown when in the subsequent part of the
same note, not quoted in the memorandum of the Spanish Commissioners, it
was said without qualification that they (the Spanish Government) accept the
proffered terms, subject to the approval of the Cortes of the Kingdom, as
required by their constitutional duties. In the part of the note referred to
above it is said "the Spanish Government must declare that, while accepting
the said condition, they do not a priori renounce the sovereignty of Spain
over the archipelago, leaving it to the negotiators, etc." These contradictory
statements were called to the attention of Mr. Cambon, and made the note,
as was said to him, unsatisfactory to the United States. (I It is to be observed,
as has already in effect been pointed out, that even the terms of this note
are inconsistent with the claim now put forward that Spanish sovereignty
shall not be interfered with, for the length to which the statement goes in
the note is that the Spanish Government does not a priori relinquish entire
sovereignty over tie Philippine Archipelago, thus leaving it clearly to be in-
ferred that the Spanish Government recognized that the negotiations resulting
in a treaty might require a relinquishment of Spanish sovereignty consequent
upon such negotiations. |I Mr. Cambon, having heard the objections raised by
the American representatives to the note, asserted that allowance must be
made for different translations which the note had undergone in course of
transmission, and to the desire of the Spanish Government to express regret
at the loss of its colonies; and he was very confident that it was the intention
to accept the terms of the United States. It was then suggested by the
American Representatives that if this be true, and the note was to be regar-
ded as a full acceptance, the best way to settle the matter was to put the







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III W.. V I lilt, ; isl %,:.|| : l; |, til :I.| , e tri..i ,i i l n_ t ,I I ..itiinj i i ... in., tr -;itL






1 riedensverhaudliw-gen zwischlen d. Verein. btaaten v. Amenlka u. Spanien 1898 etc. 45

of peace. 1| Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurance of my highest consi- Nr. IIT7.
deration. (Signed:) William R. Day. vrivig
His Excellency M. Jules Cambon, etc. unidSpanien.
In this note, so far from saying that the Secretary of State of the United 9'Nov.S'1s.
States understands that the note of the Spanish Government of August 7
accepts the American terms, it is distinctly said "although it is your (Mr.
Cambon's) understanding that the note of the Duke of Almodovar is intended
to convey the acceptance by the Spanish Government of the terms set forth
in my note of the 30ih ultimo, I understand that we concur in
the opinion that the Duke's note, doubtless owing to the various transfor-
mations which it has undergone in the course of its circuitous transmission
by telegraph and in cipher, is not, in the form in which it reached the hands
of the President, entirely explicit." 1| Here it is distinctly stated that the
Secretary of State and Mr. Cambon concur that tile note is not entirely ex-
plicit. Was it then to be expected after all this careful negotiation that a
note which the American representatives contended did not accept the terms
of the United States, and which both negotiators agreed was not explicit,
was to be received as a satisfactory answer to the American demand? Not
so. II "Under these circumstances it is thought that the most direct and cer-
tain way of avoiding misunderstanding is to embody in a Protocol, to be
signed by us as the representatives, respectively, of the United States and
Spain, the terms on which the negotiations for peace are to be undertaken."
This is a most emphatic and definite declaration that the note of August 7
was not satisfactory, and that it was the purpose of the United States to
leave nothing open to misunderstanding, but to embody, in a contract so plain
that dispute would be forever foreclosed, the exact terms upon which nego-
tiations for peace would be undertaken. The note goes on to say "I there-
fore enclose herewith a draft of such a Protocol, in which you will find that
I have embodied the precise terms tendered to Spain in my note of the 30th
ultimo, together with appropriate stipulations for the appointment of Commis-
sioners, etc." What does this note mean? Does it admit the construction
that the proposal was intended to embody the acceptance of August 7, reser-
ving Spanish sovereignty? It is definitely settled, as a perusal of the docu-
ment will show, that the Protocol embodied, not the uncertain and equivocal
terms of the note of August 7, but the precise terms stated in the note of
the American Government of July 30. This note to Mr. Cambon enclosed
the Protocol just as it was written and just as it was signed by the parties.
It would seem, if ever an attempt was fairly made to have a clear under-
standing, if ever all precautions were taken which could leave no room for
misunderstanding, such was the course pursued in the present case. 1| It is
thus seen how utterly groundless is the declaration in the Spanish "proposi-
tion" that, in order to determine the meaning of the Protocol, it is necessary
to "bear in mind the negotiations carried on between the two






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tl. r l : I Clll in>. iT V .i I. li..t .I 11:i1i -1I.1- : 1':-rl tIld t Il l II -. .'I. II '. I --: J NY. 11978.
an acceptance of the American demands. Hostilities were declared to be Yerinigto
Staaten
suspended only upon the signature of the Protocol. | The correspondence ndsppanien.
quoted in the French "Yellow Book", no less than the subsequent communi-No.o1s9s.
cations from Mr. Cambon to the American Government, shows distinctly that
with the exact terms of this Protocol before it, the Spanish Government, on
the 11th instant, and subsequently by full power of the Queen Regent, autho-
rized Mr. Cambon to execute the Protocol in behalf of Spain. Observe the
language of the note of Mr. Cambon to the American Secretary of State of
August 12, 1898:
Embassy of the French Republic in the United States,
Washington, August 12, 1898.
Mr. Secretary of State: I have the honor to inform you that I have just
received, through the intermediation of the department of foreign affairs at.
Paris, a telegram, dated Madrid, August 11, in which the Duke of Almodovar
del Rio announces to me that, by order of Her Majesty the Queen Regent,
the Spanish Government confers upon me full powers in order that I may
sign, without other formality and without delay, the Protocol whereof the
terms have been drawn up by common accord between you and me. The
instrument testified to make regular the powers which are thus given to me
by telegraph will be subsequently addressed to me by the post. |I "His Excel-
lency the Minister of State adds that in accepting this Protocol, and by
reason of the suspension of hostilities which will be the immediate con-
sequence of that acceptance, the Spanish Government has pleasure in hoping
that the Government of the United States will take the necessary measures
with a view to restrain (empecher) all aggression on the part of the Cuban
separatist forces. TI The Government of the Republic having, on the other hand,
authorized me to accept the powers which are conferred upon me by the
Spanish Government, I shall hold myself at your disposition to sign the Pro-
tocol at the hour you may be pleased to designate. |I Congratulating myself
upon thus cooperating with you toward the restoration of peace between the
two nations, both friends of France, I beg you to accept, Mr. Secretary of
State, the fresh assurances of my very high consideration.
(Signed:) Jules Cambon.

In the light of these facts, it appears there is absolutely no foundation
for the claim that the American Government accepted the Spanish reserva-
tions so far as they are contained in the note of the Duke of Almodovar of
August 7. Had that note been only a distinct and unqualified acceptance of
the terms as contained in the American note of August 30, it would have
been unnecessary to require that all uncertainty and doubt should be remo-
ved by reducing into few aud simple terms, which it was believed could never
bh: muli'rid.. ri.:.1, ,ti: final agreement of the parties. So far from remaining






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.: ni iit ri: t to.i Il : r'illi: ,:I .ll u'..l' .' r. \ t iL i I i '.uI .l: "T lhirvl. i11 't 1 11.1r
ro..udldn th i. le uitc'l t i c: wt. -t, *' .tl tl,:.l t':n I.'I. I I[ [ l.1 Ia l iJ thv i .1 t 1 i. :u11.1
Ii.i i l,.r .I il. I1; l. : .ii :1 t l,: 1 ':, il,: I iuii, 6 I:I .1 t!r' .i" ., ,.,t ],.:. it \I ,ln I 1 I l I
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j.i '. -'r. !,i .l t t* b ,Ij .l l :; ll i lI iC ti i : l '. ': -I .l,:i t .. i .: h 1 Ii .u.i .'l,
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be insensible to the losses and expenses of the United States incident to the
war, or to the claims of our citizens for injuries to their persons and pro-
perty during the late insurrection in Cuba. He must, therefore, require the
cession to the United States, and the immediate evacuation by Spain, of the
Island of Porto Rico, etc. On similar grounds, to wit, among others the right
of the United States to have indemnity for its losses, the United States will
hold the city, bay and harbor of Ianila pending the conclusion of a treaty
of peace, which shall determine the control, disposition and government of tie
Philippines. i] How could the United States receive indemnity in whole or in
part from the control, disposition and government of the Philippines, if Spa-
nish sovereignty was not to be touched? It is difficult to conceive what terms
could have been used which would more clearly have evidenced the purpose
of the parties to afford the fullest latitude in dealing with the Philippine
question. The treaty was to determine not alone tile control, disposition and
government, but at the same time had full power to determine all that is
implied in control, disposition and government. Certainly the word "control"
was not used here in the sense of "register" or "inspection", but in its broader
sense of "authority or command; authority over; power over; the regulation
or rule of." |] What word could be broader than "disposition", which has
practically the same meaning in both the French and English languages?
"The disposal of; distribution of; alienation of; definite settlement of; ultimate
destination." We have in these two words, then, authority over, dominion of,
final and ultimate destination of the subject matter. What is "government"
but the right of administration, or exercising sovcri(;tlty. thir dir,.:tioln. thb,
political management of a state? Either of these -eiui implli,; I-...:r .:.






F ni |:,IL ,";|lJ toI1 llr EV I i ,: .,I hI :.Z ,I V ,.t.. U. )11.1 L I A I I. I !:-I II :. t11 S i) I I L k ,.. 4'i

interfering with sovereignty. Taken together, they give the fullest scope in Nr. 1178s.
Vcreinigto
dealing with all power, governmental, territorial and administrative. Ij It is not staLten
argued in the Spanish "proposition" that these words should have a narrow undSpanion.
Nov.1898.
meaning so far as disposition and government are concerned, but transcribed
into the French language it is sought to give a narrower meaning to the word
"control". It must be construed in the connection in which it is found in the
Protocol, in its broader sense of power or dominion. "Noscitur a sociis" is a
legal maxim which applies to the discussion or determination of the meaning
of phrases. "Control" associated with disposition and government of territory
might have a very different significance when used in another relation in its
less familiar meaning of "inspection or register". The word "disposition"
used in another association might have an entirely different meaning, and a
meaning which, in connection with government and control, would deprive it
of all sense.
The American Government, then, feels itself amply supported in its right
to demand the cession of the Philippines with or without concessions, relying
upon either the exact terms of the Protocol or those terms interpreted in the
light of the negotiations, oral and written, which led to its execution. |h The
Commissioners of the United States notice with regret that an attempt has
been made in the memorandum of the Spanish Commissioners to invoke the
high authority of the French Minister for Foreign Affairs in the interpreta-
tion of the Protocol, so as to exclude therefrom all mention of the right of
the treaty to deal with the control, disposition and government of the Philip-
pines. In the French "Yellow Book" cited by the Spanish Commissioners, it
is apparent that as early as the 10th of August the French Government was
in possession of the exact terms of the Protocol, transmitted in the note of
that date of its Ambassador, Mr. Cambon. Would anybody believe that in
summing up this note the Minister would intentionally omit one of the most
essential parts of the Protocol? ]| The note number 19 referred to is no part
of the negotiations; its purpose was merely to advise the Ambassadors of the
French Republic at London, St. Petersburg, Berlin, Vienna etc., of the result
of the action of the representative of France in bringing about a suspension
of hostilities, and the preliminary agreement as to peace, between two nations
toward which the French Government was actuated by feelings of humanity
and mutual friendship. In this note it is said that the points upon which
both parties have reached an agreement were set forth in a Protocol. In
stating the contents of that instrument doubtless through inadvertence, it is
not stated that the treaty shall determine the control, disposition and govern-
ment of the Philippines. Jj The attention of the Minister being called to this
matter by the American Ambassador in Paris, he very promptly corrected
any misapprehension which might exist as to his despatch. This appears in
the following letter from the American Ambassador, which has just been re-
ceived by the American Commissioners:
. >rl L~l 4






:,,.) F i.:,.l ;u lu..., iluh., -u ;w i ..hLu i 1 ,:.- n ; n, ui.AU-u ',..\Luei l..,u "|..ii..[[l 'P-_i.- st,.

,\ lih-tu"-,I,-:l i i. I.'r r. I' iii 1,. .\ .IuI ['11 I ,'1,1
I[ ,i N . nI IL. I :.. l ''i.
Ia '-tIt Si" I .,. t", illf,.,Iti y.'II thI. I :-9 .' l F rI'.IIII; i M\ ini-t,.r Ill F ,'.',i :liii
A tliil_. i: 1 ir, pa l i i.' l lit l,:'rtiiil -.i illn r.|il l l the S| ai i-,i lF'.rt.',.- I .' nilfl:-
_'l,.ii,. r: Il tiii. l. l thI I rI li,:!. f- i tj a l:It. iii 1t l i Ill I I l' Iti .- 'i A I|ii ._ | -
..l..,r': ,irt ., A Im l.. 1 '-, 1: _, l. ,..*_, ipl.. r' in ll,.: F rI : i j' il 'Y |i .j.. C ....', .." U l
.l it u it l l,. 1.',i 'll'*':I ti1,: la .- iiii t d I I tii l. i',: 1 qi1 i lt: 1 l,' C0 'i l-t l i ..-l
li t M t an o li lly r s.:' Itheil .i i ndI VI te" l'1 .:t.0 1, -1 l **I : I : ..tI o i lai-i 1ed W i..

his l. ,eter could in no ise be construed as a.. in 'inte etatl lli I m ,Iof th e








terms or meaning of that instrument. He promised that he would at once
Iiend It. [1lthe French t Ii:iAbas, rs the f. ll text of the ..IPrtol in orer thatl
I. t th i, ih ,li ') ] .,.," h .'. .ti, ;l., : .. l' ]t .( .:'i lii t .. i: n ht .. .., l illi: . t lit ,
I I,, l a iat hli . iIl i h,..t .I t:i t II t tI, ,li .,lJ t l tJI [I ,' :,: .- c ,i l, o II h i,: ] i i.....I.

no aULtion'ILy tur su doilg, and declared tlhat the biit injitionl contained in
his letter could in no wise be construed as an interpretation by him of the
terms or meaning of that instrument. He promised that he would at once
send to the French Ambassadors the full text of the Protocol in order that
they might be informed of its conditions in extenso and that there might be
no ground for misapprehension as to its terms. I1 The Minister repeated what
he had said several times before, and which I know to be true, that he and
his Government had all along observed a strict and impartial neutrality between
the two powers which were negotiating, being equally friendly to both, and
that he intended to continue the observance of such neutrality.
Very truly yours, (Signed:) Horace Porter.
Hon. William R. Day,
President of the American Peace Commission, Paris.
It is stated that the occupation of Manila was to be only temporary.
This is undoubtedly true. The Protocol, so far as it relates to the Philip-
pines, is itself provisional. It . r-.-liy i.riui ji t-.r lh: .l-inr oAf ,-i i
things pending the conclusion of a tr'i:t, iln.'l i iin thii: paint.'i r t i .r-
sede it. Had it provided for tit: pl.liilni I iil t '....i:il['ct ln u ..,ii I L, t lI' -
United States, it would have witlli.,-..ii Ii-t Pllhil iiii tu t t i .xt .i lt frlni
the sphere of future negotiation. j WI nl ti t ii : r i iii rr,..t l,' .':it:-l in thl.
Spanish memorandum, negotiated :il;,.r i (Ci *i \ t,:t: :.ii l I tih l'i,...,:,.i .-.l i
having nothing to do with the nec.'i. til.i..ii : I'A !.i .- ..- _Ii.-'.. ti't- i.l.iIa.t' r ..II
this occupation, it is to be noti-.:.l tl.,it ith. i'r\ l.1'a i 1' lih :ii ..l II,.ii thiI.
terms of that document shows that i I .:i I lu.Inll. :lijt.. Iil.iti.'l I hat .:ouirlj i.iiji
might arise which would require Ili,. ,. a-. ii.: iii t i 1t 1.: l:il: ii:l 'i',.. .,f thi..
city. In it it is said "the return .I i .iti- t i, :ll ii. l'. 'lt I' ) fl': .l:iii:lih
forces shall take place when the.\ io.i. natl rl I.- .l: , tr i lt'. :u AIni:ri.:ani
army evacuates it". The comfna ib.r-, L I' i AI :ri .in d l .'l i:iim:l lurce'
did not undertake to determine tin. Iight -li' iih r lail) I ".i u 'i:l ll. i l.I, 1 1.






1"I' I, .-% rl. uI' l llu.ILIu' i. . LM. % .h L ,I i Il I. L' I i .1 [1 . \h A [.i l.. I .11 I :l I L il 1- 1~ .t' ;I I

I .lU I .-.. I, i lrli .i i l tr ,. |I] L r pi it .. .1I l t I l il li l..l l Y.l r.llll1 ,.I 1 tI NT. 11O78.
I- IBStaaten
'1 [.ll tlll .l .,l,, i '.,,1' lh [lll "'J,') '-, .. !'[i, IUInllll i ll- Ill,: .lill -i!' 1.rl Il P rtl' J. ..I ._ i- t uidSpanien.
U ?. : .l I...c l. ,Itl. th l -til, o il .ll l it i ',, [ r 'I.[ ...I I, i t li, I : .. t , r-' '* N ov. 1898.
III illJ,. tl .: ill .i nl l.: : It i i. i lill i,.i Ir i_ l.I r I _-, 0 'i O.:.,r '. I,, t .
ill. I.* IT- 1 I iall.1.*I .A11 %.%:I -.31-1*.1i1v 1d111 C Ulill-m lsf i...I d ir* n i .U I II'-
ilii i|n, :iii 'ri..~l, lJ j I,:1, 1 lih ,.,, .Lii ij iii,;,j t l.. I .i C. LI I. aL -A [lie: .. I,.'l, .'i ,J Lj ,. ,.-,- In
t ,u b .,n i. .. 'nn' _.,]..l "rJ,' ,.',iiLhlitJ i| li t ip. c,'LIni 1.,tniih.i ,.,I l[!e ,\nj i- i.i u rl' :,1,.;'. hi1
Ihll ['lill n l l .I .,i irj..* .i 'll r i ll. .;it n '\ lth h is I ,... I tili n .nr. '>i i- hl i II l I I .
moment as uninformed of what was taking place at Manila as was its com-
mander of what was taking place at Washington. It is superfluous, therefore,
to argue, even if it were material to do so, that the stipulations of the capi-
tulation cannot be invoked in explanation or limitation of the stipulations of
the Protocol. For the same reason it is perhaps unnecessary to comment
upon the statement that "General Merritt, contrary to what had been agreed
upon in Article VI of the same (Protocol), forcibly took possession of Manila".
The American Commissioners are loth to assume that the Spanish ,,proposition"
employs these words for the purpose of intimating that General Merritt could
at the time of the capture of Manila have had knowledge of the Protocol.
It is a fact doubtless well known to the Spanish Government that on the
16th of August last, four days after the signature of the Protocol, and four
days before the receipt at Washington of the news of the capture and capi-
tulation of Manila, the Department of State addressed to the French Ambas-
sador a note soliciting the consent of the Spanish Government to the resto-
ration of cable communication between Manila and Hong Kong, in order that
continuous telegraphic connection with the Philippines might be reestablished.
It is observed that the Spanish Commissioners in their "proposition" say that
the words of the Protocol in relation to the Philippines "have not a clear
meaning", but that no matter what construction may be placed upon them, "in
no case can their meaning be so stretched as to involve in any way the idea
of cession of the sovereignty of Spain over the archipelago", since "such a
cession or acquisition in perpetuum of the archipelago by the United States,
had it been agreed upon in the Protocol, would have been in contradiction
with the mere temporary occupation of Manila, which at the same time was
agreed upon in the same clause of that instrument". This statement, as well
as the paragraph that immediately follows it, merely reiterates the erroneous
assumption, to which we have already adverted, that the ultimate demands of
the United States in respect of the Philippines were embodied in the Protocol,
while, as a matter of fact, the instrument shows upon its face that it was
agreed that the formulation of those demands should be postponed till the
negotiations for a treaty of peace should be undertaken. I1 How, then, stands
the demand of the Government of the United States for the cession of the
PhiliplliI TIlauds .ith lh,. concessions which it is willing to make, as set
l.,III i it I ..rtl"-.;itL...ii .i thle 31st ultimo? This demand might be limited
4*






.,- 1 r l%.,I4s,1..rh.u l luu ..u u -b i 'l l .\l.] V ,. Ill l..i. l A1 l rill .1 11 S -|l,, l,- : 1-'.".-1 21.

Mr. 119is. to the single ground of indemnity, but tlii limilati.:i, tli: A.\rlv:r..al CIouIIui -
vereinigt sioners do not herein concede. The United S!nt,- :,:: i,:i. n,.,, i., t fIl i..,r.l
Staatn i
undSpanier .any claim for pecuniary indemnity to co~lr ii-. i1.1,itI,:1 ,.,it ..1' tl[,. v.i,.
9.Nov.l S.'It does not take the sovereignty of Cuba; .-u; ha Ic.l :i.,i,. ill f.irni.:r ru,.-
moranda submitted by the American Comaii::ivi.'I'-r:, it IIuin i. uIlu ilrllcil
there. It does demand, and Spain has a~ r...d t.. i:.,:J-. Il,: II la.i.l I. I P.f t,:,
Rico and the small Island of Guam in tlIr L.tJrii,. Wli t Spai ii: .I
to give up in the Philippines? A country runtaiitl., In rI-l llili.,i i'l it:
sovereignty, so that if the United States .-r i.:. iti, lti Ith Ijl' 'iiim tL..-.Ja.
Spain would immediately have to resort to arr, I,, ...v,:r:.,',: h. rl,:.il,.n,,, and
discontented people. I| This situation could ij.,t Ie Umoir. \[i.lly I rutr.i.:d i.liii
to use the words of the Spanish memoratililj i iii .li.l, lli.:r ipl..i;kiIj .:.i
Spain's neglect of her own welfare to the .lerrirmt-iL t if lir !'ill JI.I 1, :11 1 i ii ,t,
this condition is attributed to "her desire ~.it, i"' r. :i r iill\ attetiI, tI I\.r I..:-
lonies, creatures who, like all others in th. .:.r.Ir 4:. i.nIuI'.:, *.liit thl. urmIL .i.i
solicitude on the part of their mother, v.h I'f ,:.i aol :uII|l...rts tIlnm at Ii,
sacrifice of her welfare".
The American Commissioners note, will, i.,m lrir .I, -it tlI.. SpIAni :1
Commissioners, so soon after having pri.:i ,,: ,.; a .I.-l,.1 ti l i .L i -ri.n,)
articles as to Cuba and Porto Rico, noi" IU.ri:turn t... tl,: lleiL.-ti. I.. i..
so-called Cuban debt. They regret to fin a I...:;ti .. r,.l;'li, iini. I .:,-rt.i,
reserves, had been distinctly waived, immedli .irly i-.:nrim..I. tlj] I.Iv. :-. i e:'-i-
in language rarely employed in diplomacy, iu i .: 1i... :,. ..n..- I ..-lib.-ir:ite ili-
matum. The Spanish Commissioners assume : that .I ,ii, iit. it, 1. the mu.,t .irU
incurred by Spain (not Cuba) in the effort ritr' I. -i.lll.IL;.ar i i. tlI- 1u. 11..1 Ij: -
gents, and subsequently to overcome the Ulni;td S.tari:. li.i, thle IuImJIIIg ..tl.-.(
of a mortgage upon the very land wrested I'frtii l.it11 lii:,uILi tillde d..0 1t .of
this effort. They then say that they cannitl o 1I.l II, 1.1i 111' lny is I :.In .1' Y iI.,
the validity and efficacy of such mortga.:',.. Ii In r I j C' ail, iII iJ.iI l,
they continue: "Let it be understood, theret.. 'i. od,,1 rli, S1.i11i1In C l.'.iti '.iII I
hope there will be no necessity to repeat ir, tlru S.,I in !.tI:ii.:r i ain ...Ii.Lt
not to agree in this treaty" etc. Now, sili : 1.ii : l.II-ly I. inI thi i,-xt
to the last paper filed here by her Commin ::i:i.- : I.I. uliii.'r ie- ..-, .'r ...
in this treaty to waive objections to our ltlrl,: ....idniiit;l 1., iti:r i.int : i.:'
the so-called Cuban debt, the American CoC.imi.i.i lln. -r- ft. t ll,: I,: li ji:l lr:,l
in inquiring distinctly whether this sudd(ii .I .:.II. .I .f I.':i.ti:IIn 1; tfI.1 ?1 DI,
the Spanish Commissioners wish it to be .i:l'.i:r:t,:.".J Ii., i .i thl ,it .1lIr Iecti. -
sity for repetition, that they will accept nl:. tri--u i.. h I.,.t rii.l I't.r .,\it l ,: 1,r
an assumption of this so-called Cuban dclLt. f',r -i:n,: I.tit --f it. 1.3 tII.:
United States, for itself or for Cuba? | TIh.: .\n.':riIn I .'..i uItu ::in.ti'' r: I:, b:Lr.':
also the declaration that the dignity and :i:ll'-r,:lt| t ,'.[ .ll a| :Ll.: !-i a. n il -
quiry into the use Spain may have mad. ...AI rie r.r.i:.1:.- f thl'..: l1.1ni:.
Now to consider only a single aspect (I thi: iii.':, tliu- i.ird it I:. iL.,t






Friedensverhandlungen zwischen d. Verein. Staaten v. Amerika u. Spanien 1898 etc. 53

denied that the proceeds of a part of these loans were employed directly in Nr. 1197s.
Verainigto
making war upon the United States. Is it to be understood that the United st aten
States, after succeeding in the war, is forbidden to take notice even of thiSundSpanion.
9. Nov. 1898.
fact? That would be to require the successful nation to pay the war ex-
penses of the defeated nation. Is it an acceptance, without inquiry, of this
part of the so-called Cuban debt, that the Spanish Commissioners declare is
demanded by the dignity and self-respect of Spain which they wish there-
fore to have now understood, and which they hope there will be no necessity
to repeat? |I The American Commissioners do not here examine the statements
that these debts were legally created, that they may have been legally acquired
by individuals of various nationalities, or that Spain is not the proprietor of
these rights of third parties. They do question the statement that Spain does
not demand the recognition of these so-called "secured debts" for her own
benefit. They are bonds of the Spanish nation, guaranteed by the faith of the
Spanish nation, with another guarantee (which might more properly have been
called a "subsidiary" one), pledging Spanish sovereignty and control over cer-
tain Spanish colonial revenues. Spain has failed to maintain her sovereignty
and control over these revenues, and is bound to the third parties with whom
she dealt for that failure to make good her title to the security she pledged.
The third parties knew what it was pledged for the continuous effort to
put down a people struggling for freedom from the Spanish rule. They took
the obvious chances of their investment on so precarious a security, but they
must have relied on the broad guarantee of the Spanish nation. It is not for
us to deny that "the most elementary duties of public and private probity"
justify that reliance, but we do deny, emphatically, that they require the freed
people, or anyone acting for them, to pay the cost of all the efforts for their
subjugation. To admit that such costs could be attached ineradicably to the
soil they lived on, is to put it in the power of any unjust ruler to condemn
a colony to perpetual subjugation and misgovernment by simply loading it
with so-called "mortgages" for loans effected without their consent by their
oppressors, till it can neither bear them itself nor find anyone else to assume
them. That would be a conclusion alike repugnant to common sense and
menacing to liberty and civilization. [| After reviewing in their "proposition"
the provisions of the Protocol, the Spanish Commissioners proceed to inquire
whether there is any other "title", not founded on that agreement, upon which
the demand for the cession of the group can be supported. Under this head
they discuss the capture of Manila by the American forces, and, after con-
cluding that the capitulation was invalid, they declare that the treaty of peace
should provide for the immediate delivery of the place to the Spanish Govern-
ment, the immediate release of the Spanish garrison, and the performance of
various acts which imply that the military occupation and government of the
city by the United States has been illegal. |I These startling pretentious re-
quire at the hands of the American Commissioners a comprehensive examina-






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Article III. Nr. 1197r .
Vereinigto
The United States will occupy and hold the city, bay and harbor of staaten
und Spanien.
Manila, pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace which shall determine the .n ov. 18ps.
control, disposition and government of the Philippines.
Article IV of that instrument obligated Spain to the immediate evacuation
of Cuba, Porto Rico and the other islands under Spanish sovereignty in the
West Indies, and provided for the appointment by each government, within
ten days of the above date, of Commissioners who should meet at Havana in
Cuba and at San Juan in Porto Rico within thirty days after such date for
the purpose of arranging and carrying out the details of such evacuation.
By Article V of the Protocol, the Contracting Parties agreed to appoint each
not more than five Commissioners to treat of peace, who should meet at Paris
not later than October 1, 1898, and proceed to the negotiation and conclu-
sion of a treaty of peace. Article VI of the Protocol is as follows:
Upon the conclusion and signing of this Protocol, hostilities between the
two countries shall be suspended, and notice to that effect shall be given as
soon as possible by each Government to the commanders of its military and
naval forces.
Before the notice provided for in Article VI could possibly be given, and
on the 13th day of August, 1888, the next day after its signature, the Ame-
rican land and naval forces at Manila attacked that city and, upon the 14th
of August, 1898, compelled its surrender under the terms of a military capi-
tulation, which comprehended not only the surrender and occupation of the
city, but also the surrender of its garrison, being from 9,000 to 11,000 troops
in number, and comprising substantially the entire Spanish military force in
the Philippine Islands. The United States thereupon, having previously for a
long time been in possession of the bay and harbor of Manila, took military
possession of that city, and has ever since been in military occupation thereof,
administering its government concerns in the manner usual in such cases. In
so doing, the United States took possession of the public property of Spain
situate in Manila, including certain moneys due to that Government which had
been collected as revenues; proceeded to administer, collect and expend the
taxes and customs of that port, and also to take charge of and administer
the police government of the city; and generally continued to exercise over
the city, harbor and bay the rights and powers of a belligerent in rightful
military occupancy. 1| It is now contended by Spain, who also, as a part of
that contention, rejects the articles tendered by the United States for the
cession to that Government of the Philippine Archipelago, that such occupa-
tion and acts were in violation of the Protocol, and that, for that reason, she
is entitled: II 1. To the immediate delivery of the place (Manila) to the
Spanish Government; || 2. The immediate release of the garrison of the same;
3. The return to the Spanish Government of all the funds and public pro-






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but which is also an inseparable part and parcel of the stipulations and pro- Nr. 11978.
cesses by which a treaty of peace is to be effected. Vreinigt
Sttatoen
The second of these features presents a case of the military capitulation undSpanien.
of a certain defined territory, to be occupied and held by the United States9.Nov.s198.
"pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace which shall determine the con-
trol, disposition and government of the Philippines". This stipulation is some-
times ignored and sometimes relied upon by the Spanish Commissioners to
meet the various exigencies of their argument. Tj The Spanish Commissioners
are entirely correct in treating this particular stipulation of the Protocol (as
they do in one branch of their argument) as a military convention providing
for a capitulation, and in citing (as they do) the laws of war applicable to
military occupancy of a conquered or surrendered portion of the territory of
one of the belligerents. If, therefore, as the American Commissioners contend,
the acts complained of, and for which Spain now demands reparation, were
rightful acts under the Protocol, and could rightfully have been done by that
Government if no hostilities whatever had been conducted against Manila
after its signature, the entire contention of Spain for reparation on account
of those acts fails. The Protocol, as respects the occupation by the United
States of the city of Manila and its bay and harbor, was, as we have observed,
a military convention for the capitulation of certain territory therein specifi-
cally defined. When executed by the United States taking possession it pre-
sented a case of military occupation of that certain defined territory, and
vested in that Government all the rights which the laws of war give to a
military occupancy. This capitulation was general in its character and terms.
It comprehended the defined territory and all that it contained, including the
forts, the munitions of war, the barracks. It included every thing and every
person left in the city by Spain. It included the garrison for that reason.
Under the special circumstances of the case the surrender of the garrison
was necessarily contemplated by the Protocol. The city was closely besieged
on the land side by the insurgents. It was in extremity for provisions and
the insurgents controlled the water supply. The Spanish forces had been
unable to raise the siege, and therefore could not escape from the city on
the land side. The city was blockaded by the American fleet; the fleet of
Spain had been destroyed and there was no escape for her troops by water.
The conditions were such that even if an escape could have been effected by
land or sea, the forces of Spain would have had no base whatever for any
military operations. So clearly was this the situation that the Spanish Com-
mander-in-Chief fled from the city shortly before it was attacked, took refuge
on a neutral man-of-war, and was conveyed by it to Hong Kong. Bad it
been intended that the garrison should be permitted to depart from the capi-
tulated city, the usual provision would have been made that it should march
out with its arms and with the honors of war. Containing no such provision,
the exaction that the Spanish troops should surrender to the occupying power






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Fik.lk :, i rlandilungDLn v, .T L. i! a\'.,,i. i L.i.. ,u A. Amerika u. Spanien 1898 etc. 59

bay and harbor of Manila pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace," which Nr. 11s.
Vereinigto
treaty the two Commissions have been negotiating ever since October 1, 1898. Sttaten
They are negotiating under the Protocol. That instrument is an entirety.undSpanien.
5 Nov 189.
Neither party, having entered into it and continued the negotiations for which
it provides to a date more than two months after the acts were done of
which Spain now complains, can now allege such acts as grounds for the
rejection of the obligation of that instrument. |j If any right of repudiation
ever existed, it should have been asserted in due time as against the entire
instrument and all of its provisions. This has never been attempted. On the
contrary, the contracting parties have proceeded to negotiate, agree, and per-
form under the requirements of that instrument. 1( By so doing, Spain has
waived the alleged breaches of the Protocol which she now advances. II The
second demand is for the immediate release of the garrison of Manila. We
show in another place that this garrison was, under the facts and circum-
stances, necessarily included in the capitulation provided for by the Protocol. I
The third demand is for the return to the Spanish Government of all funds
and public property taken by the American army since its occupation of the
place (Manila) and all taxes of every kind, collected or to be collected. |1
We have maintained in another portion of this paper that the occupation of
Manila is justly referable to the Protocol; that that instrument is a military
capitulation; that the effect of the occupancy by the United States was to
suspend the sovereignty of Spain in the territory so occupied, and to sub-
stitute for the purposes of military occupation the sovereignty of the United
States. It follows upon principle and authority from these considerations
that the United States had the right to take the public property, and to
collect the taxes demanded, and has the right to retain the same.
"Political laws, as a general rule, are suspended during the military
occupation of a conquered territory. The political connection between the
people of such territory and the state to which they belong is not entirely
severed, but is interrupted or suspended so long as the occupation continues.
Their lands and immovable property are, therefore, not subject to the taxes,
rents, etc., usually paid to the former sovereign. These, as we have said
elsewhere, belong of right to the conqueror, and he may demand aud receive
their payment to himself. They are a part of the spoils of war, and the
people of the captured province or town can no more pay them to the former
government than they can contribute funds or military munitions to assist
that government to prosecute the war. To do so would be a breach of the
implied conditions under which the people of a conquered territory are allowed
to enjoy their private property, and to pursue their ordinary occupations, and
would render the offender liable to punishment. They are subject to the laws
of the conqueror, and not to the orders of the displaced government. Of
lands and immovable property belonging to the conquered state, the conqueror
has, by the rights of war, acquired the use so long as he holds them. The







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4 Jul'; .r ii\ n lii r i i:...I nii. Ur I ..I' s ,' it u .l (. Lunilit t.1 Lt li-'t (:[]If.






lI ric.',li- i i ,iiI jui i :'i, I .:% l.4 -! i ,I V I, .. tii t. h ki h ALi ,:I, i i 1 ,,i i: .'J l -'i L t. I i:1

ot that country, or the State, is not in tile possession of the conqueror, and Nr. 11978.
Veroinigte
he, therefore, cannot claim the incorporeal rights which attach to the whole Stai1te
country as a State. But, by the military possession of a part, he will acquire und Spanien.
the same claim to the incorporeal rights which attach to that part, as hlie Nov. 1S9
would, by the military occupation of the whole, acquire to those which attach
to the whole. We must also distinguish with respect to the situations of the
debts, or rather the locality of the debtors from whom they are owing, whe-
ther in the conquered country, in that of the conqueror, or in that of a
neutral. If situated in the conquered territory, or in that of the conqueror,
there is no doubt but that the conqueror may, by the rights of military
occupation, enforce the collection of debts actually due to the displaced
government, for the de facto government has, in this respect, all the powers
of that which preceded it." (Halleck, Vol. II, p. 461.)
In other particulars Spain has not only waived any right to insist that
the hostilities at Manila were in violation of the Protocol, but has acted
upon the assumption that they were not such acts of violation. OI On August 15,
1898, the French Ambassador, acting for Spain, in a letter of that date, ad-
dressed to the Secretary of State, inquired as follows: "May the postal service
by Spanish steamers be reestablished between Spain and Cuba, Porto Rico,
Philippines?" I| "Will Spanish merchants be permitted to send supplies in
Spanish bottoms to Cuba, Porto Rico, Philippines?" )I To these inquiries the
Department of State answered by letter dated August 17, 1898, that: II
"1. This Government will interpose no obstacle to the reestablishment of the
postal service by Spanish steamers between Spain on the one side and Cuba,
Porto Rico and the Philippines on the other. 11 "2. The United States will not
object to the importation of supplies in Spanish bottoms to Cuba and the
Philippines, but it has been decided to reserve the importation of supplies
from the United States to Porto Rico to American vessels." 1I Though it is
probable that both of these communications were written before notice of the
capture of Manila had been received, yet it is believed that Spain has, down
to the present time, availed herself of the privileges thus solicited and granted.l
On August 29, 1898, the French Ambassador, acting for Spain, by letter of
that date, addressed to the Secretary of State, suggested that "the Spanish
troops, whom the capitulation of the city of Manila has reduced to inaction,
might be placed at once at the disposal of Spain, who would use them for
the defense of the islands against the insurgents. || "The Minister of State at
Madrid thinks that, if the United States Government sees any objection to
this arrangement, it will, at least, have no reason to oppose the despatch of
troops directly from the Peninsula to the Philippines. Ij To this letter the
Department of State made answer under date of September 5, 1898, and
observed, among things: I| "In your informal note of the 29th ultimo it is
stated that the Spanish Government suggests that, for the purpose of checking
i iMr11 :t h,, tjljri,-, Ith: Spanish troops now held as prisoners of war by the






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1l I I...tl-i. l ,Ie I ,,;'. L .,.: i,. l' l IU -I. V-\l. II. I ,i j .A. AL I i| | lit! l I '" ':- i 63

missioners that "in spite of this (the signature of the Protocol) General Merritt Nr. 11T7S.
and the Admiral of the fleet demanded the surrender of the place, etc. * ve''rointo
Staaten
opened fire, * unnecessarily causing a considerable number of losses to un dpanien.
the Spanish forces;" and again that "General Merritt and the Admiral of the 9. Nov. Is9.
squadron may not be personally responsible for the blood they unnecessarily
shed on the 13th, if they had no official notice then of the Protocol which
had been signed on the previous day in Washington." The American Com-
missioners have too high an estimate of the chivalric honor of the Spanish
people to accept that as the final record Spain would wish to make of this
incident. (I The American Commissioners for the various reasons hereinbefore
stated are constrained to reject the several demands embodied in the "pro-
position" to which the present paper is an answer. John B. Moore.


Nr. 11979. VEREINIGTE STAATEN und SPANIEN. 14. Sitzung.
Fortsetzung der Debattc.
10. November 1898.
The Spanish Commissioners presented their answer, copy and translation Nr. 11i 9.
of which are annexed to this protocol, to the American Memorandum relating voeiig to
Stoaatn
to the Philippine Islands, and in so doing the President of the Spanish Com-undspauiel.
missions stated that the document, besides being an answer to the American I'.Noy. 'Ss.
Memorandum, was also a Memorandum in support of the last proposition
presented by the Spanish Commissioners; and he called attention to the con-
cluding part, wherein a motion or proposition was made with reference to the
contingency that the American Commissioners should think that they must
insist upon their former proposal on the Philippines. II Tile American Com-
missioners asked that the final part of the Memorandum, to which the Pre-
sident of the Spanish Commission referred, be read, and it was orally trans-
lated into English by their Interpreter. I1 The American Commissioners moved
that, in order that the whole paper might be carefully translated and attenti-
vely examined, the conference be adjourned till Saturday, November 19, at
two o'clock, p. m., without prejudice to asking for a postponement if neces-
sary. II The Spanish Commissioners expressed their assent to this motion, and
it was therefore decided that the next conference should be held on Saturday,
the 19th instant, at two o'clock, p. m.


Nr. 11980. VEREINIGTE STAATEN und SPANIEN. 15. Sitzung.
Die Amerikaner machen Konzessionen, um zum
Schlufs zu kommen.
21. November 1898.
Nr. 11980.
The President of the American Commission presented a reply to the Vcroinigto
Memorandum presented by the Spanish Commissioners at tile last session on Sta.ten
and Spanien.
the subject of the Philippines. In so doing, he called attention to the con-.21Nov.s98s.






64 Friedensverhandlungen zwischen d. Verein. :i i ,t'ir \. An.ji iL :-i n .nion 1 :" 1'.t,.

Nr. 1198so. eluding part of the reply, and suggested that it t1 r- :l. utl, hb.l',r. ii .-"
Yteagte read, he stated that he desired to say that the AlIi.:ii.i. C,'n L i-.i ll.: iai i
nidaspanion. carefully examined the very able argument of the Spai i-'l.lllll i'l.ll'.t.r-, tiii
21.Nov.19S. had felt obliged to adhere to their construction 1 i ,'. '. I' '.'1 I .J.!ilt
Commission under the Protocol. The Joint Commii!-..., hal.I I,,..n iu -..l:i,.,i
for several weeks, and it was the opinion of the Ali.r;'...j i'.'iiilniii ,lii'r: tilit
a conclusion should be reached. They had consultt.! ih.0ir i'i....rina.lit .inul
bad decided to make concessions, which were emb.i..lii lI til, c.'.i:hl'..ll.r; pait
of their reply, which was intended to bring the IJji:uti...,ii liiumr-lJli.iy It a
close 1| The concluding part of the reply of the Ameri':aii (i'.rr:iir.i.i.n .rt, na
then read by their Interpreter to the Spanish ConInii-i.'L. .iL. | T I, Pr'..,i:rilI
of the Spanish Commission, after the close of the r'..a'liim;, -l.tiI hIlli it til.:
memorandum of the American Commissioners colnl.iii..1i Niithiiu. o.:M.. llIaI
what had just been read, he could give an immediate aii:vw.:r; I1t, :;1 it ni;v
necessary to translate and to become acquainted xithli l r.:i- ir.':.liin' I;'rt, :..,iii.
time would be needed in which to prepare a reply. HI. Ith:i plr''[::' i Ilia
the Commissioners meet on Wednesday the 23rd ilitljlt, mill:--i .. .illiqr
should arise to require a postponement. II The Ar:rn.-'.. l '.. .ii i.i,:--. 'i"I-
curring, it was agreed to adjourn the conference t.ii 11I. 2 .3:'1 ',I NI.I.i.ilI!.t
without prejudice to the right of the Spanish (',iil'. --.uii'.:r-r t'. a h I...L
postponement.


Anlage.
Schlufsvorschlag der Aineril ani.r.
Tile American Commissioners have examined tile [rl.-llli':.riii.~l '.,i l h
Spanish Commissioners with that deliberate care ar.l .,'t'. nti, r. l o li'.h lIr.j I, \':
been accustomed to bestow upon all the represent i.ti..- li.-ih Ih..-. C'jurfii--
sioners have been pleased to submit touching the ..i.'::ti,'iiI I.Ilrv.- thi. '.*ij-
ference. I| They note, in the first place, that the .Spni-li I.'V..ini.ivii .r: ,di-
claim any intention by their paper of the 3rd of N.m: nml.:-r t...' .itill l. Ii, .ir
previous acceptance of the American articles on 11i: :_111j-i .I Cub.' .,. T.i,,
Rico and the otl.er Spanish islands in the West Il.lii.. ..Iil tiI l-l. 'I iir
Guam in the Ladrones. |I This disclaimer, in spite .l I tl I'::i r 1i i b ;!:lin it 1-
expressed, the American Commissioners would b.. ,.:rt.u it ..imply I. ;:i:I.lI
without comment, were it not for the fact that it .a::ip.ll,. i .i \ i.il ':..rt1iin
observations on the so-called Cuban debt that imp..,-. ii~1 '.:' iil' :m l hi. uI i .iI.i.wit
of recurring to what they have previously said on lthat ul.j.:i:l. lii '.ili i- il.
Royal Decrees of 1886 and 1890, and the ccottii:s : ii lt- I.'.l-- I ...I
thereunder, as something \ith which the American L..'iUi-ni-i.. ,',I '.r.. Ir'.
viously unacquainted, the Spanish Commissioners s.:..u to li'.e .l,-rivu. I irI
forgotten the paper which the American Commissii-ii:r- I''i.: '.1 ''.I .'1 Ihn. 1-ll
of October. In that paper the American CommisEsi._n.: ,i ::I.r.;l nm-iiii-. ine.






I 1 11. i %im ..u !..h 1a1 111-_i I:.. i;.. I ]. -. mI i.iit. il.' .%1 I l.ril. i .I ,tni u [~ -. i. .. (. I '.

and described the financial measures of 1886 and 1890 and the stipulations Nr. Ilsu.
of the bonds thereby authorized. But they did more than this. Being con- s~eeglter
cerned with the substance rather than with the form of the matter, they revie- undSpauion.
wed with some minuteness the history of the debt and the circumstances of21N"OYv189. '
its creation. They showed that it was in reality contracted by the Spanish
Government for national purposes; that its foundations were laid more than
twenty years before the Royal Decree of 1886, and at a time when the
revenues of the island were actually producing a surplus, in national enter-
prises in Mexico and San Domingo, foreign to the interests of Cuba; aid that
it was soon afterwards swollen to enormous dismensions as the result of the
imposition upon Cuba, as a kind of penalty, of the national expenses incurred
in the efforts to suppress by force of arms the ten years' war for the inde-
pendence of the island. At this point the American Commissioners in their
paper of the 14th of October referred to the financial operation of 1886, but
they properly referred to it in its true character of a national act for the
consolidation or funding of debts previously incurred by the Spanish Govern-
ment, and expressly quoted the national guaranty that appears on the face
of the bonds. At the risk of a repetition which should be unnecessary, the
American Commissioners will quote from their paper of the 14th of October
the following paragraph: 1j "Subsequently the Spanish Government undertook
to consolidate these debts [i. e., the debts incurred in Mexico, San Domingo,
and the ten years' war] and to this end created in 1886 the so-called Billetes
hipotecarios de la Isla de Cuba, to the amount of 620000000 pesetas, or
$ 124 000 000. The Spanish Government undertook to pay these bonds
and the interest thereon out of the revenues of Cuba, but the national character
of the debt was shown by the fact that, upon the face of the bonds, "the
Spanish Nation" (la Naci6n Espanola) guaranteed their payment. The annual
charge for interest and sinking fund on account of this debt amounted to the
sum of 39 191000 pesetas, or $ 7 838 200, which was disbursed through a
s'l .iali trii.aniiria ii:.titution, called the Banco Hispano-Colonial, which is said
tu Iha ;.:. ll.c:I.:-d .1- ly from the custom house at Havana, through an agency
thl,: -tabliiiedl, tit. sum of $ 33339." 11 The American Commissioners then
r~.frr.id in, tile .l r. paper to the authorization by the Spanish Government
iii 1s90 '.f t, new i-sue of bonds, apparently with a view to refund the prior
I.h.lt ais v:ll a4 tI.: cover any new debts contracted between 1886 and 1890,
i.J i.tatil that, alf.i the renewal of the struggle for independence in February,
lS.1'. lthLi iitu:t \,as diverted from its original purpose to that of raising
limn.I for tI,: 4iillpprtssion of the insurrection. ij The American Commissioners
ail- .It a LJI tu perceive how, in reciting these transactions, in which past
;ntll u.:lt flliIre bh...l-ations were dealt with, they could have been understood
i, iutti l.t:r tiht 'i.ian, through what is described in the Spanish memorandum
a. .1 **s"ul,'rniitral Lift of divination", foresaw the insurrection of 1895 and
tie uLittnite ilttlAr': tion of the United States. The American Commissioners
Z t.j Lt ir : byv LXJl1. 5







, ehi cI. t In I . I e, I of e.I ir '] '. u rl u mi .1" i,, r . iUt, I L 1 I t.rl .i l-*I t,1:


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. |.I,., , a .. oibig, r ai n s .' i, Ir :.I 'rl . i. 11 11 n1 t 1 1 I.'litil Il: l i. t t ,ll
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111 ia. Ib II' l \ itle ~i asIt 1 I, \ I t Ilf t A 1:1 .1 111 ll*.=I A 14 it. I ri





I,- i t.i ..i -t ,tl..! i l t .I lbu r n I, I i: rt.1 i .. i n. i tli.i I'.'
i,.;..,.,l i... v t :, tr ,r t ., i .. ti:. M l t.. ::.4 .4 1 1 r '., '* .. ., l f .' '.,I* lo I
h 11111 1 IIt tiil n S I.ZII. I II I I,.I llII' 11 ,2 1 Il: 1 t I I I.) I t i., L




I I li ii.. r, i r I.II I l riin tl, i, 1 ... 4. l i i .11 1 1 11 ..I_,, .l | II i- 1i rIn, i a St !ti l
General O Igai Wa, aNd ft Navy, cons.tir.4it'-' II .. ldi. -(I'I Ii.. I I

1880, and especially after 1886, deficiencies appeared in the budgets, but a
correct conception of their cause may Li,- di..:iv .i f\. rn,ni tlh,: I I i gl t I .,f
1886- 1887, when the prior debts were .,':III..li.jlt.d. TIi ,,ii...iint fr tOiU
burdens imposed upon Cuba by that budsg i, .i-'lht ,:..ir. I tlit: l'.,iani-hi
memorandum observes, "after the reestablishmewn ,I I"."':-' ." ,'. a. $ L'',.",P.:,7.-1.7*,;:
which was distributed as follows:
General obligations . . . lii '-." -.S.l .
Department of Justice . . . s .':.. 2
Department of War. . . . 7:.77.1
Department of the Treasury . . !. 1,:-2';.''
Department of the Navy . . 1,434,211.1
Department of the Interior . . . .,' P5 .'
Department of Fomento . . 1'i?.

Of the sum total of this burden, it i -:,..ri tl.,t th. thlir.. iir,, ,.ii
General Obligations, W ar, and Navy, consltitut, in.il.I tl, :A.-r..rth. IA,,i
what where the ,,General Obligations"? Ti.- pr|t. ip,.il itIm IL.7-t.,tl1
of the whole was that of $ 9,617,423.021, I'..r iufer, *t. ,,hkiaig-I,,lll ,ii.J






Friedensverhandlungen zwischen d. Vurcin. Staaten v. Amerika u. Spanien 1898 etc. 67

incidental expenses, on tile so-called Cuban debt. The rest went chiefly for Nr. usau.
pensions to Spanish officials. | The budget for 1896 97 amounted to V1renigte
$ 28,583,132.23. |1 These figures, which speak for themselves, seem to render undSpanien.
peculiarly infelicitous the novel suggestion that the deficiencies in the Cuban 21.Novs1898
budgets have been due to the reduction of taxes. I| As to that part of the
Spanish memorandum in which the so-called Cuban bonds are treated as
"mortgage bonds," and the rights of the holders as "mortgage rights," it is
necessary to say only that the legal difference between the pledge of revenues
yet to be derived from taxation and a mortgage of property cannot be con-
fused by calling the two things by the same name. In this, as in another
instance, the American Commissioners are able to refer to previous statements
which, although the Spanish memorandum betrays no recollection of them, for
obvious reasons remain unchallenged. The American Commissioners have
shown, in their argument of the 27th of October, that the Spanish Govern-
ment itself has not considered its pledge of the revenues of Cuba as in any
proper legal sense a mortgage, but as a matter entirely within its control.
In proof of this fact the American Commissioners quoted in that argument
certain provisions of the decree of autonomy for Cuba and Porto Rico, signed
by the Queen Regent of Spain on the 25th of November 1897, and counter-
signed by Sefor Sagasta, as President of the Council of Miniistrs. By that
decree it was declared that the manner of meeting the expenditures occasioned
by the debt which burdened "thle Cuban and Spanish treasury" should "form
the subject of a law" wherein should be "determined the part payable by
each of the treasuries, and the special means of paying the interest thereon,
and of the amortization thereof, and, if necessary, of paying the principal:"
that, when the "apportionment" should have been "made by the Cortes," each
of the treasuries should "make payment of the part assigned to it," and,
finally, that "engagements contracted with creditors under the pledge of the
good faith of the Spanish nation shall in all cases be scrupulously respected."1|
In these declarations the American Commissioners find, as they stated in the
argument above referred to, "a clear assertion not only of the power of the
Government of Spain to deal with the so-called Cuban debt as a national
debt, but also a clear admission that the pledge of the revenues of Cuba was
wholly within the control of that Government, and could be modified or with-
drawn by it at will without affecting the obligation of the debt," and, so
long as the stipulated payments upon the debt were made, without violating
the engagements of Spain with her creditors. |I No more in the opinion of
the Spanish Government, therefore, than in point of law, can it be maintained
that that Government's promise to devote to the payment of a certain part
of the national debt revenues yet to be raised by taxation in Cuba, consti-
tuted in any legal sense a mortgage. The so-called pledge of those reve-
nues constituted, in fact and in law, a pledge of the good faith and ability
of Spain to pay to a certain class of her creditors a certain part of her






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t e: 't.iIe le t I '.: ri ei l : l.: ,I; li,.it ci'illiri i. It llr[ I 1 ecnii C. i. IIe i i li' tin : I:lI'
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tl. IV I' I t 11 1 II I is I I, ae .uic lltI. lit Iti-i i t11.t11 11 1.,l e IJ I' )II, f ti".:I I. ;,..i-
l Iit l i t li: .. I *..! I i l ." e\\ I t ir' t t lii .pe a ri .it la rev ..i.t' Iltl iii l. i tl 11- itl d (31 t
inii I lit. I 'lit ,.it t[l; I.ilu .,l ,.: Ini;iii. l ern i :i i thi:r ,1 6 P ll. I' t he ;l l,. t., l,*-.'






Fri,.i: ui'.-i b.iil.i ,gi '-iir i. i: -i .1. ., in... i i, .. ln.'-i I; i .panien 1898 etc. 69

by the Spanish Commissioners when they, themselves, admit that "no language Nrv- n1o.
Vereinigte
or even a phrase improper to a diplomatic discussion has been used by them" staaten
and "they avoid with the greatest care the use of any phrase which mightunaspanien.
21 Nov.1898.
be personally unpleasant."
With regard to what is stated in the Spanish memorandum as to the
occupation of territory as a guaranty in time of peace, and the limitations
that are usually affixed to such occupation, the American Commissioners have
only to advert to the fact that, as has often been observed by the Spanish
Government in its communications, the state of war between the United States
and Spain is not yet ended. In its original demands, just as in the Protocol
of August 12, the United States declared that it would "occupy and hold the
city, bay and harbor of Manila, pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace".
These words imported a military occupation, with all its usual incidents, po-
litical and administrative, during the continuance of the state of war. I1 The
distinction between the occupation of territory as a guaranty in time of peace,
and the military occupation of the enemy's territory in time of war, is well
illustrated in the case of France and Germany in 1871, which the Spanish
memorandum, unfortunately for its purpose, cites in support of its contention
as to the nature of the American occupation of Manila under the Protocol.
By a convention concluded on January 28, 1871, France and Germany agreed
to a general armistice, which took effect immediately in Paris and three days
later in the departments. Under this convention the belligerent armies were
to preserve their respective positions, which were separated by a definite line
of demarcation, and, simply in recognition of the nature of the occupation,
each of the armies reserved the right "to maintain its authority in the terri-
tory that it occupies, and to employ such means as may be considered ne-
cessary for the purpose by its commanders". By a subsequent convention of
February 15, 1871, the fortified town of Belfort, which was besieged by the
Germans, but had not been taken when the armistice was made, was brought
within the German lines of occupation. On February 20, 1871, the belligerent
powers concluded a preliminary treaty of peace. By this treaty, which, unlike
the convention for an armistice, required the formal ratification of the two
governments, the sovereignty of France over Alsace-Lorraine was renounced,
and provision made for the payment to Germany besides of a war indemnity.
By an additional convention signed on the same day it was agreed that the
German troops should "refrain for the future from raising contributions in
money in the occupied territories", but, on the other hand, it was declared
that the German authorities should "continue to collect the state taxes" therein.
And it was provided by the preliminary treaty that not until the conclusion
and ratification of the definitive treaty of peace should "the administration of
the departments" remaining "in German occupation" be "restored to the French
tih..r!.-ii 1". || "Thi T1liii. 1 States will occupy and hold", so reads the Proto-
"i.., Ltl y. hl..y a1. I.irbor of Manila, pending the conclusion of a treaty






70il I -l llt(u*.ir h LTiilolili.fl .i.l:,.h ll :i. hV ilt .fI. l. L i .A ibt'oIl .l U l'.",m'il i 1'"a'" 'L

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I'r,. ii lj i. l li ,itji. I -Ir T 1, .,, l .ll i,,t ,I. th, 1|.;1.I it1: l',i. 'I IThi" r,| ...t ,lII III.
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'ri t tt l [ tI .. ., ii, ]t t I t i I '.1..1 I I i. l lI]: | ] | ,-]t h i I i l .,. I -
r ,,..],i'" x ,..i i ill.,,. ,.,l 1.1 ':tj .lt l tliL,.i.+ ,hr l hi' t ,.' tin l'i.i,+', tl, ,l I t ii l.l'; t l'ri,'l t h l:.i l






Fril u;i.. rlian llhi-' .... i- lI. ,'I i r in i il . t.eiI A u.1 p. .i' ,i ..t.: 7

,tilh Sli l -ihll i,.,, Ifr.li'lll I 1,1- i l thll[i' || .i '-- r,.llt.,, il I (1 1 1. i11 .V.f Nr. 11980.
(li. Ailirri in I.'.i lnliiuiL.L r lt u li.,tl,<. 1lj: I lct tl fj.i1 tlle Sp: il .h nlIl- i i illdi ll J Veroinigte
In '?ijii. iri-' ill.: rlf )j- rts i.1' M r. C'.nib. i ;itl M I li..:. ti: .l-tJ by i.li' Aiil.lii.' Ill undSpanien.
i',, rlnlii l;,i sl*', i reil i- i H t th, I. irmnit'r ar: :i. ll l I ]r: t rl..I i ir :, 1 ,, ll .Nov.1 898
they were contemporaneous. But the record quoted by the American Com-
missioners was also contemporaneous, and was made by the Secretary of State
under the supervision of the President himself. With this observation, the
American Commissioners will pursue their argument. I| In his report of the
conversation of the 30th of July, Mr. Cambon is quoted as stating that "the
President of the Republic was firm in not changing the terms of Article III",
but that, as the result of an appeal to his generosity, he consented to sub-
stitute the word "disposition" for "possession". 11 The American Commissioners
have already stated that tile President refused to change the word "possession"
except for a word of equally extensive meaning, and that the reason for which
Mr. Cambon was understood to desire the change was that the word "posses-
sion" would, when translated into Spanish, seem to be of a severe and
threatening nature. The meaning of Mr. Cambon, as defined in his report to
the Spanish Government, was that the word "disposition" did not "prejudge"
the result of the negotiations, and that it had not so "comprehensive" a
meaning as the word "possession". h| The American Commissioners are unable
to concur in Mr. Cambon's estimate of the relative comprehensiveness of these
two English words; but they are obliged to point out, as a matter more ma-
terial to the present discussion, that he does not, as the Spanish Commissioners
affirm, allege that he "accepted the change because he understood that all
question about the sovereignty of Spain over the Philippine Islands was the-
reby eliminated". On the contrary, his only claim is that the word "disposi-
tion" did not "prejudge" the "result" of the "negotiation". His understanding
therefore appears to have been precisely the opposite of that ascribed to him
in the Spanish memorandum. || That this is the case is confirmed beyond all
peradventure by the unsuccessful efforts subsequently made by Mr. Cambon,
under instructions of the Government at Madrid, to obtain a limitation of the
American demand, as it then and has ever since stood, that the treaty of
peace should determine "the control, disposition and government of the Phi-
lippines". I| The telegram of the Spanish Government to Mr. Cambon, in rela-
tion to this demand, has now for the first time been disclosed to representa-
tives of the Government of the United States. What other instructions Mr.
Cambon may then have had in his possession, it is not material to conjecture.
But, according to his own report, as quoted in the Spanish memorandum, he
requested the President, in the interview of the 3rd of August, "to have the
kindness to state as precisely as possible his intentions in regard to the Phi-
lippine Islands. On this point", continues Mr. Cambon, "I told him 'the
answer of the Federal Government is couched in terms that may lend them-
selves to all claims on the part of tile United States, and consequently to all






72 1 i tl .. Li b.i' l]il r.''t i:i .I ...! I. V. r,- iri. St.i tn .v An ii I1 i ),.'Dt ieU 1 '"'- tC.

ir i-''* 1 .i i.hr'i,,; ,- I ai 'i i i' i t it,, ;'-,, r l '.'" [ H r. iY .1 >:a t i r il. i a-
-it .. r imi-iii l M r. L'a iul i rl .r t ill ii'- i .- :',tilf... .lij ..-iti. i til ,. li-rnn it
'.dri;" .Il l' .i.' I:l iI- ..1 ,tl i i l SIl'.I'. i i r.l.I rd. ti i i. r "A ;ii,-_i 'hiil ~ i jI~ j e i.



"Iti llc \vinl.. l.I -,nit i. paI I i lar j 1i i rib- ctI ., If I I l arI a, Iruv: m at
a .l:.,r i. ii : 1. .r i "' k l II ati.,ii t .,f 11, -lr p r -i I ,lJt I .,i .in -it. :.l t iJ :.ut by l i ..:
-'r,.-_'Ji ,lr "l .i~ ". ; '. .' "1-." i ,,. -_ i l ", I.- t lik li h. ii't l 'ii Iii I t1i1V I .,r,. _I ,


S t ti.,. I'., iIl Ti k in in c. i._.,tiI I rll,:. -. i ,v_' iji, ,.,I -'y,.j ll ,I rl t ,l ,:l,.' ,i
I r.: i a. lli. II l li i i ti 1 1 ri 'i. i. r thlial r .e a rd. liI, r li'j i11 1li ii.
P'r -.,i li t tr'i i ro e.J I.iy l Ciii ni i. i ,, e i ihl li. im .i- i I triu ii i, l Jet.:r-
mi.ti..ti bo, l i ., r -:t ih thI pr,-. i :.r. l ,,n i- i ri, I ,n. l i n t.l t. I- IIl I i .i-I y
.,I a.:t,,.,n \ ,lit.: l , -.:', : i Jrd. O il thl, _-ii [l.:i..t r I. : r'r ii, n a, ri' p ,rltd, 1.y
MT C aill,,.,i,. ,,:,:!.,ll i:.,. ,h t la h ,1 ,I' i r,: t11 V illt ":Ni 1.' i tiil,,i'j'l allJ ,.ii-.. ti'., rci:nirt i .,
li.,tllii '.. J'. J 'll J .,_I .%N'.il t'i ,:it I 't_ l' rnil i, rjt I i ll,. ,..li .it ,,r-_ ,., t lhI
t.i-'t.\ Jlf p lat 't ti llt IJe t Ii ilJ-: Ill: In : a maI 1 I.
This is from first to last the sum and substance of Mr. Cambon's reports,
as quoted in the Spanish memorandum. The recurrence in that memorandum
to Mr. Cambon's apparently casual use of the words "permanent advantages",
as an evidence that sovereignty was not in question, when he himself declares
that the words "control, disposition and government" lent themselves to "all
claims" and therefore raised apprehension as to Spain's "sovereignty", discloses
the infirmity of the contention in which the argument is employed. Indeed,
the words "permanent advantages" are not in the context of Mr. Cambon in-
vested with the importance which the Spanish memorandum now ascribes to
them. As the American Commissioners pointed out on a previous occasion,
it is not pretended that Mr. Cambon attempted to report the original words
of the President, who spoke in English; and, immediately after attributing to
the President words which he translates by the terms "permanent advantages",
Mr. Cambon narrates the President's undoubted declaration that the "control,
disposition and government" of the Philippines must be determined in the
treaty of peace, in advance of which the case was not to be considered as
decided against either Government. |[ In his report of the interview of the 9th
of August, Mr. Cambon, as quoted in the Spanish memorandum, states that,
when the note of the Spanish Government of the 7th of that month, in reply
to the American demands, was read, the President and the Secretary of State
were visibly displeased, and that, after a long silence, the President objected
to that part of the reply which related to the evacuation of Cuba and Porto
Rico. The Spanish memorandum declares that neither the President nor the
Secretary of State advanced any other reason than this for their displeasure,
and that, "according to Mr. Cambon, these gentlemen said nothing during the
conversation respecting the said reservation made by Spain of her sovereignty
over the archipelago". As no direct assertion to this effect by Mr. Cambon






F ri,-,i- l ,-i, r Il'l -, n vill l I '.. i i- 1 \1 -i i I i t t n -.- A u .-.l i u. 'l ,. I I 'li. t. I .:

is quoted, the American Commissioners are obliged to assume that he made Nr. 1aso.
none, and that the statement in the Spanish memorandum is a mere inference v 'ein'igt
from an omission to report what was said on the subject of the Philippines. und Spanien.
This omission may be accounted for by the fact that Mr. Cambon, although 21Nov.1ss'
he had previously declared that the American demand admitted of "all claims",
on the part of the United States, expressed and maintained the opinion that
the Spanish reply fully accepted it, and therefore left nothing in that regard
to be conceded, while in respect of the demand for the evacuation of Cuba
and Porto Rico, which was to be immediate, the reservation by Spain of the
approval of the Cortes, which was not then in session, presented an obstacle
to an agreement. This objection lie deemed it necessary to report, since it
required, in his own opinion, a modification of Spain's reply to the American
demands. But whatever may have been the cause of the omission, it is a
fact that no small part of the "visible displeasure" of the President and the
Secretary of State arose from the apparent design, upon which comment was
duly made, in some way to limit the scope of the demand in regard to the
Philippines a design then as ever afterwards frustrated. In the opinion
of the American Commissioners the note in question was far from "explicit";
nor can it be maintained that the President, while hearing that note with
"visible displeasure" and adhering with "real stubbornness" to the phrase
"control, disposition and government", because it "prejudged" nothing, at the
same time accepted the words of limitation. || But what does Mr. Cambon say
as to the introduction of the subject of the Protocol, which had not previously
been suggested? After further conversation the President, as reported by
Mr. Cambon, said: "There might be a means of putting an end to all mis-
understanding; we might draw up a project, which shall reproduce the con-
ditions proposed to Spain in the same terms in which I have already framed
them, and which shall establish the terms within which there shall be named
on the one hand the Plenipotentiaries charged with negotiating the treaty of
peace in Paris, and on the other hand the special Commissioners entrusted
with the determination of the details of the evacuation of Cuba and Porto
Rico." || The American Commissioners are unable to perceive the "immense
difference" between this version of the President's words and that given in
their own paper. The President suggests a means for putting an end, not to
any particular misunderstanding, but to "all misunderstanding". And how does
le propose to do this? By drawing up a Protocol, which "shall reproduce
the conditions proposed to Spain", not with qualifications, reservations or ex-
planations, but "in the same terms in which I have already framed them".
There was not, nor could there be, any misapprehension as to the meaning
and effect of these words, nor was any betrayed in the telegram, heretofore
quoted by the American Commissioners, in which Mr. Cambon advised the
Spanish Government that the Government of the United States had "decided
to state precisely (pr6ciser), in a Protocol, the bases upon which peace nego-







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had intended that the negotiations of the treaty of peace should be occupied Nr. 11980.
'Vereinigte
with details of little importance, they would each have sent five commissioners stat
to a neutral capital for the purpose of arranging them. 1I But it is arguedundSpanien.
21. Nov.1s95.
by the Spanish Commissioners that the words "control, disposition and govern-
ment", even taken by themselves, do not comprehend the subject of sover-
eignty, but merely that of governmental "reforms". To the American Com-
missioners such an interpretation is incomprehensible. If nothing but "reforms"
had been intended, it could never have occurred to either party to employ
for that purpose three words none of which expressed its meaning, while each
of them contained a broader one. On the other hand, the use of the word
"sovereignty" in conjunction with the words actually employed was unnecessary,
while, if used alone, it would have defeated the very object of postponing the
whole subject of the Philippines for future determination. "Control, dispo-
sition and government" included everything. "Sovereignty" would have exclu-
ded everything but itself, and have left to future determination merely the
question of its own existence, supreme and unconditional. In the event of
the United States desiring to take only a part of the archipelago, such a
limitation of the scope of the negotiations would have been injurious to both
parties. 1| The Spanish Commissioners, however, have sought to restrict the
meaning of the words "control, disposition and government," by an appeal to
the French text, into which the original English was translated; and as the
French word "contr6le", by which ,,control" was translated, bears a signi-
ficance less extensive than the latter, they seem to contend that all the other
words, both in the English and in the French text, should be reduced to
harmony with it. I| To the American Commissioners, this argument appears to
involve the elimination of the entire English text and of the greater part of
the French. It first strikes out, as at least superfluous, the English words
"disposition and government," and the French words "disposition et gouverne-
ment", and then limits the meaning of the English "control" to that of the
French "contr6le". It thus virtually reduces the stipulation to the single
French word last mentioned. By no principle of construction can this process
be defended. |I The American Commissioners are therefore, for the reasons
which they have stated, compelled to maintain that by the plain and compre-
hensive terms of the Protocol, as construed in their normal sense and in the
light of all the circumstances of its adoption, the future of the Philippines
was left, in thel fnllp nli:-i.,i. 11 Ti- i..i... Inion renders it necessary to answer the proposals of the
Sl,'ii l n i..in, l--_i.l .-fi : for the resignation by this Commission of its peace-
i tr,;ili.-p fiiriti..i,. uil,.r the Protocol of the 12th of August, and the transfer
I ... l...lr I1-'c:,iu :1 the duty of determining the question now particularly
l-l',i,: It. 11| T'I. '1.,,1.l=i Commissioners propose that the Joint Commission,
4:,Wil. ilti :ra ,l l ,I ss--ing of the question of the Philippines, adopt one of the
I'..ll.uing .* :.ur~- s tj I. Remit that question to the two Governments, for ad-






ii., Jl-" ],:D,' rl]'lJ J, ]UhrJ';..-! k' i -., ,lii. i L I. ten -... A -r i. ,\h I, i i, 11. IiiihJ u I':.': >:L-'

Xr. 11980. justment, if possible, by direct negotiation, or ) II. Advise th.l- L .:v riii,, i.:ut:
Verinigte to submit it to an arbitration, in which the true sense of Arilclrw ill aali VI
SlaatLen "
und Spanien. shall be determined.
21. Nov.is9. To the first of these proposals it is sufficient to reply that Ir,-h ,...-
vernments have by the solemn engagement of the Protocol c.injwau rtil i.o, ln:ir
direct representative here assembled the duty of concluding : .i biiill:: iti.:- ,.
of peace which shall determine the destiny of the archip(la.~go. .at ti.
representatives shall, after weeks of patient investigation aii I.tI.r.i.r... .1
views in oral discussion and written argument, surrender thi:ir i.!- .1j. :'.n0 -
plished to other representatives of the same Governments, i: o a lgsigg_ i.,
which cannot be seriously entertained. Indeed, the memorandum of the Spanish
Commissioners frankly admits that in the event of a new disagreement the
situation would be the same as that which now confronts the Paris con-
ference. I1 It is equally futile now to invite arbitration as to the meaning of
terms plainly expressed in the Protocol. "To avoid misunderstanding," as the
United States declared in its note of the 10th of August, the precise agree-
ment of the two Governments was put into a concise and simple form. Shall
it be said that this Joint Commission is incapable of interpreting the very
compact under which it has assembled? The principle of international arbi-
tration can have no application to such a case. To avoid war no govern-
ment, it is believed, will do or suffer more than the one which the American
Commissioners have the honor to represent in this conference. Unfortunately
no way for arbitration was opened before the actual conflict began. Arbi-
tration, as we have had occasion heretofore to observe, precedes war, to avoid
its horrors; it does not come after the trial by battle to enable either party
to escape its consequences. I| The American Commissioners, feeling that this
body must accept the responsibility of reaching conclusions, must decline to
ask the assistance of an arbitrator. It is true that the very constitution of
a joint commission like the present presupposes a possible irreconcilable
difference of opinion of representatives of one nation opposed to others of
equal number and authority. In such an event, nothing remains but for one
of the contesting parties to yield its opinions in order that a peaceful solution
may be reached. In the present case the American Commissioners have
determined to make concessions to the extent embodied in the proposals
which will conclude this memorandum.
The United States is accused by the Spanish Commissioners of harsh
and severe measures in dealing with a discomfited enemy. In the light of
events which led to and characterized the war, no less than of historical pre-
cedents which might be cited, this charge is found to be entirely gr..Fmiiil:-.
For half a century the attempts of the Cubans to overthrow the sovereignty
of Spain over the island, within a hundred miles of the shores of the United
States, have produced serious disturbances in that country, grave and con-
stant interference with its commerce, and frequent danger of the rupture of






F i-'l-r I : ii-. I. -ll, -,:i.'.'.' >* i..i i !I.t ] i I'.1,.1J 1 II. i J ..\ ,II, 1Il..1 11 iI h I-'ii : 1 '", :! ;'(

friendly relations with Spain. How could the conditions existing in the island Nr. I n0.
be otherwise than of vital concern to us? The Cubans were our neighbors, 'vreinigte
Staaten
with whom our relations were necessarily intimate and extensive; and they undSpanion.
had been engaged in a struggle for independence with stronger reasons than 2'1.Nov.'18.
existed in our own case when we rebelled against the mother country. The
revolution of 1895, like the prior attempts at independence, entailed upon us
heavy burdens. It made it necessary to patrol our coasts, to tax both civil
and military resources in order to detect and prevent expeditions from our
shores in the interests of the insurgents, and to repress the natural sympathy
of our citizens, while we remained passive witnesses of misery, bloodshed and
starvation in a land of plenty almost within sight of our borders. At length
came the destruction of the battleship Maine in the harbor of Havana, with
the loss of 266 of her crew. While we may not attribute this catastrophe
to the direct act of a Spanish official, it betrayed, in the opinion of the
United States, such neglect or inability on the part of Spain to secure the
safety of the ship of a friendly nation in the principal harbor of the island
as to induce Congress to recite it as an outgrowth of conditions which requi-
red our intervention. I| War ensued; and in less than four months nearly all
the ports of Cuba were blockaded, Santiago was taken, the Spanish fleets in
the West Indies and the Philippines destroyed, Porto Rico was about to sur-
render, Manila was on the point of capitulating, and all the colonies of Spain
lay practically at the mercy of the United States. This recital is made, not
in an unbecoming spirit of triumph, but because it exhibits the conditions
that existed, and the advantages that the United States enjoyed, when, pre-
ferring peace to war, it agreed to the Protocol. |I The Spanish Commissioners
in their memorandum have in diplomatic words expressed their surprise at
our want of magnanimity to a defeated country. How does the case appear
in the light of what has been stated? We might have demanded from Spain
indemnity in money for the cost of the war, which, even if no unforeseen
contingencies occur, will have amounted to $ 240,000,000, at the close of
the present calendar year, to say nothing of further expenses which will be
required under the laws of the United States existing at the outbreak of the
war. We might have required compensation for our injuries and losses,
national as well as individual, prior to the outbreak of the war. Yet we have
asked for no money. From the relinquishment of Spanish sovereignty in
Cuba we derive no compensation. Porto Rico, Guam and the Philippines will
bring burdens as well as benefits, and, regarded simply as indemnity, will be
grossly inadequate to compensate the United States for the mere pecuniary
r.-rt ...I tihe,. i; and yet, in spite of all this, for the sake of peace, we pro-
I.r:' I 1' i.Lr i,, Spain liberal concessions. Can we be justly charged with
'.il. ur .t ~.jir oppl:,rtunities, or with taking undue advantage of the misfortunes
.tn ;'ii aI:I. "? The American Commissioners can perceive no ground for
:ilrl a d!LarI.'. 'On the contrary, they think that the Spanish Commissioners







78 Friudensvu rhandlungen zwischen d. V.i "..In Lit.r ,. Ar,.i I i 1. ',.it:Ir n I 1-1.1 I

Nr. 19so0. should accept our terms at once, and restore peace between the t I%
Vereinigte
stagten countries.
uudSpanien. Even if the United States were disposed to permit Spanish sovereignty
21.Nov.lS38. to remain over the Philippines, and to leave to Spain the restoration of pe i...
and order in the islands, could it now in honor do so? The Spanish Conn-
inissioners have, themselves, in an earlier stage of the negotiations, spoken ':,I
the Filipinos as our allies. Thit is not a relation which the Government ..1
the United Staates intended to establish; but it must at least be admitt'.l
that the insurgent chiefs returned and resumed their activity with the c.,ii-
sent of our military and naval commanders, who permitted them to arm v.riIl
weapons which we had captured from the Spaniards, and assured them of ,1ar
treatment and justice. Should we be justified in now surrendering thli-
people to the Government of Spain, even under a promise of amnesty, which
we know they would not accept? 1] If, on the other hand, the United States
should be content to retain Luz6n alone, could anything but trouble be ex-
pected from the division of the group? Would not contrasts in government,
in modes of administration, and in the burdens of taxation, in different islands
lying so closely together, but largely inhabited by kindred peoples, produce
discontent among the inhabitants? If the natives of the islands that remained
under Spanish roule should, as doubtless would be the case, continue in in-
surrection, would not the natives of the American islands endeavor to help
them, by fitting out hostile expeditions and furnishing arms and supplies?
Would not complaints then be made by one Government against the other,
leading to crimination and recrimination and probably in the end to another
international war? |1 The situation that has arisen in the Philippines was
neither foreseen nor desired by the United States, but, since it exists, that
Government does not shirk responsibilities growing out of it; and the American
Commissioners now make to the Spanish Commissioners, in the light of those
responsibilities, a final proposition. 1j The proposal presented by the American
Commissioners in behalf of their Government to the cession of the Philippines
to the United States having been rejected by the Spanish Commissioners, and
the counter-proposal of the latter for the withdrawal of the American forces
from the islands and the payment of an indemnity by the United States to
Spain having been rejected by the American Commissioners, the American
Commissioners, deeming it essential that the present negotiations, which have
already been greatly protracted, should be brought to an early and definite
conclusion, beg now to present a new proposition embodying the concessions
which, for the sake of immediate peace, their Government is under the
circumstances willing to tender. |1 The Government of the United States is
unable to modify the proposal heretofore made for the cession of the entire
archipelago of the Philippines, but the American Commissioners are authorized
to offer to Spain, in case the cession should be agreed to, the sum of twenty
million dollars ($ 20,000,000) to be paid in accordance with the terms to be






!l-' ~ -nl : t lh. il.iilli) : .n i -1i.i.Iu .1 V .-i.m 1 t, \1 1 % i I I 1 11 i iii 11 '.11 i :- 79

fixed in the treaty of peace. II And it being the policy of the United States Nr. 98so0.
to maintain in the Philippines an open door to the world's commerce, the StVerten
American Commissioners are prepared to insert in the treaty now in contnmpla-undSpanien.
tion a stipulation to the effect that, for a term of years, Spanish ships and ov.189s.
merchandise shall be admitted into the ports of the Philippine Islands on the
same terms as American ships and merchandise. [| The American Commissioners
are also authorized and prepared to insert in the treaty, in connection with
the cessions of territory by Spain to the United States, a provision for the
mutual relinquishment of all claims for indemnity, national and individual, of
every kind, of the United States against Spain and of Spain against the United
States that may have arisen since the beginning of the late insurrection in
Cuba and prior to the conclusion of a treaty of peace. 11 The American Com-
missioners may be permitted to express the hope that they may receive from
the Spanish Commissioners, on or before Monday the 26th of the present
month, a definite and final acceptance of the proposals herein made as to the
Philippine Islands, and also of the demands as to Cuba, Porto Rico and other
Spanish islands in the West Indies, and Guam, in the form in which those
demands have been provisionally agreed to. In this event it will be possible
for the Joint Commission to continue its sessions and to proceed to the con-
sideration and adjustment of other matters, including those which, as sub-
sidiary and incidental to the principal provisions, should form a part of the
treaty of peace. II In particular the American Commissioners desire to treat of
religions freedom in the Caroline islands, as agreed to in 1886; of the release
of prisoners now held by Spain for political offenses in connection with the
insurrections in Cuba and the Philippines; the acquisition of the island
variously known as Kusaie, Ualan, or Strong Island in the Carolines, for a
naval and telegraph station, and of cable-landing rights at other places in
Spanish jurisdiction; and the revival of certain treaties heretofore in force
between the United States and Spain. John B. Moore.




Nr. 11981. VEREINIGTE STAATEN und SPANIEN. 16. Sitzung.
Antwort der Spanier auf den amerikanischen Vor-
schlag.
28. November 1898.
The conference which was to have been held on the 23rd instant having Nr. 11,1.
been adjourned in consequence of the correspondence exchanged between the Ver"inte6
Residents of the two Commissions, which is appended to the present protocol, und Spanien.
in the shape of two letters of the President of the Spanish Commission and2s' .Nov.98s
the answers thereto of the President of the American Commission, the Joint
Commission met to-day at two o'clock, p. m., when there were |I Present: -
On the part of the United States: Messrs: Day, Davis, Frye, Gray, Reid,






1 1I F il.,i. Ill u, llu- I I u 1 ', I Z --.lji 1 'I. \ r i I tI l ..Alrl,.r t. rI l lLii-i I ..:ii'i t,

Nr. 11981. Moore, Fergusson. || On the part of Spain: Messrs: Montero Riv.,. .AL.'iirzi,
Veeinigte Garnica, Villa-Urrutia, Cerero, Ojeda. II The protocol of the pr:.:..dii .':..,n-
undSpanien.ferenee Nwas read and approved. Ij The President of the Spanish C'lrair,**l,.
28.Nov.1s98. in accordance with the agreement previously reached, presented to i'i- _\ijrij.:.,l
Commissioners a document containing the final answer of the Spaillh IG.'.ein-
ment to the proposition as to the Philippine Islands which theI AwriuiiJ:
Commissioners presented as final at the last session.
The language of the answer is as follows: I1 "Tile Spanish C':Inicclil,":r--
hastened to lay before their Government the proposition which, a.1 til, '..,:
presented to them at the last session by the American Commi-:.i.rnri-r, aitl
they are now specially authorized to give within the time designated and
under the conditions expressed the reply which was requested of them by the
American memorandum. I] "Examined solely in the light of the legal principles
which have guided the action of the Spanish Commissioners during the course
of these negotiations, the latter consider the American proposition in every
way inadmissible for the reason repeatedly set forth in previous documents
forming a part of the Protocol. I| "Neither can they consider the said propo-
sitions as a satisfactory form of agreement and compromise between two
opposing principles, since the terms which by way of concession are offered
to Spain do not bear a proper proportion with the sovereignty which it is
endeavored to compel us to relinquish in the Philippine Archipelago. Had
they borne such proportion, Spain would have at once, for the sake of peace,
made tile sacrifice of accepting them. The American Commission knows that
the Spanish Commission endeavored, although fruitlessly, to follow this course
going so far as to propose arbitration for the settlement of the principal
questions. I1 "Spain then having on her part exhausted all diplomatic recourses
in the defence of what she considers her rights and even for an equitable
compromise, the Spanish Commissioners are now asked to accept the American
proposition in its entirety and without further discussion, or to reject it, in
which latter case, as the American Commission understands, the peace negotia-
tions will end and the Protocol of Washington will, consequently, be broken.
The Government of Her Majesty, moved by lofty reasons of patriotism and
humanity, will not assume the responsibility of again bringing upon Spain all
the horrors of war. In order to avoid them it resigns itself to the painful
strait of submitting to the law of the victor, however harsh it may be, and
as Spain lacks material means to defend tile rights she believes are hers,
having recorded them, she accepts the only terms the United States offers her
for the concluding of the treaty of peace." I1 This answer was delivered to the
American Commissioners and translated by their Interpreter into English.
The President of the Spanish Commission expressed the opinion that,
the proposition of the American Commission having been accepted, it was in
order for the Secretaries of the two Commissions to confer and agree upon
the form in which the articles relating to Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Philip-






1 liu l.u:'e lI il1 '|lli n u t i % I;, ,Iu 1 \'I I .iu .t.iU N te3 i % A. i l,, .i L [i.. L,,,L ,.u I :':I et.. b l

plni Islands slhuld be dl,i,, 11up, which artilclb thyu should dLtei Irards sub- L. iLj,1.
mit to the Joint Commission for approval or modification. 1) The American sto'eng
Commissioners assented to this proposal, and suggested that the correspon- una Spanien.
dence exchanged between the last and the present session be appended either '.Nov.
to this protocol or to the next. (| The President of the Spanish Commission
concurring in this suggestion, it was agreed that the two letters which he had
addressed to the President of the American Commission and the answers
thereto given by the latter be appended to the present protocol. I| The Presi-
dent of the American Commission expressed the hope that a mutually satis-
factory agreement might be reached as to all matters other than those dis-
posed of by the acceptance of the American proposition, and, in order to
hasten the conclusion of the treaty, he proposed that the American Commis-
sion should draw up articles and present them at the next conference to be
orally discussed, thus avoiding the presentation of memoranda which would
delay the negotiations. TI The President of the Spanish Commission answered
that the form in which the American Commissioners should desire to proceed
was left entirely to their choice and that he had nothing to suggest in this
respect; and he also expressed the opinion that the presentation of memoranda
would be unnecessary, except in some special case which might occur. He
proposed that the meeting should be adjourned until the Secretaries should
have drawn up the draft of articles previously mentioned by him. |I The Presi-
dent of the American Commission concurred in this proposal, and, being de-
sirous also to present the articles referring to the subsidiary points of the
treaty at the next session, he moved that that session should be held on
Wednesday the 30th instant, at two o'clock, p. m. I| The President of the
Spanish Commission concurred in this proposal, and requested the American
Commission to hasten as much as practicable their proceedings, so as to ter-
minate at the earliest possible moment the labors of the Commission.


Anlagen.
Korrespondenz zwischen den spanischen und amerikanischen Delegierten.
I. Die spanische Kommission fordert iiber 7 Punkte Aufklirung.
MIl ,lear Sir, In order that this Commission and, if necessary, the Govern-
ile, if.1 ii. C. M., may study with a full and exact knowledge the proposition
wvlhili ..l:es the memorandum presented at yesterday's session by the Com-
ii.-.:i'i ..,u worthily head, the translation into Spanish of which has just
I,.:n c:nimlleted, it becomes necessary to beg you that with all possible haste
.nu nill lie pleased to make clear the meaning of the following points of
:,ii pi|l,.,:.sition, which to me is obscure and vague:
Flirt. Is the proposition you make based on the Spanish colonies being
alillIrreri free of all burdens, all, absolutely all outstanding obligations and
delir:, ,it whatsoever kind and whatever may have been their origin and pur-
S I,![: ... .:hiv LX111. 6











cr,.Ii ,_..I., i tr ': n r, Iuil Ir ,.,i ,.htiit,, : i )v lilt [. it t I.. i I tt.jL i iir I '.l I'.ir :. !.i: ri ,i
S ':": '*' !""' n ,rci.,rli. ijdi .v il L,.iti l lan l,:ii,' ii ,' ll tfrr % ih; i.h i, prb-.,.i, l I.I y I 1I.: ,:.I r i:iii tliHlt
t0l,.'2 i r.'li i.; t I.,f ti l' 1 lit',. It.ItI i.- t h. a.tiriti. .t -,,i| a li.lr n* . ii, I, lir,. J'-.
-'oui -rnJ ri-. t., I,,- ttik- i ] .. t t l;,i tto it tlit S-': 11,:l : hhir it,,,di.J -if i,, iitn r
l ij.i[]i ili.' tt,' i,-+ -, I ,., c .i in h,.: :.iII.,' |.r l>h ,i ]z t lt.',, i.0 %. v.li.. h fi,
certain time is granted those of Spain, while the United States do not change
such policy? || Third. The Secretary of State having stated in his note of
July 30 last that the cession by Spain of the Island of Porto Rico and the
other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, as well as
one of the Ladrones, was to be as compensation for the losses and expenses
of the United States during the war, and of the damages suffered by their
citizens during the last insurrection in Cuba, what claims does the proposition
refer to on requiring that there shall be inserted in the treaty a provision
for the mutual relinquishment of all claims, individual and national, that have
arisen from the beginning of the last insurrection in Cuba to the conclusion
of the treaty of peace? 1i Fourth. Upon stating that the treaty must contain
an agreement as to the release of those held by Spain for political offenses
connected with the insurrections of Cuba and the Philippines, is it desired
that it be taken as meaning that at the same time there is to be no agree-
ment as to the release of the Spanish prisoners held in the possession of
the American forces and their auxiliaries, the insurgents of Cuba and the
Philippines? || Fifth. In the treaty there is also to be an agreement as to
the acquirement by the United States of cable landing privileges in other
places under the jurisdiction of Spain. Where are such places? Does this
sentence only include territories of Spain in the Orient, or in the Peninsula
also? I1 Sixth. It is also said that certain treaties which were in force bet-
ween the United States and Spain up to this time will be revived. What
are these treaties? I| And, finally, seventh. The American Commissioners say
that if the Spanish Commissioners accept their proposition finally and defini-
tely and the previous proposals as to Cuba, Porto Rico and other islands, it
will be possible for the Joint Commission to continue its sessions and pro-
ceed to the examination and arrangement of other points. Do these words
mean that if the Spanish Commission does not finally and definitely accept
said propositions without substantial modifications, the Joint Commission will
not continue its sessions?
I beg and earnestly request you to settle these doubts, should you be so
disposed, as to the meaning of your proposition as soon as may be possible,
in order that the Spanish Commission may, in a session of the Joint Com-
mission, furnish the reply it may deem proper. II Accept, Sir, I pray you, the
expression of my distinguished consideration.
Paris, November 22, 1898. Signed: E. Montero Rios.






FnedLensverhandlungen zwischen d. Verein. btaaten v. Amerika u. Spanieu 1898 etc. 83

II. Antwort der amerikanischen Kommission. Nr. n1"81.
My dear Sir. Having received and read your letter of today, touching "Vereite
the final proposition presented by the American Commissioners at yesterday's undspanien.
conference, I hasten to answer your enquiries seriatim, first stating your 28.Nov. 898
question, and then giving my reply. || "First. In reply to this question, it is
proper to call attention to the fact that the American Commissioners, in their
paper of yesterday, expressed the hope that they might receive within a
certain time "a definite and final acceptance" of their proposal as to the
Philippines, and also "of the demands as to Cuba, Porto Rico and other
Spanish Islands in the West Indies, apd Guam, in the form in which those
demands have been provisionally agreed to." II The form in which they have
thus been agreed to is found in the proposal presented by the American
Commissioners on the 17th of October and annexed to the protocol of the
6th conference, and is as follows:
"Article 1. Spain hereby relinquishes all claim of sovereignty over and
title to Cuba. II "Article 2. Spain hereby cedes to the United States the Is-
land of Porto Rico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the
West Indies, and also the Island of Guam in the Ladrones". I| These articles
contain no provision for the assumption of debt by the United States. I| In
this relation, I desire to recall the statements in which the American Com-
missioners have in our conferences repeatedly declared that they would not
accept any articles that required the United States to assume the so-called
colonial debts of Spain. (1 To these statements I have nothing to add. |I But,
in respect of the Philippines, the American Commissioners, while including
the cession of the archipelago in the article in which Spain "cedes to the
United States the Island of Porto Rico and other islands now under Spanish
sovereignty in the West Indies, and also the Island of Guam in the Ladrones,"
or in an article expressed in similar words, will agree that their Government
shall pay to Spain the sum of twenty million dollars ($ 20,000,000).
"Second. The declaration that the policy of the United States in the
Philippines will be that of an open door to the world's commerce necessarily
implies that the offer to place Spanish vessels and merchandise on the same
footing as American is not intended to be exclusive. But, the offer to give
Spain that privilege for a term of years, is intended to secure it to her for
a certain period by special treaty stipulation, whatever might be at any time
the general policy of the United States. jI "Third. While the idea doubtless
was conveyed in the note of the Secretary of State of the United States of
the 30th of July last that the cession of "Porto Rico and other islands now
under the sovereignty of Spain in the West Indies, and also the cession of
an island in the Ladrones, to be selected by the United States," was required
on grounds of indemnity, and that "on similar grounds the United States is
entitled to occupy and will hold the city, bay, and harbor of Manila, pending
the conclusion of a treaty of peace which shall determine the control, dis-
6*






4 Fi le.II.'iii1irh.i illi 'ln n zwi'' -n 'I n \'errt' St .nte*n r. Arrm il 1 i i nSi i 'u 1 -''t' h .

N;r 11 -1 |IO t.llill i11, J L.,- .IT ill ielit o I Ih, l'l lipilh .. 110 I tI illit;o! b a y :l .I i'. iI
.. e i' i' t tin i *I r r'I l t'i Itl':'t .r tlnt Ct-.Ue i ill tiat r':; ir T h--
.... ii ..... A I ,I.: i I ; i C ,.,iI 'll- i_ ii,:, i s t\}fr,.\'jr Ii', ii, ,'orinn ii vii. \%% lh the ('ie -Si ,ns ...I4
'" *J"*. '1 ."' t I,.iir.lt. "I'. 1 i111111 i i rlilli.ill3li lnt ul all i- i fI'.r indrnl.tii lll [il.ii .iial *i.l
individi.Il -f every*% kind, of tI,: ULniti. .i .rat,.s igainr t Spa.in and of SIpani
a .igal i t tlie Llijited States, that may Ibn\a a.risn rin lr.'' thil: bI uinrirg of the
laIt in-u i li'i r- .i i n Culla an]d I.rir t'... li: *'jlI-lusijii .., a Itri. iy 'i I c i',:'." II
.And I nmay t:.JJ li:it hi ii )f.-r i- u niade tlit Am .lri'-ai i.'..rminsi. ,nirr% iI
'iill vi,: O tIi hie I ,nci tlihait i'- ririji r' le Uriitl, l the U e vmStals, ing lin s
that ,:' ithi tilii fi:- reguiig rli,,ui lhjintt, will o1, th 0tr:ugth the *:,',
apply to their own Government for indemnity.
As to the fourth, fifth and sixth questions contained in your letter, per-
mit me to point out that they do not relate to matters concerning which the
American Commissioners stated that the acceptance of our proposals within
the time mentioned would be a condition of continuing the conferences. The
American Commissioners confined that condition to their proposals touching
Cuba, Porto Rico and other Spanish islands in the West Indies, Guam, and
the Philippines. In respect of the other matters referred to, they expressed
their readiness to "treat", in case the Spanish Commissioners should remove
the obstacle to so doing, by a definite and final acceptance of the proposals
abovementioned, the refusal of which would render the continuance of the
conferences impracticable. [| In what I have just said, you will find an answer
to your seventh question. |I It does not appear to be necessary to specify at
this moment the particulars of the subjects referred to in your fourth, fifth
and sixth questions, since, if our proposals in regard to Cuba, Porto Rico
and other Spanish islands in the West Indies, Guam, and the Philippines, are
not accepted, the negotiations will end. I deem it proper, however, even at
the risk of seeming to anticipate, to say, so far as concerns the subject of
your fourth question, that the American Commissioners would expect to treat
for the release of prisoners on the basis of absolute equality. All Spanish
prisoners in the possession of the American forces would necessarily be relea-
sed as the result of a treaty of peace; and the American Commissioners would
be willing to stipulate that their Government would undertake to obtain the
release of all Spanish prisoners in the hands of the insurgents in Cuba and
the Philippines. |[ With an expression of regret that the process of translating
your letter has somewhat delayed my reply, I beg you to accept, my dear
sir, the expression of my distinguished consideration.
Signed: William R. Day.

III. Die spanische Kommission wiinscht einige Milderungen.
My dear and esteemed Sir, In order to push to the utmost the work
which has been entrusted by the two Governments to one and the other
Commission and which now requires a prompt termination, I beg you, in the






Friel'in' i. i rli 1nlIl1I ,IU Ii z i-.. I I.u VLiI. u. .n IJI .u la' .\ i A .rll I i. SI ,. nI'. Ir -r 1..t .s:

injare l til ll' C'l'j n "ii. 1,.' b.e li. ated to ir.iJipo t' t.. that .,rill n l .-aii.d Nr. 1191
by you whether it is willing to accept, by way of compromise in re the Vereinigte
sovereignty of the Philippine Archipelago, any of the three propositions follo- uniapanien.
wing: I| A. "Relinquishment by Spain of her sovereignty over Cuba and ces-s28.Nov.s98.
sion of Porto Rico and other Antilles, Island of Guam in the Ladrones and
the Philippine Archipelago, including Mindanao and Sulu, to the United
States, the latter paying to Spain the sum of one hundred million ($ 100,000,000)
dollars as compensation for her sovereignty in the Archipelago and the works
of public utility she has executed during her rule in all the islands of the
East and West the sovereignty over which she relinquishes and cedes." |1
B. "Cession to the United States of the Island of Cusaye in the Carolines, of
the right to land a cable on any of these or of the Marianas, while they
remain under Spanish rule, and (cesi6n) of the Philippine Archipelago proper,
that is, beginning on the North, the Islands of Batan6s, Babuyanes, Luz6n,
Visayas, and all the others following to the south as far as the Snlu Sea,
Spain reserving to the south of this sea the Islands of Mindanao and Suln
which have never formed a part of the Philippine Archipelago proper. !I "The
United States, as compensation for said islands, for the right to land cables
and for the public works executed by Spain in said islands during her rule
will pay to Spain the sum of fifty million ($ 50,000,000) dollars." || C. "Spain
relinquishes her sovereignty over Cuba and gratuitously cedes to the United
States the Philippine Archipelago proper, besides Porto Rico, the other West
Indies and the Island of Guam, which she cedes as compensation for the ex-
penses of the war and as indemnity to American citizens for injuries suffered
since the beginning of the last Cuban insurrection. II "The United States and
Spain will submit to an arbitral tribunal what are the debts and obligations
of a colonial character which should pass with the islands the sovereignty
over which Spain relinquishes and cedes." II I beg you that said Commission
be pleased to deliberate over each of these propositions so that, should it
consider anyone of them acceptable, it may be communicated to me, should
you be so disposed, before Monday next, the 28th instant, or your mind being
already made up, on that day (which is the one set in the last proposition
of the said Commission) when the two Commissions may meet jointly at the
usual hour of two, p. n., at which session this, the Spanish Commission, will
give its final reply, upon which, according to the answer of the American,
must depend the continuation or termination of these conferences.
I remain, with tile greatest consideration, your obedient servant.
Paris, November 23, 1898. Signed: E. Montero Rios.

IV. Die Vereiuigten Staaten lehnen die Milderungen ab.
My dear Sir, Your letter dated the 23rd instant, in which you propose,
by way of compromise, the adoption of one of three alternative propositions,
in place of the proposition submitted by the American Commissioners at our






s l.'ri.'l>ni%..I.i L.-.adlli.o ,:-' ls:u ] :1 .[. ,1 V -.: i n.m .'.l I.1ten ..1. !! .ri'll i II .' |iiDn,: "_.' rt

Kr. 11981. last conference, was not received by me till the evening i:! ll.: 24lll. I at
Staaten once had it carefully translated, and, in compliance with o':.ni r l..i'd't. I.s'J
undSpanien.it before my associates. I1 We maturely considered it, and, .ili'.ihli.h ojur I.:t
12ov.9S. proposition, which was submitted under instructions, was e. i.l., iA I.l...-1: : 10

be final, we decided, in view of the importance of the subject, t.., c...innonic'r.i
your proposals to our Government. (I Its answer has just l.,.-i, riitn -It ; ,li.
as we anticipated, it instructs us to adhere to the final pli.i.. it t:in \lin.li '..
have already submitted. I| It is proper to say that my as-;:-l.t,. an il I .r.:ll.
during the long course of the negotiations, have, in acnt:,i.cr'l ri.t iil the
wishes of our Government, given the most deliberate att-~rti..,i t-., i:'.-ihliig
in the way of argument or of suggestion that has been brought to our notice,
in the hope that some basis of mutual agreement might be found. But, un-
fortunately, our discussions seemed to divide us, rather than to 'ring us
together, and no progress was made towards a common accord. I1 Under these
circumstances the American Commissioners, acting upon explicit instructions,
offered at once, for the sake of peace, all the concessions which their Govern-
mient was able to make concerning the particular matters embraced in the
proposition the acceptance of which was made a condition of further nego-
tiations. I As I stated in my letter of the 23rd instant, if that proposition
should be accepted, the matters referred to in the concluding paragraph of
the paper submitted by the American Commissioners at the last session, would
become the subject of negotiations, and, in regard to them, I should hope for
a mutually satisfactory arrangement. I| The American Commissioners expect to
be present at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on Monday next for the purpose
of receiving the answer to their final proposition. 1I I remain, with the highest
consideration, your obedient servant. Signed: William R. Day.



Nr. 11982. VEREINIGTE STAATEN und SPANIEN. 17. Sitzung.
Vorlegung eines Friedensentwurfs.
30. November 1898.
Nr. 1ls 2. The President of the American Commission presented a draft of articles
V'rigten with reference to the conclusion of a definitive treaty, in the first part of
undSpanien. which draft were included the articles agreed upon by the two Secretaries for
:'O.Nov. 168. submission to the Joint Commission, in relation to, the matters comprised in
the proposition accepted by the Spanish Commissioners at the last session. |1
The Joint Commission then proceeded to the consideration of the draft, article
by article, and, after discussing some of the articles, decided to adjourn the
session, and to. continue the discussion at the next conference, which was fixed
for Thursday, the 1st of December, at three o'clock, p. m.




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