• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Note
 Medical reports of stations
 Chisumulu
 The Steamer and the Lakeside...
 Kota Kota
 Mponda's
 Unangu
 General review of the health of...
 Critique of the applicability of...
 Our need: A hill station
 Notes on special points
 Notes for the medical board
 Appendix
 Back Cover














Group Title: report to the Medical Board of the Universities' Mission on the health of the European missionaries in the Likoma diocese
Title: A report to the Medical Board of the Universities' Mission on the health of the European missionaries in the Likoma diocese
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098547/00001
 Material Information
Title: A report to the Medical Board of the Universities' Mission on the health of the European missionaries in the Likoma diocese including an historical survey from the commencement of work in Nyasaland
Alternate Title: Five years' medical work on Lake Nyasa
Physical Description: 105 p. : maps ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Howard, Robert
Publisher: The Universities Mission to Central Africa
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1904
 Subjects
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Malawi
 Notes
General Note: Cover title -- Five years' medical work on Lake Nyasa.
Statement of Responsibility: by Robert Howard.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098547
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 34758028

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Preface
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Introduction
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Note
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Medical reports of stations
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Chisumulu
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    The Steamer and the Lakeside villages
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Kota Kota
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Mponda's
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Unangu
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    General review of the health of Missionaries, 1885-1903
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Critique of the applicability of various methods of protection against mosquitoes
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Our need: A hill station
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Notes on special points
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Notes for the medical board
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Appendix
        Page 101
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Back Cover
        Page 125
        Page 126
Full Text












OF THE UNIVERSITIES' MISSION


HEALTH OF


0:. THI

THE EUROPEFAN MISSIONARII b
I. N T i I l
LIKOMA DIOCESE.


INC L U DIN;,

AN HISTORICAL SURVEY FROM THE C'NINIENCEMENT

O- .\\'ORK IN NYASALAND







ROBERT HOWARD, l.A-, M.B.,B.Ch. (Oxon)
ii. of the U rm'. r ilt'i I\[i:.c,:,c







THE UNIVERSITIES' MlIsbION TO CENL.T''.l. AFRICA
9 DARTMOUTH ST., W'ESTMIN.TER
I 90o+




















PREFACE


THIq Report waT, in the fi',t iiistainc, uinile 1y Dr. Hiw-ard
to the Medical Boird, 0Li' by them rciiommuniicarard to the G-iieral
CommittUe of the Uiiiversitie.&' Mtision to Central Alrica.
The Committee, rec.:ogniziug the very great vahlLi. 1)f the l--
port, anid, int view c. the large amount of iit,-r.t.ting matter
contained in it, have atIthorized its publication.
It may be added that the questions addri.siel to the Me.lic,.il
Doard at the conclusion of the Report wv.,re carefullv ton-
sidered and a detailed autwet forw.trde,.l to Dr. H-..w.ir in .July
last.



November l'P.(i4.


Si!!!!!. i*i*i*Ei*i*i*i






















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2009 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries


http: ..www.archive.org/details!reporttomedicalb00h





CONTENTS


TITLE I'PA'-
Pr;Fr.':E .
I-.rrP.uL, .rcTION
NOTE
PAuI I. LIEm.
IL...kth Pt .:.. [J, i .':,-j:
H[0:alth J-'.t.ccr.J. l ,':.- lr., :J
Ofa-,Er.'.' Ti.N:.'- ON I ';..Lui[r:-.
C-'N:CLL 'oluN AND l>:,,I:.':;LN.I[I'r
NF.WZI ." B-.F E-TTli:.N
..'S l.;rE l'.r.\L Obu-Er.'.'ATI ';-_ .IN Ll.O:.t


II. C.UIi T T)I L U
Hl al It PR-cord, ISS'I WI
Sr. .IlnuEI..' L'OLLEEG


Ill THE EA'Lr'ILP 1S .1 L.% E'-IDE VILL.a..E-
.Ar.a c1i Work .
Hi.-iory ,f it OIri in
Phy-i,.al Chuaal.,ctLulijtc
C'HA:LEr- Jr':..N .
Health Rec ,i. lI'i -l'Ji l .
2(.'UA-.CY lALES . .
Health R c..r .
L'ON'LOsIOS AND LE'-C:,;'INDariout'
NOtes ., the St.-.tru,-r M,-hid .t \\' Wrk


39

411

42

4.3


43
. -*43
. 4a


IV. KOTA KoU.A


V. M D31r .' .
Health ;Lcoxd. I.-',;-l'JU3 .
MALINDI .
Health Record. IS'S-19C3


57
0.

*...




====== lif 03


S

















114E l'r.E\ EN.I,-,N ,1 .o AL.AA.iA .


IX. Hil L .-SATI.:N


X Nr.rf'T is; .FPE' i.N 'Lbi I


XI. N Tin if li l,'-.IL r:,-.AFrD

.' II. llt .ri.N *t T,- IM[ iC. r',-...i, .
ArDENr. .


Lil:.oau Isl:.ndl
Ng Iini Ei 'n ni .
St 3M i -idel' .. : .
Area of I ."ori; of ,.n l p/,*1 , .s .* tejlt l
Kola Kota .
Malindi
Plan ,of l al hir i,:,n Stiti....


. 891

95

. 101
. 104


.V1.1 .I. ) P-L.N.,S.


PAG.4
* 12
. 26
. 33
. 38
. 53

78








INTRODUCTION
THE object of this Re.port i., to place, before the M edical Board the
i facts concerning the pas-t aw1 pre-,-ut lihealth of the umle'hi:-rs of the
Mission, together with suggestions as to th,- means w hereby their health
may be further 'afeguarde'J and improved iii thle iLture.
In dealing with this rquetion, tihe histtoral method has been largely
employed. It wa thought that this method would render more- intel-
ligible some of tile coiciiusions and reconincndationus herein contained,
and, further, that. t .'.o-uldl .,i'pply a medical .iuni.ary \h l'li might be of
use for purposes of reference. The -tatistire li' oIlletv.d are not
readily ace'ess hle, and they hlave- not bofore blr-u coll'cte'l or tabulated.
This being the ase, it xtas th'ieught advicable- to make tht.m .t complete?
as possible even at the risk of being tediousi. Th,_ historical and statistical
parts of the Repoit caiu easily vbe 'tauitted if desired. aind attention can be
directed to the general di-cussicii,- and sl iggestious -, whereas their exclu-
sion from the Report might have-? seriouslyi inipaired it- u-efiduneL for
referenee ptirposes. Moreover .is the various stations of the Misiiou differ
much as regard- bhth their health records ind also the improvements
recommended, it has been thought best to deal with each oroe separatelv
in the first instance, and ritrv.ards to ive a general re:vir:.' of the whole.
Malaria is the bcouirge of th. whole of Central Africa,so that for Europeau
residents the health problem bie-con,-.s mnilyv a question of the avoid iano
of malaria. In view of the recent dicriveries of the relation of thr mosquito
to the propagation of malaria, the destruction ot miiosquitoe- or the pre-
vention of their bites becomes a matter oi primary importance. Henct
a considerable amount of this. report will 1.,e devoted to oleservntions on
mosquitoes at the various stations, to the coiiclusions to "which such
observations lead, and to the pie.cautions which they siigge't.
Plan of Report.-In accordance with the above principles the following
plan has been adopted Each European station is tik-n in turi and dis-
cussed under the following heids First, the general physical character-
istios of the locality. lor these have in important bearing on the general
question of health, and more particularly on the ,ulbje't of mosquitoes.
Secondly, the history of the Mission Station is given, and then the health
record of the workers who Iti ve been stationed there. Next, observations
'n the prevalence and distribution of mosquitoes in the neighbourhood are
enumerated, with a vie%\ to ascertaniniig how far these observations accord
.. with the facts of the health record. Finally, from n coijnideration of both
the health record and the mosquito observations, rules and recommenda-
tions for the future are deduced;












during recent year?,, Vill i, 'liuN.I?-. ThIe will followw a summary of the
m'n.thods v.'hilh have beien rrco'mm1n,.de.d by v'1ariou? authorities on the
uiihl,,'t fi'r dealing 11 ith l i-quit-_.- in their relation ti malaria, and a
'iousi'leiatioln of whi'.h nrth.id arte most lbe.w'.'cial her, in C'ntial Africa,
on L.ike Nyv i, .'nl how i.,r tivy can re.-.onally l. applied tt .1 Missionary
body, a,-r. al- ,,hat pi-.aitin- t-le -ugge.t wlhenu new -stations are
loilded in the utuie.
Finally. -otni.' spep.-il point. whiv'.I lie rath,:-i '.Iut-id:l their main scope of
the r:-port W.ill be dealt with. No-te.s will I),- 1..1-10.i 1) on :'[t.iiii il:I.ions (e.g.
t.ie work-ing o,f th two y.iear' lul,'* at' the qiieltion of ietwun after
ilackw.jtei feve[) xi hi:h ler-qui-ntly ciomue b'.1ore the Mdio.al Board. And
th' .l-vice of their M,-dical Boaid v. ill 1.- .a-k,'d on certain rpo:int. connected
with til a'lun:.itr:,tin if *uinin.:. and other matter..






















r['1h [Iprr of .:cn ioiirn ; i,'i l In ili.i e %rhjo J,:sire Ij. jnin the Mision, contains
th.' f.llo ring cliuie- -- t ,.l, i-lIop. nfi-r u ,~ ilg,- Ih'ni at the e-id of the first
t %LC y.. of c..n.11 plt(-]d .- 1 r- ,









NOTE

On Certain Precautions against \ Mosquitoes, of
general application.
IN order to avoid repetition it will I-e '.vell t,, enumerate certain tiles
which are equally applicable all -i'ei the ilii.?ese, and which should Ibe
rigidly adhered to. Fui the most part thee are ar..ady' ,noirined in the
"Ints on Health,"' ulit they are s..iewhat amtphuied hie (N,,.2 is altered "
and No. .5 is new).
1. Mosquito u'-ts should invariably be uce-I. They .Auld Il. 1 made
according to the N'y.ir.a p[-,tern it the COiice, i.e. seven feet long, three.
feet wide, cid, ca/li:o -j, iind til. 1.'ri.t i t., qit oi tir,, i. rT is latter point
is of great iniip:rtiu'.:e as it prevents Lmc'O'luitoi:'s fiim .'iting tie hani.d or
feet if they -hould rest during 'leep against thi: ide lf the not (see Malarial
"oominssioiu RPeprts). Many not-, .ire made ridie',tioi-ly small, e.g. .ix
feet by two fect, a id no, with i:.ali:,) round the bottom.
Mosquito nLet are in general it-,e tliiou'hout the dliocee (except on the
steamers). It. must be- confe:s-ed, hiever, that sometimes they are of no
practical value, because they aret out of ri.pair. .IA i.t fid)l &o lidoc. ir v'rc
than usrl,, li,: it 'er j'afo iJll -11 it clril/t. With hard usage (travelling
about, etc.j a net will only last a vear. When it begiLns to get rotten ani ,
tear into small lolk-, it is v.-acted ailoiul to ty to mend it, as there are
always a number of hiles which pass unnoticed, 1.uit vhich ndmnit mos-
quitoes. It hloJ.hJ, theref.,te, be ,lestroyed,. and a new ,one made.
I have cildeavourecd to meet this lithculty Tby ordering out pare tios-
quito netting, and ditributing it to each station. Also the care of
the mosquito nets throughout ea(th tati-in has been made the special
business of th,: nurse. Tle-e lm'eaaure. will do something ; but what is
really wanted is an in'/lili uep.t preirai.oinu of thle object and need
of a mosquito n,.t by all members of the Miksion, and a recognition of the
fact that anopheles may be present anm may bite unnoticed at night hevn,
as is often said, there are practically no mosqiuitois here."
i Another point, of iniportance is that the lbeld hliould be sufficiently large4
not less than seven feet by thirt:-e feet Jit the least. A lig bed gives room to
move about without coming in coiltact v. ili the sides of the net, whereas
a small bed with the net tucked in round it takes away all the. advantage of
a big net.
,*"Hints on Health," by Robart Howard, M.B. PubUilied by the Universities'
MilMaion. A copy of this is given to tach person on joining the Mi.-u5,n. M












under a mr(squito not." This rule may be a c,,unsel of perfection; but it
is hardly practicable in a Mi-iion Station, especially with a community of
people ea.u.h having their own house, but a common diningi-room: also, in
the stations occupying lhalthy ,ite-. it i- not ineesSary.
On the other hand it .hoiild be recognized that the neighbourhood of
the lake shore ik the great bree.iiiig ground of .-niophelh, at most stations
of our M1ssion; and n1', that anophel., an'l very ios ibly infet.cl ones,
are present in almost ever native. In other words, It must be
realized that malari ii. in ner'.ius ihes, f, t, it it ii iS iresent it practically
every ,tivl l-nl (Malarial C('.umi:nion Heports, Stephons and Christo-
phier).
Of course, as whr.n a .e.iun'r ,om es iti, It umay l.e nece.sarvy to go down
to the: Lake at night, anl it may l..e necessary f-.r the clergy or nurses to
-oi into th- native villag,.. Thle, are risks incidental to the work of a
misiorniry and Cannot be avoided ; l.but the danger of leing bitten by
mosjluito.es when walking is muc:h le-; than wh':n waiting about. The
rule is Laimed against g,--ig D;. -.,'ril., to the lake shore las is very
pleasant oun a m,:onliuht niih.'lit) r to village-.
TIe a nkk-s :a be effectuallv pr'rt.ttel ted against imiosquito bites by
wearing two p.dir of socks or a pair of g.it.r., aift.r sunset.
.4 Fumigarti.-u by il'at.s of pyrrethruin po..dler thrown on burning
charcoal uii.loubtely keeps -Vway muoquitoaes for an hour or two. A little
pyrethrum burnt under the dinner tal.,i jtst .t.lore, dinner luiiie. is very
effe,'tual Oil of iavendetr ruLbed on the skin of the face or hands or ankles
is also a fairly emt,:ient prJeiitive, and is ,ltute pl';-ant to use.
These precautions should l.ie qdlopted in places where mIosquit.oes are
troublesome during the evenings ; they uie. hardly hkely to be employed

5. Destruction of Culex larv.e.-On every Missinu Statioii, before the
v.et season hegin, all old tins. pot-, etc., should be .-ollerted and buried in
a pit.. During the v.et easoin the gra-s round kitchens, -culleries, etc.,
should be kept hoed, .,o as to reiov'e cover where pots and tin.; can be hid,
and all Fre-h tins, etc., should I.: thrown away into pit made for the purpose.
The ob,servane o of this rule would add greatly to the comfort of many
members *'[ the Mission For thi. niost part .ullkes breed in artificia.
collection of wat:eri (suc asi occur in old pots. tis,4s, etc., during thew
season) -lose to houses. If they are troublesome in atiy room a hunt i-i
generally reveal breedinr-pla.,-s close by The smallest tins will often
suffice to breed large numbers.










iweventable; The natives, at any' iate, have no idea r' the origin ut
mosquitoes. A few bottles of mosquito lorva kept till they liat.li out
will be sufficient to (ouvince pe-ople, and their intelhlient co-operatlonu c.an
be obtained.
Where ves-elk h Ive ito e kept containing water (e.g. to proveut -ints
reaching the legs of meat safes. etc ). paratfin ihoull be applied once a u\eek.
N.B.-It is be-st to collect all nld tiun. etc.. b,[f,.t*. the wet se.,on., as this
can easily be done. A- -oon iai the raiu.., begin they_ ge-t hiilden in th, young
grass that grows up, and are hard to find. During the seveu mouthk or so
without rain they, of cour-e, contain no v.ater and o d-', no hai rn.















Ali i MA MB ,


.SC.AL / 'af!cL Tro / VCN


-I---


4" C L


0



*.5* CC.


sC ""r *.><


IIAP OF LIKO.4A ISLAND.
12











PART 1.


Medical Reports of Stations.

LIKOMA.

Physical Characteristics.-Lil:oroa i. ain island four and .a h.df miles
long. by two and a hall mile wid, lying near th., et -.i hoie of L i:e Nvasa
in a large bay. the southern extremity of whilh lM.al.:t Poitin afl'orIli pro-
tection from the south to thi. eastern half of the island. The we..ter!) half
of the island (and the station at Nkwa.zi) i; exposed to the tuil force_ of the
stormy south wind.
The shlortest distanLce between Lik.-ir-,t and the mainlind is about four
Tmil:es. From the harbour to the collegee i- abut six ind a halt miles.
The harbour i Mbaniba) is on,. of thie best on the lake it is well p'rote'ted,
has extensive anchorage. and is -ias to make .at night or in heavy weather.
The islaid i a mass ot granite rock. vith overlayinrg sarnty .oil-. through
which protiu ile granite Ihoulders. No pure cliy exists except in small
patches in the beds of streams. From thee. however, the natives obtain
enough to make their earthenware put-. No loan, or rich soil of any kind
exists.
No troops really flourish. C'assava grows, though -lowly. ind this forms
the staple food of the people, suppleme-nted by some ot thesiualler kind-i
of millet. Indian corn. which leqiuire-i good deep soil, will not glow.
There is a central hilly backbone, the highe-t hill being .'.40 feet above,
the lake. At ,orie parts the hills descend abruptly to the lake elsewhere
there are plains half to one mile brroad betv een the Ills arind the lake shore.
These naturally have the best soil. but cassava is pl.uit.d all up the hills,
wvhexe any soil exists between the boulders.
Where not cultivated., the land grows brushwood and creepers freely, arid
small trees, the leaves of which form the food of the goats and cattle
during the dry season. ThIere are no large trees except Baobabs. which
grow to a great. size. Probably other trees would also grow big were they
not constantly being iut for firewood, which is very ecarce. Fish are
plentiful in the lake, all round the island, and during the wet sea-on some
are also caught at the mouths of the streams. Together with cassava
III ur, itsh (other fresh, smoked, or sun-dii d) is the main article of diet.












remain; [ill o. water, not even dunine the wet season, but of course the
roots of the trees and shrubs nmit each moist soil all the year ilr
round. Duiing the wet sea,-orn there are streams; these run from Jaan-
ary to June. but dry up between June anod September. Some
of them a re from half to three quarters of a mile long, but a
great lu.joritv are quite short-only DOuL to 200 vards long. Above
them thele is a dry water'.,ours, v. here water only runs during a rain
stormn attr the rain i; over, the watei -oak-l into the qand to reappear
ia a ,priiig close, to the lake. These treamm throw up small bars at
their mouth ..inld often behind the bar is a pond or swamp which
forms a favourite breediig-rlaee or mosjquitoes. Ac there are no streams
01 ponds troin September to Decelihber thel'e are Ir. breeding-places (unless
the lake or chanr: pools dug -.ii t\h. lal): ;hore e rve as such. heniice prob-
ably the imo-lJuitot'. muit lve on iii native hoAu,-es during this period.
Thr st ea.i.S are not ined for drinking w.iter i All aIt:r i drawn from the
lake. Tihe lake shore ik clear aid. -andy, or lock'. without ieeds, or water
plants growing in it, so that the water is cleari.
Unfortunately the native, ii,.e thh rol:s and also thlie dry watercourses as
latrines. During,_ the Idry ea-o.ii the hot sun probably does much to destroy
all genrti. but in the wet season sewage must get washed down into the lake,
and the water must be.-corre eorntamiinated. though as a matter of fact very
few watle -borne diSieases *x::ur o)i the island.
There are no beasts of prey or, the land. TL:re are a few monkeys,
comes. voters, etc. C'rocodiile .re present in the lake. but on account
ot the deep water and lack of cover they are not dangerous. Gulls, divers Xei
fish, eagles, hauk.A. and pigeons ale plentiful
The population wa, estimated in 1'%, at 2.0,1). The inhabitants came
somiie from the wetern short of thIe lake (Nkata Bay, Chizi, and Bandawe),
some ftro, the eastern. These fled fion the slave raids and sought
sanctuary at Likouna. The i-land was overcrowded, and though some still
had gardens on the eastern shoe ot the lake, it could barely produce:
enough food. '...-
Of late years. ac the country has become more settled, a number ot
families have r-tiited to th-ir original homes, and now (1904) the
population certainly does not exceed 2.sX soul<.
The island was clos:n as the site of a European station mainly on
the same ground of safety, though the excellent harbour was another
reason. It- barienniess is ai great disadvantage. All firewood, timber
grass, and bricks for building, aiid most of the food for native school
boys, have to be brought from the mainland by boat. Fruit trees growiS







very slowly, and bear little fruit, but there is one. mango, and there ire a
few lime trees. In order to maintain a proper garden bed. loam has3 to
be brought over by boat from the mainlad. and this scarrc.-l repays the
trIable ; it is a bettor plan to maintain a garden on the mainlaand and bring
over the fruit.
All the native village- are rlos'- to the Like ?hore. moin.t of them in the
little plains aboJ'.-e ,i,:iitionied. but oiome are perched on the rock-. There
are no native house: ii, the central hilly part of the i'l.and.
The climnat, of Likonm is pleiasant for nine months of the year, but it
is hotter than many paits of the imainiani. From OC:tobet to DeCemb,?.r
it is hot and rippressive, decide.dlv more tzo than th,. maiiland, o0ppo-ite.
At this timedo the yeai tle,: i- little v'get.tirn. anil tihe ground- is icor.'hecl.
The xocky boulders bcsorb heat during tll- daiytin, ad give it. out at
night, rmai-rug tihe iig].ht air hot and oppr,'ssive.
Range of Temperatur-.-The following figur.-s are based on ob--serva-
tious made during 1,'.: and 1900. nt the Miion '.tation.
Shade Temperaf ,irt,: fin full sh..lde t back fI verandah). Highest. 107 F.
to 9S F.
SShade Tenpei/at/e (in lull shad., at b,i.:kof verannabi). Lowest, .O" F.
to 70" F.
Daily Variatione. Cold weather iM.v to A.\gu.t). i,".- F. to SO' F.
Hot ''eathi-i. ll.k.tobei to Deceitub-ri), '0:' F. to 98 F.
Tempetrature issir a st.'ee l.',". Highest. 90W F.
Lowe:t., 70' F.
Average daily vanrratinu firmile a house). ("old weather, 710 F. to
80' F. Hot we.athet. i,' F. to 90'" F.
Rainfall at Likoma.-The ap.eaduld table give' the r:iiifiul for the
last seven yea is. Theiease no tecoid- available for .ompauqrisoii front the
mainland opposite nor from .i ii other place in the near neighboutihood.

it7-3-. lrjj-9. loi, -l:iO .iii1-2. 1r ,2-3. 13.i,- 0 -5 0

Oct. .. .1 -
Nov. . 1-21 I 09 3S /
De, 11" -6 1.-33 f*3 3 6 4 28 9074
Jan. . 11-41 5-22 7-S1 16 9-505 13 92 -S "
Feb. . 22 9 20-3 10 15 4-57 6 155 10 303 "'
March 2 8( 9 32 u 09 3 3-95 5 9 5 4
April 2 3 4 5 /1 7 *405
May . I 135 33
June . 1- 17 -i -
Total 32 5S 8 44 10 2*9 56 29 T52 *3U 619 1 .

T.rtal tu Ind Of Marcth, 1904.
The rainy season lasts, roughly, forn December to April.













lake.. It is si.-lteri I tioni the rnoith arnl. west 1,y the hills which form
th,- backbone ot thie is.land, but is iexpcosed to the? east anifd south.
The original site %%a. a small pie,:e of giri'd 101.1 yard-a square. IIere
were? built the Eutrop an houses, lo.ys' iiriiitorize., cihutch, schools. etc.,
and jiut behind \\wre the hoii use t som5 e witive letaiinels, w.ith their wives
and familie.. The European houses were built of reeds battlee work),
but tlihe were tijt d.1nbe,-I over with mu l. (ai is usual inI native huts).
There wele io windows: light and air (aii-. wii,.l) V.-eIe adriritted by having
o, opl.,:n spac .ll .-iund betwe' i tihe;- walls aid tilLe iccit. The first stone
biuili.linigP.- there ,t-'ried in .'', aid between then and 1.]i2 others were J
built. 1.,ut they were used tfei ( cholc. stor.-es. etc., and iot tor Europeans,
as Ai..ldeac::.n Alaples : well a.-: beiig, ilor., native
The general stanrdarUil -.t lviig wa- aietiv- s.jit pork. ,ait beef. iio jam,
ad ve1 y x ev ew i,.t_'rnie- :f u i ii1 l:iid. Thliere was a general disregard of
ivhygii'iic plinciples. dial.ii .hliot lcoplete igiioi.iiite e1f the special pre-
:Jautionsl. l ur-.. 'r' it tt i i a.-l a1 maiJatiajl .lilia Ite. ahid the teaching
as to heialti that was lai,1 downv as. t stitpposol i(iislt of experience was
.I- en f(tllIb ioniS.
In OI'lto:..er an1i. Nc.,vemil.eri 1.'.12 two biig thi- destr.yve.ld hieatly all these
ree.l houses and thl-.- Pie-be-rs -it tth BIl siRion W'eie for a time almost

ladiuallY tihe- ti..: of opie.ioii at IoAin se:t against thiB attempt to live
lilk- native zwitliout die re'-gail t'Ii hygiwii' ,r..-:autioiis. and the same
idea gradually per-ieated tlhe 3IMission, iiid were further instilled into it
by tlh i c l e I '.\ Iii:eiih,.r..
In l1l' thi. M.-Leival Boaid wii'as formn-.:1. ian.. acting oi tihe advice of.
Bishop Hornby, ti:ey Imad-, a stioig recoGniiii.i.lation that stone or brick:::
Eutol'-a.ui ii' weliiiig-hIoui-ss '.it li ,.lo.i a;nd glass winidoews should be built
a rec:oinet'id.aticn i hli wU .a accfittt -l U.' Bihiop 3laple. and which wari
put into effect soon after his deitlh.
The first 'tonir dv.'elhr'i._-house was tfiislhed in 15,'.. and thie first glas%
windows %iere put in dling 1S'.t7. Betw-en 1,i7 ard 100)0stone dwelling
lhouss with windows wer,. built tor all Eurorp,-ans.
Th- type (of ihousei ateahIly imnpric.e1 As tri-isplort became easier.i a
glass, 1pleritiful] tile Iwiriileo .--rt -il:trg.d. In '1:02 ai, attemipr t waa
to make the houses lioth ant-prool and draught-tight by placin
oni the top of the Vwalls under tiht, root : p tlior t tlii, the outs hd
forestalled by raising the rtoof C.ii bri,.:; pillar whichh were capph












ward there was always eittier a d.'cto. or nurTL' o:u ti,' isl5IDi. I N er, W.i
also more general recognition of the need of obeying th:. laws of hygiene.
The site of the Mi-sion Station ) jn the harbour and the soveieign lights '
over the island l.r. b.:nght Il l FiO. This made a aternil diflereic.' to
the position and pv.w,.r of the Mission, ,and it enabl.il the station to I..
extended at will. In 1 i.' the little gr.iup of retainers' house' was moved
away from tie back of tlie station a nd l..uilt i.110 y-.rds nearer the Like,
towards Ngani village. Thi' saein .v y'r a ul,.station "as opened .at
Nkwazi, at the south end of the il.indl. .\ stone dwlling-hii-e v.al built
by the Rev. E. B.Smith on a little hill 250 yard4 ,inay from tie village
and I') feet a ov\'e thi' laike, ,*'u a spot -hlter:-d ftr.i, the full force of tle
south wind by a small ima of rock-. The s.ho:.l ;and ti:,'chrs' house
were built in tie xvillag-L- h-'low.
During thl. next four years .- church iwa built, v.hic, was fiiiishlid in
1903. Since? it: institution N:'.vazi ha. obr(u n Smith, but other Lauemlii ,of the' Mi3sioin otnu go over f I1 lday or two'-
rest, for which it. is well suited.
Unfortunately, however. thi' sit.' clh:-s is not satisfactory. It iS too
near the village, arid there is a stream (in the wvt ,-:.ason) nathin tilty yards
of it ; also. the hoLiIus i- draiiughry and ta Ati, Ql ctI'y ti in a health e paint
of view.



HEALTH RECORD OF LIKOMA. 1885-1898.

(Caompiltd fromi the .llissluu .M11,, Lzii's, t/'e OJfiice Rco,rd.,, ui6]fiim7tic:i
obtained from prt'sent or former iniemb*rs i:f te .lliss,',i, fikd suct medical
statistics as could e io ad'.)
z885-1888.-For the first few years the health record of inissi ilaries
at Likoma waa a ir'd. The Rexv. C. Maple a nd Mr. .1. \'illioinc, who
ihad been ten and eleven xviars ini tihe ivui'i cou iti. ,and who were
alcHiiunatized before. their armrval at Likonia, had good health, v.ith onl.'
occasional attacks ot fever ; hut NM1. Swuiiy. Rev. L. H. Fiere and
Mr. ,. Alley all had frequent attack and in about three ,vcr hbeca.ime
ruln dl wn and anaomic. Mrs. Swiiiy was invalided lihoiie at Easter.
1i88 b|ut aled from fever arid exhliaistion during tih. voya- g haom.
L ierT chillaged four, had died previously afterr one year Of life at Likoma
ii.n April, 188i,.) The Rev. C, Swinnv died at Banda'vt, Fbiuair, 18.7,
d oa


Ala








after having been t..i e a.d ia half years at Nyasa ; part, of this tili|IiWBE..L.
spe-nt at Likona, patt on the Charles Jniunii steamer, and part on two
visits to the Magwa ng'vara Mr A. tw.as in-valid.',d ]icine after six mouths
aus can urisuitabile -ubject Ifr Africa.
1888-1892.-PDtrin_' this pertd the i'health record w'a si mil a y varied.
Four ladies wtre ait .orl:. T'vo oA tli:'e hai.l ahlra.,d '.v,rkut.d in Zanizibar.
.cad ,-1 t., sr'm e 'ext'.r ait ::lciiatizi.l : Liut all tour ha.il liti he lth. The
fl-v. Maple'- ac li'.ail 'ujoyed' goi'd ihelth.
Th, R.- B an.l Mr. C. w. r- irva.lided in 1.-':2. loti.th ling very aiiaemic.
an .l ha.vitire ii .lr ,'L,.d *ple'-' H Mi. %I. was ini alijh.l' allt'r se'r ii i Imoi thlis'
reIsdencer fo:r fr'e"lj'-rit attai.s of f:c'.. r i1 S,' p.t ib,:r. rI'.' Mr. E. had
lla. k 'atat'-r l,-v- iti **i l,- ,' '.- e il' .*-i e ,ij. .l wi s ji vallii'le.. but. died
O his lii- h':,a e rctr n.i "'- lever .in l ihatitjriij "
In Octob-.er andI Novenil..-,. I'.2. .c:: rt.'re-d the li'-.' l ith ':al .ed the
withdrav.'i l of the I'.ii-. o.'-i to lILk ':,f h:'iUie a':'.:oinir-dation. and a
thnme :f grrat hrdshlip it:r t i'- 'i.-r. Mr F1. .- i. had r.iinl bi.-n out line
i ,lr ith-.. [allt ha. l'!et- ll,-it l-vi r-. ",-a- al.ao eiit htii_.
'lrinr g I ''.1 th, a houic .e i tir l :nl' id:-.:'1 l itsi ,.l,: w i.l, lr. :nail in
Octob..-r, 1,'.-, th,:- I.Ledi-- ietun .,il.
5893-1895.-Thi.. v.'.i. .in ?\ttenly 1.,ai d l.e-iiod as -,galUls hre.lth. A
grtat deal .:.f lrm wa ciu-.:'. in ELilaii. an,:l Likrhi ,amlin to %he
r,:'gu,'J--'d quiti. errt i..u y) ] 1, i : i li. lly id h i, -ialthy st.iti,.,ii
The: baid health rec:or, .:aji I-' p.rrily i:....:.nteI f[ It.- th:,- fo-llowing
c,:isid'iatiorn Fictr a iiunib,-r **If i-v'' io -'ih-r--' t.- :', J r' tIlute uLac-
h:iiih.atize'.l ,'.' i la]' o i. u t ,ii. furth.rr, so, i.': ,f4 the- v.': r.: o'nstitutinjially
utilittenI. nild w.-.it .l,] ,,ot IoIv b'-'-.np:"-.-,d b'. any Medical Borard. There
w.-r.- i-: thl .. d .li.n iig i.-1 ti i-, di Nt. l l..i lIyg iemi pr1:-eauitions
ta .c'.'I- lii'-E ol h'oi .
Seconiily. there r',.:cu:rrr':-d ,liiin I.-': 3 ti'ur i '. ,t r- ,'.r- sis. Tht.-se were
repa'l -d as i'- to malanril nieuritis. th,- i''-I.rr,.Il' iy th!,iy were poradi
ca,'5 of ].er-i 1eli. Thl- Re '.i. a .l Mir II. flnm Lii.:onia, an.d Mr. I. from
thea ('oarl.s Janson. pwere'- invaliije'.l li'.'ii for this Cauise. Ii1 each case
after el.:,- n ii'olithi' r'.-i.d1..-na r Tin,' ~:0i1jiain1t "'ca n t''r. I-. sF-'ok-u rof ais
Likoma par.alysis.'" .ind' wais .,it the tinne thought t 1t.'e ldue to the ex-
trunic-i.ly uiihcalth-v and:l ualril :l ar,-te-r if the isla-ail. Th, '-ugge-stion
that they WvE re 'c-:.:ass of Ieri l'.ri 'cei:; ho.-ev--r ior: hkely. TIh- R,-v. J.,
v.cho arrivel.I at Likoma in N'venuil'i. P-' 4. i.' iI hatd itrequin'-it -light attacks
ol .nialaria. t%, aull' poS.fic t-, h.a .' parctic sy inptonii alter six moii tlihs, 1ut
they su.ibsequenlleu tly ci-.pp .:ie- : andl Ma. K.. \ ihr was invclided home
anter three months at Likonma a-' ooistitutioLnally unf-ittedl. ,a, al-o sup-
pocsed to haic': paresis. Probalily Iaoth thI.. %-' re n.ieuroses, easily
ac:,:ountfed for bYt tin.- ian:r tht Iik-:rni 1,. naly-i. ,- tihn fasliionable
disease.





A REPORT TO 'THE MEDICAL BOARD


Bishop Hornby, who arrived in April, 1893, had poor health, and was
invalided home in February, 1894, and l.ter in the year he resigned.
But, making nil allowances, the health record was bad. Mes.rr. G. H. I.
all had a good deal of '" fever." and IMr. L was invaihded after frequent
fevers in 19S'.. Mr. M. died in May, 1..','4, after a. year in Afria froin
" remittent fever with ,xhaustion and lihyperprexia." Mr. N. had black-
water fever about June, 1S04, after fourteen monthly' resideti:e, and a
second attack from w lich lie died in January, 19''3. Miss O. had ilack-
water fever alter two year. in O.itolber, 1 .'.., and wn~ invalided home:
In August and Septemler. I.'..-, three, acci'-ntal deaths occurred ;
the Rev. U. W\. Atlay was killed by the Maguwaanvwara, and Bishop Miples
and 3i1. J: William- were drow.i'd in thli, l.ike. Thie-e losses. together
with similar ones in the Zanzibar di:.,ese, caused great uneasiness at homrn,,'.
The Medical Bo'ard was constituted, .inl intending candidate.- wei.
henceforth examined b-lfore Ieling ;o:'elit'fl. Acting on the advice of
Bishop Hornby, they further iirg-ed that stone dwellhig-liouse- -hould be
built, throughout. the Misioii.
i896-1898.-These moie reasonable ideas gradually made themselves
felt at Nyasa : stone houns V rer,! begun, the attempt to liv- ,an :etic
life, or to live like thi_ n.-tive~., wa- gra.'lduly abandoned, and there was
a more general acceptance of the laws of health, although little was. vet
known. of the 'pe:ial precaution, against malaria wlhioh should be ob-
servedil. These ideas, however, ,only won their way gradually, and a 0o-d
deal of carelessness and loolhardiune,; iemainel:
In 19i:, the Rev. P. E. Fiulkuer % aq invalided after two .-ttack- of
blackwater fever in less than a year. Nur-e P. had fair health, but wag
supposed to hav\' had a slihlit attack of blackvater f avei after onii v.ear
residence (June, I."W0). Mis. Ellershaw died from blac:kwater lever after
twenty months (dtlIing .-hich time cli,: had frequent i-evers) in July'. 1397.
Mr. A. Dutton, who worked on the C('hails ,./itoi at Likoan, Iiad
frequent attacks of fever, and aftei two and a quarter years hald blick-
water fever, and two montlih later a second attack from -lwhich he died
September, 13I.7:
In February, 1897, Nurse Q. was invjided home after four months
as constitutionally uuhtted. Nure R. a invalidl-l. after ten months on
account of prolonged pyrexia four mi:'nthis later she (intracted1 black-
water fever in England.
When this nurse was invalided, the only other lady had to go home with
her, and the station was again crsed for ladies. and it was dec-ided to build
sufficient stone dwelling-houses fr.,i th'-m before they returned.










SUMMARY, 1885-1898.
T7'e.,. / i. t'.". 3 q. i') tih s.e-, 3ix "ere ii' ..r, .r I s ac liie natized by
rtsidtiin,. in the Zanzibar di-i:t.c ; tlihe rest were
ijew nitrubers.
T',,. .,,,.,,i... i ;,,ll.J' I\ Thl,:. woay .... dividuI-l aks follow :-
Fr.,.r .ontiitutiorn lly iunitted %n '.lid nit return.
'[lr.-re mi ht ha3 rt-il c U d Ii.t ',ithlr f .
Foiir ,.-r. .i lIor.w j E,- return.
r..iar l.nr. forbid. l.ri t.- rtuf rr.
Te ar. *,, L',,' . vi .

T.I i[ Ilnlill.. .f p tintt. *E
T L t Il !n.r,,l..-r .t tt i. k., 12 Y' %, .', |. l n:.t h i tA .. Itt.: Iid .w.to, thr,
,[th.:I,
Dic'ti 4. i a mr 'rti'litv :.f | .:itr


II.

HEALTH RECORD OF LIKOMA. 1899 -1903.

Duting thi p.c-ri,.l there .S. thi. most r.m-arkable improvement in
health. There wirn: It:. deati-. No one wasi invalidedil id there were no
cas's of bl.ackwater fev,'-r among the workers at Likonia. A similar
gentiiial iumpriv.enmilt t.I:,k llaic' throughout th[ whi.]e dioc.'-e.
Th i irrovemnt i partly accounted tor by the fact that the period
of pir.ntelt v.c.k wa. fi, tihe mst pii t ,at an end. The country "as settled,
tra.nsp:ot arrangement- were hbtt:r and mi..re regular. .s' that supplies
tand 9stoi,- couhl I' mI.ze I t-ihl r.l.tained. This iindeo it ea'ior to maintain
and further inll.r,,v the gene-rai standard 4f ii ing. A somewhat similar
gtfneral inpi\-veoirit in liilh w is ,b-. er ,og- tihoughiot (lhe B. C. A.
Protecturatit, arn.ng-t -icials and traders ail.:e, whereas tlie years 1897
anrid IS.s lad had very bad recoidL.
But another an1 ni're- far-rrea':iing c:aine i, to be found in the fact that
the r-c:-or'inien'l.tions of I he Medic:al B,.rid were being cairied out. There
w\asa rigorous i.x;iiIalatio:n (.t tandidates before they were pasted for work
it, A filcs. Ablo, in IS1'', the Tw.o yet i' tnle," i.e. the rule that the first
furlough should take place at lie end of the first two years of completed
.-ervic? in Africa instead ,*f at tht end of the third year, as heretofore, came
into o.peiation. Further. the recnmrniendatirun as ti housing had been, onI.
were in process rf L.eing, carried out, and speaking generally theie was ,
gleat deciea-e in foolhardilles., and a eal attempt on the part of members i
of the 3.11s',on t.( Ive in a manner suited to a tropical county.
Scr pae 8.







Again, satisfactory hospital accommodation was provided and an ade-
quate nursing staff was mraintaimed, with thl, result that patients were
regularly nursed during attacks of fever, instead of being encouraged to
ignore them as had previously too often been the case
Lastly, great and far-reaching .l~ecoveiieo were made in the scieutilic
world, which demon-lute d the meani- by whichli: malarial fever was propa-
gated, and indicated the special precautions, which should be adopted in
order to guard against it.
The gain to tlie Misisei.n by this improved health record is unidoibt'edly
very great. Member hav,: lheen able to carry on theii work with little ,
interruption from rilne-s. A\l-o. wlien they hLve arrived home from
furlough, they have beeu fur the most part in good iheLth This laItter
point should enable them to be better alilo to undertake work for tih.
Misqir i) while in Englind, and also to spend l:ss time on furlough than
has hitherto been 'custom.ry ; while tlie nii'.:ouragiim,.:i't v. lhi'h it gives to
friends and relations is a matter not to be lo-t sight of.
Turning to con:irle- this period in more detail, we may di\ vide it into) tv.o
sections.
1899-1901 .-(',,mpared with nall pre' iou records the health of this period
was remarkably good. There wag a large number of n.'w leinbers who
were. quite unaccliinatized, and ill of thl-,e suffered from occasion \i attack-s
of malaria, but the cases wewe for the most part of slight .*r moderate
severity and yielded readily to proper medical treatment and uurjing.
Three members. suffered from frequent attacks, but only for portion of
their time (viz.. about six inoirths). Two old members of th: lMis-iin had
indifferent health, but they had both somewhat nver.tayed thir tume, and
were not inclined to take- precaution;.
Incidentally it may be mentioned that. two cases of iriti- oc'uored as
complications of malarii, possibly i true mjalarial iritu<. In neither cas .
did permanent damage rsoniit.
1902-1903.-The health record during these two years wa-, .uit ex.'
exceptionally good. There .'r-e no ,severe attacks of malaria. and
alhnost all uteniben had long period- of perfectly good h alth.
(Mr. T., who remained on during the lirst nine monthly, of J1902, was, the
only member hlio had bad health.) Probably this linarkably good
record is partly accidental jnd niiit likely to continttue on quite the samein
level; it is partly accounted foi by thie very small rainfall of these years,
materially reducing the number of mosquitoes ; but it is also to be hoped
thaiti. is partly due to the recognition of the recent dis'.overie.s with regard
to aldatia and their application to the Mission station; and the benefit.
resuftinf from this -latter cause should be permanent.








TABLE SHOWING THE MONTHLY INCIDENCE
OF MALARIA, 1899-1903.
The subjc-.ih. figjur.s givrt th.- total nuimbt.r of .'tics .: nmalari.' o-curring am-.ing
thr- Eur.,pean T.'.'.sitntis at Lii:.ui: 'lain e ,.h l .unth or. r ta .ueri,.ud of rive y'ars.
Owing to t bh. small nui nibr o'r ti.l.-nt- th.e ~: ttritictsi.a iua.t have any real acientifie
ill ., but th.-y Er g ,n 1 h.'in wiige tii., a far i thi: y gou
January 9 .
F" ,ri ,ry 6 T,-til l-.r fir't 3 ij)onth.-. 24.
March "
A. pr hil rutr. I f.ur first 6 m tthbs, 5i .
May 15 T,.t t.or :-:riond 3 iii.:,nlhs 3. 4
June 10 .
.J u l u . .
.\u i.t IT.til for tj.:] .3' moiju th 17
Il:ct,- te-r u T.-td f.:.r ;e,,nd I uuonths, 2:1 .
N,..venj L.:r I Trt.dl fr i-Lurth 1 i :.nth;, i.
Dici mbr .1. I ,
H'.nce: it ,'pl,,.ari th'i th. l,.o t ,w: iu..ntbl ..,I tlj,? w' r i r,. n urilih lor.-: mi L a[Iia l tbril
thell t '.. te th.i li. t thri i: ..-ntlis iI pit, .t tl.ir bt-ing rv ry liCt anI d trj;ig l
're ;i ,,.- u I,.-: trum rnaltr . th, ui r-,t ruliriAl ptri..Ji is the w''ronl thiee
n..ullt ,s. Th.. :.. l fil.- :tf _.- ih _.pl I. Itir1 in th. in.l urrat;i:n, on an.rhplich.s (1et1 latcrl.
r',.Iugn ihe -~ : .:ll .|u:irt-r tl r:y ,r. br.:.Jinu fr.: .. there i pletiv of cnvrr (grats.
et, I 1in the str,= ii-. andJ th.\ a, r,:.t 1t h l'.:. ,t I hcir y rain-. ,\lso the anrph.-les
bar, hali.I t[an. it.' b.uOu ,initcte ,tl ith ij i rl p.ir -,itrei, an.] thu- F :.-nih wind hiJ'ih
wu.uuld briug th t in irturn Ne'iui t... thi Mi-ticon btati..rn u preta],.ut .lurinii thJw .iea nn.
Darin,_ th. nf.l t ,i'irlt r u 'ioph.tle- ,br,.:ulir g.lila -i .s dimappuAr. fn- trh mablrial ilt:i-
.1--n.: l;tal', dilj: du ing tluie la-t .|u rtei thtre -. ir. rA\ 'ti. nil'ria and anophels
tr.- .-_ it'.e ( t ..c ltu,,- rrC atiu.I ,:.n Mi ...i-.u iu,.to


OBSERVATIONS ON MOSQUITOES

In the Neighbourhood of the Mission Station.

1899-1903.

General Prevalence of Mo:.quitoes.-M-uls.quit ,.-:ire never very prevalent
at 1thel Mis-'cii, Station IChLipyela), uor art they at any time a great nuisance.
During the viet season (Dji:.etile u our Ja.i i.i ur to April) rurices are pre-
,:it I In cotnit'lerahule i "iiber and -are -utifcieent to be an annoyance.
They are- perlistent i, their attac:ls, and oftuin bite in housPe or on the
vtlandalh duriiig the daytimeiu. Tlihey i u.- particularly troublresoume in the
e\eiiing. For the r,:.t rf the year they mae paincti,.jlly absent, only an
,,cc-i3uonal stray one ,n.tetiinrg monte's hitoi e.
Anopheles are uev,-r se-i.n on the station iu l.irge numbers. They appear
allither later in th., wet #-insl, at the end of February w1 the beginning
of Mart,-h, and are olb'.er\ed occaziona:lly iup till May or June. They seem
specially prone to enter houu.s at night after lights are uit, and most of
those observed have been caught remaining in houses iu the morning.






A REPORT TO THE MEDICAL BOARD 23

If a bad type of mo,'qitito net (without calico round the bottom) is em-
ployed, full fhd ones can often be eauiiht in the mcrnijng asleep outside
the net.
A noticeable point is that. in a series r.i observation. made in 19iX),
whereas culihees were cIaugit in the pilOportion of eighteen iemi':le tC.o twelvee
mral,'-. anophele- wv.re in tli- proposition of twv.ntv fe mi.le to one male.
(For explanation nots on br:.-ding-plac: )
Appai':ntl tli-re hl-' been a ,ih-.reas,- in thi. number of iinpheles on
the station during n ':,i.'-3. as compire'l with l'tO-1'i,0. Thi-- imay be
dIue to the fact that I'90--.- were mtii:hi dryer yev-rs, or it m ?ay be partly
due to Ci.inCe2. T,-re i-, '.r ,-it.inv f,:,wer ntlihie:' inrimn the dry years,
but that is easily e:.pla-el. (.See not, on bhree.ling-pl.,:..- )
An.rprheie ale more p!-'ntitL1d in the than elsew'li--r- on
thl station. This is .i':ouint-.l Fo)r bv two fa:t: (il t e south in d wo0lU.1
bring them ieie from Ngwni. and (21 there is ,. hoaiin of ho'i:es lhiehi woeiIllI
facilitate. their 1i;lt. ,',:*t p. 2'*.I
Breeding-places of Mosquitoes..-Most of ihe i bovi-mD.ntioned f.' t. are
easily e:-plailndi bY olbc'rvation fi tih biee liiig-pl'a:.:-. Cafices br-ee1-l ou
the station, il old ti,;. pots, etc.. kept fnlle.l by tihe iain, I e. In rtituciA.
collection of wvatei. Henc:e tie pr'e-al,:-n? cotrespondiug with the rainy
,eason. and their number depeii., c-i the ,:onitancy of the rain. Hence
also thii appfroxinmately e-iul nIubl:r of r.ilef ., 11. feainl: iii hIi-, eritr
houses. If thli. tin;. ,-tc be el:ar.,d a 'iy. thire i :i mark,-d dleiease in
their nuiiinbeis.
Cubecs- aalo breed in sitreaens a;'I pl n ids inear thte I.,1:i. I.,ut prolr.i..hv few
of these re.ich the st,,tion.
Anopheles.- T/.: ic.'i. ..: br:'.edicj-l',.t'':s ,'' i'. S -' a;. They bie?'ol
in iiatural c.-'lle.tionl' of v.-atcr, oid owing it the iI- s.m. naititUre of the soil
none ich'l exist i'e.alet the Mii-s:,ii Stattion tlhi.i the iin-eilbourhood of the
lake. which is ,0) yards: distaiit. ,i1nd 1ii1 te,:t 1i-i, ti.- Station. Tlic
distance is the s: -ie t.-. b,,th Ngani, .ndI MI.amba i.e 1inp1). p. 1')
There al're i periiln-iit streams running ito the lal:e all the V,.1r iounid
but in the wet season tlihere aie d1lay i.:t[t stieaiis, ofitn oi't iuore than
100 yard long. and ., few long'-r ones of half a mile or min'ie. The Ashoit
streaiMs stait as -piniig- in1 the siid ; A abov-,. the spring there is a dry sandy
watercourse where waZter onl'; riu : 'luilng a 4how of ain. The time that
these springs start running varl'i?-s ..i.,odiiiig to the .iimount. of rain it
may be any time b.,etv.eeii Decemnber .id the begiiig of Febir.iaiy. A
heavy shower of rail, rings dow'.u a food of water v.'hich flashes out the
watercourse, and often cuts out .ilite a Iew chlianm I through the sandy
bI'each to the lake, so that IthI; lat pa: t of their coiuise i viablebl. At 0icuh
tinie; the stireims biin. 'lov.ii tLiuth 4and und- throw up a bir at their
mouths, behind wlicl, tlie ,attei oft.t- collect s as a ponid. TlIe r.rdinayv







rlow of wjter may e.,c.pe by .oaking through this- bar, but. a rush ofiwiM'
cutS ouit a fre.-h pag-tage.
If thi-ere ji :r fi':quenit -tornits of rain. anild the cour-e of the stream is
-traiighlt a rid not blocked by :,b-tacle- or ve--etation,it it lay keep a clear-cut
',ou:-:e to the lake withl,-wt the formation of a bar and a pond behind it.
II the overtiow 1-fi the ktreal into tie lake 1 good. tih Conic uip in order
to splav.', airid te ,ot fh i',11ihbountd iin the stiaiii. Thliese latter destroy the
anroplheir. lirvae.
Th stIR Aliii c'a-.,' tiunruiig about April or May : but tlie bar-pound at.
their ,iiouthli rtir;i.i. At hr-t th,-.se are b tht v .:.nly dr, up s ti-he lak:. fali Bv, Augn-t they are quite ilry, .nd they
ieinadiu till th, following Io.'ienl:.r r J.trary. Aniophiles breed in
thi]-. ~tr- o.r, ule i'- 1 ve'ted b.' I 1) ,V '0l t1..w .1 wv.ate-r *:,r ill occasional
fli.od. or 12- the prrc-ei-i. ; o'f small fi[h.
Thle :orilditiii, that favou\.. r thel'ir ; I '1 inii .:-li :eg t-tiont i ; this prevents
th[i .i:'- a :.-si f i .i.id liridh -ri ilr." 1.0 w. ii'.l ibt ., cr c-'ked coii .-e, e6sp ciially
if th:re ..rt: hol= t1 ilg thle :'-e:, ,a- occr.rir 'hre a t:icani tflows through a
lJ." Of r,,'di
At th-. eLId of the l ,t VI-'1,s1 i tlhe tio" :of the atreanm decreases. the occa-
it:-.il tifcd tease.:-, the -.ege'ta ti.,.ri i ri:..is'.s, and the young' fizh either find
their W\.i to the la,- r ', -ift. lien,:- thlie -rj.lditio.nS are mire favourable
for anriplhel.- In Miy a1inl Jii,'.- tlh, har-poiilnds f:iiIm ideal br,-eding-places
itf. ti, sz c-cial pr-ev l i'c [ i..l ,,ila a u'l rin, tih t iri,,nths, monthly iuci-
.l(n'.e ,:. al.iri t,. I., 1.. -' tlithr iubSi'liiry bredirig-pllacem exist during
thi-e t seaon 'el':-.e to their lakel-. ,:., I It 1 cIl'.l. cdaj.oeK or amluong locks
f.:.rnied. by back ,eli.. froin rI ta nvs I -ee p. 2... nilp of Ngyiu marked *
Fool' aBIo ,t.t:ur :i.'-ie to thle I; 1..i: -htle i-.hich are 'lug b\ the inatives.
The' bury thifir -a ava Il hole( itn tihe i,:t -ail. ir n often. when they dig
it up, sinall ,,,pools are left If t 'iii h p:'oiL ain.-phele- lirvae can often be
fon-'id iii nuil'er-. but they are uiLsafl hbr'-eeing-placei, for if a wind raises
an' waves ,.n the lak:'- :g le\' ,'l.? t tor be ;.i-h.'.l away Simnilar pools
orin-etinue o',:t"ur in thi bhed. ,f -t e.rif hear their source. e-pe'.i lly whexe
th. i-nr m-.re ur le-- blo-.ked b'- bus.he- ir ,ther i.t',st.itle rlnd tliese are
fatvo(urit( tIediing-plla,'-s., as It-h dio not gen-erally get ..o high up., but. of
course thyv alIs:. art ,ipt to Ih-e w:he.l clear by a ru-ii of water after a storm
of a[ith.
(.'1up1 ela ith i.w '.1., on r Star :tn' is i. '. 0 yail f i:.In the: la ki:,aniI lI.Iiiec- about
.5r) yards firII thi': re:.aie t aic0Il'h11el.hr' brireJin-giroittn'l. An'opiheles breed
friely. and the pic,.':,ntiv,: ruea. t; r'- iner tione I.elow will ne\,e-r be c-om-
pletely .,rcc-sstnl in stq,[.ping the-i,, though theV ilaV aU som40iie dimiiution
iII their niiiiiil-i-. Thil-re a.: also native lut;- clo-e by -. that t hey can
retadilvy '.'c-i''i info'- ted itlh i al.irial 'iorf-. it,.
IJt.;':uii the Mi..-.iji Static-ii avnd lbanmba thi-re is oiIl\Y oCe house, a.,







schoolboys' dormitory 150 yards frum the station and 45) from the lake).
and it will shortly be demolished. Towards Ngauii. however, there is a
string of houses ,,f reta iners of the Missioin for unfortunately from the
mosquito standpointj when the houses were rmove..l from juit ,ehlund the
Station n in .' they were rebuilt here; they .re di.st.uit from Chil-yela
50, 100 aud 450 yviiA', zo that the pre:t-tt distance, i without anu house is
only :3-.0 yvards.
As mentiouei'l If.'fe, it la pioba ble that minot of the anopheles which
reach the StA.tiun :'..,ic fre-nm Ng._an iii eneii their pire'.'ile i,:e in th.: ladies,
quarter, which is the lpat of the St u1s:n ,ii'arst to Nganr) ;the. are hellel
to cover this disttac..e b. the ouith vwin'l, and al-o by t!his string of con-
neet.ing hou.es. He{. ,. r .' le/ie e', )llt" t ythlll(j li.. I.fl t ...illlIl bhe M'Jovl'c .
Very prossiIly the :iine'llhei.,: do int cover all the dist.ne in one 'itht,
they may uve there ii,.uses a. r:-.ting-.lace; lel.lhap tjor the i. ]hole dayil :r1
then proceed next ni.ht. The al.,.srn:e of male aiil .heles Itroin thie Sttiotin
(which was n'ted abl. el-j i, o vinout-l liie t:. th.: f.act that the,- cannot fly
to far. Tin: house are iaTrke ton the aip.
Details of the streams, etc., at Mbarnba and Ngani. See plan, p. 31.
In 1.vL. the iorI'litionu .t Ml..aril.a anl Ngaiu were ai follow -
At Mbauib.a weie two 0 trlaiiul, l.ilth v.ith tor'tuouiis .u' is. Ea.:hi
ended in a pon ld :elt in by a l.a[ wlh .hli v.i -tre'igthei:.II:1. by a 'rA. .ith e.
reeds. Th'l re w.re,.r o a .o i r.,tcriniLi 'o \lie-ie .lteLi i. oll duiiiil rain
stolllus. Ill bth t- sti lean ;:.lc.lielei bired.l fi.:ely. I liipr.ovi:iimentlsi Wei
made il 11j.10. see p "'7.)
At Ngllil lie bweeding-pq.:uiul- w're luire c xt<:-iuive. Theie v.wer hve
t.re ui iit, (. ,oli nit t, .q eii, l w on i ,n il f ',i.0 y r-ti! long.
Thle first, .1, began in a hollow wh',ih v.a- plaiited '. ith liie. whiih itter-
fered wihli its How. Th'e e.:ld'. e:, v:. a shoit anrjl stii-'ght, butr i ame of
its waters were diverted to a rice tield between it and L'.
The biigget (C') had a go.,.d HiV., .uit -ixt', yards (,in the' ll' it had .1
very curved coitse among leed., which L.he:.ed the H1o.w and' caused the
format io:n of inuneeriius pools su1it.ible fe:, anopheles to WIreed n. Abover
tlis curve it had a deep alt .s.ndv bed. It wa, alout 3 ij yaidiS lonIg at
the eight tof the iainv season. P['.ol .re present at tniiue high up in tlis
bed at -sume distance, from the lo\k.
D and E were small stle..ms, blc4l.ed w ithi ice. whiih flowed out of a
low-lying swampy hollow a.I. plianjte-l '.ith rice. In dry years tLus- hollow
contains little v.ater, but in1 wet year.- it i- decidedl,- swampy. All the
streams had bar-ponds- of greater or l.ots extent at their mouths. This rice
area with its streams was the main anopheles breeding-ground, but of
i course there were abo the chance po.ls near the lake al-bove mentioned.
From Angust to December no anophelesbreed iig-grounds wereobserved.
The only possible breeding-places being there chance, pool. near the lake



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FrLAbi Oi NC.ANI f.. : i\.AIlP AND ArIE'-Ir ED IM [F.O'ErlENI, J)04.
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27


A REPORT TO THE MEDICAL BOARD


shore. Probably they do not breed during this period but live in the native
huts in small numbers.
Attempted Improvements.-(See plan.) The o.iject aimed It was. to
make straight stream v.with a clear Course-, so that thr.v iould b1.e fluiihed
out with rain. thi.t they should not firm a hat ind 'iar-pohid, .Ian that
fish could easily, get up to 6pawu.
Mbamba.-Iii Novemibehr .ini DecImb-r, 1l:'i., the t',.o atr.amis at
Mbaimbna were straiglit-tnil, the reeds :int their mouths l eing cut ;.way io
as to give a clear i:rou-,.- to the l;t.ke. The edgps of the larg,.-r tr[c.im were
lined with brickiat.. ..ml the holh..' wh,:-r, tb-h F.r-p.onii haI.l hbeen was
filled up. The.. uie.isuies were oe the whole decid.ldily -iri'es3;ful. lhe
streams r-.jiured to b,:-- l-,ar,.d f gras-. :iiin their ,..lpge itt.t.h:ild to front
tie to timn:. The- num :.l of ,tu,- -phele' I..r-edtin. t Mllo'l.,.i %% is app r-
ently reduced. In oiew of the fact that la:ts otroum the ~trE:-.mns la.id here.
there must al3ve ys be .ion ,,t t. ll.? to inil from the lhe i:hor.: at niilit:
tthis is of d,-: deed imiport...u:e, even though few o.1 the. Mlbi ulb.. anopheles
manage t.) reich the Micsirj .t.tiou.
Ngani.-Durinig I'0:; the ri,.e-gro..ing iw.aii ete botgiht up,. in,.l i,
January, 1'04, fn att.-n:mt was m..1 to i. drain th.,m. A ttr-ight c'.urt,.
a\'voiding the curve iij the i,-d- v..t (cut for the str ,in. C'. straight ditchles
with side branches were cut to dr.-iin the twoI m.it ric s-wampn as ii the
plan. No rice v.a 1.ip. nted', 1,ut I., i.iii.s ai d [,ii; Ipl: -V l. put iI,. -so
as to oi-cupy the rounr. an.l rev-ent the native- from L, i.,utni ricr. aain
another vear. Az f:rr aj caLn u e :en these imeaart promise wi-ll. Th-ier,
is less swamp, the draiii- \,i\ a clei'rer outllovw hiid coiit.1in fi.lL
After the r.iiny se.a-oio is over ani1 the flow in the stream i- hrs cea,.'l,
but when the I.ia -p,.1-i ri.niri .ind ll i ]m i,-"port.int i.reid. lhu,.- 'l.tc~
(i.e. during the months of JJu nd uly), :i'wi-thiiig cl n be don:- by
treating thhe-'e 1inods -a-ith p.ir.-tliir This pl.nI hA- been ad(.pt.-d:l ir.. time
to time, but it. Cartn only hliivt .1 limitiedi .p li:ation. ,Wi would lie -f o)
value while the stream is runniiu.. Furtiier, p.rl1rcli i- very LCo-tlv ou
Lake Nyasa. anud i.an only be u.ed in very -m.all *.|li.Ititie5.
The Ilove me.I'ures have beV n, 1i',ub'tedlv behe1iefi.il, Vbut they cn
onlv he partially -uccessful. The iaumbes a.'j ia,:,;pJ.. anat Jbindib ,n,
Nga i i imay b,' r o: red b' tiEir m, ais. btet they' c.ii.'.. b jf r'ri i,,,10,, I .
The irregular course of the -tte.ns through the sanid. the su.ll.e ruhslic
of iwter which quite alter the course, and., ibrve all. the rise and foll of
the lak-e level, with the foluintion of i.ars i.l bar-pouds :it the mouths
of the streams, eflectually prevent iiiv r.dicil me isures. The mea-ures
which iav'e bt.en itdopted are partly succe-oful, Fbut ecitait attentionn
to the ditches will .,e necezztry. pr elk they will soon get I.-jocked up and
useless. Also other breeding-plaes will always exist in the pools near the
lake shore, etc. In shoi3t, the /,t. shore dl '7/ i1'ajys supply br,.,ling-











CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.
The C('nuthe.s lhi.h reach the -taition ae ilno-t .all bred locall. They
(,n bi., prevented by thle nmea ires already] v enminernted ie p. 23).
The A ncsipkl.: whui.h reach the station ,.ome from the lake shore in the
nelighborlihood ot the vi'llalg, L A: Mb tuba and Ngani. particularly the
latter. A conriiidnable per.:centage of thlv:e .me probably infected with
malaria. The number which minn. ge to ieach the station is, however,
Ein-ril. nn .xcoiint ,f the. .list i ce of over a quaiiter of a mile which sepa-
ta.tes thle tationw from their breedilig-gro.iiids.
1. Thie imain point to iu .ntiied .)t i. to t,1inin0i tIbis isolration, and to
iupijrove it by i:.i:vinri th, coeiiiho:ting hiuei.t, viz. the dormitory be-
tween (i'lip-ytlc .id Mlbainba aud the ztrin-' ot houses towards Ngani
(-ca' aip. p. 12. mirk.,?d thus x ) on tihe: firt possible opportunity.
There' ik a suitable flat pi-, ol .-rwoud behind the station towards
Ma.dimb.i Ima1rked thui x Coii mpi. Tlii. v, only Id.0) yatkds from the
stat ioiI. but it ai further from antiopi r-1-..s' breeditig.-groiutid., and is, miore-
over. ,t p, ted. from the lak- by .i small hill, which would still further
to.id to pr-ve,,t th,-m from ret:hi n_1 it It ,aould be a very suitable site
on whirh to rebiuld the ldr-.iiitorv aind the retainers'r houses vhen they
are remlovell.
2. On u, arc':uitt should ii, bdlldin .-,j cn] ri:it Iues b.lewci i the .llission
and cither VyTi ...,r llbao.'a I ,. pinntlled.
3. Any nsiileraui.le exteuiron of the station, if -uiil b[e contemplated,
thoulhl rot be mad' on thie present site. Is a quarter of a mile is not ulffi-
cl Iiit for complete ,laktiron. It slioul. be a quarter of a mile or so further
mintrnd. Thieie an excellent -ite: on the pathl to'.v iid-s Kuyu higher and
raor biacng th.in L'hiipy.i. This spot is al..:it half wile from the lake,
iand would probably hbe abs:lutirlyv free ioin rac.nopheles.
1. Further. in order to uliuin'ir h the riik of tloic'e 1noplieles which reach
the station and liang about it. be.:n,,ingi infet ted on thie spot, only boys
alid girl should sle?-p on th.,e tatioii .ind all marred natives with children
should slo.op ii, the village-. This rule is,, as a matter of fact. in force
(tccxcpt sA regards the houses of rt.ainer- above mentioned). Mission
'onsiderations wmay demand th,. presence of one married teacher on the
station, but th. number should always he the least possible.
5. Lastly, the :om parftiiv ealhhiness of the s.lation, andi the cent iialaial
characUr of the la.C shore, should be constantly remembered by all workere at
Likma o ; and i/tecr fwlsu .hh nht ,ibowuthd I,/ he lake should be avoniid ai
j'r au, prauwatLle.







NKWAZI SUB-STATION.
Mosquito Observations.-The houne i.- 300 yards from the lake anl i.;Oft.
above it. It is about 2100 yard-, from the native huts of tie village.
Arnopheles breed IneL the lake thore under siiillar e:ircumstanrces to
those described above, and the house is not sullicieutly far away to prie-
vent them from reaching it in con-.iderable numbers.
A stream flow- paet the house v-ithin ii) yard's of it. It is over a quarter
of a mile long in the wet -easoii. andL flow, I in a deep-tut rot k bed. Ano-
pheles would not be able to breed here (exept at its mouth, where it forms
a bar-poiinl) during the height of tlt" wet -easoni. 1- tIh.- ruih ot water aft.-r
liea-vy rain would wash then a.. av. At tlhe end Al the wet -.eao.i. wlien
the flow o( watei ik le- -ildI unt0til it dries up (April-J ne), ty tii bree1 in
rock pools itI it", bed, atId heret they ale -at,- liumi y.,ulig it 1., which c.-innot
g.t up this pait if th..- tr,.ain. Tlhis .treamr i. however. of t-eondarv
inportaxni:e. anid: the main source of anopheles i, th., lake -le.ie.
Conclusions and Recommendations.-Nkw-azi i- dec-idedly more ,.ilarial
than Chipyela, ov.iiig to its l.eing Iles, i-olated. If any extelionr occurs
(it has often been sitg'ested a- the bect plao- lor a Thel.-logieal Coll-,ge, it
is most important that thi- i-.,lat,.il .-houlil be i .re .-e.i ..
This could i.e attained 1.by iN the present hu-1'e only i le the diay tunm'
as a libliav .tnd lertuite room. etc., .iid buildi'ig the Euirupeaii dwelling-
house or houses 2') vt.j 'rtdls tfuther Irom the lake at on tie map. There
is a nice shelteied -ite here tsee p. 1211.
The native dwellings in, coinnie'ti,.i i .lith .uch tii etl..ilislii ent would be
best placed at K on the utietr sile ot the srtreal, as this would reduce the
number of stream-bred anopheles that would be likely to ieacli the Euro-
pean hious-. It would be bett,-r -till to buil.1 the ta.itive dw-elliitgs in the
village, but tlhii v.ould probably ihot 1.- p.tic..able ol, Mi--.ion ,l ull'l d
Tile r.:!: 1poolS iln the -tre.ain .'.ould e quire to Le treated with pal.alin
betwceti tie Months of Ap;il anld Ju-'.

SOME GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON LIKOMA.
Independently of the MIalamia ':iue'tioi. there ale a few points (ormected
with the health record of Likoina that deniandl att'iitioii-
]. The bamrepeits of lte isla ,l i- a great disadvantage, for it hoinitA tihe
supply ol frosh vegetables, and to uilie exteitt of mill, while fruit cannot
be obtained on the island Thi.i difficulty lhas been met by tlie use of the
garden planted at Utonga. 1.e the inaiclaid opposite, by Aichdea.orL
Johnson, and also lately by .a ne garden which has been planted at the
College. Witli good mianeagemeit of these gardens acnd of the means of
Transport, probably Likorima could be as well -upplied witl, tuit ai.d
vegetables as any other station.





30 A REPORT TO THE MEDICAL BOARD

2. Lil,,,,a.7 jri-i Tbh, liha t r.f the ground aii it.s -totiy. rough,
hilly hli ,ra-t,.r are very trying to some por.ple,, especially to tlhe ladies.
The wn.r-t imiuith- .arr Oi-toml,-r ti-I l.)e:.Oiber. e-pcially the latter, if rain
i ,l,-laril. Some worker, suffer irom oe.leima ol the ail:les, in c.-,cirequeu-e.
In it l of oin'? wvrkir. oni thrLueo o-' ci-'lon-. Visit t-' Liko_, an, c.i'hi
of .Jabo)it tv.'i) Inloltit' dlu.H'tii. i. jil:d .1 lrinou. train of inerv'ous
yIirpti-. i \t-t i.:.~ C- I1-- I:.f 1 1.'1 ir ti'.ii i t]i l'eg (les ribeh-' as a feeling
of tightlii n, an.l thenri f-e-liig .- if rhlrre wi're inothig lIelov- the knees)
cut :suldiily. s-, tl,.tt it i dili .iult toi ke-ep trc f:r lio i. The feeling
pa.-,: i-tff .radlualI. 'I,- *tri;.rk genii'r-ly I :,-TLr in thi l mIrniiig when
kiel-itL'Y. or g,.ttiih Ui ft,:r ki..hliig TIer-e t also :i.ir l:.,.lei-iij a of
ti.:- ankle.- in t '..i ,-. itl a :iii .' p.aii jilt thi- iihas o cui'n red -at other
:t.'t io l-. .1111 i- [,.1tiy 1.]1U,? to \"N1ilo-, I.* ?in -.') 111 ',..lailhilatio l (,1i 0 ,u e Of
tlie'e kie'e:,ij.'i keej:-- '..re ail.,-ent. but there w:, uo iiitraitiuscul:ar
terii'i riI?--. K ri,?,'.-j-r:_- itilrihii'i ait-r tleho ,,iteti t I. ft Lik,-mia aird re-
tiutlli.- t.. K,.ti A iil tl- -t li.j-:'tif .. -'ii[.p t....l ns1 al ,o i..i appeared. The
; hIj: ;i. 1 'd -i'llpti',ll- ee to i ,i geL t i rvi -. e't is.-tion vithlout ,actual

itl,',ir i ,:.- l'ei-i. of til,- .11I-i Ini h.,v,, iro:,m rim ,:t.-. thiln rco ipla)) i cl (of
l,.,'?lll.h (.oI l.>:-,l eh .m,, I11 ,lii .*-.- il t he It>',. Jul th lir -.-;. .1.
.itni K. I e? p. 1i) ere.'.rr p illy oI:f imil.ar i.iturie. In i',t ;ofI these
<: ':--. li -(;-ev,:-r. tl-ru i iithii t,:. Ii:x. thal t tih:e -Vinie toin.- v. cr niitytlIing
mire thai.iii S.uiljtiv,:-. ; three i no r.' or, I [i the i onditioin of the knee-
jer!-:s. (K on r rttirni hito, i I il -r ,.i l l:ii-e-j.- rk- i .l ankle :l .ons,
,iiu g,:-ti ii ,\' tr 11 a nl : ln tlt :ii.)
Sub:h e.it. hav.- lie- a:,ille.d LL ii. p ialvi- '' in the Mi-Tilot.
Thlie i -t i tit-rr-tiil, q:lue ti ii I- thie- te! ir:.i ...f thl -e c a-e. to the -slp-
po eld ..,-e: o1 leri l.'n. whi.:b l :,:urr, -.l i l i3-'I. N., othi'r cascs in
,iVy t.ay ncetiil.,inh heri-l.,-ri live i.. i. ined i.'i'.-: or h'av-- .anv hi.en
-:.-e'rxvil ii;iy'..h n t it I.' likIc. It is pro. itl.I thI It th.-v i'.-erei c not beri-
l ri,.i. [ t \iere ex.tg:, --rate.]i .;-- oi tli'-.i.t ove roridition I.it ine? stronigar- r'iI-
i c' -t igit1-t thi-s -iign:-tio thi.t o,'f o the -ft'ifler-e [rm -supp[)o,0cl
li.l il.,ri ,i-i not I, le-ihli:t )t Likoliima. but t.is wv.lrkirkig on tli? CiA7ils
Janiii.
3. Chrn, re nid "i ft'er -.,-".." It I- uoticea.I.le fict that tli-se
i:omiipli.tttV. '. li,-,li ~e: -n, to lih1.v been, v,-rE prc-valei,)t in the eirly das.
iii, 1 pli.-c in tih' lh,:-,ltI r:,ird or th.- la-t live ye t,. Problabil they
.'i-re .Ie i.i ly ti : -l diel er..-- .:l -tat.- of fhi alth a -nd] g.'l'-r.il dibilitv and
aii:;-ilia. bu it l. tl l.:%l.: to 1eglu : t .r i .d want o-f int l, Ili.Int sturgica.l treat-
iii-lilt









PART II.


Chisumulu.

Physical Chara':teristiics.--Thi I-ln1 bs MIl out ive-n mil. m ,'-it Of
Lil on a. It 1 li ht o t III the l1l;.. ',111l *e*ts hno f,],t, r t' Ml M:il po)int.
In shape it r''pinbl,: .1 t.l'.1pol,' It r.,:,n.i--t-, :t a hi llg h 50"1 e k'et high.
Sulnrinhl'.Il bIv 1 \v ,'v i,,v ba l,.it A '- el l, and, J1.1] -.,I tail of I'lat ladi
two m ieiS long. \'lilgge-...t In., it All r, n,,l th, lill a nl al., o:u the t. 'l.
Tho hill Is lultS vat. ti h i :iii lit i th. t :,op. TI.- h-l.I g'o rul
is v-i' sL', and troi1:',. B.;te'.' n tl- e 1 t,, ton'.- tiL.e ,il I- fertile?, .1, inl
pIla':.'s, .oLmanIyv. Rio::, s..ig:[-L]'. iiiimll.-t arl In] diat, c.:iin ':an all be
grown ii ,l. :e> .
Th,- tIulatjo I;-' :11i. :,ut '1"1. L gi quiiintities ,:[ fit h aie (C:ii'-ht.
Munth orf this i tal:-] t:. NM -iurI'Il., 'h e it i. .ex':i iiig.d i. lki.I ur.
Mission Historv.--\Voik ,-. I,.1, 0 I.l -- h.i Mi. J. \Vlliarji at L'hit':l:o,
at the noi th ,-_nd of ihe ida.nlri, 111 1, ... lie ren,.ainL, here ,tl:.u'n till
189 .,' lie lient for fiurlloI gh.. li.l wa -ir:.:.I.1l bv th.- U',-, (; W .
Atlay. Thi' latter .i inv_ ililn,1 alter bl.l .kivater fev.-r iii S,i-pteniiih-].
1893, .and their R: E. E .Iusil hii'...e-d..l hin,. ieildaiir..! until May', n,
when he? had t:o _itliin to takL-: i:ihaig'- of Likii it. II'. I i d .1t Cint'ko.
lI'nt h a-o built hI: M,--in Itlitoin it Sa.iin For the next t .)i-y ve:m
Chtisuiult war-.t tink,-r t],e Cl flef' .J, I r.u-,, a,-11] v..- w, V :,k.-,l t i la.ke-
side villaig.i. IIIn J.n, J 1")'", Mi. N Lith tih Itrlin In. d .as Stlti.'i'Iw- ai.
Nl'v;'. 'i iLikoiua I-ldtuld). h.:rw.e hI,- ''eit o',',,i by boat to C'hi.-irriiuh
o' nC, a fortnight, ge:iertilly ,t.i.iiu :n,.e rr t ,. ,-.. Frow S",-itemblher,
1002, till 1'.:003, tlhe RM,. W. B Ntlr-t vi-it.-I tbh- -1 li].
Wi\l\ e Eulopl'eanC ,.,-' living :on thi. i-l..and:l, tie Liuld.ings 'wtre all wattle
and ,laubl Betwe.- Il'-, ,.ii'.l I,"" toI-' ,cholls a hid ii:hmiiih' hA.v\'' b'en
built; but the Euopean .1 ..elling-lihou i only n a -'tre slid,.1, wiLtiuIt
1oor10 01 i ii,]i.l'ow,.
ItL is pi'ol.a'ble that L'hi.tiuniulu t.ill ,ilIWJ.- 1,? wwojk'rd as i siLb-s ti tLii it
Likohia. and that it will not a'a2ii L.e oCu'iipield a Ei Lopeti)a .atjtiLiin,
ce'taiinly not by onr, Eur<-1..1i' alor...
Mosquito Observations.-A: it i- ot IoV Etrr:.pan station, no 'lietAiled
obL.ervatio;. I riv'e bheoi noad.:.
MoS.quitoe'- at,31- pl'leti ful il th, wet etA.oI
Anoiilielh. lupolIably bre',iil lov'-, ii the .tinriijs. In j',)0ol .inII ,ai' tih
loeks., .'ind in the rice idel'b.
The villages are qixte as n.aaiLrius .a- thli liLke-,.l:.- villages at Likonui.,
ai'nd probably more so.
31

L 4iii,







The pre vnt Mi sion stationts at both Some and Chiteko are quite close to
the native villagers
No healthy Etiopean s.,-ttlme'tt could be made on the island, unless it
were Vwell up rO'- th'- hill. alov,- the villages.

HEALTH RECORD (Summary'?. 1889-1896.
The number :of Europ.eaii r.-'ldentz I ti.: smnll for t At itisic to be of any
v-ine. Two, who were ac..I!matize.. had goal halt; one. who v.ws not,
hail se.'er.il ,lla l. of -, i-k'.'.atr fO.*ver.

ST. MICHAEL'S COLLEGE.
Physical Characteristics.-TIe- CI'llhgp. i, ,uilt co. a -nall hill over-
Iooking the lake. aititud about inidl.'ai b.,etwee-n the viil.tpae of Kango
and Ut'otw In troit :i.l .h the tw)o ides.. it I .s slihaiFply to a height
ofixty l.:-:t b.hihiil A, it 'loi.,-e gladuaily v.aI-W r.l. fat t:vo hliihed aid fifty
,i,s r to A. 1: top :. beyond tla it againn lopes shA'rply down.
The:, c-:untry behind ri-- gliadilly in wooded hill. Itte-rs-cted by
all ,llrvs .and gra '. i.lai s t,:., 1 .i at -aIu .-.m- 1.'.. t :-et above the
I.Lk,.
The fot ito th. C,,I'"ll', hill is n but 2 'i v nds from the lake shore, which
is sandy arid i. tlring'ed .vth cld..,' :ro.i r, needs. i ..
The hill, anid al'o the trountaue ,.doawn to thi lake slhre, has been bought.
The hill ite.lf is rock. :untpo..s.d ot gra.iit wl- ..a.a h-alah, '.ith gravelly or
ciny-'ey coil. It i-- covered v.ith -niall trees aud v.-ith gia.n, which etows to
t ecortiderabl-- ighlit (six or s iv '. la. '- Ill 11 : we t efSe.'iol
The hbelt of level .ild .t it' fuot, w;vhicl. a- .bov.- mentiona:c-d, is very
narrov.w (only 321T yards ideale l at Ilt. Co,: ller, '.identi out :ii either side
towards the Kaien, al loriine:C rivei-'. distant reopeetivuily .h.,ut one half
and three quartets of aI mil TIhe :oil is very AE'?tile and it is cultivat.td
by the imativ.-. \vl grow ,uiassa'va .itnd lhainid co'In.
Thl wooded hill- and plains :of the ..:ountr:t behind lihv.a iai places been
cleared aiAd piint. .1 wth nillet. Buck and I'abooti -abouniid. and do much
damage in the-e gaidenr, while lopoarTs and liya'wen.i are cwnomnion, and,
wibhen the gra s is high. betw,:.'ih April anad July, they ioan cl)se to the pre-
A'ict:ets *, tsLe Colle'ge.
Thei Colleg- l hill is right opposite NIk:, ii, at the south eid ot Likonma.
It is abPut r ix and a half miles distanGt fiom the Lahmbtut, at Mbamnba.
A reef of ro:ks runs out Irom thre shore, maktne a little: bay. sheltered from
the north ; this affirms a go.-.d anchorag.e tfor boats, but .an indifferent one
for stenmn-,rs.
The hill is freely exposed t..: wiid, on the north. south. and west, while
on the east. the itnd blows down from the hill, behind, so that they do ndlith









A i;NX va'IFtI I lkP1th _1ItUIUA\t VIi AMPI


atL.fol iany -h'lter It in. hlowei. sheltc.rd bv M.ala point froiii the full
for,,.: thr south w ,ii l. is it 1.1.:.\.- il, ih, I 1.: .
On ,.,i'r -id.: o, tlhe ill i- -null sti.ail (;t- plan) with .1i dh.-p cut
ilock I.-d T -..-... 11 iliii i the raiiiv -i.-.i. lit .:,001oi li uip ltrer it i
v l.' T o i lth I,- i- ii, o tii : t ,i11. i i lill K .n : [I,' is r ri li. .11
Zit -t -.]i it.1 110: ,1 l ;i-I,,iIt I11d .I Ii'il .. Ti tli ..... li. tw hit .e a:i t ".,:. ti,.lnl? clo-
to, .thrl ,t a i i. -ti *.. I '.' .' i : T .I 7 1, l r)-.. t .|' Il i ;it tloi e'oi
a'lili te r . i i. :ll i u.l' it: r i It-," lt fi', i' l.i .',' '.e v .
T ha 1,ill lll "JII '.. ji-l h l i fel': th,'I it d : v:.t Lil. Iu lid i thl:e e t
s-,.o o il t i l..xt .i l..:i r lI \.I t lh l[ i l. [* .; i l .,mt 1,` %. 0i -.Lti e*, 1.':lvit ,il
the 4i L: .1 uth I. n I L irt. t ii o I h l, tl..: .;I L ii-l ni or : l rtil., tiro .
- i l .. .: I ., ,:I ;i ,.:,, ;.',. l i, i ,:,1i tl -, :1 ;l i. :,lI. l iln i,;, t, ji-IV th e
A. I ai;.' i,n.1 o - a, nil o ,w 1"0.' '.
T h :- .l_ uu te ihu.. .i.t,.' ,ir n I I. ,. I til i, th.it ,,1 L ikoin.i,
( i I i b ', I tl ih IL i I :k," d I ,, 1 I ,i le t t'i I. L I
T ii II .,, I .t ll) ., tll u .ll ,!,. l'i t't:l ':l I'i .'..i EI I i .I',i. t,:- lll .
Mil iori Hi tory.- Thll- L r .iii ii' by .I1' .,A.O.:1.d.u on
LJ., i -' li t.- i t f .: .,ti i : I, tI 1,ili' ol A r ,j iid to si'' ve:
uifil tht: C b"/ ..( .... i ,1/,i/. ,i,-.li l, I .-.0 1 ,-, b i r ,-,:.;iil,- 1 Ib. tui.-ii.el on(I
l..,.-,r..I EIarl. 1m I .1. h,, : 1- t. it ." ile, rl it th, *.' ].,' ]ihouild
I,* .- I lt i. h1 l, il t iIlititiliti:Al [,:4[ ii ii iii i,'' N 1 -.1 te '. *i i i t ., I l thi ,-i
I., l '-' -; l'h t t,'. Z ,uL l .,r
T he s-it, .;ii,:,.:ii in F,-IR uaiv\ '14.II., A t thi tl- (;i Ill,, l t- dl- lop-
nl, At I., C" ':,' .- ** not ,,:,li : llpl. l ,i .\ ,'ii' ik tie A r- .O-|c la. .Ion l.ade
.l t O l,.ll t li ti, t it t I .:.il.l I, (!,', t i h. ,1, .i, i .ii, i! *rO lild s
.1 1,: il hi i i t liiA ..[ I il thli-[ l i,:,l th -, l- i. 1 il,.I hi ,.' i., t.'c p r l. et-

T h.- bili.l ii'. '. .,._ [ biity:i ..',l I b. lie [.' C.1'. I 1 i ;.. .\A ll tl.- bliiild ings
S r.- -itti.,t.' i ,:. ,i ll, I, ,. ,:.t ril at Iil l. 'J h1- \" ., 1: itivl'-'l..iilt |I:-'d ho1uM ,.-,
ilit thi l, -.' i V tl.'.i I 1.i. T ,i ,, *. ,,1 i,:, l\.' ~- .Iu' ,:,., :, i ly h ?;,Ie ill
ith.: all:. liit, :[r t Ir,:iir iii.i l th l .....: v i, : ,.i,,i.,,:i- itih nmuld. andI
.. ,. i, .. n,.1 ,,1 li t-tl ia ih t.
In MAIy 1,:,l the A,1h..I,...:,i ,:,in.. 1 [ l i '. .,- *i !. a -t.w t ca'. iiW el
%,ill i h it, l.: L ,t,' i i ,n ,l": ,.' .1 ii'.li ti.:. Isllilt. -lid f tlio th ie
,;.:.:... iiiu.. (.,ti< \' i it,\ t ,.l.l fO r i t:e ll,:,- ,h,.:.: ol .ki;>tv i boy- T hene
.zo a:1.:. I full ,..,lul -l, ,elit ..'A I.it. hi .. lojd st, .-.. ft,:. T I, ".'ollegi;
',, Jed, I:.. i: t< d .. n M i ihalui.,. D I'.I.,.'
]l .'.otobh:., tie A l.'I(I'J,'..,' '. e,1 itt h,ild t,. Likon .-i, .iil ilftrwa.l.ids left.
A llic.t Lor tiui:e to:, [..:rn t. In i i iy. I'iil, thil: ,'... I. D. GD. los opi
(i lfc. ai 11 ill l l .'tI l, ti he il- c\ I.' L l.-r'i, lei t ('In lMl.,.u h i. 41 .r .-.,io rC-
1 ,,lii,'I lIi i. i ii.', llI ii' 'I'n i.', l.. :. hl :,,:,l i .- ,li-. ,l,, :0. %. ,lit 110ie
hod .Iir.: o, l t, 'll, v: t lim CL, ;v I. : .'. ll ,t A ll. .. ill '.'S.: of .,iK a o au l
LUt-M .,Yh Mh,,1 Mi..:l. ,Il ., _.,-r by H Tll l, .i uiL.r. A L-A ,ii, ..lw ',RJS





A REPORT TO THE MEDICAL BOARD


put in Mr. Gloisop's house, but the ,*.,tiial ch.ta':ter of lthr- buildings
remained iunaltercd. The Rev. A de. de la PryI'.e -uiic'eeded Mr. GIloq-,,p
in Augtut .rid lematined till S,'pt''inl',er '.'102, .when tht-e r-vt H. B.in,...
took t.large
In .Ja rnury I ,o.:3, Mr. B.aru-s vwj.s iivalldd to Likn)i \xlth Ilai :kw it' r
fever, and the Rev. A. G. B. Cilo.sop tool; charge. Mr Ba-rn-'s r*turn,:l in
April and ren-iaijd for tie r?.-t of tlit- -,-ar. Mr Btirjt1:o:itLi.- \%a lihelpii
fromr M'1arch t .Julv.n, hot lIr the r[ st of th- ye-ar Mr. B.,ri:.-s waa a.in,-.
The iiiiniber ''f -tudut, was railed to about ,ixt- : but thi ('Cllg.:
School '.a n:t r.- t-t.ibb dlhed. .\ tir; hou'.e nith go'.iol .i..I:n -iil *-loor.
[,_apnbl- of being imad.: nio-,luit, [.r,:,tf) .a, built foi tlie Priii.ipF l of the
C-ollece (3see pl in. p. 3.;). It wa 'i pla.. ed b-hind th.? r.ot o.i the station, awl
should b': tl. bc,'.-iiuniig of ,an ?xt'niil:iO bIakw:Ird.. aa .' ll t ...iih lakL-.
At the end ot I"1'3, th,:. stai o,-I.tel ,, the Pnuci.Jal anud t'..o niativ\,
Lcathler.. Oli,- te. :h,-'r and .i0l. Lie .*..ipitta:i d t .i t..Itiiii%:i, re r ial ri.,.
and Ii.ed ou the statitii v. th th.-tr wivcs .atid famii.:s Thi-r, w:r, also
a ijnumber of ,'rvant- who were fid. 1iiid lodied ..,' tiHe ~t.atio bi', le tho
.itxt v t t,.,diit-. Thr I.ui ldiigs '. i st'.-dof of in,- tonr:- holt-I. Church h. do i-
torie, es. hoolumoIn-ii.kit':ht-i -l- ., it. .. mud tea.!lr .-: h :ui.lti1 id nd r.tain'r' .
A ItLw slone hiu '..s, in Cniit.-tlimtai. fi. the li- iyjaiijI. who i .') to liv,'
-it Iht: College ,nii1 li-:l. Mr. B. :ii:-., id al,. a guei-t lion ,:.
Health Record, l.'-'- l'i3.-The 'llo.g.g ha, b. in op6" i'Id Ior too hlir.rt a
tim: .ind the residJ:il nt i'. e- b-'-n .ir too ten: in timber tro .llo of an"
i':li1ble d-ledi,.tio tbi., Wie mad'e.
It is certainly ior'e: bra.iung tanii Likoma. but it ouiildM s,'-et ti: 1I.- wcl.:
iIaElarinois. Tvc'. ,: s-s ot ..I.la. :lwat.-i fe\ iI have :-I.ur e i i tout reais.
Thl- m:ay b> pa re ..it.id,,i'.'- Sp. :'.iallr %.hun it consid:r.e:d that one
inemuiber hadil be~e tw-i it-fiurir v, ar- iii Afri'. -..ali ohY ive m' ': il'itth.- ..t the
C('ll.gmr, .ill thIt. oth'i had le'.-In three yt'ears in Afric.ia tind onily yhV.: monithhs
at the Coll-ge. iOi tie othtr hal.d. it In Vy have :. sA'iiili c.1.:e.
'I he pro'-ision .if proper stone dwi:lhbii-hu: -.e. ta .-,.oud b o. fl:, t.*o
petouls 1, to h.: unilt iln 11-4. .shli..uld lend to ifmpio-,. the health re'.oid,
for, owing to the expose? d .natLure of the sit', proper doois and m iiloxds.nte
greatly n-eded.
Another p,.unt to rew'L:'ub.l it lat fat most t Illhe abo\ period o i.
Euiopeatn was living tLhere al'.ne : aithoiiih >. i as within easy re:-:h
of Likoma, yet this fact was hbiond to tlirow arllitional -tliu n 011 him. In
the futu o, the regular itaff of the college e v.ill be two.
Mosquito Observations.-Cnli:.-s bred on the C'olle'g- uuri-iei, e-p,-. i. lly
round native teachers' hini.Mew_, kit'.heua, etc. Periodic nuspectious would
keep them down.
Thrre aie no moiph'.les brcedijng-gtonuls on the llnil.
The streams ,m either .ide of the hill lihae ;s deep cut rockyL coui-e umawl


..... 1 1i ~ iiiiiiiiiii~ iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii~ iiiii:








gEt flushed Cout duin tlu the riin_ He.nci, they 'can only s.,iv, ac anopheles
h]ie.-din-ioiiiiun.l ot the end ot tihe wet seoair iwal fcl a month or two
after until tih .. dr up, aild it i. probab tle th1t they a- of s.c-ordarL im-
portiinc
At i li- like ihice' ow:'voi. .lii. the t '. out, eact I throws up a bin ,
.nlhL a .-o iid bcliiud it. 1lii (i l iii- ,i i,:iili] l'i'ilj .'ll -pltf M o.,' ovel.
OW. il t tilhe t tu I iira. i O(. r-..il- wli:ih 'irc .v out iut.o th,:- atritei, Chalin
po'ol- hi'.hl f:l [n- .-it ibl.. li'..:hln l-ei n.l- .ie hl l -p-.eially Co-iluCoi oil
thle I,i .:e I . A htil, t,.. tl :ioutl.. t .. i Ut-li nga. ther- i, a small
villa. -. .l il ",, .1i. tan t trO.i, tlh,. blo, -.f th,1 Iill JuSt In fr-,, t
o 01 l ., 1 l., l i: 5.h -.. r ,. 'i t,.,,- l t-,.l] l]..-O i,. ll o ,,, h i ?, lV thl I 11
.'1,1 '.*Olil Ot th.-* '., ,l.l :ttl* ll oI hI. 1- i ,, Ouc t ie'.la it I 1S,'? iii.pl.
H o 'wt.- thi il i: a .- Ii l ..l. ]-iih i l.ii, 1<1 .i t l, t ? 1 li e Opi'.l, itP
ti Coll:,.,; bI. t th,: .170 1 i.:.l] ..; i, ld hl :. a e u-ll tll:- v to:. 1i ...l., inte, t,'d.
ucli 'P t ll :,ill.'h '-,,,h ,i 1 ll1 a- 1l .1 ,t th,: l.',.llg' T h'e is ,nrthr
l';i .'ding- pla'.e al-otit ;.".i'. I : .1 'lh a i.ti\: x llt,. iag e b y, and this i;
|i '., bly' t i'i ,. --,i w h- . i;nl ,, 'r -..pli lH- ,.\.i.h th. ('. lle? e.e
Th, h;talthl -, . d.,:.:. 1.Hi -.,.u to ,iii( ,: t-. !th. t thi v il., N, t n a 1.h it in a ny
,ilua ntity.
It k o yi. l. pl.lt that th- (":All''l -' .as built :. I-il th- 1..10c i f tithe hill.
A l'tv 011 the l':' tall 6-h 1 h.ol :lv Rt'..Air..ld i "lirta r. ct a qluaiter of a
ilh' fi.-mi ti l .. ..i l flOinu th i. .,b,:ve-l ritioii .l llace. ..1// I asto .:
-.j (' /l ,''. !ill/du .'r .'nl''.'Id b' i s it, '' .. ..' .
No iliplrIv.v? nlilt its ir':d at [.1l-\.7 litj. 1aoLj i he]d-:- (fi.IaLI bife dling ill the
ni ljlf" I 'L lii.cl'd -ti pi a .tU'. bl '-. Ih- br,,l-'diiig-gi,'iiLnd il : iniiily on
tii,: l iL- h'-i:'. liiL ,t L i.,li- thf .i thi:..-i tieari Iwnai g t, tlhe \1 ii. nation
in the la-ki I'' v, l.wL wK h ;r' .at, ''ii ...o'lint ot the halloc :lopu of the shoe.
it \oiild i.l e .' 'v I l'f. tilt t.o l- \i a I' t i.ff'.ttu l ie. ls-i .'.
Conclusions arid Recommendations.-.A i ,id.i (I!d, .. t Ihe rules laid
JoC ,I ..bv i- .-, p. I'. Ioi I? ) ,o:t t... r lfI lv ol.,: vt [ '.l, pe,.ia ly S.
i I.dit- tihe I'lL' I iia .'a '. o liln et(... an..; t.i h ':,IinI of tr'le.s front, tile
iin iclihbotither'l ., th, l I. hu ]-:,.. .: thl, houi', it,' 'et (l...-e to c-thTr.
pli,.tk i.lly all thL, top cf thil- hill shu.iild b. l- pt lihool.
.1 A r5agdi 'tin.':jph'i,: -
1. No hI,, -' h..'il.l cli .ly ,V .'.'.rilt Ie I.'iiilt ii, the e}' v\ L'o tinil b tleecn
the lae Cotllt: C hill, as :. t-'-s would form linLs ii+ a ha nib 11oiuiectitng
tlih (C'ollg'-' I itll tihe aln ,jila :|i. lu.t. .liii;--ioit.nils. F,:, thi. miie Ieas..on
ilo hou:,:: li'ot]'.l he b uilt hi. l oi lct-t tli, L'.ollegi, mit[ thn. native tillge,
a.l i' dLi a'lvat',y.
2. All '.:xten;ci oii.i o:f thi. C(oll:..: and all pi in.iu ent buildings, cipt'.ially
di. niitoii's ati1 toa h..hei' ho.i',:. ;lihouil be placed towrtil ic, e' .'cN 011. the
football li-hl, It'-:viiPg thi'' i an i,:ii,..'s i hou ,s'.' the i l1. liang-hou i.:. ncarj st
tb.. .Ja kK.






A REP'iRT TO THE MEDICAL BOARD .37

The buildings on the lake side of thiS sihoild he pulled di-mn as they
become di.useid. There vor.uld I,', nou obie,'tio;n. how.-ver, to the :.hur,:h.
schoolroomns. Iod.J .4tort'?, etc., remniniiiiig where they are. is tly are? on!,'
usedw. luring the dlb\'
.1 Th, t1, ,nht, ,,l i. /, -, n.l jt. i .t he /.iI,,, n ch.rt ./ /, .e o..I ': 1.tl ..t:.i t
absolhlt nuiiamimin. HOIuse' nught be poviidd [fo the c',:,,. et.:., 'i the
village uI-J I by thli '.*ot!.l b1ie b',tt hi r ,l ii h l'.i g i.-i iii- lii i. n o1 the
atatioli.
Alit. ilh f'e\.'el wo. rkl|.--pl ;all:. e. to e.. n the t tit.l ti hei hil -tt:~e !

1. A l. di slics'd r'-eId Iilts .-1,.:. ll I)" -. I.-a,,i ,.,.v.,- ..' the-e hlarlljour

5. Further ir..te. tion would. l.e alT...rded I.,y li -:l tlit.--p[l.:.olih I: the
Europeant': d, ta'-l.lih -lo:us.'.s. ThI: prini:ipial's hoi:'u e wouldl d le thus httId 'ip
'Is .iot n a.s ga; I ze liettijG .arri'2.-, .I .l d ..th,'. lihi -, -.Irnli b. built :'with thi.

,. If a s itabl,. ':' ": t Lilitu Ity ":.- ,'l the 11l:,-01 ,:1 of th I,: 1. W.:-., lrils
dl tai t sholil .. h>-.iIt ii|u .-Ind tli-he h .'i.'s iot e e.1 i;rthei.r a. .
General Observatic.ns.-(l') Thei' grdIen A~ Utoi g is tianL.e,.ed fr.-,ii trhe
(College. Ab.lt hall_ :I- .r, .,f g.,:,l ,r'm. l n ,- a..l..e'l t, it i 116.:3
Tbeie is also a priSpet.t A, a i?eally *.- garden oi I h,- le'- l gi:.un.l. ii
front of ti.. College it-ell. P tfT ii. e. t.. th. pl-nii w !l dliow that thl-ere- i
a great %.iliety of sol. Cloe to the 1Lik thirie i- -.i loan, suitable- foi baji.moi s aInd otllhe fitit tree-'. tih .t broad belt t. ri.:li
black .4:nd, and:l .l ,:.- t :, the lull tlere iS. treldi-1,i l.ia whi.h L hour ll gi'e
the best chanli e f,.r pr,',. rig E,,r.: g.tl i t lble-.
W ith a little til'.llile and 'iiopt' ii.t; vi., 'these ardtileii, c iil ati ,ll' -upply
Likiu.ij aud the steer.
(j) liate .I.'-i'n i ,.--O ."iiie t the le t i to r.,,.ks that iii., out ii fr,,ijt
of the Collegt'. a ]l al, t- i to rli,- bar thirowri u!p il i l theh i t,,
Utoitg;n ri\vetr, th' C('.lleg: l. at h t[ i-' all, -ihallow hit-in lja.c, thli a
said shore thicil:l edged with t..e..ls. Thle b' :lh )ie\ver get., will swept
by any wiiIl. a.id the ii t\,..- i>e t ?he !ei-' .- 1 I tiir.e. Hl-n.l:,t the lake-
water at thi.s poil it i s hl !..- to b" .lit', an. d ll f t.d.
Driiiking-water tr Eur-.ipean- shiouil be draw- n l:jiim '-'.yontl thi:, r'._'!'s
to the Noith, \\ t el i: thi .i.h re is -F.,'i-it by thle sotitti. '..n id. .titl the w.atcr
gets chanigI ; but it shouldd alSO,:, ,.'ay" h'tiebo I (lThes: ilile.- 1 e iii force. I
Aleo, the reed., on the ishire in fl oi:t cf the ('olleie 'liould be kept itt
down. This prlvents ia nuiK.,i,: bc:-iig t niisnirtel it, thle t llietdiate
rieighbouihood, and -ei.t'es tl. :l.-mciri v.iteti f',r the ii.ities to driiik
and bathe in. Unfortunately' thle ree l-. gr fast an.I are dJilicalt to keep
iti ecki'k


















,' , ,







ar ' -
S ,..a *.:JC's" ,c ....- ca

*' a cmq Oc.





YAO *"6..o
fe (


* f7:v V4
. JS4f


A MAP OF YAO
THE ARF.A OF WORK OF rTE .
CHAUNCY MAPLES



'.Al- 4iO,.l',r. Till AFEA C01 THE Ch K 01 TIHE CIIAL'NC% MAPLE,.'


- '1








PART III


The Steamer and the Lakeside

Villages.

AREA OF WORK. HISTORY OF ITS ORIGIN.
Th,. Rev \. W P. Ji.i.i-o .1.1 (' T in-,: i tI cl,,, rl.- I.ke-. in F.'br, ii..t
1. .?2. T hL I tt.,r I.-Ji , I t..r at C'hi, .ll..I.:.lh -,:.i, d+t.,hhsh.d
Ili,. h ,,,uai.j -, *r lI'h :* '. iinel ,:'.?tw .:n 1" 2 .n.1 l. l 1-,,. i-:.urneyi:I
.abol:, t ploh i g, rNe i:lIIIii' i., t Ih il th,- l . ., a 2C.. a.) I .1 t!i t:. tIhe Shi r;
hliighlainds. In 1-'.' h- ,.'tu[n.'il iiil, :ippeile..l tor the .t?.ahiiier.
The (1.'11l,,1-C ./,11'11 \a. ent .Jit in I'.1 : w. .- put to,-th,-r itt
Matope. o01 the LU'p.-ei Slir.., and Ilii ,i.lr.'l in S.pt..-nil.-i. lI).
Likouji hi j. aie .:lr h- hc-ii l cl:.,-i'i the h,_-:,.1] iitt.ei of the- Mission
T he (.'/lA, k .I ,, .. iljt,.l- ll. l, I 11C..- 1411. r' ,ai d , l -er'.i-,en Chl i 'i-ll ., ,ld
M s hj1l.'.:. (rrl ,-j t:lvy Iritur itg :,: L]koihia, an.i .:v,. thi,:, if.,rtlhs *,-.
d.:,wn ti MI.tope f,'-r .t-.1.-S
( i Oi l? o i 1' i ll: i il. 'i.. ii th.l riv-r .I, t -.taiiiidri.d (in l S-pt.,iil.:. l1 lan1 -i
con.l no. t get up tl, river.-i l , till May. 15.o9. Sioni, 3 :li-n i,,, .'..rk was
dolie in g ti. t 'irn,- ,1 i-,: vtll. I.-- f:il i o h irt nr. r .M attop.,
W ..ik '. y. g a'j .iil'. .t- ,nl.,-l rip till 1 .. tIh- fe.n t the MaAvai -
,gwa'.vara dluov,- th:i pep .li t:o liv'. ii a fj. largest fo tiri1 ilia ...-. LI terly.
.incei th,- M :p,.,..an .uvt h I-,.v, b.-.,-n :.-pi i, ,hi: v1. b hY tao..m i,,ov, ri-
lment, tihl- i plelrl. L i.v p[re1.1 itll, Il aI li?. vill.,iet .ll .lon1 lhc- lake shoi-.
Ttis ha.-. nc:-es:itte, a 'o: i..lse-rable iin.ra-, il, the iu,.b.er oi .:ol- i s aniidl
itatioInS.
('oiiparatively e*arl' .I t ition weti- .also stal tl oin lhi- 1*.i- t .i.l. ':it the-
lake- from Monkey B .iouthtlw iii,. It :.,i t incih bIri.ler f'ir: the Mltisioii
t,. get a footing on thi s-L.outhern portiOn Af ttif Ei I. tI I-lI r- o, the like,
owin.._ to the\lave tt 1.1 Iroin K,', i to Mllulhk ,;ni othi- lut-, and ,owI in_.
Il tghlititg i.belt .t. ,ii thle Botidi (',ntral Africanii 1,i \ erti ne- n t aL:d Alakia-
,ujilI of Foit Maguiie and Ioth-i .: h :t-. A. t.,v A .I -tt,.-r.id t itiol i 1 ,.e, lIho:'.-
ever. .t.rtie1d.
Tilj ', isecit ( 1l I .a ea otl wo' i 1: illclu lel [.,ra.cti.illyv ill tIh.- '.illages 'ni i tihe
:1.l .-ltho ,-r of thl' l ;al:. lit .in N ,ot_ ti: L.s ia, iand .,i, the vwe.t i,:lel ftio-m
Nkudzi to Ulandi. No-tth it Ng .ti. i, i-.'. station' hal biein sljat.l it
Lik:.ilubo in GT'nj l| It.li t)ito 'Y, .n'l south o! Lo.;it.a, a.i- foin si i:a i.e d
stations, tw ,in Yao, :1,,l I\o, in Nvaia villa. s.






4.1' A REPORT TO THE MEDilAL BOARD



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LAKESIDE

VILLAGES.


Fir'in Noo'fi to Lo. .li i..l Nkli.lzi t. ILUl.iiu i e. ri'. l t in.- 1.11in ii, a of
work:. tih. gei:-, ral pdl,'s.:al l9at1-. ate si iI.r.
The vill ;-i.-- a.e bh it ..ri thie .lkIe i.:.I :. I ge ,- .ll,- :o- r ot to live (or,
il anr, rate. ai :tr jani h hichl inlli l lu ilg tile ,'.rt i. s,.01), r:o thi.it tlhe-i.,ol'.
S:,ar. ,btaii, a g).'..:l -Illppy :.f ti:h.
EB-hiiu' tih vill,,. i- a tint i.,laii \'lr:,lui l.:u *:ii, to fl.un m1 : s.' ide.
Behind thi.. taint, tih- 0-...I-d bill i-:e rapirily to i plateau 1.21.100 t-. 1.7.01)
feet ,i,:',.ve t!i Ilake. In lfw i.la,. ,.1: tli- luill- i':, nr niiht dou to: t i: the lil.e,
and tlitie pot ;trS inot 'n,.t il', elh,',,-n f',r tlh 1' sit- ot village -.
I l ,l -. i ,| [,I.l..:: le..J. N y._ Ifr. C li' i.1 1, i1.( hl et.'.) tlh.' \-dlll. -. a1e builtt
.O A ) bi.ro .I ri,.lge uf -:4 h vl 1 li. t It th i l' tin.- I l:u shli- i. 111'? i.itehill ii i n
ext.-Ihil',: kI'-lW-Ini .3 lp Ri _- 1 i .1'. II il tihe W .ll II tih '.ve1 t 5s. 1Ons ,
aniiI. a thte vi" t-i dil ini h,.-:, I .h ah ,orn an,.:1 oth, :-. 1, r t : lr -,nvu.
Ol lt.t- .-:a il ,td]Liti.,i t. -:r. .jii aJl.jii' tihe ljake 'hore, t e people
.hav:-, built i ai,,.1, al-A'h: h vil..y- ,I tth- LIt.' iv.i ... .. tLhe Luiiivo near
Mellumbi, : thl hav. a]i. etal a-lI .:h J Ilags ,-li thli P)lateau Ijeil lId (.L
CL rI 'oiI t'rin1d"" M. ianid "') Thei-,r it -il. -r.naliv 1..1' to 1..'00 rt .above
tl-, lil:0. 1 :+ ,, l.. irl, t 01 ,i:, t t I-. i -ib. 1l. ,I0 N o.:t ihli '.ipitilly thi,-y
a[l .-in th.,: t :t :i-. *:.t thi .,t.:i he,.i Iet ,.'-. La.ilk Nya:r. caIl thr' ,11i:lian
O li:-iml I Lajrp- i .an.l Rli. inni1 iv',-i) f...i it i- i inai. k.tibl,- hol) v'ivy no the
lake ti-j- t,,I:h: .l i.'i[,i:. At M alindli it i ithiili .igh' t i ile:. at other
plia:- it i,,ay ,o try : pt lihpt r .,in average, it i: tve-lv' to tweity milei-
diihtaiit. .M iv p',:I'|'le wl,,o h iv- h.:..l "- o,: tilte ik' k -, O' lih .a1lo gaijlens
it, the Manjii distrii t
Mosquito Observations.- I'lhe ,i-llact;.'1 ei? ialaio ani.l threifoite. [omn
thi Eur.:.,-:-nlln [I'oilt ol '. i:w. iiinh .Irlth ThuIv art: .,-i.:lly dloze to places
wlih. ir-.1.1 iIl [pl It,:s., e ri... hei.l- i: ait Nvot.i. t(.ls-inga. CI' a. M iiur0b0 i.
Lo-rfa. Liiliulu'tri ':tC.)X. whill Iii allmi:t e ,n L ai.' th-, poiiit it v hi]h a
Iivel \ f Iztr,.rti fld H .ns into i t l |. L e i d l .i jil I:,l iI-S intr',JIIt '-gtipiuiid (.ee
p. .o., ,-ri'.ation c thii 7 tr, a s at ail:iiail.
M .ot-,.,vpi, t,,- .1hasion >( ,t,:,]i- a l a.v:- liIlit il tit" rinil-lie of the native
vil~larts. .'o that there i pi'ni.ty ol O:ppoittiity lot the aiiiophels ]Liich]
are presLent to aJL UtiCU e imN 'l ii.tl ili- ti:il
Thi I., vi.iv' nce? r,,,osquitoeq .. i IL. .-..,,--]'deii ll\ i u dife .le-ti v villages at
differelit tiluin of thI yevr, b.ut the vaiiation is r-..:.iter in the ciuhi..-s than ill






A REPORT TO THE MEDICAL BOARD


the aniophelsc.. Th?'.' v.riition i~s jsiiil.u to that i:.)r:ld.l iII thl: r.-ise of'
othar station-.
No village li n rniijalarial
As .a eller.l i iie iO i .,ir litrl oe_ ., 1. ,t ol. ilf ril, 6: ,1, L I. lie tri ,icil .-.heir
she is I iug.t .1 .hor I .1a village. Tihr u .:led l.: i li tile C'.itil.s J.iiS-oi
sicmetinleir as She I.l.le.d :' ii i ; e-. eciia illy tl.-I the. L e ait Kloti,
and in die liV.'el .-t .Mpi.:la' of ou .: her a..iiie uih boiii Tih C: 'l.rm
MI lrf i gelietally an'i:lior tmr. tit .oilt l.:t, thiriii t I..i.h lilr S.,,ureriii n
however, thie'. rte. i,' .r bi ; .,.i.i.g_ lilt i i t 1,he i.ats lin: iein, 10..)
oc itm mn -t at Likoii .,nil M.lin.1l. poi:: l..Iy lrr.i. ,it tlhe :-r pl..:. ti
boats ply to and In l io l, f.,qiiciitly ii the e:i.',nir tli,.hi -.l WriirI.
Mission History.-At fir-t the (' .Ail': .Jan. 1.0, iu.l ti: hali.r,- )01
the Re\. C. H .-i'iii.','. Iilt in No:v.-'ilt, -.'.. tli.- R.-.v. W P. .JohAu-,i
ret.iiined iiil took : harge. He reM:. ii -iil ill .Tuiie. 1.''7, -lie n lie v.Ilit
on f ilrugli t,:o i ll,:ri tIor tihr ni._v ste .iiier Dlii m. iit r t tlii, :ii l, r ,
wva- the onily priest on I.,, ..I ; but fruin iil:'t.-l b r,l i'.gI.to F.:I..[ ii. L.':. th.
R ev. .\. u B G l'-iop 1,elp..il lh lj, I Ar l .I..i, tllil to i :- to i l .-. '.,: .:. Ot h,'l .
Fiom J.Jlyv 1.ib'. .,iiiv.,it,- thi R HrV CB E, [r. vi .:,in thi.t ir. Thit(r
weie gene rally .il- twvo l.ai iLu, u .t ,'lpt.i irt i ol L1I i i'iil '.'. l tlioiiall .titel
Mr. Evile's alrival hI 'te, Laptiin, ani.l tiri. ', .r ':i oly l. viuL;., l
iligi tiei-
Fiom Mar. l'.i., to April. l'.1;.. tlr. lt.aier dea.: ,li-led. up ,cn tlre beadh
at Lik.nia iw tic i[.n,
Thle Rpv. J. S. Wi\'uil.udi to.o.:1li.iig.e *liirii A[,:r..lean)ii J:ili.,)ho' for-
lough. Thu lattr[ rtutiitrd irn De'.:-.:-ir., li.'5, 'it agi..int took ':li.irq'.-
In .Tuly I 'n.' t tl ..tea:in-r ,ra: put on tl,': :.lip at Mlalitidi, mi,, alirost lo-
built. havitig Yev. )bott.:>ii pl.,it'- ]'1iit Oil. uiA alSrI I"i iv '!gin ..: ar l Iljoiir.
fli. wad'. iuinched again ini epteiiler. lin, DIiiuin tiC rlSt si mo\ inthli_ of
tlis period, tihe .Aiu.leacon andil M. Barnes tia'.-'elle..1 1 h 1y l.nd .i uog thi:
I.ief ide villagege. hilc M r. Eyre visited .ll the stati.)ii l p i. l ,.,., J th..:
lake. travellni bv lboat. lTb'.::ortaiih lanud tiavelling wa-, tou1i1 to involve
too itmuiii stiain, nawl \i.: li. lnilS he.l in J.-nnii.i'r, 1:,,)0. i-.l Mr. Eyie w.l-
left ir sole hIoi."e.
Ini Seipfc-tmbci, I'.i.l), the 'te..iln: r began inning ag.1ainti with Mr. Eyre ii
charge, and contiinied till M.ichi, I1'.i:, l..,*brin the C/mii.,:iiq MalI took her
place .is the steait ie lor r itiig the lakeasi.I,. ,ta1'ioni,.
After March, 1902. thle C'h,/,l/.sI *./in. bee.miue thie dilip.itch boat ol the
diocer:e, and ";..s statijon.l \it Likonia. Her Europe.;in .tat:i r(outit:te-.d of
one or two 1 l.iviu:i. Thli:y lived ion boaild. biut -.penlt .. good.l.aI ri their
tihe at likouna.
The '" Chiau.'/y All,/ple."-.\'s t le oil: ini asd, the Ch(Ii..I' J.Iii.,,
VIhi.L had verv litti: oiDcoinluoldtion for Europeais or native, betic:ime too




L ....A





42 A REPORT TO THE MEDICAL BOARD

small. A larger ste-amer wax appealed' for. It wa1 sent out in 1900, and
began work in March 1902. This steamer, called the Cha nry Maples,
sncce.-.le1id to the? work of the CU'a,le Jasoi, visiting tile thirt -four
lakesid.te \illace~ where thLre are choold. It was alSo .lesigrned to be a
tloatiiig Th'-olo'!icI l Cllege lor training leaders ani.I helping oi.i teachers
Its acnlniimodatiin for both E ropean.i and natives is excellent. There is
ir.ireovei a ?i..ck i ay, ,ith hli.. it.tl ain1 our-ingi applianLehi which can be
us.ed for pe:r-eal cac. of' lliess., or for a.iii vSiitor [rotm another stationii
vwho wiiiies to rest anii.l iecrnit oi th Mte amer. The metho-. nf n ork is the
'me rn bi.e'lfore The st,:lT h.as incre.iset to thr'ed erg" aind two layien,
i."* :i tll[ti i ii l! .1i eii li ,'ineerr
Durin.m li')2-3,tlie .\ir,: hl:,l -.: i.,i: n1, chirg,' at.I ,-ilo -uperinteinded the
students ; the: Ruvic. '. B. Eyre nrd F. H Miarh Ipeit a :,ond deal of their
time %.- iting in the vill ,,.i -.
In 1'l1.3, w.-,:k w r'- er:tenled .. tle-i uortli than it h.id been before, as far
a.- il.ikan be,. I ill.,e ;'iin territrc yv.
T, /e.ll'.,: :1 II'..-/: -..\t :.each : lla e here there i' -I M.1is'ion statiioni i. a
native te trh Iioi reader ot .l.'ac ii i Il c ha u of .- n.itive-bult reed .h ,i'..h
and h.ool. et,:. The st.airn i et i -.e to.:,,i,.': the cl-. r'v troin one village
to aniothir, a.irnl to carr': all the stores, e.tc i.-. t 1' .1 i -,vab.le Head
Qua rtrsi. Often tih i:lery sr l,, ,:i1. shuiore. Or, peIhiiip. they stop on shore
for a we,-k or s:.. t ,1 er tlhe p,.t ed up O..rin bI\ trh,: cteanei. The lay-
in n1ll, for the i,.o t p,.it, il alll :, l the. t': iI tr.
Until l ;'.ther wt.l hii ts, iOe .nO:,ildltitiol tor tle cWlT:rgv, wdo used
to sle.p 1. the n Itive stiool-
.''ilrte then, Europeian hoim-e, hb ive :en built. but they ate onl"y native-
LIuilt r,-.:d lint- i tth, ,it d ,, ii. 01 v.lim.ho \l .

"CHARLES JANSON." HEALTH RECORD
1886-1901.
There .r- ev'-r dI 'lilmT .iltiei in tl heA- of uln iif li.iii n tie health rec-oird
o\t wcrL:trs oi tine sMtei ier IiD Tile hrIit pl it ial-Ods .Ire very cant,' or
:ibrsent, so thh t th.l- r i. hI tle ,lelillt', inll il ,i.t]iol to Ugoi up Se tonia dly,
it is dithi.A.ilt to obtain true estiutiat: of the ir:altlhites- ot life on the
steameu.r dis :,iatei r t ri, t i ii..iioubte.l iii alrthiii: fl l i, the lakeside
villl,.,.~ i i, III.uiy ,wa "i r *[ ,:11 th. ^ Ie i et n lle er ,ol.Et iJio.llil or htrerjleiitly
slept ciloht e. ,rt. at any rate, w,1,tit ashor:,- iii the i c' ingili -. lridlv. ill the
t. .i-i' of v,'i.I ot the:- (*ligiii"(' :I i .] ti i: UL tolli (ti "[,eiid -ix Inolithis Inll tlhe
ste.tnir, aidbi then :ix inoathl at Lil:.ioi., iind so. in sourn: c:aes, it is dithcult
to, dviitii.,uisli Ietw .ee thie st. mer inil ti.- ILikoiM re, S.:[ |,.
Lastly, the ]iumib',.r of woirl-ers is siaill. and hence deduction froin
'tttist ;[- 1-. t i, l.t ly li.lle to l.V I. ii i.a 1.






A REPORT TO THE MEDICAL BOARD 43

Making allowances. however, it would appear that steamer hfe i2 healthy
and its record compares very favourably with that -it likuma. Nodeath
is recorded as di.: to malaria, though the cause: of death in two cas s is
obscure. Mr. I i- mvalid,.dl water eleven monthIs. .-ith .eli-heii (1l.
hiut he had been siibjct to i ialaria. No ra~e of blacl'.'.jter fr.,r occurred.
except that of Mr. U.. a.nd in viev ot the f.st that lie had be. n invalid.
for v previon'i Att.ak hmli.n wv.rking at Fort .1jhlinto. and t thith-, seconil
att"aik occurred vr'.v" s..on aftel his rctlirii. .inid that Ih. ,e 1 'itwo 'ear'i
v.ork stii, e'.iiiit \ 11i hliOi wi lt a li.T r itr.i ;c. too aiii lih iiiii.otarite inuUo not
be atta.l.htd to tin e. Tlih p.:-liod I."l- :. .v ..lin thi.e .teaiier was hauled il. iion
the lake %hore at liloiiia i .r repairs. v.,. a trying tioll, for the einghi ers.
and a goo,,d deal of Alli .. was pr..'iit. but thii ihool..ld he lput dovWnl to
Lilkoina.
The experience of t tih' u:er ot other stea-i.trs o the lake' li-op gierally
s'eep aboard. ik- al-,: in favour of tih: h:.althiiie .; l A.sf teainmr ht' Tel'
expli itioli i i- '. l.,r it i. i ii.ere brictin', i.irtii'larli- nce' there t .a
general aof.n.i ,-t nio~-l j it'..e' .
.ils e'.ards the clergy "hi" partlv lh'id i -t:.ii r life. b t ".l al-o
v.-rOi ed largely on Iiid. th,. total n111tiII er-. a :- vr\' _ii ll, adid i. il, o :i m mt
every ia-.v they were ,-lI ice-*ibir, v.ii', ,.:-i* .ir. 'r O l:.: ., I,,liati'ted
The health leor.o ii teitih" ioiod. lbut hill thid i bcein .A niiIIber of 0 it,
un ul.e rs anm ng the workl r-. it would prol.,.ililv li.la e L.',.:ii ,'ry *..difterent.
Thl r'. is [oi doull.lt al:',u the ill heilthlie'-. ot thei \ illage- and 11ore. 1' '-
ticvularld about sleepiiun lhat is pira tirallv a niatli\ hot right in the:
t.entr( ot the illa g:. T'h: trips on the itt-ainer probl..blv -erv. to brai'ce i)
tih e-ler;,y-,.md .o give tlhni I'etter hi-aithi than if th.ie Voirk:ed entirely ..ii
laiin. The health r-cord .is thi, ,Ilevy. when Ithe teaium'r has: l.en laii1
lip and they lha.e L.1h to work oni land, alto_-etler, i.? decidedly 'or-- th.iii
V1.'lI. lii e l ia l'ee,1 rinTiiiii. Thi- i- easily i:' lit.ed for, since not Oulv iq1
the bracing elTect of try.'. i o th:- teai er laclvl.ig. lut tiher is i al-, the
eotistanit v.orrv rf itmlnd journeys., aiid the- uriinrtainty ab:ouit tine supply
ot store: ': II chart there is an ablsen- of any home or heanilyuarters.

"CHAUNCY MAPLES." HEALTH RECORD.
The health record tor th. Fir- to ', ars of the (.'haiin,,i Mlpl, e. i. good.
.ilid i:ertainlv shLoh S in iliprovenmeit oil tlat l thi. ('hiitdlet Judl L. tlwing
to the better areoimo'lation and tro their provisii.,ii .f a -lick I.i, c-.ases ot
lever ha\e been nirse .. wheie iii old days the v-.re ignored Thi
scerier cases are general, put off at oni? of the European stat oios whete
thi re is a nu r'e aind Aia I:,i-pital
Third lieMIl-il record-: are ii'iluch more ,omple't, thar in f fririii-r y irs, ai.:d
it im po-'il.le to ribt;in mole reliib'le tat.itiiti The.-e teind to c'uiifil the
opinion ex\litiseil ablj'rVe as to the healthiriii.s ot istC.iincr life "








'T i, .:*.. ,- t:.r .\l io lu i i hl ltli .i'ai Mr. V ii,.I this was due
to )Jr.'t. tt .I ,.tr g-a l of all :,t iIjltI ..inl if I n _oiruito ]pre-
ir,:r -s wherln n "'ll e' pi ii',iA. .. W 'uiherl i.I hoin aT aItta,L of d .rain-
tel'ry l Miss S. fi'..n a a, t r f 1 .r. T i Ji-Arioe. Po1 siblv h e t s-
1't [r i<:l td o ll l:]i; i tll -. r l W t '. (w ,: Lte i- Pr.:c.: utioj re water


Ip l 16 1 1, 1\H1.
I '., ,... I,t / ,. ;, /..... I lii., Iii tip
S,',' ,, , , ,, *. i L r111 I liI,I, ..i i ,-ri ur m .




CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.


.\l 5 t ,,nl i ,,il,,:. .. a i ph:, lh l.. ], i hly i.,t,.:,: tr]. :, ,... yi ,ni: il." pir .- t il
tlh,;- l i -, i .--, illi,",,<. .:. ] it, .... I ,,, \-l ,.ouL -e ,. tir.; it.-autM;r ,: l.' p, ,illy
":i th' ol'.ii h *j .1/I, /.-. I.. iL :h l i..t. I iIt II r f i t tl ll i tIL,: ( ; .. ; .]j ii. 'l.
,lSoiir.'tll .,.- ,'.. b ,,?[, it re. I .: ]. ,, H i L. i 1.l.:.. -. T lhe li. 'e ] eln noti;b,1 l
rin.irily at M .hini,]. l,.r.i. ail T.,|:I.,.;.; Thel 1,: i rot 2*.'i .i.ii .ll ti, iari-y

I ,l o.. i;,i .. tit/ ,,.,, l. ii i, ,f.,",' !re -r c. : ,, le Iut h r ,. it LInt
I..t r I,:'h, l -.'r ,' '1 1 "re S ,' 0 4 .,11 r i [lnot
at ril i f t; i i I .t, r .'r. [ r, r i Lilt I i I : i. -ii i tio i I '-et reo lit

2l ii l il v .* 1 .: l 1 l t i' ii ti II1. [a tllt t'i .
-:,' ia_ f ,[ r ii,. (I re i .t : i_ tt .t'[ .,,:] th i t
7'ii.ii t i,] ii I ,,,,, o .. ,, aj. .,1o t i:, ,, /,i/.: tv ar l,'.i', I t,,; i ,',
It,: ;,,;/ /, 0' II ; : I t !,/r;/ <.;,,,*;l,'y.

to 1.oil .. ihl.i,, v. jt.r. IUht to,. .r .....ait r fro i, rh,_ lakl.r 11 .li.rp \. :,tet whin]e
I Inn ti'. r It r ii ii I , i I .i 1 i \. u [ if f .i .i t ,- ti':i ti i-) a
LJi 'fJ lV. l i:l.:-'...l til itt, ,l .t Al: [|:.l, t t', rOUt ] t ir' .al nor
v1 y l..,ul. ;,h.J ''. ieLf ;.,t ,i hi r t1r nil' : I f :. I f la 1 utl i Ol 01, .1 1 i ..l v O- t1
Il ii.'r.'.i s. r tl *i i .rr J.;: 1, Z i .i i | f l li-iaY4 lk 9On -I
(| .hg.'t thl t ur .LIu li I i[,Il ,: '.vri., l:.i ;* ci 2 1"Q 1 ]: t Il .'lt
dII:,.:- L,. ti:h,1 -lIIp .
i, ..I .: r f -ul it. y ,1 o il ,1,. -r: I ,I 11.-ll IrrlO, h.v l o, Il.. 1 l,
l'', l:. (I h .. t"11 V I,,:.h . i..o f I -1, t dI r ,,:\ I -a v,- c, I. rr.i a 10 O

S'ilillj lg illvi,. t il 1',itr ,',h t ih .-I t, ,tel h' ,i, h ,*"' t i IV l i .,'' o. ,lji
l.' to 111. I ir a [ill'- tl it I .I .' I" ,i,, H' I,, . ( ,',ii'F, t b..,' ,/ i rid -d!?il|
I,.+/ : fit,' ...






, REPI-''T TO THE 31EDIC'AL BOARD


MEDICAL NOTES ON THE STEAMER METHOD OF
WORK.

T hi. ,'+th l, p .le,:uli.,i to: tihe U MI. '..- :. o iI u .- h, ,. it, tru t to
i nq iihe ilt-) tlt-- pro:.- .,l,,] i,, fro'm a ,,i,-!. ,al t.t ,ldp,:.iit Ol iin, illv it
was a.ldopt,-d for thrie it.'i-o. -
1. Th.: 'll -1:- l e :a i ,la V -.ltr ,ui b ,.ili;t. o'if the rai..l o I.h ,..M ,<-_,
ngwai.a. Y ,a:. I t SV. ,li. ii:l.;r .
2. .\ tile w- is ]1 ,lo.. h 1.:, l ,Dihop n tn.: t.:. th- tl: .' t t!!jt the i.-a t
'lioilo ot the l.ie .: ., iinl th." th.,~ nC Mir i <,l i l ititoiii. ,'(I t,', AI
titlt thei-.
2. TI' ire ,, ; I'u LI tAtil pui':-IJ 1 |1 .l iloI 1t.. -1 oil- I. t .' i 'IIt-.t-" I th it
it wouldd fl' o-ter a 7 iotl ti., ti.'I L tiwth **t the 'lilt l.
H ow ir.... t]L -et -lle-tliA, t ii..l to-,.-i)" ? T i. 1i -t I l .,,' r. n l, ._'eli *" -t-.
. thilei.? i. oi, Ii, :r ,l .- i ft,:,l iii Ii .? I"l,.I .. T h t .1 1 i h iI, t d l ii11,.1l
jIlLe tiion. .11 ..l ti 1l l !-i : i-'1:-'1 I I.. 1 1:. '`-' 1 2At th l- ,--:.iil did. ii
the ditu iil ti l -i. ril-, -.1 Bv.hlp '!iivtlhi-: th, follo.. ii.i.i ., t.itIeI-
T he lak.;.. l,. ill, ., i .'r,: i.iL allain. l-.. .,, .: ,:. th- l. .:t i liri i Jr -.o In
Bishop l,',vthie' tIlue, it "',' 3--i' l,.I0d .1 -itt;r r,1 ,o:,uistL thr.it the
MiSioi 3t.ction w.:.oild bh rl iht in l,.. l u l.l- o:f th- liitive villi .e. Th_,
I'. :,,uld utt.lo ibt.dly hive- Lb,,:i jn ui',.'jlrl v (It. lponl, ', ',l to :,:it : ,:';t i
Kota Kotaj).
Ti,, ,te,.incI. m ,i.tlorl t :.[X ...- thi.' c,..-r to. thii. i k [fuo al.liit h.-lt their
tinje (oi while th-v arpe dle'pli'g a-I,.i- biut :t ..'ipplie-s tihll ith it
healthy hoIu- andi h-eautdqual it t- I t--: '. iiil.- MIT.',,,.u r the la uI, lt'iI
live till tih.: -t''ln._'i a .n a ii:. ti' .ru ; m ii p .-:I:l :l;-.
The Ittei pL to, '.P o k th- .I k. 1 ii: V ril.i ,V- Iy Ir :Lt-rI.Ito i v. ithli .It .' ijiovii-'
hec.-drjiiattte. r av.a tri.':d In l -'.-i. i nl 1.i -l' ii wiln the I_'hi,/
,iiis',n, 'a. s l.iid ii t,.r t.p iit,;. T hii ili-thtio l-i --.itat ..il.:'av s.l,-rpi ._'
it, the 1 l:; .la ,.i ii w'd: a I L in,:.. 'r -; th,:. l l: t.:. h a: lth. 'liil. thl'ti,
i-. the l,.1,'.i ?t ti l, l i:,i u ui:, lIti t Iairl 11.1 \u llii ,. '. thl i fiu,, ii'-lnt ,s l. tilisg iIi
lie Id i\v l ;.i; .i. IJlli',C tillitV Jiloiir llth i u u l ,: l t i:t. ,l,-011i.; ,it ullVy
10o11e. 3.111.. iil 1ho t, it:tiiI u t-,i til,:' 0 ilhitii- ii ,-t till prI o .- 'iV 'ILI Na.ruiallV
this cau-i' ,1 b -,.l health i ,euoi .l. 1 11 n. t t 1.- i,..<:,ii:lli. .l t'iI ;,.:.put I.hru "
uia'vo:idable.
N i.v,-, h, w- .ver. -h7i e tlih.:- la.l l. ...,r i. P :l,' it k..,o: li, e l. ,, l.,i.:, t.. .- t.i ,
hlili headqu irturt,. o'i1 i Li 'nd. uij ,i t Ji' i /,"lI iu.l.'/i.;. iu.. ,' u '(ii:' lj ./,
i.". if thi: M i i ~ ti lt i-hi ll lilitt-,- .i[i ay b| 1lh.:-l hil s h .llling-
gioulnds and a lk.: li-.t.-i.... frUim tilth u.itiv illag ,. it rhouli.l 1 ., p 1 rtu.tlh
healtlly. (In Blihop Siuvthie. timt t1..2 IliuioitLnt.'c ul iL ol oil ',i s I .'it
icalizc1d, Mid hlenic: 1i.cth a plaiu ;, i- 1not coi .it, ll'i.La,:- ) Still ti: ri- l:
Lo 4 (l 1 P im akilig :,'c I u ti :, fll i ii ,. .i -i lel dIlt[i.iliti .,ll, ule,-piii lit
diLt.J l '. ill h.at c w l L : jtlt tlic lo1111 .i. it I..: ilr.,\, L l til! c tC.' i,:r i's LI.Cdi






I'L-1L'l.. 1 Uf.' l 1 A


as headquarters. A dttifi.ulty in the rcac, of 5u.-h Euirnp'an stations oil
the nlaililanl v.oil.l ho their pi i. sion of .leq'.jiuate medical ani1 inrsing
attention. If a b ,rious cas.e o-'.curs on the steamer, she (.an and doeq run
straight to the neare.t haipital, whlichl she rea'.-hlis in the liy. But a
station on -n Iand cv' if onlv t .v.nity or thirtv miles from a hospital, is cut
off tiom it, for si :l;: i..-rsuon often c.autiot be taken that distance by
nmachila without great di.kc,:-f,rt. T,, diliiicultv wvoiil theTefore ha.v'e
to bh. met by p'i'.i.ing a full ~taff, including a iurse, at ei-lh station.
H1-nce i i i it i i.r.,h.ai.ll. that ti,? t-:ai]u:.[ zi,-tl..d ca1 '**.ver Ihe* entirely super.
,rl-dAd by- on-e ha,,-d .ini n .vtim ot EiiopI, iin .tationi ou the uiLinland,
foi l1 l order t- c',ver the- same area it would mean at least three or four
station;, .iini eih wouiild r.:ilire .1 staf of toir (i.e:. t i-, n m ifiin .ld t o la.hes.
It i', i',wc\'r, v.ry po-.ile t. that, in tl, t It r f s,''ilme impurt.ilt mainland
stations rima be e-:tabhliliel to ctipplir.-nt the kvortk ot tl.l- -stca ,ler.
G'i r cit owe sbr-udli r rr,, ri i ,.i ..,', o )i.,edteqy .!;/,'.t.
It 'Couldl not b very- asy t- finjd sit.ibl- site.. The onivl plah..e that
suggests it-:ell as hiely hret,-eei Ngo:h and the 0 .'.-lge i., Nj.iia. A good
Site might lu- .*l.btin.,I nieiu Ng.:.. but this iH r.'ther doubtful, as the
(ourtriy lintld i0 .iaI pii Ih ilaniii p1 .'.:*- d ri.:1..ljitutoes :,iloii The
beit site. whihli d l. ing g-o eenr purl:hased, fromwi the uitives witli this
end r viL.I-, lhjI b.een taken bi thi: Portlgueuce for their f[rt -t MtengulJa.
The hill to-- the nor tih it Mmiuiubi night pro.-vid.e a suitable site, and a
C:tieful survey woudd doubtltie r c.ail ithe.?iS.


-1 Ji Jda w.L |














P\ I:'T IV:


Kota Kota.

Physical Characteristic:- -The roun of Kr-ta K .:it i-, hug.- ilta L;
unti'.e viil. g' with -.:, ,_.s .':.i,/" u Fi thtabitants Th', tnl : ,t,-.:-: nt.,i,.d ,:log
thle lake Ihor:. .um.I ..-:, extein.d inlai l:,.r .ib .r half a mlile. Th: i i labour
is a. big .haill ..,. la.-'.'on, o ,pei to tihe? north ,ind ni:,rtl .-ea.t, b lt shutl in -I,-
the o'uth-,-.u.t iind --tlouth Ic. a iig AiL. pit. The v.jate? if iI l, harbr:.ur
is .lity, uit .vairi iitli h ish Th' e like -hor., i th i.kl.- g*ro iu l I ':l
\which exteidI onut int.,. te witer, I III ti:- %e t *,i"'-, iI it i' very' sw inpvr
N e- t ,-c m ,: a l .v:.l :,.lv id .,:lt, h.i -.ut ,on' .-thid :f a : t e .l..le. c,'.i .tiitningi
i1alny" lov -lying p.,t.'h,. ,hr'h ini rhie w:,t s:ea o r, ...ii-F ar,,i re
planted v.ith ri'.. M.iiy -. ti,: h ..:'-: are I.,uilt nii th lev'-l belt. In-
land. the group ri : hlarply in .a eiiij ht *-f abih." t 1101 le'-ct, a.tn then ilop':-'
ri.alirally tiup' :i.r.s [,Ir neirlv .t j mil.". Nari\v.e lt ,ire bhlult .11 thi: r lruing
'-lI .l. 'lid hlier', toO',. ji'st ".]i ti(1 -. I .'l i. l tl d: n. ai tev l E ir':,p-aii
s.,t.itions, V'.i. two tin .dinrg :- t.re.-. the I- :iiit:n tat ion. Ud the BcILma
(-io'eriin Ie'n t ,t.atIo )
fThe Mi.iclon prop.-rty is I:t i.-, A '.". 'f g u.o il abo't '20 acres Iin .'xt it. just
on t,1i.? .r., (.f tli- lill. Thei.- a.e ini-tve huit;s ,In eitli-r ,idl of i, .1 b.-lov.
it. it 1.- .io.1I.Ided :,u bc.h siiles by : itruian one or'f hlii,:h ifl t:-. ail'-,g a very
swRinpy valley. Th'. ; s.:.il of this rri..ie auI -il the sloping hill Fb hinr is
daiv'. r gr.v.el, with bh.-uI.l -r gat pri'je. tip g here ,land there. It
holds watcr %ely V iIl, i, inl i h? ,.'t 1.- -I..or'n ;all the 1 .,ill ,u t r. r .ainipy.
onld stil-.oil 'watet i. e.';:n v.:li iithiin few feet o[ tihe ,r irla.'. t.ht
for four nmoiitllih of: the yea r aii, pit ienia.iiris fil1,l Iitli wate,-r. (For pLaii
r'f Mi--i-on station. see p. .3 )
The \'llage is withr:tut .a iy kii'.l of .jitatioii. The ijativc. u.re tih- lake
shore ani.l the be-lIs of th- sitearu .r. latri.es. Evc erywhere inI the village,
bhtweien th,.- house, patche- ol Iindia.n corn ad m ik:e a,:re townw. Often,
for a month or tv.-o it i t ejii. lit 1.w-l.iy. ing in' fields are unldeii iat'er. A
number of iall aticaii-;s l,,.. throu gi.h the village. The-c rm, for sixECr
Se'en tmoniths and then in inq, bi t ll .iter c. a be go-t by iggmng n,.tar their
- i a 'o 1








O!n eithl-:r -id of th o town. [.ir i le. t' i.,t the vhilli.w. c.it Snni and
To;i i i.v *-i. jing wani p -vith i p. y ,oNil, \\ hi.: ri':, i.,.ulti' H B:-hiii:l. tliere .Ir bL I.N: 1.:,i hill, Jb a l20) fret aibr.ve. the lUl.:e for a
"',iiple (f iiilt.-. Oiii tliiii tihi:-': is ,1 slidcld:-i i-e cent i o Ih.. ';waim py valley
o.f' th- lK '..111i ie iiv-r.. .:r.: h .:, 'ii' t i ,i ,t l I( iul..,. M tint niui la.
:n tRi. ,: th i.i i the -i t 1,- I.:.)00.1 A:, th l i,. v, I- i r, ,-,w a -i]_ pl inii in
tie( h.irl.irii. il in tli-- iit si:i.o 1,11 : li.iu] ire made in the K.torinh
Thie .i-n tt.i ulpN ,..Y t i t...0,s n i ...,.1. Th,: 1,:k. te l i- k i tv and ,:ile:1
'.'. tl 1 1* :' ini i .1i [ i .'ot [I1 ', hti.ll lt l Ci-. l 01 11it,1 ot[ ,'n flr' ll
..'il. 1i ..|,I, ,I ,.' I,.,l t%,:I ,I" l- :.f a Mild* t ,p,-: i- prre,'..il',:'it.
*?-p,- I llv r i, A ii ii. .. [Ip,. li.,tr Tr .il i i-n V ,1 thl '.. i .?r hl(,ls are:
ly ,l .-ii it:lT 1h .. r.-
VIt er? ,- I .. t ,. : I, rlr. i,._,,, ,i.1 1 .1 l l ,: ,: th I mjl:.1'.l tt'-
rn -hi. Mi:.,n i- ..q.-:itv T'' -.' wo'uiil s oi:,v ,.i the uihi li iihinr.. t, it the,''
,iI, ....i. 1St itl.' l ,-i, .-,,t t,,r lr ... i. ,:, th th -r- .iet :1.1 dly ( ilbbyV
lLt iliS '. 'i' .il I- l: t! n il i.:,,:,,. ,1 i. V jily r lle tittil. Ill t !,-
~,:.-,.,11 '',.,,\ I ,-,; I ,-,t ,..,1ttl|: ,: i-t l .i,_ .1 ,!, Ht le ..+ ; .:.i the ,, :,? -sh,..I *. lF ile
.:....tl i .i v il hil' l t .. t Oni .
Ii,.1 r.u- .. ll K ...I. I i '-r .tha i 1.1 i l itui i I I t.l.'ab I ayI'I tI
,5) I ll'ih b.it t h ot b. u L- L .t]- li eii l.
K ot i i n I -i L, p...[ :l t,:o u.Ik [it tt, : \,.,-I ,,.o ,i tn f -,.,? Oliie oiii
aI y tj I .1 eI. i i I t iii t! i d, I ', i : .: l i tI ,-\ i lie .ii l ti.:tiu the- ,.. tli'.
"C l.:o i:,lt.. ,,1.,|l .l I rh h. l.,:, ,j i 1 11 i I : I- '1 d i, ,:O'.'.? !. the '".
. ..:ll i (.I i ..l A\ t I:'lit jit. x nlli. : l.. i i l.u 1 I tl, i '.r \ ash

ntiyl li tll,-. JI ,a:-i .,-: iti l ,: i. '.I tl .lt. ,i : '.',lt:'- t i i ri i 'l f
.i ,) 1,r, :.:,?h. r.
11 ., ,j1i1t,: .- bAY .-id t lI t I i l Dh -- i I th.: l i thh..: i l,::- .:, i ;-o i .
l ,.rli:. n I :.i ii. iIt. t, l b .- l: e r i k .t I
'1h l -lilii,i i,, i r: ,, :i\" i i to ih.t "t h ,: _'oitl]'-7:.1 ,"*- ,:',::pr for th,'; m ,..e
M i:lll il t '... i lJ..
.\bo.ut two, ii'il, l ',; v i- i l ],:it lp ih T'ihl_.r \'..'it,:'i i~ .lihtL "y
? il llh ..l... ,' i ly 1 1 :h,,,e II 111-t i..i.,l,....: iup 1 .o t o l tilh : I, I'd .l, I n
ht. li.d ing. t 'O.:d -..ll ,t tl..- '.,- p.:.,-. t 1- r_ 1 ,,l I |l l t I- (C ld l1o p1. l-
t ,.ula i, ,ll l- in, :.ti ,-i:d. T h'-.: te-. iplr -itu, i t th, \'.v t:teli 1s ,i (.ut.f 7' C .
T hIs Tpi M iS ts i llll" plui. l ti,:.1 Il,...i ll: i ,., y l tI e C::,ll-.tjr, Ci, iA.1
on,: i. .,1 )..-.l o .I.r,.. '. ,: t th. t-e e.'.1._ t ,he eCiipl \lAC- o! th: E lu :opeIal -.
T he ..,w I <.,.,. .,1 hot .tiL,.i in t,. I...!i ,1 -i.1 :i:- iw tiHi v.-llk-y belov,',
fi .l in th, t,.-piJ ,.va t -it tl,.- jUi ii.tloli r.t t le t o .tL,.iii-, gr,-. t '< :.] of
11,l.. l hll .t IS .l,:l||*.
Mission History.- Up till l..'.. K ,ti I:i i ..- lwi_-,''.i oInly .0 1 n big
I,.\ ll o1 t I lI. l |I .1'10 11 l)i I hill..it,' iit-. lul*i ,:.\el I. .' l iiil." i, ,1, ti ht, gr'at
flw .I'i: ,Oit wVhec.l n lliu,. ,,i ,I l.I '.'e .,,_,,' .- th, M lilii].: tho ir jouirncy








to the coast. Thena a tieaitv was mli;:a .%itli .JuiiTmhe. ,, .'. i'oldent Eiito-
peal! .Iliniiitlator w.I- .t tioncil tlie In the ,niille '.,f l.', it vwan
i.i liei .d-hdd lveii a lv.-d t.. opeil ,1 Mjti-.ru -t.tit r,.thfi ., l.-iii thie Rev. A. F.
Siii. V.io ,a.i jiLit ri- tin Englonil. 'was -sent to or:-'pj: it. Tin ope-iig
of thr st tion ia, I a ,I ll-, sl'-,_.ir iin tii:, aid.1 t ,he iltii l-t .oil. li .'"ce
to the Mi-Air'.n a i'l al-. the ii r--tii..u .,t th.- healthlin.-'. or othier.. i-.e of th
lace .,.ere not l-ith .-tv ..i isil,-r'.-. 'lThe ,- ev. A. F. Si .n i -1hv .l, at fir1t.
ii .ian or.liall v iatir.'. ihit I, I S;'', tihe lt -. 0 tle pr, el.- it 3 i.; .iii tatiui
.s lboughlt, .ai.1 a .,.l battlee ai.l tiab h -'- I..i built Jl-o Mr. Philil'p-Z
canie to help. In i:tolr Mr. Sin i- 1rom i -xh;iLn-tin ,.-li, .vit :n .1'ii
attack rf :.lacl:v at.-r -iv.t .-ra.1 rth= R -.. S. Wimnl:.a-I h -u:C ieC:---.d hiIui
I I, 1.',ji the -e,.. \V. W ,\n;t:-r ,:,,,', iil [fi 1'7-'). li va in c hir .
awil 3Ir. H. Matthl.- a'.s tith 1111u. Ini '.' eIhur.h, partly ,ri.:k.
partly watilf- ai l ] .. .r-a b, lt ; :,l-'] az, ,"I norh, :,r I Iii h .L-a- in-
teu ..led [I..r ladii., b Iut i ..I ...n fe.i : :. M i :- Ell' .haw's death ,t
,ik:iiia, tl,.' diid rot o-mie..,Il it ,'.I iae-'l 1.-',' A\ t-rt ail Ma3itthew-.
'T he e '.-ttle ,* ,..l iiul:' E u,.ii ..l h.' i .. I:- :r. ,g..l t p'e.. t il'I r.,
.ind I ,vo,,'d.ii shi ttt,-- l .I t nto *l.xi--I. a.1 .i ,'l.- .*- m ,.'l alt,..-tlh r
11111c11 bi tlt t r lh,1i tIh" .H i :,k,.J hul '-:. .A i':,':, l b i,:.k chrn .,i-.l a 13-
built in l, .'.5.
In April. ll.J'), la.il ie- ttlel it Kc.t.. ad in .. th.-n th,- taff h.a h-",n
four (talo tlir Itie-. a pi,'-t, aind .im'thii.- ,'I laIviI.i) A in:v. rick
Idie '" h,.Au.si an-.l a ,:liii n: ."..i..i.. '.. itb l Slas.. winmloiv tc.. i-.. e i built
duiliung thi- yar, an.il [ioL that thin l.,a ,aid: all iildling ha. i b-,n of a
permanent cliara-ctoi liiih th.-rp '..er-. d'l-led in l''10i .1 bra:. : d,:,rimitr y
fl the .:,:h.,.lb..:,.,' 11 lo l a mli ,-_;'n-ile ,ton, :h.. h. .mnl in V1"02 a
IEuropeandiI sic k-.-u niu alii .a 1 'l,. lniyi Sini.:,- U11.i tlhi-. h,. bi':'n a pa'i-
im niAicA it -t.ti..,t- ,iitlh ', -il IiailiH ug.. it li,' g.aneraill'; l.en kept well
.tate'.l, and.1 since 1i'-,vo tlh ie h, .i ,.' 'i.a I,.-n a r ur: in r. il:n':e.
It, may be not.dl in paiqing that, in cl.njejiani:e of thlr hc.iv gale,
ni:tiae-built hi,, -,'':- a ,* o' ft,'n, l.i. n lwi, udl-ienlv.a.,i t.' are r[e ll: n .a[f-.
In 1I.')2 .ill the Eur'..p:,i i ,i .rl. .iht. :-l:.-h -us- av.',r:, r> .n.:li'- o ,l im os ,i, tl pro'l
by dilit of gauz': wiiit lows .il ..'.i
Apart tirnm their hlcaiag .'esti.aai,. the gi.-o'ral ztauid.ard A:. hMii' lhje', a.
el.ev'w.ire in thle Ml-i.:ion, ha- l nllu'lly i ni|r,'eui ti-h-, I. '''a. rn, ard-
Until l'i:.. .water fr,-.]i the illiag.: at, r i.,i or Iri..m a aimil.ir hotel
dug by Mr .'im on the Mli-'iou pr.peIt'. V..,s u.i-el. Thi,. IlI:'- all the
villnige? water., w. IS .il. Finn l `'; uiw.it .-. v.at,:.r tor ,-lrintliai purpo.es
Lhs 1.b1eei l.rughlt irom the li'.',t Npriii,. -i, bLit. u11ti l' iii,, wat.i' o to arlliiig
wvas still obtaiin-d Ijcally. Firoii I') oii, '.'ails -ill watei f.ur drini'lan:.
kitcheii purpo-es. Eur-.Epans' lb.ti"i -t,., ha' b,' .' brought .lite't from
the hot spring'. It i, -.iel id u lilteia l, ai, it is- iiatur- lly -t' iliz.d. It is oj
great imnpoitail c that this q.tirvr ..i, ,./ l s.rinj u,-ater shil'd 1 ol,, ct'tiiu',.






a5. .A REPORT T1'O THE MEDI('L .lbARD

s.l;L.ML-Y OF .TATISi', l.S-l-'i,.
T...I..l .., ,," / ", .,...:., i A l : ..-I. U .. t -l. i, h,: I ,., t ih .,1ULill .y
Tr.' 1 ' ..i.._ ., ,,/,J ,, i 1 \\ I..ul. h ti i :c t .u Alt. ... ....l I, r.: i.rrn iut '. tn itri fo 'r
Lj..Itu r[ 3-Ai:.
/ ,/ ,. ,,,,:.1 .'.\., '. ,, .l r t.t .T.I., ; .. l,.:. tll l. t lj l.
Ji.,f& r f,: ',r.

IS9)9-1,0j 3.-- ilr.ii' Lic pltri ic t l:-i.e I\. 1 ii .j 1i: t L'- 111. l of four o0
five p:-r. s:oi, a1.,l a ur-e .i il.. ret iilet-i The e' iner. al st.iin.iard of
C lifo l ,1- t... (ra l, i tu-. i t: .di i v ,II 'i ,' f. sl or b t rei tter t'I n I t ai ,
oth:r ,' u,'* in thw- Ml r.ii lh t"'. -i -. oll,'.'':'" ,r. ,n lv 'ole priest, and
.ll,:..:.i ltr.I ,', 'irv I I.Il tp \illy ,, himi lI.1 IL.- h,:,ltth .uff r'.d ill r -..i- -
pii. n, .. n t e- ;' -,, 11i:l- the -e ltrl r:.:i orl v, i : lk Ibl 1. No one
%%.As Ii l .l e.1 ,n l a nd i : ,I-* .- fI .l I iO ., t t t 'i ir 't .
Mlr X di'd hfiri i'. i ,tp: .'t, i illii ,a . eek. 1 arrival.
'hi6 i ui t i.-e [.-,i.. bt] l r i .'n i: t of .\ft ii life. ra'ld in t I ,; ll
,ai'.1. v .',-eciLllv attiibiital.l [I to the l iiht,'. iiin'-e other mucrm ber hil
ndi ei .ii hit.lth i 1luritng '')l. but thl. s i .i : d(i t io : t .I tLct that
hle lt.1.l : itta e.I l I.i ti.c: i.1 n.i.- e'.rr.i e. Iiii :..i ij. not g,i lirmn : for
.IIro U,-""h ,i [ ;i t ,.rr: v. t- I. ,:, ,,L,,: to: t.il:e Ih : pl.-i:e.
Th,. in.'-t ,iri''...rtl.it iniprovemeii t in tih, iIilihtiL fri.i a health poiJi
,:.I viet- ,., tl,. pr .vi--i,' i o*f ., a i.e. il i:L-r i :ni,.'l th.i iio[qe i quit. pt rooriiig
'f,[ all the E iii.p.-.in h -i--. iti 1'..2.
Thi -': .l Ii:ilth [re:-i ii. tilh uiilt to. f.:[, 1,i .:r ': pr1 ir r' iouri:
K oli K ,t, %,.0Wl .. l. ut l,, .., e iv ii l-.. lhi pl]. c I in'h-y b,.'
Fpirrly <:,ii:Ice. r. tri g tl-i petiio.l tro of ..l- .:l:,, t,-r fe et oicurrt-.
.ni oii, th :,- oth-i E nro[r,.an w...il. :iit-. '... ,_. t..., -ether iniui .ier uliut .T.
i 'i-" as- t .ir- |rl i: r- t I 1i.- M i.ioii. Lut Lth I i iOt a1 cOiluplete e::plala-
tit,. l..,i thlf I i t r.:mIiiLt tat let .*cl I l Ia 1")' t.-a lb proved. a f[a
he lth e t ,tit .,i t ],7i 11 1. n 1 :1f ul. I : ,\: 1..:eh1 ,.::pt,.'. tt.,. .\ pA i le b '.:[iplaniation
I :,\ I, tlhi.it ll-.l 1it,:,.-r- (i)-A i ,jo ity ,:,[ iJ- .:l .,It. ,lii(t e ) .,f .,.*o Mil. -
(rli l 1il1ii ii. i 1i i i't :.'.''. r i.i r i-, .i, l: ,-ll 1 1 l -i 1ii l 1: o i'frt' s s'l-:e to
aldopr th,, t. _-4'i. inr,-r. li. ti i th,-y ari- t.-o ,apt t, rclAx lien-u ,nsilitoc-
;l 11,'.: in i1n li. .
Ml ,squito Obscrvatiions.-K,,t.- K:ot. hi: t[hr br'|iitatio, o[ uitng the
..irs.t pli..e r. ii l.. l.,ke f.i n -.iuito._. T lis i pri-ol.ih. t ile .I linc lIike
slo :' aii thte ..er piil ..if I,.: to'n .intr.nlg thr ri:e heliId Oii lie ridge.*.
hov tevet. ,' her the '1hi-i Ic.iIt. ,it tlie ilpe.r '1 .l I. t'1 trown. they
are Itad, built '.rob:l..,- ii..i ..oi thAu l It imni v of the 'vill.'e :. b let 'eIil
Ngoti :nd M -il,..'-t \ t -it..l I.v the u., ,hi 1,/ l..-
T['he iiiurj..iuitti.. b'.iii ih tli.. i niY' ...soi i D,.-coriibo:r or Ja uJi .iry',
.,id con, tiiiu: very ,iiimain r,"i- till m I.v. r[ijii g .i i .i nil .J v they v .bcgin
to .iiiiiiui-lh. i.rtly it. o iug to the .. Ihi v.r.ither. but n -uidl. Ito the decrying






A REPORT TO fil'E MEL'IC.AL, BOARrD :.1

up of wanimps and l.' o..I all pr'-- and old tiuj '.hich in the e.v.-.. i'i.on d,.'
kept fill of rain water In Augotl: the .we.ther .'t- .unii..r, but thev o.)
not in-:rea-ie agaii, as tih' s'.vanip;s ii 'Iryving Inidil '], ii dry i' .
tli'y d.y 11 li tog.titllet inn,- thii. ,nmiilt an11141 n .1 iir : rCtih:.,iiill dlic-
Jpp,:tal. but In J ,v..t <,:.r the ,.ov itinu : fo, a Ii.i:.uth ,r t .o m.:.,I ',:tole
aiid N :,v.emnhi airc-. Iw pi.ictli: -i free li:- i ii'i-'11 it.:.' ..
(On th,,' M3li ir.n S.,itii:n the ui.i-,quit...- that tro ',ii:'it Eiuro1,,ani hi.bouie
aj.i.' alii-4t entirely : iil :c.; Thbe'- re J i- iiti..l i. i'- nii i',niii' in ti' .',e en-
illa an tl' v. ill bit f Ii -1 I i iith? .' ,I.v ti :- 't-i tJ ii., .ve l .i'.-':1 '.' P)O
cnt. d thle 111,.-l'Ai t,' ir '- i h oI l'? icil' ,u til'- ,i iil _' ._i' i ll :I -. A li'., P)il c-,
are pre's-nrt At nights. 1tt tile,' eein to eiitel 1-i.i -' I:.'il" .ilt.':r li0ht-1 te-
out aiid ll 1 ; quiet I.: R 1 Ci.rtis ,,t the l,i'..-p.:' ol S.:h'.:.1 '.At Tro.pi,:.l
Meifeiie E:-;:p"litioi, ,: \\V W t A!ri.,l). rli.. i- -n iirirl:ort.li[: poijjt t.
r-m niulj,:r in t ,oii'l"'1 r p[r \ e ,eiti'.,: 1'? ,..
('ilex ',r.:-sl iiig-[i:,- ii. piii. .:. ,:ver'.v h.'-rs in thi? 'latr.-'? illa-', i il. l
.roiInI I ii,, l- 1 O.' | ii, t:i. .1l. b l tli a rl ii : bi' .,'l .a n 'vli.\,1 in
the poii-, ind si ani '- ri it aboIii 'nil at the '..0I-'.1 o1 tle l.Il.:-. %whi'-.
owingI to ti._ *? t,']i -,. i.' .i i '*I t,...l, ti l. lal, : .'-t Sile t,:'i 1 ,io i yOUli,
tish.
.\ In l.,ip eIl e bt e, I t th I : -I.I o l r I I t rt,.a.i In I I ii i i t I tr Ir. le. -. i. .l
i the i, .ii]py W 0,,:, l,, ,d11 A e li,.:, .I .a t th, v,l ,'- l1 th0. la.:.. at -l....i
by D L'. l).aiels. [Iln tl, ,Irv se?,.on tlhe ..1 111 s ant,.l rmi ..: ti,:l ,n .I m ,i mlv
I th': Sticati.tll' r lip. i-l til t '."lt l 110i o Ildi V 1Ot"'''ll t:o '.t.r ll.l Li, i.llt
the I ', i.-1';. o ti', lIak, : ir l]. iiL i" a psi l l., it w ,''diin .. ll I, all thi: '' i
ronil Of ;,our 5t*. this I- ,III? '.liustJill.' fr m the i ,Mi,-,,in. .1.1I l [,u i p I ;t ly
aii olIhl -des ]i-i'i it 11r111 tii i X ,:'i '. I'lit tilh: L. !;- i'ih:r' .1 *Oa 'l ltilt -.,ii,.l
f dlng ?' 1,iid, fiequiietly. .f iail lLi.I il',-,.tii.in t:* p Ii -'.'ni* s-iig t,'. ad li
Iini theC -t'.iniier .t li-iit.
I'll', II in ill U pii e:le-, bre 'h-llii ,-' u.' tiild t 111 til: iiimmi,-liat'; \ ',:iitv of tlhe
Mi:-ioii are dti'i iole. ,l b. the f ill.e_'':- alin, ti t i.o -tr'uiii- X anul Z
l-ce umari ) ; 0lol:.. lmli dir I c-- tinLil v.iiUpy holl': .. il thl pi .'i:'. *.:i M 'liIo
gro:iuni aI. ios,- the r.ad (the-p aLue oinl I'r'ed.ing gro)iiiii,] lurinii, the wet
:.:Sii, Ja.nuiiy-April). anld tihe .trami Xi aiu- Z tli,'iuitl. Of th"'-'.,
I llus as tuoris. t aftc- r.iill, alll L: sioif '....t'ent tliu.h.:s itell out. l.aIt Z li.
d \cry pool ilo.v andi li.is '- il.sp L : ound oni either '-lie of it. At some
tiunm a ditch ha- been OuLt anl the atteript liu.'l--' tho .Ird.in thiis \ illy. hint
it has bU-en llo ,i' tii be :' e I hi. :k .i i i i'-., so v 'iO 1110: u-,:.
These hbr:-c'Jiiig-g:ouuini, like th'e -ivamnip.' ?l 'vlihi,-. d.iy iiu, li .\u,_'uit
01 S pjlteinl,-r. lIut .li IP '-i,.,t.il'hl-diii',- iii i ,:'i b t ,: i Ilill, ..
'The iiialuber of i, III'llits i- I, .t li-tl. i, it ,fir ali" .it iti.tlest f tine, ,oilth-ly
ineisleise of ial.aim ti be of \.flue?.
Conclusions and Recommendations.--'lIe lake hio'e. ti-.. iice fie-lrik, .id
swamps and the village w\itr holes tianuolt tbec. delt kitl bli the ]Mi.-sion,


F k






.2 A ;EPC:'1T 'TO' T'H .1IED.II'AL BO -IARD I

- iid it i~ li- iIl. i' i tlalr.ib.l. that the I -v,,otiiL,..unt will do .inything. Hen'."
aliopl :]: lv'. ill al .ty I-,i K profit. :ind -...lvin to tLhe .-itlati-ntl i of tlhe Mis-
io on tl: ol :' A di t.i t i ii. M imc r.- oI th.: ii,;ioutj .ill 1 .7i,'-, 1 1111 lihe
li-k of ,,cOi.ui inhlh cte,] fi,.- ii, tiv,- ..hil.len I'D ,: ,I,'t,':'/ a'"m 'r,'
/iherf /j ;lI' .c n/ ,' i S l; r' / : i lt- a ib. l j l. l r/: /1 i
b ig bit In by hnII
1. Ithr i iIt ,r \' ? iInil iii'hti i-,t .t.? r, II, (- ,r t..,, .1 I attrmipting tII
lljili thii *,ailit ti h .:.tli l h i .lim. H tIe -ttl 7. i llni. and Ile illiNi L up l Of
hokli and.[ :Iariin-t INlWt.:Y .. th r re -M si_'l oi, prpertu.' a':roS' thN.
ri'.a, (ina l;:.l X .ni .pi. T,.h -. tr, .-iia Z l .hli- 1.l1 7Hvc .1 -lean, straight
.h innril ciI al-i. th.: i. 1-.i | .uiiis.l hti.il. I ,- ,.lrailse..l I.- ilitcleC aild
i.,ilel into ;i a .-iirc,.i. Tin '..:,ill. e o e..t ,.:,i r.liIcti n it, th :. ajiopleelk '
.hireeli i..ii.. ie iiiir-g- .liniuti: i lu.i :hl.n i.hool of lhh Mihi.ion. The
tiln i di a.i l ditil t1 ..)il l] il...-.il .. l-.rt i lit tt.*lititoi. bit, il thel grOU ll
w : l, uicd:l ,_a a i.i,: nl thI ; :, :.l M i.:- .-.i t t ir:..l
'-' i. t th oth,:-r lia.i.1, .: pti h. th:- lI, t that idl.,:t,-l e t e o ..he1 ki w ill
cOI,:i,-illy 1 I, .Ii.:- t. iiiii l .:., i I? ioir I I i,. ,11i pi d-cauittlloi' l Aainil
being bitten, e;-],:iill\ It ii.hl '.'.lim U .iu:oplh.:-l,' iC: in:.;t pI.vl,:ll it. Th:
rules tnuiiLi rate ,l. (-.-e p '.i 11 ith [re-_ ..l to LI'i) Ml.s.i lto i?t
( ) Protcr ti nr ...I the- a jl: ; i) ii'us 'til, IthL pvi''rhti iiM .tand the LIse
of oil <:I lavei ,-Ld-, h....i < .. tu lllv -,i.-\e F li th-i-
I l .Il/ E. ,' .r, /,... ,:, . :i....'. i. ,.-/ ...., a ..i trl.: ln clll a i plo-
:. ti,:.n thl, ], r. .- -ll s I .-,,i- I .., .:f ll ,.l .elhl-tll Alu'y," u .,',l.
( -') Qiii i ln / / /r h.i. It I i (',/ .,:. I 1 ~ (: ol '/ ri sid'nt
(' Pt prL nit Ai.:0. a e ta k.n I 1 w 1 i n l i l).
(.i) /. 7 f' as ,.: .b/c. s' , ,,' i.. 'i,a.;. a J / / l,1,'d c 4/-ire at i7 li'.l
d,.,,ilf bo: 1/1 *,.,!.:
I N .B.--. t ltih. ii:- ~ s i tii .aill ti.: lul:CO illit fiu il. ,tl.'l. iluil.'hi:'l t lldel i2)
are l iingc uuli I.be ni.lI--tilLtu thi ve.ar.)
.4 ,'5,.r i.-,', .;, /ti.: v-,. p a.' /,..../Ai ,.. .1 l '... i A ..ti :- T lici.ira- hi '..e t-T .
EOLlt v ri:.. ll th, II'I ol[E,: 02.1i .l I [ri 1 II L t 'it r .: r i It l vit .d1u :i l it I t. ~1.
wE ,i 5 '1a *Fial "it I e-entil I In ,r -hIr,,- ,l t,.:-r, -&z., K :r.1 .oli. 1 I .i ':- al Itoun ;
SI I I : ,ll-iac. sill.liarte l: .o i.a t l,:u-, l 'i g 'l i rlt t, .l i i.lbl-liJitor... I w LI Jdlllillt
lth l :f at.tr purL (I tli \iK i IM lli t r, iL':. i. L tl L u. Z i a roll. ii, I~' la'i
KottL, lntl'.y-,'ur ix .Ii....h 'l.-Ic T l'ihillttFl iti ., it x, 1 iIc Ldc iI i,:,. l',le to R di ti.:y
th, .%,,rm l| tI- ai I :,I itii' w .ill r Oli tn L-riJilli-' iniW e ii hli.l i iLl. i t. irl t 1ie-
inril i. ti)r .16 ir... o in. '1 .iLtL th.. ihoui, in ,j i il, nrli vi, piJiO i l iiu.:. tll tlh-
uliri cr l i iLU : td: 1i -, .in' l L' u!'i .'1 -If riIll I, ip'i- [i -a l, ,it u ;.in!..i otl Quillili |
%%ciild Al,. n.:.l I.. i.. r h-.l \\ it.li tlit ,.. %.:.[ p : i .,:* lh.: i, ..1,I ltlii, lio full
I rn illth L -I Iv *It I ilrii rir l illt.:.i.i Fni in tli PI..tu.l t ul.iAtl 1i I':.1.. I,.., i i't7il nal.d
r'grgatbolllui CA iropi.an.i to lliinri -h Ihtl. in i.'" |.
The above i cuttinig arplia.i l .1 I ti i. l 'l-l il 'il .\tlC lin l Bookl for
IiO2, ,lIir i piai t o.i f lilt.. ['oi ct,-,i te- M5 eIli.. l 1710 '... ', I.i.o l. Ui. ifcr tii-
nat'ly it \,lS taIl.ci up l.v SOnii p1'pcr-, ai l p0irt ot it, ..itho its l o CO lixt.










7 Paicsr .Cmdiics lauSep


A..3 C .: I s r s n .I- L 4.o i s r 1reo

* 4 a n e a S j I
* $.,. c


R *P ir'Se 4roui,5 s


A s
is"' r.

e


PLAN OF NOTA-KOTA :.1MSIGN .TA110N.
BJ


... i4


IF 14


I :


!






AL, D I tl -I 1


and without the last s3eitenc,. was quoted ii, The T mes. This served to
give a most gloomy profi,.,t of Ide at Kota. and caused a good deal of
alarm in s.mine uariiters an.icmng the friei'ndi of the Mi.sioli.
Coinjpalin[ the above [..iriraprih with tlhii ri-port it will be seen that,
while the st:aLterrient tlier:iii coiit iniled .i to the prevalenr-e of miLosquitoes
at Kota ar.t -,bstait:lly ac,.urate. .v-r by dlint of care and reasonable
lie 'iOtioi.s it ik po .-ible for Eur,.,pe.in- to live very fairly healthily there.
As mentic.nel above. the -:.rI fla,:t that Kota K,.ta las a bid name. and
that liiio_,liitO-" art very trobiibhsconi'. :ortilJti to tit,- willingness of
Jesideit.= to ei-mIloV thi-i,. p[o:- uiiti:io and t.: i i,[,:.tect their health. It. i
oft:li the i.lar. whiih i eeili as if they ought to be healthy, to the casual
ol,.-r -r. that at., re ally tli mott ,aughr,:.] l.,e,.au e thelJir l, p[,,r, t
hel itl-iii:'- c -i -.-:- iilt,:..i:e-. ,-nd ..r.l~? :i..-s btini : it. punri=ineme t.
.>n1 ri.-e l:.iliit. I|o ?velI 1 1.. i, r.a i II- tli,: r. I itive liUilliel o, aliiophcl(-.
aiid< culit ri-, tii, r.:-pIo.t i ,it total vari in,- w-ith the Blue B01:4.k stitemiWnt.
Thi it to b.e Cojit-, I.:.[ h the fa t that the Dli:. P.ook; statement is
lotuidled ( i hit it.a. [ ir.i. t .,ll a1 1 ii le ob:.-rvjat ioi. I iha':. a.; 'rt h iinIl
that the iloiljinitoe iiu ,ui.'tii:,n ier i.ght 1., thie ('cllei:toi (Ct r. A. J.
Swi.niii). He .,.z ill thi- hal-it If ilig .1 ri t witi holle- in it. a id these
lio ,4Lutoet .e r.:- r*, 1ilit iii:ile t 1, ret iL 1 th? lnroii[hiing. IIIn lie o the
.,iil-Lkiio n ei tedeiiI:v oi' .j-iiphtiele's to hall about the hlioue and to g., to
lk?:e.p cloie- bv after fe.([ii-g, their preni,.id.lei,ani e iniler th )<- eii' Lumi-
itan.li,.- i ea- il\' -:pl1 il.:il.
Th-ie nav I...? .soii. liiterernic. b:.t, .ieti the .li::i<'i ieand the Boma as
re-. rdr the. relative iniiijl.I:i: of theI t..:. kiii-. .,but the -t itelieit inl this
rc:s-p.-,t that '1l p- i.: :rit. of the rio,.tuitoe.: that (-Cite and aiillOy one inI
th e evelig; al e c,-ih air:. u iid. uil.ti,,llv llt u.: ol thI,.- lMi-ioi -tatioh, 51ild it
hliii. b:-',-n coiiiintime I-d ib, pe.tei o:r.:-rvatioiis ov'er ai loing period of l time.
It is piol,.ibly largely i,,ing}i to thi; preporni er.Iir:e ,:,i r*uili-es that the
,:0o ipl tratvel good health rL,,oii. i: ,it,.
General Observations.-1. Bn,.g-. ti-l:;. aji tiers ,ire veivy prevalent,
oinI- to ti.: fa: t that the peopl- v. -h .=- httl.'. '[The\ all> i g'reaLt diti, Lult3
%.her' -I uinulbcr ot childrrni, : Ip to-.*.,: thl:r. as i1 tIe [lisii ,i dormitolies.
.Jiggers ai:.- aI: b..1 ,it Kot:a They have reiiained oii l],ri- after they
lin .'. s:1.[iappeaied lrom other plac.- on the lal:e. The remedy for all tliese
pe.ts it) thl,: Mi.sioi, would -.e:n to li'e ih tih'l lrovir:.iin of pLeriniieiit tbriel.
dJ ,riuitolie with ,.h'.ei ej lho.1ii:.
2. The garden po-sibtlitie' at Kota are consiilr.ible, atid Sliould I b
dikvelope]d I'o-oilt palm_ gro',e in tile vill.age, and omri e 'youllng one,
airet growing at the MliAion. iangoes. guavas, linee, l'iinons, miulbe-riep.
alldo well. II t- sw.,rnp irc dratirned, a verv good vegetable garden might
be Made there.
The rasis qjuadrantigle in tlIe iniddle -ot the'stAition ill '."r'y satisfiactry.






A REPORT TO THE MEDIC.'AL BOARrD .5

It lookS nice i: 11I id P estttl to the ftet. It is pl',liti1. with a kild Al
'?o':h gis., '.vhishl prowv r s well. Similar g'i-s pat':,le iiht bie gio 'n
with .i i lf.', ti ge at B lii idi, Mlpcnla' s. jid th. ,Colle :-. At the latter
place onI hal alr:..dv b. -,n p-l:titt:d.
The Mslisiii L.i a ago'o herd of cattle. aid pleitv ot :':d can be obtained
for thera








































1ih4L











PART V':


Mponda's.

Physical Characteristics.- Thv r it i ,! \lpin' l.,'. n tI l ? 1iiIt I,.., '1 !
tih- li'v. r Shi;,. a.il.t t tv..:. imli,; tr i, the: Ili:. Thie h -i,.Isi itin i
ri'.A t III tlh :1 villa'._., i ~ . , |,.I.. i: th i.. . v n tive, lIuti,. au il in
troiit is the ri v'r. i- iM Fi. t .IJ'..i -t.:.u t i l .:l I a .li ,ii .: :', l Lt icoituLL t 1'
it'i t l t i i,- ltlitir. .A '.d.. i tl i. I~lit i-, tik ,l,' ti' _rily , ,:i:t> N ,-w x ,,rt
JuOiiIIStoll 1s tlir''- dii'-? !i.: -.l t i, tl ti *. ..i II.'. t i .'lt i l
T ih li-l ,:l 1 i. r.:.|-, t, [ -. .:., lo w l a-i..: t tv ., ,cr-. it ,:xtnr. cl- -
ht 'u 4 i ; itiiit lI .ii,:,ut 1t \j, ri- hI liii rh i l iLit t I.t-t t i ...[- : thtit t .Iit',"
flett above: it.
'Jhe .ull ]I- t r l, 1,- :,a thle' i,' .t .Irt, h.Iut in tl.-i.e ,I -.iI' filf ii'.-i li.ilik.
thi'-i iN fleit']- .lAi.:k Ii.lIt. In tl-. dr- -t t ,n ln 1 .r,-, in l -i et .a ibke Ii l.
l.tt in the .-t -.:.iu mt.:h o t it Iln ridt y hi I i .,At..lt .,. I
nlu h: t. M rt .,' .- ti uit:ii "" 'p r riv'.'i ite. v. it.1 til- t i'.iitii."Al
d1i-IIlI.int. t r-,at it l i i.lit illn , ,ti .' '- ll .
Theli rive.-r .iswn.i i. i th rI- a il.also ,.itl.h hi :i.tiii l, : r.:,:.i ilt..
lii? ii'.--r \ t;i lt r i .- 1 1.i.l I uiltIh r ,- ., i.*-- !i,,in ti .' li-- .. viI T li e it l;? ,:,1 li,.
ri'i n ii t :'1,- 'I it . ir -[,. l '. t t .iift l i -.:. tili.t.' I .:.t -
ThO .ivilnt .' tlil.lill ,, F. t .ul- tur i c i;[t',-I l\" ii. r. Th, wI' l t
.e.-;isu I 1-. ri=ni thle .il ,l N ,:l. IIIl.,-r t .. A pi ]
Mi-bion History.- The .t .t;,: i '.j i ll:u i the .-:\v. ... l. H lipp' .t
the e li..l el I ,,. T h, e.ll .,Jil.l, wr'.: r v .?le l h,:,. ,-:f at ..i l 'po
ty pe. In tl.- .iituLnI .:.1 it %.:I in .i th.i- I.,.iJ tore f the ht.tilt. i'
place ol Lil:omft, -j n. t, I.,e arle t,,. Il- l lbett. \.'itl (,ni,. to: Kota
K ot ,. n % I Fll R vI. v\ ,aill, tl.- Tre liIIe-r. .: i t, It,: -, ,? lh-t1 .At thl,.- i-ld
of 1_'317 M ir. Philipps lv. .it h .[I l i,.,i!gh l l di ritdit l -. the t-'.
H. .T. Haicock '.,-, in 1:-l.irg.. i l-' I'.t Hauce,..:lk vieti to K..t. K :.tJa !nl
Philippl .tg ini to,:, .: lihangw, a.1,, t.-inji,:d tihr," till R''.ptent l r, il',. 1,2, .-.:-n
Ih- w.ast succ-,del1 ..v thil R -.'. . i.. .. la P'nin.. Durin-i' lP.-4 -. si.-
stanti.il bii.:k Ihius,:- 0.ith ir[o 1 :. :1 tr ,', i t.dit. Un i l rin- 1I11J ani' l
19(0 a I-,rick oit .tI : a ld !ilabo.,r,irt > itlit(r.li .e- iveie a -.l'..:.- l, l' i:3, this.
hIjuse: waS iitoi) quitc.-piNoe-.1. Flom Nov. i nier. I'lnri, t:. JlimeP. 1r1ill, th
Cmanci cj .ll'ap s w\.s uider CO isu.:ti':tinii at 31poud i'. and Ri,'ssan. ('rouL':h.
(hrinitle and M3.acline \ r,. -it --..:irk on ler. Tle-v lie.el i i--l i-ud h c.:-s ranl
tip tcr thi. purpl-,e. Aft--i tl, i I,.iii: of tI hl Citiuniicty Iuyltes, these
houses \\ere pulled do-,n a.iil the statl,:.u ret-uined to the tuuail staff oi a
priest and a layinain.
17





*rs A REPORT TO THE MEDTIP.A BOARD

No d.uc:tor or ,ur.ue his 1'een resident. .1 doctor canl be summoned from
Fort .Johii'tn. Ca e- of illn.i- : ae either nursed at Malihni or the nurse
is iuinm-oued from then.-c.
In addition to the v.'oik in Mponda's i itlf. thle priest-in c-haege has to
nfinister to the. Eu'.ropii-. ii Fort .Jo!hi-,tch,. and there areout-s.ilools it
Sai iaui. 'it the entra.ic,- t tthe river ianid at Chilika in thl.: hilly crjintry
behind Miniik.er Ba,. t. .entv-five mile av.iay.

HEALTH RECORD. 1896-1903.

In -oT'.? v.avi' th,.' :c-n.ihtio.in s lit.. l h ie .it M.por 's ihive b.'cn 'xcep:.tioinll v
fAvutriirhle. There .xa. a vr y short perio.. .:f pioneer uork and.1 a zoo1'
house WiAs built within, t.o i arc of tli.t:. tioi. bo\iig stairt'd Al.o.
o01.nri to it's i-ing situated at tle sourcee of suiipllv, tore-. ,.ti., ae -nasily
olI.tfaine]d Th-e gene-ral stiiila rdl iI ,oiiitort 'a high. There w.L no
regular medii:ca att.:ilri(anc-. but frnomi l-' on.,'. :,ril a iuirs,- w.as ge-nerally
stitiuoled at M:ilimnd. lii Zpit. of ths, the health r-coid ,hs been had.
Twvo at le:,-:t jind pon'-.bl thi,:e attaclks .-.f ili-:kwat,:-r fi'.,er a:re referahib
to this stati:, ; th-;e c.: theri- were :nlv hfie ,itt:icks in tl,- uwh-.: di,:occ:. Moreover. th.- health
.:- ew".' c.i.:l'r- iris e --i.n iiicaiiitly' poor, ,:-r. i ialiy i : 'upared with
the recent (l-'':'-l'",t health rei-.:. of Lik..mIa, Kota Kota -:.r Malindi.

SUMMARY OF STATISTICS. r896 1903.
T tutal io ,' -,..r ,.-. ,, .r(,. v L2.
T ...t.l , l.|m /.,. r ,, ,, 1,, ._./. I 1..1 l" ... .;' ,, .' r ,, .l .l, l Jl.r l:^ t.
T :.-t'il. .* ,;'R ,.4 t.. .rI i '. I N ,,*,, ..., .. 0 .: .-' .'.r.:,. N ,, l.,'r< .ld..,thh, 1.
Mosquito Obs%.ervation..-It'ar..ful o,.her'atiois i.el, i.: F-- IDr. Daniels
in t ,'., and lii, ;it Ft .lJ.iuit., a;n.1 1.pol.i's lnl alol g the u1-per iiver.
HI- found that aii..ip.he,-W ,'le e --i- plentilil 'tain that their great bi..'-din.g-
I.La,: w i'c.m:n thil: gras. alo:ii tihe -lede. of tlhe iiv':. D,:oultlese, ii the
i'e- t Su :.a' i, nl],i ti. Inal I..l...; g-li '. -. ,i:-t ji stte i anld p'oils and
v\ ariii p.. hut the river is the constantt hre.:liig-plice.
At Mllpon1' iiife.:ti.-n .-t te .ih-. iles rce.dlyv t.ik:- pl.iC.: oviii,, to the
I.roXsility of tin,: ativ., villU _.:.
*\lft:i e....iiiNiii, all the 'Go'.veriiiient ahd rttlher reior .d, Di. Daniels
c:oni.:liird thjt t lt Upper lin..r .lhtrict froi Mp':iid:,'s to Alatope v.i di--
tinctlv the unhealthirest ircp-n in B C. .\. The iveta.g- prio.:d ot residence
prior to irIfection with i.,.l is Il, -d e i: ,, itli h, il.- in -any other
districts it ,is ;i ] months to ai vc..r. .- i -gards the pre',.dience ol lu-ck-
v.atr fetr', I. lilo':llusioii i, w -1 similar. The nuiimbei -Al Icasie- per cent.
uo wLite populationii ar higher ler thl.iii clsc h:re in B. C .\.






A REPORT TO THE MEDICAL BOARD 59)

These facts are readily' explicable al hen it ii red'lized that the river (''.rnm
the main au:ophele- bt'i'.iiig .|l.i. an.I is tihus a '.;nit iht Hoit.. e of s luppl.'
all the 'vear i, lnd. During the dry -iea i. culi:es ea: to Lie ttoul.'le.rnie,
but .1 large nuiiber of a.nopheles is ..,dw pre...-it.
At Fort .lohnmston a rosiaiderable SIuini i. been e.:;peii.led.s t! '.larin:a the
river baidi: o: gris a:'nd p'iliitg up a .-t.p hfoish're Al.o the itive
population anl solijiers have f:.r the moit pa.t I.eni in".'.'vd t, tihe' .pposite
,ide of the river These rnea.: ur have hi attended v.ith p.rti- I siuc' es,
but neither of tlihei are pra..ti,-.ale i w thle o:fe of tIh single Euwpe.in
settlu-ient at Mponda'.
No other miii'.in for lealing wti tie irnal.ria pr:t.,'lemn Q.I tli. iper liver
was sugg:stel by Dr. Danielk.
Conclusions and Recommnendations.-1. It mlit I.-e .ilnjitt'ed that
Mp':.d.a's i ..i tua.ted it tlhe uiih..l thii.t region in B. '.A ai.l that litti-k
an be done to ana:ke thie S..ur...undin: ealthier. Mor.:eover. the health
record of the: .t.itio i- Ie.. .l.lly ba.I
Heice on .,* id,'c.d q, .Ji.,d it ., .n l. ~i,.'e /,. &d ~, Ce ], j1 r 4't I.'it/ th.
"*niil. r f rnd-c'r" .'/ /k-.: M11,-i. -a resifd '.
Fro'ni the pui-li meuih.eal t ii.'lp iit., ili- ide-il v.,ul., be to:, :..c py tih-
s ation wit a iinative priest or de.a..on iind to withdliia. the Eui.:.pe.nii
-iilenits.
If this is im[ prac.:tica le, it tii ht 1.,e I .... ll.i: to. plla .-, there on." a., C:iliu -
tized pielt, andt' to rove the Tiea.suie t- Maliilih.
Whether either ol th.-.a plamis be psihbl, ':- not ha- to be diltertii.tjetl
on 'athel than inedijAl groiiiiudI.
The iiilihboiuirig st it '-t Mahlu'l l.Is a rein Arl:,l.ly go...l lie.lth rec:id
and it is certainly .iiJvi;ile that deveJO,,miuent should take pla-.e there
rather than at Mpondla's.
2. The other e ieoninendation i: to lollo: th,- rules alre ,dv laid do'iwn
in the case of Kot., Kta fI.r aV\oidlanC. olf ih.j o-.jtott hit'S ; although, O:wiug
to the much greater preva:len .e of a nopheles .t MAl poiiA's a,- oianpa red with
Kot.i Kota. they are. le-s likely to he coiiipletely iu:.e''fui
The Mihssion houie ih- be.-,n ino.quato-proofed, and rthi imnproveum'-eit
ihiould he utilized to the greatest ,po:,able x.-teit. ITy tryingg in at night
as far as practicable.
General Observations.-liWter Sypr''ly -The nwatei of the iivet i. very
inuch inferior to that of thie lake .und it hIs abundant opportiiity for
sewage pollution. Dysente.ry is ,.oinimot atiOng the n.stives, espe.'illy in
the dry .o11h.
Hence ,pei'ul care alhdtAl be ec.rieid Ut bwod tq all drtnAktn ,.'ter Nu
trust should be put in filter.









Malindi.

Physical Characteris tics. -M alin d ii onl, .ighlit iiles from .Mpondah',biit
tihe pli,'.cal cci.liti.'ins .1r. tot Illy di ffereint It i dli-t.i:n aly ht ,A:e -taticn
.iinl poi-s sE none t thI -[i ,.:i di di- i.lv i.t ig-; of tilh Upper Shii.' region.
Th1i-e ;.tiC' i 1. bilit it ,1 sp.ot w',1. 12 the Vwo'od hill come d.lown very
i.lo-s to t ,.. rri.- Elr iS I .:rri.v : i Ior .:l le.el, l.,lt. oni y 'lI vi birdss in
Sidtl h. .in i 'lii the 't.itioii I Iuilt. .ill i.1.hir it the hills rise ste,:-ply.
Noit! nirid :-'-itlih the 'titioi. t'i-: hill, ..'- f-i.in th .- lik -, .le iving flat
I'lt of fertile lan'i! half tI. tw,o Il'il's .vld. H. ie a;i, liative \-illag-e, and
I',il -.Iz. I.'lilld, ,1l* 'j i- ; tk w.t ,1,,e m ili, t to the 1orli .and] M akil.in ba's
three m ile- t," ti,_ no tll !t ,. ., tl],:- ,. .1- 2-- 1 iz-.l .'ll.,g,: .aind the M vision,
a l-W -\ t -li.'g.jlig ha-iile-t.- exit. oun.l" -:n-I th- s uth .idl being only .1.0 v'arl
f r, Il th i'l .- tiiI1.
'ih la- .: .. i I fIlint ,,4 thi -t-ItiOl, I- ,lea l- a ]l, u.ily, but oi either
.l,l,, it i: '.'. ,i lell-.' h. T I ..,. i iv.-r\- ,io) n t gir i.-i O t it to tl"e
l.Ike, a. .it Ktj ,j.l i .:.!i,.ti,, lv th,.y aftoifil i, LII ieediiig groiiundI for nrios
q uit,:,-. I,., i ile -.h ,.,..; i; ... .[,t 1,v. ill,.s fl' _li- th ,ii-rI l outhl .r,'.Il w or: t.
F ,.,1 ,, .ai itl i- nir It .f vi: '... ie? i ,. l il"lit h r:' i dl that dle Inatives 1 ,1;
th is 11 ,.[ l f nr gi-,. ls. ,. .1 I .trii .
'Tr l, :l:.- ,.- -, at it- -., l ,iJ, ii sh. I:.-,, vitli i ly bottom'. It
s d-U.l ,ii: witih It h -.l. (' l:k- i.t1 t -[[Il poi i t.,il i a[e pl'-ntiful. OiL n accoiunit of
thl .l .,illoti l .. l. jl I...... -i e ,:il theI iv- liitjry l.,.i-'itiong of the rei l-
co ll ho .. t r ti i td till ,'.i r l i:;. pr,-iobably ini ici le -. pli e th.Du tl.e
l ike ..1.t,-r g, -:-"rally.
Tht : C-ll 11:1 thi. L..-lt of I ,,1 a ,,. i Mi,_ tii-.:., l.Let .wen t he lak and tlhe
hill-. I .. :l; sai .l ai tl-i i: r .i l 1 t i : l ,.ke -t1 of ra\',l patcILhes o lich
loam Tli.: -itr,..r I -,-I,. ..t-,lI b th.' n. ii ive fi.: gio'lii_. In ,l.a O corn, while
heins .-1 ul er.4 '.,'. r [.h tit',.l on trh ia ir, p. tI Ievs ig to thle po l ous
r a.1ttit oI thi' .I tlh I Ih : t ie 1,2 .-.'. Iiip 1i1I tl- nd hl.,) ir hoI d of the lMiso t ion,
levein in th c \' -t ,': li. Tli-ie' ar- .il-:, no, :l.rs o, .nv size. Aboul fiftv
yaid- to.. the r,,,tli ,iuh l .,., y-a.1. to ti -,...util, .U,- at,.cour,.es. D uiing
laill, thel.re aie rL.- hlj.2 to rli. lt- c(olilig iO'.' d w Of11 tli, hill.-, Lilt tdi y do
no [t fil llI i 1 itean i .i ii i. l' iioP :l O l' till' Aiter tih e w ain.l are
over, and for about sien i moith- of the lyear they aie quite dry.
T'lh.:- hills I.,u_ nl ar? v-:l[ r-ool.d. I hli-y ,ie r-ipidly to a height. of 1,200
to l,:, e..t abov- thel l.ke, to a well woode,.1. 'elil wat_-retA.l rolling plateau
3."i.,0 to 4.1.1.0,' feet aibo;. the- sea, %vhici str,.tchl.ei %way to Mangolihe
(Z.rahti's iall) on th- south, aniJd Mtonva ,and Ul.naIngu t[ thle north.
The v.ate.L.-he-l bL-t,'.n ti0,,l- like .,dI thi Intliaii O,.eii comes iemaikably
near the t'ornet at Mt.alic.l. I.-iepg hot m,.re than .e\,ni or i.right miles inland
in soule places. .






A REPORT TO THE MEDICAL BOAPD ii1

1 a hl hl i-. ,:- X J' t,:, 1 h,.'. t %tim -.. tit iit L. I. iti, ...at .,, ., up
the S ,!' 'ille, ; it i- lI,, y t.:., the. tiN.e -. .n ,',l th, h, .1 the hill- do
r.r,t .lcltl:r it 1i j, thi .- t -..i -1 i ii lii i r'i:t iii ie.tl :2 1 ir ,',i tie
gulli,:., b.lr,.vilihf. Il" M e.- i h 'l.r I .* l ,l., 1 to rinh I :: e i A o dll ,; ,
he t ie en t A l tl i :t.. l. i. i tli ii-nvl : li n tihi r ,l:i t t ,.t- li i li ',,,l,
Iaon iug 'v,:r tlhi- bco in W .. ,ip'l, ,,itt-':- ln t l,,j i cit '.: r i t: "Irt,.'tia.tti'l .
l.Jc l 0in-oi t ii. l- i' t S i ?lie iii lit li t |'i1 !i f'l II iil- l,: ie iI'.
hback: dut, whih i -" extnk.el, ,t l .-- 1, ,,it i.t..l4 l. ,t ,,,h ,ith.
Thie Si or,,ihen ri:. In th :.[ h.,i !',:,r .it-nl itnpl: .. nt nit it.
tllUl? [ te 1:'V l, 1-.11 i.)l ,: w ii 1 ,h ,,I. :, ., -I i -.i -iFlit.'rl 00,l i W \,,: l,
t hl l At h Itll_,,' plr -ti' h I '. : h'e ll,' *:. thi [i .. l p llv Q '... t ,le ,W,0.- :. li. I
hill- it i .: -.l. ,-l ,ly .:.li. th in .llion ,i.'s.
Thee aui' no rt c r.O- f t ineil.: ll. It I- -:tba'..l -in i ti th i F' :.rt.
.John iton ai. a Iii o .'l n,:\-i i ;.. The r .ii .,e'i_ :,t'i i.i i'e l -',! N *.. ;it-ii, i. i t'.
Sjbo lt a l iofnth .:', hl h .'ih t I.J l:i ii l,:,.i 1 le.:. I, 0:: ,I l.:-.:lly
d(i '. id i ui:ge (I ij 11.( i .'. biUt ti' ,Li.' i dr t [ii I l 1.ill i km.:i t f l iii.J ln,
L,,a ,-: ril .t,- 1.1'-i tib il. ;,oo,' inli a.I i" *:' l'r .il, ,_.
Thiee i- tlhe r ,ietI i.n .,c. .l A ,ij g lob". ie Il t 1A:- n -ii.hl, t- -. ,ii -h
iLnploving it.
Mission History.-- h. w: n t.,t!, n ...:pen',d b'- M1 F. \\'. Bi Lh ". ILI
1:'4 It 'la , l i,- n' l 1, .11 *l, i |Ir', l g l T 1 l i .1 0 I l 0 -5 H li q y ll ,1
v e'.- to the i 'ep i the i -' ; t I ,. ai d thl i .,.illll I tii he '*,: iii ../
.ll /,le. A r',\u h ,, l,' h,, ,;o (\,itli tlirr-c: ,,: 1. ',',i ll :,'.'. et,:.l ai,.
tJ ki,.hen .iandi to room, .e : lcLt. ti 1.'.t t: -Iley o-r tI -'/.
, ai' anti d a d :iu ge ,,.,-_' : i h li ,ilii n I :tf; j .li d -t1 it: *cil tie o.e l l:l.*'
In IS,.') .0 aid 1'.10 tie b-'A/. .InS, .i. i.:p .1.
From ..cinu irv to Mfiy. 1,:"il. the .u t itt: on '.a ll el.:' i-. i.lll- i t lhe ll 1u. t
hlie Chau ,cy 1i 71 1lF iaiiis. idet :ti .ru:ti jt -Ipoliiii's. hit in .Jiiune it
..W'10s eopenr.c- and th, ut.' tra / / in- I. .- 1 .':' 1" be httedl ip
Thlis wa r i:rpl'eted iii Maiar: 1'rU-i. vi ie the -ttion .%.1- ',. 1 i.l,,,1
until Mlay, 1-,ing then re-.,pn,:-,: ,, :, rplar M]-^,n:. stat :ion in c h.] a' o,1
lthe Fiev C. D.ivie.-.
Duru Iu 1 and, the t1 [ pait o, 1i'''. tlrIe ,.Mere tv.o r thlee ,:.. e,:1.1r5
,e-i.-ilnt. Foi the i,-t of the timl:, thel,:. g, neT p -:nc -lly k al .- ,[ t jndJ
two ladie- one of these i'eiiin 1 mnir-.;
Very little .-,'ii ,le M i-.ion o k o .l.,:, e. Iti::.- ,:,,, L.,t, ,o il., i-d
Iliaillv to IlllllllSttfll ig t, thir i ,;]]-teol 1:[ I hli ti.hli ..,:l:ll: ii l ci ,i pl,:i,\td.
Theife \v.-s L.IIv ,Ii1 v ti:le ,.],eltn h,:,,-.. I ti tw ,: I.. lh .- l,ihl ,0 Iv -,y wai ll
,.- ttle anld, dauib house- iVthll w:,:,. l l 1.,-: llid,. IIiate 1-l tvo ,:a Mt:, ..1:,
hoise (10111 lhm the li t..,lht i n.p,, '['hi iiien wo o,. iI,:, ,?_.l i ILth"r pi,:o,[
battle ,aml n d ,b b killings. bul: in Il' l n 1 ,-,-\l di gl,,: -hoiit- "m., in&d.:
out oft pitt of Lhe .mtorm.
S Altei the pl.%: % ,, ,as d a rI g.,l.l Mis.ion .it onn, th, stall w:i 011,









A REPORT TO THE MEDICAL BOAR1


priest, two ladies and .i la'Vini'ii. A niew Ihdies' hc,i:.e- of b i.: k 'vas built
in l.u13. and, in the saime v ..:r, an Eur[opean .i ,jk-roi:.ir in.,il. -.ut oI th-
iiost of thi.- store. A di.p,:l-sarv hal bh.'n built in l'-.J. f'h.- stahti,,on ':on
Sists of two prats 1) tljei Eiiiop,:mi pAut a..ld ("2i lili Mision -ill.,g,- rf
ahout ten huts, il-t ,-.i,.s tihe wateicui.ie: to: the inrithl. H:e i, i..-Christial,
'vorikwen v.wei housed dliiriing tL cnr tru.tion: r,f thi ?tureamrs-, .1ikd nov.
the te. ,hl i ;,. :oo:k, at:hinei iii d j ro[: I oIal se. v int live thi.r'- Til-
sch,.i.lbois deep in a dl.:.riitor'i.;' ,j- tth, Euro-ipe-an station. ~nid tie s.:,e- in
tilt- ie f tILe 1ii itl'.e- i -ill in l .j- .iLi
(int-s hi-i:o t::.it in the Vilaesi up to L: iv;:. iQfls ditalt, and in 'i01 aiI
out-station his. be':n o:per:.:.I at 'li I'hovi]. a village iiar Foit MA I',:,,:h." '.
hilt.'eiin n t'fr..in Mailin.li

HEALTH RECORD. 1898-1903

In r-e uil,,ii| iu the ],el lt. i [i .o ,.l ,1 M '111,..1 tl t ,t :.4 otii t.l tati,.ti ,
it luJLst be limeinL bc-i:l] th.,t a.ll i hit.:.r it-r dat.s ii- 1.': ai h cl-re it
413 .ithi t i. .. l :.. l. ,:, i at.l ,, ,. .'Id i ,:l I 0: 10,0 O:,f tl '. , l.e' P., oI: ,-i ,I ay.
that it must be :omipuuled. There .a. pat:.-t Vi i,.tiig 1 the- k.,'. :uI
pione'-r work at M.-inidi. Thi: s.tatio:iin as b-eLunit .'.Ith .1 I.i ,1:. u:.v.llinii'-
house, and Ltu..res, t1.'., v'.,**t i. ia.lIly avail bl-'. I:.". iu- the 1 :t..':i it:' to.
Mp1on.;da's; but during g iI '" a,] 1,'.lio thlre '.as not a-] ie,'. i'.';h l -.r niriLing
pr['.vi'i '.ii. .\ ili'ti' ulty 11 i,-,'i.t.iiiiL the truiln health r,.:,:t[.l l M latindi
(esp:-,ially doing the I'st three v. i at Ir in thit nI,,- l of dli-tii, -iii-i .'i
bet veen-i attacks Of malarial r,-allv i:ontriactel at M.iliIuh and those c.,u-
tractte-- duriniig '.i- .t t, Mi i inl.i'' .ind Fort .Joiusto:. Thub it 1i pi.Ai'ble
that an attack ...i blac;ater f[eve that uniteditd here i- nally attnibutal.le
toI su.nh .'iits and i:it tI Malinli.
Mi. Y. "as in'.:lilded.I hlioiin hithi li- '-iar. blit as aii uiuilialle
cuhbit-t f...r Africa. The H.-v. H J. IHani .1; i.:l :ed ,.,L afiLr his retiiii
fi'oin ti.t furiloii. but hi..- -iath a.I ahoiii-i't i::.:rt.aul,' not the re- iit o-
fu vi"r.
Making all alloaiinc, hoi,.-v'.r, the. hi-ailth le.:ord of th .- Satiiin c,,ome.s
out r:intark-:alily well. at. lteat *:-:ial to, if not. biett:-r th.ii. that of Likc-ioa
in iu'*:nt a,'... Thi is esp-.:ially. th ':ai- fr'[in l'i1"1-1'0"3 v. hen. tihe
rogulai re-ident; at Malind liad remarkabl g,- oud he:dih at d a sa rcely :,n'y
rualaria v-as contrai'ted .t the stati.:un A ilurilnbl.r of n l:-'.-', iiieiiib'rs ,-f the
Mission st:yv at Maliimdi, while v'aitin~ fi..r lthe st'amni-r, for peruio.d uplto
three weeks or a mtionth. ind .i:liing this time th'.y aioe .-ry likely to
devel.-.p their fiist al ta. Il:4 ,n:, aia, whiih has really been ac:quiei.1 on the
ii\-,r ; also. patiecits ire often :'dimitti:.l inti., hospital troiu Mponda's ,-,
fItrlu thef steer. so that the iiiiim er o .iase- ntursult ill ti ih.: Ih'sital nrunt
not bi take-n as indicative of th:- health record of the station.






A I:ErPOT TO THE MEDIC.XL BOARD


SUMMARY.
/ "'7.' r c . I. ., ..t. l. li,.., n ,:, ,r nl- .1..' Ll]ll., | ,. .l.
I d', ., ,, 1..- . ( ,I ./ ** l 1 .. ,I 1 .l l...], lh ', siu lit l, .
I// .. . ',. , ,, ,, (,/.,.! .. I ,, ,: : : .,i I',,tl ,l. iP ,..-l-. tl I" i,.. ,,r a !,-l
,,., 1',' I. t . h ,,i 1,, .[ | 1 I

\Mosqulto Observatir.is.-I-'h I ar.* 'i railli- .',- .v !rni.sqi.iitce. at
M .ilind:]. n It njr. t ia : th l.- .. t.ii the i- i.ii .. tatic,- i it lii,., T IP, i
nio. .-' .'. [ i;,i, [i : .i, m i p art a lie(i.. a i-l aniophl:- a s:ar e. pii ri .
ti-: ,li .,,I" i- .,-, t i i l.. .:- 1ie l '.,rai tt e: :ll. 11 a :-- il-: .
Ais e. rc I b ;i-. iri- r,,.i th( e lak Wi .e .,ll d .r t -_ e -a i u:i h I .n- it
!do -: it K .:.Jta l .:.t ud ... tl,.- I l ,,r -l.:- ,it 1p1luiiJ ,'l t....;lse t -he ie ..l
u:.. th .l tO h- :Wl :r, i nii. thi, l: e ... .'h t. l ..vit -I h lt-l ,ir t l. t the i avi ,
I.hy I-hI. r tile lI.. r. i7 -;- 'i-i.i
C',lli, + .1.]:.t..tl,: .n?[ee,- l,:,! tll. n11.16 ,-I rt Ili pi:.l ,rid palr, about tlhp
-t ati1o, ,.l ,t li,:,\ I,. .i.i.i tiy r,-,u .:., .1 : i thl:-,: ,'., r,' n',-tei* ati all .' ih:aited
. .' -'. 1J l ,- p ...r ,. .l- l t r.: 1 I !.:,: I ,' r,- the li k .- : -h le.
*, -',,u ,.I ., ,,. lI. ,... +1 .. ..I .. i ,. L h. ,: d,.,t I,,1i. I ., t mip. lete as i.
,? 1, 1 Il -, 0 V., hle I a, I 1 I i % t I ta 1-l *: ti. I I I N I ... I u t ,i
Pn? c .i.i- ai.. iI-Iiiw-, 'ivii%- n ll40ll61t1.l alif t hw t l t S Cli Watcl
In.s e:.n ua,_ th, I" li.-r, tW:. N o l il to ihld ; i. thI ,:iy t e non: thi:y ,ar-
p i l,. ait: ti ', a .l. i .e :. t.
I11 t he t i- e:t ,.n i iii ,il.-' that l n i. : .i .l l.iiih t i? i .1:t i:ihA e,
S'i1t i, ll i.I. tli. 11, k t it'll. i. nt .1 tlh I .r :'t ti -.-: lt in l v ,1i ab i[ .c id by
, ',l:a t.1t, ,,;.l ti ,r 0 1.i ml'li i y 11 1 n :,t t 11:5,,i.1.11 SC 1 p o:::.t ,],,-,
ui.i)m iolt .i al .h-: I *:.- [ ,i :i .ii 1 : it i n th l,:.: that, th igh
the," al.:- v,-ry i ]!i l ..t-+ !i ,, th. ,..|-.p in. it i h : la 'at. bhi ll
i t'r t! i m I ti .-.r-ul f 4 ir i 'ho. i ,t tl -i' tir 1t1e ii.'ei :tii a-
S-ctar,is th' ii. ii I .'t :. i o ll. : a .-t to: 1.i-, i l a' h, i', the .r e if a
i Tr.':,li \,li st.i *,'*t"~ lip 1 ',:',' p 'l .
T he? ,ian ll w ',.ii i lr ,' : nol w.ii ,:]t ,: ~' ot ,*-tit tl e ,:. it ,,ll ic: n1sLil
,r., ,,rning th. r ,ii-. IIlt, .-it tLj,: ,.' :d i :. th, wc.t -:-,i, they" o, .-blb .' ve ve
, .'i l-,,,cilii._.-, i:. ,Ii !,:,r .1 i ,,,rh ,, .. :,iM a .:l ,..r .A prtil till M ,T 1 .Iinril.
P l,-,t:, bly al.,- l ,l.... .'-+[,:,,]l,.l n *:'::l-t ,I lri ir_ m ,:o r ,,( the vl :, S w.: a t,:,-j j .ust
Ait :I,. in:.itr ; ,i . t! tl:. I, d in to tli 1 I l:,:. I('1 ,-' ,][ .. i t _-.iirjla t
,tieami. ai the t. ':ll. :, '. p 31.)
III !.ilOrr. th,' I. i .1 ,.l politete lr.,. n.li..'liI,--',i,, d Im ,i t be th: n0 hhII .boill.thood
I,, t ,.. I..- i ,,,t o: 1.i. rhi.: ,.:., .litio, r .r.: not lIv,:.in il.,I :anii, ., ,,nc.pheles
Oare ,.art. 'l h,- : lh irWth, i .\i,. ncedo: .i the faut tha.t. th..,,gL th, mtadation
. ', it hi l, y,,,,- 1. O : li ..,. hl.' liU K i.,,:t t h,:, st:r, .:', pr':p.? ty o.*.. right
, h, ,il t-: th,: 3. :,:!. .il ,j-l : ,t.i :. :'. : p h:l tHi It l 1I, l l. 0 ,[ .'. s .
rh,.l,, l.ik c,,.,, I r,,.I.-liv .1_ l c- dlo not lenW d th,.m ,:l .e. to ,ny [raical
t, .at ,I' t. 1.1v, T ;,, :.oii lj:v1 v, O l W.t,,ill p,.,-, ltL 1, .Ald.). ;- 91i10 .' lin til t '; O aM I








of Likoniin. and the I'olee. it i e:-t-rei :l 'lifficuilt to: .le,;i with the [liit
w her.e a ti'.ain fi oiut into. t I lake .aiil th ro.-" u[i .1 l.i it its. lunItli


Mission.
W ill tlhe.,- b. iP.,,iv ,. i,,,ortinity toi bIl, mic ni in ,te :..l ith 11 ,lari -
H er', t .he answerr' i. iI tlh.- ,,.tti v-. Thi.- M i .i.o, stitio t tor -, it, l:. ,-Iut].,it I-
ti v a'el L l '1 ?, o. *I i. t I I.t t i:,: v ,.:, l*'I reiu ,l tl ih itiv' 1 1 .'1 ii'1 :3. lt the,
',north sil'' t I.'re if th-. M i i-: In t il.I 1 tl:. .:,' Ineiiti. ,ii-d al..lut i,.ii yiari-
*i- t lilt. .Lit t'iere o re ino ..tlier ioiiie l ..r .1 .| I irt'or ot .1 iille ,Ir> the .south
ide' th,'re i- -,,.i1ll 1 k. l.:t .about 1,0 va ,r.1 N -: ',. In t in:O u:tl'r hu .rs
lihei er tI11h I Iu t.r .1 .1 itIlI I"
Conciisions and Re-cr-nmm-endatiorns.-Thlue l..':-iir:iitioi:.l i.:t lt: Ic..l to
the ru.i-wluiioii that th- .' l i ili li, re.:.:, l ti st.titioln a i it- c im .i.lr I-
tihe? ficldom from n,,lrii ai re ,'ie .. "l 1) T'' -minll iuiul,-t 1.:,' ifn.:,l.iel;l,
o. '.'iii ,. the nL ii l :,-,i i ':ity o:,f nit.ible : i-. e liu '- [i :. (2) tih, iniipi ii .-
.ibility of iu.'u:. a Ii.;pleles as :.i-t '... ,.anini l t.l, '.'.iLI; LI:. the tiin ll
i mriri ber mt I' ti.' hut- i in th- .i .:i. nty ,1 tl l I i-. -i'
.\s stat.-it d i ...-, it i, t ,-i -,l tl t att.-u-m t to:. still f' thO .- r?>liice the
i1111111 ,,r f ino[Il, e] .i,] l i.i11 e A.tt,',ti,ial Irn it I. e *li' :':t tl ti, .- ,-'.:
[iOilit, '.*iz ii, ,''' lrt! ,i ,l'. p/i,'f' *'. '/ *. i .' 1i'. i. -?|. l [".i tl lL' thil
Eiurop,,an. tatio, '\" a.1 ,.liit.nn..t- [[,:,n h trv,- lnIut.. .9.:.'_, .ie.,trio ,i\ E, ur."-
pej' 9 hIlas l.i-en l o itc.Il ,I ir. l. onl thl\- W t t't.1st of A.tli., if 11 \.I.-
*;o mi ll,]'t,, til' .llu lilh l.1 ,o t ,l h.'.''- |r,;,ti, :. i .' : .. ,ii :: ,ft o1. 1 1,ol il
IIit'i.f t'.l aii,! i.iii,.I i. .i i j 1 iii n .1 lull l 'ilt *: s St i tl*i- aeg r?' ij i .ll i. iiii t
be ,'o'ipl'-t' h.:h ool..:i',- hli ..it.l p.iti-iit'. i.iI i'urn,- ret uintere ill I'.', i.V
Ih-i'. to il>le'ep in th-. ni-.- i:1- l.,ii'rh,.i.l O,, i the t lM i_-i, I-tlt ,ron.. but ;a i-rt.aiu
.1.-gr-? of seg rer., 't it.: :Ai ten bof e ,,it il.. 1 a s pointe-.]i ollit, .lo:i
at,-tua.Illy exist. It M1.11Ilh. With a vieW to inrtitu iiig or iu..e.ii.ing
tlIu S e ei i.ti,..ii tI ollo. rini'.e i i.iiiru ii,'n...itiou. s ol'.l .... .-'':'. d .-
1. No I".'. r.iti'.e li'ti irhould b., 1 ilt witl in at le-.i t .1 t, P ii t,'I .,i .1 mile
S oi ltii or outli o the l t.-it l bouii'larie-, .jhi] ii p-'o ilI'" thiel- ".ri-tillj 'iris
-houll tbe hougl,t up aii] r-.,-i'iedl TLii' ca.n l', pibal.i. I.-' .silv attainied
by .a fietully irr.iL.~r i.'tmnrl1i tanld n iti, .':i.in atiiion to tlI hliii 'i. i-n then
ftlhe'r hl.ind. if it is not L'pt ill e '. t,1i'. i- -i r,"I il'liOer t!it tihe M i-ionJ
st.t iu ll 1111, i l t O,: Ill I.,.: -i.-i l i- loi.i ll el h I r. .l.,1t i'- Iltlli.
2'. The numiiil.r of fLuihli. iii ing ini tile MiSic.u .il.IC- hIiOiJli be [el:u,.i.d
to t he ill 'uiiimilll lem aimH...l I.', tih- n.- ].. of M i',-loi '.',,i k. r"h,.- hlio ,'.,
i sho.ul lie fe'w.v but -'o.l. .\A l oi l.'u.e. ion la-s il.l:ly to liarb.ur in.:.s-
q'j l.tu,-_" should I.r ide ti,-ited. B] B 'i., r ild liing huis',-in_3 s r.:ir iiireI at .1a lichi tl
gr'-iate'r distianie [fron thIe station, th... -ilLge unghIt I..e nov-.l lOi.' y'ari..
fuIrtlIhi aw-v.y ',lik-h would I'e all adi ntiitige.
J. .hioull] tih oppoitunit"y ,I, i bu.iing or ii'utirn'. the lani hoiditi or south






A HEPl'tT T TI) THE .MI3El'AL B.1AR{D


oce lur, it woi. 1i.'l vI y jl'' is l..i tI .II k :I l -u.riit' 'A[ i, luJ'il'? oun eitrhl -r
.ii- cl- ~ of 'n. it.: Ihuts "o.'uiill 1i: mii.re tha'i anvyrinil elke to en.uei'? the
I? tI'? ihi ,:,t \ l,.I t i[,:, i- -(; iI .. r, i' l',ij Iih t at ti, i.
lit th.- I ise oF th- Europe.ln -:l.-i..'in, the fiurthI'-[ prei.aiiti)i] of r-el-
ilerln g it noisiii :it:-pri..,t it I.ieiri tal,:-.i. It i liar11,v fea;il.,le to ad.lopt
g ul'.:[ij th ~ ,rtI' u ,I iuit'.:|Liti,,-[.i,,, if n .',3 li.'i l ie ili kjw at K ota and
M ih.JI 's It it. I l i li -*: p .i j 1 r.]. 14 1 1 '.0I... I 1. O th 1? l2llt .l Illlo 'I r 1 ,1 **
II.I,.,l ., i ,.i l.'r- it w 1u-i ll II:. dlith ilt t1: 1 et r, :-'I.I(,-nt- t., com ply vI.itI
I Ule o t1:1 1i1ttiI V.* I i II V . .: d .i p I m r w i- Ic..it i iIwhiclI tli<- iiI- ins oj
p ot,.t,:t .,Ill provlI el r w ,:,u ,J.l .,, o11 id f n ,;il.
Gnr-,ral Ob -ervationrs.- 1. Frojii th,' i,itit point oil 'vi-,w. to pre.'eit a
l inll. ,,:,? in i ti ?e lel .'lh i l h i :,:,.l. ., ,.l al- to re'.l ti :cf tnhe I,,! tI.,,t ,O f th] lake
i'.a t, .r, :.11 the re,-.1.- .,i l ica'. -, t rei.. loin'.iir :n tie l ile shori,'- the
Il Au, t C,.li Ite i 1, Ol.c l luiool of th, 31 -l ln p 1.0p.t\ -'01l1i 1>: lke pt c tit.
2. In i, .,,. of th, r r.- i tl:1 In .ile .l. 1:,. l..I:Iit t he in lill'eteiit !a -Ir., t.'r
ot the laki .: waterr .it tli -u.ntlhi eil th.i- l.k -psp:e ial c:a e slin.iihl be tad. en
th ,t 1 ,it ,,,ll l l- ,, w a\t-.r t- l,.,il,-.l.
3. A H uith ali arthrop.,pl.,hia i Ii I\ I :,iTa ftirl' fttntIl, I t Mt..i n.1]1 illi-
ing t i : 'tl i.-i l f..I tl.. '.-i F., iv'% i.l.. t v -. p X itliuilt i crop of boils
,ilie (I:- tlhe-e li r 1 ,.- I v0 :. [. T !h i- tin, ,:,iv -t.itlni ,f tl1 e M is in .it
".,i0 h thri fly 1, ,:, lnl -, It -:ist- at 'I h -I lli .lli. id rl ,u.ay.',ots Ill 1o.,
l i, 1, :, th,.- Ilipr l h.1 ,.l 1w ,-,j -- h , I,.. . -n it K I t., K., t-1. l, l ln,'.
aid.I th, lt'.'ll''e t!iou igh .,' ,:' Ii Ei.uropIiJ,. li. C jiot i:..:( ..l jt the. above-
MU il'i) ilt e 1 t i tiO:,h l r irl i g thl I I i -I It : '. V\ TIk i Iit I[; s belw i,',0.l to lay it-
Ig-is -I thi,. ,:l>1.tl 0 w 1 r 1i 'ni lp t.' ,iy. T I, .r:-lils :,r. u :i illy bout tlihe
\iii.t ,01 l.Ltro,-, l ., l.,,Ct I,- hl ,:,-:, ., rvh-. .,i, tI, ".o ,'.'ly. A v- .ikl
pOulltic]:e e.. '- t,_ -: I l-,, l ,.t :tl,.,'-t t- ]il?,.- ,l of eXtr.i(.tl]IE th" m]aggot,
ml heil it ii lhi Iut i f ,-, .. ni/..,l -n it i, .julit, -Iinlll, :.ii, ,i t]'- c- nt e
ot sivall Ii[[]t, l'l [ til-, il a i, h l; !l d i. b ::- t a : te,.l w ith ,a i,",:lle.


















Unangu.

Physical Charactfristice.-I-Uniiji 'i .- itv,' ilh f miih l tihe l.i:.-. alio-t
dlit- east of MIluliul; Liet- in'a. i: 3Si. The tIv.n i- at thie lot ot a IouIntjii
which rie5 2l.0i,, f,.e t or rntre i out .*' at e: teii' *- i |.lin I.' .00 t..:,t aibo'.-i
th, lake 1.3.2, f.-r.t ab>',ve thi- ,,al. It is in the w r.ors:hIl thli Lujeida
liver, whLi':h join; the R-VuIII a..l rut .s int: t l--- I dijai' (Ic.:,n. TIh",,
nati'.-es, v.11,I, ire Ya -,-. at- raturall f,-'r,:st-'l ..:llers. living In1 cl rings it
the v:o..d d oiiitry aiii.l 'niltivatini : l .,i.: ';, i Tl.' r v 1-i f..I lA t\v to
Unai gu t ... 0.' 1 1 fin, the M Iagini \,1i. .ild built thi-ir .i[Ja .' *.n the
siid s ,A th- liiAUllint. '.lt lr tl, haidl tli.:ir ar.jeli. it h 1 : tI ,ll. As a
rei-ult. thi. plaii, d.,ubtles1 o ,.e ,uv.-n-', itl tti O. lih .-. b'eci: u >':conv,-rt.-,l
ilit.' a bar--, tri:les': i:.a':)s-. ', V.s:t.:-iaiii fl) tL i e inile a ill r..irnT tih- m uiiii Ii-
tahi BeYoii.l thi .-ire n ....... l, l iid I lJmili At o.i time Ili, popi ula-
tin l- ing I aI ttUnlan u. If ; -i' ...iN." J.
Thel MiiTsior, it.tition is just at the fo:t .:i the niUUiltaiU. In 1'9'3, %liU
thie 4ite ats b,.'uigit. .il theli hliuser. d.''-ie on the side of the uiunt 'in above
it. Oif late year. ho:vk r, a.- the fear .if tht- Maap g-, .ra has iii.lshie, .
very fev. hlut.- Il.in.iI oil the iIniountatin Mori- thai.i half the poipl.- h.,
moved, nut into le.rings i- the- fOre' t. 10-2'i r il'.s. ,li-itiit. Ti'- re.t are
livmiig in hutas on the sfni: level a. tihe- MI ii.n, .at the foot of th-- mount in.
Probably, ..f...ire v-'.iyl ig, nitearly all the people., will miii iiw.'. :.'ay, their
rn-asmu being the v. ish t.: lt-.,e hI-r i,.:,d I : i.-. at Iinil .ii ,. t,, get virgin soil
for their gardern. .\lread,Iv ., good deal of the plain it left unII:ulti)vated.
The soil is naturally [,-rtilh, hut it has .. become lathe.r e:lJiauste-d.
The water supply I.oinSit- ,A Fti:-amins. cominung down frumi th. m.Iulitain.
Thes,. havl e iananars mid iti' li rank aiss gTOrwini. alig tlit Conre.
",l'-ue tile rativi., M.Iak tIhii iatriines, so that the natur.liy pure afterr
beomrs polluted.
The roiuitAjin itself is of granite : the ,.oil of the plain is clayey. with
lpati.hes of gravel, on ,ne -t which thI. M1isiori Stati.:iu is built. Al,,ng tlh:
courses ol the strea.inr is a ginid deal of swainpy grouniid. anid iii Soii.- places
thiee aie regular peaty Swan Fs.


P.\ ; T V [.






A t iL'U T '1I.) Th H i ,l.'.I AL BI)IAiL)


I Ma., aitr[ the Wct seasull Ii ,V-e. t[Le .ou10111d is a1 god dea'l Witei-
logged. siid., lii any ldepre--i,..ns, thi:' re ti nrsa iii patches. Eveni in Sip-
t':liIb.r, the subaoil water i. within .ix O i;;ht feet of the' surlfc..
Tie chlin:it.: i niuch i ,..hl tai n'l th: I-Ik lh:-.el It, May and June
tl -:ui, rise, behind tle ioiitintan. si that the station is in shiide till
. o'clo' k ih the i orniiing. their: is a he.'.y dew. aind it i'; irii.k.asintly
cold. Frei'o Ma\' t,, Jil iih tlir ire 'ld si.riioutli w.iiid. Later in the yeal,
Sudden lI st. .1 v. liid ,lie si.all whirl-.il., ruiii down from tih,: Iliulinltain.
Caiiing "' diut hvl-" Frtmun Septibe-r to ,ictijber the whl.]e of the
plain is btar',. arid t,.-: intiv.: hiumi th. L.'i.i,. a.iil illet .,talk. and rubbish
nil i-,ver it. Thli I .it. sI, rchled. treles]e -xp iiiSe is Inost uiipleasaint, and
fi\,ve uiles..-3 of it iLIlIt I' ':. 0o'd .-(,.ier th.- pl,:aiar t forest (outiNtr is reached.
Thli,. ,it,- ir' ,,.Ah v wiall.ks .lnivwhre il the iiei:htoiirlhoud ,'f the- Mission
Station.
The- food :.f the nativs- ..o iti .:.i luill':t .ud Iidi in .I.rii, t-og'etlir with
-.iii ,ll] .'l,'e S tittii. th]'y :ill gaint v. hi..h i- p niritiful in the forest.
A -'m2ud Euruope-atj pr:-n *.,ii.] be i.Iuel, i-.ir the MiInii. as the ground
i- ifrtile: th-r.- is plciity .t wat' r and the :lnhat is .Cool. The great,-st
disad .ntiiage .:i th.- pl-ie s lt tli-l. plain l.l lruidilig it, which mnlnis
thit all filum. .l tmll:l.t, etc. ftr Lnilding hs t. be I.Irou'ght at least five
in].e-- Stonet, suitabl.- r building. can b:. obtained i ir at hand.
Mission History.-Thie .tatioii kzi, pe-ie-d by Dr. Hiie ii Septeinber,
l1.t'. H,- aJll h In :.,Ill'il''lm'S duriting thi-s |"r:.l hved in T-attle and daub
houses. Altri Li Hin.- wi ii ilivahded. P.idie Yoliaiii.a .-a left in charge.
ai h bh-. rhii u --l..o s .'r iliii-', aniid tlhe ;tatinul ia lI ut b1e again p.ei -
iianietntlv c. c.iped bv Euro:p.: i Ii. I15, Mi H. \\ ill'ains weiit up to
bull a iltir.l ,Iai id stone dueliiig bh..ue,.-. He built the litter. but after
tlire.- ni tlhs h: di.-d, aiin ti- chliiuri h i%.ae left nOtiiii:lihed Ii, l''i.1 Mr F.
(;eOirge 1nmd M.. J. P. .Claik:, i,-r- at Ulira.igu froi May to Nov.inmber. anii
built a fine ttonie church Thly il:o [iput Ll.. \v:iii,-. in the dwelling-
ii, use.
Tih. pr.'osent build,ir-' lsii-t cf a stfle :liiii-li and dwellig-Iouse ;
ill the. s.hol builhdi i; I-.1 Pe'ldre Yl.llalli's li.m.li-se tr-e Wi.t|le lland dJaub.
Il ll".. at ,-Ill 'vwas doj-u. iiitrtnde'd for stiipplynsg drial:ing later. It was
.ly ,1 surltace ell I ') (t..t d.rp. a.id io adequate piote.ttin aga lit sur-
facet p.illutih'. wira miiad'.. No. it i ilx its, nsi l iashliinig icluth.,s. etc.
It J,..- id .i-r rbe -.,,r J'td rilk l t ie ~ s.<.
A; m>nr itii.l., ,.bo, .i. th.' iitil:iitg [ atI of til: streal1s is hable tI-j poullu-
tio'i. A\ ti.-. Pie-l.l- g- i\\ iy. liowever, the ,oure,.? of ptolltin0 will 'Ie
1eiio'ted, ftil inll a [i \e..dl thle Iisay b unil.-: wvdt'lt i lo liig dowii frolt
thbe nicoiltiii si-':.





A REPORT TO THE MEDICAL'. BOARD 69

HEALTH RECORD. 1893-1900.
This haI ltnt li en g-oodl Doubtles th.1 -lim ito is iii'i[-' litac.in. than .t
the la.e, biii all i, siildets liav.- suffered a good ,eal flI ,:Inm ii ,ri -iiil ti~o
deaths are referable- to th: station vi' that of AMrl.. A.. LA., wh: w.. illv tdd.d
mid died on hi; way loi who died cot rt[i-,:. with s.ii.-w hat oliircure s'initont (blin:l.\eater t.-vi r ').
SUMMARY OF STATISTICS. 1893-1900.
Total ut rl :, 7. 1it.Ii.t/J, 1. I t .lu,- t-.. ili..it. i ,mai . 'J ito r. tlrn.)
tc,- tl "2. -I. :.'; ,'.irttr -' ia I o.r -2 n1. 1'...tl f .t.1 .
Mosquito Observations.-No ic:ompl.,te obset\atlion- ,av' beei maile.
Duriii g the e. t iea-o'i,, aiil. for three l.:.ithli a; .tei.rd ....iioilih, -' bre'.l-
inig-grouilids are .;ii-n,.,lawt itn the -tre.Lia ,hind -% >it'ly grouind int.'r Duriiii
thi? last two tniiitlhi0 of tll lictird I Juno at,] July) thin !viin l ',r I-, L:.-pt in
check by the cold wi.athei. v'hi h ritatil., theiit devldopluet. Ti, tl,: I >tler
p[att of their dry sasiion f-w breedling-lp.l::et C'.i-.t. aiiid mrlio.;-I.ittole- .of ill
kiAis are s;.'.it'. iOiig to tin.- ploxiity of native liot, to the Mis.-iol
lkation there i-. pleiity oif op.ii'rtuniti fir a uoriil .:- to bl:-cO-.-me infi, te'l.
T hi i the 1 ifavotA l i l. :. IollJitio: s ,, : 5 11 11 .l. ir,, t..iIl hl .-, I'.re, lih c-
Croun.ls ie.ia the jli_"io, aiil (121 t1,e pt.-'sI, : f ] i.ite l t1 cljo e it' ,.
the ,i.ly f-,\..ru il'c c...ilit,-I i I.eing the (c :.1 liin tr i. ht.:.-:'h '. the
dej velopinelti of Iosi.;i. jititi i .'a drl ;.. [t:orle:d ,.. th-eir nu1 i.i h .t.
Reoromnendatioiis.-LUtii..! hi t has not lthy. Thl .- 1,-:11i'
ac'coitited for Ib,, thie iiifavoir.ii l.le site of thi Mi-,;ioln At.itioin regar- ls
annuiphcles Further u tuitil dii.lv.titages re the l.ba after, th: dilthculty
of gettitig I u teh.ooIl, the :oll .laiainl. iiio iniiii i i y a I i .1 ilnne, the t roelees
plain vi .h is scorchediil up th.i: -tuiin, r, mai d e .ih-e ei', of .tmy s.iadv
walks ii, the neipl.hourhood of Ihe Mision. For thse r.-asotis it i.s ii-ver
likely to ibe the heilth treoit that was at on1':- ti,, hoped,] ; also the dis-
tanc,-e forn the like (thl'e l.iy-' j..,irne-vl m.akis this out ot the *.jietion
On medical groitud.s it c, uiiot Le ':o.-ideiin. advisable, thliit thle station
should again he ,occupi,:l i-- Euroipeais, l.ti 'liouldl Mis.ii.,i coL..siil,'rticnis
require its occupation. it (o:ld lie made hiialthier lhy .ujlihnri. mlosi1uit,-
proof houses, and veil probably I.,y the ile of ot lihr prei'i'tiotls.
Also, a.- tle people mouive av iy, thel' soutrilc. o pollution of the water
andl of infection of nios-lqittoe- a ill Il.: der reaued
General Observation.-.-1igier h, atV- l:en very lad at Uniatlgn. W\\'h.:-
they fitt appeared .bout 1.3.'3 rltai.iy people loi't to-es fiom the sores they
caused. They have iemait :-e.l on henr. '.4jlc they h.av.' diLsaippi.-eat.l else-
u whcer, as was notl in the case of Kota, andI thi'y still :n.-e itu-h troutile.
The reason is probably thei stiam: as that gi\eii for Kota, viz. th, fact that.
the people bathe anid wash so little The irason at Un.atug l.ilii that
I th ir i i o lake' to I'.ithe 1in.










PART VIIl


General Review of the Health of

Missionaries, i88 5-1 903.


Taking tihe .tati.stl.- .:t .111 tih- o: L-. s .it Ny.ua ,;i r. -'i it tlei,' a
It vl-hol?. thle c i:ll, : I -li ,, 1 i 1'..I t: v _, Aii ali to. tlih .'., ali .:a lv ,:-iillti'-
rated in thO ,:.-- .-t ti.- m o-t ] pI.l tai t t itiI n, 1 1,I, Li L.. m",. i ..ait, it ayu -
thin '. Il I.u iP t..v. [i. at in |... i..t 'l illrI r- ivt-t I el ii i ',iV !- in l l.k d.
D uiing tlie e.irlir pi-i.,.,l A.1 M is-..i ', rl:. I., ip till i'", thl-K w ', ',,*-
taii h. ltll, i i t p it,.. : I hi :. ,. : '..' ,il: i.l .I' .a-t i ,'- .- ..- I- lit thi- ll' st
.' a,. ti-i itt l 1o i i iii bl ,' i. li-,.t th i t th,.. i11111 ,,?r -A., i -i .- mi ll
(l h.'.ut t 'rl\ l-- l ai:nd lian ,'iita i :':. I,.,I ,:,: ,,:: al lniat lilA- i :i'l .: ,'dt 'il?': i'l
the Z .- iill .lii,..,-,
T he vi. i f-r iiiaa..i ., I :' I ". : tat r ui [ at .til lil'a t.i-,1 pi',ai.,.d. [ 'l. 'i-n'
t h.: ,: .*,' i'L ll',' l! r t| : ll,, :.; .:o ur ,: v -l\.- Jd .:,] t |i .. ni ,ll l l l l[ 1' I! V ibd, ..d lil,.I
th .l,* ? -i' .*:l .. .t' r': ti :- [ 1.l. l. ,,i .: i l v ia n a,. l ,' i ,: tn li, ? lili fi'_-.
re it-'r :itt ., .,.' tl i lhu -.' c Al the total it ii ,,rbr 'a ll ii ti,:' l .ah' l i. h- ,,-e lea li
yta -ir f!i.l 1 I-.-' to. 1').. T1lg ,ii I -: I ,f Ji..-. te i 1. i-1, I le ti.. t.i, t .'peu-
ing a of : M a.ly -inh ialth irt ily ril, :lt I.-ithe'[ t... tih,:- l 1't thi.it tl:.i-! .% i
li u'ie ili'li- ..i..i Il th e i llli il.-, i f .. i ,Jl S, :l til i l A. ii- ,., 1 t i Al ii-'l I li 11ll
I |Ii lC unI.,Lrl a n .- t i I l .., A : k .-!.i l t lhi,.i,? Anval e.,l .,- r.? .O IA iit it i-
li 1n h it Illn i t,-. I. a il .'.li.l Iit '.Vel hlt 1 l: d,. i : ll,.' ,: t- C.-lll:. Ill y'.' t Ic -: -- '? 1 tll" pt111 r l, l i.r l ,i '' l:l1t lill.,i il. -s .itf h|,||ii T l "
M el ili,..al B-',,. ..,i t.,:li.: i itit ted ii l ''- Jl, d i at .ii,.,: .,' '- i a .w t'. nt, ,:,1
.'.iltIdl e.', 1i1i1o1WtiiA.., ..It all ilt,',.hiit d.: iin tida, i .,dvi.ced that -biltctr
dl\ellinig-hl ,o-_e tha.,i 1e Q .uilt -i,",i ,ci. ll- 1h,.,l tiu e ,-, .,,,lii,:'n in
E ngji lainlt t t ne,. g ,,i s t h, ..|i .I.a t .1 att,. l, li Iv. li\.: i l, ., i-.l a .e-ti,
lil', and co:ird' 1 m l ni ?d tool ihai -lin,: ai, l lI. -.A l[.i, a tioii'.
Thl se i, A nly l'[.idu, l .iii- ., o.i:dui ii, th- Alis.ioi. a*nd thir e, :,.t
was lprbal.ily not re.illy cot t ill i90 ..
FlMiu l 90,s ,n a,_l id i b iy h. i,- ..ii.1 thai tlihe old a,:etic idea.il hid l.-,.on
r,?fint,:.!y hab ndo ,:ed. a.l lth at a l, .l ti-nl.t was -,?ing nmad- t.i, co-
c.perate v'ith the? 3 .1:,i.:al LI,.tird ai n to: i.:coiiize the: iie'?d ol rec't' iui.ii o s
aihl ol,:.y th.? la'ws rf l.yg, In,.. M,,ter it, l W rth. tvwo ."'i -.r" ill.- "
of th,: Medi,:Il r3oaul:lf irlt t le in. to i ,l..-iation. jd bI.tt.-r llldiC-al anLd







rUtil-ii t,'a ntt inOIL W.. p o', .he,.l. with thIe fr -.iIt th I It tll )t t: V'-l e wil l-
ili,' to S11ii e t eiv! e r*-'.'er- in t,:.-tl ,I r, f -.? L'cti rt i : t .h m inI-] try-rni ti.,
" .Itak, th. ,ir, oil." ".r.,.L-nlly. to,., the o.ld, Ola that it %%,,? neCi?-s.try
t, h -, e l ,,i ',li.u i ,.i- al .1 ,lon,:,:. i ,., th l'. :t thl.-t it i. .i pi ,-
enit:ilble ,.li.ce l.,gI in to, b, l ,':,., nizedtl The inpriv,-tinent in ,en.Ilth
d.-atiIng from, t i- y,:-. i? ver\v -t riling. tri, .s D-.'O' 1 ui i li,0, tlI iLl p|ro 'e-
i .:-n %t w,- not .-:. n t.u lr d l,.v tlh. [i.:.]- ,l,:,,.e e it u.-S i, the c. i-A .,f
Lik-rin, : t11.- a-, hIe t.:. tle l,. t that tS o.: i not thA . in: ..f Al Mcek-
S .it. r f.ovt ( ,.:.:r.-, il. to: the in ,-.it im i.: iltliy -titioij, vi !. ATI,,l.i.l ' i
o. t.lI e,.]. E11 e d \ .:.l ,'',L ]'",,3. ill .-, liti:ll to the a1l-.ov.e, tiheze \w.
,-al. th, ,l ,r'. l ,l I ,->:0gl ti .:. tlhe .- i.:..-l it.:- thlon \. ,:,- A .I. ,-a rlai. an,, the
ai ,?,rt to .:llrv tc.i :l thie Ind! i lhol .l |,r t(ai,' tioL ;u,] e. t,:.l b.-y it.
The. health r,:corld ini .- th.:-.+ lt ree 1,.: i ; ,iute pt leti:.ni en.I l ; n or ie
w .- s i:i. ,hl .,-l.. 1 1 ol: .: ".. .tt : l :,: hl ;ck: a.it-r [:..':r O, ::, irr .L: t, and tli-i,
II. -pit.: '.,[ tle '.-.:r th.t tlm -r ft ih mire ik i ri .:ea llin imi, ll.els i .l
a'\ i .1:,] th I vty- ,:. I i- ve -v i ,rptiIng to ittribtlit tlh!s ;pe,:i;l iiil-
,pro,.e:'|i l I,:t ,(. th ,[p pli>:.,t,, r. .,t tl.,: m]|. ,h:.. !,-I.. I l-I th ..,., -, l.,It it i to:
I.,4 l'e-,e l l h. ; l H t A, t,,:,.:.tl ,., r, ,, I .t w are l.' 1 h i .l .s. ..:;.:-pti. l ly v
o ,_,',, ,i n hot lI;1. l.:, ,, I Ii ',,lb.:i ,I lh, ,il, I i : Ul al.T t . -tlim
r,,t.. it i P ,-|.:.l..i.l l .l t.. th.:. (, t lth .A I! n.- c-.i ; O, e o f \ :.i YV lo''
ru rnrl'.l]. i, 2'. ii:l ., :, 1.: i ,': i'.: l ,li n, itii lon o I ,-, n, :,ihel: l r-.:,: ] e.- io u, ;
in pi;rt. t.., it i- pr:l.Ill- ,.ibt, it, ., ,, ur. E it. h,., l nri .ll llol :,,c. r e it
I. '. :' r .r,:. ., ., l ".i .I, .Y l1: LI t! i t lh,1 t tn it :,Io f - :. ., l ,t i"' inII t
h .1- Il,, l "',' n ,I r .I e .
ANote n Healthy nd Unhrialthy Parts of theuY ar.--[,i.:.:,. ,M plr. .-?,-l
-*t l 1:. -ly t., n .I I I. t Ii :- -,It:., 1 I jI i rto, i A- the y,.-,r ,..,. lmih the
iri],;1 thli,-t.
T he ition thlk l'J-uI .I lll i' i i ; .[ -.l :. f t...[ th -l t hIii,- '. r1 a Ot
L i"ko0 a is.-v. p l' o: I.,f 1:tlr :[ i tl ir. ti.l: I:,,t. t' t hn : ,1 | : ft ,. o, r th. a
k[,fr ,i, t ,i ,i I t i.t i l t,, 6 t I ,, .,II ., ti.. l i l i, 11 .,l, ..0..o in l, l wiu .
I i tI e :., L .:i n, i. t I. :% ..-- th ,I .ithe : ... u.l ,l ,rter ,.v.t ,'.ls .tiI tly
the in:, t ,,n .-,l. i, ia ,.% ,le theI l.I t e 1 i..i t,: r v.,,,* t i : m- o t htI'-,. lt.Ih .
V,, rl-i r.I_ I.ut ,1 :iih i iI r-,: t iiI i i t, ,n1 1 i : .rl ,e: :." hli. l. -w ;IteI fe x ?r
t ,. ,:. I- :,:-o i to: be. n, .-..., t ,.-. ti a, tt ..]:_ .,t: .*p,:.ciim i li.wlhi: t,., c. < ,n .
'T h io ultj;1 [ A itto .l: th:it li.i,.' i-. ,: rte.l iln ri ,- tII: ir..t thl :e., ,itarter.
au: pr ctici- llv -i e i .-:l. T h.I l it fill O t r. h)]., e111t. 1 .- : ,nlv hlil he in ti -
her of ,tt ck.,: i-: al',t l..l- t:o i In tl.e ,:-,, of dethth i h, r,:-i t iW jp t the
2.ini .'. ''h i:- Ir'.t th ,:,.c i:.rter .:.f ill,- .. hli.- ', :l ii :'dI .1i jual 1n1 rib'1 0
O f .- il:t]i htilf t .l h il tII,- l'l, w,]l .:r 1. :. to th il..l iL t latt t,'r[.
H ::nco. it w..iiOl '"ip .. ta a t. ',jile r, Io ,,nod' of lbe v'r u in. : bi- dl,-ad: e'l
a 1 : 6 '1e 1. Y 1ii C iIe il h... the L..4t ,uii.11ter is undI:Io IltA.:ll\ thI.-It v. hiii is rests.
f'r rn seri ou or f.t.l ill ,:.:';.. ;siltioi,!gh i t i tiCe hii...tte:-t I.iil, lphysi:.: lly, the
lI. ,a t Ilie ,t ,, :.-n t it', tiiW .' .i the yeair.









PAPR VIII.


Critique of the Applicability to

the Mission Stations of the

various Methods of Protection

against Mosquitoes.

Iu tie frg:.iirnz pag, 5 r:. liiiiirnj.jdati:ont: hai e i. e: ln iiad.le ii tihe c:ase?
W*ach sti. .n with a vi:v. to .: hiringg tihe: he.t prot':t."tion th it r: s: f.a il
agai ini t the iht's :t il.tnrt.i a. ophei i. It i i. ii,:, ,ly I,.... t,.. siItuD ali,,
those sutgge ti'.i:, and tb) see hoiw tar thei.y ic r.l tli a.nrii.: .al a,1 :',:ptedl
lin,, ipl s, aud it rrhei,:r t:, see ,.v al 11IIll..r ipplih, it .n ,f tlit ..-: pill | i lI:.S
m eight Ih iad. ,. i f ti ... u : -,- .; at.u 'io:!uii p ln .I '.'l on h,.Ullth lineb- ,

ST hIr.: ,1-c Lii ,r.-th,: I T.1 ..I [.m.aii,,;. ,l,: E ,:l, ,.,! th ,..v., I tit *',,
lit? :'ir iid '.itt. i.ill. v. ,iild i be etr tiv' i:. t a.:t niii iiati rrli. I1 -
fortuna.rtcl uo in'tl d ,::in b .: r i:.'t .. oit m ii it,. v.nitirt'.'t I,.. that it I<
irit-,e irV tr. iook: t- ,1 oiitbl| ti].tli. ij Of l et:llo'. I,:. ,,?hjt.iu le I.?0-t it:'tllt
that is pai..tiealr'. lihe m eth ooi.s ar.--
1. D e-'t l:'tion ol aj :,pirhl,- hv r:n ..'.iirg th:ir bit.,-ilin .gro, i,..:.
2. LDe-t u-ti:,n ,W nm al.aiial paiisite. li, naI ti,.e-s ,y ...:A i-,Inii .:.y :, .,- l nin -
-trltijii o iltui iln e.
3. Prevention of, th, Intt..- 1 i m h :t l ,,:,l.,heles.
The s,',:,nr.l vthldAl (Ko, t'.- is lot lea;].,?. The Mjs-Ni.:,n has rio power;
i:'t .--J ii ulzion. Fui ler, iii viei :01 tin: siii.1i ii'.s :S thi. xh tl. [" p 'lila tion
and thei, r r'-tteri.l i- iirlititn, it It 1- not i illeth:li'd that 1 eveI [ Ill.:l. to 1:
eiiijiliyil b, the ('overnmeiit .,I Biitish C'entral Atfria.
Thill first rmn-tho:l, also. i,-i o'i l a liiit..1 aplphi.:ati:ii It h I.,ee,'
advo':ateI i as a siil.iiliiari iiiea.i. re it L k iin .iin.I .it K' -tA K...t. Owiv i
to the liatule of the blee-iiig-groiiir anil theii:[ etent. ind alsc, ,:,wing tor
the -inioriroit 'c:ost of lnate.riial I r ': li:rts anir uttit t,'- i: i :it, irni p pt'.
i:tC.), taicBal mncasur.s o : ext.'ter iinati,,, oltil. tiot le {*:-a.bk- at any of
our stations. Di. Dauiels poitit, d ou't that this method would :- ,-ii.r
MnouSly r.,tlyh. even :it a plice li:.W BIlautvi,. vwh:r, there is a: roiisderaIl.:
%xhilte popu.ilation, and lic -lid not think that it v.oMi.l evei I s.y-teminatc illy
einiploy.:.1i in Britih (C'. trial Ali:.a.





71 A REPORT TO THE MEDICAL 13O.AlRD

It is if- l.: th ]ii.' n,-thul1, '.,i- l. r,.ventioni of tli>h bir's of i ntcr.ted
a ,Tl ei :s th-o t UlI.,-t Alltt nti, Oillll-t Ie Jdll> t.L l, ,-. thi- Ian 1.- .,pplied inll
diffti:-.it w y;.- to ill 0iir statioi Thli':Lc ar: twon n.in in..:-ai by v:hich
tlli ]j.n '.ientulri I:l th,- ltit.' t uirjl.hih'l,* -. ,i.'C, In :.1" liii'.:v, l-
I 1 1t\ l,,,', r l ,[...il tio n, I,,.,l y l l,' 1Ih,,:, .,{ i,,,.'.liani i : i i.,il:,t :,lj ,O D.
-. r-;', i- l'l i j, i i. : IititlO s :,s l I tI i te 1 0i' M Sli-.-.ln tltiro l.
I. [ ,.r.s,,,,,d I,* I, .,i,, ',,,' ,, .,n j -t j,:,e.";..jil lr I:tv>, ahi ,. ,. ,, lI, ,.h -'. L c.i s ,u,..
(.-:e, I :' 1f.I: Ihry ..,.:nsi t in-
I The T 1n ? -:4 n i -c.jiit" w' i z.
( ) P I..t .: t :l .'I th. :inkl, :.
) Fu il' l.: .i i I.lo i thlm i, anil tlhe i e of : of l '.'vai: -l.
TO tlh.ve may i.,1 .,],l,.:l-
,l Il i'. n i no i t :.- .ut oi .[::l I.:, --.
(i) T .,kjib .,_l iiii ".- i t ,luid. .l l- I a iLt ...,i' llt l, .ll. ia.
f l is tli. ill, -i r l] -ttI l ..... ...I ill, M ; .... T he 1. ].. I p.. I. .ial I re-
c:, tiL .. .,1- .. Iv: t.u:,t, '. 1 u, 1,nly at Kt.a K.V..ia ,1 3 [i :t'Iu ', .' here.,w in.;
I, th, :., :.at [,l,'v. ll : hnl,..-. l.l ,..':-, rhziv ,,re f|.l. ll .-. .1:. l l f
..'ur-,- ( ,/i. ]i it i. ... .. I I. i., 1 i. :. t till I [.ill a .i. .o il.l I- i ff i. ti. i th -
i:.i, 1. iytlhi :-1 i' It the eth.l that t-i ndi in, .- f r i al t. l,'.
lIu tropic:.li. l i:. ll tI,'. l...i it.v.r. Iit i u. t.: r ,lit i t11 u' atista:t jui, r.
ai i it I .1 t ,-. \\ i. I.. I I. I th.Iii I E ..[. Also it
i ham 1, o li,- -.l.u llu -l ..li- : t. a .. 1 lit W h\ it, aut: ..iticy
'., : ..l, jt. l, ri d -l \'. : l. i. i l ii, : 1. [ i,, t l i *,\ :t I.. h. -. %.i M I >--
iJ' i t I'. 1 I i f....-i l f- fo iir ju i lx- i li, ii ,i ,t01 i,:,',-i to-[[p olu
ho,. -t i- A,. -.: ra lly -a :- tl. iu ling. rn l t .,- t i :t .-..-p in th,.

I( *,itu .-1 t ul .haviuiu J h l 1Ila i It .' l, i We llu .imi liu h lV .ital Lt u-
a:t.d ab "l s ,ii -,. :it i ,i.r Ni ..t,, i 1u b i [lt. ,.i a', a- ..i !I lIil.|,:1 It .-' xt,'ii1l it.
t -l, .:i of I|,.- I,.,,i.,h ..-- at Al,,I||..h the C,:ll- ,., I ud L il.,im a
T h iOntil >'.lll ih iiih t ir tizl;:, '.I *jy ii ,ii a' "1 [a l Vi \ ': it ? ,l l; ,i- advi-s-
>.. t .,i t K .,,ti i ,.l _).th,,i '-.i .l.h it .i,,:: iI, L At,.Lvc it k tl ,.i s in pI
t:-: '. il Io |tll o:* It Jill t I,. ItIilj.1 t lnl,. el,--t .I. ,In .i l l ,l y [ .easlO -
,'I hl l i..i: led hea a .
2. ':, i. rul ia' (,:, id' :', "i.-, t, i--iiul -u l.,I lI l t l ic-. iI,'ulI Ul t\\ .li: ji t-
|'t) i| ..n', i, i l, II. .i, ,l [.]lhie. i.,\ ,.hi- 1 ... Il .in _I t i. *. -.i.,tio,, at a
,i.li;t :u fi,.Li an..[ill,, l..r'efini -. r,.u ,.1 l iy il th.lr uniual pow r, o0
Ih-.ht. g. ,:.m -third to hal l nI, ,..
(I,) S, .i,., .'i,, :. 1 l,, E .|'' i l],:.n I.at .',: b'. ],lai il n; tLI. tuition .At a
-inl aj .li.- .in ...- 01, o .--l,, d t.'. hI. ll .. inile lio,, uati': 'ill: ,'s. In this
a- iv.','n tih.., h 'l i. l.;lh .I,: .vt. ti ill w, it .e i ,t'.:t<:d with m :law ria
And .1 ill bL,: hall I ,ll ..
Tho-,: tvi.r, ,.hll.d- lI, .. ah .,.lv ., ?uL ie'le'ri l to u c .Lan t :n,:.. in the ,






REPORT TO THE MEDICAL BOARD 75

avcoiints 'A the -,.I..rat:. -tation-. Unuortum.it'ly tiir t :h 0 iplr t.-t a.ipplica
tion t.o a Miis..ioi station is di.ffiliilt, and inl t]he' i: 'A -titioiln ad r idy
estlblisheLd, it IIIv 1,'.- I l 1 i l, 1 ; thliou:t i n lb ny c li. I ': i C'd :deal i.i.y
be donec by .attlention to tJI',:c pricl', -l,.
(,7) Isola/ in r.:.,+o .lh,- ./,i7 -s.- T h.. ,,-ibility .:,[ thi: II. ,.:.i ,o, r.,.
dclepe id on11 ti ,:,:te t iirnd ntm.' of tlX- iame!-i,. ground. L.,, tio apaim
d''ep Inds on the pli-i-.''Il (h r.:t]i:tic of the locahlty. .\t imanl;, .rallotiN
on the lake, ho,,;v \ r, thrF.' ii ,hl..'til.,:.o.1 .-f tbil lail:..- hli i- tl.."- ei at
aniorli:-1. bi.,.di g. n: ,mroind, an.J. hb,' [,io0'.il to 'iI'e dimstauie. ft,-, tihb
laIk.:e,iolatiou W a.y I..r ,..it, ,]i' .b ,,lr-ayI :.lh, ., i11 the i .,:,, .:.f thi-
Mlision station nt Lil:o' -a iClhtiyvl, ). i.,.lation to.' an, n mi-it .f a j.iarter
to onIl. thliild ...f ,. nile. l-.ra .u ob, ,L It i. tru that thi o r :. rather
to accident than d'-in, hi t it- ,?l:-,'j t l.ha: I.A.Mho u,:i.i ilv bIo i.t .ial. Had
thel -tatiaon been built originally a ,i ioTtr of a uvl,' flit,-i ith onm the lalie.
it 'vould liavr hen probably fre': frlI- ihilaria alto ,ethl'z. OIf 'i.l ', it
i- not pc. nil.,lt' to llov. a v'i ol' ttiotu .'.i-i.L I 11.i hb '. [-n terim iii tl.y
settlie d, ..t it inuet he iiotu.ilnb;:' that ?',oi v 1I.. yin]- r,i.liing towi ,d,;
isolation i.- ain a lvantaa,. \\hlere :A:,u, ,_hi._.,?- ,:,f I:,:,l. tioU ah _, .I i, l.t-v
it a ~llil t be i ait'tail. h, ple'v.l ,tilng ti', l.ii lli: og l l .rt,:.'- hut: illh thi .
invite ing ar.-p ic:, andt, if ipo:, sl. it 'lm t b 'e P tl0 e A.l It .M-.vi n; to h
huts- a. \i.t thl], ]: E i '.i. ,, i Of he I.itioj c.a .\. .,,- h-,, ad,
furiL aAv.y foe t tli:n'. :iu' *i .ai oplt '-lle a i h .' lth 'i I. .l -o i-o l e.ii h
IteL, 'at a.-'..t at Lil;.:.iL ai l at thli- t'ollh:.It'.
Th.- .1 ,..ii, s ,hr-" 1\ant,-',.-- ,:f i:olatio.n at, : (1) it ;-, r.,iall. n. :.IIL
bi lding thei. : it ,i .i at i n i' ri-iinc.- irt..[. i tl at' I 'I'Ily, t a1t t-' ) :tin- ..-
uHa Tiv Am. are gei..L ll l.,UIlt coi.' to th- lik, or, to s.-t..am .n. it o it,:-
l ,,arlls-' Dl*o i tt :ll f'l[,, l i llat ', e illr.-,:-
(Ill) The di-,i aiti n of hbitng ajini.- httle dil tan,r ionit n. ta''r i m uo'-e
apparent than real. It makel..: A N11 rh IL .'n ..hlith I,.t ]i,ti Ii to. I-,,
iaRlled n in yadit o, lI; l( ., No ,t ,. nl. I \ ical, l. or Wn gl a yin r t ':'.. e -,
'.o.'u' Jl: '`.'it i f tll Ai-. A t K otr.i the l t.itioii : ..' v:i h -i a lull.' [i,:.0 i th
I.ke and two bt ile: inf ft th dant king water anppli'. bt th, .c aiCts .Io n-t
CaIuse lll(Ui i 1ven' llien .
(2) The ie.tpa tition ,:, th, livion tton hy a -h,,o t dlitt.i',.:e froi the
iativ.e village may h v -. i -rtoi ditsa.dv'.antage ho.1l ti,- Miisi, ..ltarnl-
poilit. In the early d.iy.- .f thi. 3i- i.:ioi, it .as thou-ihlt e'.-.a y to lit e
light among th." peioplc. N ,., ho:'.:.- tr. id:.:. l v. r, ,:,nge,. a good dial,
anud tomine degree of i:,olati, hroul the vill- e'. with it- bis er .,ri dan,:ing,
arind h,-athon life. i- an olvantaye. ov,.n Irom the ,'i-.i:on lint of vi'w,
aL:d would probably i.,:. Ih. aodv<.atd by mio.t Mirsio ;i:.-.l whil,-
frow tlii s,-iiitary aul jh'.-Lieni' stand.ipoiint it is a.i t]Diiii':i. b et'lit.
(bl Si-i r.,'g t iod i o E r ,i.., i .- ri' 1and' ': i I is t lhe methiod '.vhi. lI ha: hi een
stinoigly advicx.Ated by St,,phij: and Chnatoph,.i 1i1alatial _'onuni-i ion







R,-ports). and hli en li.- put int'o pr ntl, t,... so me extent a,1 the West Coast.
It i ril-.. thle pr.',ti.:i' irn lulj.1i ,n h ieigni.- ro'unils. It i1 onue 'A the iiiost
:certain ij,'throl,-. s1; l.1s as ti:. o~iuilml.t, ii ri] iwnst eXpelii;iV mtl,.] I.i.e-Vnl tlii
prIlianJr truii.: ,-iof ,,?ii i iiit ail.:- -it,? aind prvcintini'z thie enicroach-
ui'lit ..f iti\'v % i iliniig it involve n. : ii l,:,: i-','nl : i -:. the Euiirop'iiis.
I it the :.tlihr h.inrl, it is obvLiioui-sly nit suited in it? "or- re-t', forin to a
Missi'ron tati.on. TI.. ..hji. I t ... the Mi;-'i.,,n is to b.: li toni'lch W'itd aiitl
trails ritivi s. .-i.ii. sh.:..l-.io.;vs anid irls w~ihc a. undi.r iin:tructic.n
ulilt lM..p Oi the M ;issi.l .taitini, t,. k.i p them a ,,ay froin the te'lilt'l-
ti-i.n il 1 ,-il.ge life .Also, th.- hospital patient inu'<.t Ihe undtir the eye. of
thi ,.lo. t:r or irinr,. But hier-: t,:e i ll.'.: ,, ,rir ,. There i.: Ino i -l for
ins;rri;edl I.'tirtiiia. to live.- .n thl.. 'tatin : in.l.e'l, the pihi." o .f the Minion
ilintinsii that it i b..tter [,.i thin to hl'' it the villg(' rn1] try aid raise
thI t,-ne ofit villa.-ii life. If wilarri,.] .j t'i' 'J. i.,'Lt live ..i thi -.tatirin there
will I.e i... .. hildrerin -ii ] :d r thon ...i t. .I ii : rs. .; see. n ib.:.ve, it iC .'hilil in
ur..le:r teii. or, ',"1 iiniIIri-, iiiaili-r %h-\ v". 'Ir tihe -'r,-lt --.' r f r it ,alarial
iii,.,?tioii, ;in,.) if tlhe e are. n1,,t ,a1i!.- v ,.I to 4h:1,.,. ,..n the .t"ntlonj a 1o,.0:1 ,I l of
the h, lelit o'f etgi i- iti,.ii '\il I..r attain eil. Iil ,r.ur : ii is true that ."ei'ry
l l i.t til-n.l: tr-. ,ttr.-.I t li'.:i:'l ir <"',,' r.. h t,l' ii pr,.t-- ,trrl. the
ui, i..- I t r.::- t a,'ii ti i .i .. s ct A. ..:l I i. 1 lini but Wtli i olit 1, h inr, l,
-**r rathI r l i l .- tlI ..f tat I.' .i at i ,I- tan. i .:- be, i ..i .l
thl ir po'.w,.ers of I]iIht. i.e. by tl,: -t At iAth.:.. .,i ,:,.liti,;n \Althbo ,lih. .; ft
7,*n,:r+il ,:prii rlI.'. iniiir- :l r, '!,:i tl l, h "-v -'.,'. in the vill ;ge. yet ill ce'r-
tjin c3 i' ('e? t w i.' r'i ic-t,: ) it Ill.1 l i, - .i-rv frl 1 li,?nii t. li'e, f r1i tle
statio:ni,. 'co that the uletho:dJ "1 ,:-i'-'.t.l. i.'. t c ,i lwj\\a bt e,'tiii l out
i. .r .sT a i .irl tl he, h lJdr i. ndii,.ler toi \W hat j' nu.I il,?,i lis r h e'..i ri l
,',:,!ri ti, r i f th,: f i:t th t ,v.r nari, ', fa, i, ly .. ,l a li :-i,-i.n it.ati., i., a
IxnaFti ? t,:, It ,.. lt h, ., l, tlh t tlhe i, i l r Wh,.. Wl..l b,, ri ..]iin :,:, t, th ibii i wniil
r,.,rjnire, lor M .-..I.:il '.,.rk E\vn thou,, h it ia n ia lot be. paostili for
t,: .! ,rr t,: Ilih.,? rigbt ,o..,,y (froin th,? 'tithi'li. t1tii Iho'LI',:s Ilia.y O[ten ie
built, 1 at M.alili. li0) t:o 20 yi", l y: ,ri i...- ; i .1d if priealtliw is taklii to
plA;. th, ho ii-.s ini a idu.]ir."ti.n itni.mit? froiii anophelm--' bLree..liit g iiiiunds.,
i'51er', llDO % anrdl? :of ri;-rie,'tit ii thill obt.1ili'.0 i- nll ,.i 'ant.iag:-.
Thie stition whe-re i',r..ititin i- 'i ,n n1' fj-ti.r in K- ,' r WI,i!,o!l,, f it ue s tl
be' tn i7 i'.ii'd i 'r i,,'' /. i r' n M.l;liil.Ii.
In the Case of a New Station, it iS of gprc.it. t illiporrtanc.,, that thesis' tv\'.-
prinlripl'-' h. .il bF kept ii, ilindi i.-he.ll th i' te is l l -! t ,-]li- .: .11-l] 1. iildling
Cuiiiitnii'.,e Th'l? whol .i' 'ta.tioni should l b iimappe..l ouit, anii the line' laid
ili.sn adh..rn.i to.n, [jI t: ul.irly i, ingardsi thi. Site :oif na.ti;: lv.-ilings. A few
iiit th,. .ght sl y illn'iJd t.-, pr.ii i' wi :htl upti t,,i iin i ,V ,ic t a Ot s i'te i'of
,:lji':ni,: iii laria, -in.l ie t,.rinii at .i.l health record] flor j a v.hole 't .ti'..n.
IO f l the p iiin.iples-, i.olaitio.ii i. t!ia i -st snit,',d t .- .1i.-si'-iin station,
th:o'ugh, .is far .is pr.,ticahl.l,, ,t'T.gatioi shoiilil al'.._ he ed iilos ed as
W .ll.








In the case of a ie w f at tijii on t he l:'kI- level, it oi.t I. ene rally be
possible to clioo'et ,i dly site fhi.e train liv.iis andl ,.aamp-.. .ad t,. p[ut the
.tati:,on oiie-thlid to., la[ll ,ila '? i- b.ack.. t.lt i,.ll hill ,:ver.tl.okiin the lake.
A native village on the lA.-e ihore, if it. e:.isted, mnigl,t ieain : .,ri c h-.u.s
fni iitairiers andi servant. imicirt ailsr b, bnult on thie I l:e d,l'[e. Till
luitfrve'linii 'i..uuiiil v.ioull I be t.adi into a -ri'ltLii ,mild plainrel with finit
ti-es; |plaiits re'uirin .A.iterii,-1 I.'0.oul,' be placed1 near the lake; :r.'uitl
only tille'I in the wlet 'eac.n .r. nl. exrteil litgt n t<-. the .ti:. Native
t,.lher"' house'., if liiilt ,i the ita.tion, vouldl b,'- t .ione eniJ of it. aud
Oil au ,rfo. t Sh'I .;,1 1 w/ . be bli'l lt.t. ,,n du 't:"i'i( and Atl ". (I, t;h:s
0n il, I st, l o.' i ,;i'l t,',l.
Inl thi '.. s of alu inl.atid tile .aune general plait shonid be followed ] ; the water sup.wlyv (and tlih:
nanoph-eleo l.rleding-gai'inrl vi'jldi.e a rivel Or ;i '.-n1, ail nri.t tin, laLe :
anil it wi.uldl be bi.sr if ;ll rthe na.ti'.: lits w-ie onI: thie oppo,.itre id1e *..[ the
stte.nn, .ind if the Mi.iion gqrlen, u.i-., -.uplied bii lourlse5, c tin-e right :own
to the -trea in ,"' i .lie r .' I i l1'..
Appendied i- a roi-h ke.ltt i h the -oit of plan that wiiull be- ileal from
the health point of view (p. 7'S).
Note on Visits to Native Villages, etc., at Night.-- \\-li.d-eior pie.rial ,ae
is ex::mic l .ti.i v liateve ]'.,a.utio j at ie take, Ai s t t' t e .ite- -.i t .-t'itvio ..
iand even if they v:er.' reiilrred e'ntir[ely fE:e fr- .tliri. prCt.:-tion Cal,-
not be' a.tbs.'.lit, fii it i, inut pi-. ih fol l Mi-ioi-iin iesi alo\.t : to iti.aiii ''i,
tir a: tiotI .'tlt I LZuinet If the ste .un'd 'alk at niligt, it iima bie ne'essarv
to 'o r.lOt.'..,i Io tihe lak. re ahit t l i it-ir-':li. ige' oi th1 iiiirn-e may
ha. toe go i.I,'l n itnto tit- nl tiv'.e illa i.. Iu t iI c.ie :,.itte 1i4k ru .i,
but it aiouldI lie .ili.ertla evl I s l ill.itter 1of r iser. rlerc ihei.e- 1 I Att'.
in tiectssary. it s/itl/i, quatlyf .;; iwr-i .r of/ {ra.* bL 'vr/.1il. \W lat is
%.-anted is not itLnr e.laioiuilg alai in \uhi' h .upllo,.es tlat aj e.'iciir'-e is il l ie
follrwedl l.y ai, attack.l ot iilaria, hut a qiiet re,-.anitri,- of tlhe lat t that
imalaria i S ,i11 1j/:cti C' d Ih ? iifa aOI' thal in 1/ti. i'., / 1' rei il If jlfer il t a51 in
,r''ctiralij/ cen.F'r hia in vi'd/.l Olie's a ttiti:,: of ininil .-.lioul.l be similar
to that itli Irlich one appir.-achlea any other inftec.ti.us ,li.ia:i, 'iz a deter-
ilitlultio(l inot to exr-woe oi,',.. Ulllne'-. aJllV, Ji'Il .t aji ejit:l:iy .trco'i
Ic.liitioi ,,.it ti:, r. I it Jiy diity thlir.oii'l ft..ir of IrlectirnO i.
Education of Public Opinion.-Wlh:tev-er [ir-i.. int .. are taken,,Arii] how-
ever carefully stati ins re llr, litld in the nrat hiitairce, n-,tlthingi will avail
without the education if pubil.,hic *pilinii M-nil.ei i.f tie Mi-sion must
eiideajvour to iunderstanrl thi facts ot the mnosquito malarial theory. and tr
appreciate the L.eariiig of tlhe pie'laiitionii enjoinei otherwise they ImAy,
by acts ot thun-lbtle, in .s., .e-,toN.v th,,l'e sa efei.il, for thiil i' ri liealth
, liilh l.1\e taken much .li re to buiild up. For the iitn'st part people are
Swilling to ncc. pt thIe facts aind to arrayy out the instlucti..n-i laid .lownf. but
LiiiP ii.






A DEPORT TO THE MEDICAL B.ALRD 7).9

they oft.'n ilo l ot i.. lv 11- ,l.1.-''.tni tl eill I i-p- l i., l I t t'i .l it e' fli. t I.i .iii.
or ilh .o tance,, anl l i..: they,' inAln- inu I Jl: .. W itl, tin-' ei.l iu l .i .v. -,,t
TI.- 1I,,tv .:l,1 tit,: 0 .Wi.| tu lit i i L ri,] tl.f y .111-1 its Gl i rl.. I.:.n t., the. vari.-, l-_
st ti,-,ons in the [._1,:. 0-e- Ia.,e lLei Iti 1 .item liei t <:. I 111. ,:! il pie,: 1 ti:>ls
tliit s-l ,ui rl be ,:,l.:.-. eil jt e Wd i -t ,lit I- = ,,en prIte'. lii rh, )lu ,. .,i
,li.j Lt .ly l ,l[ -'I-l. k :.,,'[.\ ,f thls ii hI- .e i.j'[p"-|:le'l-


FROM THE LIKOMA DIOCESAN QUARTERLY
PAPER, APRIL, 1904.
THE 1-1 Il E I\ VII.'' .F )\LL.kPLI
D iit in. .' ..* .lit y ,it 1 it .l, ..Ir ut ., i I. u ,; .-.i : ; . t- l I I li h
Ish ,l I l Ci It, ii t l t; k l . it .,. .; l ,:I . t I-. I ri.rial iiil It ,I. it I.,": *. n -
l- '-id. hoe rtr. that -r', flir iie tl t fa-r: I iz: i.- i ni i--l. :.:- i .I i. i :. 0:.tr:d
it ; ., ly ..,-. ,:. ,iii... :, l i:. i i. II,: I. l ,.: 1ti I .. iiit., i o I ' "(i-
n1 V *.Iu, l-:,Ll b. a ll ,s tJ i r i, 11it H i. f.:- ouri t i. l t it l th- r l h itl' I.l.
Het .-'i iiJ e ba vp ai tXh '.bi, t i ..- i...: pie .it. : i ir:t:iit ,. .' i' i. idii *** a t-il-'
a lj t .o -r. l I .', .. .1 t .1,I., tro u hII II L ,t. ,lt. I l lu h l ll...l, i -e a. -. pt 1
t11 Ih v ti,.i -3 tI lua I i-I ,, il : I u L : ..'Lu.
Md a l .i W ; L. i. .: l t,.i l. ntll..: ll I..t. ii t *i' a:. I. ;lt .n I I.I Ih. nl.l-
tinr. irei-. tr n,. rit ni th ,r t:.i.., 1 t .t ,i rii.- uit' :a.' i it i i ,'i uii. U1 t "i llil i, :. iil-i:i
TlI ie pi :..,i i i.: .-., t l i- Ili- I .l .- i .- ',. lj I ia .-I .,1 I. :., u. i it h tl I.,::.o l
..dI t i|., t el e .- .!i i -. nll ..t iu I- .i q hi. i.,: M il' ji i t i.i: tll .1 it i'ti.i.: ,:ill l | ,il.. t a
f ltulgha it n p l,. ly. ai l dIil. I ij ..i- ha, utnt u ity -n 1.,t l.,.l ,,f t h ii _.,i.n.Ii
nrid fio lli r,.., J.i tDh. 5.-,:l, :.-.:i r. t i.., ':' ,... .ti. t 3,i J h.- .
A s f I t ., I I- n 1. I It I. ., ,'n I I I'.- h,:,I l o,,-.':: I- .:.:l.- n 't l ,, -- t\11 "s ,LJi
.it .-tt*ll n- itli :..I ..I bl.....-A I r.. il lly. Itl it 1- .-1 .:.n a p ,tl i. lt --iili Mll l ti th I,--
rIl1 h-le .nt *:,I Ll, : ,;:l i r i ti it I ...- n ;- iti Is n. I n :.' ,. i..ii :ti '.: ..' r i.ip a nl t i--
T he M ilA.ri ni b,. ii ta-l:I n i.J.:"nt' '., th.. i I -r l. ha1 ,-, l l,. .....|i t.: t-
l a.,:il.? it t 'rr i ha-t e.iI th r. ti Ch.r lil i iil.in I ,li.. l to .tL cd-tliln
.i tfl'h l .il tl. I t s n. i07. l I Ft i l l ld I. ill ,, t C i:,l ti L,- 1W isA Ilt.:r : l Il- I.
I. T hi: ll.,:.:,iy .i.,[A. :: t,:o ii .. .,, ,, i nt-, M I Lt i It is l3 I;l- .:..it th.t '..t l ., fs
ulnay ,- :.. iu 71,-lth ut lli tit-. il I,.:. ,:,, 'l !l-,\ .:. ii i I El lan lil d a: I *,II .0 ,- I.Xtri' *I
l'h, the.-.ry ,h ,'. i .-, '*\ th1 ,t i e,.r,q w/ .r .t N!oaiit i ; ," o it-d Iy It l.i l b **I I an in.
l-. :t ,l ll.,."q. l ib u it t 1d t1. I .I' /int! L l.w i :. H o: w i -f," t,:.|lO l l ittA:N k4
ai.: i .l I]., 0 :1 n l ho.. Il tl m,.. t,- tT.. i t li r:lti.:,r .,t,' '. u l,,t L.- ,*J.:t,- ,A iie,- .
Le t it in ,.,-l.'r .t that th*: le r. I t ith i ls :ti.:en "* I on *i, tl Li: Ie-tt fr la ,:h ,i.,.,
at k.''pin, fire tbo:n r.i-,l,' .' i
*.. i.in" on4 |., ti,:,lt .i .t i"...:. .to i; the ,l i lt. -i-., n', lh-I- l l th,.r
Ithi .ipal ljiu.., Culrx. J...e-: r.A :..-.. MIl .I i .
Ou omri i -' t lior,-, i'n ,[t,- z m e i ri..ri \"ly WLT l Irih.. r. |.lr'tdl ,I t i c l, ro '. nl i d.
th :y mIe il.lh nior t th, toor It 1 u-ii iily t,- y .'"i.n' b,,tl.i r-i n .,ringl .1ilioii r
an I in tlin e "-euium. 'l.1...,. l,: t',u.rt. j irti, il,, l',. ,,i" r,. ,.l' iiiU o101 thLr ,-
they *et i ,.-,od, hn. .: :.:t ,.J [uhimtt ,ter i,.lu t. D m ,ii ill: ,... l i5 i hliIt in lt-
dark ptt 0 Lb. ,- how,:. FUI th.: moL, pi t Nll y bit. ,.t inA_,ht -.i lSl't. mty .,ilt
aj ,l all ip ql'l Th y.v attv .:t. ..hrinL t., .p ...W, ,:.ttenr l. ith U l rn:.t wII. ,IL. lit
co,-n ur .ii,:,.. lur Tith .ll l.l, .... ,ii.l- i.,r I, ,:r. ;e :tI the t ii tl'.i:," -,I 1 th,- it t- .I r tih:
g.. at.:, tt th r reatl- i; ..ceaitb,'.. TN b, o rb n inth. it ih ,.-:t- an iKriitltl' lii.l,. It
It getIsa oodJ a .k it idra,'a [':,-tl 01 i Lhi t gair..i if it k i n b it I,,l. thr 11 1il e-mi ,tin,.
and rau se u.--Irhn; and irritalmon. ,\ umi. ,liay- u,:, rlinti .. W l i : m n ,h niII'l.o ,ion* .''pn,"
than oni t,., t g tt. ,1 good LOti
ill.l, I a0'1 C.plain thie. sit te s,-'nt- whi ii.b uit ,fitet, luw.h l mjd le ,upposi'd L.
relute 1i1.- mo-?quito thea, ,i. .-
na) I Ihai often e- n tri t:r ltivL bilt.- I. iLi. ,'ilto.., bqt have iiuL had inalna
in .uoni,..Iun, A' \ w-Te T_ b uo,-Utij l ..l'.IA -ecuiice' S. lhiS I. -a ily 11 x1 [laiIe-.J.


1W
IF








ii I m r. never l. :ehii t. tin 1..\ ni. .quiti.:e. Ibut hlian lhai] iii iLi. Answer.
The bit-.. .f ,n,.,pl'-Ii:; C:,: u t.d i lining ..-p, jii pi.S .-I unniji-,'.
lc) h" 'l atr. nor m.'.in uitL ..' '-., I' t p -.pile uiull.r friol, fever." .Aiiv.: r. This
F ':,' r.ill_, in.. ii1.' ,lil ,'t "I't 't rc :, V% Ia. I tetr- 'r. e Anup. htlei, and their
Ii .lit atti ;,l, n'r- n.I Il%.ir ,t'.*.
3. T Inrdl.,, .1,.. .. A .. ', m, ,. ; ,/ .c .A k ih JI. I r.'.r .inJ. I/i' .*2,-rii.i ,m,, t
"A.it ha L t., t.i .J o', ,'o m. ir,:it, F..,rturia ei.' [.''r d thl'e p.i.rehle.' ei of ii:.phli.-i
Lto.U3 .'.i .p d i' r.ua.ll . [ ..n th..-ine ,.a reoi, I.r l.it.n t iii.., [ .Ii.; ,, hl L .r, b o r .'
!- iiil., y ,n-r i b to. h, 111.- hy lt t .. ...i .-e. jut .. ti.thu~h lancet i. the
1ih tr i ui'.-ri ...I 7.,'n..h st li .h '. ...,,1.] -.: atl l ...rn .:,.lt lh inldr :,d .f tih, -s o.ft -1 11. ie ll
until -.i:,- .-.t ,],,, 1 I ,1,,.;J ',t-i .,,.[; Iv' pF l
fl'.: !-:'ur:e fr-,u f nl l [ith le H i nr,',.hehl ,I-,'-i inift- ti.n i. intrl', nl -ay-i nD.'tire
r hildi.-n C. lral t t. .j ,ft, h .iip,[i ., It IjLa I>.in l'.ot wu that tualive- are
ini-_ nr tuir,ill- iiiiin urie t. 3M1.l i Pi 'r. i illc i l l r nu ire .: ldlirn nu.rir WI-e are in .1
1uir.ii. ..,ur ,-.f litt.: i M il Ai. hi.y ntay i....in wi.ll, but they hli.ve p r Niiit in
ih.o r L.I....I an, ic: il.ir.:en in, I i t fr.I..Nii N .ri:, ll... th it i .'. ip i.l. ha .: a.c
q mircei] e.:,ni.l..rable:- ;iin... rul, Ii.. O irit .. .rnty, i **n i [jar '1tli the white
oan ,i .-. [i I.-'.i a t .icr[it y a.*rl- in .A '. a. ,n.l i.LA are tou "i .tt rxt.-nt iiluinDt"e
a a.iirnt Malin .,.
Furti.. in..i.-.; .t.). ii3e ,- .,',..r >ls.re. 1,.:, .r,, -.':ldl,;)i trn .,. qLu rlt. t a mt ile.
:in.. n %.:r a hilf 1iiil h,.. ,i h.. u ut..r in r v h 1.. 7 ,r.. ,..J. anLi to aili.:1 tley" r-tiirn
to I ., th .ir raL li, c in .. ..M g tlie -Iri ..f .ii.y tati..i :n i l.ir le.lIe t their
t.r tl i'- .... ,. : ,,,13 po In,: ..I I [,, n.-. i.' I.i. .r i-. li y n ,- an t iatl r. often
n0 irtit,,i It -.-'L t i.- Ii .-. I l.: .n i i.t. ,ia. tnt i ti hr..'. n ,. ., in tile ni.:i lh lo r-
h,,'.," l :, lI.. _i.:-- [ I lir-, ,i.. I, d,. in i nv, pl, :i a 1.i nt ili ahs ,'.-t -oII.r i, hly _e e r :il th.'ir
Ircr.,Jii^ -..r,,j ,:hl.. ,:- ,t ',.i- n- 1 ... l'.('1. .,l t,,, 1 ,, J ..1.1i I, I:, 1. J uand
i rlj.. : u 1, /..Iti '", r, ti,., r,i,, ..I ., .. .p I'u l ta t1 e,: -"I cu .*I1. .1 p i:: is uuld
,i h....l ]..ar .. .. r. r.... ,.I ,l l1 1 .i.:l,.r. 1..: .. -o i -. i. lcu : . r w hIrl I-. i t a 1 :.in
S InJ lJ .Th I .l.-,. i o..... i tilt; roil,:, t ,:,nl'J w .,.. .'r. atl t.,, the .:-.I:.'n .irt ,:,1 .'ill r s i]..1:n t-.
A n. p,.-.hli tl. ., l n ,'rl in intt, 1 c"t l l.-.,l ,t '..i ,...I v .it..r sa l h ire hi._l .. iit,. it. l.gn nt.
but I-pt I'r,.-h b," i. ,.,r i .. ,, Iiill kh....f ,.t..r tl ir*.. il thL.. i Thina ibJ.y bL ted at
ri, -ile- .. ,:,f r -. .. i, t pE .. nr. t[i: 1 al: i.:.r., 1i ialt r lih.i~ .n.1 l it 1i,:.1 Y. -.un .
I .li J' trl', thi.; : lubj. .. tli: ,.1. rsti .1 t In tIhe wll.. itirlf. 1i'.r .i itraiir i hi ir:
IL .':r, 1i .1 .. II.. i" ..1 ..,itr, Ii tl, . 1. \ ...:,,i ~s.1 ...plr. l l.r--illi 'r :ti t'iiln< Ih iy
l,: .iI..nt. Ulit the ,ii,.-dlit..-a .ui p.-. .: nr .,r ii.:,o lli, in nilii,' hL .u--i. .'o ti lii fact

~fr al- .tL: i,- ta uli i.sr .r.I tii.l rt- .: 31- A l ri.,l r ,f ,C..t:i-: ,sr l, i ,, I, th,
RO M.s W.... ii. 1 '. i iiiii ii..i a, 1ii l ..anioi ii' '.*i[ tllri n.. Ib LINil.".* anil Iitv r-
I,,,1 '.i,,. -) T r..[i, ii M :.]i. in.. L..t .i, r..w ili.h tl.:ir ippli.,ti...n
Tli :,. pi-,'. .1 h4i,. t-,.,l,. pr.:v-'ve tutin, 1 lil a have -. -een: pr,,p.,Jij l.I.
II ) T h.. ,: l,.r ii. u et,.,..; .-Ii ,..,,i./. ; ,y .I h tIhe .ir .ri,-,ii .-pla. s it ii. V tit g
d ithe c.irrt-;nl ..f rnl?.: i.,',n T hI li. l.... I 1 .,iit.n.[ ,l Il .r..hl.. f.'l. ,' .1r llI.n 'n 1 e lt
(l'.'-.i l.jr in- thi ..- . r i ,- 1 .. .. i .. : ,, b lu ll,.,I L (.)t. t ) ainu t., thi
S,.ittere. r L,,tra- trr i F thi: Eur.p.: i. i.:,.ul iti.i tie :o-t i,tf t general ippli'cation
v.-.ul I., qiit,: pr..Lil..t;ri ,:-
I('-' T i, L.t-r .', t, .. / ...I ,1I .r. r ir .t !l;i t iti,'Y.:\ Lt lit, h.iip lib .,r itiji i -
trrati.-.n .,t ,tiisir t s.,: u n.:4. Tih hi:i .'... adi. .l it. .' i'.'i liun olorien,
e .it Jiar-..-S alairn: .ut it is i J.t fi,.5i hi-l' lihc .
[3) .4 I ..,t ,,c .f. th l .t11 01 fL in ,, J.li e Tlis i thie iii L..:,,J tha Lt li-L t he
tii.n i t Lt-., i1 t l .. ,l.'ra .",1 tie miii- i.., .. It 1h.% I P I.-'.-.ule I t. .
Iii tI I,' i p.l tu iu.r .-. iipph..at.i. t.. tl.. indisid iual.
il ) i rii al p[.,.-a uti...n ii. lt... li. .[ .. th i. .- i. n at ir..r-n.
ii) Unl.de-r spt iial pr..:autiii:, .:..iii.- -
111 Th" con:t.',, and 101..., us.. A.. iI,.,:.mt,- I bts whl,:l tire free hr[,tJ holei.
In i ii I shIt rI l u, l,.: i,' ,l_. l , I..i.ht ij l.. ( ,.i ,,ph.hi tl rli iil o I liil'ei.

insp...i tan..e
li- a A. far a I1.Ai. . ad r uai.e n .iir p .l l ..aiI th,. lailn shore,,r_, in native
t ihl, ." h r r1.l.f .t. l 'nsi.pll: .- al in: t,., 1 p. e- e it. :o I1 II.' iI...r U'Iy alvl.Iled






A i ift' .rN I i) 111. r111iL Uii l. Lij D I L'.\ i.L


l31 lJurtll' IIth : *-vp illi. W Ill-lI f l.nutlO. ,I : r Ie I l -iO.nl,?-. 7.111ll .' ..ltr.' **I, t7'1J
Ii ari ... r -I s .1 s. 1: 1 i.,11 LIT 'l I .l :,'TtIIr l IfII I IT. .'- :Il- -m ,.1 th .1 : ..I.I *:.I l : I -1 h i- ,.- r,
hl'lp t,[ i,-1 ct fron-ill nit ., L ..H J :,.,... ,u:. to it L.O lui,-rt ,' t. d. udtIn .rdu.al.
( ,*) G cne-r,,I p ie. .nti :,n 1 t" l,, r II -o n fl` I L : 111' llh-., "1 il, ieh _l 'it /-.,ll,."'I
... *' ..r .l9 .l' ,', i. ,.,n .'. ,, ', l.., t. ,.':r.h u t h,: .,
By I._ l.ation is in, mu *,:,:u in Ii .l..u f[,', i .'**, pl, .il. I., k., ,ilJiii I l,.- it i,:,li it a
di. t ran r e .4 .j ill r A I l : -, 1. 1 1 t i ; ', i r." I1 tIi, i .,, 111-,V J0 [,1 :. ..
1303' --: ir, ilhI :lII 1 Oli lt :1+. 3 1 l tilln Ile l, ir ,. ll ri .l li .' I,', I I;n. n .i l .,: l. I,',i
li.Ill i ." d 1J ..11rTit: l l l, L. '- n r li.. .., i: l.h i :, hl ,- I ,- t 1-" : 1 l, L. :, I .T: ,I ..I r.-.. r I,. 111*:
Op-iort111lrt, r.l- l..h ni:, nr, .lr.,: d l ,.,1 *, ,.., ,l bu I, tll 1_.- T h.,U n, t lh,.,,I. h I h11 .
thI p .u l o 91 t I (LL: 1. I r ,:,: l h .. l ,, I l,1Lly I 1i h 1 l. U:,nM-
H i e- rll lh-ij' .ir i I di. i ,,_, ntl.',i r- thii ,\ , ., l t0 .:.l.i'.:.n thliti it I r ', P* llt'
l"'r -.Ibl ] Ill I l .-li hl, ll... ,:,,_ | l- ':,: l Ill *.I I [ E ur,.,p.I E ln I Ill I 1
p ,., lb l.' S.:I|.-....l l [I I,:,: m ,.{ .' i itll. :1 ln I .- li..,r I t i: t I ..m %.il -. h *..,
t1 artrin :.' that ill inm rt i,.i, 17r1.4 [. 3lj. :.1,1 Llr it th Ell-ir .:lillr- ,. IL ,r. i t -l l'4 '.
i .ll,] I.tu l ,i:.ru,:,'.ii-' tl,- iilulb ch ILI ,:I I'.- ,t:,'.t l lj. ,,T. ','..' [ :, r. ..ii' l
v:,:,u,1i t,, o. m ez.,.i
T hI I, l ,:l l tl _-l .:' L .l '.l "* I 1. l:.r I [, l i..I i rl ,' r-r ir t. II : I .I. .,t in.:.
of Ih ll i iile 1xw i%.L l:,,j J .:.rdi l, I, ,.mrii-i ..it .:I. :,, |.let-l, iL .1l iai in,.r h,. l_ .t o:,n i,
bIl t I .b y h.1. ,i ,:, l l. ,, it ri.'.l 1 .I1 ll--y, .__, -... ill r ju . ..:., *i ,*.,,ir ,. ,j. IIb .;
ita ti..,U-.
.A Lil..-.a, -,Lu:oph, li le J d r .l ', i.,t, b nju it b p r.l,:,. I ..I 1i.: iI, ll ih i l 'i l ;.. I hb- .Il lh .-r I ...r .li!,\,l.i. i ili ,',st
e n t ir ,ly d uv : I 1t is i ,i :r.. i i nI :. I r l. i ,: ;] Lu l ,:' j H i -s ill I T' O u i ,
,,.,.lfp,,ra,] l -r .ly i;,.v "l, .,pl-,,:l- l u 1 l I tl h I l_,:till.:,:. t . .,j i .... ,,,,,.' l,,lp- rll
ainc; tt.ul : !Lr '" ,','.", .. 1 ." i,'. .... I :I .. I .'u .' :- :' d'll 1.- IAl II It hP i, e int,.r-
enii-rg 1 .:-, t"i ,I .- b i r l .' N:' ,iiii l,:,' 1 s u, i 1,,, I,,nN L., ,'-n I" t ,'l :r
t iblt';y. .S .l.i i,., I- .'...1 1 r- ;.tiu ,. l. ; i,..L ru.iL,. il -:,1: 'r ...r ti ,' :,I ul,:, l'
t iiv..li t jn tj j-_C. For Il i -w -: r.; *IT..i.n s.' ., 1. -.,.. -, sh. I ,t-.. b ..: r
frI.on I!. /,al,'. H ad I h,- el,- tl in t-in 1IIlt ,,I I.-'I Ill., .1 ,[ il L-I ..t i t t rllu tl l,! r 1-r n:
the Ill ... th, l. t ,, ." 1 K s.t ti p. ....l t.. [.r,..:.., h:. I I l l .' li,:"
M L rI II'
.%t th, (':,11 ,, nab,:,h,. :,. br[,:,.,1 <1o-,: t,: th,. I'd.e .h,'re. T he ,_ 11 b.,, u; ilI-
i As Or, l i Cthir :. i l: ,..- thu- i l -C: 10 t. : il I 1., : .i ,: I11,Tll ,I'- 1 : ,II ul ,,
iik'] :I ; i i ti i-tO ', bly ,El i 1 .1 :.rI 4 1 1f [: II !-,:. ,I ;u,:,l. I ,, l. -f i hl h L .n, hii r
wludhi t [n dTii bl tli i ii "in o ri.* i* l-. 0 us... ..l -ir..L..-l s. I ur. 11i.i".i^ -l u.i ling-
ali.3 li Il .',.'I,I'- i lE. t l UL t uI lh II -. % I ...lt, J lI I:r.-J:r t:, r I.:r.,'- th,: .:,:.l L tI : 'i I iud
i;v,:r,,' l''"i yar..is -,-iu-,l ii .1 ,.hl tinct *i.I "tunt i [1.: l,:,ll,. ..i,- L,..,..m Ih'L-i ,l *h,:,[] -*- ,.,i,-
1.,[ ,:-*l;< rr. re,.

[inf ib .l- .> q ll-*'"In I": i .i l *. .. ar. rl- i Lr ti.....lL.. ill 1.1 .1 lis r li; <,-; 'll ..h ll ticii i
h r l -i A ,,I I .. u, hI.,h I lKb n t I. I I,.' -,, rI- ll IA ,,.tL h. .,1,1. [= il, l' ; ,,' -,~ h :

1r.. y1 1 IT-, l.: n. l u :' :, r: i i i .:.! I.. I. II....blI I 'i 1in.-. i, m .I l tl l, I ul lin;,' ,.'-o
Ili(- Lbr,:.. ol t ipb Il. riu lht Ir t ,:-_ 11 li." ..* ,, n 11lh J.i., thn ,:. t. :.. u:I i:..dl.
L' l l et,:
,2 L i ll ., ,I l ,.,* l i ll -, i i ii ll -. uttlll Ilitr ', m 1n rIl- l '. ll: ..v TIT, the l.. li. .
3. A II ,.ll di u -I b by, ., l,.,i _- -- .,:,. I,] I, IL II- I n , l.i l ,irii I,,..i]'iil .'.'.
4. I-h n i u l .L r If le. i n i.i I .er:. 1 -.i ill h I. i i ,- -l.-. 1iE l ...n [h II si ,1: sb:.,ill, I,--
IL.,.]l'ued t l. : r i.niilt' .IlLillihnI lll
A t illn.h l, :[lu [., l l..l ; i 1 1i %, Iiil :.d :h ...:.: i I.r.....i ., i- tI, I l.:r sh,.-l, ,:lh:,,: to
lel saI lon. .l-.,i l,:,l i u...t |.:.; l.l.., l tI '.'tr, "lli il t io i _'l. I,'t 'tIlt u:.J -tl. E X-
'pt L I..: .' is:.-iu \'ill. -.' l L T... W r. rI 0 ,i : lui .. lli- I ,ii.1]. tel *.*tA tr M il: ,.u
C lli'10 1h1.1. I l :IL it 0 iii i .- tiii, illi -,[ i,:, r..* li..ih [d Lbe lrilt Cllu t i iaLh, il.:ii l.
w here ,o:. ibile. th.. i.-S'LI.; :.:.-: : bi.. l..l I.: ii o I. I
If til- c.l|l, rtltili ,ou :.. ,i i l I., i ni ,i. th l .I.10l I, i i] th r I:.' i uii l.: I T ic, I !- 1 l all,.
*t tuth, It w r l .l mi .'- ida llk lo r.J .. I -l 1.t a.-1 i0.1..;t.r Ell Itity to tll
Ih.dllh A ..1 lh: s. l l Ln.
IT, (Il ul ,;,l rillazev th,- I lls .. sli.i, dJ br 1 L.i-, but ,.,0,I. "i'Il .' I -,:I lLili-3
,-, pi.u ti..il.k U tV-, l --i:,u ,.:.iL salhv il.1 h'.-: ller.-. :,- t-, ,li.i.-o,- : iIu liat L.: ,nill.as
requirC.l. luO sald .t lutlcri j.:, 1,1 .1 a h. villc,.; gi,,d|i ll,' :.--",J rtl i,. lurtlh.i
frow l(ii sitlion.


. 1








A ll lui L. .li .n a La. .iJ i..... l .ii ir i. r,:-l .. a.
A t K .:.ti: K ,:i t.I :[jt l:..l I .ii. : .r, ,. i n.iri-,. ,t 'i ts .i l i., dr a (. .lielES
ri.-e liinIg.~ .:...- N.o i',.- : re: .1 I.- .l-hn .:r a greg.i il ,r. ur i..'-:,L., The prr--
Vc'lh.iir ..I u' tla I I ui t ht .i, I.r..,I I,:. th. ..n tii .l r-.-.l .. ...1 thi ril.: fr:i [Ai : r iial
pi,:tr, i .I r. thir In. I *IiL[.. pr'i:..:iI .:1 ll E ii.- j ,ii-iiil',..b ii.Li-' t.q:..:tlh r with
t]E- *lil ll rn i ,, .:.1 I h.. i ..al,. i .:.1 Ir.t.-, .l. tliA .r .lI. i I I the rI i ,ii n adi .
lillu.tr lrhi..r ,1 .Ylnihnsr .as i 1,r -r. ,i T' i :, h :,..J] ar.li I ... ..I o ...f K] .tAi .l,ita
pro. .l.l .1.1, t.:. Fh Ir t h.i n.:-4.1..r 1il. Lr-it i p.rily I .711..l il l Lula.- p
.* ': ,. l . i, p. ? r .:'i, i II .. Ill,:,.. ,:.-i to r ,...[u l. r .: l.e t.: .I L. -L. I,:, --1 |lji, . ]] ti.-in,
M lil, li w l .I n ri- .j. -ii bl.:. : ."it I- i A n ri- [u l 'W r l. 1 11. IC... l- I.-, ..nu t.
\ I hl..:. .l a h. a ',.:...,h .,..r. J -,.... 41" .1, -p. l.-.t .i.'.-I. lt ,l a.,. L i. l, l,,

3.y..r- .cm.1,.l w m 4,,,.1 1 r..r I. ,. i, t ....: .... uj iun- t nii L.. i.m r tuv -l-iAr-
ri ..I _-r al I.. I..r K . l .:.i a.
A h ...X 'i n.iti.:. .i. I. l .: : :.i th l..- I r. r.'ir bll: l i.. i in,: i t in tl e h li lth
I l i iih l' ..I tli M! :: .n . liI i .-1[ L i v r: I .ii i i. a I 1i i l. i'1rP I':' l. P 61i,, r.
:*r rj l ;.- lc.:p :lon c.. ..r. .t *... i .... 1. T h'n i. i o... -n .l r.i ll.
**,.. ll- i lh : I,.-,.l,:...[r : .l .A a .l I.:.r t ,he ,.. .-. : int-l lih n t -I..I l.- l .,.i. ,t', ron I
i Ii [iri.i ,l iu r ,, r, n.I I1 !. p : ..:..I..l t I l... .1 I,. I -i., ir u, .. il.l 1' .,1 :i -.r il.

Si.,rt.

*li- c. h.i . Id ,,rr .ruiur. I-.. r in 'li Iic-itb--. I'mAl I,, III?., I Aiv
T hi IF' ilii 'I I, ,W , ,,' J I I,' ll .i i,:1. i i 1 Ci] It I t I.. It 'l i i f t I l i.' i:]
t,:,i ,- ,,,i L,., in.-,-,l,], I' tl :- ,,:.i,: l v ,-i [.,[,r, ,:i t,..".l. i* t I-_" ,l:,n l hu w trl

i ltr i.I* ta I, i i Iliti,:. i i i .-ll il tili. i, jii: i a.-l t .-I n t i
i'. i.- *:- I :- I( ,'i ii i '.-i ii.: na ti i'. vIl : l- 11 1 ,i 1v I: i i l
OL t by ti ,, r tv ,],-p i iti :. t ,:,t thi0' l i .- i i _,(. r. -I .1 A 11 :.:it l-.ell
i'*.: l.' li tl. ..r, i..-,: r o l :,i .i : ,,i .. ii ii, I al i,:au i a, ,r .i i, (.'i: ,tj[ia l ALiar -
Ioi:i'lr .:i'. ,1i i:-li.l :.'l, ..r I, I i I ri, ..l, r ,: ," : i ]| th, |I 1 (i t i ., .a lJ i :. ir ,]i ,:,,o lim t,-
,.:i l Th.i *iiij:. l, I,,. 111..i-,_ l i, i r,.j l.. l.: I ill.-,id ,. It li,'. ii "l m ,i't ii :i i h) le
L bi: l rY I l. t in t I *?ir i \ i it. II t.. t I I. 1' ?' I i 1. V i W l l.- i:n d o '/'I
my Jlih p g- .ry l ,,:t.-' i l lt[ I Fl l '-r iu i ,I.,h iin a i.. 1 ll.]t-., r.



., .. . N I i '. I. : r


l h .l ur. I r. I in.].- .-I ..i. :.: li .. .. .11 l i : .r le. u hi. : i l ri ..t Ib lir 1.il u 1 .-1 i
,. Irw r o. .,ch l i i.i ..4 ri..| ,:.nly bic,- lI.r p.a: l i' ,.:. .Jly .n.i. r rli, im i,.ndly
2, Trhe I't . a .. Ii i t,. ui .. in. ... :1; I 1I ..'.d it .. i. t.', I ri ni, l iys g a :
thi i-r 1 l ... I, r. --.. l i-r L % T hrr ] i :...i t h: I l t i - .:lV iI. L.t.. .I 11 i ,..._i ',. ,:.r ,.,
J' I . l.:.'t .:.ri th ila I ..r cu. p ,:], an.h,.J ,, l i hj h l Irt ir tl :, fit lf r iing
,p, '-i1 ii thi: n t.i r hi l ll,. ",i.:.[ i .Alter A M r:, wt o s li,., lltL. lrlii b.:i:. S ON L" k
t'. .. r, ;, th- ll I" ..]a | 1 .l: ; l.: in. I.: 11 and.J ,al ,i ri I |..:.:il ,. l id l ttll
tL affrII in t rrin, -. '- i Tli, .,.er l.... '., t i ItlY l..- 1, i0.6. -..l i.l .'li... nd
i,. Ol'.e I- I h ill i i: ii'. ] ll. :,.

S 'lh.: i-st .y., .i,:ijn Ibil,:..,.I -:II for two ,:.. tl- ..lpl. i. but I l, int th ic w\vri -r
mni il' t l... w11 ". t' t I I,.,-r r,",]J'[,..J It
B3 L.lhead, he. ii L,.r ..-iJ"demll-, hi" ir .:.iin, : alll m,,mli 1= cirmtm pIrh|ip
lry o..l. I.:.r ib qhil It no.:, L. t I lIo.re I mG n |.ll .i,'-.i the .i0 ch,.:cal ..1 tlhe MUlMt iisws ,
for it






A REPORT TO THE MEDICAL BOARD 83

There f r on- tir t lo ihe .) i called d ** (.',nl ." Thl Liri ij r.c-I...rizLi lby tih
I..i (l,]( i: lilt i tjrih, n_ li t "y ,l.l., i Ir IIi iit r put tl.h e ll. Lr .lI ulIr'm-r .t i t
irl,, r and th*.- a. 3d do Imwr'. ir : it ,_ra..-i .r. lI :y ,.T'n IOre in iny ai -r. *in in aI Itr
or usel, ."I tin. tIhruun .aJ.y.
Ot the h.cond tauuly tht nam, ie .ni-pThel,. which m an;i, r., Nd.:... Thii -nd
is ri .:piiiil.k by it lilt.- ii:.rii fi Inrig hi.n:-nrit glly oi i.- 0 iit.r ,' nd thM y appear in
iol' anirIl .ti: inilt nlotl ih i [ r i t i -...' iri p-is. ..t in tlii ;,tre .r aid [...a d
lMiiy nIIly ,1pi-e r it th. ra ,, i.,- y'.,u g u, :,,lb,. 0 l,,.::.u-c' it rli.re r -: y ,.rtg
" il ulcIhI, ih rivr.r t -v i ill qnral.kly .-i Li :.I). Ih tl.- .,..ru .: -.r il.. <.r,- r- ii
thr .e l ltt w'or il A inn-l..t li i. I,. t l h i.e :. I'-, ah, .: .f tht lllllln 'l .lhlI.- ...' h; I l j.Il
r;i h :o ; -o:.. al3 ..., 1i .1 p.-..l. If v... n, ii'n .l -l..i ,)[1". (l.- lituo ..., r .vill L : i;, r
i Urn ill.
AlIo F'y kinl -.1 it .ihLL I ,ti. iL,- iiit:.i, i [ I n] r ii ,ir ri i r. 114
.,rigin ii i, fr.lii.v : Th.: in -'lpua t:- 3 l*.1.3 the il. .I if a r p r-n vh.:. hI ,Iiii ,. nin l
int tile Ijbl.jd .. thI.i t [ tiI .:.n 1 .: tiny thin- inri-%ihl.- t., -i. ',r. c.ll-,I -1ln;.. ., Ii.-*i
Lit- 11au.: l owa in iel t ly A...t mL .. i;-.:. t r tw ., v".el.- iiil .,lt.rl i Al l, il h t
r]c. luito bite.. ar,'ther per.i,,,, at ;.g" ,,,r,-y tJ e lul.o i o K .r gi o MA I. l [ Wh l yt'i wh'
it it pi.p,'p lit: C,1.At itljty Ij i,-in ,..-'.:r. [I th.-r- ver. c no M, Ill ,, utJ.,-, hi.,.l:ly ,ookl.l


SM .a denial i th, i.iie io..f i i 'ry uI 3 11 v i,t'i y .,t h-l i. auid .i. I .I r't ki r.n h.:,.

N. .-p L.ti .- U ..,rui -." I hirt. i.i-..J oi I;tr- rr a ir .tea.J ...I t ".,- AtLih
I -uppo:_ t,-o. be i.'ant ( Tratn i,.)r.)











PART IX.


Our Need. A Hill Station.

lU p till n..*w, th' l.i-i .ili pi[e'- t .ii.lition of t.he' M3 ,ir.in ha. i .; t:r ..in-
sl.'red I l wd e hui .: .nly lo' d. ,:.:.1 l ..l ,d to tI lutIum e r i'.l .-n i i .ni,, tig
I' W mil dl, ,.'l ,i. : nt *.:l ione ['r, :, r:,n, t *'.,( t i il., ,. it l .- l st. ati. IIL
It i-. ,o:v, : .,. t.. /.,,. jri" ir,! .;,1in t.:, s..: v, h i-, .r ,nvy ,... i-, i l. i, .
extrn ii.:.n .if the M i ,:, n in 'ht ,,.n,:lo t tl h..h, lh- lP- oli f[:lo t i, h,:-' lth
lprilt of rilw.
As th r an ca.i I,,t : so n. no .:. ,t 1i,-ii ,n tli,_ I i, .:lf ,:r vi tIh l&a ol.rt e | -v I
wo kdii ha', si': h an esftl':t. Likoni, i- probh.l.lv lie iihy ii.' g L:'i't ill.v
uitbl q tl n I,- Oht iil, i, ''- Al II Ih 1,--: '.1 | A .\n i: r,: s:. in lik:,
station would i'I arin 'a le -lop[iiti t .[I 'v...r-:, hut itt a .,uli not hai.- aivy
.spe'riall b-en -ticil ti.-t upi:,, the h iealthi I..-'.
A.n io-'td th-e -t-atln. t-, th.' Ce.i'iz l .1J.7avp is .ut in.:- gra: t lao -
thoun'ht v ase,:apeuld,:1 :.on it,. anr.l it h,, ho ,:.t iia : ",'_ 11-,.4r0-td .i- 1-l",- ,1,! ;
it is in the- hii h.st ,..lk .ie- niproh,.lK, that anoth-i -.*..i ,,r ,'r .,ll b.,e even
thoiu-ht ., ,.t al-y [iat i iiiitn: '. ;h-- t- i. coi:m .
On the oth haiud, e.tain :,o n ,i/.n.,i "p' "n :. A n ill-, .n, tl. .,. t 6i.
r.l thin lak.-d ik i .:,n g the Ya. has long l.e.?n dlt.uiIen.l of jriid h:iopm l [or. rhi9
ext' simon : "i r wit. h ir gi. lt po. ibihtis. It mav lint i,: p.---lie:- tr,
foreee t Io'ow far !u,(h i t.:, -ieiit wouiil.ld eliop, or to.: r-tim.itt- twhat it-
e:xact re-tix "tlect niiil i-,n ith h..allrh of he 3M1ieiion as a -.hok ; hot
it is r.pri ilip 1 '1i[ iI W ;i:uI.d, i'xt'iJi Intrto 1 high,-r o'ountrv vit\h ,a '-:.lrT
A. ld it ., i[ litt ii- g i i l:en h i l Itt ,-g litt t ,in:t t i ii t I -,f .1 IDi lu r I n-i.l..
po *-wer[il amin t.ll a: t .ll' pii l r r.l-. A hil .taiin] i,..l i.. t *..r -
[.m1 ilv l .11"', p l "- 'r ,11, I r- ll. oLd: 1 .. l than 1 l:C station i .i
ilv.n in thi case .:. ( I.i, i '1 -:,l.r 'lhn.,t.' in il.asa t, but in, it f' i
it does not pr.-vc-ent ii.il:a.t. 11 the -tati:,]o I- to) he -C e-. floun the
health point nI vmi it is Q p, inir., m lloitaii:e t..it th:- .-Site lioil.1d he
pclIctd1 with ae. andi thbit thi.- wh'll.e station n.an it.: murrounliiigs should
be plainnie out lrom thie: hli, iin sta.iilpolint If this :.- don.:. (is Ilready
pointed out) a .t.ition placti'ally free f~iom milarii houii:l hbe ::.ecutred.
Then, th rual bici iigm lin. tio .oiiuld b,.- ad:led tr, the treitlr.m rromi mualaria,
and should have its full bein:lit. M_,reover, tii-s ,:r-iitit should i' i:extiendd
to the re-identrs at ottiitt iutioins, for, if thie hiill tltjilun bit.-ain. ? ;in aim',iu-
I, rphsheld tiat, it WvOuWl I.et p,---ibl- Ifr thosI v.'worIeis n Ot i 0kelai- tho are
jaded and worn out and need a change,: o get a fortnight's or i month's








hol!idly V 1. l ciii h air. : n l'furth,.r. provided the station wv>'r within
fairly -'as. treahoii -t the lak,-e. tho :.e .ho v- ju-t W.'v'eio d from severe fever.
or tn,. ,,,, tu;a invalids. could be landed fhru the stemuer and e-int up to
the hill titttiuo ho-pital t:o r,...rniit 1 liii the ,ei-e.iral health lecoi(l of the
dioc.s-oe Fi-oul.l bI, improve, aiid.'.,-j IO -i,.. a petiio.,i.-il i,.nth's holiday
unI'r ,t _h f ivi,-ol i cil:ient:', n:- oiuld enable m,.oars on the lake
l-v.o l Itr sta. out l.i-n.-i tlha th... \.i.u!.i the t* ise.i 1.' ,hib, to do.
11 -eeim- f.~n 1 T c(rtaih that th.-i e results v.:.iild f,.lh' t e:-tabli-hmclnt
and ..-lerqiate eji i .iiin"l r hf I .,ltah, Fulropr.ani hill station. It is poi- ble
that it efft t-s iniiht r,a.h till! tiithi'i. Thi, timn. night c(ome \hen the
pr inti.vig .. :n[r,"..tM-i's A l, e ,.... wouldd br e-t Y l.,li-h n.l i the Yao hill
.:iiuiit:v. p'.:.-sibl ,'il-. thieri: iii ,It I ,, Y :io ,:, !l' '. and grai aIIl.' the ideal
f a .l i i n .ofi ti tio:ii r. -chinig a y to Ma-a-i ii. tihe :o:it miplit he
ir.i alh l, Tih.' I itt..i dilv.eloi m nit- in.. hio-, '-ver. all in the diiii dil-t.nilte ;
foi the- i e.r ent it i: onilv ..:- -- i t, ,, ,- oi:wajil tl to tih e;taihlihiieiit of
- 11..- ill station I.-1irly ii? tih.: lake Thi- h,: l.'-in i oniiti'ni1.latid nd
iid:li..i planiel oii lt o :.lI mo:iU >: thiia i ..ine i,: i. .,in d ring tle lIa t dcd'. ,ii'l
It i n ..il th'.-' n hlli.f:- th-e tafl. an-1,.i n e ip.lti: il.i rl' ,-f the cleri.:al
1t ilH. th t t .,.- -it/v nt?/', iit 'Ir"s /:"II /'- I-"t l 'i 'ln-'n ii i i piiioat
_.l-sm ut, ,I l ,-,] 1, ,,a, iA s.. ; ..r ,n th l ,lc l .,l 1 f .. iii, i.., t ,/ / hin p n -.
Thi ex'p ri,.e,:-' of rh:- other i-_-l i : onl I, h, ,. (tl.h, M vEr.1 aiid Living-
to,: iai l i;,on- i h.,s ,'d tl,-i. t,-. ,;t.- bli- h thii h,.>lii.iiter-., and t Ond -
tr.it' tl,,ir work ii:ainl]\ ou bill -t.i1 .-ii-. rii tihoui li out 'li.siCol will
pr 'il.i.bly ,il.-. vi l ..ve its Ir-adi, n rti :r- n at, l- ii iu> Ii ,t it- I.'rk 'rn edti d
aniong the N a..-.- thi Ii,1:.- r.. y':t the tun le foir .xti'ii -u b-ackwaild
into th- Y..-:.i (, niitnV o ll :.rt.inl, -i ili to have iiived. Iii addition
tor tl- d ..'.1.ait. .-- alre -iiv i..-iition-.d tould b-.: Ltlh' .:--ibility of ijmaintain-
irn a far better jilden t h ,i, cln I, nia-d- ait the 1 k- I level. Fluit and
v,-g -1 h.i. ls ,- i, niii hi l 114 ,,- fie-.ly in tl,. (o..l.: chi i n a, ith a Iettr dis-
tit.ibute.d I.iiiil.ill. !'id -i h ll station -hocl-.l 1..: aibl,: to -lipi-l ill our other

The Site cf a Hill Statir. n.- A.\ statd ilo.,. it i- n.-.st esenitul thia thip
Iill vt.ation .ho dld I -.n itj l.v ti,.'t ,l. Idh lly at -h,.ull1 I" 3.i'in t10 4M.L. i
feet .-il ., ,: the .,-1 I 1.,. J1._1.-2, .i h.t ,ib thu, lA'k ai: d %l et l\ithin
t;iil e..v ii l. if ..I i l.l .v li ii a d -iy. nia hil.i jouiney.of the hl le.
AlNo. m,. th a -lic to d.:v ,, nt,.iit. litiiM er. buiilding iiit.Lial. tc., should
bI' obtainable. and fo.d:1. bohl native nil Ean iu!i":ii. 1ii.. lalb1oua holdd be
plentiful I, 'tly,. liou n ,a 1 'li-i'-.i p-i- l a vi.i:v., it ihoild form good
centie flor .\ .il: i I! i1,. turrouniilinii' coinitiv. and thl.iefo shliOld I .i p-laced
'tliei c th<:ie it- d k.,i,- he-i J.l1. ,l.. i tioii in th- r;lihl,..,ihr.d. T hlie Ynos
have no-. left ti lhill fi.ti. ii_ to v bij.h tht..,i :ld tor safety from the
Sla "w inii.ana. and h.iv. iritt-ied t tthelii u-uail iindr] of lviiig. anil they
i- tcaiter.i-d iin smi]l hianilets over tWide tna ct of ciuiinti',. HInce the





I A REPORT TO THE MEDII'AL BOARD S7

10 tual 'ite of. the hill stati,.n V ill not b'e .letermilne.1, as oten-l u the lake,
by thel prseiice o .1 large t,,.,.n or village; in the neit;hbl.lirhoojlQ.:,- that
it should hI po i.sible' toi chi,,-.e it, mainlv on the i-.ore ..,I h'i.alth.
Tic o.'iil 1. : .'h h i, l.1 s,i, in It. fiulhl ill thIe: altv: I.1 iurem eniits iS
the region o-t Mtony,1 i-,:e fm.tp. :.p'. The .I' d .1 ll fo-irti.-- ct,.iil ,, the
.s-Dpes :At a riIoliutain, as in the L.ase of Unaniii._. N..., the ,, ple ir.'- s. it-
t i:ed tlithroAtih thi: :Ul ri .ULtLiI]s.1_' ':OL t l i ., i t tin:l j pulati.:.n is ...ir i.l:able.
The soil i. tertile and f,):o.l is pl-ernti~ful, and t imbi, ain' L-,i l. ling I, .an I ri l
sh -mild b.,- -asil'.- obtrini.:1i. Thi ,iou itain rin :s iout I:l .i r[olhiig ti.il& -.- iil
id lil 11 I -, k. I .':tv.,e ,,, 1ti ( d 4,ill1 i .i i ,t ,fl .-,, tihe ;.": T i:he i t.-i A.,_ lr,-,l
tlii: lA;le short_ at L' ii,._.:it is tflirt'.-f e Luil'. : it iP a irlvy :- V y piat
an.l. it C(loIl I. ..m 'er!:-l1 Iln til: ,L v I; nmi' ila.. Ti'l' icomiuti v i..mntd i-
well *.-ater:l d li L l., e- it if .,uJII :.* i, ih t e.r '..,'iild b. I.?Ie-sn'I V
to .av id thi ii in-i:i'h o rl't:.: 'i i, .anoh-Ile I.'r,-eiinIg- ri.iiii P",l. iibI
thi.: il'ost .llJtailI.? .it,- ,vi:ulld bh.' t.lnd -n: t lo :.v: slopi e. ,f thei? Ili..I.intaiil.
father il.,..\ve the tmbl..-l,:i .ii tair til,: ite '.. the .il, tol r. i.
Thle country, tound is d.:glhtf:l. .\' 'a\ tI Unann.i ift''y u111':- t-.- tih
north. :nid to lalinI.1i. I.e,-v II,: y Iiiilm, tih,? ...iith. StIeti i:h a vwell 'v tered
and wounded I.:ling plateai 3, 1.- ..r.i l.:t -,.Jov..- tb i i'.t le .el, olit of
..' .ilh ri-e conicji l ,01 .i.--, -i, p,.d hills t,, a hli,.ght ,. ] 1 .1 .1 1.i '.11- 1 e, t.
Zarafi's Hill or Fort blanwgoche.-.-Ft,.- 1_-I ani l_' IS tlu, t- :v .is
i.uhLli tall.-e] ot a a tnitabie oue t :. to i ai lill st:ti., It i on. ly i i':t,?,n rnilJ.s
fhom. M alindJ I I :..' i. a p. I '.,1 b,. i 4..l'i f'-:t b t i,' -,.1 the sea, (..i.1.i11_ [iet
.il.o',e the l]ike), and .o i., a.u,:. magj ILi il",:eint vi i. -,'l.vi th, :all ve'. ot tlhe
l]ijeiida t.o the east llnd th' _UppF.er Shir,, ith the ,et. Z.uIlit' hill littl:.
,',as built on a flat ..il1A. .l i,',, iab '.- .i:hic thi bare peal:; .. M. ligi..he
hill rise- ait l':iast another 1,1 mIli feet. le iti a' a i ...'rtiul ilhiet ti 1l hi'1 ]
betf.eeln i,9000 ail l11.I.jiO pIoI]ii- .r:,'md 1ilin After Inc blikeat, by tb,:
British Central Af[iia i-lovmhrin u,-t r ti '.., li-', peoIplc e l be11 an, iii ateieIled
and tile MiIlniil e"it 'ite i.-1I c i.-.ml:eii. It ,.':?. l,.,cvie r, *o'.:.i im.,.tupiedl
bE the arime:l fuor.es and h.is novw: been ni.l into- a harra.il;s i'd militaiy
Iort. Znraih's in-ople 'r, returtuig, but iot to [lthe till. the." aire :F tteri'
about the table-lland,. .it of h]i..l the hlil iises, at li.ast 1,311) t-let below
li e. 3.,20.. lee-t abov-,, the l.-l:c) an]d it least oie arld 1 hI.ll Ih.'mt awa'y tloin
the old to ..-1.
T'lus. though thel site- has ilan',' uaturAl Iadviintages, thle fa,:t that the
Ya.. iihabltuita it- i' ijha '.'ov' avay, and that. then rll,:': is taken by a
militatv barrink:-, piuve uts it frol be-,iiiI ait'.- longer suitable. Fur pur-
p,,ses of Mision wrik it .iodLl i nort be teaille to I.'e b.epara. ti: a distance
of one ilan a halt hours frbit ti,_ nearest s.ioo. Moreo'vei, the proximity
to the fort and the tact th.,t the-re i- .inll 11: (i tli-r EuLprpean ill tlh niieh-
boutliood, alId be the iinlitar-.' .iand ..tl' gi..i'eimor o, the distijit, s a di-til, t
,drawbauk. Lastly. there is 0e1 unatl;lail dJisti m.'anitage that ..'a not r.-alizcd







'.' ,l it- 1.- i : l,: n il : ,i -it' -.-, .,1 't,. I, F. l r in. .st rli..: .:r I'.. ,i.i fliii. N.-v~' l r t.: Apr.\ il, it I.- ti -r1]ilently iti lit -up
in i th l.:liiuls. v.'ith t lhill' S,_t,.i I 1''-t .ill ojirf l T' i- m 'i ,, not I.:
illih .lt to i. 'l it' b.h it it i l- .I l -,'li:it. illd pl,:. jiit- it hioin b i
Fiita.lu tu or ii i -i ri :. 'l i .i ti I ril. Aii .ii t |.!
Nanlizimu Mountain.--ii 'I.1111 .itt1 i 't 1 I ', itt iir, il] *: it i tli r Pr Ittl
l.iil it i r: t r I t ie ,t i ,1 % ,.u t. 0 C -i .1 I ut. I ..l it I f I 1a,1
,..* f ,ilis, l' ril t!- lh t,-,i !t,:.l ", n, , i. .-l, I hI,. Hin '.-L .:-',V. tl'r," ,:,'.lll t[Vy b" l. inld
"id to Ill. :. t h r .l 1 l il. h ], .u tih,' A .' .P,,t ur i u i..:,,, ., t iry line, %.% s
r" d jl.;- .l. T l.- 1 ]!!ll,,i t, t t -It tl. ...i:,. t I-ti -I v :- ,' paI.rs.]Y- iIlI,.I b it.'d
.I, d I.,:. t, '- :.III ti I i :' I, -] ,' I I l.!.br- ii. v F i ,e pO: ,].I tio!. i o.4 the ease
r.it. r1t ;i. ,- t':...in l I i N .-ii liin., o ii t ii!. 1i.: .v 1. 1 T region
that ii i ,,] .:."I l..l I..": -,[it i.!, t.:. t lut nt 1. v lI, ..irt I t i. :in |lsti.[
..f lill rth I.:." I r l ei\\ v o i It;.., 1 I ,.. r 1[..l .i ...l1 w-o,: led.
l ivi ;g )i t, I -Ill itiK1 .L1in :. tii!v nct,:. n I.i],~ ir'.:m th, l];,.: (a ,r. r '1',

T' i' l, -,:. r r,, h,., l t .:.t ". ,1 1 ..t ,: ;. o .',. th ,: ,ut .Il.i u r 1l .it'i
l e,.'t l.,;I,:. I 1., 1 1 l ,.:,v:. -, .I .1. I,, .,',,h:,v. tr], |.- l l. ) ,:. -II : ,O 1,. f;i. 1l l vlf l
i, , lI :inil k ti:, t1) ,i :.i 0 z : i I I :.it l ,n ]h e b uilt.
It .. I.,i l lp i .:.l l . .- i :, t I F i i :l,.:1! c I t- ,. t ti,.r o nI th 1 l'I [.,e
:if N ain i;zal, ii. tu t ., t I.,.-.:i i Ot iI, ..nii, ,' !- i, l, !.i t ..i l z it i- I...,_Lie'., rl
S.:' I.".:. l u ,l| : l I.. I.,1.1 0-. I.; ;]:' 1 p le r 1till -,Id l 1.: .h i, 4till i ,:. 111 their.
I1'ii.o.. C. onlt A.t th.- 1.1-.1: -:1 'l l. I-1 l it .1.1 1 .1": -11J.k I'll t.od '111d
lI hur: .i .1 ,:,b, .:,r ,tt ,,u i l,:d t i M i- , v I:c. .il -. i i i.,t li. t.. 1o r tli, tiIFt
liill .t.t,..,i Ili t it i ,lr ]ir, i .:ll: t I r it i nl 1. \ I..- th i t0 h, 1 1 Y: i o
.:.:.]1. ,. :..f tt,, l it ,:.. I'l ,-:ii .. tl.,. -r .-i.:., ,.1 rtl '..,:,[ : T i e '- o ~ ,-A r :.
- r:.l r ,l l t , I:..) ,' .I I t, .1 11 t I I,. l, i :I.: I.lli 0 0 ,ll, It 0ll.0, Illi.lih t
i.et,.rrlnile thli.li to ,-J tl, lij al, N 111 ,12ii, 1ll











PART X.


Notes on Special Points.

Little dang.,:r rcim Chill-.- i'h[r. 1.: ti-i' t':r: jI- '. .*.[v -hut
dli rinal v.-,riati,n. .It.-,,n i .t i n.or. tli 11 F l -r hal. sh i1 ii, '.', r,:r-,e
p. I ',. Wi t i. tri.: ,f L il;..,, ri L i.o l, : all h.:- i.t.i, iii, o, the 1 .1i I-v' l
In thi- m .arkte- t] iuiL r iti .- 'I t n t,: .. r. i tr i [l i l ,, i i- lT. r; ,:. itirt 'ly
Ia.h mir'.'.l't t ,i .'i ti, l.: .i i r, .:.i,i h ,r.e t- ie .:' ill ti _.: h! ti' ll :,l tr..ir t, e.

petuliai .liangi m .'i-', tr:pi'.ii l mii .cte ti '. i t.k:- .prom:iii t a
p l,, 're ill ,list ,llit- i:.hl tio p:i al l -.' i s-u--. Is h e f- p _. t.ti, -ll .il.,1,I ut.
It i ce t. i -ly ,fiU it.v- i]i,-. -- a t .: i a i clol.:- : i ;ilr. i I l altlhoC ui,
t in,. .v. h i .- ,-' l i. .h l i .l :.! ll. rtI 01 t ,.* : i r ii i f ti ll Iii- i, J't the
.kin, 'let 1li, i, peo:,pl, 1 ., t, .. t ,'oY tt:. -, .erl ,..t s.,le It i1 1? ,tai il'I
.a vis. ,ble t... ch.,ig,. oh :l:.t i,- \ I N lthe',' -,i- ':,.l .' ., t I il ,' pI r:pi -
tM oil ,.i hiu.! r.,,i jlst :- :. w. ,o d IlI:, il E i .**..ii. l. i.,it fh,:. lii, -. r Irr,,in
C:h ll. i1 tu ua ..] l t.: ,. :, -', 1.. p1:,1.. l-.l',' II., gr1. ttr l r e'... th .,I r h. V.nWiI
C. l l i- ,:,lte. pu t .tl 1 i ,a .t: ., a tt .'t.: .: 1 il ri i 1it i f, r.:k n
e X ,-_Iiz r -a Iul t h ,l,- l ..- i .,, :,:, : I l t th, :- a.lie- ..1 Ire l. I .a v,- f -i.it d
thii a lh.ter iii ng !.-,,j l.:,. *,r,.: rn. ,;ri:.,.ly hc'.- ['he l I, h ,,1 .:hildlhi :s
v hi--h th, 1 iFt t t yn pt,1 .:l thl e ,tt...l: i- olt n p, t .:' ,: 1, : t ,..(Al.-.,
Sanitation, Native and Europe?.n.-An.\:,igi th.- n.t;,.-. amtation is
o.. sli..ttilou' ,i,' ItS a ,senc e. [r ..:1 g,, t.:, 1,i;il "" .*li',er, Ihe_: i.'lltal.,e
,ov. r. olten .,l lg t hei :i> o, -tte.rn- ,ur :,u,.:.1- thl: .,:,.,I. ,"r r,':,,l(- ,1 tthe
l.ik>e 1 ,, A Ii, tie h.i -.11-. fi the- treLe,.1]t ili in ,l.e.'i I ,,,'. -. r 1 -f the
hot s'li pl .,bablv [.,re. ,:,t -.' ,l,,ig r :. n e, ril.l. a.I l. i:yv:, .l uhpl-lasa-j tr
bl, t IGa IIII iel.| 1,1, _.1 1 _.I l. .][il:. I tie %,- t i4.: I-u 1 ,:.- ,eve,:l, -: .. ige
lnll..t Ie v,,a.he,.l li to:, tih: ,- .i 0 s ,ii l the i. k,:. -rd.l pol lut,: .oil t i o tlhe v. tt,:t
re-sult,
At night tim,- tri .ar At v iil be ,-t. _r itl..:; pr ,. ts the 1.-opl,
fr1,,m g,,invg -m y dii.. t ,.,i t'.n. rl,,-ir ho-., i'l they "y -:, to l.i-.h 'iOSe
bv. Thle ie'tlit is .- tinh?:ti.:.] ,:.l th-e .oil in Ah, ,:hhb..iihl ,,, -f n.i-tive
villges,- aid it i.- p holb lly il this a that iankyl,..:t,,mi,-is -,nd flo-illy)
bil-:.rzi, i ( oth ot vhich, ,-,i,:i ,: [,:.,: -il' t!he latter, a,-. e..t .,,, lv i... ,:,it .n
Jise,-e-i are q[.read.
T i..l. t,-tal ubtls, ce of .-;l lit ttioln .i::- l'ot bO ..le a L. u iJU'?' IA hleI the
people live in sn.all ham lel .:Sttt :,l .,.,ng th, liak. i -1 .i. ,:,t thlroiugh, the
forest, but %hen thi.-v aI, >olle.ted- into a big vllail, ov town lihk:. Kot I
S t


FP





Fi,) A REP-ORT T10 THE .1EDIfAL CARD 1

K ,I:.ta it ti-,.I t,.. b. :....: .1 .,' ." i...l iit]-.i ,,. Ili ti r: st .v father th 'e z om i
IP lIp thu on :::ret:i rapi, lly, iblt 1, v.iet ...itl hr tl ti-,, i- i. rll.n .'holoin-l
.11.lv .-;"i.-Tl
In tl, l i ..- .:.t i-.A ti i :, .' a little I. i. Inilandf, I. ', tl. ,? .. i > livII Et, O il
t il '? [ l -i.lI t t.1ta j., ). tl ,v:, l .i ll 11 l t.-,( ,c ,.cl ;.5 -, |.itr il,. ;.rd(1 t- i th1 Is
at .a e bt. o: 1,:, l i ; W ;,l,? th.ir.t .t . i MiA l;:-[ .:.f [,,olluti,.. .
It i- .1Iltlh .ullt t,. .: e th it inilI ,.'m 1 .? .:,tlu t.. iinp ,o.:,? t ', Ia, r.-ic tk-: ill
1 ,l Itpe.:r. 1 0. tl.: *.' :.f ,: i ;,!.:,,:-l h.:..- i,. 1 ill|-., t ,-,r 1.l I It :' a re?
ir,:.\ -.,. lnir tLough I la : .I r..11;. i-. l a t A Mit, .: .1 Y t.o liro vM t 1
Un P-.,1?. O e t o Al-i..[. ,t,..[-'. it ,:.tt .ery .iti-hiult tc.* i-i ,,,:i t h icir u]ie
Iu ttie ',I, til. ,: 'l tle,, p!. [it t.:, g .e ,, lih '" l ,[ .,al 1.1 ('.n'l .tivat rl
li,,ll]'l I- I1,?',' i1 : .w A Mi OiW it I5 ,'1 [..it ,:,H. i,:" 11 in .tfi. Il l' t':.
C'..r lnll l ii '_ |'J ." in ,n ':.tll eit l .?:l i:.,' t i. ll .
N ,:, f, ,:r .r i -:t, t:u .,, I ,,n t ti.i,:.h ,-., l.,1 I ,I ,.'l.h.':.r '_,] ',. ithi [,n 0 ,',: i,,[i F'lI,:-
O ni .- lit .:,[ ..:o! [il, l l,.:. i i n.h : .:. pu, | o .: i:,,il \ .:i, l,] o .-,e to Ie exerris el
I.,v th .:. ,. I ,- I'/ht o kt. ,1. 1 it ,i .xtr.-.i ,l, Iv o.i l:l l, t n t t ,I n v -** i?[ t .Il s.nit..r \y
'f,:,r ill b.: .i tl ei i't. [.i.0 .t f :. thle :.., tt .. o wl .,..1itiu..n A. tlhe uliat i'.
I,:[l.ilm A ti t,: ..I .. m :,l ui nWw a l.,,'r A:.1 ..hit, [., :.pl. in tlh,, :-'.:., ]try. Indlepd
th,-r: r :.ily .., c., t'linm ent ,.llic:. -t ,., th I 3.,f. tli,- G :.\1-i Itii-IIt
o t, l.,i.I- "" t.,Il.l ,'." th, l e .'in.-. ,:.[ Ielil, ,:!.. the ,:h i[it :.! t h', M i.h i, .s.
A i ,:-a'.-1 E .r..i.?,p n th,.:" -v r.iii e*, ? l .:',,:, i- ih ,ipli.i it l..l .,ind yet
it c a iti l ly :,:, ,t,.1 It -,ilnply th ,..11, l,: i.. .:e p t i y. .-t': A
1.0l ,bo:.t three feet a.r,:.:- .iii.] 6x feet l.eep. -,ilug ,n-l ,ova it i :ra:ted a
si .t.ll re.-d WI,:,!:,: OVw.,i ih, !,t l..:.:,,!n,:, h,.. i h1" ll it io t;l] -, ih. another
i : ii .ll th. role.} l ..ubl i..:.\..l T l. . K 1 i. li tai i.'! Afi lyv In
t_,- 1z..th \1 th,-z, Q l w.it ., loi, dz', it ,., it.iio:,- fl,:,ti M y i .%."ate!
-., .p l i th]l,.:'[: ,:\-l l ,,: I, ,l ta.-. r ,:.1 i] l| ,: ti.: ,1
T h,. :,nly [P:,-iA l- :.'.- t,: n to: Ilu- .-l ii In i tl.-it tle pil in liht Ine
O:,ffe1iv.e .\s ii tt:-r ,:. I,\,.t tin lo :,t thr: a:c-e, pr.v:-id,.la,-- ushcienht
!O iti ih.-i I,.: d nii .', t o,,:1 iin y | i,.:,:,,,1 .? ,1,:. ,,n t ,,, | i* .' ,! :.-ii.... .-\ a ru le.
,..,: M:,h [,it r K .,,61 I,- il,:.,, ,, 1 f,:d ,. \ :t t '..: L ii"ur,:,pau :. ,1.1 ,t leIst-. ,n ,
!.:, ,:! :.'. tHr.-C |,l: -:.l i_ 1 tlhJ= Is ,z :. tlh :.r, i- pra.:tl,".tll, no1. s lell,
1.. it 1 1.y i: it I -Ilv ]. l LI.:. I :h.| ii i. h :,t I .s l 'h r, littl .l: ,,_.i '
l,,v. ,l i v.,ll i.hedl. : the r :ll.
SuI: 1 1 A ` ri'in, i .' (4 1.1. I' pp.:. I t iI t tII,: -Ir .:- i ]r;- M i sion p.e-
pr : i t b Inpl t,. I.,:,'.'[I,? I .:...m ,.., -! 1, ip t- ; liut thlo [I cll ? i, i\' ery
;t. tio n]. It i-, -:. .,:.ITS,. ihot .1 .,, '., t l i t. '..*1 i l'ou ld 1 i f ,:. t ii. .1 E i r.p.-.it,i,
to,', ,:.r in,1.'.,1, in\ h,:.:,. i-,,pt ill tih c.M a i hA' loupsr tainlii in their ,rown |
,u: m,:i- li O .-' C :,t t.:' I- t lti ,.: M hi Iijv,, t:, I .. i...h g,-nr ld ei. th
lo-, ;t -y -i,:. i ,.,:, l l't,,lb. ,I I, i,:. r u ^ lJta y .,iirh,:, ,t,,'. S ulh .1 .y, tent+. i |
v.,,tll, h,.,n,-v,:.t-i. ,O[pc, t 0., I o:.rt 11:1 i t.a ,?' it ,i pli-'led to ...in Mi-i ,ioni
tatiotI]. T' i.: iighlit -,.:,,l ,:., ll i a, ve t,: .h po-:. Il .-.f i pit, in thle S Iam eI
-nav w1 at pl-itw, W,\,il' ,, t.iro, t, tlhe pgreat ih tiai l ip,. nglwace for such





I A REPO-T TO THE 31EDI('AL BOARD C1l

'work v-hich '-~l-t oLi thi'. P[at of jiative:s of this collriti it o-uln I"e a
c'O( st nt source (.f v. orr-, to ra irr lg : (li lh.e ii i, awal'..a, f o Fir h tiizht
soil from the- earth h cl,-.:.ts.
The Lake Water.-As -t.Ltid aho,, h..ti.. the lale v.wa- i drull:,
watetr-ll., lite disi.'ases Isu.ich a dv,.:i i t -i tyi.1 .,h id) ae rl.,, .v iile
c:holera ik not :iionowi At both Kot.a ,i,. Mllaon.1'-. lh]<..v,:,i. wl,.r,:.
M\\ tt:t frolii II el or 1 t' 1,i t i l s 1 til ui l:. l\'*iY :iitPi. i t.11irlv., ilol, iiioli.
I pl'ciially at th, tim :c of th. y'eir that '.ate g'etb .a :,. \i.. l.t tl ... .11
of- thi :. li .:i- i. TyIplI..:..I f-.-:v r. ihde...l, \v.a, I..eliv.- t,. tb. .b ,int
from tble PloteI.toliate iiuntil Luilt.' i.It,.ly. I li.ntiilg the l.- l e CI :I. tiln
doul.,btl ,:.a e' ot typhoid hav.. ,:o ul .. l. l.,.,.th r bl ad l.:: al,1 'h1ii,'
ilh idabit ilt-. I11 lb ,[,:,b,;l if.-i : tioii v. ', i th tit I i tal ..: .IC.l _' t
til ti hol South Afrita Lv p1N eFrsroui iat, l iltl:' fr -, t 111 ( le iitiiii,-.
Apalt ift in un loubted *:a'..S ,f typhoidi. oth. r ~s.' Ot iplllh L;.-. ir, 1
have ,oric. r il'', ir. :oIf i, : c[ l ih v.Ir plI1.b.hl a typical typlihoil attad:,., .Mid.l
it is ceitainil po .il.,le that such i.a;-es lu.-i h Iv. ,-. i.tel ibut t ,,.,:n
r,-cr.niz'd in pa t ye.aiS. .t iiiy' rat.:. the- piel. r.l.,. oI inl :.ubt-edi t.,phoi.l
in the couritr..' iluiSt ii .. :i,-]:. ,,, i. lU 'Il ,Aiii it j .lu.;t be' I '.iarlei'd a a
danger for the f'ituti In vb-I I of fh.tit-i -:nld lil it tI.. ab,:+Iaci A. t 1attiv'.
r.I Ll.ltllJ. it IQ *,a.} t Q. .-,- I Ma.V IIl _tCtlOll COuld be iatt,.l-" clln '?i .L It k
haid to see v. hI \wvatr-b,-iii, ,ihi,-'s, i' aiu iot u.li colJil,:,iiLiwoIe Th.1:
explanation iwoul-,d app,-ar i, t I tll tht : fr t 1 th: l:t tht .:l, r the moI.t part
d(Ian k like water. mni. it IILust 1.,-: ditlicult f', ih]'.,-:t:oni to. -1 '[, J by the
lake. Onie iiuagiill:s that it must 1.l, po-il.l r lor lak- w irer .lr.%ii iust .it
the mouth of a Fp.illutl.d ,ti'iaL ti,' ,i:uvey ltc,:tiJ lal thlouLh tih,:r.' i little
plositivl' ePvideitce on thib polil t ), but if i l fc:'itiuii thi t i ..,.i-.h- the Ctla I. it
would aippeLa srooi to, t io b lstir-''ed. Su'.1 l all appallii._ c.aliuit th:-
infectionu of the- lal.k Lith typhold gL.rmI and th.ii ruidtltpb-ation i ii it it.
I imagieil, l..eoudll the l.bouudsI of polIihihily. If i ..r..- p.-- i.L,. it
would pirbaly hav',: alieadv occurri-_d iL the .-i.- ...f th.: ,:.at Am,- L.IU
ink.?s.
On the othrr hli td. if ilil. ti...Ili. g,'[I .l]iii:l:ly lisI th:-iia vitality ,ii
rachliiig th.: lak., it I,illoias (X,' has beeLni geu.i.lly 1, .ai:.:-r.rtd) that the
S',re t ll',-;s (if w;iiter (te I.-lke is 31.0 IIil : lo1 ; .ii 2 I plaiLL e. 241. fathom.,
dl'.Iep) lustst be piic and -jlilte safe to ditil: thoila'i:i. A.\ illd:aly tat,.d in
the account of th.: st,:ainmer. it has l be ii the lt l-'.UtII t' dliuk such water
dirawn W .il out \h,:i, thi: iAkl, is d a::l,, an1d no hatlu ha. leSitesl.1. Ml
n V.D opinionii i that silch water iS pvfcif tlvy i.iAl.hut I should be glad of the,
opinion of the Medical Eoairid O:L the uil:ibjeCt. If -ui:i a thing a1 the inlt1,:-
tion o th h of the wole of lake N va a with typhold is possible, it wouXtll miealn the
derinuation oif the iuihabiltaitl of i ts A b.'?r'. Ili the ca-d- of all tbh it stations
S it is the ill: that all drinkmwu vat..er should be lboilh,l (,.-:(c,.pt at Kot.i. w-h:ie
it is inatlually Z-t'?lliz;cd). Thi- is t,. guatld apairint the d.iinget ot pollution







thit must e-ist in wivt,-r dra wlr at th, lake N..._, cli.'- to tleO mouths ofii'
Str. n- s ; I ls thi' ,'"IEO of the .fteAtiner. it \''.s ari, vl,-. I that similar sewage
pollution nii-Ilt oc'iur v li.- slie v.a s -inichor-d. hec tihe e..isting rule
th 't .atirr n lr, i ld it dirt '". ar :t _.ii', ,lit ill,' t .V iiide[ i1.'.r cirruiul-
11tj ,. lbut it hi. bh ii, ,17 i d till ii5, it l.i' .oit i fori .ipsis l-er 'r by st eam ers
ind l.o-at to-, dip up and 'hntiih k unriiol.:d .. at r from thl open ki.:l:.
Danger of Over,':ork and Understaffing.-Oli tlhi p'int I think that
opiri.n i at hi m i, r.,tli ovrv -t-it,:.. tl-,,- ,langor. P.c-.1 :-,: ic r inlned to
tlilli.. tlh it I [,-i ,'l i ,i .dt ipli,? ,n v rv.,,rk i t I .V[tj'i. Tlhe wr'Iau t is
th:tt iui .: io ,h.I- s i .. t itI.t I'Itt I, ] .'' i.t that th'tr ii'ist he iirost
I: til lud nv t ,:, ,- r.l. tl :n ,:le- :, II 1 iI.nd [ to til-, tlouo ,lv -.: ,ioit, etc.
A. .1 Inottf l t .': i. "t .iV rit' i| at N y.,sa. .1 nri.111 01 t .1.itLtnil C3T1i dr
jtl.t .t ooJ t1 I '. i. i nll E gliill. ., thi ,' ic.tilild :01" out pre-
,.ire'' to:, d1i .:. I .I )L i 1 for iv'.vi :.Iv : otit herie. a.3 it England.
I'.'nirv.rc rl is l,.. li t So I Ei l- 'lA l. ii.l I ,1hi 1 t thinl: it is. a 'ny worse
* it li ill 1 11 i li ,rg:.ii .'. it i r t it i ti'i'. tly p[r li,'I to oiv '.r\'ork
li ,.. to \'.oil:f r / .'/ ,.-'. f iloirt 111, it hi g I'h'r [.ip c-ur. tla ni oWre L'In
i,,-,.-illt 1i. i['iI. .iii v, t if OiiL: t .i [:-t l t whl i the .iinerrYeNy is passel
n:i 1 i i_ w..i re .i II -I Iir: iitalrtr' ther.- iS. I thin -. i ti:iil. ricy to
il.il t -ia li tI ln .- 50ff thit thei-V i .. i:''e '.litI 'ii r *r'l v; ttho lt ove'r-
:-I.t: : thi- 4. I tilc ,. 1 irn t-.- ; wh .t 'ile t ii 3 i; ti ili. lilttinil a staff
tl.It I ran ]jl t .luio t.i.I., *-:t t hhi- iL t :. ',orl; I' liin t cf ed.:t1 outil
wOi!:I!i h r1 l, tir-ii. if ,an il i' -i.:' Ic'oities. pei ple ,'ill ii to, it. This is
tl, v.tomi :,it .- ,ii. ,a er_, h.' 4 l -tif ill E1ln L ,t l. m .ii.l it honulhJ be
tinl? '1inl I-r'
Oin tli- o i-i h 1 1 1. ,, ti ll ,ii1111 ., t ry t'll out l? i?, ? p,:'iharps l irt-, thai,
tli.', v ..ii Ei'lIanrl. Liiilnr-talti:' e viw 're. .it, f.ill ..Ii'.'s 'work, a
Oln L .', t o .i 1. I,'.c i *.' t[a itt t. t1 .1n1'0 ,-il*i tl 1.- n1 ,01. It tL 1 t ot beell
i],n' i':. ih'l th il ii .-' l .it I. 1itl it ,I ,.' 1 1. -1 'p r .t y Jii'r -. n n.1 hit
hit l,.1r if\ t I. i:. ,. i1 g,:t iI n ,i It t l li ?l ,i ,i .:,il-, ll tl'i ill ill i

.,r,-lJ l- .v in ; ro it I l: hi i,[-, it 4.,,i ., i t i- itli r S.-i.r.-F r, in
llit.Jt ih .l l*, ..' : .'l o i .l .tri.. Iln hilit. \It i t im \.'.a" ntd i l,.t W (.19
I tlhiinik solli; .opl: t I:,rO>: \,,ii!ll Ido! l) iv' f tM ll i nll or ndu mr-J.?rst,'tlm)]*i ,
I .a l) ,+,/,., ir!k st 111.
.ii thin; ,.tI lierf hu i l. iII n lJ,;. t.o i ,t1111t i L ,-i l',:',-I l "t, t.t1i out he?w,; it Is
I ,'i '.f .t,. t 7 t tl t t l *, i ? i j ,. 1 ,.. n e r,. ./ , '..i / h! l .f t .i * iJ i i i j] : t i l i f o r E s lp e i

ii, lhilv,"it .] l, iI[-i Ii l_' 1.ill -.- il iti 3'lit tl at. ii 4:,i-E to ,i o ld l iindeT-
.'at.i l1i it i i U, ..'i I. io i,, o' C lii .Si .11m q \,.1 rlir;'s ill i,-, ini. ,'vt] iy and
..iitin,]L to co ine if i:.ll..- :i.'- .
S .i t Lhl p ,i it i-ii in. It t ii '.r -, N .i all I.- ll,_, il c .1 i ,, l-. I i. l l4i,,'ii |||J,
Eli',th.l li ,iL ri.. .i a d ..r, .. t r t r L ... .... l- in' ,.. l' l] ',l. L..,, I,.,r ih. lak of clertgy ,i
we uWight be al n a at lp |' ..ul tiu. atLimOU







Cultivation and Gardening.-It mn.st be. inlihitI- 1 tlht x.,eii'g iia|
leen rather nrgl-ttel in til. Mihioni It hi.i- Ic.- t-ike. up by". .t few
oPithii~i:, tc i ii .i ,. lit, ,vh,.n thii se hi .e [p.i .-, ..;* ,, thI ri lA.- ours
lIg': hot t'1 \ hi C.111 i. i tl iv 'lio ld I- be_',,t Bui i i '- h i.i,. thi
legat, tl,:t thl-v hli t lef't It'. lell '.*,ili -t ti.h I 7 .' Of.i O R ti '_'. I I'A .ItI- t
hitLeit 'l ;. I( t. ]K .t v:'.' I it ,i ft I' it tre-- (I S.' M it t I .' lin1. I
t I 1 1 I ,t I I l ,' l: 4.-. o .1 ,. i l l,.' 1 | ll, t ..1 t1 l, l.,,.- \, 1 Il, L ik] _,'[1 .
hs5 Ilntil I ilit,:' I1,'L i Itl', l., ll, I. .n til, y li-t IIt ,ll th,-: (..n l, It r ,.?J
at lU t.t.'I- l X., .\ hli,:, 1 IIh Iohl'-jOh.
lia tl Le l b Ie e at LikL i ..ii ,rii i: i t .f tl',.. bairret iIe !:.' of tilI'_ s.il.
but .all the otliver stati:on- hoi-ulil hi.ve i g'.... ga.'it TIl. ,iik.-c| of ti>o
a.nil':ii Imili. he lii lcrt k,: ii a ,..'riit ik .l v s-',-r, rnei ll.: i .' f t hi
btalin ti it lio ,ii :nuit I.R .I ci, j t l, Iv. bin a' i*, l sh-ai' t 1, h o ull tbe w id
to tPl iC.it the t.'atirl' ,ctron nj i it .' I [. lLfi| | tlit l -C bt.'.l I it tli. V'
t;kie V' ,i' t1 ,1 ulik.. jiit', tr i ;.
It i-. liev'. i Lkelv t jt ,ii' Mt i-ii:io 'ill t ti"r L ririim -,ii ,a li tc .2 lc:-
lil:e ou .' t" i h iil D ut. lit iil;.' ltli- M I ..l \ it' r 'l.\ 'i liik i''. Le th ini,
tO hi. "I.' ILi 1111i i, f 1'11 ,,l --Ii] \ lr,. ',,.ik i- to c t rin. i tllurl-ti. St ali,
it .iiy ,.,-a ? iiit'l id il'n t, .," .? ,.ltt li. i, -.-. i,: t. .r',(.iil ? ,t t,,,i,, i l [,., ." ti,:,l
Lit i.liint'lIIC ; itl g.I'1111:i. i! th, l.l h l t ,v.-i i- k ,.,v -,l .-. ,-,* .ui,.l :t.t rld
h il11 l it .ii d -.t t 13 .l .l i f 4 1 ['In- 1,'tli.: s '!,: rl t to liCt I, llL >"-.
























A I









i'.\11T XI.


Notes for the Medical Board.

On the working of "The two years rule."-- l,,i i il,. \ I, rl it ilh tnt
(i ll.-.,.:lh h ,ilel-i t ike pla.:c:, ait ll,.: n.,l ,..I Il t l ,.l t v. 0 I, ,.O iiLi.pl .tei.d
Sr iT... itII A lit,,. .a u.: liti La lI.,,t Ih 1 '." thI : ; ril II 0oI ** 117.: li rh,1 I I I
',A.1 Ir ]T l ll ld I.t-f. I ._ll- --
i1 h) T fI? f ,-icr t1 1it oli.:)ii *ttti ,-i t l,1...,: thit 1i t ti ..'.-ntv-tr.ur
de.thilsi fort vi:ile t'... iiiii[r i 'l in l H 't tilt t ."- \,', 'f ,-:.i '. I ..I ii
lt') Th..: l;:t thI t i .i t r F tti r :E v -.1 th t I It li i lity 11 to bl tC .-:w.it: -r i.:v- r
W% i- g jleot-.4 1 .1111m1 tit.. hil 01 [ft-: lelvi:. IN.B.- III D.il.k,
wVoC irri' ouWit tlie .,l.,:l;' t,_:t i '-.v r tit, tlti 'i- ...1 El tit i L -h L l .t i l. Al i ii.
l i. ] I(i. cm.,ni t tli ,; .:t ln. i .,i tli. t hI.i. J'- t.:, it p .t: ,ctii ..ill '-.- i A l -for
tl .,O l ,.i* -jli.l l.h l l 1 ,ll .'.va l[?. JIlj ,i t,'[ tl', 1 tl,., it It l -It ,' .I i ,l. -' : ,!,;1Y 1- '. )
It V..1 .1 r'- i..-d tl-I t r .f 1'. :! Ii \W. 0 : t,., A,.l ]L.- ,lim .i ft till' t ,1. r ,l ti%,
,, 1h.- w o ld "l, \".?'I -I" .i,' l LL .;. -l it' th li l 1 ,' ,".1 : r :"I ]"'i I.:
that tile iicirt.it'v ,Vo i'Il bie .reatlh il'-.:[.:',.-.]
Tr l e I ... ,I : l JI in Ii [ t. j thll:. "11 i ll:ln.i. t. .illld It .-I- [I t, t niii lm to, t ..- t it

cI 1: i 1 Q; ti'- II. le t i, i. 1 at *'t i .:i i 1h, l f5,6 ] A -. : -Vi .. -. that
oluc -s ;i t, iil:'., il tlir thii. .l vI.. r t t ..iti a ; _..,, i/ ii t- ,I .;l-[vi,-:.i -.lt tir .it
it i1'- p I... Li t. ,', ,:' ,' ,," I .' t' [., n.._ -,:l ,.:'L.,i .i.tr ot. li ti ttil th l tI rl.a"
frc iiil t i i. i ->.a ]itiri[ ', l ii.ig li tl.,,\ i. I' ivn :. ltt 'lit',. i, ,,it, ( iilil ui 1
IJl.- an '.i l bv I Xp,:l.],,- vi .. ;iv:, .1a pthri.-i w h., ".-o li hay,: -,',Ir ,'
'[oi l.,lju. L et l,:vr ,Il ',_,g hi.-. thu 1 *,. ,: .i[ lut u'. 1io v...:.;s :\'e(l Irn' tl-,Is

to low iri n g.0IT. .1 t .: 1111l 'i.i i I (1t w 1li l t I.. util t ( i.i, jn-t IiA. ii.- i-
,ili lln. IIi thitnl y,:.ir Ol .\l[ 1. lit.,; T h,: to z.,, .11111. llt l.-i .. ti.o,
Call JU 0. 1 i e iv ni .lit,;r .1 ,i, ,i l lii't i J t- tir t f: t li>-v,' ,... iillt-
latel; but two C s.-. li ve r.,:it-ilty oi:in i, t.l v w'liil 1iftgg -' t tlI it the
.l rei'r iII.tv l.,e Ii -, l.~ ii i uli t[lin i l-: li ip;d. M r. L. a '. a id 1 lr.
1) Li have linot stliei.l tiu.l l.it i..iv:At; .,i f .A t uin thi li. thir.l
y',ai- ol ,A\ ii:.aIi le. i i spit, ot t i. [l et thI.t tl l' pr.' liui it e.'r (i.e. thit
thiitl Pearii ot *-.t* c iii Lith.' MAl.t ...ii) li. l bL-.*i, 'J. lit 'ii [ti l,.ti Lih i II E ig :tIIid.
Thes~i'e two. t' WuILJd il to :rlt2e t tha.' t tihe iitei poitioil I.i .1 tfltloiugh
in Englnnd doues ntot pr.:"'etit th .:mijit]triiir.i t .I that dI.itol i pijr .eS9
i. lhi'l ih i c i [alt.ii p,'-tsr,' ,rair ,-. pie.Id;:-p,-itici tO 1bil.r,.k1 terl i' .el. As
SbearitL'g 6' third poit, i: it tiv I. : lue-Ituiolled that MISi-aii expLtir.-ni., ScBmS
to shou that, alter ont e attta-:1., r ieln]i'ce iti Eiigla dji, evenii ( fr three Vy.:riS,
L..ii+


r








dk-,1, ,it dimiiii-lh the Ibiility to a, eMi'oiil .iatt.aLk ouii aifler return (I!
ILioWr in the ( Ci. ..- I Mi. E E.). Thi ,', ..- i F. F. is even moil"
stILin.I liii i ll l .ae the hlibility tci l..l.: iter leve\i -eei to have been
.'yqi ril] .tli inij: a thr_.. v':.irs' r-.,i,'li:ii in A.\ ii:i. altlioilih he 'lid not
hl .eit .'tt : an. iiid t i ',Q- ir-.' i,.tler,..:- n E g t l1 ',ia l ind t Ah lish t i, for,
oni hLn nlln. ld [ lft, is Aln I tu nll I, I h ,-l al.. :l.Itikw .tel i-t ,: h course. thc\ "
f',,, ,. ': Ikl liiI .t m_ ?b a ,*... ll l > I **.'l ii l. l l ,.,L_ t ,'hll, b lt .1c fr't fu 'a
Ml,,- g,*, thi y .:?in rl Lo nI Li. t. tII. th t le .llt,;'t."iti.il l r ilA + tili.1 O"f uilklglh
,'.'ill no "t I ,It," t,"H," in i;,u'cing:,+ th,:. nri, rib' f ,.,s, f blaclb ater
th:'.'e -., ,j,,:t.
'. . '1. l. -.'.ept-_l.L, t. l',nil \\'.:. .ii. in iinilitiijil village for eight
i!,:-iInths Ai.I th. ..t Lik..ua ,r....rii. i .. ,i .L..'l ..-:pl inI.. r Lti',2 Bladcl:L-
i,'ti r /- . J.,tI, I, Il",.0 3
E. E Jih. 1 .-F bl.iqri i .-. 1'0- At l...m, .in.l ...i, i ,t7/. ,I .i;,t-. i. **A
g d**.:, .l.,.l ... fr..r Iii A.in i-t 1 :'. .'nt tu Fu. J..li t,..n. B/.k ,i tcr
,.-. ea .rl, in Ii,3 -li.ih> i.l At lh.:u. till N ,i'..tiii .r, I-'"... Eaily in 1497
/, *i-.'i ,, r /. .r at LjL-. ..i .hil ti '. -.. .'rk iltei-., r.l :n Itri r s Jan s ,o
an I.t kt ir. A 'nl. ''.'
F F.. it ,s.i'*'! \\.:.r.:.- I i Z. l;'L.. i-, :- l.. isii'n. Mi'i atlta.L. s .[ l l .er.
1 :.3-1","; t [vI..r..l. hr.:i i)i t..l...,r. 1'5.)',. ,L L.il:oui ,i. D ..i l;tk' t, t r ,'iir in
i'. ii.. lu !, an..l a. .i in M 1a. [,i.ai.li. l -:..ti n ,..., M.i y. I''' Dij-J
fr, .i, thir.1 .l .' '.. l.' '. 'r f t,. n i .\i;' .-., | '.';.
In oth,.r [ ... t-. h ..Ix. eX:pl -li -Ce '-i l'n to i ..i thit the two
y ,.'.i i Il.' "' hii i.,,*,.l* l lh 1i i ll t i.t| i ,.'i Ih .I.'.'i ,.
Th.. i t n l.t t to I.e n l th t thli. thliri .I r of t, rirt period of
S ke-rv],::. V . I, d 1 .i. i-. l, .- lthl, l.[iii ftroc., thl, (c- iiri,-ite of blackwater
l,-1', It i n1ot l iiir to .-:':;I ii tih t. Thi-, :.i. i l-. .n-, froirc ini hoine
il a loi.: tlu I, rci ilit t- ..:- l a ilnd tile diill.tploilintin.-ntt, traill.
\ r-, u. :, t.l ilin.d i- ,rn l llit to li,- Olit l .I' b,'I. l tO'. ,ei'h hletavily.
T 'l 1,.r" is t i i'uh il i t.- tii e l ., l.:th t, .. ..,lit .i. iti l thit lhoine r- -
et:,-li to t. i thil l .,:i i l. it;l i: .-. . i'ti:a out t'ig. eii;llt. A.iyllhcia''. nthd th-
silt t t : twu. y.,s ul, i *,..* in the li',t thi t \.ry f ~ work-.tis have b '
li ll t l t t. ll e t i l t. i lr.,,:t cL -.,r: t v tel] fas,
IjA t,:' tri 'l t -l. t i\ ui t l i :-. it n i. 011 1 ,u iidil iii C 'st 0c r1t. uinly ifR'P
fuuil to I, ,: -n' t hli ut. A.i h ,iith'-i .1 E woult 1- t, t, I .,1 s i il, uS 0 tal t tliat tahe
ti-at iii.ijon t'. .iin hi.:c ill -.:il ,i tly h uii d .lid..- Ti tli.- iamtble" tHl'm t.o
dio o.-rk lor the wlhie ..i i l: ,t h,- in., all it --.:.nll lo decid,-dIly
,liinihi a-.h th,. tilm,- -pent .:.i til'I..u l,. L aitly, it ., :,^ inor, than anything
el-,: to I lhri:. i1), .' 1L.1 *: id :oini g., ill'' .'_ir i-; l:tl .'i .a, :Iii'1 'ei,:I lly s uends the
u,[ork e.r ba il, lu l\ rel, [.-.1 t... l, e ,.,i ,.,i tlov,- y.r, r; ",.r thli' sWe ,o'l tcrMin.
In ti ,.I :,- [I ih.1i. d 11 .-L -, SC.:11 i to, lie thItt kilii.I,.11 illi; t every three l
e.iM is,.s Iii.*..:' .1]y 1 I beliv:'e.. thitt fit ,.. i, .'1i,. iit'.i j il1it p,_-riod of tw o
: 1,Ii ?.'ilr :.:l it lI .d 1 ,, f'.1ti or hiVI? ''ttl i; f.ai prefra l.Ic. Even|||
tromin lhe Mi ion p| int ft :I-.. it hais 1w11.Ii t" rc:.".iiil t ind it Frequent||||
fL ,ioi li,? .,,: .I ,i,: t I tli:'r[il ttl 1 t,, Hof\. hI t ii l.h l.,:1.. '.,'hen they co nm e|||
ult fo iI .eC'o.lll tiiu.', ,'Ile? 1111.111 l "or .tzillia.lo,_. aln:d ettic dloil. n toi worit






A REPORT TO THE 31EDICAL BOARD


riurhli maore i kly-, s. that the ,ltsadvanta.1e ,r. their e.rly firat furloughl
is more thn coulnteacted b the rv.(itag, :f tier loi'e.l 'ei::r.l p-iodl.
On Blackwater Fever.- Flh ibove note, iual ..?ell at flat sight rather
li-.iour iiiL',. 1s telli r, t'-. -li, that the ilterpo.-itici of a t.itd .ugh m i.-,
not prevent Ihe oc.u ienl ..?e oif i.l kwate. r l:* '.'i i tihl '.- h in, are: 1iiriiing
the teril-n,:-v to it. Be this I- it m i-y, lih:ov.-evti. there it no:, io:iult ti it .
i l, Cile-j ill tihe? airi.llnt i' iu.i l.i i t-ll'.in rIi.' Eiitop :an Trk -io l.-i11 l.
followed ci ,' .1 o r lesi o liig ilei rea-w 11 ti ll,: iiilint of ii. k,..rter fuo'. i,
.111i the Mi irio, .tit ri,: -*iuhow this to be tile ,..-.e It h s howi n I.'- the
Mtalaril I .':iiini-' ioni thli it. tr :n ihl lul-, the iin iiirt ol Il w; it,-r lever.
ill a locality va.ied illn li,.:t pi lpo.ioit .j t. lh- ftr '.iiiuo- .-u io m lari-] a I tta :k .
H.]niic-e te' geit.r r,.u .:.ioii firuo n unql~ri.-r th it o.n stati,:ii sIio tih- f'ewr.i
will b.e theia- attacks of I. k<.,t.-I reve-i. .Ithoiipligh ti ,?ii:ral :,:, ..r- i'ill-
.,n1c exists. It i f rFi t, I-_ y ii, Ili llii -I,.s ,y- ih th,:, l !: h., t ? J Aivi:"it
fieujiu-.int tt k-. :.1 i i ir ti.t l..uIrkw t-r lev'r ,. ai: i u.1l. l et-ore'
blckiiatei fet ver e.l ve .loi .pi. -itl hiil,: i in it l. .il;.iirfl a 1].r,.i-|po-
sitioni t it .\1 t:. v-hlj t rh li r iti i V m 0e 'a .- still ii Ino .iii -,,
I.,ui Id.efore it is ,ilquiuih;l thelier iniim- bE it lo i .uo i l ai i ,-rally Swv l..l
ittaclks o-f mnalari 3l6..r'-.v i. sou. 1 :i1ll ,.yLI:qLi! the [iieu.li .: itioni
quikly Vwhil,- the ii:.uj.rity i'':-r :icq iiiru it at ill.
(Givu- the urr',.lispo. itioun. -,)ulut, iiii '..'u .firmi ing inl tl.e -ciirs-e .f what.
i a~in -rin Wia aptt.:ck deta-tliin--- tlihe tt i ;it Lln.lt -
inater fe'-vri. Tin a .1 ig irciiib b:1 of :r:ls- th l- .'tu'illi b iiii gi t;or I .- l i,
0: liil ,,u i : i : l. i ulth v. li it it ir ,,iil. .l [ [,u :, ii t l 'V.- I,',-e i
-nierally tik-on ,i ri.ni teiii.-tjtti,. Erclie- ,l)iiniieu c.iii .l'-e this
eftfct, the prI:u i-po(iiu:,i iiniin St r 'c-!t it ad i -rt Wihi',y is not in thliroe
who liu u qliiillji- nn t V.-l. -stiult i.,l ,1i the : tr31lll00t ot 0 ria.i thit
Il'lckwate-r fO \ r i- "-, liihiii --t it i. a ilk li iillo) ,o t:ii'l ,li to hiii' it iii
thi ,.- v who tak- i:-ra ,il do.-1 .:.1 qilin ih. [u,_l,hu who 1l ',l ha little, ouit :o
oilts foe tvo or thtre u-,_ awiiiul.l tfrn L ike t .ln o-.,M l- f iiliiln .So. .h "'W..l
d ios l ar u p i'o ijl / ij .: an, 1 1, t ri.,l_, o ..l' ...f a/... M, all/ .n Lt I Qut liniihi _.
like any Mtii,; t til il g ui\,ii jt ill. l.onlil .Ie g i.X' i -y tu.iit'i-illy hii th,-
ca e ot omdjin ry n Al. a. it is puiob:ibly b,-st to V'.iit till there tempilai.itiii
ik falling, after the Il..t ii -. b'efoimi' viviiih it. inil then to adnlliiiiste-i it
iep l u ly. Thl? .itt,:l; of blii:kv .U i l i:' rt mr.ay bie ou a ,ll l -gire .:1 .et :'rity ;
it May 1.)? --o h-li iht that thi- l. lti-irt i- lil '.vall"- that t ,I.[r t. ,il.ytllinig
special the liintt,.- with lhiii until he finds he is pl.--ing ti hloul:uloubiLn-iii
iitini, 01 it ilijv le one of th- s?'on-it o-f illin:essu After an Aitta. k.
ict-overv is often IApi,. and, iith a littl,- l rt aiind change the patient
Iecovxer- qUit- as giro liea ithi as tbefor. tiotier ths e i;oiiii-
stnrinlues, the pledil-m,-itiul, ti blar.'kater fever lii;a r--maiu, ot it
l"ay avt dis:ppea ire.l and not ru:itpplari 'gain. On the a hrrl, it iS Irob-
ably rmOmle (o Coiinifr it N to reuiiI., .iid pjltiuiits-;. ,ho li0 iv lihi .iu attle'k








cf :cl.kwater lcv\r aiir um'ei'., 1ii:]v tliili othiIs o hL. iv- otherhr al .ck.
S.ilh ]r -i.ntl %lhoul,1 tih-i for,. 1.w. ,i.tl. in-ly c-cinful ihont thiv take quinine.
If they et inalariir ti. h,., i.iM .i o to l.i-.:, .ndl their I'.l.--intuile should t
.:- fr:;,.fuilly l. in,. In1 'it l 'iri shlulriii lv :,- 1: givei\ with a falling tem -
p1-inu1.;m .,>elow 1'0" F Th-.- p ,-, ., n l...n, ploi:g th,- t, W .itm.:nt neCes-
s.ry to cire the attn.ck: :1 hiia!,-i;. l.it they involve. le-s tii,!.. col detelinini,
r.nothii .itta.:l : l..i lak :.:it.l r of'.,e r. S|iak,:ii,_ ficon ri-mi.Iy. I think
thit ex, ;.d:i,: iI. U -riiani E.ut Atri.a i, i ho'.ii that thii einiployinenit
ofii ,i [ii' I :,iili,,rn- v.r\" ,a:illy i.,ilii ti.: n im b.:i of i itt c L of Iliacl:-
wrat.-: f..vt, ,i ad nany p-rs'...,- vio l, I ive i ha: ,, O- tt.acki thiii. iii.i:1ge to
I' p, 'iu : l n heL r -itt : cl:.
Tlit r.ii.it liti% ha T.[.l!y ,h-,. .;:ed ,J li n r,,-, i1 yi:- T' e gre.,t
ttii,,. ii i: .-rl i r.it rn l [rtre .rni,:i,t. gooiil riursinig .aiil ..i.iur' i ,-ii ,g [ool,
'Vr .ll] if Ill,:,-e a' l I, hi. l tl ll-, Ii :.:ital itv i V \ If rfl - ,,r- '. l-ll,. l
it III;, I., high (,il.olit 1" .,,i I 'I lIt.l. M 1f. Iilj-1 l1:i.'d p itleri rile, over
fo: i, ti Ilcki.,itr ih:V l 1; front. *:y ia.n1-tion, m1 ijly .'.'.*iii to LaC;
-:t iti.p-r ri -iriig : rird iio itilihm. l tirt.
Th.:- niotil.,li) ,,- ..It a ir! .ricouil al t. ka iq ,,ppr.ximrati:-ly" t hesne ame
-1.]l .i... llle: t .tt)( I:- . f il l lit: t, ll.d ,ie r.a lt ; nl'] :; ta Ith peo lpf,
W h-i i hai ll a; l. ar-,: Itf li li,1. t. 11 'A ,: I:,. ,: ," l'-" ih lt ,.tta,:l;
Tih M it,:,t! i. ll:itlf ill .j.," : ic.%% .: i lh.ili i ,i l.li. l-v lvi.Z. 40 [nel
ci-lt I. I.ut tii.i i t. 1. th.- f.i :t tH t t rii-,0 t i. ril.. c.': i : iriurtd beforei-
tilh- dl- ,.1- v. -' ll lltii tli stiii:). N,,,ini :f til- i.- [l.iill C,"- -s hali.V, plnOiV cI
futal. Thr'.-eeot tlie f.tl.i i i. w:- i'.ee ,lii, to UI l ,iis u. on Cif "m ine. ini.1 at
inst tr.o o :.th i. I: fr:ii :.haaustir.:. a.ft:r ih. anr e had l c'l.rI tl. ParO-
riti- ,:;, .llri, -,Ii I i i f1.; ,I' :, .,r, ,]:n,: 1,,:,-o no tr.d .,il ... H a-im ateui-ej sic
c.O::,.i11l l III tW i .:.,: 00 0n l ,I: li ifE:W .1 i .li.e] ,:,il: ,l riai i n in tW io M.es.
)If tli -si.. : i: rin i:i i-l -.i t V...i l; ft- i .ai it ta!. : ,:1 u l cl;:uItter f[ ver,
tv,' -l.i ,-,l ] fr.,!, ,:., l tI tr k-. hoih i l i h tih -v h,..dl. .3 ,l t 'o dlid a
o.'o:.l p. :r ld o.f ,:,d I Ito yea s ar,. W yea:r r.: r:l,, tiv.:l l ivithout al y
(it -. ll. ie t i ti.,: I:.. .
O f thos..- h *v ,.r. iiv:h l'ii,-.i h':.ii. l.i, t .i r. lr ?l I.. V i t.- ct t i i. oute
.1:., itlill 1 .1 few 111 ,o tl- i, i i f:tir : one lil, did : i, v,.ir'i ,' : ,i ; and was
ll,,. Ii.illd k i. a l, iit lly. -.,I .ine hli,i- ,.,-ri, tto y-. ar-' work '..ithout
,ihifult i a tt i'!:.
In vie., ,ft fihe-l : f ,t L .,1 ta it.tit i I v.io li.i eHit t l.: thi, following
. t h ..il r:nll li t i i \. e i]u-. ti'lin of mw h -. tli:I l,.:.m l...-] .- I. it \'Il aliled
hin., e f l [er -I fir-t 7,tt,1 l *[ O ,f k:l-;wateI \ev,:.. a. i h.tlet l. QIt ,l ,.. to go
hrine abl.iuti tl tiu tue of th.: aitt:,ck:, li:-v should ile alliived to return.
I tlink that i.:- riYiid tul, enu I.e l.ii.I civ.-i, ; much di:-p'.nds on, the
vharinetei ntd i.vity ut tih. fi.t -I atta.ik. an'.l :i good dc-.l .il-o d l)pnds on
tlle attilide oF th, pIatoi-lit aIitwllf.
TlIic. cri he no doubt l.It ,t p.atitent wl.. Id. hal1 l., .itta. k runs a |




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