• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Main
 Bibliographical appendix and...
 Back Cover














Group Title: Popular studies in mythology, romance and folklore ;
Title: Cuchulainn, the Irish Achilles
CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098546/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cuchulainn, the Irish Achilles
Series Title: Popular studies in mythology, romance and folklore
Physical Description: 52 p. : ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Nutt, Alfred Trübner, 1856-1910
Publisher: D. Nutt
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1900
 Subjects
Subject: Cuchulain (Legendary character)   ( lcsh )
Epic literature, Irish -- History and criticism   ( lcsh )
Tales -- History and criticism -- Ireland   ( lcsh )
Mythology, Celtic, in literature   ( lcsh )
Mythology, Celtic -- Ireland   ( lcsh )
Heroes in literature   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: "Bibliographical appendix and notes": p. 46-52.
General Note: Cover title.
Statement of Responsibility: by Alfred Nutt.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098546
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02772985
lccn - 01025188

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Bibliographical appendix and notes
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Back Cover
        Page 53
        Page 54
Full Text
... ... ....







UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES














1I CUCHULAINN. THE .IRISH

ACHILLES


"Mors Conchulaind fortissimi herois Scottorum
la Lugaid mac tri con, i. ri Muman, agus la Erce.
i. ri Temrach, mac Coirpri Niad fir. agus la tri
maeci Calattin de Chonnachtaib; vii mbiiadna a
aes intan rogab gaisced, xvii mbliadna dano a aes
Siftan mboi indegaid Tana b6 Cuailge, xxvii
bliadna immorro a aes intan atbath."
"The death of Cuchulainn. the mightiest hero
of the Scots. by Lugaid son of Three Hounds,
king of Munster, and by Ere. king of Tara, son
of Carbre Nia fer, and by the three sons of Calatin
of Connaught. Seven years was his age when he
assumed arms, seventeen was his age when he
feoowed the Driving of the kine of Cualgne, but
twenty seven years was his age when he died "
bSu b i- t.he enti Y ; m .le iL In is .4AtIrl.:, iu n.ler a
de e c'o~A e-.i lit[ig Io:,ihl'ly to thei y:i, :'.f C, hri t's
nativity, Ivy 'Tig.ernch I iiBr .ini Al bbot of CIlun-
mia&U -,is, \\,'io iliied in tlee y 'ear 1.88, ce, ruinn.r
tie Gaelic helu h .'se le 'en,1 I pl',oIjIuse to exarniiic
A




i%)J / 61
A i /

1 CUCrt[ II.L INN

lbiiflv in the ifoll, ini 4tuxly. It caniuut but



,t' i I II.1. cu o Lpi,-. 1i, w hl lt tlhe I1n,1 l er- a"Ll i ell.-ti -,
tl.: ,:ci a nl t an l p liti .-:l .il .'.cit i ati:-it, wt lii l i thes-
tojri.:- r v t.e.:l, w :t tl- ii.le.l of c iI.l t, th .I t.-
lo:,ik u.pLun l if- .II .l t.l.ith of tl.: r- by \vli
tl,,-ev were t -hla oni- ,].
A f'-.w, but v. -i v t'.-w w r-,.l ., -.. ,.11. ,.l re pFecting




the ,-:1k i f 't.h I.,. ,. ,.,t ti ll i M-SS. i ll%% i h I, nV 1 il l-,
,.lu i teo i ait tlh i: ruo :t l: _t t. l l ir tr:iI i rilLi.-tl ilu .
Full i ,let.,il, will bI.- tl.in in tirx AISS .pl .ri.x.
H -r, it. -uthic_- t,., -:y tlY;t t w\ po-,, ., :i 31 lite-
Ielturi- :f.-i w iI l (I cll I l, .in n ,u ai l ,i ro tern pl:
-1irile ii ti l- ti tII- l. I.-. t t I. P xtc!i t Oful vli nI -I v I b.
r.,uil:ily rcSkoieIl tit 2 S i li v te Thi e it i:i t
bulk orif th i. t i.- '.'il eit- i i ln M sI. w iich i:- ,:11 .r
t I 'a I -,it. tW l (.t1 uel till ti, 1 i ,l W[ill Lb] V
;['., cu)p~ied. triin p el -f.w1 lftli oeiit>ir-\ NIS!':. ; v. ie wr
.,U -t wI fit *i-it llry '. -ii il? :I vl.in,.. 1,..- n l i, i(-t
..tory it.s?^ll is tilk l lw] .iy- ]lnow n fin'-rii :-:ii-]i_
UOi:'u ",_'-~ ; iii t':-I t, tlhere i,- IL-. l]\ .1 m, le .] -' i.-Ii. '
iiili.eilut irn thL ,hlo.* CYr', i i irl i 1 ia' f .iL Ji.^'. 11.2
,n:,ily' in 1iSS. o:f tle t.hii te, ntli .ii. t:Illw i,._ c.:1 n-
t lI,.-. A t tithe ,: r trn t.irne :a ii.:it iiIcL .1.1-i,.li.dIab e
p,._iiti,.3ii .1 tl,.3 c'l/,_. _',*.,ril,-: .,,.l'r. ,o e .1 ; lt,.re,(l in
liii i, ieo, ;in l to -orle ext--nt il 'O it'.-ilt, -tyl .- of
]Dir nativee, ,i,.l clh.ir, ci-ri-.-lti:, ,,.,w in,.l tliat the
V.,a ;I c kh l -i-- I r IzIi. :.i ;I living. elenuent of







THE IRISH ACHILLES


Iri-h cllt! r, t it .l p'l ,rticipL tel in tl. .n-icuidue tf., of
its evo lution.
The gre..it bulk *: tlii- litera'itul.e i-, ;-. I liave
Ai], :'ert.aiiily ,.'ler than til:- twAl.-ft.h ccent.lly ;
l..ut e \v f car,. e 'ry it. l.,:etk m uclh f',rthle:r, .,l'rt.
fIot -isn I k : r;,. -i ler t.if b! I .l iupI:n the j'i l.,ieI ct-
matter. Aglineutt-_ of :i 'tie linilely phih.-
lo'ic.ali, I..-&edI uiioti the l.-ii ii it: ,:' tlhe texts, or
,-ritiv..Al, l..ie,.l l[po:n ti l :e -latio,,, of tlte V.,riou,.
I31ISS. t..- e:ichi other, not ,ulv willow blit *i.:onpel n.,
to ,lte the 1*.,l,_,t;,o t : the p in .-i[ipal l'-'i>: l,,lllimi
-tia:l uil.,t.anti.Llly in the f'orm iler whi.-h
they l.ive v -nIriv-el,. li.c.k to tihe ec-vl ntl tio iiaith
Cuntiluriet. \\I th,. or i,.i tlev .-iie ol:.-r yet, i a
.iu v:ti,:oi th.it :caIiinot bl:e ;a i\.te cl v ith lout. I-re-
lir in)..i rv ex.an',irition o,' ti,, ,il.,jet-ii, tter. Tn
the imue.:t.irie it. i- -,,,ethiii- to kinovw that tlie
i'al:hiil.iiiIII -tt01..c- wele 1ut. in.,io ,:1ii.riei unt lite-
r 'Iry I l'i f l at ,.al.,out tile :aln. il.ite ai Be tiult',
-rome 1.101 to '2.'5.1 ye.ri, l:Ei.i' thle S(:Ti.uliis.in ii
rnyt.hil'.'y <.-ciy.talli-el.] into it lI'-e:,n-it fi _nt ;it
lea- t 211). yetaris before the i:!I.let Ch'lrlemain "Le

earlier. .1r;.ift' 'i:t th- N il.. eluneiili:..l. Irish i-
the ujt. :i.ncieUt i 'et ifn.i/,.ir l it:.11 it.ure f 1noliltri-
Europe, tfact twhi0..h :f it-elf ciminuien,.ls it to th,
:iit te tiiill Oi f tl.: -tn,.I -nlt..
Tlie f:irm of t.he-se .stolie i ai I ixti.ire ,.,lf |:'prosi-
and verse. The- nie, to wholtn thie\ owe their







CUICHUL A IIN N


<-xi-tin.. .:l,.,l":. ;,r,:. : (1) tlh, e,,i'i i. -t.o_ v-tell.r1-. w ho
n110. i \a:.1 i] t :i 1 I ll wel *\. ii : ii-t .' ill. il tr.lillii ,
iIjd: \\,.'n, ,.'t li._. .I:,:.i ll i-, li ..: ; th, ,,i/,,,.,J/t ,,r
i:'liri,- I,,il,-t l, I:,iick iinnr-',_.li,,t,..l v ,i l't,:.r \Il,, I > _.li. i
Ol LINil l_1h,;t eI 111 ks l I I.at ly .lfter- r.'i. I ..
0 1 l- IIII.i l ni l ,:,.:',: I i,.. ,, p ':,.'i. i. i, i _i. _i rlll '.,_n i l i -i.. t,,
tilt- ,-_co nl ,l .l.a- of the .l lti ,-', l., .,l ihi _; :,i l't .
o-r i:", : '" ) thn. ,:,.il.,.. ('l1ii.-ti., ,,,.,ink ft,,r th,

1 i:.e t. t .i t,.i t l :, i r i tl i i i r i y
Hl ir l j tail' l. lil:'- i ist-'ll to*d jl ;I.'1 l'51:i 11 i A l I
ui C< it-it oiI .
T he',1 1 tIt"e-';t' l ii'.'s i I- th-. w _I, I .k0 l ; io ,-l
eL-I:-- p,, i_ illy ,:l,.L',-d w itlh (i<:- 1 .1,:,-- 1rv.,ti,.In o'f

tlit ].i, ..,n .- N,,tl, il w,.alt. ll d l:m ev
t' i i,,, l t l, l >j>-'.:t .. ,. I" l., ; l. r ..i it; ,ti:i i, I 1 \vN% l t .,i
t. 1 i 1t:n 1,,',, I I .n ttil -, I- -nIl i .i r.ll I I:, w :,it l:
t'f I .It lv..I-t .. tl ,:,,-,, l ':. . I I. w lI I:l-., II t.o
l.'i, i-l 1 ,,r,.1,' i- th lit- 1 ..t i I .l. i tant .,t tiel.-I ill
-.1. t., :, [I tl :.\ .-, 1 i ,I, I, li. :-]V N *.cil lllc, 1 'ith t.l,-
S li, .,- ,. : 1ty :' th ,_" I,,. , i l ,.,w ..I.l,\' ,., i
to,. or it lo iteibl-it ---, ri. ,l ti- t.- cour .l.ict. of tlh ..
t-.l_ 01 tl,.t in I, th ,o li, 'l1t upon it, d Ite- auLd
i[.,tu ,1 u-in, 11 hl1 ic i .. .-i li-, th. x%, -,ct ...I[ f the

The Hero's Birth.-- All thl -t.ii>. .n,>. in,
In.-ki lln Li'l a ,-n ',1 D e:itil,, ._'i t., f ,t 'o n l,'...
l.,,.,r kihHg of N 01,thI-E.,-it:.r i U lsti.'r, wl,.,. held Ihi.-
L',O i t. :i, E m .,i, 3 :,.I,., l: i th.. l pr_.-.'i.nt ,:o.'nt\ of







THE 1II.IH ACHILLES


A-\rni ,i, ), i,,l W;i .:111 roni i l 1d t. i a a ,lI of
;,'i.i '.-. kin.wn sii ; th, Fted FB nich',li, cliief nnrioni.
hLij, w ta. tle t kir, '.li:( li, ,h,.I (',.\i ,,ull, : (C',: r i ,.
Il at tl ,:-r,:- i ly j >,:, .- tl _- : r ,- tu itv
1 II- it 1- L,"* IV 110 l i :th i l. 1 .11 i l- -11, 1t
i e..Sp'.ctiiig li- t'ther. So ue te:tN, e.- p ci ll .l i cli
: i. l l v il V l, ":._ i. l' i'.l '.-, l t ., _'i :- tUl i.-IL
:f1 :,.-.l,:.ct .1 i..t,.' i l t ilt.h. 1, e i -'e. IIt him -.
:.-O 'if ta ii UIl-.tIler l Ii it.ii i, .S11 lt.I ,1. Ba t tl : J-r
.xi l.... ~.nall i ._ t .-torii l.".tra iii th i
I l.,\ t.,l'Jo l .i-,l' c l~.t r. fl '.:1 i-ij lthie, ",l 'rliillf.l. -e l
form, whlicih tell ti veiy dill'erl-, t til. 'i f tl he-. ,
th ,'> hli ut :it. 'i u 'l t.. ,-ri t,".l a1i ,1n i l.,-at ,-:nJ (_i'.1 l-
Lhe.b.t' l :lid Dfechitire, whIiiie i.'_iit' thie hlni,'
MWi aI0.i: rl i.-n .,ntil t1:t bi..gh .ied, t he Teut-:i ie '
l ', e s .'.,-c-.ii '.l ,,, h1: .d the A;t l 1.e !:, 'i iI. T I'.,:,
''the text- I.-.- 1 l t.' tin :L Lviji _- .',..i t-lt ge.
I.-'. it ,i,,i':- i ,- OM i :. M .-.tetl 'f A rt.- aii
I'; ttt. i lii. i-hi ytho d _', tr:.ih:-f:, 1'i In 1l _i, :.~,.-11i f,
:in- i' l LI-' to i:iie :- :iO i t .m ll in-ecth liid
Liln.,:ilf ill I hL til .' -'L.'let, iinv., ewallow e t. bv
1er, w It- le ,.rii, .,. A'lhIiiI,. A.CC-l'rdill to
aIIt.h -i vI- -i,-,i ,i, L,:cI ti: ':In ai l hei Littteind:l;irt
ti ,1:i.l:- VJli. .-nuh l :Lit l\ .I-I m1 .t i i':N1 ."l froli
the En i alnij c-._.urt. A fte ;i t whil]:i .1 I.,I .l l.i.k
b-giii,.- to: fr' e, tw tljh, plain, .)f E u im- i-i, .o.n.-,tnm-
ill, t ev,:'i ythlir, uIjt.il not a -10.,e ,_f r ..- ;.. l-:-ft.
The Ul.t.-r chieff, y:, ke tl:i-,ir chal io t. .iin full,.,i
in pul:.- it. At io hlittall th,.y .',In to the main-
*.,ion o.f Lug_, v-ho l tveil.- it. \;. bhe had m'tri,.l








CU i-'lli LAINN


-.P1i IT ..'.'tlit ;iir l l,? I .Illi. l.-'I n r.: 1 ,h' ,'1llo ,1-il th ,.-rn
irt._, l.i'l, 1an I -. iit th11 li tl liiir- liitli-li II-e nr-
1i,) o:fi n-: T wl- in thi,.? i,,'ir i ir'. r]-I? il..il'h r O wl ',-i'ir
i siol ; 'I.-l[.i, h l ;i il- 1 :l .-'o,:" t.., .L li ,k:
Hi s Bi' ir Il. .ii .l -- c . nf-l ui ii.i I ii m i: II hli i-
.I.,:,i_.i 'ift, w hj il.t tM i.in the l.Mi -iiL.i i i l r_;;iik-l
iinito:, ,ii I -:'l r,-<' t hi l f' iti.ne- _.r',- Lt i,_-: H i'-l
lii- -l i.ll II.: Ill th' li iii .i th :il. l D ii n .- t .
k ii .: it l -i -,- iall ir, e:'ul it. A iN' ie ls ; Il w ill
l ii l i tlh e ,:, i.. il:' Inl tii i ii:' ill ;i .: l \ i. 1 I1 VOIii "ll
,,,n ',; "' 1,_: w ill ,.l,-i.1_- all A _,i. ,l .iii le ."
His Boyish Exploits.-W,- i,:. I,..-., O:f .('n,-li,-
l.i1i rn i l',.,in ;i t, n: t ? till.iI -'._-,. f,. -i.ili t' v. lM ,
,l,: ,i,.t'i tI -, w l., t iai v 1, 11 1 ,, :- I. ,.i l.a-I i r v ta ,_',.-
,_f tl, I-,:" l... 1 -1 :-. i ,l .-' illi l l _-.- l ii I i I i

\...l'l- ill ft l- l l., i i:f ,iiii. h li_,l .-," th ,.,..-i ,I ?
Il1 1 *-1'ter ,.f f',Ct, ti 1. i :'.,tl 1,_r' .i e- r t.,k. u ,liY palrt
ii, the :,le-. OL e P-. iy tIh i,,:,y, Mlil .t *|iit.: litt ..-,
t_ ls In 1, inii.,i ,l: I,.- I .iil:. 1uli i Vi-itiii'.' E iu-n i:t.
.,ri M e:I i lll l l 1 ilt, el ;,If. illl l Ill.: t,,i th, of C on -
t." I l in> :,: ilt. p1 1 111 i -l f i t l i 1o 1li t':
vw.I kniv,:. A\v.,\ wv e "e,:,v, tkin Vitl hii, i&i
huli r.i "k- I t' ln. *i. N :-,i i ,I ii. v,.-i, iw thlio iiL'
jui. ,lin, hji- I .,y .w,,;ir. '-tiikii._ the I.All, li,- .t
ztftt,-i it, l l ey j:,vlii,, -.le i', ;iin l .1 tcha e- .all
i|p ,'i',. th, n o -[.,.-,i i t,. l--h tin. '*.'.,illo t- C., i i Ig
E li-in ii-.i, l i nt ., i l ,i'.(l _'-, a .'aii ,- .li,- h l :n i ltr
l'.rfr ,if.li ', _f ..'e l i:), :ii "-, \ ia itli ; ,, l i', ~m I *i II







THE IRISH ACIII.LLES


at.titck,- l.d thei-, hLp d lli','- tlhem :.f-,t'e hil int.r-
t.h: ktu '.; .'prezT i :;in1 d -, ij. not. liol-I.I lhi i haLi l
until t.hy ,Live a;ckiIi'r-l,,_'.l him i ;a tleirl chii.f.
All tli-i r ikk". pld:e wlion he i-. five :-,a' i1ll.1
His Naming.-Tlr-; i-oy t;, -s at Ernaii;ia. In
tlh.'-' ,,lliwini. ve.-ir t.l,-h kin'. ain.d his e,'urt. ale-
I;,itlil,., t' :,. L :-it e,:l t 1.,V .1 an is li rleaut,,:'0.l _.'inil ln .
',.,nchilii,:b:r ,-k t.l:- boy t., i :'.,ii.,: wtli hiniL .but tihe
l:ttL, L ,.'iL,:"'. g ii ill -h: i les.l lah y a,,-in-t his
L.IO 'rai.le- nd .l 1 not. :aiiU tU iit 'rrip lt ll i'. 11 1g'11i -,
-.-i I,: will i'.l1.iu The kilg an. ,l hi t'alin iare
'ee:ive,.1 il i b'-c'oiii i, faj hi,,i y, I -'(.il."in ft'er ,
ru.1-h.:" a ',r1 : laid, lthl b-I: ntintlet. i. e i'v,..1, -n1, tlhe
bL-_st. ->k tlhe killr l, pin:' -minilci, t.i let. loouu hlii
I:',iii-',li:'. .: t.h, i- !t.ie '. f t. f liii i lu -.,id w .i in ilin,
sui. el\ :iii (n xtI .,,:, l:li,.il'ily :''urnel, trie'ce, ;iii:l savage
,.,." w, he- ." -'' n:eh l.,'or, .f'.rttii, i, i n-[ hm w ,
gr'ant.s tl:,- ,,: iniss'ion. A ft'er wh il,', i..'htcli l-Aiin i,
li -._':,ne tinilih:'., t'i:illi:ow upL thie chaL iot triackz
.ilia i-.-il -l'I.ii n11111'u Ih -i.ls '.'hl b in-i- l,:- l ,har-,
hii,, ,i,11111.(21 t '.iil:, g i]l, t.,, wail.JW ij. ,:lw ij,
..ut tih lI.v, ;e'iziuig himI,\ tle liind-l e bans
him .i,'gaii-t :i rck and 1iay i [iin. Tie- fe.a:-t e'-
It lh out, am l .'i ul.iiii, ti liii I hi z .'..-' 4l..11ii is
h,.attily vexo,.1, L.1ut tlhe. l:':y ilid himin not. be
i "-'r, l" -" w i.-'r Lie v.l a hil.-l f tih: O. t .Ie bt ee l,
10 \vI t.i :1 lI l-.a it un1 til 'ut ll-oIv i, Iin-,.l mIi 'r. v.-iilt.
wv:'ild d a I.,an-..u'.' ,.'lic' in lua'lrdingi t.he cattle
:ind i :isti.'. p.IIe of the -uitli. All hail the







C'It 111 LA. INN


. vr.r l, .-Iu n i l' tll.,Ji.l" th.h : 'r,.', i, l. l,'. tlat h r,_.-
;it'lei Sk tait., (i-i :l l 11 l,-.-i, lii r,.nirir- lhitl,-rt,.,)
-Ii.,l 1,: ,:all,.,t1 (.'1 ( .'l'i ll!n l (.iil.l1 ali'. bhi.,,' l.


lh,:,lllli I,.,. tlI. il In,:1 it.hl ful.t l 0 i 1, li ii, w I lt i,e ."

:. 1 11>.l l 11. 1 tll.t l .t il it I i l it ,]_ i l, ,_1 to:i I ill! .
The Assumption of Arms.- Ili tli f,-ll-. inli
i_..,r .(':tlil.,1, th .. D e.li,., I A.in,, ,,: ,I v % itlh ci-,ht
.-.f ll. p .pil]-, ,.l ci-l.lIIl-., that li ,ili.lI :,n y tt ipling
t..Lk : .w! nri'- i:ii tliAt ,I Ny lii' f.I n ii V- :11111] t[r'.l01:,'l < 1l
tharl t i-.f .,ii Iri l ,il'- v.-, thit ,, i, t lIi. lit', u ,.iiil. 1 .I,.
tl,..ti, l.. '-i,, t. T i,,,t,.I 'ep.,i.,t':.Il l in, ti,. D t,1 il
.a Il lii- tli, I,,_' Iy EI- n. i I' ,..-,ilth. Cli,,- ,iil :lii] i ,
1I, .n, S tli. Pl tti,.', it' l i i- l-iyir,.' suit, b,, e, .t -
l.i l:il .:* (.' .i l : l l T h.: J l l't i W'.i d l il t 11"
I.ll,,.l,: , ( ',, ,-ll ,, , :1 ,lic ,l.I l .,: l ; i* \v.1 i l l l: t=u1 ,..

b .:-t,,\\.a i ,] i ,i ,:'i l l.r:i ii i i ~ l:,n l ,,' t, til i,,: .i -:..
IHis ow n "1."' :- ,,1 l ,:,,1 ..1 hiel,.1. T i e-e
i^ I:' ii -P :-[l. :iid ~ Mi <.ll 11x l iielId. fT li -eS
l n'ncl1 Il. IIil < i;,l- ,r,1 i fi :lkt .._," 1,,, I. l '. I ll,. ,.I

e.ljiu ippe l v: ii-. -lik,:, l:.. in- tlh.it i ,-,\ ,i eecIlI
h i ,I],1:t,..' i ,i,:.I ( l a.i] I i -n'L'.- O I, ii,.i T lI.

l,.,ll l ull ir i I.11t t1:,ll lt l, \ :I. :i'] ll 0 1 .'.
" L itt .r,.r.. I." .,- t I. li.,:o, "* 0:,t thOiw-,l, I
v. ,:. *,:, t, liv. It 1 L 11 I 1' .il I- l id Ili l, .l lo-ni __ .,.
. ft .. i' I.i':. I lti t.tl:. I.:Il' I ll\ ..]"' .! ll i i 1\ 1 I ,i,)i.: Il a l\'l
ti 1n.11.1 ]. "







THE I:ISH ACHILLES


11ol. nl til lr i. I .rukel .l :i -vl' I tIee l lot-.' l. liin l
thin- :.ir of.t' .l: oi h of "' iai,',,Ii ., i st .i erou.'hil
to I: ~.r lii'. W ith Ii- 11,: f1 r hilil- oliii, .te r lie r
Il.tke.i li i' to:l lliitit 1, w it-il.. (I' :ii11 cl.ir-
11.111, 11 pl. :, i', -t- u iie, nt. 111. uI t 1 v1a. i-1 iii.luU t-
i,, iu ,r l ,:,\1el llg,, i,1: 1 .e If Tc.. -t. .. .1,,i i :,'
,iII, l l lk ii\ll:t 1 t,..1 I t t -t rt torth ;I i..,i ,.,I,
a v,"lfit Ill Of ,I:,I ..i r '. T : f lH i :II "- I ,-l f : f l .''A ll,
il ,.i 'i,..iil i tIl oI t Iv, ,i i<] ,.,'tl 11:t Iillu <-I'i -l l:, -111
1i1, rl *i .-t.,,ie ;,, h i- c1i*. .-'il i m: i .>t, "-i ,jl ',.,n .i l ,
Ji 'l: I ,i t,., t lhm 1:..g , N'1 o, 1 ti. it l I I: I t li u i: it il )i

C .'i l h l ii lm .l e. s 01, i ,ll l Cti I l -ll I ,4 :0 11. 1 1 V 1. 1 .i l
l : 1 .' .I t I .' O. : N i-. lt Ih 'll t I : .- i- tl i- ?
t.,il of U l.-tr l.n-i' it, li-iv, IxcL ll n.Iot t, h _
"*.:,ii t ,:, t. ,1 :i ,:- f. I ll 1,i l.l e l, I.ilii: .." -' l_ i, !. 1111Iii
h i.- v1 .i 1 -k t, E iin, i.,i, ciilJ- ,l,_'.''i .iii foot. 1:1l
,.Il-t-im s two iiIl 't., _'. W r.,thlfull) .,1l1 f:l, eiv
li :' ;I.lIll., '.-'i,.-"1 the. k il.i,- t' .. i t, -- foli h :, lh i.
k.ittl,- firy w-~ upoii Lim 1 ,i- kil-ieW ii,. f ii:,-iI
f ,.i ,i I,,,:'.'" :,T o ,,v-r _.oir,, liii tlhi .H :,I" f t.li:.-
,.our t :, .'>:\.,, le.',:or, hint n n.l-,.]1, .ti,,l, v\1'. l h" .
lints, hii, .-y .s t... th,- .-.ig t., ,l i. ,eiz i ],.i.. .l
t.]1,io-,lh th, e vats of Mi":l waiter, which li;
'ili v .",-i to: I.:i i ll ii r.b i .li, Ik -p t. l'ri:,il
him.
S cH-11f, l., t'utt lii .-v-' 1ltv vp -\iA Wlft.- at .tii' ili l. hI il







CUCHU LAINN


were the irI _'litv ilee-,: ,:,I i (.'C -li iil.iinii, :InIl tle
,po itio: r li el I t. 0 .'o .lilh -o r'- c.i.irl..
How he Wooed Einer.-A. the heri.I g..wViis i
In- -2lit.'l1.-.-P .i ll Itii C il l:ll -, ill, tle \\' lio~e! I:f
t le.ter ],o\'.- hi-X j 'lrely "l' for l ii ,:, :.xtu erit.y in
'e.,t-., thl xwellei- y :Iof l ii. i.L-lo tl-ie .-w.Eteti ,.e-
,:,f l i.- [I>,:.e*:l.i til ,:. L t ,'-t' Iii '.ir e." H e !oll.- no
vif:, l tlh rie rn ol TU l-terr. tl il.l:I- Ir l i e,
tr.l'i i.lt tihe? ;i i-1:1 dui.in ( :l wl 't.i.- t.he Iit .- hel
\ctll l l ..- : il t.! ir il.i i l ;iter Il i cceI ll t'i. tf I iO-I
':of tl ':ir w .rlie l il:Mireovi'er, ki owi l.. lire i- to
pe.ri-i early, t]ihey ih ih e ll l hEIna l ve ;il hleir, for
Li- re-biirt.h \\,:,lil,1 I.0 ,:,f nii,,.-i.il'. M e.. --,:. l 'ver< : re
4011t 1t ll, ,: ,-,iiol t Irelh lil, lUt ;i t .- "-- e lc.'i re-
\',. l r:, l i,.i1 lei t \ h,:,il li:" il,:.i i to., \ ,:, \1i .e
- 0ih i a lo le "lf ..ll thl,:. iuI.leh ii. of:, E rin \%,.! tihe.-u,
i e i" i.ll the :ix .il't., v,,i"e, .- er -pee ,
r:tzit*Wlle k, \M. lon ;t ilfittit' . -ine
Iwere fittiin_' [,:t.l 'o, ll liim -,., ,e ii e, .i.l in
._,:..l' ,I f -,.,7'r i ;-ill. r:,<-.e iln --k ill .i ,l he. ft1in ; I.l
tl I, le t i. I nI l\I.%Irk .-r ,.f' tif e iLiIIIlih.. :of E rin.
mlli ;i -,i1e \W EmIer, 'il- -.'l 'r of lFr,,., thi

So CO hilll i n lil loii- L i- f -'e t;il am.i y .'V inl fni,_ iit.s
hii ch:'l,, iot, w itli Ii-.' eli.lr'-.,leenl, La>:"_'e .-on ,-'f
HR i.ingj.! i'.ie tl,.t .'-- lie one cl i., it t.h.It tLli e
tli,-, .,f tlit, he lio e- ,if tli.e lih i, it of U l ter .ould
inot fI l foll, ,0rount ..,f it1 'Cvift e: C,:Il t1 ,,peel. '
.itr,-n.iil, .l 1 1\. er i, .iiilerli E im -e ret-ceive.- the







THE IRISH ACHILLES


hur,. whlj \\o o. lI:e witl dark sa'iliS. which, bhe
al n, 11 ,,l,: t, i,. H e v.tnt- bi ,le .'-e t and
v1 ltOir ,'ilr,.l ,-.,:eutili.,li.<.hrenlt.-., "'.ll lie r,,en of
Ul.-ter i\ave taken pait in mn, bi inginrt ilp, cli .rint.
clief., kil.'-,a d,, liei.nl l":nt- . .i Ium the ijal linl'
of the hl.i-t . I fti-ht f'.,i the h.li.ji'ir .f all ;tlike."
Ill I eply to his. inll Uit v ,N s t,.i h 'r l ii iingiii up.
E ,rwi ;'|nse..'", In ancient virttues., it, liawl'II
lIehavi'.our, iti the keeping i-f cLha.-ztity." ITI:. lie
a wife. -I:1 .i.sk., ;I i.l \ .1 li: lie .\.i .S li:, tde-tcl ri:-
-lj, mily 't. nTl mari l. :.fu: il:1r -ldtel .-iltel ; but
br (' I-l l iun wi ll l\Il ,io I is- ie l 1.ive, lJ?. ;iiset
She, l-,I I leplt orin:- with I 'airpi.e NIifeI tihe
tKi in .'o Irt ela nd'.- -.un, a ii.l' ii:-ver woIul..l (Il'ueu-
I1 it1 i .ieceit a won'i.lhi Wl, i il. kI wii uai
1.'i.'f .) .' liu,." E mner i -cuinfil -.if (.'u..(. uluinn'.
expluit-, Lioe shlie .le ii lle a: the "_,o.lly feats
of ., tent ider :.v," blit 4 ,I:- l.ji himl to I ii t.Ili- t.UiIl
tLat if he delay c.', :iL.il sou ralu \ '.f Lhe kinllred .-b.e
%,ill be h Zi-. A n [ so tllev [,I-.- t.
F,:r,;;ll i' aw', whll't tl ii i, [1.1 ,-o 0 ,n h,.
Ietinii he Il.tni to,. hiniid.l thle lIIver.. LDI.oningi
the g: -Itr of "* fl"orei gne, ;s it wie ;t* it em ba.f
from the,- Kinl-, of thi:- Ga(,Is, lie joirin.t t: C'n-
,"hobor'l s 1 ,.int. bThere he itnm-e.- t.lie: feat, of
Cnic l-luliinn aind.l the i-'ther cbanl..pion.-, ,.il ri- :-erts
that if the former woiul,' but. -o, tu D oniinall t.th
Sul'Jierly in A ll.,i, niiil t: Sc.itij ha' ti: ai'Lpli'e
soldier's -.kill, he wLIulil excel all thine w;irri.us oIl








' TI'H ULA INN


E IIc,.I htnIf-t ',cI. II-e t, t o ,_i.... Elt ; 't
ex,,.t- Foi.n'.,11' -,.-tl, ,- ^ '., il hinm hIi- w\i- ,,n lii-.
I':tI I l : 1 ,1 .f 'lil hi l L o i E i: i -_t: 't .,Iu'a in,.
1111 Ir'-, iii' t'-, keep tleil t h:-l -tit.v until tlieh il.et
. II..i.i ,, 1l ie11 eiti _.N t-I ,-,I I 1,?t ,...,ttl tl eI .l l ,\


t t*: v (- I %t l I l l, D I t-, a 1 1.1
I.,l ilt I l 1 ll *1 .11 v /I I4. I w. I I I I 111 1 11
. -I I h.r C rl c:.\t tL-I I .. .-i:'k I,.I Itlo' kn.'l,. t.' I ,l i. i n1 11 1 don-
, .._-n iit,:.i iij nv "., i,,l .". .-,I t ,i ,.'i -,i t_- ,t, hel-lper
ji ',:-- i jtt l :. I i-, ,; .1 li, -, ,i.il i :- tIl1 ,1 1i ll .I tl
Ti:,..! thitI, .,ibl :i ,le e-.' t-t in vhlicll he hI-,I li ,l i t I ni \. ;iy,
i i, n .i," wheel^ ., dl :, 1'|'l ,, .: t ,i:,.l "l,,-n In lum e
i : *n- ..-s .P.... I,- P l ,.,f III L ,_ck ;nI1 tlhrn,, l, tlh*
t[ I X il.,'-_ I- il, hl,- F in \ ii I ii,:% v,- t l -, v.i nt re r-it
tl,, sxvi,. up_ I-,, i 'lL,-, la'. l>l, .,is e- tu ces-- t,, the i ,le
.if .-.itliH.'i the A iH-.,,,. Hi:-. I,, pl ..rf':Lt- Il i n-
- *.lt ii, .,ll ,iin l ,_.x i :. u.'1- ,:.- I,._,v : .. .1 is I , | -l 1. v
U :lt ll1: b.'o. ld IN t 4 lr i- l lill.ll. ti-r, ;I lr l I rl lif 1l Ir i:l -
c._,il- -, A i,?, :-,u Al m o.'.-, ,I 1 ic-ft1 l? ,e -, S -, i .t I AI'S
Iv-.1 I| -,_,i hL i i, l-, -et' :, -: 1 I, 1% hla t i,,
ln,-,th,?! l il',_iln i-ep t 1 t,- ,i, I t "*,.vfe ta
ri ,ll ,-, ,- 1 ,-,l \ ln.I_,u lr:. i,-., ftv ; ,:,11: T heIl ltt,
I,:. i,,, .'-1 l', ,i<. t, IMii ,, :t ,,1 k, i_,h -, ,.,l i-
I I, -i N% I I .N, Il V t l(-. 1 ,- ,i '-1 .if 1K .1 I lin ,t
tle II e i.u ,l-, If w d l.in_' .11 ;ft li ,t1-, ;a l,1
<.', Il i ,nl ],.'.t l t 11 0 t tl in:I k.1j I 'l t1 1,- "i
t,_, I,,.. i\,:.n .,. ,1 tril, t, i- It,: F ,,m ., i. H e
l, -,.'.1?.I- 1, I ,' .tl h ..2"] tl, 4r:' t l -:- .-. ,-r ol .iJI '-, lit
i,.|.l, t- 'itl,.,it iriki ,-" hin -elI knl ,wn. She-
-e,..k: i, il, I:M r .:'l in I -,: i- v,,-,,1, l b y hi ,
,10 1, w h l l ,dl l t'. 1 1'? I ll li ll l, 1 -'ll i 'j Ill Ii : I \







THE IRISH ACH:ILLE


is uli i.-: tlhe 1 ,k1,ri fir.- m b-il wit ii.lLi ; thi .- t

1:1 'l11 Ill I" N le 1 illi t .l I tIt 'nl. I, .
k>H L p .l l 'tii iit-.f t i ft ti l 'we. il l \ I Sti-Iit
LE ni1 'l L ul :l t i lv I .,iit- lI 1.1i n tli. il : ll :; ri .li .
-ii l I'I- i i II"y I io It"f t,. E I i iu Li.i. T I t,-v v _,], I ,. n I Bh i, iui
t' ti .- P ii ii n T iiirj. i i it I:l r i i.\-.[ i ii ,,i i i i !F'-
i wkii.- p.IIint .--it tCuinh t L.'IGu i. ..iied t kiir., l.he tof
l i iht. -.At i,-int, t.l e f tii.-t nilg it wviltl Eini:-i Tin
in ,i-le .- ," l-t e. til ti-i t l li I l. l ilti il t .flt' -
.uix'l '4i i_' t li. ki i lt I i -i ii'i i ti l'tI. ,n a l piU l
-tiii u.lit_ l -irx il i-, ,r i't. In t tl li l,1n' ii, 1 t.L-U
kinii p, l -i N E nn- : -i'"- \ .I.,iliin -'il't. til-. I :1 1 1 ti.l;t- i'
i .i ll i ltt.':l, iil C-'ui-li.i], lli ,ltl I i- vl,- lir1
irV. .-e ,i. .te till thl-t \ w I, th AIln..l." dAri.I t.h>t
-hi:.ft l.i -... ,r thi you tlh. ,,' I l-t i w-i \,iven t,.,
_'u,_.- ul. .ilii.
How Cuchulainn Guarded the Marches of
U lster.- W n,.w ,_..ie t l,_ i, e unlin:-,ti,-_ p-.,int
.ilik :.- ,,1 l. ; l,,: i ,'-' |,i,,\v _."es I i r n. ,,\\ ,n i ,11
1i i-li .l i, i ,:gel- ln t.l,.. ,1l.'-.l- 'ri[ti,_,n ,_,f h,_,\w -ing l].:-
ll.11i '_d.l, l :- lilI1 ..t .l.'t thi l'-- .. -.i i' f a ll r1lr.l .i .l
I ,:-lIt u l,,,ii r1 .i, lit Tl _t-i- t,, ,.. ll'y ,_,tY thilt- fZ'; ri ,_,n.l
B i 1. i .1' t ll t <,'.1 -. il .:"III:-. T Ii- w., Ii_ 1. c6AIum mi-,l
b.uill. T1 \\, ii l, ii-.Olf. tit,.' ,,1-, 1 ill -.A1 thn .-ncient
II ild ,-.i'ti pl in: t.hliri't' lj ;a u _l ie'- of t-.i1n4. wi'l--
ti,,-n ill w\hit'h they p l ,petii.illy -tii <., ajlia-.n t ,.a,_'li
, ilt:- ." illt \ lithli,.l. Nit.l _1 P ,l lilli.V t4 le.- ti 2.te iy, ei._ln -
til\ .* t 1 ,,_. i't l it-i'll ;1 1l.i l.-1 ulle, F ir il-'en i._n lt ,








I C I `H IT1,A I NTN


t1,, W.iite.-h-rn.l, i- tbhe pr,.'p,:rt.\ ot Me.iav-, Queen
,.,'f I-.'l.,n lli l g' lht, b I., l l1u11*t : ',t ll t Il. -* il!.l p,.- tti(.i:.L t.
ni le, hI- -p ii t, .in.l tik-.. ii> pl.c' 0 a-rn:L' tHin-e
h .d- of' hr laI-i-iil Ailill : tt i.th, r, th,.- lDrown
Bull, it 'it iii :. I l\ i ?): ire- in. F i:,elti- U l-.t,!r
chieftainsn. N. T c w1in ..iv M .a.v. ,ai ,,? A.ilill ,li.-
[.ut,:- ;1 to which i' tir :i,.-tter ,t the th-~j. They
tutal iup thL'it l.-l , I'I iIII -S 1t l l in l tlh-m eII-11r l in
ail.i .,iv thl.t A ilill'- i.tIll, tl,- W, lit,.'-,l.' ,
u-i 'p i--'.- ,11 M ,l.,,:. vi's '- r ttl,:., .iiil > ,1 .,lu:u -Le
t.ha,1 l ot i, I.nli o.i f Ii.- si'zl, it \\:-. ,t- tbl.niiuh t-ie
O.wi ,I:.l i1:. l".ii \wi rtl it -f ,-,.k." Sh'1, i- to:ll Or
the Bruwn Buill, ..nl.l enir.l_- M[ C- :),:thi, tl!.. (-',t-
in il__I t rI ,r :l l, to I.,.. it of- D .]- iir', ,ffei irI biil_
io-t lii.,:_al ti.\ : ,. o n p it, h. -:. lul-.' tl lh lay- .
\li- I.part. it, h Il i- wo;,ntdi.l ii- -ti:,i .l 'kill, I.'ut
lliii f,.,ltill.it,.'l ,:,i,. t l 1 .I i ttI.l i ll il t- 11i ;5 to:)u
h le ly, ir.I i.,.,- t in t1 le iai iiI ,f [ ,->iire' I _i-,
t Ihwt iI the II tt ai Il not 'ive ul. th :- bill fl eely
lM e:i'-'.- '. iill t.k ; it. le'v 'i ,_ ... U-.i ii .-, to..l _t, thi .,
-\ .V('. l\ lb it godl tH t l mlile,- t. l-" li to\ l
LUf lll l. t i .,u ll i,,11 l ii, \t1 l I.,,. i\, i d. li .'l '-',..1
.it 1,i.~ I' _t'i l, tli g li.l, --_ i -,l1i'i i ,,1 i- ,.ill Ie." fi lt ,e_.
;>il ll 1 i.l f ,,li I li tllr I;i, tt,: l' pF .',' -.
C-'.o lit_] ,.>l 1- I.Illd' l. l ,:ill .l, J U' I l (_.,iilij. ) I .,-'l _u ll,
exilel f ,Ii U1 l.-t,' "!;ft thr .f tl, tt. [ii,.,.I l -l .m-h IlaIgIteI
.it thi..: ii -,, ,1 U -ie chl, ;-, i- toll iit tlh t. l t -lit Iltili?. ,-...iT 1 i.l,,I l 1. In ii .;1 1 t11 .itt 'l,; ai t f i t ail
w ir' ii tl,' 1 71-1* _," \H .ill ,.,i'r ;tl'< sl* .5-i'tr tC' fi't.,ii "J








THE IRISH ACHILLES


wl-iktl es. tl_:i t overtakes tl,.ein ,eri,.i.li llv in re-
quilt.ftl 4I 1 -AimEiftl wioIi' i ioihrlii bY ,'lite of
(' 01iil 1l.iOi 'S t. e,>stO ,S tll i .' Iit *" bi.i- '.f the Iri.s
goll-elan, wlihi, til put o1 hila i ,'iod.l'.ss-Il ol to( we.l
;ti Ul'telr .- c ief. iet'foi e ta i tin ,' dle ili-.l tIo
Cui-ul' witli lel' wiz.tii], *in se,.:k .if hiiij for'i-know-
le .- .iiil (.inIO iej.v. Ti'h.- \i.aird] riea-.plre hIer,
" wlie ver .-o lili- or coliiie' buIt Iti..k, -bhe slioli
retIii ii. uit ont th'e lin t.meal i wnat slie is sta.i vi'il
I, L. i,.ti,.lelo, wHo F:illoilict e I i,.I: .l s : i im I...-...
1ti4 ot (I-.'irhanii t'-i fiv hill. H.w iseest. tlioui
otlr ho.:t !" ;.-.k.-. M e;tL\e. "" I i:s._ tli.a ;ll :,i in r:.,:l,
I s.ee tie rn ill a I heri ae..i' i il ', i-. the .i1sVer Ie-
tLuiii t'.I. : a,.t ini :itnl *I,..'ii1 t. tihe i ,le -ti ti.,i ,. iii,-
tlieliIloius e.'posttl.itioii of til.' '1ju .-.-i. Fiina hll
tie ',.,ll'.S 11 ill-.t." iut,., ili eutliuIS;i.St.ite .iiirt _' liie



p.uit of I el -i ? i : ho thli-,i.-t U l.tel, st.- fortl,
Ui d t-i tin.- -'ri.latini- of Fer.'u i., lbuit In., t.ji o ,tli
bit.tell. wI oii.,eIl b, ConIl'I, \ii 'till hCl \e'r-
w h'i lilnitir .Ill'e.l io(i for Ii- lan:l, ani I riiil-.il'als thi,-
h[ot w lii t le, .e-Icr etly \Iwai L.s Ulstei. In slitt.- of
:1il, the iilv.:tlen'r.s- lit 'i!'-; U l.-te i' ll 'loile and
.ire I" heldJ liouL ;-t)ia r by sial lt:tiin i lJ,.l ('cle iiti lu /,
\ l'.' .II't' fi'ee l".iII til.' \ '-;.ikiier- that ovelitcories
ail the oithliter U l.t.t''-rmin. C(-'i.hulltinij ieftuslc. to
'il- up a love- tiv .t. lie la.s that ni lht, 'ay ti i.nl,
his 'woril li:i-t ieell pase-eel, a;nd lin.I:t 1: ket:i at








(C'T'CHU LA INN


* .ll r.:, the *AMt,...'. .'f which fill tl_., inv.oit-is with :L.z>-
ri int. Nc\,.i t ,:,.-.:- t1 .:-\ i '..... t ,i.oeli.s. )iO n
th,. l r.lI '..,. ('li l i- iliIn ,. l, ill,-, 11 i p tlh ir ti cleks.

.- n l r' thli- \ ;s ion -e ,f t i,:, t]i,:. t I, .-t. ilnI t S.'-'
#..v .I iiin ill. i I .1,,i l." S li.hlit 'kiri' i.. t'oll.,\w ,
in \il l I. i.'u.'hnl;i i c .. .ill ;1 iI .1 th, inv."id-
ii ,,.its., bi.l t th[ lhn -t. ,lv- nen D aii:'_ L,.,ii.n.--
.'ti,.. l .1 1i i wl :-I:,1 li \- i: .- r.i- li -I .1 tI,, :- i. .-lh ,w il B ill,
li l1 il1 .:.llt. fl i ..11 i.i11, t I,.- w i I I :,.1I :'-?, "l: I h l i "ie rit
I i ilh I r ti i .,l w it liti't.v ,.,1t Iiis hi ife'' into til.-.
il ,,iii it i iii-. (-'i "li ilili l , in n < t,, li.- i'-i. s thl,
11 '.1 l,:. w Iii l ,:' -1.11 l i v t I,:' ]iil ili i: l it ;i
tinm e, wI.I at l I Il AM ".,,\ ,. .-f.-I:,l.-. :,i i V iit _w \ \ ,
%li% s Iiv l i t 10. It-:. Itl, ". d 1 Ili l l, o It
S !,i,.'i In,. '_' '.i it'. 1._In i.~ L i .,t.l ,li., | |l ,,.,iilit,..,:l .it
linlii.h i in him bnt thti i, lk ..,f ., sin-i l h.i..Y.I. ll i:-
tr:.-,i. I :. i',:.j.:I t .- aiill. l lt Ii. I. l l I.Ire.l *vel Y
nih.it untii il th -e iiiO iit ..ll 1iV. 1it \ t,-, ,,- : ine, ve
&,Qi l. he '- i iS :'0 N:-t i A M ii,.,i W., lil:ilm i iin sinrll:
O,.,iI l.' t. ; l il l, th l i- itt thl iiiv.,i :-il- i1,i\ |.I 1..-
.'ri', .11 1li] iii.10 I0-1. hlilt iiiitt ,t.1ip <,s _".-,_, .'. it.
it li id lI:,I : t' ........l a;in. l. .thini :i: t- I up -.ulp liid
ti Iim ith wltil,.
-.'.iil 'I.t t'. f ll..nw inl w lhichi, tli<.,_'-lh (.'nC lih iiililin is
:ilwt \ vitt.) Iioi.u-, h I cI iiuot P.i eveti t tlh e i.liri iig
O.f tl.:.- HI wii Bull into tlhe- inv.rl-,i 's v,,nilp. 'T'.:.
iN i. ;-'ii ,'.i ...I .-I tI I ;i, ,p tTlp ,r l iii II H i lp I- .., I .-u t. lie


iiiii -' -----------..._ -r ----I ;;;;-F11"" I


1 11








'HE IRISH At:HILLIEs


,irgl-e t.hli v IItI s l. i,:: i wa.ati-n _l \With i I. il..illip ;i d l
thait it i iuni:a-y lfor him to holi inter< o1u,., with
;i V. i 0 111 i.', loiln 1 le is ell.r:i.r_ ili -licE .it if_.
It wa- lik, to ,o I;, i'il \ ith [iin in >'1o1 i.-.e ll,1 i .-,
tol :it lli.- rj:xt cocillict tin -qpurliedl ,rlI:les i:nmes
. il. ii- l~ill ;iL .i wijite-e-'-r dl l,:-ifeli, .1i d I.-l;ick
*(i. rlh, :is ,t in h -''_.I.v lv *.l -l). itcl h, cJlI i l, ii1
.(,l'\ pr1 .-- ,l to u 'l ,.ille .otii li pr inid.l L, h oAl lr.,
with w l. iem Ie i-- fighting. B.lit lit- ,1h(..4 ko, ;IlII
g .iit- ti.n.- ulviin r') iilt of Lo tlir t In iii.,iv bI..
"iitlteii l to ii- .in1i fu .ll .,li Ili:- f.t '- in -e i ,,:t l.A..ck-
v.:.ilak e ., tol, ul tr, i_ I lle ll I Et in. oil'f r-lA ,i
\'; 1 io:, ', I.,o,: ," aill. w\i'._ 1 ,- 'ii ilil :tili ll.
Th:e Morre[i.;ri dlirnolii1- hr', ,, .il 1n ,:.1. crOne,_.
;i, ,.l ,-,l_,tj iis'.- 1-i l 1'.' 1r'oi i ('u i ul111111 ,.,It tl_,A t.li- ,. -
f,'oli wound ,1tie h:ral intli .tei up.i'n lir. In the
i:it>-t.s tihat follow faith i_ Iikc'li: with CI.Lchl-
*ii11iii, .i11 1 i:. it ~ ;i - ait fa tills,. hlit On:, of hi- firv kin corite to
,Uii ,Lri' liii throws hlii ilito ;I ,',p le p, ,nl
taike-, li- pl.aI:- foi tiile dl.i;, iat thli' eniil .-4 \uhbla
the h ,:li i_-."t.* r,>fr_.-,l'l' :l, ailii, ri veli:re t,.I. i lly
iupol i tlih i lfi.1i of I r,.L i l t : turlit r oft hi.-
] .-l h:,-l :"- of E ail.. i wi l .. a;tt-,Cked> tle
Ir1 vi4.l_' iII t it, iiitelrval. At. lnthi Me,ive in-
1:li1-e-; F -,r.ri', to plr,-Iat .l C.U.i nli lt (, l.' iI ul i l ani, lli
t i :t, lAttter ,l' 1 LI nlit to: r>'t a',at ,I-i ,l o -liti,.in tliit,
Ft.'lrgu-z \ ill ,: ti,.. .-jir,- mlrtli i, tilljit.-. A g:-tin
1M ,.'dv t, l. ii l ,.'iu t liiin L'al tiin .u..l his I \I' ity-
B







CIX IIH.LAI1NN


1 -le]I ." :l]_' < |t ll ,'t |'I -.1 I..,tlh 11L1.i11 . (t h 'l.lill-
.1ii,111 ,i. ,i iri~l l, i.1- U.-O..I, 1 UL',. .i t. thie lihlit.
III o1ll-)i t .I., L.in A .ti tIl U l .ter :.:-il11e=v I. l ,:- t.th
]i -.ll p i c.iru Mc -s1 01 ;.ll 1 up F'.-r1' ; iii .ll 01.1 Oii -
,.i'.i.. 'f C tt, li l.iliir', hliil-t the littter w .I-, le.-In-
iI _- Ai rin .10, `-i tl i hll i. A ll )%I % illinizlv thII.:
l,,:1 >:, ( O i- .e it.-, II.it. lie i.h _,_', ,_,h ',,'ilt, i l,,.l t hi t ,_,
f'riel,, i ,.. t. ,~-~+I. ,:, to f-i e .,t. tle for-Il. F ethla
.-t-k .- 1,:,4 h ii ., ,_l. i (" lIi i ,tt,.- l:th .I iit t.. tii'.- ili., Ii
pe. I i.in A ll ,l-.i tl,.. ti,'ht .,it w itl].,it Lu. ilt, .IIL,.l
tIr-" tl.l .- -.: l ', 1r.le t i, tle 1i-,'ht e -.HI put-, Ifi.-, IFrr .-

li-,: 1. T ieir l:,'I e. ni fl iII thie m e 1l o.,i.,:,I
thIeir '.l ii.,t,<..,...- .at tl, -. u fi r,.- a .i l ,.,t i\,..i1
i .t-l, l. i rl l i ig pl- t t I t: ;iI pv 6.,lidl I.. I t. th..i'

t:, F er':li-, tl.,t. tLe Ii I I., f I i ., .l e ,lo ,:,t Ia(
-I.,.1}, ti l ,e lte-r fi I it w :1 thri:.PI l H l I k _of IIt" _:iI-
o:f coure. A nw.l ,.,f ..v, fry\ 0fo,. ad .nl Il..-: . Iit i -iink
1, :, lght t.o F er,.li.a, I, I I ,,.Il -.1 l tlI t,_, ,.'iuclill, i l.
O l tI,.- IInol I rOW t.h --\ I f lit., b. tl. .,* i, 1: 1 it.I -_U t.
oi il., .C i 1r Zi'; iI, th *1 iiIteitL ligi L ..i. ft': :114l
co, 't.e ie'. B ut >.,, t ,?rle of o, t : t1i11l i:l ty'
ri1itii_ l.l 1ir ,:,lrtii i 111, _, !i ftil, -f 01 lro t' l,
1i. l :-, telne. T i. -.: fi, l It.li :lty ,l.i.w ',.,, .1ii .1 e Cid i
klI .,\ -. t,., or ,:- 11 th ,in I v,.,uI. f\% ll ti ere tliat.
.I '\, 1or tlhit. l.otli ,.,f t l..1 n wN uil, 1 tII ll. Tn I .rin Ik. i.-
tl,: Ili It., I tI L 'ti I1lkit i'1 n L 111 I1ee l- lieat _V re-







TIL1E LIAIi AC!I ILLES


COt'-ir e t*', tihe 111 0te 'io ii- .. /i : f,./. iii i .i e 're .I.'7 ful ;L,
falls. .. It. .l J u,..t .ehl: e t ,he.e th-i t I ol,:, i f.,ll
Iby th, I h ir,,l,' s.iy. thle '.l\it;k w\ ,irL.I 'Then
JuV 1jultlnii ra.n t:'..Li>:i bintI, .tiil l3.--.' lihi two.'
ari.n S Ctl.,,i',lt liill, ;til Il:,li li_'lht hliI i; tc L.-) the Tfoi'.
that he f uilit i'.t ih:' will tIh: meii (f Ei ii.
Andii lie Ib-.ean to lament nl mI.outI l',:Vr [Feiliu,
dilli t,: utte" .t [p iie-li ice over him-

[l .r i t':' I t lid I[..-' l iL. t l I l"i li,
I '-ar t-. Inji thy l 'l ar .r. \ -biu, I:t --,
r> 1:1r t, i ,; l ,h i.1,l i..i l -h l tlnI : ,:- 1..|l ricet.-
- W e will le, i,:h ll, lll fi ied I .;leh," thie
hl-r.. l .it every ti.heil L'..mjlit ai nl li-. t tl iilt .v:r
I have .In. Ih: w 1 .uIt ;- :ine ('r :L .i t. c i.up, are.l
t-, the c.,ml'at tan,1 tit:-, i hlit of F r.i.llL."
Atter thi- C ueliC u:iii u i .. .*.i i,-ie iw.i1 to t .i .
Ii'alI.l .ft' his wo l: iinL.l .l dI ei u i tf thL. _iUlstIr-
in.I, c.,:ilne to keep lip the co Su.Lltd ll u'iic- -e'-.li i_,,ll (Ii, il I'i I. l II.l.i:C a i1l1 the
k;i, s-i mtnin'l, all Ul.-ter. luoveis -t;iu-t tlhe
iIIv.V le :s. II the ite;itL, In:ld t.er- ibl e battles. ti-tt
euD .ir, t.,.' t'.iruf e' ,f iw r Ire 1.,jlt e I:il until
C 1hu1111iiii1, e111 .tlihi t'll .,U l i.- ll -Icc liC.-, i usI h.s to
thi. 1i.ll. Fergiiy- retreat.s bef'Ire him, as he had
plit',.le_.l li- s.'r.I. aidil ti h mie of Irel-dI l witlh-
fl \\ I'r,.i Ul l] vtL1'. Lut M ,: ( IVv ',r I-.I o,.ff the
'l i\ B-.tll, W <.i .t i 1. might ur L ml ght i11.i t '..I lue
t': C':itii;nght, at. all ci.,ts the Dull hjuiilil .1,, -.o .








CtCI HiLAINN


TI,.: i1 11l ii.'i:t, tlit -riowin UI lil i. viet.,riouI,
.11111 I-tli l l, tit hii I. i M I i lI, I. llt lii 1 I1 .-:i t l.i.iur-t.,
:aI 1 1 V illn t.ill_' I i k linillliLu I li f ilk I*.'l I (. ,
te t1 I It?'.-.
Tli -, thl-ei, w.is tlhe liho. tir ,'f thle inil-i o'f Ii'e-
]Oiw l f-I t t,:- i.livii__ ,. thn kiln ,I' 'lal icn : Y,.l
tr,..1 -1t 1.,,.. f:l,, ,:. t li:- lil>:-l. ,:,t' Ul -i 11,..,'.

The Death of Cuchulainn.-'liii-- l o-tltiium,-i
,:' lla .llal tlil -'e (l.Ii .I tl..i' ..l.' 1. .',i.ii. ;it (111r, lii.t l
1ay tie v.ift. ...f tl,,: w ,i '.Ir Cal ,tiin. Thli:ae j.ini-
i\itl, Lu i.'.i'l, -,,n ,-,' O'tuli of Aluni,-tl.r, vilt.h E re,
K ini's of T:l.-,Ii, : ail \ith ,:tla:i'r chief- lt' .'iaia' t' l,:-r
l i;il e.i-, li -,.ii i i' I .' i iuilil iiiIi, ,-111 i iiI ; a il-_ tiI.a
i k,:-'',' ln eiil. A lie -k' 11 t i 'a-i : l i- t ki, t I i--
I.e-,i t w it I- terril-ll riens- tlle I- l l i l \X 7t.i,
i_ cll ... "1i, I 11:11 110,iii, 1111. 1 i ,I .; tl-,.,li fa ll fi'rI-I1 tl u lli

i,[- 4t.-__,l, their ll I\ f I M acoli ripi.i l- l'] ee a.1:i the


I I it i lul- i tl ia i 'lit.i. 5,:a tl ( O- ,fF
INIr o l-: a-,a 1 i y lit-.'\- l lt, .l:li-,_ -,,, li : ,.- Iai4 1,.,ii i' ,I
h,-ri.- ,, It,, I lhtl l'.li ti : l hii, rnfi, ter. T h]nii i




aCla tlla 1hu pi,:', alit' all l l i l,- \a Vel'e ill W iillt. to
till t I I ill i W1.2 I I lt I I I, W : t n w e G ii Ei t ofl

ti n .-' l.1.1 i l': ll Il ol) ic lil.i i in'', t'l .t In vl: iii
Ml .'achia l.a.--a.. _eci, liiii t,, .t.yv. H-_[ tuiiur Iil- cht1:ri"it.
f iaali tlieini, .iiil tlia-v _'iv. : -'t ..1 llli Oa \',.iliil,_ :tiid
,illiieit:Lti,.,li, ftr thl.-v kiov .' [it ill ilut cUoijie to
t lielli agii ii.







1TH1 1 IISH AClHIL.LES 21

As I': f.ies onwlirtl. Ie:- e1 u':lll ter tIle the till
l l.ul. hterl' of (l 'I l: tin I. cl oes I ,i l indl it the left
eve. e.Ii ati e uooki. ij. 'i IoJ nl :. pit. Ian.l
l.n. .,l e il'~i> lnl.ti ie w iell i.lt .:ieeL i to oil t ifhe
oft'er o"f 1""..'. t',::,.l.1 "- eee:,t.- thie lel: tlhev I*r<-
ent. a lt I 0hoII- it \\, .a :/,' (t., l.,:,: ) f.'i l IiiI[ t'.'
d: -i Thl n l I:-. c,:im:.'i in -in- 'it 1 :t li i hfoes., l Ie






1l i\ : like leai.ve : .i tii e fic.. e-t. .i ll l.'. a iiniiler
the feet of the ir-i i:.l n ti iitn iuher'" ,.;i 1 Ai n.l
're\ w:i tli.t fiel.l with tleir le :in fte the
,,ijl-,u ,-lt wiichl (i c -l :ini m ii .le.h lt o,,t t', tiemi."
I [i' [,:..,h i ,. i:-l ii e..l of lint. LI n,.::' .l it
nam'elf.' -:,\ the liero, 1 will revile thl-e if
th,:'n ,_oi\et il. nt," hi I fi:,e "' N e -er \ tel.
havc I l.:en reviled.l l -.' .,-e I:,f mv ._-':.,li-
n,-- -,- .- ,':I w itl thi:l t1 .' lu:lIl.im ,.l.-ieo-l i -[ie:r
it tlte ,.l. im n., t, k illitn, liiu iin, iii : .... ti -.
i-, t w it'l e.,-t .,f tl h t -po r, LuL,.,ml Iiv.: L ,le-0h
til.e: iL_ :ri-ite- A .ee,:oni tim e H] ie ..]:ill 1 i l1 i.: e
f,.,r the, -[,e. ', ,11 11 ( '11ilil.1t111 i1 til eatenei.l th:.t
UI-Iter I l].ir l e lre\lel if ,e efu'es **" Never
w.-, U !-ter reviled for m y elii ]lihr,.e.- '," au,_] q,:qaii
lie p:art h wihl hiA \'.e.lpon, :,n, witi it Er., -..In of
Irelj.i,.l' ),i_'li k.iln ,. m ke', L C..A:t tla.t lihP t .'I It







'22 Cit-'Hl.LAINN

thi- Gli-v .of Mu:hlia,, anid hI- ailn (Cel clhul.,i iin bit
;ich .1i i.the-r farewell. A third time tilh- S.,peir is
cl.iiire'l- 'eliucl::iliU's kin .-hlmul I.ie dlef-iiined if
lie i.fu.tl. iTi i g i tL my kini hi,: bi:n:-i dL-
f.ileldl .:iall li~_eVtl I., ckt; t. jt- li t-ld t-i wh\li'h
I lu\s i:ll'f -li ll i\n er lttrtui., fur little f mN life:
l-iii'llill' t.' Ilie," .,il,. 1 : -:,in lie p.art 1 tl;l. li.-1
w,.tpl,, i. 'L 'l:in i LJ i,..i, .i -.i;,- .ze it : l, .-mtiiker.
i_.'i. :.l i il i i ,.i th .. t lii.-. l,., I.-. :'l.s : .in f .,i't ,.,n
the el: lc iilii.: if thl clt ii.i t, ;i iel the':, IK i .ii_. r f thli
IH er'.'l- ci. E i in i% left i.ll -i. .il'i.n : l... thle- phk iit .
'" I 11 :ii il 1f.i i -.i \ I :. 1 t ii : tIi t. k Cl. i
ti. k ilrii i l ink tlit-ei t.." W ..ji thl-i. le-I -,
if til,,tl -,111ll1t: L-.j lli I hi d .,i V\,I L_ ,l fi ll

I_:w eil-' iit., i- 1 ii i,:.i -I ,li li iiikl -, li ,l \vliei. hie
li.- til-iink liis \e- !'--t' i.i..ii .illt j r : -t.,.i e ini tinh
plaiii : t.. it lie f'.st.-'e hliirn.-,lf l.,\ ibi. bi er.;-e st
1 i. ',1il,, l.it I n. i .;v I .,t V lit c- .i t.L-d i, .,t r i vin.,




tIeI the vl ei v if M a;.li h t,' rLt t.I. pii.1t.uect i.-
iI:I.i tt'1 -.1, li.ill ;i,. 1 1i.- .,i. l m il iII lie i ,' 1i lift' \
fall I.v\ i- tee.tl i .li t.ii It .i f I I i i.... f-."
Lii2 :eimi cutii.- (t1h1 -'i. lii lil t .I i. l,, i.mlt L'' l ii
lm..,it.hi t ih,: hele.' :-l in'.e-.s hillm f thle ,? iiil fill.
f' il ii il- ri' li' t i ,lii iil init .- .i t li. t .if L ii'. i,.I.
'l'lT -' t rikt" .if ('i. li l ai i "i i' I i.:l t. h li l ii i re-







TIlE IRISH A HIIILLF.s


, 1p.it:Il, .,r 1 li .;,i 1 1.i I.- I 1 ; ,lll I li.l t l,:tin.1 tr.-
T ,, wliiii,: Ili.y *ji ht th It, .'i .lij].
How Conall Cearnach Avenged Cuchulainn.-
Thieie wv;i.- Qomp 'it bat '.,.t-ti til.t t,',: U l-.tl
Cl:l lll i.ii : ,ll *l-., <:,thr.. l Ii Ii. e: tllh

ti .' tA k ill.-'l," I-* 'i. I-rlClii l.i i, l : i \'." l iii ilt
Sth\l Il r -.ige ns : ?" "' iOn tly ,letl t .\ Ii- I tl':rl

t I e ' n i tl l I
IA.lI. Il ill -e i. "- l. i. '..i 1l i I :' i .- up w itl i im.11
" I Cu i ll V L" I t .liti.,' fI.,i tlje -.l< III u ",., 11, V i oll, 111i,11.
,iil, ll i: I .t-iin~l -Jin]2 thli, l'o:ir t .I I l..l .lt." A t
L :i-'ji01"- I,.1',l i t' C-': iLill I.. l *. ne onli ei l r, hii
f-''ii th N the niLY, tiit fi ti rn -i il tli l' iih.., Iilt iln
1 1 ` tOri l I \'mll-rI ie Iiri ite T- iI s l ., .e .1 .
tli< I .liWily w : li.,1 i .r, f' ,n l a l.l Vi Itt..i t-CI to tlIy
1r liu ,I lIl rivi v V .,i.iI' t,.I tli, c l rll'. I t I ,.i.-!
thai t tl,, -hii .ilble-r l.e the l.I-. l i ', e i l il."

T he fo 1* inv iiii--it-l n t -, ar 1 riiiy I., tetii
Tr iif le 'o te.o,,i l i k_ i.If l t il.- ii I tV f: .i. li.-i t iil
t1,lit-*[,,".l\,-, I 'u t W' ill ll,:,v. I .1 I I : ,. i, l
Il .--i ic.lti Ci in :- 1i_ wII l ,.'li t1 i l i t,_ tI i.iI r 1 ,t::- a.i
1.,il.upoleiit p.1 -,t". .1 L'.C T It .* :a -? l -i.i Otlherl"
t il,.- w lh : l,, -.'lh ii-t tlh t- ,:',n, t ...I. Il li _,itl I.,-
.-i'.-.-i..- i ,I to .1 l.,r tic' la i plei i...l of t]i:- l i ,, '.z life,
i ,Ii ,oi\o i.-l ;, i ., :"' l,: i 0 iii ,.i ',te T l. i. lit^.' lEr,.'t
tli ,i t ( I.' i,_ i llilli i i l ii I'\ L. i.'j iI, o Il o f tl,-







24 ICU1IULAL.\NN

lM u mli t,-r ..,i,: I'll,.,i 1i_." D .Mia l c ,lrl,_t. b.*ut b.
(,l<.i :-r ,il \\iltl tl,,., t.,l_ hlic-ll Ir -i ll-n the TI trIr
Ilt :, *i H i~ 1,j r1 . _f J .l Itll l I it, w il..: .If ('ulI .'i, i% Ii- I
]l. k illk ( 'Il Ii .-ly e in:.:o_-li thl ii t,_, v i l, e --If a
li 1.,,ll ]i. liA l I l' e- elit' ('uCl1 .1 ,iil 11 il i il- .1 ) ilitt .i. ir-
;il.- li.Ii, t; it 1ini r, 1 t lii k. II, L I.ve l. it- fin.li
h l,.,]i ii if I..t. it i. _i n. iin M u t,.f1 -I It. i 'l i, t
,.,l tli a t ('li : ll].i.iil. i, li- ;- I e ,.l', lIl l- w ith
.1, ,,.,f .lied l I l ,, ,' \1 i '., *ill>:l ., .4 :,v I. II.1, i il ., tir '- !i -
j1, e,11 i,, -11 -,1I 1I rl .[it.,lln; ; tl, w lia l I t ,ink,
1rl_ i,:,i tt.:r f, lro. i ll ll, \\ t:i1" l .I t ii -toI:ry
lvit ) i i ni I .i1 i. t i f W ell .n .. I. i~V
ot I r 11ir il \ .ii -l I ol! i':' ln i .iii1
tljin ':A l ,l vl I .: tl e : vi,:. I ,i f .,Ii 111,i, , I : l l., .

. t .:. l \' ki ,:\ t:i 1. N t I .. \ I t I e 1 r 11 i,:, .
altl,-lll i ..l b l it. i- llm ,-,] t., l.,y ,1 t itlh -enti. l ...,t.,



t,, liII, l', 1i,', All ,.i.'. oii A ife, O:f li- jOi iiv tI .
E n i.ni ,i th. d,-f thL.: .nt ..,t t Ui l;t.:r, ,of tin.:
,i.,t' ie, l i l ,t F ,i lo i i i-,, .. ,i, l t. t. 1,- C*.i., l1., t 1.,, -
ti' ,ll t., t ,,.. .,il l I 'll, i, l l. i,_h1 thi l:I tt l I IIle lu 1 ,
ie 've ling hi' l, ,,,r., ,]alit i ,,.:1, it ,. t. it... L t,.. OUt
.1] t],I, A r v.i, 1 1 vei-i.1 .,_f t 1 1 f .t l.iI a i,,l <-i >c -P. i i, -
i.,ut-- \ ,.,v ,:. II itl the. JR i.i.tlli -..g:. ill P ,-I i ittc,
t.li D itrlich -.. i '. .- i i, \-- tl, i- r1 ,_,..l.1,v
th ,:,% r>: l .i i .,ind it. i- .,l, u1ik. im.l ftte w li,-l
lha- dl,.-t, :.,:.ed thl.. ,..., l 1 i fw i :n of thLe t., y .







THE 1RIUS11 ACHILLES "25

There ;l-, -.::i, .-t .I naimijiler Of ,..pi,.,, nliC t kale,
,,f wlicl (-'u chul a in. i i. the l:-... I i pl, l 'y
thi] th-ri t tlev hl:,ve n.O :,,,ign,l pl.,c, in1 ti:he
clIr ,n,,l< .'- :.,] ~e,.|ul :l!,, ,.,i' tlj:- t..lc tal.l that the\I



it. T I,.. ,I., \ t:.i N V. N l.- i \ l i (. .-.:* lit .i- i ..,ilie .

,:1 ] i,-" f,,.l,, .
T hii.,:- of thtin-e.. tile.- ,i.l:.j : i .l'th il, : .i l ii uti- e.
iAl,,t li *.,II ac:i- ul- i t oif il' tleir iii t.ril, i-,1 ilterl t. A1 .ll,
VIA tfine 1iil t l :. \ ., 111 .I l in 1-11' il ,ii,.r1 t],e tl l n
I.itu ril't Ot' th,. (l', ..b il.111111, ],.' .l, .
How Cuchulainnm was Wooed by the Sea-God's
Queen -- ,. _I t.he:- t.,l,:.-.l. kno' aI t I-. t ..',:/,:-
I., ,' ,. T C" 'i..,,!,,,,.',, tfell, f F .Ii I Nvife f M I .I -
. Iu n I! 1in. e L il, tihe li. ] l -',-e>il.,,, ,.i,,l ,,f li .'r
ive 1 rl ti ,e ,I:,. Shc- alil Ir. -i-te 'r vi.-it tlhe
l .I' l t,:- ,,ii t il, l..irl .1 ni e. (-'1ch lit-l l , t lie- t ',
kill tl n ln .-, ce Ii:nt fo.r E n,,-'. I, t t ail-. A t
li, ,-. l-i l,- i N I-it ,l .,\ tN i iV N :lI ,Iii j.,,." i fi c ,ii t.it
cl II, I-. l I a ,I 1- 1 11 il 1 ili e---U -w irch. T liev
,,iI t- h, -tri]:,:- i, i, ,:',,2 ti ldii ,._* i t l l I I e I :\ l,.e..\
Iim l) li -.i i.Nh.,,l. in \ h cli -t t; I 11 lh i. : r a v(:-I',
4._,..,:. ||,:.5. A m e te- ,ii" ',eni e- t, Pil mi'[Ii.-f 1,i,
I ? '_" ifl I,,II III ,Il'l" l-t FI N W 1% i2, 'L.1 I. Il,,, II ,, ,

La g-,, h. ri-et urn -. -tre \vl il,.. with t.hlie ust.
*- l.,'. 1,|r ,je 1, il- iti ll li e f XI .ii.-it,.' l,-.:,I t) a ,,ii











J~I.:II II.~.-il-14 F- 10 11 CLl"Olll I I t I V. 4. 'Iluh ldai III




r.l 'Ov- t I I i I-- I I I'. I ztf' I dll~i lil'-11 I.I
rc, t III: 1 I -, I, i I L, w t r v t? r.t- --111 f hi f zi I a ltel









p'l 's i 11 '7- I I I I I 1 it i F.I II I P, rt 1; i LI I I l I U.- I T11 I I ,:

butapoins n im0oa A he t j'n im
Do Eim--r 4l.lj l~ tl_ -1I tlt an- 1IIIIII tllitit!l

Olt-- I~~ii. ll l il llll~ ~lz .ll- l







THE IRISH ACHILLES 2-7

How Cuchulainn Won the Headship of the
Champions of Ulster.-Tlie ft':.ioui: .tory ;ino\wri
I- F ir.','r,,'- "i', ti-l', lViw Ii i ictrit ,,f th:. P'i i-,,i ,


T riIll..jI t-. hi, l,-, -vi I ii. .,nt, t'..,. til up -tl' it'
;iL l i I.i.: 1 .in, ilnc.itie- tli.- c:hal i tei i f I-\ 'n .iu-
11i nni I Ci' I .1 Ciii-.i i i. .Lii .l "f Li.' r 'i. V.- Il',:, u.h
t,.i ,: i. l i 1, f, :-;,, l':' hin- unj -ti:. l t I1h ,,.. r'. ,' .. ,,l i,,: lt .,'-
l.":,rtir,. H .l ,, ni L. t.he \,.i->.- n,' th, tlii ,-,
heli;al. 1 i l:.,10 t,: ,lalii, h i':ilit if l --l t i:-nt v \ into: tn.:
lb:; i tinq etin- lIall. T lii' l. in .' tlihe et- .- tc- il.l.-. .
Si i in Il-,ni l' i.: Lii, an l p.ne;- i iin ly i- -,l
i, th I' '". : l :.ft S ni:c-ha thein l-, i l- in t: r- it tlhe
.lt-e ill-iin tc- jM tinv ;n l A ilill. Tr tl ii, l rl.-i
tiiC nt lity t ,.1 tl -l fl ll ', i. It 40:il.ll t, unlIIlel .. liv l '

II t I AIt ,l ,_,f X hM 1'1 n,

t i l., i i 1i. t l i t l IIin i i l .-- i n. I-n t ,
l.riut a.,n, ,:t' o hich i a.:'eel.t.e-l -s lei;i-, i.y tI.
t eii- t ,i' T ;'y :i ii t i -ii lit t ( 'il 11' I,, ii .1
lg :i: ,t \ i.'..,.I l .1- eil~ .1s .4 1:t. ,,,ll ,.v,\ E il:',l. Ml .,1,:.
t. ib ].- f:,li: t,. -iind tIi..,u li L'u ,I'l i : ,in I, i- ,iwI .
~,ic:...:-finl, yir th i-r- is i,,rn, f',r ,lislute. T liiey
ret irn t,., l'E u, n i:,i , .;l .,n t\ i, l, -_l |l-.h: i,
. .iant :i.ij,,,- ., at the ,' ,,,i t. H ,- ,.tlei t,:, l],t :;n\
ni, e c,. t ,-t, liis li,-. ] ,II 0 ',,rl iti,,n ,I il l r ,,,ill.r.

e-':.V tll:- f.-I t, l.iut w l (i i '.'ii ti l in :.1i tlh :- i:1it
rettinir in,'li- the ,A e- .,_ill ]., 1.h ilti liin ent it'i
th,. la1 *-.,in, they -v biack i-i- ni tVn-ih \w '* Il.
('iu -,l, l -in i :lnii ki.-,:., h i- pi l:--.l -- .l t hi i :. i .l
aft't>: l.,:in, ti :.,l t,: t e utin, -- t b1v the .iait, is







Ci U' H ILA INN


N.l t,.,l th, : Ari )0 l_' 'ulluii, ,! Of tlh
\lan i..'rl .tf U lt.il i.i *.L il El'i,, n:O I ;itJ l thliei
l,-ttli-, in! ,I, iI 1 illisi. 1 to., I.I C. !II[.'l: 'I \1 ilhi th l',e inl
v 1 li r, l. ', 1:, l i ir li lrII*-; T it- i-tr vf, -
:l' tihe h, l.,- At E ti in t., tl,-.: l'O:i this l,.,Ir F0'ortl1,
.,i,,I t ..: In-l, in i ,'' l,,, tii,, i i n lli-l,,tt-,l, .niil tu
thy 1.,.1' th.le ? ree len,, altit ,' tl4 e i ,.-,i f
Ultol:ii in, thr e Me...H.i I-I."
How Patrick called up Cuchulainn from the
Dead.- Tu l \'ite .1' P.trik l l ,i, .lii ., L.e.- .f-itei ,
H i,'lh K i, l ,.,I' 11 ..]l:,i I1. !-.l.l,. i i-ll,,- ..I ll ,,:,i H -.
%w ill l..li: e ,ithe. r ir n P-tri: .l In in _i -lI, n, til
C lj'C:. l in r, 1i : I,.,ll.-: 1 111.1 ii I ll- -.1 i iitV :, i
i, .1n l.l in thI oli --tii ei ;,t't,:-. ft- k hic. I- e w ill
tl.i.- \ i, .-v "' E vi. tlh i is i ,,: i' l ..- if.! :,l, .,, '\. .i.~
P ;tli i l:. .-il til- i '-',r .,i\- -. int, t :it il k ii .' m eii -: t..
-,nd the kinq i, -1ee,:chle-, imril tlhe A.int i,;;
11 ,,:.-- ,:.i. h im ,. ,,: I ,,: h l.. ~ ., i ,.. ,:, t.',.o1_chI d ii_;nii
I,-.. i i.i-,l, l l t._ L iiii in i l hti- c l,., i,.t. B ut I: i:
-till ,tni ~.,ti-fiedl ; i \, ,:' l ., ,- lik.,.-.,l .1 lI,:,i- .i
c,. \ ,1:11.' i 1:. 11.ti,., \ tl, tI h Il..i',.i. 111. l,,'1..1 .,li tll _. .] (t1l-
l.,in ,[ -.1i- :- -, o Il t oi-, le ': i, 'i -l i t
f.,t-. ;:i,,l ,:x lho': rt- I .-. ,'ir.. t,:, i,.[ .\-,: ii! _,,.,, ., rl
oly, P-' tri,-k. .lnt tlu-. kin-'- .li-.i.eli,' will In-t. le
c.irl. jul.i,.l -. ,, i llrd e b l:' tiell ,:t Iiof i- r' I t h.-i. l .ls.
('1I:i l.inin-i r.ln.n tell-- ,.' hi.- lattle- .- ti,-t Loch-
L.,rlp ., ., ,i'' hI i- ,:..,[ ll :- fll :,t -e l pl nt- ,n.] i,,.,i, ', \ i.in Inl: -le.W\\, all
f'lr ,i i, l l ,l- .,ri i ,_, I ,, ii-' w i -li ',n l ,.., i| r,:, ,.







THE IRDISH ACHILLES


It :' ls ,o t. ll- h l. ,ft, l ,l'. I th ,I.n ,,., .';ii ri,.i,- ,:,ir
hi. -oul, : ljdI thourf Ih [il,:p l tlb p,,,cc OW/, on
them yet. hI vI., ruC1 'l,,-'l ilito the IE- l C ui,, I-'iIl.
H e w\ i!in l li v hI>e., clinc i '.it i vk t,: l.,inr,
hin 1 to h- '':'V i TLr,: .-:i'it -' :antl. t. '. l1:,0iij, ;il n l
L .._hit ir :- ielii .e-.

A I'l',: 1c,.1. m,.,v Iln r,> 1"e iit, rl"-_- d ',:-tting
t'olth cE- t.in n I oIn i" r Ile i iu--i l:.I r,.- it- o:f' criti-
ci ii l:,_,n ,l.ll l*,.r the ,i ,,t i,, ,hI VMi,:l 110i nt. Ot"
t I :. -ntoi: i:'. ,II.1 th : i ot l i thliai t in.ti l ,., iti-
m aite vly e u Ir.t w n .,..t to tho' :'' :, L I tt iI:- tlit r,: oI- t(
t.h_ e:,g .. lioli. The -cet.ion : f t.1o ali io 've
Um mal w il N h ,.1,: h llif/,- ,,l, ? O1
t.lh U lster i Iarch. l. f_ o01 tIhe tl.- ..k -rItit.I,-J the
TO,.M .,,, _',,.,lill ,. T hi ,li-tir.'lii.-.h ,. F l,-inch :lnd.
ei a nj. .-chlol.hr-. M oi,-. ,l'Arl,,,i.- d,, J1Unloinville
.,i l P lrt-, --c.l Z im uer, i. i.tv,: i m ..l: it aln,:,-It ,t-, t;,ii,
tih .t, tlii t,,le --ol,-t.intiall\ : t.+-.~ u i:.l, ,In ir,..__ th,:
fir t h;It h o tt O .f O -,'\tntlli i,.',it.i Y, tI,- -i ,..II ,- Un.'.ler
11Lh10l, it. l1.,-- Co:,j," ,i:ow n, to., ,1.- ii, ,lev 'rit}i turv\ MSS ; ,xi-tir. text:, which \',ry :,n-islhly
.Il ,l.'j i* ti.l h _u ,: -lv,:--. r l e .,1 t. t.h,:-y [,,.,I, 011.1i l h ..,-
ti,: i, ,,'i i a \\l itt.en ori,'i. i ,l i:ztln .hat thl ], ii,,ll.,,.niil-
ent tr i-i ipt- fl i: onr I l tr.,lition. .;ra ting t.hi..,
w fi-t. follo, T TI t, obviou.-ly v IluI io,-..- to ;, l:te
.t. _'e of d.e\:'l,.[iLI',iit of thle I:lga ; it .._ thi r_' ilr
:. ,,i ti '"--,- int,- C *'cli' :,, f i' j \'j .- V IA, a n 0o0 t Oit oldf .ter
,p_ .-_lo li< m :itr. ia i; If it I.,:-lo ,g th. t.hle t -rly nvntll







'lit 'ilI LAINN


c te II f..ll t. I,- I I.i t.t: l \\ li ,..l- I it ,dli i til-_ aLI .1I .t L-1 Ii:'t p\.t l ,
n ll.t. I . \ 1 1.II i I.'h N.li ]l- A1 .:, i l, _.Ui l i .le- t. text.

lirt t\\_ .. :, ;i il. !I]y .I ,1.., ,*,r -i i,,-I',llil;it t'Fr..-:l i
llj iL-li, I :1 .i 1 ll i i. il l ] .IllJ./ .II II T .# in;
\ <.r.-i, :'I( i,- 1:. 1,` I I.I. tr: l k i i-t.l il l _r t.- eI
iillllith i i.\ell i ~ l i s- ltlh c:,"'iit i v ; l i>-'\' n ii .-t in ti eirh
till li i'- c] \ l i l. it i.l ,.' .11 ;.'C.il lll il. li t in.liI ,
I ll' : 1 ',.,tili ui Il i_ ti li -t it--, ef I, ,_' l' iel ,. ck
i li ..i lii-i. N :i, ., I.L ,ti ,'.- / t -/, lilc':' I ll jl'ai ti ,

1:1,l.. l it .,'l l tI ,llO.l'l i l t l i I I Iy ll |i l :.l'l i ll_
oil: -t I "I .1I c-ti t c Itt. t I I iec'e- il 1 r l l.'-
jl u ni li ,-iili _i i i v 11. l lv, i -, i :,l,<:ll t y 1 -1 i fit i'i,-
fli I. *I .I1 l\ It., : \\ ." 1 'h' .*I i, it l -I.' I 'li.' I ft O':rit
I._l l ',l ] I.," h ,. . I t ..ll .,- tl:li tI _T ,le rl.l i -_t the_- UV lith
C' littllV TI I.. ,' . '. *, '.,.,/ i. 1 tl ta i ,l :t
_'lil,. i, iii ill i i,. ..li i I ,l _,1 t L. .i 1h il ..ili .l P l letiii.'
1i- 't l.' l ) c.-lii .llln t lii.- col I .'ilttit:on. W Il tii t i l tl.-t
i., _, 1-i ]'i. I tI l I i t I_ ii ti .,,.ldi c't: .i t : ( 'li'1 t. -
I: t\ It l1 1ii- .,.jt.ill l t I ',- : ti',,in ., tim, 11t-li it
j t. lt l 1_ il d: i :- t,: iC 1,.l -ll -. t i,1. 1.,iI .11111 li t-w
'o it l li l,.O li i ii I l.\ .. ...f .-'i l Jiil. i ill \eitl e
-,;, \ i\ v l, .i ii l t [ l, t N:it> i.~ t,., ,.',_, i,1, l ; 1i!oi; Iii- CI_0.'i'ti,.,ii
v.,\ z. I ;l i..'tl A Ii I vivi r 't l ic; I) f the I 10 N
te.a _' ii,,. It tc 1 -i I ,r i t l,_, it. I- lI,.,teV..l t. lI V
tli. t, 1- I'itL .L j =t ll l ],.li Ilj r'e 11 ,l W.II .iil, "'-I,
thli D1.Ani'.'ntien : .'iti'i' ,t I" bll ,I lly lh_.- ,l-'hii rai k"
t 1.1:0 I '.1 1 -, 1 t.hi,-.r tI:-t- ,t ,f t i .. cI .cl. V l il I. it







THE IR1.'- AI'HI LLES


tlI- I :i';Ij e t- tii li. IIC ,s a4 i- ittiIl o, W li1 l, i t I't L'VO.,il- ;t1',:_
,lII,: t illh ilik i.'ll fL'..,Ill t L t1.-1 ,A l'.t:l-:, JI .l lavo .1
stioi. .,ly in vthii>',,l ;t.-p ;ct..
Thu'l ta:kiii, the; t.tl-e .1, tlhey t:.tar l 11:1 .ll, ly i 'i
o ,lin.,i ,.ritico. l ti. 't-,t v.'_* .;r for,..,l t .':,' l.i. l t hl n,
to: ;a l.,,-ri..,,l nlt ,.)nlv t':l f: it.',.latiu t l th iAt tli-il
*xi-t.in t t'i ,'ript. (t.elati tLie t.-. tri l ttnli buit
. .l- tlh tt ~.: ,f tl,: ii .n l.l tj it l i.i l i, : l;," til vi-.' htll c.:-nt.il-i ). W e- m auIy [.,'-I t,._ tin .: > i.i ..-r:i:tiIt
:ift' iIt 1 i .:i..1 l- i--n+- \W hich tlI> r:iIt e w itlh tin:
c..:. t; in t.y t N :t I v.: at.: .I.- lin,' w it I ,;t tli I] of
r" lAt.i\'v ly v .'i :-,t :I litIlin-ty.
Ih- i ,,- oiIIt tOl e 'e i v i. li e:l rt-t.le -...f tlhi_ fo:,Ite-
..-ol i.,'.'. v. ill lol., I thin k, l _. i lilte i : t.'l: i .liUn
-t.Ihe fat.ilitv .f -ny n .].- -_i.,tJn N- to th.: histol: i-
c.,l te: lity .,tf C_ lichol:-iiti It. i- lU.1lly itn.li I..i nt
\ l : tlI, : a* l'i' :fit tl ki ,.1 10 ,:li' ,o'li, l :not
fl I. I i l I ill l ,. li til. ; t tl,:. 1. 1" i ,1),-, lll '.,
I f i : .1 id., hlie dli I 11-.t ,: ',,t ,,i t;h f>t: -, il.,.:.I to
hIim in ti,_..- t l.l,:-,t-, to he t r-ill-- fn-oih e ,t I : e .n "- I i t.ht
t.h- fi .t t . I II.,'lt lluT i,. lil. L It ltio:u li t.he
t'i:-O I l i ll ':**' .tll i V illti it:' iiivlV iV Il' ilH -
. -,,-il.iiliti,.-, it Ij:,1y l 0l v ti ele-- 1e tIile in tL,
eu-Li~- ,.,t I.,'i1g- ., t itlIful i I rli ,:ltif .,, i I imietr-
.1111l ci1 tsiu., .1 fa. t litl 11 1: ', r.-. i-,u I O:f IlnO l *"v1d
thon'ht. InI thi-. tb It:-.. to I.,,_ t I I ,I:- ,, : l- in, g t uL to i.1. ilifivitly
lI t.* i,:,-i. _11 A ,.1,., 11,.1 ,t tJ,. i :,I,:- il vi ill,._ 1 ,o l ,u li],I 1t. -
tl,.'\ 'fd etL the imllu. LU t-l J.1, 0:l l-*-.tilli.-, tlh -y







(J. 'II 1( IIrI IN' IN


'. -*' :,p'.'-' tl..: inn"....] ;II l, tlh,,r h'tl l .,"f thl' Inern ,\\h:,
' d.,,_1 li:,:,l a _,. rl l,', i-'i,.',l I .:ll1 i, v.'h,.I I ,ui ,1 ',ld
.. "t t if, A -i.- M inrin .- i \, it I>tooil for lI,: g

It i In 'it I-i l.I ':'t. -! I li c I t1 'I114;ll \- a l J -1, it ,...: -
,: i i ,:l? i n I l i 1 ,- i i -. v ii;, I,; -, .I i ,[ i;L .t'.'l '. I ,.-,
ci i\ yl, viol in 1 \' w; to: In : . Ipre lhandled volin
l. hi .-1 e wv ln- ll.,'. i,-,t .[ i ll t ,i' ll,, tihl-,
%n i tl.i.'r. \t 'll i t i ll t I li I ii I t,., ,< -, -
.i: t \ itl} t],:e 1G .-u] in thl teliil ,..ntin v .1 :'., tlh-

11i i '11 01 Pi -.< N I I i!i':l t l'r1 fill) I Ip i i:' ii 1 ll .


,.v., i,, .- ].,\ ,r -" t1:i 11 t- Ii, N r- l,.I.k I inI i I ... i ;,t I
,-,ill' t ilv.. -li jit i n, ;11t :i, ,' :,.- iir.z ,: ,\-\1 t, B 'i t:, ir
I, V .' ,11'.i i l I i ,,,l ,., t. ,l Il.\ ti ll \\ ir- li, l I:Ih c, l "I
vlIi, l l,: -.l t ti, vi M ,14 el i i[tiN-i i c. ili:-,' to,
i,;. v, ry II.el,:,:' _,-, N ,., v (',1,li' ill j ir, l :, il Iii tfll,-,w -
cl,, nl'i.'"-i i i r!:,i,]v 11hl-t fI 'ro: I t ,e .,r- ,: I ri,:t,

;I rl ;r i.I t l, v e: r ,Pi .a1 t r I :A i0 1i t l 1. [ui I f ,-- f

in th,- rinhl ], ,i' the fi, it ll hlll \ 1H.'_. 'rI,^ 0l,:, 1,i
w lhii.l, u.il ti itu ,: l fj,\';i l ,: ,u .:lhu ',.,t l,",,l,',l.,lv
t,,, i :' l |,],i,.:, i n I _l r,,l t,-, ..1- th I,,:. 0 if t.l,.
-'1-1 >- lat.ill ,y *t :,I eI i -, .I ,.1 V ;I'11 ;"i ,,r1 -,' 1 .lIia ;. O "

lritain,. A t ai]l l .: 1 it, till p,. lIr ''- HIIII l --, I f ,"
-.,Iii-lhist,, lie Iri- l, t. e- -.if lwhichl th,, '-, .',, i kliill
ill tn li: . ,u ,l i i' l ,:.,l',:i t. i'-li tllIij, thl er:e_ i. I1,.







THE IRISH ACHILLES


01onger a" 1 luention of the w\lr-cih.liot.. A.- it
w\onlld obI \'lio.lv I ve been inipos.Sible for the
store -t'-ller uf the seventh centu- i to i vent a
mode ,of fi-hlti iLC' ,isn.-. ed for eentIrlieS-, it. i e'i-pi;lly
obviolls. tlih t tie C' hlnehll1 LiInI tale; have in thliI
nIr.pect preserved a conteilpofitnre:, l:',- I'?orl.l of
the life they depict. It is iuure tiru.n prol.bable
that in other respects their rtcorid- i eq'.lly to bI
relied upon, and that they 'lo ilepict v.itll .I l,-
stantial accuracy the life : t the warrior ;all
chieftain class in Ireland ii the tllst century of
our era, a mode of life which, there ur;in b1.1 little
doubt, was that of the Continenta-l ('elts bel're
they came into contact with tlhe :d.lvalced civilisa-
tion of Greece and Rome.
This conclusion will appear tlih- loie ju-titied
when we consider how siniil.r ii1 e.csenti.l- tle
life of the Irish Celts of the- ( m'aiiul linl lperi'::l is
to that of the Gauls as prteselted by the cli.;s.ic
writers. The predominantly nilitiry oiga;nisa-
tion, the power and status of the \iWc r-c lief, who
would be absolute were it not for the c,:ouniter-
vailing influence of the wizia-rd :or Dni l.i~t, tlie
highly-developed clan system which ll llit-. t.he
people up into a number of rival and j;ii ing
groups, these marked traits of C.eltic Ireland
may also be discovered on the (Con:tinent. But.
the Continental Celts, warring as they did lig~int,
more highly-organised foe,, tb..l coliheion forced







CUCHULA INN


Illpon tlhell, ;al,, 0c iill u11t. l. t. I.urir \v rg..l i- ,itt.ioul
in tili-ir tuitr Ht-1.., .:-.iii, tilhe I'ih C.lt ..f A.D. 1
1stai tI til a ullIr't pi iiitive l. Ivt 'l tihan tIhe C' n-
tir,,lt:l Cielt ,f t.le ,tt -.ij, i .,r ,vk ,ii t.hircl iecnturv
t.e. In 'I : to li l ti. -uar.ill" ..l ith li r til,
A i \i i.i i ll,.kilI lutiii I vl. I". l ei t fall .,.1.:-'k itIn 'i t ,i e
H on. l rie (-. e k i t i of~t 1 I)( : -'.., :L] eil if we ltHar inI
inin tl t the oini ri' r- ,-,r-k inli.iitel :i i lieljr
l illi \..:s, iln r ll-i t:' ct l w ithl .li. i i t- .it, i t'T :' iln
w ,:.,ltliv i,-ili .-ti.-i-, ;iti l i.i -l eei ,:[lef i.t _,l fri i i11
i.' .'it'l t h i t in .. fiinili2 r w itl a ririterial
e. lltu f:i.r i I .l\-vi ,, -f L, tii t1 ii ._< 1 :i -,Vii t(C
tile Iri -l C'elt v, -li vet. liil, t ie u .,. II llel
:tl\tio l',iiit-, al'. i "is l .lXt-._e-'Itia-e. N t -i linu ; FlI
rt ill. I lC : I, 'iki. I :t I.I tl. li.I i4..F i o l iil, I likt 111
rtiiLi>it. Ii, l.ni,.l anidl in H m.nii, ri,- !ii. <_,. thn- ,.iil
r ,,i' -'il i- 1 ; t l,> c l ie l'- ir,- i.nl-, I'.11'1ile.: -, ~ 11'-
io niid, i 1.,i lit,.1.., I rk _,.1 to J.lef,. In l tl .I i I w ,
au,.l n l' ,il t.l- ir nei hiblil..oui-' ca.Little ; w -i alth i:
vexl I- p ,l i i tt i n c'i >f hl.nvp-;, ki -, Ii. -i. i;u l uri'la.-
t ,:t-ht', .11ii.1 chattel'. T I,, ,lit'l',n twr,', ,t ii' o ,i tlie
nirn -'t a :,:- rt.. . h_ ll t.i 'all \ -, i.l fl,.ei tilan V..l yI il,,.i
j lvr1,-i "o it 1 ilture iii.,l ., t1.h- twu. .IcoG N : :,n,.
<.' tli_ oi _tit rtrked i in thu p,.iiti,.,n ,l,' W olie .I.
T1 is *.i-, ii' w ,: in,.-Y ;n-e*.pt. tlh, t vi el.,nci.. ,.,f thl,-
t:tlef l'ie, r n in.l 1i1 i,-', iinI-pi. l, ,i nt ii, 1,-'ieiil
Irilainl tlih r, ir, H u-in :.ri, G ri'_-'-,.'. N or i.i this
t.- hi w.: le'r, cI at.: thli conitao.:t, with tlh,- E A .t
, M ric(' lroll h it. i,-biilt ULICoi a Je, ',iUIl:t-iIli (f \vcAiJ illi







TIHE IRISH ACHILL.ES


in historic Gree:e ,had alreadyy be-gunii in Hotlmeric
tines. Aaini, then, we may 1,hold that in thi-;
respect the Irish tales take us hack to ani earlier
t.l' of Aryatn cutomi.
I-: iring in mind this fundrn iim int:i likeness of the
t :'.: c'ul ture gr',ups-(Greeks o'f thie Homeric pe riod,
a'i,, 1200-90i0 B.C., Irisli Celt :'f tlie heroic pe.riol,
lastin. well down into the liit ce'ntlniies 'of the
Christian eia-it need not surprise us to find tlic-i
IheroiC ideal eml..:idi'.l in sluch markedly similar
foI'r im In -tylinl C'u,':iul.airI-n till: lii-h Achilles,
I di but emlihasie a parallel wliic.l mut :uugge st
it.-elf ti'i wloinll 'oeve I.ltnillal wiitl i the Iliad,
fainiilia ise himself with the 1i ii] heim:-I i oruaiic'e-1.
Thbe p.raallel -arrie:s with it a dan-,.er against which
the leader must be on g-uaird. H Illo ,we'.ld bly two
Oiid i halif milleliuin i, of rever'iil'-e riand :-Inssic,
US:, th le work of Homner conme li.ef'i:re us with a
glamIrur w:hi:lh, for most of us, di-t'rtt- our vi':w
of his w:,rll. That wo ,ld is l.arlb 'ic ,-like in its
md.h-e of life adi1l i it-, :on,:-eption"of life. If we
selek for ninetieentl-.entit.iry anal':,'.;-e, t.-o Achilles
aimd Cu':liulainin, we are pi:'l.,,bly b,:t advised in
turning t- tlhe Ma:iies of New Zealand ns ollftring
the nearest piarallet! alike of tlie c:CnditionS and con-
,'epti.:.n of life. In the case of the Irisli tribes the
parallel is probably very clos:; tie Hoinerk Greek,
as already noted, stood on a higher level as far as
the material






CUCHIULAINN


In the comparison, a fair and legitimate one
between Achilles and Cuchulanir, the hr:ro o:f the
less advanced, of the more larl.'aric race suffers
nothing from our point of vi-w. In botl, cases
the ideal is, of course, purely warrior-like: t.he pre-
eminent hero cannot but be the ,chief liightitng brave
of the race. Superb and fiery c:'u'rage, p.asiionate
and irresistible energy, fierce and uItter devo:tiou to
the standard of honour recognized by hlinis:elf and
his fellows, such are the dominant traits. Bar-
barians both are, but magnificent, and dlri ral.eI ba.ar-
barians, and of the two the hero of th,' roller race
is nearer to our ideal-more adimir.ile.l Tlhe Gel
is a better gentleman than thi Geek. Cichu-
lainn fighting for his land and trili, is noibler tl:an
Achilles fighting in revenge of personal injury.
Cuchulainn granting, in admirati:,ii, theI. dying re-
quest of his foe, Loch More-" 'tis a warrior's Io:I:iil
thou askest"-appeals to our syvinilatliies \ hlie
Achilles, rejecting Hector's last .,pp:;il, repels them.
Cuchulainn, lamenting the mucl,.live.l co:irale :,f
his youth, whom all unwillil.gly hIe iuist n.edls
slay in defence of his land, ioves us yet more
poignantly than Achilles yielding to the prayer :of
suppliant Priam. Fate, an unkind fate, hI.s denied
us the picture of Achilles' doom, that dei:iii fore-
told him by his horse, Xantlo:s :of the ;l:,inc.ing
Feet, even as the Grey of Macha foreknIrew the
doom of Cuchulainn. It could not, even had it







THE IRISH ACHILLES


:'conie .ownVi t:O us linined l.,y thie Fatl,hr ..if Poetry
himself, have su rpia-.-.l that vi-i n of thie King-
chief o.,f tihe Hero:s o f Erin, t-elf-.ittaichi d to the
iniImlleli:'rial menili tint he nigllt t t .lie lyin
0or sittlnl. .but thlt lh in i'ilit lie staIIlin.g ul."
T lih ie_- .1 \V- t i, <.,tlh r ;SL I .1t i ,.l.r ,v rl .: C u-
.l111lalinl n ,ity ,1 bc '.',i.il:.' ir:l \\itll A llIIllc Ill .loli
cases tlhe _ng.i o-f tlie minttl, of tlh ler,, his ipre-
-er\.id f..i ii.-, with the i,-i:e.--.irv in., liiati.m n? due
to Alt, t r,.d cn<:,.lltl,..', l, tlie le.',/II.I i:of an inun :ortal, of
a o.',d. At first blusl it w.-uil'.1 ..ween that the
Greek tale, wholly the .. ute.'.ne ':,f lagani tiil:.s
and pagan life. mu i-t, preserve such a lg'q-il far
more faithfully tlini dii -.- tl Ii iii. Iii o'ie sensl-.
this is si. Tle s.iiuLemntial nii-i'intiy oii,.ii' ies
its proper iiie in H.iiunir, tli'. g.i.lds apii'Per ii nil
their power an'ld .-letil:our. IIn tih ITilh t ales this
element has beenoi alii,:i.-t :,ntiiely 1 liniinated, or,
where suffered to r-iii.rn,. gl.,s:ed ovr, ninimiii,.
Could a secoii. ,it thlrid century stoiry-teIller lbe
evokil lilii tle d':al ind iai] ild:, to rr:cite hit.
Version .f thle laint we s.houitil '.rtiily fin'l the
G reat Que.-rn ..f E-ittles. tlhe gd-sii. of C,. ,.l lai i ,
thle .-.ietl:e reiiie.ai atiitt'l i t e tl tw bulls, aLpi.il, ing
in the vi-ilie miighlt anl glory of their g,'o-liood.
Tin-h ptirtly Chriti-in story-teliers, t he Cliri-Lian
SIIul.t. ,-tf ti- se\veintli :-.1 nd following ..enturics
wlilst tliey altered little andl added si'arce any-
tlhini as fair :a we can jud.lge, have ic rtainly left







CUCHULAINN


out muhiu:. Yet in spite of thi: o:l.bvious dill'eren-ce
between the two bo..lies o:.f legend, it may confi-
denrtly :e iur'ed that Ciii,:lhlaiinn lbel:on.g t: an
earlier, nor.e Litliitive .stai.'e of sn:ia .volution than
does Achilles. In the I/i'a', despite the pronii-
ne:n'.e f the 'i i..:'rnati l element. the oli:'iii:al
rmytli lii l}.efn her:iisiei, snitel to humaii ..,n-
diti,.,ij, set withiin thie limits t-f a histoiic frame-
work, and the-t.l.y e':iniii-ss.:l, nim:dith-d, run into
nfew f:Aiins, mioir tlian is the casx i- with the Ci.chlu-
l.tiiiin "ti ,i'-. In tihe foltrmer, althot.iigh -ln:ilars
are agreed in re -aiding Achillh:s as thle hli,:li
rethlectin f I- ,ytlii: pri.ttyj. e, the utint:l.st.
civersjity of opinio:,n ha. i.xi:x-tl at to lte nitiire
of that prototy[e ; nr c:an the cureniit interjire-
tati: of hin personiriation of the rushing
toi',rr>elt lie le-Aaurt ed Ai s .S cemrn.lmdiiing univ(llrs-:l :-sseit. In tile .case of
Cuchiulain no doIubt. is poissil.le ; ihee, if at;ny hire,
we htive, thle Isui-hero, hFli',.-tasis, orr, a- iil this
case, actitui.:l reineiarnttion o:f Lthe IIn-,_.l ; tIhe
story o:f his i ,iiS ii, lhis ai dveiItu tes inrC l hiis fate
modiel-leil upl:'n ;nld partly reieiodui.(in1 those i.,f
his divine oi,,giiial, but no lifiei1 by tl teir tanIs-
positioI flo:,n imil Io t'al to mI orta l ,co,.l,.i ioi r., from
t;ie r,:alm of divine hppeiiielis, dateless, limitless,
f:aRtuieless as thiIL iS, to 11irimnuniiity of IIenI ni
wvoniii, related to :achl olthter by definite, histtoic
ties, anfl nssi'-lned to a definite historic period.






THE IRISH ACHILLES


Ini a.sseting the mythic rente .fii C.uchuilai nn I
do not az,:ert that the tales al.bout, him which have
coi:lm d' wn to us weile iegarled lhi their tellers in
a svflmlic: or, alleg.l ,.l light. They and their
hearts, as did i lHofitr and his hearers, inm:t
..rtainly believed in the historic reality of their
li:.roe e. one of tiie 3ma ni ., of thi: l,' nItilltlie
popularity ,.,f thei: C'ichulaiii, sto i'.:-s w i-: that they
tlatteri':l tle pride of the North Irih- chief--, and
that for .o:cer 500 ye-i.-. tlhe High Kin glIip of
Irelari: tl was. tho: u:- li i nomilly' .l" elective, i r .ictically
hrd..ltry in thie k tdin. North Irils family, the
L.'N.eills. In the telith .eniitury, South Ireland, in
the 1i:1 r-.,:'n f tith MIutste- Im n LBian, wrestedi the
IIi.li Kirn.slii fionm tcheI Nort. Hal this- taken
Ilace: in thel, sixth or se-ventlh ceiitury, thel COchu-
lainn sag wo.uld. in all I:pol..:al.ility either have
beein lolt, .O hI.e wo:.uld li a' i .,':.ln the villain l'therl
thau the hero of the piece.
In -.'ite, hl'vet-r, o:f the ,re.ie way in which
the Iri-h sun-her,:c is lo.'ilise.l in a particular dis-
tri,.t and aSoeiate.d with a idefinitei group ,of quasi-
hiist':ric personages, it is w..onilerful with v.hit clear-
neI.ss the outliw .s .f hii mythic p.-ersonality have
bIeeil preserved, and in how I niyv of Ij alvdventuies
we can dete,:t hi. ilythlic nature a. the animrnating
and controlling e-l':meirnt in tlhe st.ry. In the first,
place, it ch,,oulh.l Ie noted that all the letling chat-
acterst of the cycle are dles endant. iln thl. third or








(cUCHULAINN


fou'irtih geniratiuii of the chief wireiaknr of the Tuathia
dle DI IanIil, or a( niert Iri-ll '.,:d-el n, the Daglda
or -'ood o.. Loi'.rg aft,: the (.C'iu-iilainn stories
hlid aSSllned a hxed literary shape, the inediheval
Iri-li "-i]nali.-t- turnlid tlh Tunthi I.le illinann into
early ;iilig awil w 'vii:iS The annals relpi.sent
tihe L'.IA a as ra.S elIin'lii. il Irelainl --ii 1700 l ( ir
lefi:ie the late of Facliti;na F'thac h. hlii- greit
gi'rail. a '' dini i'g t t e st'.'ri t, aipairt fromn
this ifn', whihi l:w. lw lon aniteri.r It. lthe
ainahlitic :h.il-ie ti, lto:rie in 4t ?, arnd l. ho
tenasclus,-ly tlheI have retaiined.l the ,,ri,-inal framle-
w'.'rk, tl,, Ilytliiti: lture Of CnIliub iiln is ,;-lf-
app'tlt.rnt even in the bare recital of lii.; chief
aidlv tlllui'. whi.hi I hliv gi'.l. AtterIlli,.li liuly
'il 1-.e :,ie1 t' .some feaLti'Tre iii hlis peisoit ality
be t explaineld ly rbf''ienc t' )ii oruiinil solit
nature. That w hich praitiia:.ally distiluis- s him
fr'.'ni ev'ie uti r hiI? r,., i i.f Irih i ,t aiir t is hisi
ca:<:ity, h'len i:ou.Lht up int.- a Ial.'Ji:,xyvm .f
f.iry b l uppositi.n, oif startling' aindl terrifl,. trans-
foiiiatioi. The iass A:e. in which this trali--forn ,-
tioi is le' ril..d' are in tie list le-'i:e obscutie
thl were 'proIiably ui i Qtelli.giblle t-i- tie s.-:ibes if
our p1'iA.Wlt te-xt, ild have \? Si.ierei from the cor-
ruptions to li,_h nil ari ai.i: anail ob.Sure 'aisages
are ] i.1,to in the ool.l'e of tra.inription. Tran.-
lated1 litei.ally into Englis.h, they often ha.\e an
ascit i.f ridicul i1.s bloml)ast, i:edeeiiled by fla.he.







THE IRISH ACHILLES


of barlbaric force anr.l inrigit. iOe example[ may
suftice : "Theii it was th;:t he isu erd his ri:ast.ra li,
. 1herei:by he b'iecaien- f-:earsomiie ani. many-shap;ed, a
marvellous arid itlhrto: uiLknown beinrm. All over
him, from ihis crown to: t.]e ground, his tei-c anl
every liiim and' joit . :uiver'i as do es a tree,
yea, a bulrush in mid-current. . His imoutl was
twisted awry until it met his ears. His lion's
gnashings caused flashes of fire, each larger than
the fleece of a three-year-old wether, to steam from
his throat into his mouth. . Among the clouds
over his head were visible showers and sparks of
ruddy fire, which the seething of his savage wrath
caused to mount up above him. . His hero's
paroxysm thrust itself o of his forehead longer
and thicker than a warrior's whetstone. Taller,
thicker, more rigid, longer than a ship's mast, was
the upright jet of dusky blood which shot upwards
from his scalp, and then was scattered to the four
airts."
It is, I think, legitimate to refer these archaic
descriptions of the sun hero "hindered" (the
original signification of riastradh according to
Professor Zimmer) by foe or obstacle to pre-heroic
and purely mythical descriptions of the sun-god
hindered by cloud and storm-wrack, and assuming
unwonted and terrific aspects. They are plat of
the sun-god's gear bequcathali by Iim to his lhero-
sol.








CUCIIULAINN


In ancient Ir ish heroic romance the heroes are
almrcst. invariably subject to :/i,.a (i oli. /ti.-),
taboo-:,s, the br:eki4g ,:.f which generally heral'ls or
ert'eets t te r.i gic issue of lI te stror. .r n p. 21 we
.aaw that Cuchnlainn l.rt':le -a I' ,. /..." e ',len lie
a:c.eei'tri- from tle iLtughtters of ('alatin the flesh
of tnhe holiunid, his namesl-:ke. An.,tIehr of li-s. /';'i'
is si'niic:ant. The Irish se.-,-ol is Ma-n.iri,n l iMace
Lir ; it Is a (m/. of CIucilainn's "' to: st' thle horses
of M.'inannini, or Ia treo la l: trrp o:f IMoner's son
rlay sootlhin..,ly anl. sw'etly." It is tab.'oo fin the
sun-god to "see' thIe wild white hors'es fo.:ain anli
fset : vlin h 'li:e so it i that his course is end.lud
in tlhe \iweteI n waves.
Miss Hull has so.iirinitrise,.l so .lmiral.,ly the
arg.umeint for tihe mlthii:' nature of C.'uhulainn,
tliit, I iee o.l ot ai olo.ise for borrowing her
words: He readie' ls is full lev-lopil'ment :At an
unn.itura.1lly early age, a.inl even as a bovy o'f -'ven
years Ie ,oni:l1iuets herou'cs .anid [pe-lf' Ims the feits
of a .riiiie champion. Sinall, but romely of
person, lie waxes in (,.,'nlli':l to a pri:'.liio'is size,
a hal, .Iihines from his hea.i, the bi.i of valour'
flutters over him, a furious heat e,>:'le's trmin his
boU:Jy; he ieirtroys armies by his look; he has
olwer in his eyes to :. blin' the woien of Ulster
iwhen they look l[-upo'n limii wvithl oIve. His feats
are t-rrilic; hu is irr'-sistibl' both in war and. in
love,. He is boun.l by his '.qe'l.r to rise before







THE IRISH ACHILLES


dawn falls on Erain Maclia ; I-e i- seldom at rest.
for his ei:l.rgy, is unItiing. HI11 i ldes a chiariot,
.1 rawn I a black and a grey hor-se, ymbiols of day
and l eight. He himself has caught thios:e famiou-'
s-tIe:l, v.'hi,. hhliavl e uiergedl frorm a maic lake
arnd retiuri, thither oni tli- de.l ith of their iu..,ster.
On them when caught he scours the pilair, and
rises at a leap over the mountains. Tlree times
without 1iusing fr breath they c.iry their tainer
round the entire circuit of Erin. Suhl is the
Irish conception of the Solar Hero."
One further point, but that of capital imlort:irne,
should be noted in this connection. Tli' quest of
the Brown Bull takes place in winter ; the forces -:f
M.eave start in October, and from the en,-l of tht:-i
month until the end of January Cu,:iluliiin ha as to'
fight single-handed because the warriors of Ulstcer
lie prostrate in their pains. When, LUgaiId, Ere,
and the sons of Calatin finally overl.,ower tlhe ier!,
his fellow-warriors are unable to aid lii1 for the
same reason; thus his death takes place in w inter.
It is impossible not to recognize that Cuchulainin's
life record is here modelled upon earlier year int ths
which picture the sun-god assailed or vaiq.uisild
during the winter season. In the cycle, as we have
it, racial and historical elements have been adiled.l t
the myth ; Cuchulainn's adversaries are not simply
personifications of cold and darkness ; we car detect
in the cycle the clash of r:accs, possibly even of







C('CH UL.\ INN


inylit-olo-is.-. Thi:e bliar.lest.t stu I le which the heI..
li.ts to undi'erho' is that % ith Fe.-ilia, anil Ferdia is
,expi-e sly ,.l-'s; ri ,:..l :i- thi... C intl f chail tmpion o,:,f the
Firbol-'-, a rice wliih lee prcled' tlihe sois o'f Mlil on
Iri-li z._ il, .iii, w i]ch int oti her tales of a ..eci'le'..ly
mythical chailrct,:.r is found. 1 allied.l with tin: Frinmi.i,
l. k ain..l -vil I w:i'.- :_'ini t the Tu.itli. de l r'ai.riiii,
' ..l of'i' light, a i an l iJlci( .-c.
If tlin \\i oiW of CuIC liil iiii .t tihe .url-lilr',, t.he
ly .i'. t-it sis o:f tlit. b.urin- o':.l Ibe: adi.liitt(e.l, it Im ay :-
a. k d:'. if ti'.is of hi-s l:ge-il e-xi.t in Celtdloin 'ut-
il.le Irel in.. M on.,i.ieur d..'Arboi 'i. ..Tii.i ville-
II- init.:.rl'rf teItl the s, llllituie :II n a G;a lish A lt:t
fi:i'l :it PuAIL; U ilu-tr.ti\e ,f a %]ilnteie 'tof
miytliL. ii'idl-nt-' :l i ilog:r-s to tl:at set forth in thie
',' t a in ': C 'ttlj.e. EveL n if the ilteri_,rpi t,itio: ii I.e
Cuirr.':-t it v.,oul .l only prov:- that tlhe Ce-lts of Firiace:
hal :-tris about the sinl-i-ero inila to those tulil
b.y th- Celts of Ir-ela li. We can.iit -pea-k of a
pai,-Celtit: C'U' ullailli l. Thei Ittter is, I blli-evi,
sul-stanti:lly the sun-hi-ro, but tihe- sun-he-ru 1ith..'Xi:'l
in : p, tit.ulrir disti i.t ,f Irelandii, asu-iatedl with
particular I ih, trilbes, with a pI, ti.-iul:ir period and
s-et of ev'.its \ lliil, uliay liMauy not h:,e mytiic.il. It
is i_,t tlite fea.ture-s l' hl.s iII Clilllmii 'it% i itliEi
sun lhl-io-, ilut thl' ,.f!.riitt of his sag'a which
establish hi iln.li\ ilualitiy, wli:l i nake:- him Cuchu-
lain. ths we hae th
To iIum up. In theid- stolies we have thn oldest







THE IHISH ACHILLES


Gaelie f:oin of t wi.le read Aryan hle-t-invth;
in certainn rnes.pects: this IGaelic f:rmn is iiorr ar'.lic
tlani :n n 1ie found elsewhere, is nearer tie mythic
prot,,t.ype, l le-s i!fluri:.nl:el 1by thle Ihuniin e'an-
diti.',os to wlIih it has been ads.lpted. It is thus
of priceless value to the student of heroic myth.
To the historian the environment and the material
conditions of the saga are perhaps of greater interest.
Thanks to the isolation of the Irish Gael, to their
escape from the far-reaching influence of Rome,
they have preserved for us a polity, a social organisa-
tion, a mode of life more archaic than those recorded
of any other Aryan people, and of this social
organisation, these manners and customs, the Cuchu-
lainn stories are the oldest and, in some respects,
the most genuine witness. Finally, they embody
the heroic ideal of races which have contributed
largely and influentially to the mixed population of
the British Isles; they give warrant of a lofty and
inspiring, if barbaric, outlook upon life and death,
which is in consonance with the little we learn of the
Celts from classic writers. If we seek for a com-
mentary upon Caesar's record of the superb self-
sacrifice of Vercingetorix, we shall best find it in
what for century after century the ollamhs of Erin
told of their fortissimus heros, of Cuchulainn.


"W .
1S'
QAfl*.











BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX

AND NOTES


TIIE reader of tbh fore-oinri StudSy -who v.ishes to pursue
tie subj,-c:t further liould hirst turn to the folloAwing
work: 7'T' i,...r ,, it/ .'i. t it, Ir'i'li Lit:r..tur:, be-in- a
cotllI:ction of Storri--s relating. to the hero CaC:hullin.
Translate-d from tlhe IJiih lby -arious Sc:llars. Cromi-il--
andt Edited v.ith Introduction andd Notes by Elhanor
Hull, i 91 The contents of ths %olume are as under :-
(1) T'be Birth of C('nachar ; (2l Ho'.-. Corina-har gained
the King-lhipi o'c-r U'lster: (:..) The Oxrigin of C(uchullin
abridgedd ): (1) The Tra--ical Death cf the Sonr of IUsn.,.c:
(5I 'Th- W'oo;nr. of Ernm-r (abridi.-2d); (t: The Siece of
Howth; (7 The Debility of the UDe ltonian Warriors; (.'I
TIhe Apl:'aran:e of the Morri.u to Cuchiullin beEore the
Tain bo Cualllg: '19 Tihe Tain bo c-'uailrnre : a sunmary
anals-i with tr.anlation of important Iassa-es in fill:
(li 'I Tle lut.tructio:,n of Cu',.hullin to a Prince: 111 The
,rn.at I'ei-at on the Plain of Mi.iirtherane before C'ucbul-
in'i death, l2 L' Thti Tra.'ical Death of Cu .bulln ; (13)
'I he 'Iracic.al Death of C'oiinachar : (I-4) Tlh- Phbatom
Chariot of Cuchullin.
M;s- H ill has :re:fixed an i-.xc llent Introduction deal-
inc v ith the- Sa na ac a whole in its various aspects, and
has added.] careful blbhlto-rahliical and critical notes.
'Ih,- pre-ent Stlu.ly ard Miss Hull's work fully enable an
intelligent reader to: form a fair and accurate conceFtion
of this body of herroic litc:ratuire.

F-,ItTIOrLIIU is I: .:' SCiTTnL M i, ,ace 1).
It may be n-c-essary to -ay that the Sco:tti are first
heard of asj inhatlitincr Ireland; that there settled in
46








BIi LIO IGR APH ICAL APPENDIX


Western Scotland (heretofore known as Altal in the fifth
century, and that by the eleventh century they imposed
their name urpon the northern half of the island. Down
to the eleventh century Scotia in mtdzlval tests means
Ireland, and not Scotland.

'rT;cRNAXCH Ipage II.
The Annals of Tiqernach have been leited and trars-
lated by Dr. Wh tley Stok:- Rriu tl r;qure, vi:l s. xvii., xviii.
Tigernach was one of the distinguished native scholars
who flourished from 950 to 1100, to whom we owe the
Irish Annals substantially in their existing form, and also,
in all probability, the learned compilations of Irish saga
and legend. Tigernach is remarkable among the earlier
Irish historical writers for his almost entire disregard of
all pre-Christian history save precisely in so far as the
kings and warriors who flourished at Emania are con-
cerned.
DATE OF THE STORIES (pages 2, 3).
Almost every story about Cuchulainn is contained in
or alluded to in the two oldest Irish MSS., the Book of
the Dun Cow, transcribed before 1104, the Book of Lein.
ster, transcribed before 1154. Both MSS. are avowedly
transcripts of, or compilations from, older MSS. The
Book of the Dun Cow comprises almost certainly, as
shown by Prof. Zimmer in his masterly study (Kel-
tische Studien, V.: Ueber dem compilatorischen Charakter
der irischen Sagentextc im sogennanten Lebor na L. Uidhre.
Zeitschrift fiir vgl. Sprarl,: t4 iy, v,:l. vxviii 1 8-7), the
versions of heroic legend made by Flann of Monaster-
boice, the most learned Irihmanr of the early eleventh
century, and Flann's version; are, a, Prof. Zimmer has
shown, harmonies of [jre-exiziing version.. In several
cases one of the texts u-ed by Flann in bhi harm.l:ny, .con-
tinued to be copied in its einirety and has been pre-








48 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX

served by the :ook of Leinster or later MSS. Another
point which Prof. Zimmer has cleialy brought out is. the
intrusiou of gl-ses into iour existing test.5; this, of
course, presupp-oes that a scribe, finding the original
test partly utifntelli':ible, added glauses in the margin to
explain it, and that a later scribe transferred thlee mar-
ginal glos-es into the te::t, a process testifyiug to a long
.period of repeated tran:icribing.

TIIL FOEIM OF THE S TORIES Page 3).
As a rule, the verse and prose are ri:p:ttitins of the
same portion of thti barratie. Tihe same de-vice is u-.sd
ill tici.r.ni r.i .\i'olttt, as readers of that charming,.
tale will recollect. But iometimc: the verse is comple-
mentary to the pruse. Tbi, i' especially the caue wvith
pa-",.,e comrnpo-ed in ro. .an an arupt, c.urnpre-ssd. irre'.:u-
lar metre. .'.l ich is apparently the earliest kin, of Iri -
terse. Many of the prasages in ro:., are so archaic and
obscure as tu defy all attempts at translation. Apart
froimn ro..ic tile Iri;hi metres are e:tremiely uompli.-ated,
and abound in formal dif icultie- of the most severee nature.
In this respect. Irilh c.rsilicationi trainscendls teen the
l'r.:,vn.;al troubadourr poet ry.

Tlr. HLI:u:-'; LlI;K'H ipale 4).
Sere Miss HLll, No. .. The- \er'ious sumnjaricd a:re found
partly in the IDook of the Dun Cow, partly in much later
MSS., which have, lhoueier, preserved an older form of
the .tory than that I:f the Book of thhe Dun Cow. I [ae
dlic ,ied:l and illustrated the critical juestiuon in olved,
|'' t.;' ;c rL'E.-e... ~1:1. ii.

THLE LiOISH ExPLOITT-TIIE AS-LUMTI'IN OF
ARMS (pages 6-1I.I.
These form an episode of the Tini l) Cui'.urle. As








AND NOTES


soon as the invadr.c, i erter LrlTtr. Ftrguu rec'ogjnies
Cuchniniin's hI:,ndi'o'iLk. and tells the wondering Con-
naricht c:,urt of hi youthful pro'.:es-s. The epis'od is
tianslaIted alruon-t in full. Miss Hall. Tpp'. 1:.5-150,.


'TllE WooING OF E31E: Ipa'es 10-1;;).

Two- main reactions are known, (,#) a fragmentary,
siujple onc found in a th thienti h-ient ur:, MI,.. but assig'ne,
by its cilitor aud tran.lat:.r. Prof. Ki. Mevetr. to th i eighth
Ccittii r : i/1 a I. lrLer anid fr uller i ,e, fouin'l in tbi: Bc:.,:k
of the [L'in Cow and late-r IS.. iia:l probably redacted as
late as the tentli certur: ILedn,'-ii'.o (i) is editet' and
:ranslated, Revue Celtique, xi. pp. 442-453; redaction (b) is
:.ianlate.l by Prof. Me-yer. Arch. Review, vol. i., which
iranslati:iij is reprinted in a modified and abridged form
:. l;s HIull, pp. 58-84. Prof. Meyer has just edited this
e:;t. Z it. fiur Celt. Philologie, iii. 2.


THE DROIT DU SEIGNEUR IN ANCIENT IRELAND
(page 13).

If we may trust, and there is no reason to doubt the
evidence of the heroic and historic romances, this right
rn.a t- na-iousily e:;erci-s.c ai, tlie c aiy Irish chi:fs. But
the W\\'oinig oif Eme-r is tiot the ouin t:.:t \. ich betra.ys a
feeling :oft al.rsiorii' and re :vlt oL the part of the int'erio-r
chiefs. It imavy 1: tli'c'itibt that this e :lin' is dui to the
introduction of Chri' tianit -. but I believe' it to I..,- earlier,
and ir be sy-mptoria, tic -ft the greater pow:'er a':quir':,l byv
the lesser chiersi ouce the iGae:l had fairly eLttled rlv owni in
IrLland and cru-hed out. tht it:istiance o:f the abc'riginal
l_,opulati:ii. 'Ihe legal action by w.-hich butb the king'e
rig-ht and tllhe ichuapion's suceptibiliti)Di ae ni.iciiint-d
i, inteiesting as anti .ipatin_ .sirnilar devices 5cf the l;te
lfe idal pc:riod.








I BtI lU G AP'HICA L APPENDIX


How I_'UCHULALINN (GUARDEr THE M.ARI-iE-r itr
ULL rER I'par.- 1 1-'.1 ).

Snuaii varied from Mi. Standi h Ha;ves O'Ia;.ly'si sur-
ma:ry of the 7'T.;,'.. ,. '...'./, in Miks Holl, ppi. 112-
227 The Ti:,, has irnt yet Iben -editeir a'i' transit-tedi
in it, eIntireiry. but Prof. \Winidisch i:romi:ze an 'editlioh
sh:.,rtly. Mr. ijO'r.til 5 s iirnary is ba-e,'l nprn a late
te-.-t in whiji the Ian uLag-, hasii b':n iii.:rinis I,.

THE SroFiy OF TIE BULLS ([:a,: i:.|.
Siumn aris'1d firo, tie story iknov.ii as tl7. Li.p,:liriii.,
i. . i 2T ..'. .5, ,ii ,' /.l Pr.-f. W\'in lin ci iha c'lit e s.l thi
culio,-; tali:, Iris',r Tcr.:,t iii.; ani'l I have l.rinte' an
ahrii..- ,.l En-lish version, I'./.f... *r i. B ',. vol. 11.

THE DEF;ILIT'Y F THilE U LT iN I.T;AN (.,pa.-e 15).
SE.,- f..r this st...ryv, MisL: Hull. p[.,. '7-11"0.

THE Fi:Ii'G lV ITiH FEnrDIA (.I'a._C 1..
Theli B:-ok of Le-inster t-.:t of this epii..lo .e thi- 2'.;.
ha: been rouinted arnd translat:i.1 in full by (O'Curry, ll.,-
n;r,' '"/t C t.in, vul. ii., I..p. 14 -4.-P .

'tilE DE.ATIu CIF CUCHii-UL.\INN (l.,:ae 21'1.
Sumimari:ed froi Dr. \Vhitley Stokes' magnificent
ni,.lr.in: .-, the m *ore salient por-:tinns of thlie Biuk of
L.instei v.:-rsion i .Ri, C'. i ip ,. vol. iii.). Miss Hull
print, an abridRucin:nt -of Dr. Stoke-s' rpnpderiu., "p. 2.'.-
2r.'. She also priiits, p[... '237-2i'1, pI:rtions (f a much
vyii.n r .er-ion. (.'.-pl.ai.aion between the two i-: ~ry
inteiest-inc an,] illustr:ite tlie extreme- limits of literary
dievelop'ient iii tie C('lchIuniiarin cycle.







AND NI-TES


THE Sc'i:; BED -'F CU'JIULAINN ([-agce -':.).
Editfi.] and translat'.]d bL. O'('urry, A1 tl.r .,, volB. i and ii.
A complete French tran,:ltion in M. .l'Arl-.,- d.:- Jubain-
villet's Fl,,-,p '".c 0i"ftl, ,n Irlralb. I have ci-ve-j. a fuller
English -,mmarv than in the text, i',1r,,., a,' Lrin, rl. i.

BRICRIU's FEAST (page 27).
Edited and translated by Dr. George Hen.l-ruon.
Publications of the Irish Text Society, vol. ii.

THE DEMONIAC CHARIOT OF CUCHULAINN (pa'-e 2"I.
Edited with translation, from the Book of tbh Dun
Cow, by O'Beirne Crowe, Journal of the Kilkenny A r. !ro.
logical Socicty, 1870-71. Crowe's translation has been
partly relricntil, a ith c'...usi'.-rable i rIurcrviemr -uts, by
jM is Hull, F .' 277,--'7.

THE D.\TI f til" TLE l T.IN I.'.iAIL:1L ; E (-pa.- :.l.
The st,:rry runs. that by thi early s-ventb .--rntury tihe
mnin':.imy .:f the Ilia '] of the W.:-stei Gael b.al fa.ld away.
and not an cliambh in Ir:-laud r:could rt-i:eat it. At the- cn-
trreat-y of the h.::d ollamhb, Senj:h:baj To'rpcist and accord-
inu to one \lr-iiln, by intere.:-issvton of the Saints :f Ic i larn'l,
Fe-r-us rist- fr,.m th, -lead;i to narrate tte tale-, hlichI is
forthwith careii lly notc,.1, sc that Lu',.et r :ra'.i tI it may ie
lost. Senchan Toripciit, an hi;tori'cal per.o:'age. -'. as :bhicf
,.llamh at the' date a;,sinei d t.:. ht-r by this cr,:ry, the in-
terprcttation puijt po.n v.b;r h by IAM ,'Arbuis dc Julbainvillo
a:nl Prof. ZiLunme-r is und:loubtedly ci:rr.-:t. namely, that
-encLhr i a the athe hor of a ievcri..,n wlhic h efiectijally
si lnt-:-I. a il lli.impettin.r- v,-:rsio -ns. It is ,,:,.-sible even that he
v\..; the tirst to pur tih,: tal in writiug, and that b r:-for'. his
day it hadl only been pr.:s.:-rved orally All existing tests
have been si,,:nr.i to:, ": Lback to: a commoniiui oriJ-inal. Th-.







',2 Il;LIu RAPI'ICAL APPENDIX

\ersionu of the Fi,?del. i fl th T.in,,, which brings. in the
Saints :.l Irreland !h s beenii elitt<:l and tiniinlnted l-v 0.
Cotiellan in v:l. v.of the Ossinnie Sot.iety's publications.

LELTDOMI AN. Ho'MLT'C OCEECE l,;age ANl.

See Ml d'Ari,,i.- dE Jui.'ainville, .''(i. ,: Lit.'un tur
C. itr, ,, r ,1. vi. : "La c iliiati n d.le Celtec' ;t c lle dle
l'pr:'.p..-. h :,ru..rii-ae

TiliE MiY'IIl' I'E'CLENT O:r THE UL-TEl; HIrLMoL'
I a we .';9 j.

Svee the- g' nealo:_icail tal..lI, Mli Hull. p iv.

Cl..'iitULA.iNN' D i'ir'.TION [.age 11).

Sii.b tlyv ierd:ie from Mr. $tan ..ii1 Have- O'GradY's
vei:n, Hull, Mi '- Hull. 1 '7.. See als.: Prof. Zimmcr'V article,
" ';itr _.e zur EikI.,rur:- iii- h le' S.' etrtet -.' Z it. f r
C,.h. Potl:J.,,,.. v..l. ill. p-rt 2.

P-SILEL' G \-ULiS11 TR.ACLS -' 1 Ce'HI_'LAINN page 14).

See AM. *'Arl.:is i:C .Tul.inville'- article. u b i (Ctleiq',~e'
vol. n.ix. 1" "t5.











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