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 Group Title: Publications of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Division of International Law Title: Diplomatic correspondence of the United States concerning the independence of the Latin-American nations /
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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
 Material Information Title: Diplomatic correspondence of the United States concerning the independence of the Latin-American nations / Series Title: Publications of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Division of International Law Physical Description: 3 v. : ; 26 cm. Language: English Creator: Manning, William R ( William Ray ), 1871-1942United States -- Dept. of State Publisher: Oxford University Press Place of Publication: New YorkNew York Publication Date: 1925-1926
 Subjects Subject: Foreign relations -- United States -- Latin America   ( lcsh )Foreign relations -- Latin America -- United States   ( lcsh )History -- Sources -- Latin America -- Wars of Independence, 1806-1830   ( lcsh )Relations extérieures -- États-Unis -- Amérique latine   ( rvm )Relations extérieures -- Amérique latine -- États-Unis   ( rvm )Histoire -- Sources -- Amérique latine -- 1806-1830 (Guerres d'indépendance)   ( rvm )Relations extérieures -- Sources -- États-Unis -- Amérique latine   ( ram )Relations extérieures -- Sources -- Amérique latine -- États-Unis   ( ram )Histoire diplomatique -- Sources -- Amérique latine -- 1806-1830 (Guerres d'indépendance)   ( ram ) Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes Statement of Responsibility: selected and arranged by William R. Manning.
 Record Information Bibliographic ID: UF00098564 Volume ID: VID00002 Source Institution: University of Florida Holding Location: University of Florida Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location. Resource Identifier: oclc - 00806763lccn - 25019089

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Front Cover 2
Front Matter
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Half Title
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List of documents
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Note
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Part III: Communications from Brazil
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Part IV: Communications from Central America
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Part V: Communications from Chile
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Part VI: Communications from (great) Colombia
Page 1141
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Part VII: Communications from France
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Back Cover
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Full Text

S 'e
. h

~-~.^-

DIPLOMATIC CORRESPONDENCE OF THE
UNITED STATES CONCERNING THE
INDEPENDENCE OF THE LATIN-AMERICAN NATIONS

DIPLOMATIC CORRESPONDENCE

OF THE UNITED STATES

CONCERNING

THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE

LATIN-AMERICAN NATIONS

SELECTED AND ARRANGED BY
WILLIAM R. MANNING, PH.D.
D;, ;on of Latin-American Affairs
Department of State
Auwh.r :.' ThL NoT..TL I SOUND CONTROVERSY; of EARLY DIPLOMATIC
REi ITIJm BLI ..-[EN THE UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, and
Edit..r ..I' ARBITRATION TREATIES AMONG
THE AMERICAN NATIONS

VOLUME II
O [\N F.INING PARTS III TO VII
DOCUMENTS 321-754

NEW YORK
(OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
.1IFRIC\N BRANCH: 35 WEST 32ND STREET
L(N DcO(N. i O(kONTO, MELBOURNE, AND BOMBAY
1925

/ (/r-

\- jI (0

9 l~

BY THE

CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL PEACE

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
AT THE RUMFORD PRESS, CONCORD, N. 11.

CONTENTS

VOLUME I

PART I.-Communications from the United States ...........
PART II.-Communications from Argentina ......... ......

VOLUME II
PART III.-Communications from Brazil .....................
PART IV.-Communications from Central America............
PART V.-Communications from Chile ......................
PART VI.-Communications from (Great) Colombia ...........
PART VII.-Communications from France. ........ ...... ....

VOLUME III
PART VIII.-Communications from Great Britain ................
PART IX.-Communications from Mexico ......................
PART X.-Communications from the Netherlands.............
PART XI.-Communications from Peru ......................
PART XII.-Communications from Russia .......................
PART XIII.-Communications from Spain .....................
PART XIV.-Communications from Uruguay ..................

Each volume contains a detailed list of the documents included therein.

PAGE
I
317

667
869
893
1141
1369

1429
1591
1709
1717
1849
1889
2173

LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II

PART III.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

Doc.From To Date Page
No. From To Date Page

Thomas Sumter, Jr.,
U. S. Minister to the
Portuguese Court in
Brazil
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same

Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same

Same

Same

Same

Same
Philip Rutter, Com-
mercial Agent of the
U. S. at Rio de
Janeiro
Henry Hill, U. S. Con-
sul at Rio de Janeiro
John Graham, U. S.
Minister to the
Portuguese Court in
Brazil
John James Appleton,
U. S. Charge d'Af-
faires at Rio de
Janeiro
Same

Robert Smith, Sec. of
State

Same
Same
Same
Same
James Monroe, Sec.
of State
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
American Ministers at
European Posts
James Monroe, Sec. of
State
Minister of the U. S. at
London or Paris, or to
any or either of those
who negotiated the
treaty of peace at
Ghent
James Monroe, Sec. of
State
Same
Same

Sec. of State
Same

Same

Same

July 23, 8Ilo

Oct. 2, I8o1
Oct. 17, 18o1
Feb. 5, 181
June 6, 18II
Nov. 26, 1811

Dec. 5, 18II
Jan. 8, 1812
July I, 1812
July 24, 1812
May 9, 1813
June 30, 1814

July 23, 1814

March o1, 1815

Dec. 29, 1815

Feb. 7, 1816
April 4, 1817

Dec. 21, 1818

Sept. 24, 1819

Oct. 27, 1820

Nov. 24, I820

X LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II

PART III.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL (Continued)

Doc. From To Date Page
No.

Charles G. Weiss, Act-
ing Consul of the
U. S. at Bahia
John James Appleton,
U. S. Charge d'Af-
faires at Rio de
Janeiro
Woodbridge Odlin,
U. S. Consul at San
Same
Same
P. Sartoris, Acting
Consul of the U. S.
at Rio de Janeiro
Woodbridge Odlin,
U. S. Consul at San
P. Sartoris, Acting
Consul of the U. S.
at Rio de Janeiro
Henry Hill, U. S.
Consul at Rio de
Janeiro
John James Appleton,
U. S. Charge d'Af-
fairesat Riode
Janeiro
P. Sartoris, Acting Con-
sul of the U. S. at
Rio de Janeiro
Woodbridge Odlin,
U. S. Consul at San
P. Sartoris, Acting
Consul of the U. S.
at Rio de Janeiro
Woodbridge Odlin,
U. S. Consul at
Rio de Janeiro
P. Sartoris, Acting
Consul of the
U. S. at Rio de
Janeiro
Same
Same
Same

Sec. of State

Same

Same

Same
Same
Same

Same

Same

Same

Same

Same

Same

Same

Same

Same

Same
Same
Same

Jan. 12, 1821

Jan. 15, 1821

Feb. 18, 1821

March 14, 1821
March 31, 1821
April 14, 1821

Same

May 12, 1821

May, 1821

July 12, 1821

July 30, 1821

Oct. 6, 1821

Oct. 7, 1821

Nov. 2, 1821

Jan. 20, 1822

Feb. 3, 1822
March 4, 1822
April 13, 1822

LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II

PART III.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL (Continued)

oc. From To Date Page
No.

P. Sartoris, Acting
Consul of the U. S.
at Rio de Janeiro
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Jos6 Bonifacio de
of State of Brazil
P. Sartoris, Acting
Consul of the
U.S. at Rio de
Janeiro
Same

Same
Condy Raguet, U. S.
Consul at Rio de
Janeiro
P. Sartoris, ex-Acting
Consul of the U. S.
at Rio de Janeiro
Condy Raguet, U. S.
Consul at Rio de
Janeiro
Same
Antonio Correa Man-
uel da Camara, Bra-
zilian representative
in Buenos Aires
Condy Raguet, U. S.
Consul at Rio de
Janeiro
Same
Woodbridge Odlin,
U. S. Consul at San
Condy Raguet, U. S.
Consul at Rio de
Janeiro
Same
Same
al-ie

Sec. of State

Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
P. Sartoris, Acting Consul
of the U. S. at Rio de
Janeiro
Jos6 Bonifacio de
of State of Brazil

Sec. of State
Same
Same

Same

Same

Same
John M. Forbes,
Special Agent of the
U. S. at Buenos Aires

Sec. of State

Same
Same

Same

Same
Same
Same

May 5, 1822

June 3, 1822
June 13, 1822
June 14, 1822
July 8, 1822
Aug. 8, 1822
Aug. 14, 1822

Aug. 21, 1822

Aug. 31, 1822

Sept. 17, 1822
Same

Sept. 23, 1822

Oct. I, 1822

Oct. 19, 1822
Nov. 21, 1822

Nov. 25, 1822

Dec. 7, 1822
Dec. 8, 1822

March 8, 1823

May 12, 1823
June 4, 1823
Sept. 8, 1823

734

735
737
738
740
741
741

742

743

743
745

745

746

750
751

751

752
753

754

757
759
760

LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II

PART III.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL (Continued)

oc. From To Date Page
No.

Condy Raguet, U. S.
Consul at Rio de
Janeiro
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Jos6 Silvestre Rebello,
appointed Brazilian
Charge d'Affaires at
Washington
Condy Raguet, U. S.
Consul at Rio de
Janeiro
Jos6 Silvestre Rebello,
Brazilian Charg6
d'Affaires at Wash-
ington
Same
Condy Raguet, U. S.
Consul at Rio de
Janeiro
Same
Same
Same
Same
Jos6 Silvestre Rebello,
Brazilian Charg6
d'Affaires at Wash-
ington
Condy Raguet, U. S.
Consul at Rio de
Janeiro
Same
Jos6 Silvestre Rebello,
Brazilian Charg6
d'Affaires at Wash-
ington
Same
Condy Raguet, U. S.
Consul at Rio de
Janeiro

Sec. of State

Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same

Same

Same

Same
Same

Same
Same
Same
Same
Same

Same

Oct. 16, 1823

Nov. Io, 1823
Nov. 12, 1823
Nov. 19, 1823
Dec. 3, 1823
Jan. 20, 1824
Feb. I, 1824
March 8, 1824
April 12, 1824
April 20, 1824

April 22, 1824

April 29, 1824

May 17, 1824
June 14, 1824

Aug. 2, 1824
Aug. 21, 1824
Sept. 12, 1824
Oct. 5, 1824
Jan. 28, 1825

Jan.31, 1825

Henry Clay, Sec. of State March II, 1825
Same April 6, 1825

Same
Same

April 16, 1825
May 12, 1825

762

763
765
768
771
772
775
777
778
779

790

791

793
795

80o
802
803
805
808

810

811
813

814
816

LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II xiii

P.; r. r I 11.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL (Continued)

cm To Date Page
No I:orm To Date Page

406 Corind F': ii'. LI. S.
Consul at kio de
Janeiro
407 Same

408 Same
409 Same
410 Same
411 Same
412 Same
413 Same
414 Same
415 Same

416 Same
417 Jos6 Silvestre Rebello,
Brazilian Charg4
d'Affaires at Wash-
ington
418 Condy Raguet, U. S.
Charge d'Affaires at
F: i: de Janeiro
411) Sam.:
42o S.m.:
421 S-ime
422 ,Snme
422 Sime
424 Same.
4-5 S.--e
426 Jol:- Silvestre Rebello,
Brazilian Charg6
d .\ffaires at Wash-
in;ton
427 \\ ilium Tudor, U. S.
Charg6 d'Affaires at
R;o de Janeiro
42Q Same
42) Sanei.

Henry Clay, Sec. of State

Woodbridge Odlin, U. S.
Consul at San Salva-
dor (Bahia)
Henry Clay, Sec. of State
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Brazil
Henry Clay, Sec. of State
Same

Same

Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same

Same

Same
Sec. of State

May 20, 1825 817

Same 818

June I, 1825 818
July 9, 1825 822
July 30, 1825 824
Aug. 27, 1825 828
Sept. 15, 1825 832
Oct. 3, 1825 835
Oct. 26, 1825 835
Oct. 29, 1825 836

Nov. 12, 1825 838
Dec. 28, 1825 840

Jan. 17, 1826 840

March 20, 1826 843
April 12, 1826 846
May 25, 1826 846
June 27, 1826 855
July 17, 1826 857
Sept. 23, 1826 861
Dec. 22, 1826 861
Nov. 14, 1827 862

Aug. 29, 1828 865

Sept. Ii, 1828 865
April 18, 1829 867

xiv LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II

PART IV.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM CENTRAL AMERICA

Doc. From To Date Page
No.

Manuel J. Arce and
Juan M. Rodriguez,
Central American
Commissioners to
the U. S.
Same
Vicente Rocafuerte,
Agent of San Salva-
dor in the U. S.
Antonio Jose Cafiaz,
Central American
Minister at Wash-
ington
Same
Same
William Phillips, Acting
Consul of the U. S.
at Guatemala
Juan de Dios Mayorga,
former Minister of
Central America to
Mexico
Henry Savage, Acting
Consul of the U. S.
at Guatemala
Same
M. J. Ibarra, Sec. of
State and Foreign
Relations of Central
America

Sec. of State

Same
Same

Same

Henry Clay, Sec. of State
Same
Same

Joel Roberts Poinsett,
U. S. Minister to
Mexico

Martin Van Buren, Sec.
of State

Same
Same

Sept. 9, 1823

Sept. 11, 1823
Oct. 16, 1823

Feb. 8, 1825

March 11, 1825
Nov. 14, 1825
Feb. 30, 1827

Oct. 18, 1828

July 1, 1830

Sept. 3 1830
Oct. 3, 1830

PART V.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM CHILE

Doc. From To Date Page
No.

441 Fernando Marq de la President and Congress March 22, 1811 895
Plata and 5 other of the U. S.
members of the
Governing Board of
the Kingdom of Chile
442 Joel Roberts Poinsett, James Monroe, Sec. of Feb. 20, 1813 896
Special Agent of the State
U. S. to South
America
443 Bernardo O'Higgins, Don Manuel de Aguirre March 8, 1817 898
Supreme Director of
Chile

LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II

P.\, r \V.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM CHILE (Continued)

Nr Irom To Date Page

44-1

445
446

447

448

449

450
451

452

453

454

455

456

457

James Monroe, President April I, 1817
of the U. S.

,n-rn rd:o O'I iggins,
Sur.reiei Director of
Chile
Same
John B. Prevost, Spe-
cial Agent of the
U. S. to Chile, Peru
and Buenos Aires
W. G. D. Worthington,
Special Agent of the
U. S. to Chile, Peru
and Buenos Aires
Miguel Zafiartu, Sec.
of State of Chile

W. G. D. Worthington,
Special Agent of the
U. S. to Chile, Peru
and Buenos Aires
Same
Same

Same

John B. Prevost, Spe-
cial Agent of the
U. S. to Chile, Peru
and Buenos Aires
Miguel Zafiartu, Sec.
of State of Chile

W. G. D. Worthington,
Special Agent of the
U. S. to Chile, Peru
and Buenos Aires
John B. Prevost, Spe-
cial Agent of the
U. S. to Chile, Peru
and Buenos Aires
WV C D. Worthington,
Spi,_cl Agent of the
U S .5t Chile, Peru
-ind Pu-nos Aires
J.:,.e N ll .g l deCarrera,
I.hi, .1ka General

Manifesto to all nations
Sec. of State

Same

W. G. D. Worthington,
Special Agent of the
U. S. to Chile, Peru
and Buenos Aires
Sec. of State

Same
Miguel Zafiartu, Sec. of
State of Chile
Sec. of State
Same

W. G. D. Worthington,
Special Agent of the
U. S. to Chile, Peru
and Buenos Aires
Bernardo O'Higgins,
Supreme Director of
Chile

Sec. of State

Same

W. G. D. Worthington,
Special Agent of the
U. S. to Chile, Buenos
Aires and Peru

Feb. 12, 1818
Feb. 13, 1818

Feb. 27, 1818

March i, 1818

March 5, 1818

March 9, 1818
March 12, 1818

April 8, 1818

April 9, 1818

April 20, 1818

May 5, 1818

June Io, 1818

July 4, 1818

Sept. 12, 1818

LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II

PART V.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM CHILE (Continued)

Doc. From To Date Page
No.

W. G. D. Worthington,
Special Agent of the
U. S. to Chile, Peru
and Buenos Aires
Theodorick Bland, Spe-
cial Commissioner of
the U. S. to South
America
Joel Roberts Poinsett,
ex-Agent of the U. S.
to South America
W. G. D. Worthington,
Special Agent of the
U. S. to Chile, Peru
and Buenos Aires
Same
Same
Same

Joaquin de Echeverria,
Minister of State and
Foreign Relations of
Chile
W. G. D. Worthington,
Special Agent of the
U. S. to Chile, Peru
and Buenos Aires
John B. Prevost,
Special Agent of the
U. S. to Chile, Peru
and Buenos Aires
Same
Same
Same
Antonio Jos6 de Yri-
sarri, Minister of
State and Foreign
Relations of
Chile
Bernardo O'Higgins,
Supreme Director of
Chile
Same

Sec. of State

Same

Same

Same

Same
Same
Joaquin de Echeverria,
Minister of State and
Foreign Relations of
Chile
W. G. D. Worthington,
Special Agent of the
U. S. to Chile, Peru and
Buenos Aires
of State

Same

Same
Same
Same
Same

James Monroe, President
the U. S.

John B. Prevost, Special
Agent of the U. S. to
Chile, Peru and Buenos
Aires

Oct. 22, 1818

Nov. 2, 1818

Nov. 4, 1818

Same

Nov. II, 1818
Nov. 18, 1818
Jan. 4, 1819

Jan. 8, 1819

Jan. 26, 1819

March 20, 1819

May 16, 1819
July 3, 1819
Sept. 13, 1819
Oct. 31, 1819

Jan. 5, 1820

April 21, 1820

LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II

PART V.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM CHILE (Continued)

Doe. From To Date Page
No.

475

476
477
478

479

John B. Prevost, Special
Agent of the U. S. to
Chile, Peru and
Buenos Aires
Same
Same
Same

Bernardo O'Higgins,
Supreme Director of
Chile

John B. Prevost, Spe-
cial Agent of the
U. S. to Chile,
Peru and Buenos
Aires
Same
Same
Michael Hogan, Com-
mercial Agent of
the U. S. at
Valparaiso
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
John B. Prevost, Spe-
cial Agent of the
U. S. to Chile, Peru
and Buenos Aires
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Michael Hogan, Com-
mercial Agent of the
U. S. at Valparaiso
Same

Same

of State

Same
Same
Joaquin de Echeverria,
Sec. of State of Chile
John B. Prevost, Special
Agent of the U. S. to
Chile, Peru and Buenos
Aires
of State

Same
Same
Same

Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same

Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same

Jan. 6, 1821

March 10, 1821
May 2, 1821
June 18, 1821

June 23, 1821

June 30, 1821

July 6, 1821
Aug. 15, 1821
Aug. 18, 1821

Oct. 9, 1821
Same
Nov. 4,1821
Jan. 15, 1822
May 6, 1822
June 12, 1822

Aug. 22, I822
Sept. II, 1822
Oct. 9, 1822
Oct. 17, 1822
Nov. 2, 1822
Nov.15, 1822
Nov. 28, 1822
Dec. 14, 1822
Dec. 16, 1822

Dec. 31, 1822

1046

1048
1050
1051

1052

1053

1054
1055
1055

o156
1058
1059
To61
o162
o163

o166
o167
io68
lo69
1069
1071
1072
1073
1074

LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II

PART V.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM CHILE (Continued)

Doc.
No. From To Date Page

John B. Prevost, Spe-
cial Agent of the
U. S. to Chile, Peru
and Buenos Aires
Same
Same
Michael Hogan, Com-
mercial Agent of the
U. S. at Valparaiso
John B. Prevost, Spe-
cial Agent of the
U. S. to Chile,
Peru and Buenos
Aires
Michael Hogan, U. S.
Consul at Valparaiso
Same
Same
Same
Same
John B. Prevost, Spe-
cial Agent of the
U. S. to Chile, Peru
and Buenos Aires
Same
Same

Michael Hogan, U. S.
Consul at Valparaiso
Heman Allen, U. S.
Minister to Chile
Same
Same
Same
Michael Hogan, U. S.
Consul at Valparaiso
Same
Heman Allen, U. S.
Minister to Chile
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same

John Quincy Adams, Sec. Jan. 20, 1823
of State

Same
Same
Same

Same

Same

Same
Same
Same
Same
Same

Same
Michael Hogan, U. S.
Consul at Valparaiso
of State
Same

Same
Same
Same
Same

Same
Same

Henry Clay, Sec. of State
Same
Same
Same
Same

Jan. 24, 1823
Jan. 31, 1823
Same

Feb. 15,1823

April 7, 1823

July 8, 1823
July 23, 1823
Aug. 20, 1823
Aug. 28, 1823
Oct. 28, 1823

Nov. 27, 1823
Dec. 13, 1823

Jan. 19, 1824

April 29, 1824

May 26, 1824
July 15, 1824
July I9, 1824
Jan. 9,1825

Jan.27, 1825
Feb. 9, 825

Sept. 1825
Sept. 16, 1825
Sept. 27, 1825
Nov. 5, 1825
Jan. 24, 1826

1076

1077
1078
1078

1080

io8o

1080

1082
1083
1085
1087
1087

1088
logo

1091

1095
1097
1099
1100

1101
IIoo

1103

lio6
I~o6
1108

xviii

LIST O' DPOCijMErNTS IN VOLUME II

Pr.\RT \.--['.,01iM iMN 1.A i 1I','rs FROM CHILE (Continued)

Froim

- ''

527

528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535

:,'

54-'

541

543
544
545

547

54'
.54)

55'.

M ;.h~1. lioiran, 1.1 ':.
lC-n; u! j \ a IFparii- j
Heman Allen, U. S.
Minister to Chile
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Sanme

Sjan el Iii. rle., .i. '.
C-l ,rc .J'.\ ,ireS' in
Ch;le

anim

Sime
S, ame

.:,n-ie

.uioauin C amipirn, (-C hl-
can Ni.mit-.ea r i.t the
Li 5

nIi

S mniuei l I.arnf,I. U S
C h.ari' d'.\iiaire- in
C lile
Si1im,

S 111l0

Date

lier r, Clay, Sec. of
Z.t1 at
Same

Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same

,a n- e
",ill

Same

" nic

IMrtin Van Buren, Sec.
of State

i naiic

Feb. 4, 1826

Same

Feb. 23, 1826
March 20, 1826
April 4, 1826
Aug. 7, 1826
Aug. 26, 1826
Nov. 15, 1826
Nov. 27, 1826
March 12, 1827
March I9, 1827
May 14, 1827
June 14, 1827
July 31, 1827
Aug. o1, 1827

Nov. 1, 1827
Nov. 18, 1827
May 0o, 1828
July 17, 1828
Sept. 1o, 1828
Nov. 9, 1828
May 1,1829

May 27, 1829
May 29, 1829
July 8, 1829

Aug. 8, 1829

Page

IIo8
1108

1109

1110
IIIO
IIIO
1112
1113
1113
1114
1115

1116

III8
1118

1120

1122
1123
II28
1130
1131
1132
1133

1135
1136
1137

XX LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II

PART VI.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM (GREAT) COLOMBIA

From

-I

Joseph de las Llamosas,
President of Vene-
zuela and Martin
Tovar Ponte, Vice
President
Robert K. Lowry, Com-
mercial Agent of the
U. S. at La Guayra
Same
Same
Juan de Escalona, an of-
ficial of the Govern-
ment of Venezuela
Talisfero de Orea,
Commissioner of
Venezuela to the U. S.
Robert K. Lowry, Com-
mercial Agent of the
U. S. at La Guayra
Same
Same
Same
Talisfero de Orea,
Commissioner of
Venezuela to the
U.S.
Robert K. Lowry, Com-
mercial Agent of the
U. S. at La Guayra
Talisfero de Orca, Com-
missioner of Vene-
zuela to the U. S.
Same
Robert K. Lowry, U. S.
Consul at La Guayra
Alexander Scott, Agent
of the U. S. for the
relief of earthquake
sufferers in La
Guayra
Same
Don M. Palacio,
Agent of Cartagena
to the U. S.
Pedro de la Lastra,
Commissioner of
U. S.

Robert Smith, Sec. of
State

Same

Same
Same
Same

James Monroe, Sec. of
State

Same

Same
Same
Same
Same

Same

Same

Same
Same

Same

Same
Same

Same

Date

April 25, 18o1

July 10, 18io

Sept. 6, 18io
Nov. 30,18o1
March 18, 1811

May 17, 1811

June 9, 1811

Aug. 21, 181i
Oct.2, 1811
Nov. I, 1811
Nov. 6, 1811

Feb. 2, 1812

Feb. 27, 1812

April 28, 1812
June 5, 1812

Nov. 16, 1812

Dec. 1, 1812
Dec. 26, 1812

Undated

Page

1143

1144

1144
1146
1148

1150

1151

1151
1152
1154
1154

1155

1156

1157
1158

1159

1163
1164

1165

LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II XXi

PART VI.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM (GREAT) COLOMBIA (Continued)

Doc. From To Date Page
No

.A. \ i,.r r Scott, Agent
of the U. S. for the
relief of earthquake
sufferers in La Guayra
Same
Robert K. Lowry, U. S.
Consul at La Guayra
Same
Same

Same
Francisco Xavier de
Mays, President pro
tempore of Venezuela
Caetano Bezares, Sec.
of Venezuela
Lino de Clemente,
Agent of Venezuela
in the U. S.

Robert K. Lowry, U. S.
Consul at La Guayra
Lino de Clemente,
Agent of Venezuela
in the U. S.
Francisco Antonio Zea,
Vice President of
Venezuela and Presi-
dent pro tempore
Charles O. Handy,
Purser of the U. S.
Benjamin Homans,
Chief Clerk of the
Navy Dept. of the
U S.
?.I-.a u.:l T:.rres, Charg6
.J'.-.n ,ic.:- of Vene-
zu.. I, ni Ihe U. S.
r-..t.-rr. I; I owry, U. S.
Cti.-ul -i: La Guayra

3.1 ar u I Tof res, Chargh
d .r.l .:-- of Colom-
btai .ir : .shington
Surn.i..

James Monroe, Sec. of
State

Same
Same

Same
John Graham, Chief
Clerk, Dept. of State
Same
James Monroe, President
of the U. S.

of State

Vicente Pazos, Commis-
sioner for the Independ-
ent Govt. of South
America to the U. S.
of State
Same

Manuel Torres, Charg6
d'Affaires of Venezuela
in the U. S.

Jan. 1, 1813

Jan. 4, 1813
Feb. 17, 1813

Jan.22, 186
Nov. 30, 1816

Dec. 6, 1816
May 21, 1817

May 22, 1817

Jan. 15, 1818

April 30, 1818

Dec. II, 1818

Aug. 14, 1819

John Quincy Adams, Sec. Sept. 29,
of State

Same

Same

Same

Same
Same

Same

Oct. 20, 1819

Dec. o1, 1819

Jan. 25, 1820

Feb.4,1820
March 18, 1820

May 20, 18io

1167

1168
1168

1169
1169

1172
1173

1174

1175

1176

1176

1177

1178

1182

1183

1184

1184
1185

LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II

PART VI.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM (GREAT) COLOMBIA (Continued)

Doc.
No. From To Date Page
No.

Charles S. Todd, Con-
fidential Agent of the
U. S. to Colombia
Same
Same

Same

Same
Same
Same
Same
Manuel Torres, Charg6
d'Affaires of Colom-
bia at Washington
Charles S. Todd, Con-
fidential Agent of the
U. S. to Colombia
Same
Same

Same
Same

Manuel Torres, Charge
d'Affaires of Colom-
bia at Washington
Same
Charles S. Todd, Con-
fidential Agent of the
U. S. to Colombia
Robert K. Lowry, U. S.
Consul at La Guayra
Same
Manuel Torres, Charg6
d'Affaires of Colom-
bia at Washington
Same
Same
Robert K. Lowry, U. S.
Consul at La
Guayra
Manuel Torres, Charg6i
d'Affaires of Colom-
bia at Washington

of State

Same
Juan Roscio, Vice Presi-
dent of Colombia
of State
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same

Same

Same
Jos6 R. Revenga, Sec. of
State of Colombia
Captain Ewald Behrmann
of State
Same

Same
Same

Same

Same
Same

Same
Same
Same

Same

July 12, 1820

July 18, 1820
Aug. 2, 1820

Aug. 19, 1820

Aug. 29, 1820
Sept., 1820
Oct. 5, 1820
Nov. 26, 1820
Dec. 15, i820

Dec. 23, 1820

Feb. 13, 1821
Feb. 15, 1821

Feb. 16, 1821
Feb. 20, 1821

Same

Feb.25, 1821
May 8, 1821

Sept. 22, 1821

Nov. 23, 1821
Nov. 30, 1821

Dec. 30, 1821
Jan. 2, 1822
March 20, 1822

April 6, 1822

1190

1192
1193

1194

1196
1197
1199
1200
1200

1202

1203
1204

1204
1205

1206

1209
1210

1211

1212
1212

1216
1217
1217

1218

xxi1

LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II

xxiii

PART V'I.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM (GREAT) COLOMBIA (Continued)

o. From To Date Page
No.

Robert K. Lowry, U. S.
Consul at La Guayra
Same
Same
Charles S. Todd,
Confidential Agent
of the U. S. to
Colombia
Robert K. Lowry,
U.S. Consul at
La Guayra
Charles S. Todd, Con-
fidential Agent of the
U. S. to Colombia
Pedro Gual, Sec. of
State for Foreign Af-
fairs of Colombia
Charles S. Todd, Confi-
dential Agent of the
U. S. to Colombia
Same

Same

Pedro Gual, Sec. of
State for Foreign Af-
fairs of Columbia
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
S mer

,m i.

of State
Same
Same
Same

Same

Pedro Gual, Secretary of
State for Foreign Af-
fairs of Colombia
Charles S. Todd, Confi-
dential Agent of the
U. S. to Colombia
of State

Pedro Gual, Sec. of State
for Foreign Affairs of
Colombia
of State
Charles S. Todd, Confi-
dential Agent of the
U. S. to Columbia
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Francisco de Paula San-
tander, Vice President
and Acting President
of Colombia
Conference with Francisco
de Paula Santander,
Vice President and Act-
ing President of
Colombia
of State

April 16, 1822

July 9, 1822
Sept. 22, 1822
Oct. 15, 1822

Dec. 24, 1822

Dec. 26, 1822

Jan. 2, 1823

Same

Jan. 4, 1823

Jan. 8,1823

Jan. 29, 1823

Feb. 5, 1823
Feb. 28, 1823
March 6, 1823
March 29, 1823
April 17, 1823
May 8, 1823
May 20, 1823
May 29, 1823
June I, 1823

June 16, 1823

July 4, 1823

V LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II

PART VI.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM (GREAT) COLOMBIA (Continued)

Doc.
No. From To
No.

Charles S. Todd, Confi-
dential Agent of the
U. S. to Colombia
Same
Same
Richard C. Anderson,
Jr., U. S. Minister to
Colombia
Same

Same

Charles S. Todd, Confi-
dential Agent of the
U. S. to Colombia
Richard C. Anderson,
Jr., U. S. Minister to
Colombia
Same
Jos6 Maria Salazar,
Colombian Minister
to the U. S.
Richard C. Anderson,
Jr., U. S. Minister to
Colombia
Jos6 Maria Salazar,
Colombian Minister
to the U. S.
Same
Same
Richard C. Anderson,
Jr., U. S. Minister to
Colombia
Same
Jos6 Maria Salazar,
Colombian Minister
to the U. S.
Jos6 R. Revenga,
Secretary of State for
Foreign Affairs of
Colombia
Jos6 Maria Salazar,
Colombian Minister
to the U. S.
Richard C. Anderson,
Jr., U. S. Minister to
Colombia

of State

Same
Same
Same

Pedro Gual, Sec. of State
for Foreign Affairs of
Colombia
of State
Same

Same

Same
Same

Same

Henry Clay, Sec. of State

Same
Same
Same

Same
Same

Richard C. Anderson, Jr.,
U. S. Minister to
Colombia

Henry Clay, Sec. of
State

Same

xxi

Oct. 5, 1823
Nov. 18,1823
Jan. 4, 1824

Jan. 8, 1824

Jan. 19, 1824

Jan. 28, 1824

Feb. 7, 1824

March 18, 1824
July 2, 1824

Aug. 18, 1824

May 5, 1825

Nov. 2, 1825
Dec. 30, 1825
Feb.7,1826

March 9, 1826
March o1, 1826

March 17, 1826

March 19, 1826

Same

1265

1266
1268
1268

1269

1272

1278

1278

1279
1281

1283

1283

1286
1288
1291

1292
1293

1294

LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II

PART VI.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM (GREAT) COLOMBIA (Continued)

Doc. From To Date Page
No.

John M. Foster, Vice
Consul of the U. S.
at La Guayra
Same
Same
Beaufort T. Watts, Act-
ing Charg6 d'Affaircs
of the U. S. at Bogota
Jos6 Maria Salazar,
Colombian Minister
to the U. S.
J. G. A. Williamson,
U. S. Consul at La
Guayra
Same
Same
William Wheelwright,
U. S. Consul at
Guayaquil
Beaufort T. Watts,
Acting Charg6 d'Af-
faires of the U. S. at
Bogota
Same

J. G. A. Williamson,
U. S. Consul at La
Guayra
William Wheelwright,
U. S. Consul at
Guayaquil
Jos6 R. Revenga,
Sec. of State for
Foreign Affairs of
Colombia
Beaufort T. Watts,
Charge d'Affaires of
the U. S. at Bogota
Same

Jose Manuel Restrepo,
Sec. of State for
Foreign Affairs of
Colombia
Bl3ulort T. Watts,
U S Charg6 d'Af-
faires it Bogota

Henry Clay, Sec. of
State

Same
Same
Same

Same

Same

Same
Same
Same

Same

Sim6n Bolivar, Presi-
dent of Colombia
Henry Clay, Sec. of State

Same

Beaufort T. Watts, Act-
ing Charg6 d'Affaires
of the U. S. at Bogota

Henry Clay, Secretary
of State

Jos6 Manuel Restrepo,
Sec. of State for For-
eign Affairs of Colombia
Beaufort T. Watts, U. S.
Charge d'Affaires at
Bogota

Jos6 Manuel Restrepo,
Sec. of State for For-
eign Affairs of Colombia

May 15, 1826

July 2, 1826
Aug. 2, 1826
Nov. 7, 1826

Nov.20, 1826

Nov. 25,1826

Nov. 26, 1826
Dec. 17, 1826
Feb. 22, 1827

March 14, 1827

March 15, 1827

April 3, 1827

April 5, 1827

April 21, 1827

May 14, 1827

June I, 1827

June 7, 1827

Same

1299

1300
1301
1302

1303

1304

1305
1306
1308

1309

1310

1310

13Io

1311

1312

1313

1313

1314

XXV

LIST OF DOCUMENT S IN VOLUME [I

PART VI.-COMMUNICA.TIONS FR.'OM (. ciT)-T Coi.O',ir' (NC,'t ,ll

Doc.
No.

674

675

676

677
678

679

680

681

682
683

684

685

686

687
688
689
690
691

T.-.

iPIau.l..r T \'ii a, ii 5
I-',rc_. J'Alirc. n
t:..-.p:i.

IIf.nr. r Cl ', .:c. ,f 'Stj JjIune 14. ':..'7

From

Jose Manuel Restr.:rpo.
Sec. of State for For-
eign Affairs of
Colombia
Beaufort T. Watts,
U. S. Charge d'Af-
faires at Bogota
Same

Same
William Wheelwright,
U. S. Consul at
Guayaquil
Beaufort T. Watts,
U. S. Charge d'Af-
faires at Bogota
Alejandro Velez, Co-
lombian Charg6
d'Affaires at
Washington
William H. Harrison,
U. S. Minister to
Colombia
Same
De Medina, Colombian
Consul General in
the U. S.
William H. Harrison,
U. S. Minister to
Colombia
Estanislao Vergara, Sec.
of State for Foreign
Affairs of Colombia
William II. Harrison,
U. S. Minister to
Colombia
Same
Same
Same
Same
J. G. A. Williamson,
U. S. Consul at La
Guayra
Same

Same

]..'-r M n.irit l i:c,:trcI po,
Sc. ,A -'i t., f.-.r I ,r.
r, n All.-iir:r ,of Ci,-.l,,rrl-.ia
lienr,,' C l,'. :*.*c. i H .:, ,tili
*iine

Same

Same

Martin Van Buren, Sec.
of State

Same
Same

Same

William H. Harrison,
U. S. Minister to
Colombia
Martin Van Buren, Sec.
of State

Same
Same
Same
Same
Same

..Jne 1 i. iS.-- 1314

June :2, 1:7

Junr. 27. 1'27
Jure:. 1.2,-

March o1, 1828

Oct. 13, 1828

March 28, 1829

March 30, 1829
April 16, 1829

May 14, 1829

May 15, 1829

May 16, 1829

May 27, 1829
June 22, 1829
July 28, 1829
Sept. 7, 1829
Nov. 26, 1829

Dec. 12, 1829

1319

1320

1324

1325

1326
1327

1329

1330

1332

1333
1336
1338
1340
1341

xxvi

LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II XXvii

PART VI.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM (GREAT) COLOMBIA (Continued)

Doc. From To Date Page
No.

693

694

695

696

697

698

699

700
701

702

703

704

705

706

707
708

709

SI

711
71:

Thomas P. Moore,
U S. Minister to
Colombia
J. G. A. Williamson,
U. S. Consul at La
Guayra
Thomas P Moore,
U. S Minister to
Colombia
Franklin I itchfield,
U. S. Consul at
Puerto (abello
A. B. Nones, U. S. Con-
sul at Maracaibo
D. 1. Urbaneja, Sec. of
State for Foreign
Affairs of Venezuela
Thomas P. Moore,
U. S. Minister to
Colombia
Same
Franklin L.itchfield,
U. S (onsul at
Puerto Cabello
Thomas P Moore, U. S.
Minister to Colonbia
A. B. Nones, U. S.
Consul at Maracaibo
J. G. A. Williamson,
U. S. Consul at La
Guayra
Thomas P. Moore,
U. S Minister to
Colombia
A. B. Nones, U. S.
Consul at Maracaibo
Same
Franklin Litchfield,
U. S. Consul at
Puerto Cabcllo
Thomas P. Moore,
U. S. Minister to
Colombia
'aj Tit
'.' me
iSame

Martin Van Buren, Sec.
of State

Same

Same

Jos6 Antonio Paez, Civil
and Military Chief of
Venezuela
Martin Van Buren, Sec.
of State
Franklin Litchfield, U. S.
Consul at Puerto
Cabello
Martin Van Buren, Sec.
of State

Same
Same

Same

Same

Same

Same

Same

Same
Same

Same

Same
Same
Same

Dec. 21, 1829

Jan. 13, 1830

Jan. 21, 1830

Jan.25,1830

Jan. 27, 1830

Feb. 4, 1830

Feb. 6, 1830

Feb.20,1830
March-, 1830

March 27, 1830

Same

April 29, 1830

May 7, 1830

May 18, 1830

June 17, 1830
July I, 1830

Oct. 21, 1830

Nov. 7, 1830
Nov. 28, 1830
Jan. 14, 1831

1346

1347

1348

1350

1351

1352

1353

1354
1355

1357

1357

1359

1360

1361

1362
1363

1363

1365
1365
1366

LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II

PART VII.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM FRANCE

oc. From To Date Page
No.

Jonathan Russell,
Charge d'Affaires at
Paris
Joel Barlow, U. S.
Minister to France
Same

Albert Gallatin, U. S.
Minister to France
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Daniel Sheldon, Jr.,
U. S. Charge d'Af-
Paris
Albert Gallatin, U. S.
Minister to France
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Daniel Sheldon, Jr.,
U. S. Charge d'Af-
Paris
Same
Same
Same
Same
James Brown, U. S.
Minister to France
Same
Same
Same
Same

James Monroe, Sec. of
State

Same

Duke of Bassano, Minis-
ter of Foreign Affairs
of France
of State
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same

Same

Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same

Same
Same
Same
Same
Same

Same
Same
Same
Same

Sept. 2, 1811

Sept. 29, 1811

Jan. 8, 1812

Jan. 17, 1818

May 4, 1818
June 18, 1818
July 6, 1818
July 22, 1818
Aug. to, 1818
Oct. 20, 1818

Nov. 5, 1818

Nov. 7, 1818
Dec. o1, i818
Jan. 4, 1819
Jan. 20, 1819
Feb. 19, 1819
Feb. 15, 1820
April 26, 1822
June 24, 1823
Oct. 18, 1823

Oct. 30, 1823
Nov. 29, 1823
Jan. 18, 1824
Feb. 19, 1824
April 16, 1824

May 28, 1824
Aug. I1, 1824
Jan. 30, 1825
Feb. 26, 1825

1371

1372

1373

1374

1377
1379
1382
1382
1383
1385

1386

1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398

1399
1400
1401
1404
1405

14o6
1406
1407
1409

xxvili

LIST OF DOCUMENTS IN VOLUME II

PART VII.-COMMUNICATIONS FROM FRANCE (Continued)

Doc. From To Date Page
No.

James Brown, U. S.
Minister to France
Same
Same
Same
Same

Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same

Henry Clay, Sec. of State I March 22, 1825

742

743

July io, 1825
July 15, 1825
Dec. 23, 1825
Jan. 2, 1826

Jan. 10, 1826
Jan. II, 1826
March 12, 1826
March 22, 1826
April 27, 1826
May 18, 1826
Sept. 23, 1826
Oct. 22, 1826

Same
Same
Same
Baron de Damas, Minis-
ter for Foreign Affairs
of France
Henry Clay, Sec. of State
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same

747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754

xx1X

NOT E

The idioa-,ncri ic- of spelling, puncture -
lion, capitalizaJion jand grmnrnar of lth
original manuscript rtand un.correcte.J in
lthi print. e\Cept in ca- of rianife-t and
inad\errent trror, % here the correction
could in noAii ajrf-.i the ;cne.

xxx

PART III
COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

321
Thomas Sumter, Jr., United States Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil,,
to Robert Smith, Secretary of State of the United States 2
[EXTRACT]
RIO DE JANEIRO, July 23, 1810.
In my letter of the 9 of June I mentioned that there was nothing new in
relation to the rest of South America-in a few days after the unexpected
intelligence arrived here of a revolution having taken place at Buenos
Ayres The proclamations of the provisional govt., which I forward by
this opportunity will shew what are their professions & the circular of the
Marquis Yrujo will shew his construction of their objects-for the rest the
world is so well acquainted, at this day, with the language & course of rev-
olutions that it will no doubt infer that these people will be more guided
by circumstances hereafter than by their present promises-
I presume the disposition which was manifested here some time ago to make
some pretensions in favor of the eventual right of the Princess of Brazil has
been laid aside for want of encouragement from the British govert It is de-
sirable to this court no doubt both from motives of national pride & sound
policy to wish to regain the River Plate as their boundary to the South-
therefore it is not improbable that the British go'. may be solicited to use
their influence to obtain this much in an amicable way & it is expected that
this may the more easily be done because the people of Montevideo & those
of Buenos Ayres dislike each other & disagree at this time in their
Measures-tho' it is conjectured by some that the difference is more in the
course than in the tendency of these measures- It must also be difficult
to judge what may be the ultimate designs of Great Britain respecting the
Spanish American Colonies If she can gain the direction of them in any
way it will then become a question of interest as well as of friendship in
\hat manner she shall act between them & the Prince Regent.
The Portuguese govt. have 8 or Io,ooo troops (they say) near that
fronteer-they seem to expect and perhaps hope, that Peru & Chili will op-
poet the views of Buenos Ayres-this would afford a temptation to act-at
present however I believe no hostility is meditated-nor will any be likely
to take place unless it should be countenanced by England-unless the
Spaniards should be imprudent enough to provoke an attack- The Bed-
ford Man of War sailed from this place with the news of this revolution
1 See above, pt. I, footnote 1 to doc. 3.
2 MS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugal] I.

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

The Merchants here state that the new Govt. of Buenos Ayres have dimin-
ished the duty on exports to 15 per. ct. on the valuation, which formerly aver-
aged about 40-& that they were disposed to make a similar reduction on
that of imports which, together with the impositions suffered in consequence
of the necessity of employing Spanish agents, was calculated at about 40 per
c'. but this has not yet been done because those who imported at the old
rate have had influence enough to procure a delay in their favor-however it
is understood that the present importer gains a considerable advantage by
being released from the necessity of consigning his property to a Spaniard
who subjected his employees to many extortions-
The Count de Linhares promised me sometime since to remind the Prince
of appointing a Minister to the United States & he informed me verbally the
day before yesterday that the Prince had fixed on one but that it was not yet
known whether he would accept or not- He observed however that if any
delay should occur it must not be attributed to any cause but the difficulty of
finding a person at the same time willing & qualified to undertake such a mis-
sion as the Prince was necessarily restricted in his choice-many of those who
followed him being grandees or public men attached from inclination or office
to his person & most of the Cadets of their families being still in Europe-
It is presumable that by the time the treaty with England shall be di-
vulged, or soon after, some idea may be formed of the general policy which
will henceforth operate on the commerce of the American Continent & the
development of her views will afford a proper occasion of knowing on what
footing this gov'. will find it expedient to place that of the United States-
Until then I do not think it advisable to press any specific or mutual points
in an official form- As long as sanguine hopes exist here with respect to
European affairs & they will exist as long as any chance remains in favor of
success against France, the Character of this Court will remain European-
This country is contemplated merely as a wilderness which is valuable only
as a place of refuge occasionally but not worthy of being considered the seat
of empire- This sentiment which reaches the prince or descends from
him Places him in the unfortunate predicament of being surrounded by
subjects animated by different interests-the Europeans who emigrated with
him depend on his bounty for a support which he can only supply at the ex-
pense of the Brazilian- The favorites may become unpopular (and they
are said to be much so already) & in time this indisposition towards them
may affect the royal family-
The voyages are unusually long this season- We have no news here
from Spain or Portugal later than the 25 of April & none from the United
States later than the 7th of the same month-

DOCUMENT 322: OCTOBER 2, 18IO 671
322
Thomas Sumter, Jr., United States Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil,
to Robert Smith, Secretary of State of the United States
[EXTRACT]
RIO DE JANEIRO, October 2, i8Io.
The misfortune which was to be most dreaded at Buenos Ayres has at
length arrived-they have dipped their hands in blood-& when this is
once done there is no saying when or where the practice will end-especially
among a people where there must exist much ignorance, much passion &
where the designing will find all sorts of materials fit for confusion & but few
adapted to the purposes of order & self government- Liniers and several
others taken with him in his flight from Cordova towards Peru were shot a
few leagues from Buenos Ayres under the sanction it is said of a trial which
took place at the former city- We only know the fact-the charges & the
proofs of guilt are not yet divulged- The Montevideans have blockaded
the port of Buenos Ayres & the Capt of a british armed vessel has given great
offence both to the Spaniards & english Merchants by ordering all the vessels
of his nation arriving there to repair to Maldonado to wait for orders -they
both consider this conduct as conforming to the views of Montevideo &
contradictory to the countenance given by Lord Strangford to the Junta
of Buenos Ayres- It ought perhaps only to prove that the British Minis-
try have left their officers on that Station without a plan in regard to Spanish
America depending upon the people and a few Agents to bring about what
they must desire in the Colonies without exposing them to the hazard of a
rupture with old Spain where a diversion & a market are desirable as long
as possible-an English sloop of war has brought despatches as late as the
to or 12th of Sept. from the Merchants & the Junta it is believed to Lord
Strangford & the English Admiral De Courcey-the latter I learn is propos-
ing to proceed to the river Plate-but for what purpose I know not- It is
certain that the Minister of Spain has complained warmly of Lord Strang-
ford's conduct guarded as it was in his communications with the Junta-
MS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugal] I.

672 PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL
323
Thomas Sumter, Jr., United States Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil,
to Robert Smith, Secretary of State of the United States
[EXTRACT]
RIO DE JANEIRO, October 17, z8zo.
No news has arrived from Buenos Ayres since the Io or 12 of Sep.--
Admiral de Courcey has proceeded to the river Plate in the Fondroyant,
the only English ship of the lijle now on this coast, I am inclined to believe
that both his instructions & disposition will prevent him from taking any
decisive steps until further orders from England which he may AKpect
from day to day-in the mean time it is to be apprehended that the confusion
in that Colony will increase-

324
Thomas Sumter, Jr., United States Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil,
to Robert Smith, Secretary of State of the United States
[EXTRACT]
RIO DE JANEIRO, February 5, 1811.
M'. Poinsett was still here & received his packet- He sailed five days
afterwards for Buenos Ayres-
Soon after his departure from the United States you will have heard of the
blockade of Buenos Ayres by the Governor of Monte-video-who I believe
has been excited to this conduct rather by the advice & sanction of the Span-
ish Minister at this court (at the instigation of the Princess Carlotta who is
said to have found money for the occasion) than by orders from Spain-
Several of my letters too will have shewn the extraordinary suspicions
which are entertained here, and diffused through South America, of our
Countrymen as vehicles of french projects and however the Spanish, English
& Portuguese Ministers may agree or differ on other points- In this they
all agree- To make an alarm on this ground, with or without reason, is a
proof of vigilance and attachment to the good cause-
These circumstances considered-it will be perceived that this was not so
smooth a route to Buenos Ayres as it appeared to be at Washington, previous
to the knowledge of them- And that a passport, which he expected to get
from the Spanish Minister, could not be asked for without encountering ob-
jections equal to those which prevented his asking one from the Spanish
Agents in the United States-nor without running the risk of exciting suspi-
I MS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugall I.

DOCUMENT 324: FEBRUARY 5, 1811 673

cions which might have the effect of stopping his progress either here or in
the river Plate-
Not being aware of those things he was announced here as an American
officer bringing despatches for me-and altho' this kind of eclat was obviated
as much as it could be it was no longer possible to use the best plea which
could be assigned for going to that river at such a time as this is-which plea
is business-no other of a private nature would be considered at all reason-
able-
He went away in an English Merchant ship with some letters from the
English Consul (and some officers to whom he had been introduced) to officers
and Merchants of the same nation at Montevideo, Buenos Ayres & the Cape
of Good hope-this vessel was to go direct to Buenos Ayres-but should she
be brought too by the blockading squadron he will probably from his appear-
ance & the superscription of these letters, be taken for an Englishman, and,
in case he should, by any chance, get to Montevideo he has a letter from me
(copy enclosed) to the governor of that City, on the subject of our commerce,
which it may be hoped will be a sufficient recommendation to the good offices
of that officer as long as he shall find it necessary to remain within his juris-
diction-
As the Using of this letter, however, depends upon a contingency, which
will be avoided if possible, & the letter itself will be destroyed if it should be
found useless-there is no occasion to say anything of it at present-
You will perceive that it is intended to be innocent whether the authority
exercised at Montevideo should prove to be legitimate or not-the represen-
tation respecting the state of our Commerce is rather such as might be sup-
posed than such as was known to be real (for no certain information had been
obtained) and the reasoning against the british Monoply was purposely
pas-ed upon the assumption that the exception which exists in favor of that
latter is certainly the fact-for the Governor refused to acquiesce in any ar-
rangement which Admiral de Courcey professed for keeping the ports open to
british vessels only until they could receive orders from their respective
courts; and, finally, declared that he only submitted to superior force in neg-
lecting to sustain the blockade in all its rigor against them- The Spanish
Minister approved not only of this resistance-but would have approved of
every other kind & degree of it-
The actual & possible state of affairs in that quarter, and the difficulty of
inducing any certain or regular supply of money from the United States,
made Mr. Poinsett think it necessary to be provided with letters of credit
which might supply his wants at any place where he might find himself- I
procured him these on my private guarantee from a house in Rio & should he
find it necessary to use them I shall, unless otherwise directed, draw on the
department of State for the amount of his bills paid here-

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

I cannot help feeling a good deal of anxiety on the issue of this voyage
but, I am happy to say that I find much encouragement in the report of an
American vessel just arrived in this port from that of Buenos Ayres--"that
interior provinces in the views of the Junta of Buenos ayres, together with
the discontent among the Montevidean troops for the want of pay, will soon
extinguish their opposition altogether-
The Young Gentleman whose name is on the gazettes enclosed left Buenos
Ayres on the 20 of december the Blockading squadron was then in service-but
it was not vigilant & had allowed some of our vessels to pass: by which I hope
you will be able to get some better information than I have been able to ac-
quire here- He says he knew one of the Junta personally-that they were
very anxious to know the sentiments of our government on their revolu-
tion He thinks they will not grant any peculiar privileges to any partic-
ular nation in commerce and that they in consent with Peru & Chili will
declare their independence in two or three months- It is but lately
nevertheless that the Marquis Yrujo professed to have high hopes from the
loyalists of those two provinces & thought that a combination of their
strength with the blockade would effectually reduce the Junta of Buenos
Ayres to submission- It would seem by the Gazettes that the effort he
expected has been made & has proved unsuccessful-
Your observations respecting the Ascendency of the british interest in this
Cabinet are very just and you will see by my letters that I have been fully
convinced of the fact & that the views you have suggested did not escape my
attention-but while the Court wants support not only in Europe but here &
the Merchants are getting rich on the sacrifices of English property, from the
English wanting markets, there is no prospect of their being discontented
with the present arrangement- In short the Portuguese-& the English
think (and I agree with them) that all things considered-this treaty is favor-
able to this Country-& I presume you will hear the first complaints of it
from British merchants & british statesmen-& whenever there happens a
change in the Ministry here the advantages will be pursued which at present
may be allowed to sleep-

DOCUMENT 326: NOVEMBER 26, 1811 675
325
Thomas Sumter, Jr., United States Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil,
to Robert Smith, Secretary of State of the United States
[EXTRACT]
Rio DE JANEIRO, June 6, i81i.
I met at the British Consul's last night Cap'. Elliottwho had just returned
from the Montevideo station in 6 days-
He informs me that the insurrection around that town is general and that
some troops from B Ayres are near the place-but, that the ViceRoy having
embargoed all the provisions he has a supply for at least three months & it is
his opinion that the town is strong enough to resist any attacks that can be
made upon it in that time-
This gentleman's impressions with respect to the division of sentiment in
all these provinces agree with rather than contradict those which I expressed
to M'. Poinsett in the letter from which I took the extract inserted in mine
to you of the 4th. inst He seems to think, however, with Mr. Poinsett that
Saavedra's party notwithstanding its hostility to Costellis (which is for im-
mediate independence) will pursue that object but with more temperance-

326
Thomas Sumter, Jr., United States Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil,
to James Monroe, Secretary of State of the United States
[EXTRACT]
Rio DE JANEIRO, November 26, Z8zz.
It is impossible for me to judge how far England may have been consulted
in the forming or may be engaged in promoting the adoption of this new con-
stitution on this side of the Atlantic- It appears clear from the conduct of
her agents that she has, heretofore encouraged the colonies to establish their
independence and by her jealousy of the interference of any other nation that
she has expected to be rewarded by them with some great advantage in trade.
It is certain, however, that the junta of Buenos Ayres has never yielded her
those advantages-and if her disappointments have been equal in other
places her Ministers may, perhaps, have found it more convenient to make
some arrangements with the mother country and to try their influence in the
restoration of harmony-particularly as much of the value of Spain, as an
auxiliary in the war, must depend upon her regaining supplies of money from
the colonies-
I MS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugal] I.

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

These considerations together with their unceasing desire to curtail our
trade or to fashion it to their own purposes, in which the colonies did not
sufficiently favour them, may have produced some modification in their
policy as to them-
I learned some time ago from the Spanish Minister that some propositions
were to be made to the colonies under the mediation of England and
that if they were not acceeded to in a certain time the latter would be pledged
to enforce the acceptance-but I thought the less of this project-then-be-
cause on mentioning it to Lord Strangford he treated it as a thing absurd in
policy and above the daring of the British Ministry- One thing I think is
evident,-and it is-that if England should, for any reasons, seriously coop-
erate with Spain in the reestablishment of any firm connexions between her
and these possessions she will have stipulated great advantages for herself
and probably will have procured such equitable terms for them as will
render nothing more than her friendly influence necessary to engage their ac-
ceptance of them and there is no doubt but that her influence is great among
them-

327
Thomas Sumter, Jr., United States Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil,
to James Monroe, Secretary of State of the United States'
[EXTRACT]
RIO DE JANEIRO, December 5, i8ii.
SIR: Since I had the honor of addressing you a letter of the 26-30 Ulto by
the Edward Captain Breeze for New York I have received the enclosed
Buenos Ayres and Monte-Video papers by an American who left the latter of
these places on the 18thUltmo-- These journals though not regular in point of
date will throw some light on the current opinions and feelings respecting the
late pacification between the New junta and the Vice-Roy- They corobo-
rate in some degree the opinion I mentioned of the Spanish minister "that the
fear of the Peruvian Army induced the junta to adopt that measure: and that
an ignorance of the success of that army and of the state of the interior prov-
inces induced the Vice roy to acquiese in it" but they do not seem to verify
another idea of his that "that New junta were only creatures of Saavedras
party pushed forward under favour of that ignorance of their real state, in
which the Vice roy found himself, to make a temporary peace: which the dis-
asters of their army required and thereby to screen Saavedra and his friends
from the odium of making it-and to leave them free in case of any favour-
able event, to return to power when the danger was past and to pursue the
I MS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugal] 1.

DOCUMENT 327: DECEMBER 5, 1811 677

schemes of independence which are attributed to them" These journals do
not extend far enough back to discover the immediate causes or pretences for
the change in the junta, but it seems obvious from the tenor of the acts and
sentiments of the New junta that they are, whether desirous of independence
or reconciliation with Spain, labouring to make themselves popular with all
parties and to make both Saavedra and Castelli unpopular-for they treat
the revolution of the 5 and 6 of April, in which the former triumphed over
the latter, as a sedition and yet in restoring the sufferers by it they omit Cas-
telli alone-
There is also to be noticed an observation of the Vice roy in one of his let-
ters to Admiral Decourcy printed in the Buenos Ayres Gazette of the 17 of
October, which from its being made simultaneously with the change in the
Junta, and its being almost immediately followed by a pacification with the
new one, encourages the inference that there existed an understanding be-
tween the latter and himself: which, if well founded, would imply that the
new Junta represent the party, disposed to reconciliation rather than any
other- The observation alluded to purports "that he was then negotiating
to restore peace and prosperity to the inhabitants of that country according
to his own sentiments and the paternal views of his Govert."
miral, set up under a great parade of'mediation on the part of England with
Spain, makes it probable that the Cortes had taught him how to estimate
Portuguese troops into their territory-which was the work of the Spanish
minister at this Court and the Princess Carlotta-and it is believed it was as-
sented to by the Prince contrary to the desire of the British Minister because
it really suited his own wishes and those particularly of his War Minister who
has felt a strong temptation to avail himself of the present state of things-
to occupy-or perhaps to produce such a one as would afford a pretext for
retaining possession of the Eastern bank of the Rio de la Plata: and even to
gain the settlements on the Paraguay which both from position and strength
would be formidable enemies to the mine and Wheat countries of Brazil-
This seeming understanding between Eleo and the new Junta, his manner
of treating Admiral Decourcey in his correspondence and supporting his
ground afterwards by severely cripling an English Merchantman, which at-
tempted to go off without her papers, and refusing any satisfaction for it; the
making the pacification without the concurrence of the Portuguese comman-
der or his Govt.-as I supposed-and the stipulation to unite against any
orders from the Cortes signifying their intention to rest the future connection
with the colonies upon the merits of the new constitution and for this purpose
to disembarrass the colonies and themselves as much as possible of all med-
dling foreigners. This idea gains also a little support from their having re-

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

called him in the latter part of July, he being personally obnoxious to the
colony, and, about the same time, the marquis Yrujo who rendered himself
odious to those people by the active part he took in exciting Vigodet the
former Governor of Monte Video and the Peruvians to oppose the Junta-
and by procuring the aid of the Portuguese army which is a measure not
relished by the Montivideans themselves-
If the new Junta is really disposed to favour the reconciliation, and this I
find is the opinion of Lord Strangford, and the Cortes should have adopted
the plan of trusting the fate of the new constitution to the discretion of the
people it will have arrived at a most favourable moment- When a pause in
the war will give an opportunity to all parties to estimate the evils of conten-
tion and to the independents a full view of their incapacity for government
and of their present want of means to renew the contest
The old and hereditary jealousy of the Portuguese will go far to excite all
to union; and the temporizing conduct of England, on the subject of the
independence of that colony, will have given the leaders caution-while the
gallant conduct of Elio towards admiral Decourcey's arrogant demands,
made under a parade of English mediation, will give all parties a high idea of
the strength and consequence of the Cortes particularly as he has maintained
the ground he then took in acts-a British armed merchantman before al-
luded to having undertaken to proceed without her papers she was fired on
by the forts and returned her broadside-Eleo sent out a Sloop of War and
nearly sunk her and it is said refuses all apology, explanation or satisfaction
to the English commodore- I therefore cannot help thinking that there will
be a temporary reconciliation and even reunion with the mother country and
that the duration of it will much depend upon the success of the Cortes in
maintaining the war in the Peninsula and in reconciling the other American
Provinces. The war in the Peninsula now seems to depend chiefly upon the
personal feelings of the people, a feeling which has more of hostility in it to
the enemy than of affection to their Govt., together with the precarious and
limited supplies of money and provisions which England can afford and some
new disasters may frustrate the accomplishment of this object- But if the
Junta favour the reconciliation all this will be concealed from the Colonies-
the protracted resistance of Spain and the positive success in Portugal, here-
tofore, will be,represented in the most flattering colours and will have great
effect for a time-
It has lately become extremely difficult to see an English newspaper-very
few merchant vessels arrive and when the merchants receive papers they lend
them to the English or Portuguese Ministers and either do not, or pretend
they do not, receive them again. So that altho' I know there are some pa-
pers here as late as the 23d of September from England I have not been able
to get sight of any later than the middle of August-
It would be extremely difficult, in the United States, to give an idea of the

DOCUMENT 327: DECEMBER 5, 1811 679

industry and by Governments well practiced in the mysteries of the colonial
system to keep out knowledge of all sorts and still more so, to give one of the
ease with which this object is affected to an extraordinary extent-
I have been more minute in offering reasons for this impression of mine
"that the new Junta of Buenos Ayres are disposed to a reconciliation and
that this event will take place" from these circumstances- The It is that it
was known to me, as you will have perceived by my letter No 14 of the 8 of
August, that some agents of the Old Junta had proceeded to the United
States for the purposes therein mentioned-according to the information I
sent agents to England: and that I had some reason to believe that these were
empowered to offer her certain exclusive commercial advantages for keeping
the trade of the River of Plate open to British vessels, in the mode insisted on
by Admiral Decourcey, by which they might be supplied with arms-which
were indispensable to their success- The third was that the Spanish Minister
here appeared to rely, a good deal, on the mediation of England between the
mother country and the colonies, which I did not doubt, if it had taken place,
would have secured great advantages to the commerce of the former-
This opinion of the Marquis and a report in circulation among the british
Merchants that the Spanish Govt, had agreed to confine the trade of la Plata
to the admission of English and Portuguese Vessels made me too apprehen-
sive that the sudden change which had taken place there, and which no one
seemed to know how to account for here, might have had some dependence
upon arrangements entered into between the Cortes and the British Ministry
which might have been communicated to Gerneral Eleo tho' not known here,
and which, arriving at a critical moment in the affairs of the Colony might
have produced or hurried the pacification- I find that in the first part of my
letter I stated this apprehension too strongly and that, altho' I saw the pro-
priety of weakening it in the latter part of the letter which was written after
the marquis had shewn me the constitution and appeared to think the Cortes
meant to rely on that rather than on any mediation for the reestablishment
of her connexion with the colonies, I did not sufficiently correct the
impression I had before exhibited of the participation of the british
government in the late event which took place at Montevideo- I now
think that Govt had no hand in it.

080 PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL
328
Thomas Sumter, Jr., United States Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil,
to James Monroe, Secretary of State of the United States 1
RIo DE JANEIRO, January 8, I8i2.
SIR: I have the honor to forward by the Gospont bound to New York a
letter addressed to you which I received yesterday from Buenos Ayres to-
gether with eight gazettes of that place and an instrument issued on the 22d
of November by the Executive Govt, entitled Estatuto Provisional-
With these I received a letter from Mr. W. G. Miller dated the Io of De-
cember in which he tells me "Mr. Poinsett had set out a few days before that
date for Chili where he was expected with anxiety"-
He also informs me of a mutiny which occurred on the 7 of December
among some of the troops in that city-which was quelled by the Govt with
considerable loss to the mutineers- He has, no doubt, given you the details
of this transaction which makes it unnecessary to repeat those communi-
cated to me-
The rotatory Govt. they have proposed; and the state of affairs indicated
by the Gazettes in Peru and the interior provinces, where the indians who
cannot be much attached to either the royalist or independent parties make
the greatest figure in the revolution, discover that they have assorted among
them the elements of interminable confusion-
The sacrifice of power made by the Executive on the 22 of Nov'. though it
appears to have been voluntary came no doubt from necessity, but, if it
comes from either source it is to be feared it will impair their means of pro-
moting either's independence or reconciliation- With such a government
those who wish for Independence, knowing nothing of what it is or ought
to be practically, will be always falling into factions and their struggles will
be, as they have heretofore been, against each other- The character of all
classes is tainted with violent passions and the Soldiery is said to have be-
come extremely licentious-
According toM. Miller's account the Executive have shown great energyin
the affair of the mutiny and were preparing to put to death every IOth man
of the Soldiery who surrendered- It is questionable, I think, whether a
measure of such severity, adopted by a Govt so unstable, will not rather
excite than check enterprises against it-
I this morning sent the Marquis Yrujo the Buenos Ayres Gazettes-on
returning them he says in his note "On me dit dans ce moment que par un
batiment arrive hier ausoir il paroit que la plus grand confusion regnoit encore
dans la dite ville le nombre de morts allant d6jA audelA de Ioo personnes"-
He expects the Vice roy Elio here every day on his return to Spain and will
accompany him with his family- It is possible that when this officer arrives
MS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugal] I.

DOCUMENT 330: JULY 24, 1812 681

I may be able to know, through the Marquis, something more certain than I
do at present of the real state of affairs in Buenos Ayres Peru and Chili
I have the honor [etc.].

329
Thomas Sumter, Jr., United States Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil,
to James Monroe, Secretary of State of the United States
[EXTRACT]
RIo DE JANEIRO, July I, 1812.
I have the honor to enclose a duplicate of my letter N. 17. of the 8 of last
month-and Buenos Ayres gazettes up to the 27th of december-
You will perceive that the new Executive has already relieved themselves
of the deputies of the old Junta to whom they had very lately promised a
share in power & have sent them to their towns & provinces- Then a letter
I have received of the 27th decr. there is reason to believe there will soon
be another explosion-& that in the executive- In the meantime they are
going on with the trial of several persons implicated in the Conspiracy of the
7th of that month & have got possession both of Castelli & Saavedra & will
try them both- Those having been the Lords of the independent party, the
one vigorous & the other moderate, and all the deputies of the old junta
wrong, it becomes impossible to conceive how those men can be pursuing in-
dependence, as they profess to be, when they are destroying & defying all
who ever supported it-it would seem that their measures must in the end
have the effect if not the design of throwing everything but into the hands of
the Spanish party-

330
Thomas Sumter, Jr., United States Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil,
to James Monroe, Secretary of State of the United States
[EXTRACT]
RIO DE JANEIRO, July 24, 1812.
I have had no direct news from the river plate lately- The Portuguese
troops arrived at Colonia opposite B Ayres without much opposition-and
about the last of may a sort of truce (precedent to a treaty to be guarantied
by tlie british king) was announced in the B. ayres gazette-as also the dec-
laration that the armies on either side were retiring to their own limits-it
I MS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugal] I.

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

was insinuated in the gazette that this measure was solicited by the Prince-
this has produced a paragraph in the gazette of Rio de janeiro, of the 15 in?-,
in which it seems to be intended to contend it the insinuation of the solicita-
tion coming from the Prince-and the fact of the retreat of his army-the
official explanation amounts to this-that the measure was yielded to by the
Prince solely in conformity with the beneficent views of his Britannic maj-
esty, in his capacity of mediator between Spain and her colonies, and that a
suspension of hostilities was the object during the discussion expected from
that mediation-

331
Thomas Sumter, Jr., United States Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil,
to James Monroe, Secretary of State of the United States-
[EXTRACT]
Rio DE JANEIRO, May 9, 1813.
We have no very lat? news from Buenos Ayres-the Peruvian army under
Goyancche still maintains its position in Potosi-the possession of those
mines and Montevideo, has been wisely calculated upon to diminish the re-
sources of Buenos Ayres- They have been held most pertinaciously in the
expectation of a considerable force from Spain-which the Spanish govt had
promised-I still think that the executive of three who made the pacifica-
tion with montevideo 18 or 20 months ago, about the time that Goyoncche
took his position, would have made terms with Spain had skillful men been
sent to them.
Montevideo has been invested on the land side for some time, and begins
to suffer for want of provisions; or rather from the want of funds to procure
a sufficiency, which they might do from having the communication open by
water- I think if Spain does not supply them with funds for this purpose, or
with troops sufficient to raise the siege, they will not hold out more than a
month or two longer, their surrender I think will not take place from disaf-
fection, or from the capacity of their enemy to force a surrender, but from
the resources of the inhabitants being much exhausted by the two sieges they
have supported chiefly at their own expence- The people of the provinces
of la Plata have established a constituent assembly, which you will see by
the Gazette of the 5th of February attribute to themselves the power and
title of sovereignty: I have no special information on this subject, it is not
improbable you may have some of a more direct kind-I cannot say what
degree of importance they attach to being recognized by other govts, nor
am I able to say how far such a desire would be complied with by any. This
MS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugal] I.

DOCUMENT 331: MAY 9, 1813 683

Govt has always felt great anxiety about Montevideo-but has acted with
great irresolution-the british enjoy the chief of the trade in the present state
of things, and keep a vessel of war (at present a frigate of 32) opposite or
near Buenos Ayres to receive the collections of money and send it off-the
exportation of it being prohibited-for this reason, and the desire of keeping
well both with Spain and Buenos Ayres, they keep this Govt in check and
offer their mediation either to Buenos Ayres or Montevideo whenever the
circumstances require it-it seems to be their policy to keep things in equi-
poise until time and circumstances shall teach them how to act for their own
interest.-
It is my opinion that the resistance of Montevideo, or the want of posses-
sion of it, has always greatly damped the ardor of the party for independence:
It is therefore highly probable that when they gain it, the opposite party will
be equally discouraged, and that this acquisition will so animate the govt as
to make them propose their recognition to foreign nations under some con-
ditions respecting the enjoyment of trade with them-
I am not informed how our Govt stands at this time with regard to Spain-
nor do I believe that the trade of the plata will be as valuable to us hereafter,
as it was under the colonial regime, when Spain was at war with Gt. Britain.
But I think a demonstration of having friends in that quarter would not
be unuseful to us during this war-whether the thing existed in appearance
only, or reality- In my intercourse with this Govt, I have confined myself
to giving the impression that we might have friends in any part of Spanish
america whenever we chuse, and that such friends might be or become dan-
gerous to our enemies should such appear-the suggestion I think has been
of some importance in this quarter, for to have the faculty, and not to use it,
shows a present forbearance and a future resource.-Perhaps, if the English
commerce should be too hard pressed, it may become important to her to
try to enlist her allies against us, if it be merely to confine our cruizers more
at home, where she could the more easily restrain or watch them-
The disposition of Buenos Ayres towards us is good, and in the event of
their acting as I have supposed they will after gaining Montevideo, if not be-
fore, the President will judge how far it may be allowable or useful to notice
their Govt--either by some mark of courtesy or aid-either may be given by
the call of some of our frigates-they will want, for the use of their cause
either some display of respect or a supply of musquets or both- The very
appearance of an american frigate makes a sensation in every part of america-
You will excuse me for hazarding these reflections-it is done upon a con-
viction that we need expect no peace while the present English Ministers
remain in power, so capable as they are of deluding and leading their nation
always ready for any war which promises a temporary profit or the prostra-
tion of a rival commerce-and so capable as they are of going to every ex-
treme however injurious even to their allies- The power and protection of

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

Spain, is as nothing in america and the interests and influence of England
are supplanting them gradually in all her possessions-the effect, and its ob-
ject, are to be concealed as long as the Peninsula is an object with England-
The question with our Govt in this state of things, is rather one respecting
an english and american union which may be injurious to them, than of Span-
ish power or property- Such a ministry, supported and sanctioned by the
unanimous approbation of a parliament, in which no single man was found
bold enough, and sufficiently informed to prove against them their errors
their ignorance and their deceptions with respect to american affairs, and
the causes of the war, and to acknowledge and explain that no nation could
submit to that kind of peace which they say and no doubt did wish to main-
tain with us-that is a peace which permitted them to destroy our commer-
cial and sovereign rights with quietude or at least only covered by tedious
and unavailing negotiations- Such a ministry, so sanctioned when they
ought to have been overthrown both for producing the war and the con-
ducting it, may be expected to leave no weapon unused against us-they
will try to identify our cause with that of France and to mislead all nations
in this respect-this ought to be particularly guarded against with Russia
Sweden and Denmark: and I can hardly think of any measure, applicable
to destroying british influence in any part of america, which would be too
vigorous for us to look to the adoption of, in consequence of the prospect
opened to us in the british parliament and cabinet-I have no late news
from Chili-I expect some by a particular conveyance in course of this
month-

332
Thomas Sumter, Jr., United States Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil,
to the American Ministers at European Posts'
[EXTRACT]
RIO DE JANEIRO, June 30, 1814.
With respect to Portugal, Spain must hereafter weigh more upon
it than formerly-Brazil is situated in the same way in relation to Spanish
America-Peru has always remained loyal-Chili though it last year made
some vigorous advances towards independence under the noble & influential
family of the Carreras, has lately overturned them, and adheres to the new
constitution-it has already elected deputies-the bordering settlement of
Paraguay, it has always equivocated with the government of Buenos Ayres
-it is therefore to be considered loyal-as to Buenos Ayres, it has been at
times spirited, but always weak or rash in its projects-the leaders have
MS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugal] Ia.

DOCUMENT 332: JUNE 30, 1814 685

indeed been always made to wait by great britain, for the time to arrive when
the fate of the Peninsula should decide her policy with respect to Spanish
America. I have not doubted for more than two years past, that the secret
& efficient leaders had determined not to take any irrevocable step towards
real independence, unless the circumstances of Spain or the protection of
england should secure them. the independent party however, has remained
strong enough to carry on their measures, & from their strength are perhaps
permitted to do so by the other parties, not well combined, under the ex-
pectation of soon receiving a sufficient force to calm or subdue them, with
less mischief than would occur from a struggle between the two, when nearly
equal in numbers and the independents in possession of the military, the
arms etc-the latter may perhaps even yet take montevideo before succors
arrive, having lately procured a squadron which has overcome that of monte-
video & cut off their supplies of provision & fuel: but, did they possess that
city, they could not long maintain themselves in it against a force which could
blockade the place by land and sea-the want of arms, or revenue &c
would soon make them yield it, & the most which can now be expected will
be, that they must soon receive protection from england, reconcile them-
selves to Spain, or flying into the upper provinces & securing the mines of
Potosi, carry on a tedious war of defence in those mountains-
One of their late executive of three, Saratea [Sarratea], who made the
pacification more than two years ago with Montevideo, was here in
december on his way to england.
The spanish minister here got an idea that he might be going with improper
propositions to england, he therefore made some himself to the Buenos Ayres
govt. which have not succeeded. he in fact employed in this service a span-
iard who is a british pensioner & agent-Saratea's object in encouraging the
minister's propositions, I believe, was to conceal the true nature of his own in
going to england .. Which I think was, first to make some connexion
with that power, and secondly should that fail, to use her mediation for a
reconciliation with Spain. I think that the result of his mission will, one
way or other, terminate the present govt of Buenos Ayres or confine its ad-
herents as I before suggested to the interior. The Spanish settlements on
and near the Amazon, complete the cordon which embraces Brazil; whether
we include or exclude Cayenne now in the portuguese possession
One object of these details is to shew, that whether the countries around
Brazil shall be directed by Spain or england, this govt has some reason for
inquietude here, as well as in Portugal: and that, considering the form,
strength and exposition of the portuguese dominions, which only fringe the
continents, and whose islands produce little more than refreshments to voyag-
ers & want necessaries themselves; considering that great part of the com-
merce is in the hands of the english, and great part of the navigation under
this lag is english; they have temporary grounds to fear & conciliate her, and

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

permanent ones to wish to fortify themselves in every quarter: The govern-
ment is by no means insensible to the nature of their connexion with england,
and the people every where are adverse to her; the fear of a greater evil being
now removed-connexions, the least capable of being excepted against open-
ly or thwarted secretly by england, will be the first attempted: I believe
that one great motive in appointing this commission, is to put by for a while
the election which the prince must make soon, or avoid making altogether,
until the settlement of europe within itself & that of europe & america, shall
have been shaped; or some family alliances secured, which are expected to
secure political ones; or perhaps some territorial exchanges; which may free
the choice between Portugal & Brazil as the Royal residence from many if
not all the present hazards & difficulties-

333
Thomas Sumter, Jr., United States Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil,
to James Monroe, Secretary of State of the United States
[EXTRACTS]
RIO DE JANEIRO, July 23, 1814.
The fall of Montevideo into the hands of B- Ayres, without british pro-
tection, could have ensured the latter nothing long against the combination
of Peru, Chili & Spain, which might have been expected with certainty, had
Spain remained quiet within: but from the manner in which Ferdinand's con-
duct is represented here (I have not yet seen his proclamation of the 4 of
May) the troubles before Spain, & the destruction or alteration of the con-
stitution which will probably ensue & consume much time, which might have
been employed in calming or subjecting the american provinces, will unques-
tionably give the latter a new impulsion, and a more general & determined
desire than they have heretofore felt for a separation from the mother coun-
try- In annulling all the acts of the government during his absence, as he
is said to have done, he seems to have placed all the powers with which they
had formed alliances at best in a state to follow their own views with respect
to the independence of america-The only motive I presume which could
make other nations prefer the constitutional connexion between these colo-
nies and spain, to their independence, will be found in the apprehension of
their necessarily falling too much under the control of (and contributing too
much in the case to) the power & influence of England, the only nation capa-
ble of protecting at present their independence & their commerce against
the efforts which Spain pacified in any way will make against them-
MS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugal] Ia.

DOCUMENT 333: JULY 23, 1814 687

There were here some loyal Spaniards who had fled from B. Ayres and Mon-
tevedeo-on knowing the proceedings of the king towards Spain, to which he
owes so much, and believing as they do, that he is swayed by a few designing
men and daring officers of the army, shewing thereby that like his father he
will become the tool of knaves & favorites, they have declared that they
would return to those places; & take their chance among those whom they
heretofore considered their worst enemies-This sentiment seems natural,
and perhaps will be extensive among the old spaniards: but a great majority
of all the spaniards in america are more inclined to monarchy than to repub-
lican government: but the want of eminent men among themselves, has been
favorable to their adherance to spain, and at the same time has in a degree
assisted the demonstrations of the real republican party-which I believe is
small-
Perhaps the only lasting advantage which mankind will derive from the
french revolution, will be that produced by the conviction acquired amidst
all its confusion & in its end, that a limited government, that is a govern-
ment, of whatever name, founded upon a sufficiently extensive representation
either of individuals or classes, is the only safe medium between the despot-
ism of one and of many- The french royalists and nobles who did not
emigrate at first, or who returned into france, either had originally, or soon
acquired this sentiment-and the fear of the french princes and the remain-
ing emigrants who were chiefly of the court party (who were long deter-
mined upon no other restoration than that of the old govt. with its system
of court favor, intrigue & the consequent abuses) baffled all the plans of
counter revolution among them, as much perhaps as the fear of
vengeance and confiscation did among those who by the name of constitu-
tional monarchists & republicans had acquired distinction or property-the
careful circumscription of the kingly prerogatives in the new constitution of
Spain, shews the prevalence of the same sentiments there-similar features
are observable in the new one offered to Louis the 18th under such peculiar
circumstances- The emigrants & court favorites are every where guarded
against-and in public-but the trait not the least surprising in the latter
instance, is the facility with which the allied sovereigns, who may be said to
have presided over its formation, acquiesed in the establishment of its prin-
ciples-this would seem to be an evidence against the prudence of Ferdi-
nand-
If those sovereigns are convinced of the utility of limiting the kingly
authority by a substantial representation, it may be hoped that they will not
oppose the introduction of this principle gradually into their own countries:
and this, becoming general, it might produce an assimilation of governments
which may in the end tend to diminish discontents in each nation, and, pro-
ducing more real equality among sovereigns, diminish the objects and pre-
tences of distrust, of defence, and of war, and of course of expense-the two

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

latter being in reality the two evils which the majority of mankind are most
interested in the avoidance of, & from which they suffer the most-
The Spaniards of America, besides their characteristic dispositions in
favor of monarchy & its splendor, have had, as France had in the outset,
some bitter proofs of the dangers of anarchy to persons and property: and
as all the evil is carefully attributed to the republican principles pretended
by the leading party, who are obliged to talk of equality to the lower classes,
the superior ones fly from what they are persuaded will be worse in its
strength and maturity, than they find it in its birth and infancy: not perceiv-
ing that the principles of action in a republic are always necessarily the
strongest and most irregular at its birth; and especially so, when it springs
out of old & corrupt monarchies, or out of ignorant and oppressed colonies-
If the king of Spain therefore, succeeds in reestablishing the old spanish
monarchy, he will do it apparently against the sentiment of Europe: and
will have thrown away, in my opinion, a fair chance of reconciling under the
constitution the greater part if not the whole of america: to which reconcilia-
tion the merits of Spain in the cause of the allies, would have probably
inclined most of the continental sovereigns-and this might have neutralized
or nullified the objects of England in opposition to it- This govt. is con-
siderably alarmed at the fate of Montevedeo as it well may be, whether that
place is to remain in the hands of Buenos Ayres, really independent, or
under the direction of England: & yet the Prince thinks that Ferdinand has
acted with great wisdom & courage-his courtiers already think one diffi-
culty removed out of the way of his return to Lisbon-and this may be true,
but not in their sense: for should it produce the separation of America from
Spain, in any way, it may be found more difficult to stay here than to go to
Portugal-
You will perceive Sir, that when I offered to our ministers the opinion
that Peru would remain faithful, that Chili would be reconciled, and also
that Buenos ayres might be reconciled or subjected, unless supported openly
or covertly by Great Britain, which would soon be determined by the result
of Saratea's mission; I had no conception of the state of things which may
be produced in Spain by the rashness of the king-should this conduct of
his produce the divisions and distractions there, which they seem to us here
to be fitted to produce, all my calculations on the pacification of the colonies
will be deranged-great part of the american spaniards of all parties will
find new motives to exert themselves to separate from Spain-they will
hardly find any powers in Europe disposed to discountenance them-and
England will have neither engagement, check, or motive that I can perceive,
to withhold her countenance or assistance-
They will on the other hand find in their wants of resources, such as she
is best able to supply, and of a carrier, able to take or buy their exports on
their own shares, many motives for securing to her a great balance of such

DOCUMENT 334: MARCH IO, 18I5 689

previous to 1808 England seemed always to expect and want our aid in
opening the colonies near us-perhaps if she were not at war with us, she
might wish not to be, for the same reasons-particularly as she is supposed
as those have indicated a nearer approach towards our institutions than
these in my view incline to-
I do not suppose that these events will produce any alteration in the views
of this govt., as to the formation of the alliances of which I spoke-or in the
objects of them-every thing, however, which may tend to increase the
weight or influence of England in this quarter, will tend to diminish and
throw to a distance their hopes of being rescued quietly from her pressure,
by the influence & claims of other nations, from which such relief might be
expected-

334
Thomas Sumter, Jr., United States Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil,
to the Minister of the United States at London or Paris, or to any or either
of those who negotiated the treaty of peace at Ghent being at London
[EXTRACTS]
Rio DE JANEIRO, March zo, 1815.
.It seemed by no means impossible too that Spain and Portugal,
who had taken steps to make all America accessible to general commerce,
might be forced to acquiesce in this scheme of a general confederacy of the
maritime & colonizing powers against the prosperity of the other powers,
from the danger of being separated from their American & other foreign
possessions, if they should venture to oppose England's views as to the aboli-
tion of the Slave trade, or of reestablishing the colonial system in their great
continental dominions of America; both of which measures are necessary to
the interest and security of her small colonies, and those of the above
powers who have been designated as likely to become her confederates, al-
most all of whom have already abolished the Slave trade or promised to do so
in a short time; for were these immense possessions of Spain & Portugal to
become permanently open, to the commerce of Europe & America, with the
Slax- trade existing exclusively in their favor, they would soon Sap the
colonial system by confining each metropole to the consumption of her own
cl-onial products, and could soon, if it were an object, destroy their existence
as colonies, from the mutual benefit the free States in America and the great
States without colonies in Europe would derive from their direct intercourse,
MS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugal] Ia.

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

which would in proportion to their several faculties and intelligence augment
their navigation their agriculture, manufactures and maritime strength-
It must be confessed that this sort of policy was in June last attributed to
England & to the other maritime states rather upon calculation than upon
any distinct proofs or indications of her views or theirs-
It was observable that she had however done much to attach Sweden to
her, and to secure Holland, very much-Sicily and Naples too as nations of a
different maritime description were either chained or won to her side-Of
Portugal she seemed sure and from her footing in the Spanish colonies,
gained since the Spanish revolution, she might have hoped to coerce Spain to
serve her purposes-as to the abolition of the Slave trade, and as to the mod-
ification of the trade to Spanish America, provided the constitution of the
Cortes had remained in force, so as not to let it interfere too much with the
colonial products of the confederacy and their markets-
The two difficulties at that time the most prominent in the way of England
appeared to be Ist. the indisposition of the Prince Regent of Portugal to
abolish the Slave trade and to restore the colonial system here: or rather his
his repugnance to be pressed or hurried on the other two points-2d. the pros-
pect then existing that the Spanish colonies, tired of their divisions and fruit-
less efforts for independence separate from Spain, would have yielded to the
consolidation enacted in the constitution of the Cortes, under some modifica-
tion or other, which would have left their commerce accessible in some liberal
shape to other powers and particularly to those of Europe which having no
colonies would find themselves interested to influence and protect Spain, and
also Portugal, in adopting and persisting in their new anticolonial policy,
by comprehending America and its commerce in the system of balance to be
projected out of the new state of things-
It seemed at the same time possible by a proper understanding and
guarantee of these interests between the great inland powers of Europe and
Spain, Portugal and the United States, the joint possessors of all continental
America which produce articles wanted by the former, and nothing in rival-
ship, with them, to raise such a map of influence against England & her co-
lonial system, whatever it might be, as would have detached France, Holland,
Sweden and Denmark from her policy in this respect, particularly as what
they were likely to recover in their colonies would be too much exposed for
them in their present weak state to promise any great or lasting advantage,
unless their possession & protection should be provided for in some general
scheme of defence armed or unarmed against the commercial and maritime
preponderance of England- The choice for them to make would lie be-
tween, security for their colonies with a limited but lasting enjoyment of
them, in peace with the continents of Europe & America, united to restrain
England to peace and the natural profits of her own colonies and foreign

DOCUMENT 334: MARCH 10, 1815

possessions- Or, alliance with & dependence upon England, with the
prospect of being dragged into all her differences and Wars commercial or
political with the north of Europe and with the continental powers of Amer-
ica- Such a state of things would perhaps extinguish the colonial system
which has so long disturbed Europe, and place commerce on a better footing
than it ever has been-
The first of these difficulties maintains its full force apparently, that is
the indisposition of the Prince Regent of Portugal to reestablish the colonial
system in Brazil and to abolish the Slave trade; but as England presses
for both, this difficulty it is to be feared will be removed out of her way,
without the Prince is supported and strengthened in his views for the inde-
pendence of Brazil, which views will perhaps necessarily decline or become
extinct in his mind, should he return to Europe, where all his subjects are in
league with the English for the restoration here of the colonial system-
The 2d. difficulty anticipated for England, Viz. the freedom of the Spanish
colonies united to Spain, has been probably annihilated by the conduct of
Ferdinand 7. But the same difficulty will present itself to her in another
form; That is, their separate independence; which Spain alone will not be able
to prevent by force, which has not the disposition to prevent it by conces-
sions; & which she seems also not to be willing to guard against by paying the
price which would procure England's assistance against their independence-
Now their independence, either united with, or separate from Spain, would
be of equal advantage to those nations which seek nothing but their equitable
share of commerce- But the danger is, that if these countries and their
interests are totally neglected by the powers of continental Europe, their
divisions and fears of Spain and of such allies as Spain may make, may
throw them into the arms of England; nominally free perhaps, but with a
real dependence upon her commercial policy either sole or connected with the
other maritime powers,- Now the question here presented for considera-
tion appears to me to be this- Whether other nations and particularly
those of Europe who have no colonies, and those of America, the United
States and Brazil for example who want none, will do well or not to remain
quiet and let the Spanish Islands and some of the smaller colonies be added,
as is probable, to the colonies of England; and the large ones owe and give her
advantages in commerce & intercourse for her protection?- The conduct
of England to Portugal and Brazil indicates her natural policy to Spain &
Spanish America; for no reason can be seen why she should wish the reestab-
lishment of the colonial system in Brazil, where, while free, she already has
secured great advantages by treaty, which must be given up; and the inde-
pendence of the Spanish colonies, which are of themselves sufficient to supply
all Europe and the United States with colonial products, to the detriment of
her colonies-
It is therefore probable that the intractibility of Ferdinand on the sub-

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

jects of abolition & colonies to suit the views of the English ministry, will
force it to revert to the antient policy, still popular in England, of seizing
what she can secure in Spanish America, & protecting, at a certain price in
Commercial advantages, the freedom of what she cannot appropriate-
Now let this spoil appertain to England alone, or to a confederacy of mari-
time powers in Europe, the effects thereof must be injurious to all the ex-
cluded powers in Europe & to the United States- It is almost certain also,
that the destiny of Brazil must assimilate with that of Spanish America-
Such views as these I have heretofore thought worthy of the consideration
of the United States and of all the powers of Continental Europe, but espe-
cially of those who having no colonies must be directly interested in the open
Commerce of all America-
It was from the conviction I had, that few or none of the governments
of Europe had just information on the circumstances in this quarter which
could fix or mature their judgements on these views, and the objects and
ends to which the pursuit of them might lead- And from the demonstra-
tion that England was active and earnest in impressing on them the idea,
that every thing in South America was or would be under her influence, and
that such a pretension or such influence if acquired would enable her to hold
high her maritime pretensions and secure them from the present scrutiny
of Europe- It was on these and similar grounds, that I have been anxious
to impress the importance of these subjects upon the minds of our ministers,
and through them, improved by their better judgement, to bring them to the
notice of those ministers or governments in Europe who may have interests
analogous to ours, and who might by the favor of circumstances make ad-
vantageous use of the state of things in this continent for the purpose of
establishing at once, or for promoting, a comprehensive scheme for securing
the peace & lasting prosperity of the two continents, which would indeed
embrace the peace and prosperity of all the world- The maritime powers
in the South and West of Europe have heretofore enjoyed the advantages
produced by colonies & their effects upon wealth & power at the expence of
the great & small powers in the north & East of Europe-
Late events have offered the means and the disposition proper for breaking
that maritime chain, by detaching Spain and Portugal from it, and making
their interest analogous in Europe & America to that of the powers in the
North & East of Europe, already assimilated with the interests & views of
the United States, and all these interests adverse to any colonial system on
the old model-
Will they improve the occasion or not? I think they may be assured,
that if they will not interest themselves in the American affairs of Spain &
Portugal after the decisive invitation of Spain and America, held out in the
Constitution of the Cortes and in the struggles of the Americans-and after
the intimation of this Prince who annulled the colonial system in his domin-

DOCUMENT 334: MARCH 10, 1815 693

ions and wishes to remain in America (as I am certain)- They may be
assured, that they will all fall under the management of England, or of
England & such confederates as she can find among the maritime states,
who having colonies will find it their interest to ruin the Portuguese & Span-
ish colonies for the profit of their own, and to combine against the powers of
the North of Europe, & us, and to make them pay dear for colonial articles
and for the purposes of depressing their navigation & marine power-
England is probably waiting only until they decree the abolition of the
Slave trade at Vienna, to force that measure upon Spain and Portugal, which
will throw all these countries into confusion- Her ministers must antici-
pate this effect, and probably desire it, rather than see South America free,
unless it be connected with or dependent upon England in such a way as to
secure the existence & the superior profits of her own colonies; in the former
state of colonies they did but little injury to hers, and while they gilded
Spain & Portugal they really enriched England & Holland-from experience
they have learned not to fear colonies regulated by Spain & Portugal; if
they should be suddenly deprived, as such, of the slave trade they would
again become wildernesses at least in such parts as produce many of the
articles in rivalship with those of the british islands-for in that state
neither Spain nor Portugal would admit foreign settlers, nor will Spaniards
or Portuguese emigrate to them, to work themselves-I have been astonished
to find what repugnance the lower orders of people in those countries have
to settling in their colonies- It is only from the Western Islands & the
Canaries that they can be induced to move to America, and that only when
famine and their governments drive them to it-
The papers herein enclosed relative to these subjects, together with my
letter of the 30 of June last to our ministers, and those of the i. and 23. of
July to Mr. Monroe which went open into their hands, contain the general
development of my opinions & reasoning on these matters- They will be
found irregular & perhaps not always consistent, because they have been
written down & addressed to different parties, frequently in a hurry, and in
some instances to serve a particular purpose here-
It is hoped that the leading ideas may be sufficiently distinguishable to be
of some use in abler hands than mine, provided the state of the policy of the
United States & that of Europe, which are equally hidden from me, may
authorize the notice of such objects as I have presented to the consideration of
our ministers-
You will see by my note of the I. of January to this government, and
by my Letter of the 8. of the same month to our ministers, how I have
thought and acted as it respects our government, myself, and the interest of
this government, in the affair of the Prince's return to Europe, either with
Admiral Beresford, or in any other way- The Admiral has been here now
moret than two months and it is not perceivable that he is likely to prevail

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

on the Prince to go with him- No answer in writing has been given to my
enquiries on this subject of the I. of January; probably for the reasons here-
tofore intimated by me-that they are extremely desirous to conceal their
real intentions, because those may be open to change, and because they are
anxious to calm Portugal and Brazil and to elude England in this affair,
until the result of the discussions at Vienna, or of their attempts to make
connexions on the continent of Europe may disclose to them what they may
or may not do-in short, they seem to be feeling their way, wishing to be
determined by the continent of Europe what to do-and fearing that they
may be obliged to be influenced by England-
The minister of foreign affairs, however, in conversation endeavors to
make me understand and believe, that the Prince is not anxious to find
himself in Europe, until the difficulties supposed to exist respecting Poland,
Saxony & Italy are adjusted-but as these objects have no visible or im-
mediate connexion with his residence here or at Lisbon, and with the state
of Brazil as colony or not-it may be inferred that these topics are advanced
to elude further enquiry, or to give the impression which he knows I wish to
entertain, that the Prince will not go soon, and perhaps not at all, unless the
general arrangement of affairs in Europe shall promise independence both
to Portugal & Brazil-
Admiral Beresford, who it seems was charged with some special mission
to this court on the subject of his return, may also have had some other
charge respecting the Spanish colonies, and the projected expedition against
them from Spain-for he was soon followed by another Ship of the line, which
with his own and the one stationed here, & some Frigates, together with
others said to be expected, form an extraordinary & unusual force here-
Whether this circumstance has any bearing on these two points or is acci-
dental I cannot well judge- It is certain that it alarms the Brazilians &
the Spanish legation here-
Whatever other objects direct or contingent may have been contemplated
when this expedition of the Duncan (Beresford's Ship) was ordered, I am
still persuaded, as I was in January, that one principal object of it was to have
an effect at Vienna, and also in England & Portugal,-for I have learned
since that time to a certainty, that altho' the Duncan did not finally leave
England till the beginning of November, she was ordered to sail on the first
of October, and that the date of this order corresponded very exactly in point
of time with a determination which may & was probably made on the re-
ceipt of despatches from Lord Castlereagh, soon after his appearance at
Vienna-
I know also that the Count de Funchal was at Portsmouth on the 4 of
October, on which date he wrote to a person here speaking rather pettishly
of the fury with which this expedition was got up, and in a conditional man-
ner of the Prince's return; which indicates that no promise to that effect had

DOCUMENT 334: MARCH IO, 1815 695.

passed through his hands-These circumstances combined with others,
and particularly with the arrival here in August & the departure in the latter
part of September of a Brig of War (which did not arrive in England until a
fortnight after Beresford's sailing) and which came to get a positive answer
on this point as is believed here-render it apparent, that he was sent off
without any certainty of succeeding in inducing the Prince to return-
I have reason to believe that the answers by that Brig were evasive, and I
think they are still evasive-for notwithstanding Admiral Beresford still
professes to think and continues to speak as if the Prince will go with
him, he is understood to be unquiet about the success of this part of his
mission. . .
It remains for me now to speak of the current of events in the Spanish
Colonies since my Letters of June & July: and of their present position-I
allude only to those South of the Equator-In my Letter of the 30. of
June,' I wrote under the impression that Ferdinand the 7. was a King in his
senses, that the new constitution might be established in Spain, and believing
that many circumstances existed in the Spanish colonies to lead them to
reconciliation under that constitution, or some modification of it-I said,
however, that Montevideo might soon fall-but that with the possession of
it, the people of Buenos Ayres would not be competent to keep it against
Spain, without the protection or aid of a maritime power-and I surmised,
that if those for reconciliation should not prevail, they could only be inde-
pendent by retiring into the interior &c: And I represented these problems
as probably dependent upon the developementof Saratea's mission to London
and upon the conduct of Spain & England jointly or separately-
It turns out that Montevideo surrendered Io days before my letter was
written, and that the government of Buenos Ayres have formed a similar
calculation as to the value of that place in their hands-for they have since
demolished all the works and. transported all the cannon & military stores
to Buenos Ayres: and, should the expedition from Spain arrive now in force,
they will I think burn that & every town & village on the northern side of
the river-Should the party most determined on separate independence
prevail, they would probably retire up the country after burning Buenos
Ayres if pressed hard there-An expedition in sufficient force to terrify
them, would unite all parties naturally, when milder methods should disunite
them-
During the last summer Chili for a moment recovered the mastery over
the Lima troops, but by its own division fell back into, and in December re-
mained under their control, but discontented-Peru under the Vice Roy
Abascal had always remained loyal-His army is still in the provinces of
La plata. South east of Potosi, and he had kept down the spirit of change
by the prospects held out under the constitution-Since the abolition of
1 See above, pt. II, doc. 332.

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

that, he finds it hard to maintain the cause of the King-Cuzco and about half
of the provinces of Peru proper, are in a state of disturbance-On this
account & no other-as I understand-
If therefore the Buenos Ayres Army should by any means defeat his army
near Potosi-before the arrival of the Expedition draws them off towards
Buenos Ayres, it is likely that there may be a general revolution in Peru-
but I do not mean to say that this would settle anything definitively for
Peru; which contains perhaps two millions of people and is decidedly mo-
narchical-it would still be a match for Buenos Ayres & Chili, in population,
whose dispositions or pretensions to republicanism are pretty openly avowed,
but which would be more torn & divided by factions-and are probably
incapable of forming either stable republics, for want of a sufficient number
of moderate & disinterested men, or respectable separate monarchies, for
want of individuals of sufficient distinction, from wealth, talents or services,
to make Kings of-
The Gentlemen who will deliver this packet to our minister in London,
or send it, in default of finding one there, to our Minister at Paris, are two
respectable characters who came here about two months ago, ostensibly on
their way with propositions to Spain: going through England-It is be-
lieved they came here in concert with Lord Strangford, and they expected
to be sent to England immediately in a british Frigate which followed their
arrival in a few days from the River plate, and was to have gone home di-
change seems to have been made in the arrangement, the frigate does not
go to England, & they are to depart tomorrow in the English packet-

335
Thomas Sumter, Jr., United States Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil,
to James Monroe, Secretary of State of the United States 1
[EXTRACTS]
RIO DE JANEIRO, December 29, 1815.
SIR: Under the cover marked A you will find a law which was published
at this court on the 17th inst. which was the Queen's birth day, erecting
Brazil into a kingdom uniting it together with the Kingdoms of Portugal and
Algarves in one political body, and assuming for the Prince a title anologous
to this change and union. The note of the 19th communicating this act and
desiring information thereof to be given to the President, and my answer to it,
are under the same cover. You will perceive Sir, that this act will explain
I MS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugal] Ia.

DOCUMENT 335: DECEMBER 29, 1815 697

the drift of the conversation related in my private letter to you of the 8th
inst. from which I inferred justly that the Prince was determined to impress
the conviction on me and on my government:
That it was neither his policy nor his wish to leave Brazil, or at any rate
that he did not mean to reestablish the colonial system. I did not relate
to you all the particulars and peculiarities of that conversation, but it is
now made evident to me that he then went as near exposing his intention,
as he could go without betraying his secret which was to be developed by
this law.
It is his passion and his pride in the smallest things, as well as his
past policy in the greatest, to keep close his designs and it gives him great
pleasure to enjoy the impositions and surprizes he is thus enabled to commit
upon the curiosity and calculations of others,-his nobility who are nothing
more nor less than his body servants, and follow him everywhere and are
always on the alert often lose their meals and their sleep in consequence of
his impenetrability; but because he out wits their sagacity at so easy a rate,
they think him extremely dextrous & cunning & praise him accordingly for
the possession of the qualities which they admire and cultivate more than
any other: you may suppose, what is the fact, that he has no respect for any
of them, and therefore, that they have no influence on him in public affairs,
he always employs the wisest & most independent of them at a distance
from himself, & keeps his cabinet badly mounted because it suits his taste
to govern without opposition.
You will see by my note of the 21 in answer to the communication of
this event to me, that I have replied to it in the same spirit in which I have
heretofore judged of the interest and policy of the United States on this sub-
the beginning of the present year which was the way then essentially to
oppose the reestablishment of the Colonial system here, which was what
great britain desired to effect by his return, & thereby to prevent the rise
and existence of a maritime power in South America, which might become
very soon a useful connexion in peace or war to all nations having no colo-
nies; and in time a rival & enemy to her colonial & commercial interests, in
the east more particularly- I am not yet certain that I may not have
exceeded or mistaken the views of our government in my judgement of its
policy, which may have undergone, like every thing else in politics, some
change since the date of my instructions.
The determined silence of our ministers in Europe when I was under the
nr-ce ,sity of asking their opinions and advice at a time when the war pre-
ven ted me from receiving the president's instructions on such subjects as the
s'iudden peace of Europe presented more suddenly for consideration here,
madc me apprehend, that they knew or suspected me to be in the wrong,
ind so much in the wrong, as to render it more meritorious in them, or more

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

prudent, to leave one in utter darkness, than to condescend to try to correct
the errors already committed by me, or to enlighten my judgement by their
own, so as to enable me to escape from the danger of falling into the other
errors which naturally follow in the trains of the first-But the circum-
stance of several months having elapsed since the peace removed all diffi-
culty in your communicating with me, and much time since you must have
received from them (if they performed the least of their duties in this re-
spect) the letters I requested them to forward to you after perusing them;
and that of a number of vessels having arrived at this port from those of the
United States, some of them from Baltimore & Alexandria without my
intentions or views of the President in the part I had taken either here or
elsewhere against the reestablishment of the colonial system in Brazil or in
other ports which had been freed from it; I have reassured myself, by neces-
sary inference that I have not been materially wrong in my measures or the
President would have found it absolutely necessary to correct me.
To be consistent on this occasion, I thought it necessary to shew some
sensibility on an event which this government did believe, and had reason
to believe from my late conduct, and from the President's at the period of
the emigration and at that of my mission, would be interesting to our
government-and when the belief of its being so, may have contributed in
some degree to bring it about. Besides this expectation of countenance
from our govt., which the Prince evidently sets some value on since our war
with England, the thing was now done. But notwithstanding the intimation
in the preamble to the law, that it was done with some sort of sanction from
the congress at Vienna, I found none of the European ministers here had
received any notice of that sanction or any such expectation from their
governments & that they therefore were unprepared to make any particular
compliment on the subject, and would make only a very reserved one. This
afforded me an opportunity, without being more wrong than I may have
been heretofore on the same subject, to gain for our government all the
advantage, whatever it may be, or appearing to be more pleased with and
interested in the accomplishment of a measure which is very dear to the
Prince & the people of Brazil, for many reasons, than any other government
besides this prospect.
A private audience was assigned me for the 27th. On my entering
the audience chamber, I was not disappointed to perceive by the Prince's
air that he expected the audience had been demanded solely for the purpose
of making complaints. . I began by telling him, that although in
his absence I had addressed my compliment in course through his minister,
on the elevation of Brazil to the rank & title of a Kingdom I had asked for
this audience among other objects most particularly for the purpose of
having the honor personally to compliment & congratulate him, in the most

DOCUMENT 335: DECEMBER 29, 1815 699

explicit & extensive form that it would be in my power to use previous to
receiving the orders of my government, on the communication of a measure
which might become an interesting one both to America & to Europe
generally-and on the union between his american and European dominions,
on a footing of equality which was certainly a measure very interesting to
himself & to the portuguese monarchy in particular, and which had become
more so, in every sense, since the pacification of Europe in 1814 than it had
been since the establishment of the throne here, because the future inde-
pendence of Brazil had been rendered more doubtful since that pacification.
I said "that the permanent independence of Brazil was in the contempla-
tion of the President at the time of my appointment, that I had been taught
to believe that both governments considered an intercourse and connexion,
on that ground, between Brazil & the U States of more importance than with
his European dominions, that I had as yet had no reason given me to know
or to suppose that anything which may have occurred in other parts of the
world would necessarily diminish the value or alter the propriety of such
connexion, especially now that the determination of making Brazil inde-
pendent would enhance the value of all the portuguese dominions."
He shewed uncommon signs of satisfaction at this address, and inter-
rupted it by saying eagerly, "he was sure I had never doubted of his friend-
ship for the U. States, or of his desire to improve the intercourse and com-
merce between the two countries, however unfavorable circumstances had
at times been towards taking measures proper to promote these objects" I
went on to tell his Royal Highness "that this seemed to be a fit occasion, if
he would permit it, for me to address to him some observations on those
objects which might perhaps have been more regularly addressed to his
minister." He approved of my suggestion, and I observed to him "that the
certitude now given of the independence of Brazil gave a new force and life
to my original instructions, which had been drawn up under impressions
which the state of things on my arrival here proved to be erroneous; or at
least, that all expectation of extending and defining commercial or political
relations by treaty, was found to be out of season at that period, that on
sounding his then minister the Count de Linhares on the subject, and pro-
posing to give & receive the information mutually necessary for the two
governments to possess, according to my instructions, with a view to acquire
a correct understanding of the resources, faculties & interests of both coun-
tries, ;nd thereon to found arrangements likely to be durable and satisfac-
tory, because they might be mutually advantageous, that minister shewed
no disposition to begin this work, and let it be understood, that altho' such
prospects had been encouraged, and might again become eligible, the new
rel-tions formed with England and other circumstances which weighed upon
the policy of this government every where, kept every thing in suspense and
doubt.

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

That at the period of the pacification of Europe, the U. States were in
their turn engaged in war & difficulties, and soon after Europe was in peace,
the doubts which were raised on all sides about the continuance of Brazil in a
state of independence, forbade the renewal of the subject. That for all
these reasons I had necessarily confined myself to keeping my govt. informed
of the state of things here, and to await its orders, which would naturally be
orders analogous to its present views combined with those which might be
manifested here."
The Prince replied "that he was very happy I had spoken on this subject
to him-You know," said he, "you know the real causes of all the circum-
stances you have observed, the times have been very difficult, but now that
the independence of Brazil is fixed, you may begin when you please, I am
always ready" I said I expected very soon to hear from the President whom
I had asked for new instructions in the beginning of this year, when his
neither be inconsistent with my former instructions, nor with any interest I
was now aware of, to give and receive any information which might tend to
advance at any time hereafter any arrangements, which might be found
to be desirable on either side.
I made this last observation for the purpose of discovering, as I was
originally directed, whether he would be disposed to make or to receive
propositions for a treaty, & whether it might be his desire to negotiate it
here, or in the U States, he only repeated "that he was always ready and
willing." I then gave him a second opportunity to discover his views on this
point by saying "But your Royal Highness will permit me to repeat here a
remark which I have heretofore made, but never pressed much upon your
minister, which though of some importance, he has never thought proper to
notice, it is, that the diplomatic relations between the two Countries have
been left for more than 5 years, on a footing of inequality and imperfection
which the govt. of the U States could not account for, unless upon the same
grounds which opposed the advancement to any other more permanent
relations than such as have existed.
I have reason to believe that no equivocation is meant, because Mrs-
Sumter was told in company the next day, that he had on the evening of the
day of my audience related to the minister of policy & others what had
passed on this subject very exactly, and had expressed to them his pleasure
at the manner in which I had behaved to him in this affair, as well as in
what related to the independence of Brazil, etc.

DOCUMENT 336: FEBRUARY 7, 1816 701
336
Thomas Sumter, Jr., United States Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil,
to James Monroe, Secretary of State of the United States1
[EXTRACT]
RIO DE JANEIRO, February 7, 1816.
It might be different also for Peru-if, as it is reputed the mexicans have
declared their independence-provided they could send by sea from Acapulco
or elsewhere on the Pacific some troops to aid the insurrection in Chili,
which is always ready to renew itself upon a signal of assistance, and a
naval force sufficient to intercept the provisions with which Chili furnishes
Peru-
Peru is fatigued and distressed with its tedious and distant wars, and in
December last had considerable apprehensions from disaffection in 3 or 4
of its provinces-and from the expectation that a few cruizers from B.
Ayres would bring some cannon round to Chili, while 8 or 10,000 men should
assail that country by land, where there are not more than 1500 peruvian
troops-
2000 Spaniards, probably a part of General Morrillo's expedition, who had
lately arrived from Panama, gave as much uneasiness to the Viceroy as hope
-for they would not act without pay-and could not obtain that without
threatening to mutiny-It is believed the Viceroy Abascal kept one half
of Peru loyal on the faith of the constitution made by the Cortes-and since
its revocation, on the faith of Ferdinand's promise to make another in due
form-
Is it not a pity that some of the sovereigns of Europe do not interest
themselves as much for these poor people with (or without) Ferdinand, as
they do about the blacks on the western coast of africa-half the pains they
have taken on this latter subject might have calmed America & Spain,
either jointly or separately-insured political and religious toleration to
them-and in a short space of time peopled these fine countries with a race
of whites from the surpluses of Europe; and in that way effected the aboli-
tion of the slavery of the blacks, as well as of the slave trade--& with them
of the colonial system, to the great and lasting advantage of Europe &
America in a political & moral sense- Is it possible that the powers of
Europe which have no colonies can be so blind to their own advantages-as
to let Ferdinand and the English Ministry, against the sense of 3/4 of the
Spanish & English people, succeed in restoring the colonial system in its
ancient limits and rigor, after it had been destroyed in nearly all continental
America by a legitimate authority in Spain and Portugal-The late con-
duct of the Portuguese govt. shews its policy in this respect too clearly to
admit of any farther doubt-anywhere-and it is clear that Ferdinand is
MS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugal] Ia.

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

only supported in his projects by the aid or countenance of the english
ministry, who know that the liberty of commerce in these immense provinces
must depreciate & finally ruin their pitiful islands and their monopoly of
colonial productions-if those powers are sincere in their feelings for the
blacks, let them observe that natural increase & emigration have already
extinguished their slavery in one half of the U. States-without shocks or
injury to them or to Europe-

337
Philip Rutter, Commercial Agent of the United States at Rio de Janeiro, to
James Monroe, Secretary of State of the United States 1
[EXTRACT]
RIO DE JANEIRO, April 4, I817.
That the notes 2, 3, 4 herein sent relating to an embargo here, and the
blockade of Pernambuco will indicate at least that this government con-
siders the rebellion in the province to be serious- The extent and ramifica-
tions of this insurrection are not known to Mr. Sumter. Some apprehend
that all the provinces north of that one are concerned or will take part in it.
Some suppose their discontents are excited from Portugal, some from Eng-
land etc., he thinks that the corruption and extortions favored by the Court;
the maladministration of justice; the decline of industry and commerce
occasioned by the general peace in a great degree; but also by the bad and
foolish regulations of government; as well as a great increase of taxation; are
sufficient to account for a very general discontent, except just around this
capital, where a great many get paid for their loyalty out of the losses of the
other parts of the country-The folly also of making war to the south and
of using so much useless and gratuitous perfidy towards Spain under the
sanction of a marriage, seems to have made considerable impression on
many people-Added to all these errors & difficulties, a long drougth
which has extended over great part of Brazil for nearly two years, renders
provisions scarce and very dear, flour had been at 40 to 50 milreis the barrel
at Pernambuco, nearly the same at Bahia, it is very scarce here, and sells
now at 8 dollars for the arroba of 32 lbs. Rio Grande which is the Country
that supplies Brazil with flour & Salt Beef, has neither to spare, great part
of the inhabitants, having been drawn into service for these eighteen months
past, these branches of industry have been diminished; while the portuguese
armies have had their subsistence to draw from that district-
The Spaniards of the eastern side of the Plate leave nothing in their way
and it is believed, that Buenos Ayres is, or soon will be at open war with
1 MS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugal] II.

DOCUMENT 338: DECEMBER 21, 818 703

them; In the month of February St Martin's army which had been col-
lected at Mendoza, made a sudden erruption into Chili, assisted every
where it appears by the natives; that Kingdom seems likely to be immedi-
ately & entirely released from the domination of Peru, under which it has
now suffered for more than two years; it seems probable that it will be able
to make such attempts on Peru as will oblige the army of the latter which is
now between Jugue & Potosi to retire towards Lapaz or perhaps farther.
There is little doubt, he thinks, that these events will induce the Buenos
Ayres government, which has been temporising with and deceiving this
govt to throw off the mask and join Artigas openly & probably excite
Paraguay to attack them in the north-
These prospects and the insurrection at Pernambuco, if not speedily and
effectually checked, may naturally and dangerously promote mischief in
every direction; he understands that the govt is about to send off immedi-
ately to Portugal for troops-In the meantime the immense preparations
for the acclamation or corronation are suspended, and instead of the bustle
about fire works and shews, all is bustle to get off some troops which will
probably consume three weeks-
I have the honor [etc.].

338
Henry Hill, United States Consul at Rio de Janeiro, to John Quincy Adams,
Secretary of State of the United States
RIo DE JANEIRO, December 21, 1818.
i8th of July, with Commission from the President, appointing me Consul for
this Port, which I did not so soon expect, though perhaps it is a fortunate
circumstance to have received it at this time, notwithstanding I had come
here from Bahia called by some important private concerns, and shall be
obliged to return thither. But before I leave this, I shall acquaint you fully
with my situation and views, and in the meanwhile, if the President should
not have determined on another appointment to fill the Consulate at Bahia,
I shall be happy, if he will attend to the considerations I shall hereafter
expose, for the union of the two.
My reception and confirmation by the King and his Ministers, has been
prompt and flattering; they were pleased to express a wish that I had been
charged with the affairs of my Government; and I am certain, that neither
any personal consideration, nor regard for the interests of the two Countries,
deceive me in the belief of their friendly dispositions, and great desire to
cultivate and strengthen the most amicable relations with the United States,
notwithstanding recent occurrences here, or contrary intimations, and the
1 MS. Consular Letters, Rio de Janeiro, I.

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

depredations committed by an unworthy and marauding class of our Citi-
zens, under piratical or illusive flags, against the unoffending and innocent
Portuguese.
Of this however, Sir, you will learn more by my future communications;
availing myself of the present opportunity only, by way of Havana, to
acquaint you of my confirmation in office, and with the information con-
veyed by the official document, of which enclosed is a copy, relating to the
capture by the Chilians, of the Spanish Frigate La Reyna Maria Isabel,
and three transports of her Convoy.
This has reacted here with great dispatch, by way of Buenos Ayres,
from whence the news is in other respects important, as derived from the
Captain of the British Sloop of War Echeress who brought it.
He confirms the report we had of the embarrassed state of the Buenos
Ayrean Government, for want of either specie or credit, which had induced
it to assess the British Merchants for a loan of 150.ooo Dolls. but was op-
posed by threats of Commodore Bowly, and finally was relinquished-
and adds, that a conspiracy had been detected for the assassination of
Puyredon and Gen1. St Martin, with other chiefs, in which, suspicion was
attached to Mr. Halsey, your late Consul, as being concerned; probably
however, without any other foundation than his late notorious conduct, as
connected with Piratical Privateers, and the fact of his having left Buenos
Ayres a short time previous for Chili; where the plot was to be accomplished
as far as respected Gen'. St. Martin, and the ultimate views of the con-
spirators would be developed in that quarter, (possibly to reinstate the Car-
reras) through the agency of a number of Frenchmen, who had left for the
purpose, about the same time with Mr. Halsey.
I should hope, that with all the follies, and I think crimes, resting upon
the foppish head of this weak personage, he may not prove guilty of this last,
which is imputed to him. The moral defalcation of this man however,
illustrates in a strong point of view, the importance of a change in your
Consular establishment, at least in these distant and immoral Countries,
where, being new, and from the prevalence of vice and ignorance, as yet
you have either a national character to establish, or to support-a change
which shall afford a greater choice of applicants, and place those appointed,
above the necessities or suspicions, attached to Chevaliers d' Industrie,
But of this late conspiracy, a short time will unfold whether it was not
pretended, to extort money from the principal rich Spaniards charged with
being at its head, who are said to have been expatriated, and their estates
confiscated-or whether it was not planned by St. Martin himself, for the
purpose of destroying Puyredon, or by the latter to make away with S'.
Martin, and to get money, either of which may be expected from the intrigu-
ing dispositions of these Spaniards, and the character of the present Gov-

DOCUMENT 338: DECEMBER 21, 1818 705

ernment of Bs. Ayres, & from the late differences which are supposed to have
existed between them, when the latter was lately at Buenos Ayres.
The Portuguese make no further progress in their attempts upon the
Province of Montevideo, being confined to this Garrison, the Islands of
Goviti [?] and Martin Garcia, and the Fort of Colonia. It is an expensive
war to them, which they are little able to maintain in the present state of
their disordered and deficient finances, and having now a new and active
partizan General to oppose in Fructuoso Ribeiro, who acts in conjunction
with Artigas, it is not probable they will be able to obtain greater access to
the Country than they now possess; and probably, they will finally be
obliged to abandon it altogether, either by mediating powers, or from their
extreme necessities. Whenever, or in whatever manner this may happen,
they will then be afflicted by a border war upon the Provinces of Rio Grande
and Matto Groso, where they are now obliged to keep up a considerable
body of Troops under Lt. General Joaquin Xavier Curado-But they will
always have a firm support in the inhabitants of Rio Grande, and a still
stronger in the Peasantry of St Paulo, the finest Province, & the most in-
dustrious and intrepid people of this Country, and who, as well as the Coun-
try people generally of Brazil, have a great attachment to the present King
and Monarchy.
You will infer from hence, Sir, the little probability, in my opinion, of any
considerable effect upon the institutions of this Government by the impress-
ing of surrounding Revolutions, or from other immediate causes. Indeed,
notwithstanding the tendency of the Government to check industry and
oppress individual liberty, it is what no man as an American, should wish
for, either from policy or principle, considering the nature of the population
of the Country, and that it is gradually approximating to an Independence
from Europe, and will naturally find its interest in an amalgamation with the
American family, which it will fall into insensibly, by an assimulation of
manners, habits, the dissemination of education, progress of public opinion
and political relationship.
Since I have so far extended my ideas upon matters, involving in some
degree the Independence of America & questions which are probably now
agitated with great feeling and interest in the United States, which it was
by no means my intention to do in this letter, and which I am incompetent
to from the want of particular political information, more than from the
want of local knowledge and attentive observation upon the character and
state of the people of this Country, or of the Spanish Colonies; I may add,
that the command of the Pacific being now given to the Chilians, the road
lic- open to Lima from thence, in which the armies under S' Martin & Bel-
grano, (if parties and money will permit) will undoubtedly cooperate.
Hence it is a probable calculation that Lima may speedily fall, & the whole
Province become Revolutionized.

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

I should consider this a misfortune to the cause of Republican Inde-
pendence; since it would weaken the opposition of Buenos Ayres & Chili
against Spain, have a tendency to excite in a greater degree than already
exists, the spirit, malevolence and ambition of parties, and to withdraw
them from the importance of consolidating their Governments, that an
example may be afforded to the other colonies; and the world have yet to
learn, something of their moral capacity for self Government.
I have the honor [etc.].

339
John Graham, United States Minister to the Portuguese Court in Brazil, to
John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States'

Private. Rio DE JANEIRO, September 24, 8i9p.
DEAR SIR: The detention of the vessel bound to Philadelphia gives me an
opportunity of forwarding to you the enclosed extracts from a letter I have
just received from a Gentleman of much respectability at Buenos Ayres. I
was prevented from seeing the minister of Foreign Affairs on the 22d Inst as I
With great Respect [etc.].

[ENCLOSURE; EXTRACTS]
"Your enclosure for Judge Prevost I forwarded to him per mail of the
9th. Inst: he still remains at Santiago but informed me lately that in Spring
he should cross the Cordilleras to pay a visit to This City."
"Whether it is owing to the Constitution or to the difference of
personal Character but our present Director does not act as independently
as our former, and his measures are not only scrutinized but often paralized
by the Congress, which in the present Crisis is not perhaps so desirable.
The Levies of Cattle and other Contingencies by Military Commanders
and Government Agents in the Interior have entirely subsided and the ques-
tion of the Constitutionality of measures among the People has become very
general all of which I consider a very happy omen and I should suppose noth-
ing more required now, to consolidate our System, but the arrival and defeat
of the grand Spanish Expedition on the shores of the River .
Indeed Sir it cannot be doubted but that a scene of much confusion and dis-
tress awaits us. The Government have intimated to all Foreigners that
they must declare whether in this Crisis they mean to remain in or quit
the Country, promising protection to those who will remain, but that no-

' MS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugal] III.

2 Undated and unsigned.

DOCUMENT 340: OCTOBER 27, 1820 707

body remaining will be excused from bearing arms. Indeed they want none
but armed Men here on the arrival of the Spaniards, and mean to trans-
port all Women, Children and aged men in the Country, defend the City to
the Utmost, but if unavailing abandon it empty to the Foe-There is not
the least doubt but if the City was constructed of Combustibles we should
see a second Moscow sooner than its delivery to the Spaniards."
"This People and Government are not very partial now to that
of the U: S: they are entirely discouraged now from expecting their acknowl-
edgement or any other favour from them, and have even construed the late
Acts against Pirates as hostile to them. Indeed they do them the injustice
to say that the United States will not acknowledge them as Independent till
it may be their Interest, to do So. I have always endeavour'd to convince
People here of the Policy to send their first talents to Foreign Countries in-
stead of such as they have actually employed on such missions, and which I
venture to say have done more harm than good to them."

340
John James Appleton, United States Charge d'Affaires at Rio de Janeiro, to
John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States '
[EXTRACT]
RIO DE JANEIRO, October 27, 1820.
Every thing remains quiet here but serious fears are entertain'd for
Pernambuco, whose multiplied Relation with Portugal, no less than its re-
cent wounds, place [it] foremost on the list of the disaffected Provinces.
St Salvador is also understood to have a loftier spirit than this place and
would not probably wait for its example if a Constitution was vouchsafed
to Portugal, or the ties which unite the two Countries sever'd. In these
difficult circumstances the King had unfortunately for him no men about him
that can point out the course and boldly take the helm. He is I believe
aware of it, and will probably let the ship of State drift out the storm as well
as it can.
I MS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugal] III.

700 PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL
341
John James Appleton, United States Charge d'Affaires at Rio de Janeiro, to
John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States
[EXTRACT]
Rio DE JANEIRO, November 24, 1820.
There have been some considerable disturbances in the Province of Per-
nambuco. In one Instance they originated in the feuds of neighboring
plantations, in the other, they are ascribed to Religious Enthusiasm. In
both the interference of the Governor with his troops was effectual, but not
until some blood had been spilt- It may yet be that some political object
was cover'd under these appearances

342
Charles G. Weiss, Acting Consul of the United States at Bahia, to John Quincy
Adams, Secretary of State of the United States 2
[EXTRACT]
BAHIA, January 12, 1821.
Your Excellency will be no doubt acquainted with the late occurrences
in Portugal, which cannot fail to have great influence on the tranquillity
of this Country. The decision of the King respecting the proposals made
as to a Constitution &c. is not yet precisely known, but it is rumoured and
pretty generally credited, that he is not in favour of any alteration. What-
ever this decision may be, some alteration must & will take place here and
this perhaps may lead to some disturbances, but I have great pleasure in
adding that there is no doubt that the person as well as the property of
foreigners will under all circumstances be protected.
Mr. Graham having as I understand left Rio de Janeiro some time ago,
& being quite ignorant of his present Residence I beg leave to enclose two
letters I received some time ago for that Gentleman.
I have the honour [etc.].
SMS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugal] III.
2 MS. Consular Letters, St. Salvador, Brazil, II.

DOCUMENT 344: FEBRUARY I8, 1821 709
343
John James Appleton, United States Charge d'Affaires at Rio de Janeiro, to
John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States
[EXTRACT]
RIo DE JANEIRO, January 15, 1821.
We have had a second visit from the Spanish brig of War Achilles. She
brings back the three Commissioners from Buenos Ayres where the Negocia-
tions set on foot in the beginning of December terminated as had previously
done those with Venezuela by a refusal of the Provincial Junta to treat upon
any other base than that of the recognition of their independence. As soon
as the brig arrived at Buenos Ayres it was ordered to be strictly watch'd and
all communication between it and the shore interdicted. They had been
treated at MonteVideo with almost similar rigour by the Portuguese for on
applying for permission to land two of the Commissioners who were unwell
they were told that this liberty could only be granted for the Island dos
Ratos. Notwithstanding this failure the Spaniards still assert that the
Majority of the People are desirous to return under their domination and
are only prevented from doing so by the system of terror established by the
ruling party. This assertion is but poorly confirmed by the fact that Gov-
ernor Rodriguez was out with the troops against the Pampas Indians under
Carrera when the Commission arrived and that the City remained notwith-
standing quiet.

344
Woodbridge Odlin, United States Consul at San Salvador (Bahia), to John
Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States 2
[EXTRACT]
For some time past there have been Suppositions that there Existed a
disposition in the inhabitants of these Sections of the Brazils-to bring
about a Change in the former Government, which event took place on the
morning of Saturday the IIth Inst. mounted Cavelry was discovered in
many parts of the City proclaiming-live the Constitution-they were
Joined by a large concourse of the inhabitants who Joined the Same Cause-
the day was in some respects tumultuous but order was restored before
night and the new Constitution Proclaimed generally-the Patriots. It
seems had Possessed themselves of many strong posts before the Constitu-
1 MS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugal] III.
I MS. Consular Letters, St. Salvador, Brazil, II.

710 PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL
tion was proclaimed-the Governor it is reported ordered General Felis-
burtis who was highest in Command and the first Marshal to the King to
dispossess the Patriots of one of their posts he accordingly advanced at the
head of a Considerable Force but was obliged to retreat with the Loss of a
Field Officer and 15 or 20 Privates more or Less I Cannot Find out Cor-
rectly-the Governor and Marshal has Since Sailed for Rio De Jeneiro in a
British Sloop of War, order, tranquillity and Confidence appears to be
restored- The Portuguese in an event of this Importance have Certainly
Set an example for other Nations by Avoiding discord & Injury-prepara-
tions are making to defend the place they have taken sundry fast Sailing
Merchant's Vessels they also have a frigate and Sloop of War on the Stocks
which could be in service in 4 weeks-the government is offered money
sufficient for their expenses it Said by the inhabitants this Constitution is
Considered to be on the Same principle as at Portugal now they wait Im-
patiently to know the result of the Decision of the King which cannot be
expected until about 30 to 40 days from this in the event of his being ready
to give It. Many times the Portuguese vessels have a Passage from Rio to
this City 20 to 30 days-
I am [etc.].

345
Woodbridge Odlin, United States Consul at San Salvador (Bahia), to John
Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States1
[EXTRACT]
I also informed you of a Change which took place Respecting this govern-
ment The I Ith Ultimo-all is quiet Since merchants are liberal in Supporting
the new government with money and they appear to be determined to de-
fend themselves If the King does not Sign the new Constitution which is
the prevailing opinion he will- It is expected they will obtain the decision
of the King Very Soon on the Subject-
We have information from Pernambuco Stating they have brought about
the Same Change There in the government.
With High respect I am [etc.].
I MS. Consular Letters, St. Salvador, Brazil, II.

DOCUMENT 348: APRIL 14, 1821

346
Woodbridge Odlin, United States Consul at San Salvador (Bahia), to John
Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States
[EXTRACT]
SIR: This day arrived an English Vessel From Pernambuco which brings
dispatches-it is reported-to this government taken from a frigate which
had arrived there from Rio de Jeneiro with the Official information That the
King had agreed to sign the New Constitution. This news appears to be
Confirmed by a rejoicing which has taken Place this day by fire of Cannon
from forts and Vessel in the Harbour.

347
P. Sartoris, Acting Consul of the United States at Rio de Janeiro, to John
Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States 2
[EXTRACT]
RIo DE JANEIRO, April 14, 1821.
Mr. Appleton being at once the more able & more proper person thro'
whose channel you receive political intelligence, I have withheld from ac-
quainting you with the events we have lately witnessed. I only beg leave
to add to this letter one word of politics and it is this, that notwithstanding
every preparation is daily making for the departure of the King of Portugal
for Lisbon, and every thing seems to indicate that he must and will go to-
wards the end of this month, yet I am one of the few who believe that he
personally will never leave this country.
I am [etc.].

348
Woodbridge Odlin, United States Consul at San Salvador (Bahia), to John
Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States
[EXTRACT)
SIR: Late confirmation has been received here from Rio de Jeneiro that the
King had consented to Swear to Support the new-Constitution they are
daily in Celebration by Illuminations and firing of Cannon here-
1 MS. Consular Letters, St. Salvador, Brazil, II.
2 MS. Consular Letters, Rio de Janeiro, I.

711

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

349
P. Sartoris, Acting Consul of the United States at Rio de Janeiro, to John
Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States
RIo DE JANEIRO, May 12, 1821.
SIR: It is so much Mr. Appleton's business, as long as he remains in this
country, to inform you of its political changes, and I believe him so very
capable of doing it, that I have thought it useless to write to you myself on
that subject. I would therefore not trouble you now, if the private letter I
took the liberty to address you by the Congress (explanatory of my difference
with Mr. Sumter) did not contain also a few words respecting the departure
of the King which happened a few days afterwards contrary to my prognos-
tication in that letter.2 Perhaps you may not be displeased in my inform-
ing you of a few circumstances relative to this affair, which are not likely to
find their way out of this place.
The fact is that the same weakness of which the King has given such
proofs, had caused him to alter his mind for the third time, and I have the
strongest ground for believing that in the beginning of April he had directed
his confidential men to put indirect impediments to the preparations which
were making for his departure and that from another quarter great activity
for these preparations was shewn and recommended. The embarcation of
the live stock had been twice ordered and twice countermanded: Some thing
or other there evidently was which did not go straight.-The Prince and
his friend the Lt Dos [?] Arcos who suspected his intention being postpone-
ment upon postponement & suspecting I believe very justly that the King
only wanted a pretext (which might be brought to him by the first arrival
from Portugal) for staying, probably agreed upon the expediency of bring-
ing on a popular commotion, which might give another heavy blow to the
King's returning confidence in his Brazilian subjects. This object was
admirably brought about by the movement of the 21 of April: after that,
every thing went of itself and the King sailed on the 26.
We are enjoying now a state of perfect tranquility and, if the Prince should
pursue the plans of reform and retrenchment, which he has already begun
and shall also gradually correct abuses, I do not think it impossible that his
popularity may recover the wound it received on the 22 April and that he
may for a long time remain Prince or King of Brazil.
I am [etc.].
SMS. Consular Letters, Rio de Janeiro, I.
2See above, pt. m, doc. 347, under date April 14, 1821.

DOCUMENT 350: MAY, 1821 713
350
Henry Hill, United States Consul at Rio de Janeiro, to John Quincy Adams,
Secretary of State of the United States
[EXTRACTS]
COLOMBIANA BRAZILL), COMARCA DE Po. SEGURO, May, 1821.
SIR: The particulars of the Revolution at Bahia on the Ioth of February
last, you will doubtless have learned through various channels, as likewise
the most important subsequent events relating thereto.
In this retired and remote situation, alienated from all the sources of public
information, and even from private intelligence, I have scarcely become ac-
quainted with any of the details of those events, and only know the circum-
stances of the Revolution as it overthrew the Royal Gov'. of the Province,
and placed in its stead a Decemvirate with the title of Provisional Governmt;
-& that on the 26th of February, the King & Royal Princes solemnly swore
before the Tribunal of the People at Rio de Janeiro, or Camaca, to observe
and support the Constitution then forming by the Cortez of Portugal, and
that a total change of Ministry succeeded, the same day. To have thus
hastily sworn to a Constitution by anticipation, of which he could neither
know the conditions, obligations or tendencies, it is very evident that the
King must have had other fears before his eyes, than the fear of God.
Louis the Sixteenth refused to ratify by his Oath, the first Constitution
which was presented to him by the National Assembly, without some modi-
fications of it; which ought to have been considered a sufficient proof of his
sincerity; to have produced a sense of moderation in the people of France,
and to have led to a renewal of confidence between them and himself.
If this did not happen, what can be expected from the precipitate oath of
the King on the present occasion, but that it will destroy all confidence in his
sincerity and good faith?
However this may be, it confirms at once the destruction of his authority
& Government. But there has been long a total relaxation of every moral
principle in this Government; the fibres of which had become so attenuated
by corruption as scarcely to afford the least energy to its political existence,
and to give no security to it from the fidelity and attachment of the people.
It was seen by the Bachanalian conspiracy of Pernambucco, with what facil-
ity a Revolution might be effected in this Country; as it was also seen by it,
what a ridiculous people these Brazilians are, and that they are wholly in-
capable of self Government. But it was to be expected that the Revolution
in Portugal, would extend to this Country. .. As their courage, like
that of the mastiff in company with his master, would derive animation &
support from the people of Portugal, they were easily to be led to a union
with them, for the limitation of the King's authority, whose Government &
MS. Consular Letters, Rio de Janeiro, I.

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

presence they have borne with disappointment and disgust, the last few
years.
Kings who are not endowed with great talents or virtues, can only com-
mand the respect & admiration of their subjects, by a secluded distance
from them. By too near an approach, the deformity of mind & body, to
which, perhaps, they are liable more than other men, exhibits them to their
subjects in a ridiculous light; and in absolute Monarchies, that fear and curse
of Majesty which keeps the people in subjection, becomes lost in familiarity.
So it has happened in this Government, from the emigration of the Royal
Family, which placed them in a light so near and familiar, as to uncover
their nakedness and the pollutions of the Court, and to disclose the weakness
of their humanity, and the imbecility of a corrupt & decrepid Monarchy.
But instead of adopting any measures by useful and necessary reforms to
regenerate its old age; or making any advances to meet the changes which
were working in public opinion; the Government on the one hand, acceller-
ated the progress of new ideas in the people, by opening to the Country,
which it did from interest and necessity, the liberty of commerce; whilst on
the other, it endeavored by a strict & rigid adherence to antiquated forms
and laws, at the continuance and duration of a political ignorance and
tyranny, which could only deceive, and ultimately destroy itself.
This Government therefore, has scarcely rested on any other foundation,
than the fears, and supposed reverence of the people, for a superstitious re-
ligion and an antiquated Monarchy; and on the reliance which was placed
upon their ignorance and inertness. But there is a crisis in all Governments,
however despotic, or however degraded & depraved the people, when they
must either bend to, or be prostrate before public opinion-which like the
current of a river, is always in a mobile state, though it may not be percepti-
ble at the surface. It is the duty and interest therefore, of all Governments,
to watch this motion, to perceive when it flows in a smooth and tranquil
flood, or when it is likely to burst its boundaries, which are the laws; and to
conform these to circumstances in such a manner, that the intelligence and
wisdom of the laws, shall be always in advance of the understandings of the
people.
The rights of this Government were those of prescription. The people had
no rights, since the laws were either adapted to former ages, or were without
vigor, and their administration in the hands of a corrupt and irresponsible
Magistracy.
It will not therefore be a matter of wonder, if a universal sentiment pre-
vails against such a Government, and will now be put into action throughout,
overwhelming and removing all its ancient limits;-for the King himself has
dissolved his subjects from their former allegiance. But as the course which
public opinion may take, when once loosened from its fetters, is always un-
certain, whether they will as uniformly unite and acquiesce in the declared

DOCUMENT 350: MAY, 1821 715

principles of the Decemvirii of Bahia, for a Common Constitutionfor Portugal
and Brazil, or whether they will divide into other channels, are questions
which involve matters of great interest and importance to consider, and can
only be judged of, by a knowledge of the character of the people and of the
actual state of the Country.
I may therefore, probably, be of some usefulness, in endeavoring to place
before you such matters & facts, regarding the political and moral character
of this Government and people, and of the relative dependence and strength
of the Country, as may lead to a more extensive and correct view of the prob-
able result and consequences of the Revolution, than you might otherwise be
able to obtain.
The political constitution, (if I may so call it) of this Country, underwent
no change, by the removal hither of the King. The same forms, the same
Provincial Governments, and all the old laws were continued, (with the ex-
ception of those which concerned external commerce, and in some respect
the internal industry of the Country;-whilst many new laws and new taxes
were multiplied, occasioning restrictions, where formerly none had existed.
The principal advantages which the Brazils derived therefore, in its transi-
tion from a Colonial to a Sovereign state, was in its liberty of exterior com-
merce, and in not being obliged to travel to Europe for justice. It has not
even had the consolation of seeing its revenues, spent within itself, since these
have been exhausted, and the Finances embarrassed beyond the means of ex-
trication, by the remittances to Portugal for the support of that poor Coun-
try, to England for the payment of former debts, or squandered in establish-
ing marriage alliances in Spain'aid Austria, and in the expensive maintenance
of an unnecessary andridicillbns war on-the Bnks of-the Laplata. Besides
which, many of the 'feat'"Peculators, (of whom rhore'will be said hereafter)
have remitted Voat- sams abroad, for,greater security. -"
[Here followga'minute descriptiorl df-thd Portuguese-'Brazilian Govern-
mental structure covering about twenty cl6oely written manuscript pages.]
The Portuguese Monarchy has for a long time, presented the singular fact
of an anomalous Government, without any one principle to guide it, and espe-
cially since the removal of it to the Brazils. It was neither a Despotism, an
aristocracy, or oligarchy, and certainly it was not a democracy- Yet it
was made up of shreds and patches from all these, and had become like an old
garment so often repaired by different hands & with diverse materials, as to
excite ridicule from its whimsical appearance & defy detection of its original
texture.
If to this incongruity of Government, over a vast territory, but a very
scattered population, which often rendered all complaints impossible, & gave
to minor Despots impunity;-we add the accumulated multiplicity of the
1."ws, decrees, avizos, Alvaras and Portarias; amongst which, as a principal
J judge once ingenuously told me, he could always find some one law to justify

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

any sentence he might give:- If the extreme laxity of every principle in the
Government be considered-the indolence, venality, egotism, vanity, and so
often the ignorance of Ministers, Governors and Magistrates-the corrup-
tions of a corrupt and dissolute religion, and of so many rotten institutions of
a decayed Monarchy; and the general moral depravity of all classes, and the
total ignorance and superstition of the lower orders of the people, who con-
sist of a heterogenous mixture of all colors and conditions,-hardly a worse
state of society can be supposed to exist any where, than in this Country;
where the climate also excites to every sort of depravation and delinquency,
in minds not formed to fixed principles of moral conduct, and enlightened by
the practical truths of science, and the precepts of a pure religion.
But to know in general, that the political and religious institutions of the
Country are arbitrary & corrupt-that the Government had lost all moral
principle, & degenerated to a weak Despotism, supported by an imbecile and
rapacious Hierarchy on the one hand, and by an impoverished and dispirited
Nobility on the other-to know that the Laws are multifarious and contra-
dictory, and administered with partiality and injustice-that the Magistracy
is venal, and the people immoral, ignorant and superstitious:-does not give
a sufficient idea of the political, moral, and religious state of this Country, &
of the capability of the people to effect a Revolution, or to become benefitted
or improved by any changes which may take place from the overthrow of the
present Government.
[The next sixty-five pages are devoted to a brutally frank description of
the character, manners and customs of the people which is tinged throughout
with even greater bitterness an'c apparrif 'prejudice than is manifested in
the quoted portions of thiq remarkable letter .] .
It is impossible to cornvey any just idea of the difficiltes, delays and ex-
pences, that wee opposed to getting anyv business throu'gih'e public offices.
Unhappily, the king and. his Ministr3s," since they camestb the Brazils,
where he was at first received as a Fathe'r b 'an affectionate Family, and
might have raised upon a solid foundation a great & stable Empire, have
never acted upon any fixed system, or permanent plan of Government. In
weak monarchies, where the ministers and agents have no responsibility to
the Laws, the plans which may be adopted and pursued by one, are seldom
executed or followed by his successor. But if the monarchy has reached a
state of decrepitude, which it may do sooner or later, as well as every other
Government, according to the state of its credit & finances, the minister can
have no settled plan at all. Besides, the King had promised his subjects of
Portugal when he left it, that he would return to Europe, when he could do so
with safety. They were mortified, that a Colony should become the seat of
Empire, and soon felt the loss sustained from it, by the revenues & commerce
of Brazil being diverted to other channels. Although the King did not find it
convenient to fulfill his promise, yet he thought himself obliged to keep up

DOCUMENT 350: MAY, 1821 717

the delusion. His policy therefore, was made up of mixed measures and tem-
porary expedients, intended to preserve the fidelity of both Empires, and to
encourage the decaying trade of Portugal; but all at the expence of Brazil, of
which he thought himself secure: and therefore it became necessary to resort
to increased and extraordinary taxes, as well to supply the deficiency of the
revenues of Portugal, as to support a more ostentatious parade of Court lux-
ury, bullfights and shows for the amusement and delusion of the people, and
upon the same principle, to engage in, and carry on an illusive and expensive
war for the recovery of the ancient Colony of Colonia, the offspring of the
fertile genius of the Minister Arauju; who, whilst he was contracting mar-
riage alliances with Ferdinand of Spain, and the House of Austria, thought
he might invade the territorial rights of the former with impunity, which the
dalliant Spaniard would forget in the arms of love. There seems to have
been a complication of duplicity in this transaction, worthy of the feebleness
& impotent ambition of the Portuguese Court, and altogether consistent with
the egoistical pride and double dealing of the Portuguese character. On the
one hand, it was calculated to delude & raise the spirit of the people through
their ancient hatred of the Spaniards, by the prosecution of a pretended
right, and the pretext of security to the Southern frontiers of Brazil against
the revolutionary Spaniards of Laplata; whilst on the other, so far as this
plan of war and friendship involved deception in the cobwebb brain of the
Minister, Ferdinand was to be fooled out of his Dominions by a pretence of
possession of what he could not maintain, to be given up on future occasion,
and by the embroidery of a petticoat, into which he was to be interwoven by
the seduction and toils of love.
Again, Portugal was to be weakened by drawing troops from thence, os-
tensibly for this war, whilst the King's power would become strengthened
over the Brazilians by those troops; and the marriage alliances with Spain
and Austria would be a security to the fidelity of Portugal, whilst intrigues
were carrying on, to endeavor to persuade the Spaniards of the Southern
Provinces of America, to accept of the Queen of Portugal for their Sovereign,
and become united to the Brazils; which appears to have been the grand ful-
crum, upon which the philosophical Minister's schemes were bent, for the ag-
grandizement of a rotten Monarchy, already tottering under the weight of
too extended an Empire. The complication and grandness of the scheme,
ought at least to have afforded him a sumptuous burial. But his capacity
for intrigue and deception, did not equal the Italian Cardinal's, who obtained
for his body the splendour of a costly interment, by bequeathing his sup-
posed immense riches to Hospitals, Convents, Priests, Friars and friends,
who afterwards found themselves obliged to pay the expenses of it, out of
their own funds.
Previous to the King's arrival in the Brazils, the import duties on merchan-
dize did not exceed 5 p.ct. on the real value;-the export duties on produce

718 PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL
were limited to small subsidies & donations; and the direct taxes were very
inconsiderable, except the tythe tax, which both religion & custom had con-
secrated. But subsequently, without abolishing any of the former taxes,
(and particularly those on the internal & coastwise transit of country produce
and foreign merchandise, which was one of the greatest grievances of the
Colonial system,) new barriers have been constructed to the interior trade,
and additional taxes; direct taxes have been multiplied to a great extent, &
the duties of import and export considerably increased. The direct taxes, al-
though not great in amount compared with some other countries, are ex-
tremely vexatious and greiveous from the mode of collecting them, and from
their unequal operation. These, with the extraordinary and unlimited ex-
pences of the King's Household, the misapplication of the public revenues,
and the abuses and peculation in their administration, form the chief com-
plaints of the people, because they are sensibly perceived, and felt by every
one.
The Barons de S" Lorenzo and Rio Seco, the one Treasurer General, and
the other Purveyor of the Palace & Royal Household, are known to have ac-
quired several millions of Cruzados by the plunder of the public money.
Their tools and creatures, have necessarily shared in the same proportion.
The same system of public plunder, extends throughout every branch of the
revenues and expenditures, from the Court to the Provinces, through all the
line of receivers, treasurers, paymasters, commissaries, and purveyors, to
every description of persons, who in the most remote degree have an oppor-
tunity of touching the public money, which is thought free booty.
The King was not ignorant of all this, and was once heard to say, that he
was fully aware of the peculations and robberies committed by the two above
named persons; but that if he displaced them, who had now enriched them-
selves, & might become honest from mere satiety, those who might be put in
their places would only exercise the same rapacity, & perhaps become alto-
gether insatiable; and besides, would create a new race of harpies and pan-
ders, still more ravenous, than those already fastened upon the Treasury.
He was doubtless sensible of the impossibility of any moral reform in the Gov-
ernment, and preferred his own ease, to the danger & labor which he should
incur by the attempt. This probably led to the pleasant pasguinade which
appeared at Rio de Janeiro: "Eu eston el Principe Don Juan; Que paz ogue
un mandate, become oqeu me dat(I am the great Prince of Portugal, Don Juan;
Who do what I am told to do, & eat all I can)."
Thus, where there is no restraint upon public officers or private citizens,
either by the fear of shame, or punishment, there is no limit to their rapacity
& cupidity; especially in corrupted Monarchies & commercial communities-
Here wealth confers both power and honor; trick and cunning pass for sagac-
ity & wisdom, hypocracy for religion, acquiescence to meretricious forms &
ceremonies for piety and politeness, dissimulation for truth, and the standard

DOCUMENT 350: MAY, 1821

of virtue & honesty is measured by the same rules, as amongst highwaymen
and thieves; with whom all is licit and untainted with vice, except denun-
ciation, and theft from each other.
It would be tedious and difficult to detect and particularize, the various
ways and manners of these ingenious people for intrigue and deception, in
effecting their roguish practices upon the public property; but I will venture
to say, and presume it susceptible of proof, that more than one third of the
net revenues are deviated & consumed by them, after they have reached the
public Treasuries; besides what is plundered in their way thither.
But if the administration of the revenues was iniquitous, and uncon-
troulled by authority, honor or honesty, that of public justice was still more
aggravated, heinous and offensive, to good Government, reason and moral-
ity. . .
Such then, is the political and moral state of the Brazils, which I have
drawn from the result of personal knowledge and experience, and with the
impression their truths have made upon me.
But to illustrate, and make a just application of these truths, presenting
so many causes and elements for a revolution, and so many sources of politi-
cal weakness and debility, it will be necessary to enquire more particularly
into the nature & physical strength of the population of the Country.
[A description of the population and resources of the country, province by
province, occupies the next nine pages.]
The character of every people, must be formed principally by their politi-
cal and religious institutions, and by the features of the Country, and of the
climate they inhabit. It is not strange therefore, if here the Portuguese,
under the united effect of climate, soil, and Government, should have degen-
erated to complete effeminacy and voluptuousness. With these vices, are
always found a presumption of manners, which make men vain and conceited,
and render them either Pedants or Coxcombs. But to these characteristics,
the Bahians unite the contrarities of pride and parsimony, ostentation &
avarice, patriotism and cowardice, loyalty and treachery. They are ready
to serve the King, or to betray the King-and whatever may be the result of
present events, they will always fluctuate with the appearance of danger, or
with the mutability of their apparent intents, and be ever willing to unite
with any party, that may be the strongest.
Revolutions, ever happen under weak Governors-and there are no people,
however feeble and effeminate, amongst whom there is not always a consider-
t.le proportion, ready to revolt against an imbecile and lax Government, or
aatinl-t Despotism, if leaders present at a proper crisis.
\\'iW n the revolt at Pernambuco took place in 1816, being at the Palace
-oon after the news of it reached Bahia, I watched with curiosity and atten-
tion the countenances of the many officers present, and listened with eager-
nch to their conversation. There was scarcely one who would not have

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

joined the revolters, and they had also the good wishes of the people gener-
ally. When a few days afterwards I was at the same place, and the Gover-
nor, The Count dos Arcos, had taken such decided and vigorous measures as
ensured the public tranquility, the same people were all determined Royal-
ists, would defend the Royal Government at the extremity of their lives and
fortunes, applauded the Count dos Arcos as a great Governor, wise man &
courageous Patriot, and on the termination of that miserable conspiracy,
those same people united in the intrigues of a chief Military Officer, who was
connected with that conspiracy, to offer to the Count Ioo contos of reis to
build him a palace at Rio de Janeiro; and paid him the honors almost of a
Divinity, though many of them never paid their subscriptions.
It is worthy of remark, that the chief officer abovementioned, was on the
occasion of the late Revolution the only one hostilely to oppose it-not from
principle, but because he himself had not been called upon to take a principal
part in it- He was the only officer who accompanied the late Governor,
the Count da Palma, to Rio de Janeiro-Yet this Governor was one of the
mildest and best, who had ever governed in Bahia; but held too loosely the
reigns of his command.
But the Province of Bahia, from its superiority in shipping, its central
situation, and the value and importance of its productions and commerce,
will always maintain and influence in the Brazils, not inferior to Rio de
Janeiro.
This Province, mountainous and sterile, deprive it of the commodious and
defensive harbour of Rio, and of the trade of Minas, would be of insignificant
importance. But with these advantages, and the present population of the
city and the riches of its merchants, it is superior in strength and wealth to
Bahia, & its population consists of a much greater proportion of free white
persons, and more sedate and steady in their characters than the Bahians.
I have now finished the sketch of the political and moral state of this coun-
try, which I had proposed to myself, which has been drawn to an unexpected
length, though much more might have been properly added. Yet it seems
necessary to adjoin, that the natural and irreconcilable jealousy which in
all countries exists betwixt great commercial cities, is no where more noted
and predominant than in the Brazils;-and that each of the Maritime Prov-
inces, has but one great city, wherein all the trade, wealth and resources of
each, are concentrated.
From this imperfect disquisition, which may abound with many absurdi-
ties, but is intrinsically true, you will probably have anticipated, Sir, my
opinion of what is to be expected from the result of the present Revolution-
which is, that the different Provinces will govern themselves for the present,
independently of the Royal authority, and of each other; but will finally
acknowledge the Constitution which may be adopted in Portugal.
In this case, the Brazils will revert back to its former colonial state, under

DOCUMENT 351: JULY 12, 182I 721

some modifications of Government, which I do not suppose, will be more
favorable to its liberty, rights or interests, than the King's government has
been, since for this purpose a radical change is necessary in the Laws, the
Religion, and the customs of the people.
Probably the commerce of the Country, will become a monopoly again, in
a great measure, after the limitation of the British Treaty, exclusive to
Portugal.
These opinions, are founded on the insignificance of Portugal, without
the Brazils, and as well on the exposition of the state of the Country which
I have given, and the known sentiment of the principal commercial class,
which influence the general sense,-as from what I suppose will be the
policy of the British Government, if it interferes at all in the present affairs
of Portugal-Since in any other case, the only alternative that presents
itself, is a division of the Portuguese Monarchy, which neither the politics
of Europe, nor the state of this Country, would appear to admit the idea of.
It would be idle and unnecessary for me, further to follow the great
variety of reflections which present themselves on this subject, since I am
not of opinion that the King can ever acquire again an absolute authority,
nor yet that the Republican or Independent party, existing in the Coun-
try, but only in the minds of some thinking individuals, will ever acquire
consistency, either in union of ideas or action, from the total want of talent
and confidence, and from the apprehension which almost all the men of
reflection and property would entertain, from the nature of the popula-
tion of the Country.
I have the honor [etc.].

351
John James Appleton, United States Chargi d'Affaires at Rio de Janeiro, to
John Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States
[EXTRACTS]
RIo DE JANEIRO, July 12, 1821.
. It must however be remembered that the Braziliens as a people
have yet taken no share in the management of their own Affairs-for even
on the unfortunate 22d of April those who exerted themselves most to con-
troul the Government were all Portuguese by Birth, and acted more in a
Republican than a Brazilien sense-The most influencial of the Brazil-
iens were in the service of the former Government, and having served it
as it was then served by all,-servilely and corruptly-have either from
fear or shame, stood aloof from Public concerns. There is a class of Brazil-
iens who by their wealth connections, and practical good sense, might if
1 MS. Dispatches from Brazil [Portugal] III.

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

they chose to be busy, exercise an important influence over the fate of
their Country-they are those who live in the Cities from the proceed of
estates which they leave for years together to the mismanagement of Ad-
ministrators. For such, however, quiet and indolence are the supreme
good-they will not strive to promote the Public fortune, when they are
indifferent about the advancement of their own, and if they are ever heard
to complain it is not against those who misrule, but those who disturb them.
their selfishness is of ill omen to their Country. Under such circum-
stances the most liberal and enlighten'd of the Braziliens appear to have
resigned all thought of immediate independence from the Mother Country,
and are disposed to expect that event as the natural consequence of the
rapid advances of their country in wealth, Population, and Public Spirit,
under the influence of the new Institutions-As this way of thinking
harmonises with the quiet and calculating habits of the Population gen-
erally, it might naturally be expected to prevail, and would prevail, if
Brazil did not also contain in its bosom a large number of Europeans who
having already left their own Country in quest of fortune, are not disposed
to be so easily satisfied-If this Country arrives to early independence
it will be owing, I do not say to their wishes but to their turbulence. . .
The Revolution which not only removed the Count dos Arcos from his
place in the ministry but also from his residence in this Capital did not as
you will see abolish the Department of Foreign Affairs, it exists in the
hands of the Judge Pedro Alvarez Deniz, who is better known for his rare
probity of industry than for brilliant talents The Frankness and inde-
pendence of his disposition form a strong contrast with the Duplicity,
and mysterious importance of his predecessor, Who has gone to Lisbon to
give an account of his past conduct, I fear he will find in every Judge an
enemy. He is already accused of having projected the independence of
this Country from Portugal, but I believe unjustly; within the limits of
the Decree of the 22.d of April he had room enough for his ambition without
danger.
I have the Honor [etc.].

352
P. Sartoris, Acting Consul of the United States at Rio de Janeiro, to John
Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States
[EXTRACTS]
RIO DE JANEIRO, July 30, 1821.
SIR: Mr. Appleton when he left this city a fortnight ago to make an ex-
cursion in the interior, requested me to write and inform you in case any
1 MS. Consular Letters, Rio de Janeiro, I.

DOCUMENT 353: OCTOBER 6, 1821 723

event of interest should take place during his absence. Till now nothing of
sufficient moment has happened to induce me to trouble you:-An occurence
which a few days since threw this city into some consternation makes it how-
ever obligatory on my part to address you a few lines.
The head cashier of the Bank of Brazil absconded from this city, taking
with him it is said a very large sum of money (etc.)
We are enjoying here a kind of tranquility which I know not well how to
qualify. The troops are busy giving calls and dinners to one another but
their perfect harmony is rather problematic yet I do not know what would
happen if that harmony did not exist.-The Prince is doing every thing in
his power to make himself popular and I hope he will ultimately succeed.
His economy is very great and this goes a great way with the people but par-
tial insurrection of the troops or of the people are daily taking place which
indicate the restless state of the public mind. In Santos, the port belonging
to S". Paulo (sixty leagues from this) the troops have committed various out-
rages the particulars of which are not yet well known, but they are of a dis-
tressing nature.
Here in consequence of various heavy losses sustained by the Bank and of
this last event, their paper which (I hardly know why) is some how or other
considered as a Government paper, is considerably discredited, and Dollars
have been bought at iooo reis. The silver currency of the Country selling
at the same time at a premium of 5 and 6 pC
I shall have the honor shortly to address you again with my semiannual
report and account.
I remain [etc].

353
Woodbridge Odlin, United States Consul at San Salvador (Bahia), to John
Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States1
[EXTRACT]
SIR: I have the honour to inform you that I have received a letter dated
the 24 Ultimo from James H. Bennett the American Consul at Pernambuco,
in which he observes that the patriots, have made an attempt, and who are
still continuing their operations, in order to effect an entrance into this City,
there is not any business doing Our Supply of flour is about 2000 barrels
but none Selling-on the 21st there was an engagement between the Patriots
and Royalists near Olindo in which many of the Patriots were killed, wound-
ed, and taken prisoners-the Royalists sustained but little injury, only 4
killed, the force of the Patriots is not precisely Known-they are all armed
1 MS. Consular Letters, St. Salvador, Brazil, II.

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

except with Artillery-and appear determined, Mr. Bennett thinks, they
cannot Succeed in taking the City-I have also received a letter from Mr
Joseph Roy dated Pernambuco 26 ultimo, in said letter he observes-there is
only one American vessel in port, the Brig Edward of Salem Capt Whitterage
-I have he States Sold his flour-which averages it .450":' pr barrel, sales
are difficult to effect owing to the disturbed State of the Country-for some
time past a force, has been Collecting at Guiana about 16 Leagues to the
Northward composed of People of that Country, and deserters from this
Place, said to amount to 6 or 8,000 men and have been within 4 leagues of
guards-these revolters say They are not hostile, to their king or Constitu-
tion, they require the present governor and his Battalion Sent out of the
Country, the Governor has ordered Martial Law, and every Portuguese Able
to bear arms Called into the Service-many families have embarked on Board
Vessels in the harbour, with money and other Valuable effects for safety-
Information has also been received, that an english and french Frigate are
in the harbour of Pernambuco, 3 to 400 troops have been Sent from here
Since this Information in a frigate to assist the Royalists- It is reported that
about 12oo troops, are expected from Lisbon to their assistance, all is very
Quiet in this province and expected to Continue-about 5 days Since, the
representative from this Province Sailed for Lisbon, in an armed vessel-I
have made Inquiry of masters of many American vessels from Rio de Jan-
eiro, Some of which having taken dispatches from you, they inform me, to
Mr Appleton they say he has been absent some time from Rio.

354
P. Sartoris, Acting Consul of the United States at Rio de Janeiro, to John
Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States
RIo DE JANEIRO, October 7, ISz2.
SIR: I had the honor to write to you on the 30th of July by the Ship Mag-
net and now avail myself of this first safe opportunity to remit you the list
of American Shipping at this Port from the Ist January to the 1st July of this
year. I have nothing of the least importance to say concerning this Consu-
late or the American interest under my immediate charge; the greatest har-
mony having continued and still continuing to exist between me and the
several officers who have rapidly succeeded each other in the administration.
Yet in the absence of Mr. Appleton I would wish to be able to keep you in-
formed of the political state of this country, which, I think, begins to take a
I MS. Consular Letters, Rio de Janeiro, I.

DOCUMENT 354: OCTOBER 7, 1821 725

serious aspect; but this is a difficult task. The best way in which I conceive
I can accomplish it, is to confine myself chiefly to relate facts as they have
happened, which may enable you to form at a distance a more accurate judge-
ment than can perhaps be done on the spot, where one is more or less influ-
enced by one's feelings and associations.
Ever since the departure of the King, who as well as his favourites carried
away an immense quantity of specie obtained from the Bank of Brazil the
credit of that establishment has been on the decline, the circulating medium
of gold and silver and even of copper at its immensely depreciated standard
has gradually disappeared, the two first being with difficulty obtained for
Bank notes at from 25 to 30 p. cent premium above their intrinsick value.
It is the opinion of the best informed men, that the measures adopted by
the board of directors which have confined themselves to put as many
impediments as possible in the way of those who call upon them for the
payment of their Bills, have hitherto greatly tended to increase their
discredit; and the inconvenience resulting to every body from this state of
things had produced a considerable degree of internal and general discontent,
which only required small powers to be put into motion. About a month
ago, notices began again to be put up at the street corners, warning the old
Portugueze against the Brazilian party, who, it was positively said aimed
at an immediate separation from Portugal. No particular measures being
adopted by the Government to put a stop to these rumours, a voice began
to circulate, that the Prince Regent himself was at the head of this party
and intended to be proclaimed King or Emperor of the Brazils. At last one
evening at the Theatre (where I was at the time) the performance was
unexpectedly interrupted in a most interesting part of it by a voice which
issued from the box appropriated to the staff of the army & which cried out
very loud, "Long live the Prince D. Pedro our Lord" (nosso Senhor)This
last appelation is only given to the King. A short silence ensued, when
other voices from the pit were heard crying, "Long live the Prince Regent-
the Constitutional Prince-the Constitution," and after a short interval
the performance was continued.- It was the next moment given out that
the author of this outcry, had insinuated himself into the box unnoticed
and had escaped undetected.- Whether this was done to try the state of
the public feelings, I am unable to determine, but it seems hard to think
that the Government should possess no better channel of information on
such a subject and must therefore total discredit such a supposition. Be
this as it may considerable sensation seemed the day afterwards to have
been produced by it.- The I2th of this month (being the Prince's birth-
day) was pretty publicly and confidently spoken of amongst all the classes
as being the day fixed upon to proclaim D. Pedro the Ist King or Emperor
of Brazils and great agitation prevailed throughout the town, the number
of notices stuck up for and against the measure increasing every day.-

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

At last the day before yesterday his Royal highness was pleased to relieve
us from this painful state of suspence by issuing a Proclamation,' which
I have thought it worth while to enclose here for your perusal. At the same
time by order of the Prince several arrestations have taken place even
among the officers of the garrison as disturbers of the public tranquility;
one of those who have been arrested belongs I believe to the Portugueze
side of the question.-The day before this proclamation came out Pedro
Alvarez Deniz, Secretary of State for the Interior and foreign affairs,
resigned from office, and Francisco Jose Vieira, a Judge in the Court of
Common pleas, not yet much known as a statesman, was appointed in his
place. I can also add from my personal knowledge that the day afterwards,
the two other Secretaries of State, namely, of the Marine, and at War, had
tendered their resignation, which was not accepted. At present the public
uneasiness seems to have considerably subsided.
If my private opinion were asked, I would say that the Prince had no
intention to the new order of things with which we were threatened, and
next, that if he actually had such a project, he has probably laid it aside
for the present. Every body may convince themselves at least, that he
is not surrounded by men capable either to plan or to execute the project

1The Consul's translation of the proclamation, with his introductory and concluding
remarks, follows:
Not being able to procure one of the originals of the Proclamation the Printer having
none left, I take it out of one of the news papers and think also at the same time that you
may be pleased to have a Translation of it which follows.
PETER
to the Inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro
What madness is yours? What are your intentions? Will you be perjured to the
King and to the Constitution? Do you rekon upon me to obtain ends which may not
proceed and flow from the Oath, which I, the troops, and the friends of the Constitution
have taken on the memorable 26th of february? Certainly you cannot wish it; you are
illuded, you are deceived, and in a word you are lost should you attempt at a different
order of things, or should you abandon the way of honor and glory in which you have
sons who do not truly love the King my father and Lord John VI who reigns over us
with equal wisdom and prudence and will continue to do so whilst God may preserve
his precious and necessary life; by persons who have no Religion and who cover them-
selves with sheepskins, being in the Comunity like unto ravenous and famished wolves.
I will never be perjured to Religion, to the King nor to the Constitution. Know it
that I declare it to you in the name of the Troops and of the Legitimate Sons of the
Constitution, that we live all united. Know moreover, that we declare a destructive
and most cruel war, to all the perturbers of the Public tranquility, to all the anti con-
stitutionalists who are covered under the cloak of personal security and still more to the
open faced anti-constitutionalist. Rely upon what I say unto you because he who says
it, is faithful to Religion to the King and to the Constitution, and that for these three
divine things, I am, always have been, and always will be ready to die tho' it were to be
alone, much more therefore having the troops and the true Constitutionalists to sup-
port me, thro' the love which we have promised to each other, and in order to main-
tain an oath so cordialy and so Voluntarily taken. Be quiet inhabitants of Rio de
Janeiro
PRINCE REGENT.
N. B. This is positively said to be (and I have some private reasons to believe it)
the original and unasisted Composition of the Prince himself.

DOCUMENT 355: NOVEMBER 2, 1821

which has been attributed to him: and his conduct as Regent has yet dis-
played no inclination to despotick power.
I am afraid that what I have said will assist you but little in forming a
judgment on the political state of this capital, but I felt it almost incumbent
upon me in the absence of Mr. Appleton to give you this sketch such as it is
for fear you might receive it exaggerated from some other quarter less
entitled to your confidence.- From the interior and the other Provinces
I dare say nothing, particularly as Mr. Appleton whose return here I am
daily expecting will be able to give you sure and satisfactory informations.-
That there exists here a Brazilian party-a party for Independence or
separation from Portugal, no doubt can be had. But as long as the Prince
may remain here and have a Portugueze military force under his command,
I feel confident that nothing of the kind can or will be undertaken here,
unless, which I think equally improbable for the present, he should place
himself at the head of this party and be able to persuade the troops to join
him in it.
I have the honor [etc.].

355
Woodbridge Odlin, United States Consul at Rio de Janeiro, to John Quincy
Adams, Secretary of State of the United States
SIR: By late information find there is no American vessel about to Sail
from Pernambuco for the United States, which induces me to State to you
the following taken from Mr Joseph Ray letter dated at Pernambuco the
19 Ultimo, he observes that there has [been] but little Business doing here for
6 weeks Past, it is now a getting better and the Brazilians are much pleased,
that the Governour of this place, together with a Battalion of Algarves,
are called to Lisbon by the Cortes, and to leave in the Course of 5 or 6
days-this news spreads rapidly in the country and the Matudas are a
Venturing to town with their produce, without any apprehension of them-
selves and horses being pressed Into the Service, as was the Case under the
government of Luis de Rego-A great Number of the Inhabitants who it
is, reported took an Active part with The late Governour, at Pernambuco
have arrived at This port from there It is Said through fear of being favour-
ably received by the New Government.
With high respect I am [etc.].
1 MS. Consular Letters, St. Salvador, Brazil, II.

726 PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL
356
P. Sartoris, Acting Consul of the United States at Rio de Janeiro, to John
Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States
RIO DE JANEIRO, January 20, 1822.
SIR: I had the honor to write you on the 7th of Octobr.2 in order, dur-
ing Mr. Appleton's absence to keep you informed of what passes here.
From that day until his return which took place in the middle of December,
I had nothing very material to communicate and then the task of informa-
tion devolved again upon him: But he having sailed on the seventh in-
stant on his return home in the Brig Standard bound for Charleston, S. C.
the great events which have happened since his departure now call upon
me to resume my employment as narrator and I therefore avail myself of
the present opportunity to give you an account of things.
The decree of the Cortes of Portugal with which you must be acquainted
relative to the recall to Europe of our Prince Regent, and even the wording
of that decree, created the greatest disgust among the Brazilians,-a dis-
gust which was not communicated from the one Province to the others but
spontaneous on the day of its arrival either at Rio de Janeiro, St. Pauls,
Minas, & Rio Grande. These three last Provinces, that is, their Provi-
sional Governments came immediately and nearly at the same time to a
resolution of sending deputies to the Prince, to request his permanence at
Rio de Janeiro at least till such time as an answer might be received from
the Cortes of Portugal to the representations which were going to be made
there against this measure. The Deputation of St. Paul which arrived on
the 18th inst. consisting of some of the principal men of Sn. Paul, is headed
by Jose Bonifacio de Andrade, vice President of that Province, a first rate
leading man among the Brazilians in point of talents and energy. (of
whom you will hear more thro' Mr. Appleton). The Deputation of Minas
arrived yesterday consisting equally of the Vice President of the Province
and two other respectable members of the Government, and that of Rio
Grande is now hourly expected. During all this, the Province of Rio de
Janeiro shackled as it was, did not remain idle. Having no Provisional Gov-
ernment, the City Council (Camara) took upon itself to act on this occa-
sion, and came to a determination of petitioning the Prince in a body against
this departure, and here begins the afray. On the 7th instt. notices were
set up from the City Council, inviting all the citizens who might be adverse
to the departure of the Prince, to call at the Council Chamber, and sign
their names to a representation which was already drawn up to that effect.
-It was then easily discovered how weak the opposite party was, not-
withstanding its being evidently supported by the Portugueze troops.-
L MS. Consular Letters, Rio de Janeiro, I.
2 See above, pt. in, doc. 354.

DOCUMENT 356: JANUARY 20, 1822

The notices of the City Council already mentioned were in several instances
torn down by those soldiers and various trifling quarrels took place on that
occasion between them and the inhabitants. However, on the 9th instant
being the day appointed, the Council headed by their President moved in
procession from their House of Sittings followed by a large number of the
most respectable habitants and public-characters and went to the Palace
where the Prince was waiting for them. On this occasion the streets thro'
which they had to pass were spontaneously and without orders, decorated
with silks, damask and other elegant hangings, used on the days of Reli-
gious processions and the pavements covered the whole way with green
orange leaves. Every thing preceded with great order and decorum-
The deputation was very well received of the Prince, who suffered himself
to be persuaded of the necessity of his stay, returned in answer that he
acceded to their request, and this being communicated to the People with-
out, was received with loud Vivas. Under this cover you will find both
the speech and the answer. The news of the Prince's consent rapidly cir-
culated thro' the town and a good deal of joy was evinced in every coun-
tenance one met with excepting that of the Portugueze soldiers.- In the
evening the houses were all spontaneously illuminated and continued so
for three nights; the theatre also was every night opened and most crowd-
edly attended.- However on the third night that of the IIth instant our
joys were put a stop to.-At about o1 oclock the theatre being very full,
nobody knowing for what purpose. The fact was that Lieutt General
Aviles, General at Arms, disgusted at the proceedings of the 9th had given
in his resignation from that post, and that the Portugueze soldiers on
being informed of it had declared that they would not obey any other
General, particularly not the one who was designated to succeed Aviles,
Lieut. General Courado a Brazilian a man of 82 years of age, one of the
heroes who suffered on the 21 of April last.-It appears also that another
Portugueze General by the name of Caretti a discontented man had been
one of the promoters of this and had even been the bearer of a representa-
tion of the Portugueze troops to the Prince Regent against the measures
with threats, who had returned to the quarters of the troops.- During
this the Brazilian Regiments and the militia had been tolerably active in
taking up their arms, and the next morning found them assembled at the
Campo St. Ann (a large public square or walk) to the number of about
1500, a number very little superior to their antagonists, who if they had
attacked them must inevitably have put them to rout and would at least
for a few days been the rulers. Many thought that an engagement would

PART Ill. COl1MIUNICATi.ONS FROM BRAZIL

take place and all the houses and stores in the town were shut and barri-
caded as well s. the', could. Th-- Brazilian side however acquired every
moment a little morre sEtrength and ar to the ultimate result it coulld not be
doubtful, every P.rtugueze soldier must have peri-hed.- The Prince
however on this -ccasion, las is always the case when there is real danger)
showed a grejt deal of personal firmness. and activity. On going out of
the theatre where he did not how the least sign of un.easiness, he had
removed hik wife and children to "S Cruz a country palace i6 leagues from
this, had during the night accompanied them a great part of the -wa on
horseback and had returned to meet hi ditficultiec, bLefo're sun rise. A
negotiation was cet on foot and at last the soldiers finally con-ented to pass
on that day to the other side of the water, with their arms, bL.aggage, artillery
& ammunition, thll:re to, remain quartered until they might be sent to
Portugal. They went o\er without opp-sitiion. Their General; Aviles
and Caretti are with them and are actiCng a part which they can with diffi-
culty reconcile to any principle of military or constitutional subordination.
-Enclosed you will rind an order of the day of General .\Ailec to his
soldiers on the other -ide, which may give you tome insight in hi charac-
ter. I know him personally well and I feel convinced that on this occasion
his conduct must be only attributed to a mistake in judgement. He was
at my house a few days previous to this alair and I well recollect having
combatted as well and as far as I politely could the great contempt he
expressed for the Brazilians and their party. He appeared on that point
to be quite immovable. However nothing serious can result from this
obstinacy unltle the troops which are daily expected from Lisbon should
arrive and be able or suffered to join with these, before the Government
find means to embark them. Their removal has become a measure of
necessity to present disturbances and quarrels with the Brazilians to whom
they are become obnoxious and by whom they are now both hated and
despised.
Some material changeS cannot now but very soon take place in [he Govern-
ment of ths Province and I think of -ll the Brazils. A man has been placed
at the head of thing- by the Prince, I mean Jose Bonifaco de Andrade of 5'.
Paul, whose tal.nts and energy of mind are highly spokr:n of b every, body
He has been named ist Secrctriry of State in the place of Fro. J. \ieira and
has I am informed acceptedd the office, but I have not -een him yet. He will
of course be the leading member of thick Government and a complete change
of measures can with safety be anticipated.
The nex-: .'eel that shall go to the U. Stnles which will be- probably in a
fortnight v.ill I think be the b-e'rer of interesting intelligence. You nma.
depend upon receiving it from me.
I am [etc.

DOCUMENT 357: FEBRUARY 3, 1822 731
357
P. Sartoris, Acting Consul of the United States at Rio de Janeiro, to John
Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States'
Rio DE JANEIRO, February 3, 1822.
SIR: I beg leave to refer you to my last respects of the 20th UltP.2
Brig Eliza Riley of Norfolk, and would now overlook many inconveniences
to send you a copy of it, were it not that a paper has been printed since, con-
taining nearly the same details I gave you in my letter, and which I now en-
close here.
The different pamphlets which you will find under this cover, will also en-
able you to judge better perhaps than I could explain it to you, the real state
of things in these quarters. I have had already two interviews with Jose
Bonifacio de Andrade, now first minister of State, and they have left no
doubt on my mind of the intention to separate this country from Portugal.
Every thing that passes leads to this conclusion and in one of the pamphlets
"the Representations of the People of S'. Pauls to his Royal Highness"
brought by Jose Bonifacio and his suite you will find explained the system
which I believe is going to be adopted for the present.
In the meantime the Portugueze troops on the other side of the water (a
distance of about four miles) may be said to be in a state of open rebellion as
you will see by a proclamation which the Prince addressed them last night,
1200 hundred [sic] in number and we have more than 4000oo to oppose to them,
without reckoning the auxiliaries from St. Paul to the number of I oo and
those of Minas 1200 which are not probably within more than two days
march from this place.-The issue therefore cannot be doubtful, but
should they be attacked in their quarters for which every preparation is mak-
ing there must ensue a great deal of bloodshed.
The Prince goes now, to all appearances hand in hand with the Brazilian
party and with Jose Bonifacio.-This minister in the last conversation I had
with him asked me it I thought that reliance might be placed on the friendly
disposition of the American Government towards the Brazilian States, and if
in case of need any support might be expected from that quarter. I felt no
hesitation in answering to the first question in the affirmative in a general way
and of course declined giving even an opinion on the second alledging first my
total ignorance on that head and afterwards the fear of leading him into a
mistake on a question of so much importance and so undefined withal.
I am [etc.].
1 MS. Consular Letters, Rio de Janeiro, I.
2 See above, pt. ii, doc. 356.

732 PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL
358
P. Sartoris, Acting Consul of the United States at Rio de Janeiro, to John
Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States
RIo DE JANEIRO, March 4, 1822.
SIR: I had the honor to write to you on the 202 and again on the 22 of Jan-
uary last informing you of our political situation to which letters I beg to
refer, and taking the events that have occurred since that date I have now
to add that the division of Portugueze troops which gave us so much alarm
was prevailed upon not to say compelled by a superior force to embark for
Portugal on the 20th, say on i5th of February,without anyengagement hav-
ing taken place, which however till at the very last moment threatened to
happen. The Prince on this occasion as on all occasions where decision and
firmness is required performed his part in a manly way. The last word he
said on board the frigate (which had been towed by the steamboat within
gun shot of the barracks on the beach) to the officers from the division whom
he sent back on shore,-holding at the time a lighted match in his hand,-
were these,-" If within ten minutes after your landing you do not make the
signal to embark and the soldiers do not go into the boats waiting for them,
I shall with this match set fire to the first gun directed against them." He
had besides previously directed the Brazilian General to close with his whole
force upon them at the moment he would hear the first gun, and had besides
four hundred men at the head of which he was ready to effect a landing in
the steam boat. Such was the spirit that animated the Brazilians that had
the action begun, I have no doubt that every Portugueze would have fallen a
sacrifice to their rage.
The departure of these troops has relieved us from a very painful state of
anxiety and suspence in which we were kept for a month.
Since then things have gone on very quietly. A decree has been issued
which you will find enclosed whose tenor appears to a certain degree to have
disappointed the high expectations which were entertained of Jose Bonifacio
de Andrade as it does not seem to breathe the spirit of liberalism which he
makes such a show of. After reading it you will be enabled to judge.-I do
by no means pretend to insinuate that this decree has lost him much of his
popularity, but it has certainly given a slight blow to it. I have seen him
three or four times.- He appeared to be very desirous of knowing how far
the Brazils might rely upon some support from the U. States in case Portugal
and England in virtue of its treaties with Portugal, should attempt to force
them to submission to the Cortes of Lisbon. Of course I told him it was
altogether out of my power to give him the slightest information on that
head, and that thro' fear of leading him into error, I could not even give him
I MS. Consular Letters, Rio de Janeiro, I.
See above, pt. in, doc. 356. No letter of January 22 exists in the volume, but see that
above, pt. in, doc. 357, of February 3 on the subject which is probably what he had in mind.

DOCUMENT 359: APRIL 13, 1822 733

my private opinion on that head: that however I thought that the Govern-
ment of the U. States would always contemplate with pleasure the felicity
and independence of the rest of America.
I remain [etc.].

359
P. Sartoris, Acting Consul of the United States at Rio de Janeiro, to John
Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States
RIo DE JANEIRO, April 13, 1822.
SIR: I had the honor to address you some lines by the Brig Robert at the
beginning of March.2 You found along with them the Decree of the I5th
February relative to the reunion at this place of the Deputiesof the Provinces,
from which I anticipated some bad results. I am sorry to say that I was
not deceived. The Province of Minas which had come as handsomely for-
ward in its adhesion to the Prince as that of Sn. Paul has first begun to break
the ice. A party in opposition to the system of the Decree, tho' under an-
in forming themselves into a separate Provincial Government. This threat-
ened such serious consequences, that when the news arrived the Prince re-
solved immediately to go down himself to Minas, and did actually set off the
next day accompanied only by three persons, the nephew of Jose Bonifacio de
Andrade, a Judge, Rezende, and one of the Officers of his Household.- We
know already of his having arrived at Sn. Joao del Rey, one of the principal
towns of the Province at about 24 leagues from the Capital where he was
expected to be on the 8 of this month. As he went along the Country gen-
tlemen in great number formed an escort for him, .from which however he
always kept at a great distance ahead. The greatest adhesion has been
shown all the way to his person and it is more than probable that by this time
the heads of this party have been arrested and will be sent here for judgement
where I believe little mercy will be shown them. He will there is no doubt
upset the intruders and succeed in pacifying every thing there provided no
personal misfortune shall happen to him.-This journey was a very proper
and considering the situation of the Country, a very bold measure of the
Prince, and it is no more than justice to say that he has of late unfolded a
ri:at character, considering his years.
It will however I fear be the business of much time yet to establish tran-
quil ry.-Even here, since the Prince's absence it is more or less disturbed.-
Th.- Portugueze, or as they call themselves the Constitutionals, are yet plot-
1 MS. Consular Letters, Rio de Janeiro, I.
2 See above, pt. in, doc. 358, under date March 4.

PART III: COMMUNICATIONS FROM BRAZIL

ting in favor of the authority of the Cortes; the situation of things at Bahia,
of which of course you are informed, has inspired them with fresh hopes.
However Jose Bonifacio has his eyes wide open, and has energy to resist
them.
The installation of the Procuradores, or rather the nomination of the Pro-
curadores or Deputies of this Province, which was to take place on the 18 of
this month, has been (it is said this morning) postponed and the agitators
will avail themselves of this motive to create disturbances.
But every thing on this head is so uncertain that I will postpone touching
on that subject till the next opportunity which will be I believe in Io or 12
days.
I had forgot to mention that the Portugueze force of 1600 which arrived
here three weeks after the departure of the Old Division, as explained in my
former letter, was only admitted to enter the harbour in order to supply
themselves with provisions and water to return to Portugal. This was done
in a few days and they put to sea again on the 20 of March.
I have the honor [etc.].

360
P. Sartoris, Acting Consul of the United States at Rio de Janeiro, to John
Quincy Adams, Secretary of State of the United States'
[EXTRACT]
RIO DE JANEIRO, May 5, 1822.
SIR: I had the honor to write to you twice the day before yesterday and
both times enclosing interesting documents. The ship Oryza being yet in a
port for want of a wind, gives me an opportunity of addressing you a third
time and of sending you the Decree of the 3d. instant which only came to
light yesterday, by which you will see that his Royal Highness by the advice
of his hastily formed General Council of State, which is only composed of the
two Procurators or Deputies of Rio de Janeiro, elected on the I8t. instant, one
Lucas Obes of Montevideo, and his four Secretaries of State, has been pleased
to convocate a General Brazilian Constitutive and Legislative Assembly. It
may not be improper to observe to you en passant that this Obes arrived here
about four months ago as the ostencible deputy of the Citizens of Monte-
video, but that I have good reasons for thinking that he is in fact the real
agent of General Lecor who commands in that Province a well appointed
regular force of about 2500 Portugueze troops.-General Lecor is said to be a
man of talents and deep ambition, particularly noted for prudence and fore-
sight, and may, not improbably aware of what was going to happen, have di-
MS. Consular Letters, Rio de Janeiro, I.