Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Analytical table of contents
 Survival of paganism
 Mythological folk songs
 Affectional folk songs
 Historical folk songs
 Back Cover

Title: Greek folk-songs from the Turkish provinces of Greece, Albania, Thessaly ... and Macedonia
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098537/00001
 Material Information
Title: Greek folk-songs from the Turkish provinces of Greece, Albania, Thessaly ... and Macedonia literal and metrical translations
Physical Description: xxxi, 260 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Garnett, Lucy Mary Jane, d. 1934
Stuart-Glennie, John S
Publisher: E. Stock
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1885
Subject: Folk songs, Greek (Modern) -- Greece   ( lcsh )
Folklore -- Greece   ( lcsh )
Greek poetry, Modern -- Translations into English   ( lcsh )
Paganism   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: reece
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: by Lucy M.J. Garnett ; classified, revised, and ed., with an historical introduction on the survival of paganism by John Stuart Stuart Glennie.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098537
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 22968819


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Front matter
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Analytical table of contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
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    Survival of paganism
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    Mythological folk songs
        Page 69
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        Page 132
    Affectional folk songs
        Page 133
        Page 134
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    Historical folk songs
        Page 199
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    Back Cover
        Page 264
Full Text









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IH.\i 1HLIIi: I. INI i;I:K-

IN ,7.I' INF : E r i E' KNO LrL p',. OF,

.AND KELNEP iV-dF.\TII '..'iii,


\ 1ii,-,. -i RII .\ ': N Ti'.IEN i




SECTION I.-THF F.CT OF[ iHF SURL 'l\.1 OF P.01 ,.\:|SIA.1
,, III.-THE C.ALtir CF THE .r UR'IV.1'\L OF
P.Vf NI M .- 4?

SECTION I.--Ill i.C 6
,, II.- CHRISTIi.N 94
1,, II.-CHAR.DO C Ill
,, II.- Do:.IE. li. S T
,, III.-- HU toui I:TIc - ..i4



i. he b'arin._, of tile Sbtuv of Folk-lI;e and Folk-lore
c-n Hiitorical iThiory, and till Influence of the
latter on Ioliti.a' i 'orc.s xvii
2. The imiportance for Ciili;:il;atn :r the Resurrection
of tie aGreeki, :nd the conipllcti)n of Hellenic
indeend:nce xix
I. The 'i'ohlc of tlie European C-ncert,' and the
t ,o chiCi actual object, of that 'Concert' with
respect it Eurpe xx
4. Tic suggested Nc'. Pj',i' of a Greco-Albanian
I'onl'ederatun xxi
. i'he relation of Modern to ClaIaical Greek, and the
cauJses of the different historit:s ,-f the Greek and
l.ain La'guig xxii
6. The Greek P:;;' '. of' southern n .\lbania, and English
/I..'.' :lof SOutrh;rn '-cotland, and :he character-
istcs -.f the former in rlatii:n to Athenian
Modern Gre i
;. The Gaelic Tale of the King ofGreece,' legendary
reminiscence c:;plained by th%; facts of Keltic
History xxix

viii Ailn?'d.t cal T /'./ of Con!c.!,s.




P. L
I. The Plutarchian Le-crnd of the I.-eath of Pan -
2. The s% mbolic meaning given to this Legend, and
its untruth 4
3. Testimonies to this untruth by Chritian students of
-Fo'lk-l:r ;
4. The t:ns.nti? and surnivine chairactiristi,:s o0
Pagani'm -
5. Illustratioans in our Foll:-song~ of the fe-eling Jof One-
ncss ith Naturc, an.d of direct Personali.:ing of
its phenomena ;
6. Illustrations of the indirect Personilizing of N .iure
in the creation of CGods and Demri-gods to
7. Illustrations of uinconsciousness of sin in Sexual
Lo,%C, and of nonbelief in a tuLpernatuiral state
of Rewards and Punilihmente 13
8. Illustrations of the. feeling of Family kinship, and
of patriotic devotion to the Fatherlind r
9. What was the origin of the Legend of which the sym-
bolic truth is thus dirmlarosi. ? I
r1. A suggestir.e proxinity of localities, and synchron-
ism oif dates -
ii. The fact of suriial to be more full;, illustrated be-
fore insestig.ting th cause I3


FA, ;GA .NCTUArI'.L AN i ,iLK-':iN, CENE~..
The sites of the Ancient Sanctuaries, centres of origin
of the Modern Songs o

A;.a:'a/ical T/ 7>c ;/f C;:';: /s. ix

.SLir,-:. C i',:. I --A Lr. \.i\.
i. The Glen of Dlodon i, and it; ruinc'l later Temples :i
2. The p.riniti e Sanctuary imaginatii ely rei..tored -
3. The Holy Places of Ep:iros. and their systematich
relations -
4. The Acherusiin Plain, and the Ve\ rillan IloCalitics
of the New Ilic'n -
5. The strath of lu.nnina, the Hcllo.iai of Hesiod, and
Hellas of Aristotle 25

Si., .:TiTN II.-TH NE.L'..
i. Roumanian MT.':ajco, and the Zyco Pass from
III) ri into T'hess.ly -
2. The Mid-air Monasteries as Historical Monuments :-
3. The Upper and Lower Plains of Thi:is.llJ and their
enclosin Hills -
4. Olympus c.n its Th hesalian and Mace'lonian sides 31
5. TheSeat of o R of .o ac of Men and Sanctuary of
iwo Orders of C-ods 32

SLIL-rECTI u?; ] I .-M .\Mc.I.x.
i. The range of Ol(\m pus, and the variety ,f its aspects
as Ceen from Salon ca 34
2. Salonica, and the Homeric Rhapsodist of its Kalla-
neri Gat -
3. The original Macedonia, the upland Glens west of
the Aiius 36
4. Thu Promontory of the Holy Mountain and its
Monasteries ;
5. Samothrace, and surviving relics of the worship of
the K.Abeiri 3

The wonder and interest of the survival of Paganism
above illustrated -

\x A4a/yr'!:'ca/ T(a! 7 .e 5/ Co.'.' '.'.


TilL C.U'.LrE O F TH S.i'RV[\ L OF F.\ A' li'-

Y. The history of profes-ed Creeds not the history of
Relion 42
2. The problem presented I.y lhi CiOvrthro'.'.l, yet Sur-
iv .-l and I'.e i al of Paga.-iniim -1.
3. The- New theory of the Unit: :f Hist',r;,' and of
Euro;.pn.-nAsian Ci iliztion 5
4. The Si th Century e.,- the true diviMion between
Ancient and Modern Htor 47
5. The general e'-plaintion gi-vn of the origin of
Chri-ti.anity by the fact: of the Rcvoilution of the
Si.th Century i.c )
6. The five ailments of contemporary enitinment and
thou-ght .Ihjch Chri ua-nit. succcided in coin-
bnn -
7. The general phulological and hiiitorical proof of the
Semitic character of the Christian ,id-ida 4
8. This proved al-so by ihe difflrenci betv.ecen the
Clri-iii an and the Ne,-Platonic Trinity. and
struggle. on the Ne,:-Ilatoniis; .igaintr Chri-lianity 56
9. And by the history of the influence of Nco-Pl.atonirm
on Chri-tian The,.logy -
o1. Further verifications, indicated of thle au3gstcd
caucs of Sirvl 60
Ix. The 1iroti-ional utility of the Semitic God-idea 'f
Chri:timanity, but return now to the God of our
Artan Forlatihers 6


-. Il,'V'I;,Lv. Tai.L yj C .'.'i'/. xi





T'he 'inborn and Hamnecri C9
The Siren and te Seamen -;4
The She.pherd and the L:;,nia -
Thle toicheion and the \Widow's Son 76
The Stoichelon and Yanni -
'anni and the Drakos 79
The \itch of the Well -
The W\itch Mother-ir.-Lw -
The Bridce of Ara -
The Enthant.d Deer ,
The Sun and the Der 5
The Black Racer S6
The Shepherd and the \'lf -
The Snwall- i R- turn - -
The Bird's Complaint -
The First of Ma o
The Soldier and the C press Tree 9 I
The Apple Trcc. and the Wiidow's Son - r
'Thc RiN~ r and the Loer -
OClympos and KI-saos 93


Chii I lI.tAN.

For the Feast of the Christ-Eirths 4
Saint Basil, or the New ear -
The Feast of the Lights, or Epiphany - -
Vala, or l'alm Sundy -

Nili ,.' l'/il' 7;, Q / C '. .'.

Ode to the Seven Passins 99
For the (ire.t Frida) o1
The Resurrecri': 104
The Miracli ofi St. Geore 14
The Vow to St. Georg I.
Proce'S-irn for Rain '
The Vi\it it) P'ar"diec and Hll - I09


The loirai -
Charonr and his M.other -I -
Charon' \\'eddin.; Feast for hi; Son - -
Charon and the Soul -- I
Charon and tlii. Young \\'e i
Charon and Ihe Slhephcr. -
The Jlled Loner and Char,.n .
Zahos and Chaiun I - ir;
The Rescue fr.:r Charon -
The Piver of the Dead 11
Dirge for a Father -
Dirge for a Hlouse-Miitress i
D[ir-c- fr a Son 1- -
Dirge for a D)auhter -
Dirge f;:r a Sister 3
Ditic fi:,r a Voun Huband 24
The Ycoun; \\'o 24
The Diad Son to his Mother -
The Vampir 6
Thanse Vahia 129

Al'airt'ca' Table of Counc:/s. xiii


ERuI I'.

The Fru;t or thle .\llpie-Tree 1.33
The Neglected Oplj:'rtunlty 4
The Wooer 35
The Lover's Dream -
The Nun 7
The Despairful One -
Elkni.i, the Nightingale i3
The Last Reque't 139
Th, Lover's Return 14
The \'idow's rDaughtcr 140
Iht Partrd e 4
Th Discovrcd Kiss 42
The Rake -
The \\'no n-Huntcr 14
The Forsaken One 44
Th'F Vlach Sh.p'hcrds:; Unkind 45
The Vlach Shephrdss Kind 146
The Black-Eyed One -
The Lover 147
Fair Ones and Dark Ones 1- 4-
Blue-Eyed ind iDrk-Fyed Ones 14;
The Blue-Eycd cIaut 149
The Garden 1
Vannetoploula 1
'he Little Bird 5
The Cy)prc 1 5
The Broken Pitcher 5
I)istichs 5
The Bulgarian Girl and the Parridge - 53
The Rose-Trc 5-1
The G(rcen Tree 155

xir Ana)'ytical Tablc / CoGi'en/s.


D();',.I E I IC.
.Ui-aClTiCo\ T.-E %'L.' iM.m..IEri Lii E.

For the Thr:onin-g of the Bride - 57
For the Bride's Departure 5
For the Youn IB;rid-croom -
The irfe's Dream 5
The Huslind's Departure 1- -
The E-.iled Bird 6
The Absent Hu.band 162
The Husband's Ieturn 16.

r' LIF .:T ..'; I I.-- .l.iLL '.l.lr. I .'.ri Nrl .T. Ni h IV ,'. .
Lull ibies I.-IX. -
Nursei Rhyrne I.-VIII. -

Si.i-rrj:Ti-. II.- L.U r. .M t\i.u I1 LIIrE.
The Par-son's Wife -
The l'.rsaken \Wife -
The Sale of the \\ie -
M1arCdil the ili'.orced i;-
The Old Man's Bride -
The Oll:l Man'3 Spualse 1
Vannail:s, or the Assassinated Husband iS,
The Child Sl.ecr i

Hi-iU IOiiF 31 IC.

The Danrce of the Midens -
The FIasrt S5
The Janiisary 6
The Tree S
The \\'ineseller -
The Gallan -

-.J;,'a/r/:.c(/ Yak .',"c of Co'/!c;'/s. x.'

The Dren- 'S
The Refu;.al -
The Lemon-Tree -. ,
The IHeounmcno" and the Vlach Maidcri ,
The Dulgarian Girl .
The \'ooer's Gif -
The Sleplr',r'; Wife .. '
The Kliep 04
The ThiLf turned Husbanlnian ,



P I H.- l.IC.
The Sack of Adriarol.Ile ,,
The Captire of Consantinopl .
I he Child,-Tx ,:
DroI .oliti a -
Niht-School Song -
The S.-a-Fight and the Captive -
Ser.pheirn of Plin -"ri 4- .
The Slave .
M\etsO lci 2-,
Chrisr.; Nllionii -
Syro5 -
Satir Eey -I
The Capture of Liri sa and Tirnavo - -
Soulienran Pa-hina -
Noutso Kontroderos -


Koutonik r6
Lanibros T-avcls -

xvi Analtical Table of Conicrs.

The Capture of Preveza 29
The Monk Sa.muel 0
Evthymi.os \Vla:chav.. 22S
Moukhtar's Farev.cll 1t Phrossne -3
'The Capture f Grdii 34
The Klepht Vrl:llakas 2- 36
Despo :o L k[I;.I - '37
The E:.ile f tlie Par:hi..:ts - 38

i L N IC.

Zit Hellam 40
IosZ.t;s Eoukovalas 41
The Klleht'7 Farew-ell to his iMother 4- 43
The Klepht's \\'intering 45
'Tlie Klephti .A\.'itin, th Sprin 246
H-aidee 47
'Thle .ovelorn Klepht 4
'The Death ,1' the Kleplit -
S'bba the Armntole 250
Dr;ikos the .Arntole 50
The Sic;e l Mi.'ilonhi 25-
Nai.ss Mantralos 53
The battlee of Kalabl.a 54
Kapitan i;sidkis 55
Thnemist'o:le- Douni.:uos 57



- 259


P. m i;i. .:' vL, 'ji\..i ; andi 'r ,..,, ve.
P. S. I:'.I:, tiha ii, iiot ninre lust--delete second comma.
P. S, r.. I, F', I.ul;lt'. readBulgares.
P. :1, nr. _. ,'. '7 .,p..:.,, read i&raxsrpipov.
P 23. \ #,' I _-. r ,' \,.i ,r.
i'. 44. n.. .i / r V.': iiir;, insert (in Near. 1504, 157, Bekker)
,' 'I a .,,.tr i i. :\.. ," ')...i :' i .', read Tac itv :I,;' r P .ic )l i" :

P. 6. F. 7 'Ii'ip.. > 'OXtp0rov.
P. 90. ThiT i ri e fir.io I'. .r,for his, read her.
P'. '10. .- ', ii J r-, L,.%J .,VECrr).
r. 115 F '.'* lIc.nie, read strapping sii-h.I:r.l; and for levente,
-.;' . . ...- ),:un hero.
P. 153. F.'* u .rr t ... -'footprint.
:,'* 1 ;'. [I Li.jl) I. n i', :. I--
LE NT.- Z'. .2 :, r :fe azong the Insular Greeks, 1885.
/' PA.iiLL'., ;I .. P;iLE.Y ; and itnsert-
P'OLI TF -\.,, \\.', l, oXaoy'a.
I .i .- '.; ,-. ... .* .1 :,,.*.*
%V.%(: -; l"T H.- i",.{.;* .." .`t.. .


THo.;E Nationalist Antiquarian Researches, tc which the
chief impulse was given by the enthusiasm excited by-
Alacphcrsc' n's i.:.-.;,' Il;'I,' have developed, in the
cour-e of the century since then, into Compaiativi and
Scientific Studies of Foll:-life and Folk-lore. Tie
results, hci,- ever, obtained by that earlier Antiquariani.m
had an immense effect on the writingg, or rather, in most
cases, the rev.'ritinr nf Nat;ional Iliitorie ; nor ias
History affected only in its facts by Antiqu.alnan results,
but in its style by Antiquariari imaginlation--and tLis
especially through the influence of those novel., of Sir
\VW lter Sicott's. uhiih cnctitute a sinle great AR',,:..'.,,
,f Enr I, H/,'S.,'Is. I-ut if that earlier Antiquarianii ni,
painstal:ing, yet, in general, sufficiently prejudiced as it
was, had effects so great :on the writing of Hi-tory ; still
greater things may, I think, be expected from Anti-
quarianism developed -a it now is into a Co.mparati\-
Science of Folk-life and Folk-lore. If. like the earlier
Antiquarianism, this newv Comparative Science has a
sphere of influence coi reponding to its scope of study,
it should cause the rewriting, nct of mere National
Histories, but of the General History of Ci\ilizatior.
Nor is this an inference merely from the greater scope of
the New Antiquarianism. Invaluable as the greater

N Viii .12JY/tuc

generalizations of the New Philosophy of History may
be as suggeytive hypotheses, they have always bLen
more or less influenced by the conventional views of the
educated class to which the Philos:opher has belonged.
Historical 'gneralizationI, therefore, thus influenced,
and vet dealing with large hitoitrjcal facts orf Belief and
Conduct, cannot but be importantly corrected, if not
altogether recast, if the evidence as to Belief and Conduct
is sou*_ht. not merely:., a. usually hitherto. in Literature,
but also, and even nlicre assiduously, in tlih realities of
Foll:-lilc. and the records of Foll.:-lore. It is this view
and aim. Ice- or more distinctly defined, that ha: always
guided d my historical studies, and that Iha recently led
me t':' the study more e- peciallv of' Greek Folk-songs.
And sonie results of this study \' ill be fi-und indicated
in the following Historical Essay on T,i< S.'ir:',.:'! of

Iut tho, c Nationalia-t Antiqua.rian Researches had
results far more important than even the rc\riting of
National Histories. It is to these Researches that are
due, if not the Ikindling, certainly all the consuming
power, of those aspirations to National Freedom and
National Unity, which have been the most rcvclutionaiy
Political Forces of the century, and which arc certainly
not c\en yet played out. Nor will the New Anti-
quirianism whlicli, in the intellectual here, will cause
the rew.ritin_:, not of mere National Histories, b.it of the
General History of Civili:ation, be wanting in results
ccr re3pondingly great in the political sphere. Histories of
Civilization i which take due account of the results of the
Comparative Science of Folk-life and Folk-lore, will be
distincti\ely theories of Economic developmentt ; and
the Political Forces, to which these theories will give at
once revolutionary heat and determined direction, will


Po!i/ical aiid LigtuislC:'. x i.x

aim not merely at National Re-surrections. but at
Economic Reconstructions. The former must precede
the latter ; and it is. I confess, but for the sake of the
latter that I would do what in me lies to promote the
Nov., of all National Resurrection-s, that one v.hich
will, I believe, most profoundly aid general Eco-
nomic Reconstruction, is the ResuriLction of the Greeks.
Nor do I think so only because of the position
occupied by the Gieclk in the Levant, their piogrcssive
spirit, and their great commercial and administrative
ability. I think so because general Economic Recon-
struction there cannot be \without general Intcllectual
Progress; and because the Greeks-admirably Pagan
still as their Folk-songs prove-are, beyond all other
East-European peoples, imbued withthhat pint of syn-
thetic Intuition and sceptic Curiosity which alone
emancipatcs from ensl\iing Superstition; that Classic
Spirit of which a Greek formulated the immortal axioms:
'Nature is not episodic in its phecnomuena, like a bad
tragedy ' O .. c cuic I 'lf qL'rL; tc7r ,oL:I'i ,; uvora -' TirJ
and 'All men by nature reach forth to know (/L,'uil .
"ArJdpwrot -ro Ut, lill Opi-Ol'TraL P6a i. Ibid. I. i.).
These are the grounds .'lhich should, I thikl;. make
Philhellenes of all who desire that general Intellectual
Progress 'Ahich is the condition of general Economic
Reconstruction. Nor can the political advantage to Great
Britain of so considerable a commercial and naval ally in
the Mlediterranean as a reconstituted Greece might be-
nor can this political advantage be, for a British citizen.
either an unimportant or unworthy additional reason for
Philhellcnism, if he has any due conception either of
the Imperial duties of Great Britain, or of the position

Preface .A't-warks,

which England may take in the van of the Economic
Revolution These are the equally large and solid
grounds of Philhellenism, and especially of British Phil-
hellenism. And hence, not only would I hope, by this
work, to contribute some further suggestions, at least, to
the New Philosophy of History, the theory of the General
History of Civilization ; but to contribute also, in some
degree, to the renewal of Eritish Philhellenism, and
to the completion of Hellenic Independence
Such being the philosophical, and more particularly
the political aim of the Book, as, indeed, indicated by its
Dn a':catl.:, a few remarks may, perhaps, he desirable
with respect to the Policy that should, as I venture to
think, be followed in giving political elect to Phil-
hellenic sympathies. And first of all, negatively to
define this Policy. It will certainly not be the Policy
hitherto of Liberals '-the Policy of the European
Concert.' No doubt, there does exist a European Con-
cert.' But this -Concert' is very far as yet fr om being of a
millennial' character. Its two chief actual objects, so far
as Europe is concerned, are these: first, to suppress the
Socialist Revolution menacing and justly menacing,
the very foundations of our present Social Order ;' and
secondly, what here chiefly concerns us, to prevent such
an enlargement of Greece, however just, as would be
inimical to tlie Iliveise, yet, in this, common interests, not
indeed of the Peoples, but of the Governin, Factions, of
Germany and Austria, of Russia, o-f Italy, and of France.
Never, therefore-never, at least, till all other imbecilities
were outdone by the Ecyptian blindness and blundering
of a Gnvernment tolerated only with the hope of Home
Reforms-never was there such a piece of contemptible
sentimentalism, or still more contemptible hypocrisy, as
the pretence of being able to obtain justice for Greece

PL.'itiat! ,inZ Li."'It.,"'&. xxi

through the- 'European Co.ncert.' The events of the
spring of iSi .eliitiud %what I v.rote to this" effect in the
autumn of iSSo. I he Powlers who. hope to benciit by
the expuls.ion of P'tshas from Euro-pe 'ere, not\'ith-
stainding their treacheriu; in\'itation,' as opp,:,.ed as thel
Porte itself to concedinig to Greece more than, at m,,st,
the Plains of Thessaly, and these only. with _n indefen-
sibic frontici. The 'Na .al DIcm.-nstiation was., thirc-
fore, a .rcte-qile, sa.ecd only from bc.i:omint, a tragicial
larce, by complete abandonment of the boundary abouut
V.'hich this futile bounce was made. And our -ientimcntal
or hypocritical stateimenl were only too glad to' get out
of their diftlcultiei by accelting a slihlit enlargement of
Turkey's lon-olff;red :i cunce sic:ns in the Tlihe-salian
In a lon series io I.etter- contributed, in i,8;r, and
iSSi, t tohe !r.ccr .a: and thle t '.'-o
/ir. A., I endeavo:,ured to show that the true solution of
the iGreel; Qluetion wac tc be found, not in that pr.iop..sed
annexaticin of Epeirro to the Kalanias \vhich, as my
inquiries proved, \would ccitainl have excited strong
anti-IIellll.eic feeling, and been resisted by the Albanians;
but in such a Greco-Albanian Coniederation as I had
already .-uggested in i.;9 in my E.i,^ .,;:.a ..Is'a, and
illustrated in the politico-ethlnographical map published
there'..'ith. S~Lch a Cor!;feration I maintained to be the
tiLat condition uf the enfranchisement of Northern
Greece from the Turki:ishi, and of its salvation from l
Slaconic vcol.e For it would not oinl:y gie at once to
Greece an army of hereditary fighters, and a position on
the lanki ofctvery anti-Helleninic movement in Macedonia
but ultimately, as north-v.citern frontier, not tie Kala-
mas, .which cuts in half the Gre.ck-spcakin, population
of Albania, but such a true ethno;raphical boundary as,

PI,'frtc Ii%'i';a 2'A'.a

uniting the racially and linguistically akin Greeks and
Albanians of a New Hellas, would divide them from
the racially and linguistically alien \Montenegrins and
Bosnians of a Great Ser'.ia The encouragement and
support, therefore, of Greek elffort5 to yardss such a Greco-
Albanian Confederation-and. first of all. by the re-
establishment oftheConsulates at Ioinnina and Monastir,
abolished by 'Liberal' eccni)rnmy-should be the first plank
of a British Philhellenic Policy. And, as ;n k.cping only
with that iihamefuil ignorance of knowable, or still more
shameful denying of l:no.-n facts, .ahich has characterized
the whole hktory of that disastrous IFolein Policy of
the Gladstone Administration \.hich-not only when \''e
think of the Transvaal, of Egypt, and of the Soudan, but
of what thi. Gladsto.nian r'olicy has tolerated, and of
what it has prepared-n-may be summed up in three \vords,
Il7 r :,.' '.s' /,'s ,o.''- as in Leeping only u ith such a
Policy of imbecility, the Policy of the European Con-
cert,' as a nmcns of obtaining justice for Greece, \vill be
dismissed aiith deserved contempt, while maintaining,
however. of course, as long as possible the European
With' reference to the Policy of a Greco-Albanian
Confederation, one or two notes on the ethnographical
relations ol Greeks and Albanians may not be out of
place. North of Tcpelkni-famous as the original lord-
ship of the -:rcat Albanian hero, Ali Pashai-\e find
pure Albanian spoken, wvith but one or two small dis-
tricts in v.hich Greek is the common language, and a
few Vlach '.illages in v.hich Roumanian as v'ell as Alba-
nian is spoken. But the v. hole country south of Tepe-
Idni is Greek-speaking w.ith certain large districts in
which Albanian as well as Greek, and certain small dis-
tricts in n which Roumanian as well as Greekl, is spoken.


Po,'ii'! i.c a LiM',nis/'Ic. xxiii

The more usual, or tripartite division of Albania and
the Albanian., is a tribal, rather than, like that by a
line through Tepelni, a linguistic division. Upper or
Northern Albania is the country of the Gheg-s, \itli
Scodra, or Sctitari as their capital. Middle Albania is
the country of the T.i-iks, with Lerat as their capital.
And Lower o Southern Albania-the ancient L"i .,
or Continent.' l of the iinhabitant, of the islands lyini
off it-is the c-iuitrv or" the T..- inmcs with-but here
one c,-rmes on a burning qu,-.tion : 1;:,r of Sou:utheir
Albanilia. i i its general en.-c, I..inrina is, g uograpli-
cally, the capital, but cthnihi 'rapih; ,ially it i a GreeI:
rather than Albanian t,';ii. Th.:.se of the Albanians
who are Muilirss belongi, fc.r thi mo.t pIart. t tilhe ex-
ceedingly rationalistic ,nrder crf the Blkta;hi D-,c ii ihcs.
And inall',. Albanian bears a clo-er relatio-n to Grcel;
than to any other lar,'g'iae; nor is the difference.
between thcrn comparable tI. that betv.een the Gaelic
and Scoth of the Highlandcrs and Lo\landlers of that
Keltic Albania i'.-i.a.';.:. or .l .a: v which. in the
ele\enth c'-ntir'ry-the saml:, vcry -inS-ularly., iwi whichh the
former ll[yrians were first spol:en of as Albanians 1i 7
,-ri' A\, ..'u ev o i-t"]rt began to be called Scotla.nd.
HIa\ing thus d.-fined the phi:iosphic.l aim, and indi-
cated the policy by '. lich. as I tlink, ecfect may bLet be
gl\iii to the political aim, of this Collectin, of Grel:
Folk---rn.g, I would i,:'.' make a fe.', remarks, not indeed
on the T,',1':sl.A LiL. o f lihich ilis:. Garnett '.ill herself
say all that is nece-.sary, but on the Lanc ua.e of hic l
thlic are renderings
The Originials are in a fl./'s/ of which some :of the
characteristics 'A ill presently be noted. But it is im-
portant, first, to point out that, as spoken by an educated
contempr-rary Greek, the Language, of V which this a/oJ:'s

XXIV ~PrfaCe. Rva;s

is a rustic dialect, d;iTer; l e:., in its grammatical form?,
from that of thc Homeric Rhapsodi-ts of nearly three
millenniums ago. than the Language of an educated
contemporary Enghlidcman differs from that of Chaucer.
only half a millennium ago. There are, it is true,
ire3t and important difi.re.ncc. between Clasical and
Modern Greek, both inl vocabulary and in syntax-
diferinrces i; which I shall presently state, or rather
.ummarize tp. :::..\viii., and which the, student, \\ho
cars to .. into ni:. re detail, ,'ill easily find out Ibr
himself by coimparin;- the Alexandiian Greel: of the
.~A,- 2c.'..:,',!,.'.' with Attic Greek on the one side, and
Romaic Gicel; -oI the other. But it is n:o'. more than
thirty year .-ince Pro:,fcsor Blac:ic first f-oicibly pointed
out that the Nee-Hellenic of Tricoupi; is but such
a Dialect of Greek as the Ionic of I-Iomcr, o Doiic
of Theociitus ; and that, great as are the changes in
English pronunciation since c\ci Chaucci's time, the
accent in Greek is still -on the very syllables accented
by the grammariani; of the days of the Ptolemies,
mere than t.o0: thlrsand years ago. Not even vet,
how':.eer, is this fact generally realized, if indeed, lnou n.
This is chiefly due, I believe, to the thorocugrhly false
x\e.\s ofi Eiuropean History generally prevalent. And
hence it is by indicating, at least, what will, as I think,
be louind to be somewhat truer historical \icw.s. that
the reader will be rnost readily enabled to understand,
and hence realize- tle fact that, v.hile Italian, for instance,
differs frPm Lat;n, as a new Language, or new ;':"is,
Nludern dilikrs fioni Classical Greekl a; but a new
Dialect, or newv .,-*,./.'-s.
The unity i which, a; shown in the l,.'..i,,,t-':i- is, for
the first time, given to European-Asian History by the
substitution of the natural Epoch of the General Rcvolu-


P'//ca!/ ':d L1;:7P is1ic. xxv

tion of the Sixth Century B.C. for the supernatural Era
of the birth of Jesus-this unity, like every unity of
Evolution, is a unity, not of identity, but of correlative
differences. For if the Sixth Century rC. sho,'vs a
general similarity in the great movements of Human
Development both in Asia and in Europe, it show's also,
as pointed out in the (/ir.i.:,c v.': {(p. 4~ 1, the origination
then of a profound difference bet'.cen the Civili-ations
of Europe and of Asia. And so it is also in the case of
European Civilihation considered by itself. Immortal as
the DL'c:,' .;,,Ld F.'t muct be, the history of Europe is
not truly, as to Gibbon, the history of the Roman
Empire. No sooner had a general European Ci\ili..-tionl
been constituted-a civilization, not merely, as in the
Classical Period (500 c':.--I .\.C), of t\o European
peninsulas, but. a- in the succeeding Neo-Arryan Half-
millennium (I .\.C.--50oo ic.), a Civili.ation extending
from Britain to the Eosphorus-no sooner had such a
general European Civilization been constituted than,
under the nominal unity of the Roman Empire, there
aro-?e to distinctly different Civiliizations-the Ci\ iliza-
tions of Eastern and Western Europe, the Civilizations
of the Greek and the Latin tongue : Ci ili-ations different
in every regard, economical and political, moral and
religious, philosophical and literary. It is in the inter-
action of these tv.o clearly differentiated Civilizations,
and not in an appellation \ which, for nearly a thousand
years, uas little more than a mere vain and empty name,
that the true unity is to be found of European Civiliza-
tion. And the recognition of this differentiation and
interaction may at least prepare us, if not to expect, to
accept the fact of the utmost contrast between the
history of the Grcek, and the history of the Latin


Ho%.- it v'at. that Greek remained a Living, while
Latin became a Dead Tongue-how'- it was that the one
lived on in a new Dialect, I while the other gave place to
a new Languae. v. ill be further clear on consideration
of the following facts. Though. after the fall of the
easternr n (47c), the Eatern Empire w.-as still called
'Roman,' :o little ,\a.- it in race and language Roman.'
that the l ..:.':i.'.'s of Justinian had already, in the Sixth
Century .\ ., to be translate. into Greek for popular
use. During the thousand years between the fall of
Rome and the fall of Constantinople ('47o-1433)
Cla3;ical Gricl continued to be the literary language of
a State v.hich, through the very los of its provinces,
became so much more nationally Greek that, h'len
Contantine IX. died gloriously in the breach, defending
not only his capital, but Chri..tndom, from Mohanmmed
the Conqueror, ihe was, though in name a Roman
Emperor, in fact a Greelk King. And just as the
conditions of the Sla\onian, and of the Franl:ih
invasions and conque-ts had formerly been, so the
condition: of the Ottoman invasions and conquests were
now, such a& to foztcr and fan rather than still and
quench the flame of distinctive Greek life, and so pre-
pared the Greeks to lead the way in those heroic move-
mernts of National Rcsurrection .hliich made illustrious
the close of the Eighteenth Century. For whereas, in
the time of the Emperors, the polite was very different
from the popular dialect-as wc !:know from the two
poem- in that dialect which the monk Theodore
Ptochopr:drodmon addressed to the Emperor Manuel
(1143)-and no effort wa:s made to approximate them;
yet now, in the general enrlavement, :uch an effort was
vigorously made by patriotic Greeks, and its success was
greatly aided by the invention, at this time, of printing.

Poaliical and Li;.'g :s!i.. xxvii

Among the results of these patriotic exertions to, amal-
gamate the Greeks by assimilating their polite and
popular dialects may be mentioned the Cd'.r: /H:s:.r:r
of Mfeletius, Bishop of Athens id. 1714'1; the Romance
of K:rnarc entitled ErLi,;tr.'/s (i137; ; and the transla-
tion of the .- Ia.,:' w _' .'/s r1792'). This movement va.'
brought to a clima.; by Adamantinos Kornes of Smyrna
(b. 1743). Since the establishment of the Greek Kin.g-
dom, there has been a sustained effort, in the rcver;:c
direction, towards the reclassicaliLing of the Langu.ge.
But still, by poets n.-t of the people, and notably by
Valaorites (b. 18-:4', the popular dialects, and especially~
the Epirote at',., have bc.-n largely used for poetry.
Such are some of the general Ifcts w.hicl mnay enable
the reader not only to iecngnise, but in ornme dierce
also, perhaps, to understand, that identity of Modern.
with Classical, Gree: speech, which not only connects,
as with a living bond, the Present with the Classical
Period, but serves al-o to L.xplain that v.olnderful identity
of Modern with Classical Greek sentiment v.hich ihe will
find in the following Translation_;.
And nov.' \with respect more particularly to that
pa/.c.s of Modern Greel: of which h these Translaticins
are renderings. It is in the Epirc.te pa.,'.S that most
of the Folk-songs here translated have been compc.'_d.
For ;amcnz n ructic dialects ,of Greek, that of Southein
Albania holds much the same place a among rustic
dialects of English, that of Southern Scotland. There
is this difference, hov.ever, bet,.en the two cacss: to
Burns, .'hlo made the English pl',is of Southern Scot-
land classical, this ,pai.:'s as his mother tongue; while
to Valaorites, who made the Greek f;a/t.! of Southern
Albania classical, it was, from the circumstances of his
birth and education, rather his nurse's than his mother's

xxv\iii P;'dcli ." Rem/arks,

tongue, and hencc; his acquaintance with it had, in after
life, to: be perfected by special effort. By no means,
lo.'.ecir, on this account, is the Epirote 7of Valaoritcs
min.rL easy t thal that of the nainelc~s popular bards who
spontaneously' utter in that dialect their native wood-
note; wild.' On the contrary, it is su labouredly rustic
a; to. be more difficult than the genuinely rustic speech
itself. But Ml. de CQulux de St. Hilaire, in hii Intro-
ducti',n tu M. I'lancard'; Translations of Valaorites'
P['c :.' P':/;'.':..rs, gou-s, [:crhap;. tou far \\hen he says
of his author s p.otical language that it is as remote
from the true pIopular, as from the new literary lan-
guage-' Cette league populaire s':lliigne autant de la
laingue litteraire . . quc de a lngue aussi factice
et idioinatique qLue V\alaonrite voulait remettre en
Thc /,a:/; ., cf these F.-ll;- sungs may be generally
characterized as simply carrying a stage or two further
thors differences which distinguish from Cllssical Greek,
the L\lodrn Greet: of educated speakers. The latter,
as i v'ell knomI.n, differs f-rom the foimei in the loss of
tlnse.s by the verb-the use of the auxiliaric; t\',w and
".\o for the I'ituire and perfect, and ,f ,i i; fla) instead of
the infinitrlec-and the loss of cases by the noun-the
genitive and dative bcing confus.ed with the accusative.
And not only thus, as to grammar, but as to words,
1M.:dern diil'frs fro-m Classical Greek in these various
v.wa's: in the ordinary u.se of what were formerly
poe:tical ..ords; in the uIe cf old wr.rds w\itlh new
meanlings in the curtailment of words; in the lengthen-
ing of words, particularly for diminutives: and in the
importation of new\. %jrl frrom all the languages with
which the Greel:; as a p-.cople have been brought into
contact-Latin, Slavonian, Italian, Albanian,and Turkish.

Po/lica! and L i.):.,tisU/. x :i.

No.w, in the pas of these Folk-songs all these difier-
ences As to grammar and as to words between ordinary
Modern and Classical Greel: arc exaggerated, and theie
are besides some interesting peculiarities. of pi onuncia-
tion rather than of .words. These consist either in the
eliion, or in the chan'ze, not only of vowel., but of con-
sonants. In certain districts. and in other; p, is elided;
in certain districts, K is substituted for r, and in other-,
p for '. And particularly remarkable in this respect is
the difference between the pa.c: o'if the *ttorm-secl]ud:d
old Pelasgian island -of Samothrace ; and the oa.fi-s cf
the adjoining mainland of Thrace and MRacedonia, where
Greel;s are mixed with Bulgarians. In Samothrace,
there is an eli-i.:in 'of the harsh p in the vord. in v which
it usually occur v while on the mainland a rasping p
seems to be preferred to a liquid \, and one hears the
natives address each other as dt.i,:.P, instead oif ;i' \,le!
The result of the-e peculiarities added to: the exa-ggera-
tion of all the diffeiences that distinguish educated
Alodern from Classical Grel:, is, that nne who, can read
the Modern Greek of Athen- with ease, may find viry
great difficulty- ith the Greek of the Foll:-songs; whilee
one who can easily read the Greek of the I-olk-son.,g
may be almost wholly unable to understand the Litciaiy
Gieek of Athens. But just so a fojeignei, perfectly
familial v'ith Literary English, would be unable to
understand Broad Scotch, or the Lancashire, or East
Anglian Dialects, either spoken, or written phonetically
with all their elisions and transnLmutation;.
One word, in conclui;in, with reference to the r':.:-:' I
have chosen from the Gaelic SgectL.C.'','a:, translated by
the late Mr. Campbell of Islay. It may, perhaps, be
found to be not without appropriateness. For the occur-
rence in Gaelic Folk-stories of the Tale of the King of

xxx Prefrcc: RL/ ,ir;:s,

Greece' has, I believe, an historical, as wvel! as poetic,
significance. Philologi-st have nov. proved that Keltic
has the closest affinitics with Grcel: and Latin-Kymnric
more particularly, perhaps, with the former, and Gaelic
with the latter-and lhence that Kclts. Greeks, and
Latins probably derived their origiln fr-m a primitive
Grecz-1,KeIto--Italic s5toc:-a stock: vliich we may pos-
sibl\ be able to iJeriti'y v ith the Prlasgians v1hlsc inumre
direct reprcientatives I nov. Vo-n lHahn believed to be the
Albanians. A.-mn:ng the chief events ,of the Classical
Period, or hialf-millenniu inm before Christ, were the iKeltic
invasions, riot only ,:.f tlhe counticis occupiedd by their
ancient kinslmen in Italy and in Greece, but invasiorns
al,, orf Maceionia, Tliracc, and Asia Minor, in which h last
th:e established their kingdom o)' Galatia. It is these
hist,-rical rClati:ons W.ith the Greek- that have, I believe,
'i%-en rise tc. the Ga(lic Tale :of the King 'rf Greece.'
:For the hicto.ry of' the Kelts as a great European Race
has been as continuous as that ofi the Hellenes thiem-
selves since the upbrcak of the Ancient Cii'li.-ati:ins in
the Sixth Century r.c. Dating the history f-. M] odern
Ciilizati.-n from that great Epocih, it is found to be
divisible into, five clearly distinrguishable hallf-millennial
periods And each of the.e Periods in the history of
Euro' pean-Asian Civili.ati.un, is characteriZeJ by a pccial
clas of L\.vntt in the hist'.ry of the Keltic Racc. The
firct Period is, fur it, a Period of C-onquests ; the second,
of Subjections ; the third, -of N'orthern Kingdo:ms; the
fo.:urth, of Sub.crsion. ; and the fifth, of Resurrections.
These facts, and particularly the laet class of them, do
not. I think, verify the somewhat petulant iterations of a
certain learned and lucid, but not unprejudiced historian,
that the great English-speaking is an Anglo-Saxon, or
English, and not, as it truly is, an Anglo-Keltic Race.

Political a;:d LinguItis/ic. xxxi

\W, therefore, as such a Race, in aiding the Greeks. aid
the representatives of the near, if not nearest, kins-
men of our Keltic ancestors. And it is curious to
remark that the most distinguished of English-spCaking
Philhellenes-the most distinguished of those w\ho have
sought to deliver from bondage Beauty, the daughter
of the King of Greec' '-have, almost all, had in their
veins a more than usual proportion of that Keltic blood
which is common to the \wholc Britannic Race.


The Oracles are dumb:
No voice or hideous hum
/'.:: ;/' r:igh the archdd roof in words deceiving;
Afollo from his shrine
Can no more divine
II '" .,' .::ow shriek the steep of Delfhos leaving.
.:., nightly trance, or breathed spell
/:.":/ :'L .'..' ale-eyed priest from the prophetic cell.
MILTON : Ode on the Nativity.
' Ti..,'i :. ,'ti '" thine high-,priests tread where thy lords and our

Ti..: ,'":. :'. .'..' were Gods are '. .?, at,:.,. thou being dead art a God,
T,'.:: .:.':. :' ti,, the throned Cytherean be fallen, and hidden her

1"/ ,';. ":,,t;.i: hall pass, Galilean, thy dead shall go down to thee

SWINBURNE : Hymn to Proserpine.


I. IN Plutarch's Dial.:.e il On the Ce-sation of Oracles,''
Klr'n-imbroto, the Lacej ternonian. who had been travelling
in E\rp.t and the Soudan,'- andij \;ho had rnet, amon,,l
others, at Delphi. the Gramnarian, Demetrius of Tarsus.
\.h had bue:n trav\ llin- in Britain. at the oppl:,site n.]d of
the Roman world--this lKle6mbr,:otos inlforms the corm-
pany that .Emilian. the Rhetorician, had told him ai won-
derful -tor\ touching the mortality of D i:m; ns. On a
voyage imad, by his father. Epitherses. to Italy. when
the- were still not far frorn the Echli6dc-s Islands, the
wind fell. and they were drtfting in th evening t:\wards
th. Islands of Pa:.iiThi. sudElnly. as the passengers
\v.re drinking after supper, a voicc "was heard Irom one
of the islands, calling on a certain Thamu.s so loudly as to
fil nll \l ith amazement. This Thanus w.as an Eg ,ptian
pilot, :no\wn by nan tc to but few on board. T\Iice the
voicc called him i without r,:ispc'ns, but the third time he
replied : and then the voice aid,, I['.L !, cn, u :, t :, '
,iga;,::l /-P'a/,. .. n,; t ';C i /:t / vra Pman ; .i ad.' Oni
hearing this, all were terrified, and debated w. hether it vwere
better to do as ordered, cr not to trouble themselves
SP C''. ,' .. 'ii.
IIo- rTa tmo.u \o&.runlr Ij I.
3 'rTtc .01 N. -:,)

4 Histoic! Int!rod'cnd:o .

further about the matter. As for Thamus, he decided
that if there should be a wvind, he would sail past. and say
nothing ; but if it were a dead calm and smooth sea. he
would gixe his message. When, therefore, they were
come ovcr against Palodes, there being neither breath of
wind nor ripple of wave, Thamus. looking towards the land
from the quarterdeck, proclaimed what he had heard:
'T~,c ,:-ri Fran ,t s ,c7,,j.'4 Hardly had he said this, when
there arose a great and multitudinous cry of lamentation,
mingled \\ith amazement.' And as this had ,bee:n heard
by many persons, the nlvu.s of it spread immediately on
their arrival in Rome, and Thanmus \.as sent for by the
Enmper'jr. Tiberiu; C.-sar. Such ,%a- the stoIy of
.nEmilian, as re-ported by KNIcmbrotos. As .Emilian was
an 'old man' when he told the story, and as his father
had flourished under Tiberius, the: period of the Dialogue'
would appear to be about the end of the first century A.C.,
in the reign of the Emperor Trajan. I;ut as Tiberius
died in 37 ..c., having su:ccede-d his stepfather. Al.\u stus.
in 14 A.C.. the date of th;i death of Pan has been plausibly
assumed to coincide with that of the crucifi.ion of Christ.
2. Now, as it singularly chanced, one S.eptember day in
88o0. it was amid the very sCv n- of this romantic legend
of the death of Pan-and certainly nio mior splendid] scene
could be imagined for such a legend than that vast moun-
tain-girt sea-plain and gleaming land-locked ba\ identified
with Pal6Jes,'" on the Albanian coast, opposite Corfu-it
was in my boat in the bay, and while wandering over the
plain of \utzindr: ..'iBuiv'T~lr pt.r, that an Epirote friend
spoke to me of the recently-publis-hed '.i., \r -.: 'H.--:o:
(' Sngs of Epeiros'.,, collected by Dr. Aravandinos, of
JoAnnina, and of which. inext day, he wvas good enough to
4 o0n up )n.r* rTarcp1ri.
a Il.'- il C it: \ \ ..r; \I '. ," k a I ,l 1 ,, 0 ., l /i, pF -'Y o '.
v Itcolcmy, Plutarch, and the nc.rd i s.el, sufficiently identify Pahidc;
with the muddy bay of \'ut:indr'..-LrAKE. .\.l/,Lh,; I ; Gr v'.': vol. i.,
p. I co.
7 Once. perhaps, the property of Atticus, the friend of Cicero.-
Cis,' ." .-1// '. I. I. ., ep. S.

T',' S:r:''wal of Pagia:s:. 5

present iii \with a cupi. Sing!ularlv it thus chanced. For
this Plutarchian kle.r;nd is oftln repeated or alludEd to a;
a fact by medieval authors. as also by ail-aelais. L
Sp"'ener, and L' Milt.on its e::ential. ;f n,.t f.rnal, truth
has, indeed. becunim alirnut an article of Christian faith;
and vet the rc:sult of the m.ud.rn study of Folk-lo.re-and
the result nrmore particularly in im ioni casCe of their studies
cccasiucnd Lo, that cu.nversat!iun on the "Song: s oif Epeiros'
amid tlh icene-s .,f this .Ep;r.te legend :o the death ,_f Pan
-has ibCcn a co'nclusio-i directly c,.'ntradictory <:f ,,that has
hitherto been the pi:ipular Christian bili.f vlith respect to
the Je-struction .Ji F Pa;ar;ani;. That concliusi.-in mai\ be
thus stated. Amiono theLi- assLse of the Greel: people
Christian Churcil-Lieliefs hate not on!y nut substituted
themsclvE. s for. but ha,: hardJl et\n traceahly influnced,
Pagan Foll.-belicf: : urtlh:r, Ia c.np prison of the Folk-
Fon-gs of the Gretc i:. ;th theo Folk-:ns n ,of other i:no-inally
Christian people; sho \s that this non-, p. :ntrati...n ,_.t pro-
fessed Christian Lbelief is not peculiar to, bi t inl\ sJnie-
v\hat rnrc i c,.,nspicuoiu anion,,. the (Gr_-,k: ad h.n rce',
finally, we may allirm that. -So far as co*incLrn-d or 0con-
cerns the masses o:f the Christian peoples, there -.'.as as
little of essential is f:'t normal truth in the legnJ d of the
mystic voice at Pa...i. and of the- niultitudinous lanintatiini
at Pralu-. Or, as one man\ u.Ltherrie -.r.pres it, the
great Pan of Pag.an writers is not, nor .,v.r has ieein,
dead; and neither the birth nor th,: death of the great Pan
,cf Clhiiisan \\rijters- Chirist. the ve ry God of all shep-
herds,. vhich calleth Him nelf the greatt and .oucid Shhepherd '"
-neither the birth nor tlhe death of Christ had th, effLct
so fondly fancied by Christians, and s finely described in
those fanmjioi lines of Milton's-
S"i he loinel- y mountains o'er.
.\nd the re-:onding shore,
.A voie ul ,c, piln heard and loud lairent:
E- K. (Edi ard irl.e ) c'ummenitipn oin ithe line
'When ;reat 'arn account of SheRpherdes shill aW.e,'
in the .!'u Ef/.1.,-' '. Spr.r.rr 's -/ ::* ,.0 s C r.l.'..:

77*.*, 7.,..
ii ls(orjca~ tlltrOa.'t(tt'/:.

From hiunte.J spring and dale.
Edg-d i;rh poplar p'le,
The p:rltt;i_ Gehiu, is r.ith sighirng tent ;
\ iti t1.,,.,et-in,.'C 'v en re:se.- i.rn
The N})mphs in [v il;ghit rshad of ta.ai:ld thi.:;etr mourn.'

3. Startled a soimec read's rinay L bey tie conclusion
thus e.precsed, it inma be desiral.il: to give, -,t ri-fe-r to,, sore
pa-;sages confirniatory of it in Cthriktian writers. At the
outset,' remark s the R,-.v. Mr. T.o.er,'" '\,e nmli sa3 tbroadly
that the belieclf of thie iud:,ern Grceles respecting death
and the state of the dead, so far as \.c ha\ec the i nilcan of
judging of them, are absc'lutelv and entire-il Parian. In

9 Ode ont the .VX.:.:.', s. I.': 1 venture to thirlnk that Profer:s',r
T a-t :.T in t.ii/':. :'.S ,..':.. ; .. ,' u ii., p. 53 .) is probably m is-
taken in inimgining that
'A \ foic %. eepinig heard'
refers to the M.i.ai:re ot" the Irnucent -it ihe .':'.: of the Christian
Pan, and to Mat i. i. i', and J.:et. i. i nd ri. r-uar r t, the 'grc i
cryof lamentation ni i.gl-d ci tlih Anmll.: int"c' of the Plu.iai.-hian Ictend
of the death of the PaF',n l'an. It is Eiue that 'the in; .hIt Pan of
line 89 must be ir.terprictc'd t.: rrlcr ito thc Chr iratn I'an. ,ut the
'The Innely moun-itilain o'er.
And the rci :undiin sho-re.
A voice o(f e cprin heard and loud u ilrrteni,'
are not orl,h the Iat one, a lolerabl l cloie transl.,tuwi ro Plu t-rch, but
the first two a singular!) _:rph;c descirption iof i'al..'J-, the scene of
the dca-it of the I'ar an, and no dscicriptioni at all .1" BLUthlehemn, the
scene of the birthl- of the Chrisian i'ar.
I may add ih i. as the-e line. c'n be con:tiuecd only, by isch
strained interpolation; s the foli:or.11.g
The lonely rrmountains o'er,
And [lcer) the resounding shorc.
A it'ic of .accping fi1l heard and loud la ment,
one is tempted t, :-ugeit 'li.:,ar' ojr "o'er.' The V.,ould not only be
unc.ontradicted b ha .iy l S., but ..,ould be in a.ccrndance with Milton's
usage in .' ,-,.; .
From the .irie or -oine h.rhar htll ;
and in the third son in A :..: ,.,
iOn old Lc:x-u. and Ci.llene hoar
lut against sUch an emendiont ;t i I fear, a fatal ,bjic-tion that it
i.ouLc Imelolve a change oif tcn:e from that of the conte:.E.
S'*' :/:/', ';.,'i- ,y T.v':'' iol. si., p. 3::.

The Sur,:':/ of Paganism. 7

the numerous ballads \which relate It to these ;ubjects there
is not a trace of any feature dcr,':ed from Christian
sources, while the old classical conception' are eLe % -
where nmanilfst. It may be said, indedJ. that in an'
country the viev.s on th: subLject of religion which might
be gathered from a collection cof popular son-s w would ec
of a vcry questio:nable description, and ,would not fairly
represent the belief' of the people. But this objection
does not apply to the niode-rn Greek ballads, a; they are
the simple and straightforward e\pressio:n of the ideas of
an unlettered people on the points to which h th-vy re-1r.
Some of the sonsn are intended for Christian te-sti3all,
uthrs are dirges t,: be sunr, at funeral, and others relate
to subjects akin to thhe-se. But in none :of them doe- the,
belief in a Re.urrection or a Fiuture Judgimcr t make its,:lf
apparent. That thet eople at lar'e have no kno,,ledge oft
those doctrines it is hard to believe: but. at all events.
th-ey hate not a utfficie-ntlh firm hold on their minds to
come prorninentlv forward. and they certainly hav- not
succeeded in expelling the old he.ath-en notions. And if
most of the figure v I.hich i.-: acsociatce \.ith the Inferno of
the Greeks, such a; Pluto. FPerse ph,'in;, Hermes. KA.rberus,
etc., are nov. vwantin,. it should be remc nb.red that, in
ancient time the popular conception t of such a subject
were in all probability much simpler than the elaborate
sch..mc v which is found in the p toets.' Similar conclusions
are cxpretssed by other scholar."' And Archbishop
\Whatly attfirms generally,~ and with equally good rea.so.n.
that the vulgar in niost parts of Christendom are actually
serving the Gods :of their heathen ancestors. But they
do not call them G'_d,, but Fairies or Bo.ies, and they. do
not apply the word r.';;r,' hi' to their \eneratio,:n of thm,
nor stz, i,'c to their offtTrings. And this slight change of

Compare P.,s.*, Cri,:. P Ir,. Pr,:it.i. : FAI. RIEL, .MARC. LLUiS.
and Lr aM u. ..,; e* p/.ed., i; .i t' 'cc: and tihe books of
THIEP.sCH, Of S\NDERS. and of Sc-H:i.rt on tt, 1 L. .'. ,' i, .1,;-
0- .1/i;';> ..r'e.' R/.^' :A' i;.;J '., p. 2,4-

.IIstorzca/ In/rodiut ?.'/1.

namnt keeps most people in ignorance of a fact that is
before their eyes.' U
4. Thier is, lhowvetr, something of superficidity in the
Archbishop'l notiornof inLrn Pa',.anism as showing
itself ,:,nly in a generationn of Bogies and Fairies. By
char-ctleristlcs of a far deeper and more cencral kind
must Paganisn, and particularly Western Paganism, be
defined, if our study :cf Greek Fo:lk-songs is to have
any important historical result. In westernn Paganisrm,
whether as it flourished before. or as it has survived since,
thi: destruction of its Sanctuarics,, e,- find. I tlinl:, uni-
verislly three Gene ra C hiracteristic cs, which mai perhaps,
be thus reispectively distin:uished : (i.i a profound feeling
of oneness v.ith Naturt., and, a mythlic personaliing t of
its phenomena, inanmiate as, \ell as animatt ; lii Un-
ccns.ci'-u' lnes-. Sin in s,-.ual love, that i5, lnot mere
lust, and] no:n-Hbeiilf in a supernatural statt of RKc\ards
aan Puni nts nd liii. a profound feeling of Fanily
k inlhrp, anid patriotic lde'otion to tihe FIatherland. LD
charact', i.tic ofI an :-.: ictl)y ppositt kind oi'. ul hi torical
Chiistiani:mn h.i\e to be distinIguched_. but here I must
cc.nine myself to p,-inting out isomle of the illIistrations of
these Pag:an characteristlcs which the reader \vill ind
in the folklwin'' Folk-songc.
5. First, then, as to the fei'eling of oneness \with Nature,
and the p:rsonali.zng of it- phenomena. The impressions
pro:duce'd by t natural phenomena lead to their being per-
sonali.ied in tv.'i dliftrent lA Siy-a direct v.ay, andl an
indtirct. Persornalizin-: in the, direct way, the Sun is
represent.d as pFitii L ;l addre1-.ng 1 sad and lonely
Deer;" or as angry ith the Moon and Stars.'" The
Dawnv is spoken i:if as a man wh om alone a uvii.o\\'s
daught':r desires as husband. The Moon e-rps in sym-
pathy with the so:rroW..'ing \irgin;': and is prayed to by a
CormpaIre, for inslance, for the Teutonic Race. CF rIl.'S D ,'ic/e..i e
Aln ..... I-m E. .NT, ,- Q.'.r T'. .'rn: /' e .v 'rse; and H rF..ENrL -
SCN, F..':..-'. "/ .t.'Z,-:ry. C:.,':,ni'. :-and for the Sbonic Race,
R .\ ST ,, *'. i.'.. i:.u, /',, *.'. and ,.:ta.SiJN. W/ .'..'.. DOZON,
P,.s" s '.:i .: .s and C'..:,c'i /.'.:/ r' s ;.-.!, ,'s ; NA.A ;E,
5..'..., -' .*' .::.''..s and C HO .ris'K C" .'' s .':...-.
S7r,;:i., p. 85. i..' p. i I .. l' /. p. 141. 1. p. 1.1.

T,'c S':. : 't '; I" ..of A MiL.a''. 9

child going' to a nii-ht-schocl." in the bad titles of un-
checked Turkish opplre.iion. The Stars ar: blrimmling
\.th tears ;'a and thle wurds us.cd in speakiing of the
settin. of the Morlniin-i.star, aS. liki '.: iic of the Sun--taoai-
AX tn and hjiLs'\tta-denote,- also ai'eiiiilli' a.s a k.ing.-"
One boastfully speaks of himself a thle son of the Light-
niing. and of hi v. ife a; the laughterr .-.f the Thunder.1'
Mouintains are :i::ked lieteion and rspoiid.': Proudly
Olympus.. diisputc- v. it hKiIs.'r.oi, andJ '.o.i t. of h i s lo.eris.
or. falling in love ith his llo11 mriiuntain. ii'.. cal 'dI bv
the feriinii liinll ie .f .Iissa, tle', blccomn-i the parents : o
thei lepht V\lalch.a- : .h hcd l. Ahen he iIs dlain. his
faithful dog carries to hi.: mo ithlr Os.:., anJd burics. in
the snows of her :oso.in. Into Ri..ers l,'.cr-s ,,iildl fain
transform themnisl.ve-, arnml _so ciionsciousiy eml brace their
mni'tressc.- and rid tlie srirt-l.e-; of tlih poi'on of pa_ion.-0
Things inarniiiate of all kind. are represented a. lising-
disc':overinig thi. L.is of l. :er : a l.iiiz *queti';on .f'. and
maingl:ir' re'u':-sts to a saint .* or fascinati.d Lb a ire. n :-
h,r pill,'.'. and c:uch i.sympathcticall., ir.:pondi to thi
complaint of a f.-ursakcn '.ife:- a L:ridce is rent in
tv.ain and '-i stre.ain cca ,_s to i:: .:. n heariijg the sad
lament of a '.\iJo' .-' and a ship stops sailring. hrrieJ
at the groan ,i t a prison r. "l'r- and speciallyy
the Cypirc:s..i .Apple. and Kse-tree : and Fruits-
LL.rions,," and Applen." -and Flo'.\,_rs-Bas-il and Car-
nation-are all endu.td withli htiiiuman fccling nd with
speech ; nay, b,- thie bloorning ani \withering : o a R Ioe-
tree and a Cairnation.' .1 another knowA.s of the hc'lth,
and finally of the death, of tier son, a klepht ron the noun-
tains. It is blrd'-Eals. Partridges" and Crows.
Cuckoo:s."' Blackbird-.s ard Nightiniales --'. ho s.ing th
dirge.s of the slain. or give v.'aring to the li 'ii, of dijth
or bctra3yal; 'that lie may have a gos'ip, v, th Birds' ,i'.
it Tfil :i7-r KL'Ot'i2li.l, the dying klIpht p begd that he rniiy
'r>11: a p. 2. ,'.. p. ioi. : P. p 9. .p O :A -. 93.
., p;2. -. p. 9: /. p 14. 1 : '.' p. : -. p -7-
:i :i6. .p. i 5. p. : 3' /. p.. 'p /.. p 92.
3 /.. p. 54. : p 37. 7. p. 1P 37. :' /-" p.' 4 3. '.': 2 41.
L /:. p. 214. 2' -. p. 254. 40 p. 2j. 4 p. 253. S 5'. p. 99.

10 ///o J/,r:,7/ A/:!;.',,:,cl,'::.

be carried up to a nmount.in-ridge:' a- Bid. m-r,.;, bewvails
her hard fate in colloquy \.ith a kinry' d-iighter ': a
Partridg. reproves an Lrrinig Bul:arian girl :' and a;n O'0..1
heralds the approach of Vamplire."' Finally. among
Beasts, a Deer complains to the 'Sin .:of the c:ruel hunter
who has i.ille.- her child and her husband ;'. 1 Horse
understands the entreaties of hi- niistres;, and \v ins
\v'ger for his master;4" and a Wolfl, n bcl in ,lue-tio:ne,.l
by a shepherd, complains of ha- in- L..._en illtreated Lv Iis-
dogs, when he was about to rcl.:. hlini:elf nI a latIrII.
6. Cut besides this primi:,i 'e and ietc:r.,al poetry v.:.f the
direct iperSonalicing of Nature., aiir;jmte and inanimntte.
there is also, in these Folk-._;,ncg. v.t hait ma', le, called
an indirect rpeirsori:lizing of Naturt in the creation of
BeIig,; imythicallb representative both of uin\cvrsal and of
special aspects of N.itur-.-in tllh cre ati.-Io, in -a w\rd, .:.f
Gods and Demi-gods. Thu Fatt-s Ilo;pan, and Chance.
(PdtKWdv) still hold the sam.:- place as o-f old. a: l'o:'.. Cs
above and behind all Gods." Ll.it th,. mio:t remal kable of
all the nm.thical Bhiings mentioned in :,oiur Folk-sonis are.
p,'rhaps;, ot rpeZ9 XTr,,\ELt TOL. Koha~T1-tlh: three iEl-ements
(or Spirits) of the Universe.- I strongly suspect." sa.s
the Rev. Mr. Tozer,62 'that h-rec the underlying i'l-n i
that of the Holy Trinity.' And anotlh.r vritci. in alluding
to these St.ichei'-, speak:.s I.f them a:- the three Earth-
Spirits, whoever they may be.' The son,. hov. e..:r. in
Iiic.:h they are mentioned bcl:ones to 'Salonica : The;sa-
l,-niica was famous for its \\or-ship .,of the Samolthrac;an
KIbeiri; and the Kabeirian Godi of Thesal-onica \.'as
adored as one of a Trinity .,f which tlhe younz,:st had
been put to death by the o:tlh-rs.'' I ,..ntlur to think
43 Trais. p, 256. 44 1h. p. i. /. p 154. '- ; .. I. '.
47 p'. p 8. 48 p. '.- p. I i.
s5 i.' p. 75;. '. .-'.,' T..- . vol i;.. p 3 -7. n.
53 See Lactantius, Jul;il Fi initi: m Tl.itei nu and Clement of .\le.-
andria, .- c7:ed by Lenormantin 1T) F. 1 EI L' .'.'.. i..' .i' .4.v:.'-
;.'!:', .;'...', p.- ...''. Th; Chr; -lil ; r on. ige ippenrs a rt
youngg n'n,, on tlhi rouin of Thf Esalnirc.. And the si-r,' of his death.
wi'tt ihe lrgurcs If dhe itbhl r mit rrn-, rs i.f the I.beirran Tnir ;t. ; repre-
sented on the :r.tilli. mirrors of r .;.ln, \i hich, in thce -condnd haif oif
the fourth, and in the third century; L: c., appe.-rs to )ha e been 'r.-'ngly

Tlc Sr?//'l'-a! ,/[ Pra':is.::. W I

that. in bringing these frctt t,-Lthlir, I ha.v identified
these Tp.i iroiI mTu rTo KoroniT oc Salonica with the
KaI.eirian Trinity of thi- Thelic'alniarnis. Ne.:t among
the ii\thical pers:.inag.es of our Son:; may be named
Eliovynnetc and Hantseri." o:f whom th,- lay is an evident
Sun-and-Mooln n mth. or EndJs m n-and- ld4n6 story.
And n,_.xt amon. th,: .grater Gods of modern Greek Folk-
life. and so holding a place- ;iriilar to that :of the God of
the Undle-iorli in the ancient Miythologies. is Charon.
A Charo:n \\e ind also an-mon tile anL.icnt Etrui:cans."' and
both namits appear to Iha% I b['eecn dJ:rived fihorn the EI' p-
tian Hor.t; :" th:u'i-h the emblerri of4 Charon are those
of a Kal-.aerian God. ;ut it '.'as not till the si:.th century
e.C. tlat tlilcri .. ;sustained and gcniral intercourse be-
tween Grucce and E;j pt. Hcnce.. it \w:as not probably
till abco'it thii. datc tiht Charon tooi:. hIi place in the
ima'ination of the CGil-,ek h, nce. noit till aiboU:it the same
tinm, that the notion of the De'.il zot separated from that
of God in the Hebret\ Myithoilo, ." And thel reason of
Charon binir; thus aLdo.ip:te a Greil: Gol d o- r Demi-god,
riavy Lb found pIat-tl in the fa:t that Hadls; :co:ld now be
restricted to si-niiftin a place, rnd not. a- hitherto, both
a place : and a pIr-ion. [But, in the .old Aryan Mythologies,
affecid L:, y in intlueiI. pr:ceedin, Iruri .lac''edrniii aind the Isles
of th. "'h a.t an S .a. e rrpH ., r -, .. .1: '.: '." n,.' dtier
E :r..: .,, in his G :. :..:: .-1: '..- .:. i..
T.- : .p. '.*. :: .e LE ..ii E :' ,'; .ol i;.,pp. 2..:- ii.: -.
b .ee \\ ILM ,: ,, ';, .- ,.' '. , /, ..':'i, "*ai. v., p. 4 .',;.
Thi; '..a:. in :uri.,ci4ua:nce f tihe c:rat.ihhmnicnt, b) P-ammetichus,
of Greek nierc.naries, lorin_ and K:rn.:.ns, un lthe Pt'elui:. or eastern
branch of ihe N .il, -i pl -,c '-clci Stiatip:-.Ti. or the Camps (HERO-
T i'.:. ii. 154. arn.t uL tih p-rmit i.- n j .,ven b. the -jamc.' Ph- raoh Ifa the
scttlemnir of Greek mrrrc:lianil at N Ilr.lrati onr the right bank of ihe
K.inopic Nile. See u RO TE. A'.;.-.v G .... ii ii.. pp. 496-97, with
respect. ito the appai..r.l'l, conii hitirc ; siit.it:Cint : r. thii point of
HerodoIu- and StrlL.C. EuIt his introaiduci..l a of Charon into the
Gteck Pantheor.n u.as buti one of he lesser :conifequnti e- of that open-
ing of the NIe .by Ps.mmetichui oi f hi, h ithe ::r. triti r wcilI_ made an
epoch in Helleni- thou.ihi.
Compare i ..': ,..ui.- Ii. uith i i .'. :.:..... : rid :.ee I0:i.:un ,
.';,.. ..:.'.. ,, ', > T '..', b. I ':. j'. \ i i :.:., 1 '. iii H : re,' '..'.,
an.d GOLDT cir He i.. .I,'y .. 'y ... ,. : .
STr:'.:.. pp. i 6, i[2 .

lIPS/OP/CL?! Jn/,'o.bw/ ion.

there \.ere a va-t niiimb,:r oft rinoI r rni\thical Bemrin- b ,lo.
the Univ\r'-al Trinity of Heaven. Eaith, and Hell, the
Creator, tlhe Pre.-;er,er, and the Dettrr.ov-r. Similarly. in
the Ne:l-hli..c ie Mi thlo;'y. bel..'..' ih rihnol.-rl riepire:enta-
tives :c ths:. GrC-rattr Gdls. other, arc a resic nuinmbir of
mrnnor p.,tic cream ti,:in: moIri, or :: :bAioulY. expirsive
of the iIipre':.;ionS mid.r. 1-. l'pci:I natural pheroiinrina.
Araior Lhliz,. tilt f .ii'..l ii v.ili L'e F'ojLun in the Transla-
t;i:on gt'i ni .li j..--Sloc h.a'''" of Mou.ntiiins. Riui i and
Wells: Niid- i,:.- :f Ri\:cr : Lan iia-': cf th i iccan;
the Truagoudl tria.: :i Sirin: tlh Dralo.:'' i anld Dra-

(T. : p [ 7' r .* ... ; rpp .,r' 1- t - q..-.l rron,. ,[,..,. ,*.,.-.,
e-pc:ii ll ... ? ...... '., ,. ':'.. . .' ;' -icn,: L, *,r \ mn;,'
ha e c.r,.:rin Ill.i s,2rniied i h-[ h ';i i 'r.c-:. Frur thili it ouid re-,id l
coime to riL l. in pre ." t p, il.r i .l' l ;-. I 11. ic prin plcie of life or
pirit'ail ipo. c r '.iarh ir.- co:.n,-f il r I r in ' r'ti: licri ..Lriinale
or rin:an i. ,e.' r. -t-i, -I- Pl .r.ni,: -r-l ub '.-l n phil.;.S pla Ii. .-ipe,
-... n T elen c rienL.. FP lao' r--.. : -re .i:. s. Th,:i-.; i .1
E pe' : I :ie .e ie Ilr. iirm .I n:-ir. il- r, an. hi.. ndei .ii uried to h-.. tlih-at
there n~ but l.:,r l ii .irL..Iler tu.a e of i .. J, th te : 1i -re on the
Z idl.a-.. Ir i:.-l 1 .r i, ,., ,.nd ihe lrnn cl i- t' be rirsei ;eneraill
for ithe i c.,:er., F ..i..' Sucih 1:iblcal :r'i,.: ;i, l.:.r iftan I .U Tr:
(,. .* .''. *'. '' ., 4 .i -i i I-l i.v r rin .r) ;.' :',, ,'. .. 60 1, ire FiF,
opinion .th-it ;i i: cri-nrily in lhii .-rri.': L.li3 St F.-ul i tihc puirl 'h .-,.,
o-'.., ,, r..'' >'Li-,.. rd r ir h I e auti ribuel to iite e Genii, or Spirits
of il- LUini rie.-, a di rtin:[ iori:iln ',l Comnpare u-'.;. i 3. e .
Co.. ir. ... ; anr 1,' .. 1. i The -.e- ised er'_0on, I.,n c er, still
ret-ini t:. old ti in :ltir of 'ck;rlieni :' r Iu. im .ri t d o- mi-' s
con i- lent II, t ihe ir ne ie31inig ,- l lth;C; p. t: SeC t I.T' r.FT,
M t,,;',.. c '...'. r-p'. :.i-- i'd 7. .. u,.,-.' ....1 ,, .,,. P ;..',
pp :4--.
t' .. .p. I 5. Tihe Cr :.: N,;ri-r .i.J'., ar unlike our N'-tih rn F :' e
A L I.', . ....', .i ".... i r b r,2 .i lm o:t L.ni\,r il', m ic .,i nlt,
ani *Cilirir. tiu e, bIL fuil- r,:ro .n i .ii-o.inen. Thet, are. lr.,-.' *r, .iiled
IKa .,:-. ..' or C1 d L-..i :. .' i,ur e is:e i I.,:inil ait tten i) ihen
,we ex._l.ir. -o-od I -. *n ir ii-, ng h; ppeq, ;; p irti:Lia]:irly bad.
p. 5. T e-i L lmii 1" tih, Cre-l l.i lirid. :Lms t. be .:ur.r. i.J
.l th ,lh.Iv nd; :ni ..-ate-pow.4r Tl., L.ein-.a of H'iili' nl.i.i u'S iDe
'1.,." '.'*. .; r t -i rp nc in the s:h p.. of a ,,ni.n ili. D irfercnt
as thei ir :, ca.:h .f ti-::e L.ir; ;i: -i nm hi.:al ieptre entat r, of01 a
factl ILlur irn e .p ri,:ince. aind b-rih i onvet' the ide., of serpentine
motion hi e L-iemnil f n K.at' i L.LkLen from the .uor; o" lhiIlostiratu,
as told b) B uRJ oiO .' '. .;i r ii .' ..,,.,,, p rii., s ii.
63 *,'.. p. 74.
64 lb. p. ;-... 'The Dra:on ol pular M i thol:,i; .' st.'. Mr. r:arinr
Could. 'is 11t: :l r th lii tie thundcrstor rlia r; a t the ho'-lizon, rush-

The Sur':.i:'a of PIr.a,:sw:. 3

kis :i ;' the Panoulkia,'' o:r Plague: and Theria,': .,r
Monsters. And in yet another class must be named such
creations as Digenc,' and the Enchant-ed Decr-a Chri -
tianized version, apparently, of the story of Agame-mnc.:.n
and the Sacred Hind i:f Artemis M. is:is.'" or \\'itche-.
sometilmes of a thousand years ild : andt moust terrible,
though not the last of all,:" Vampires," or Animated
7. So far as to the first characteristic of the :follov.ine
Folk-son:.s. N'o\, as to that U.nc.'nsjiousneiS of Sin in
sexual l-v'.'e, and nonbiclicf in a supernatural state of le-
wards and Punishments, which h \,e next remark. For
striking illustrati.:,ns :of the former characteristic, I may,
rcfer the rcadc.r more particul rly to the I'.. -.: .5,'. Go -'C,
and to' YlI:.., ", i ', tc .-I,.'i.: at/L,./ HUniai:d. and to the
Ern'IL and II.,.n:.,ri'!i Son.s ener.illy.'- Indeed, in the-
two song; particiulari'cd, there seeii? t. be no, co:n-
sciou~Lnc ss o:f in, \ven in such infainmju.; ini:ide-nt.
crimes a- rape and murder. In the ..i.. to S. G .-,-,
the Saint is represented as bribed by a Christian maiden

ing with e-..pnnded, 'cinino; ig black: pennor ns a:cr'ss Ihe sl:y, dari;n"
oul its. forlk d I ery trngue. and Lelching tr.r.'- i '*.-,.. ;.. pp. i-2.
,,i. -.'h Theie m i\ alh.o, h(i.'ieeer L ie .r, the notion sinie rne linitt crcc
of the monsters of the prime-ai world. See ihe author's: .z H. .-
/. .:', Hi;,. F,' s. .': ,, 'eO tober. i.: 4.
T' 'r,' p. p. E- . p. 2)4. '"; p. 7:. : li p. 23
L.. pp. :7 .. Ar.ANA Lr, 0 :'. /..' .. 1- 1 :'s ., S,' .'-
,.J:.;i, interprets \\tches also-- 'ry -ji.L stiorabl, hoa.c r. I think-a.;
or;ginaily Natuire-mn ths. See R,x.LSTr'N, ;,:.' . "- '.:
r Though not mr.rntioned in the f,.io,,ing Folk-.,on.. there are
such olher frightful creations of the piopul.r .inc., as the Empoirsa
Mormo, Gorgo aind Gello, etc. See B. ScinuiriT, ..': :.
.' Vainpirc-tales flourish molst luxuriantly amorn races of Slavonic
decent, and it is from Si:Ls that the Greeks ha%. bo-rrowed both the
naine, and certain iews and cuistonis \ith respect t \'ampires. I;uL
the Vampire bears a thoroughly Hellenic designation in the Islands-
at Crete and Rhodes being called sJaa.-, '..-, ;n C ,iru; . t -pr tL,'.; ; ;nd
in Tinos, ,arJc..':,' ,f.i'.:. And a number of passages may be quoIted
from classic authors to prose that in Ancient Greecie pcctres %,ere
frequently represented as delihting in blood See P. Sc:HM-r. 1.. s-
!.,a- .'' ". :,. .,: .-', .. 163- 171; and RaLsrT N. F,...,,: c,-,
p. 319. See aiso PA.nStLL, Ti'ci'; !ii CI.;. Tans. i:6, 129.
2; T,'a.s. pp. iS4 ,v'i,.f .

to hide her from a purrsuing Turkish lover, and as
di cox\lcing her place of concealment on leing more
lar-lely bribed by the Turk. In Y,.i''.i;.._'., a lover prays
to God -lim'lelf that he may find a husband nl bed,
in his shirt. and ungirt with his sword,' and as he had
prayed, s.:, he found YAnnakos.' And in thb Hun?:.vr-
i/;t,. S...:.;;:. we find either the incontinence of mrncnk.s ind
nuns aitirically treated as a matter of course: :or the
consequences of attempted continence are uatiri.:e.l in lan-
guage that cannot be reproduced -yet quite ju-tl.y as
the experiences of my sojourn on the Holy Mountain
proved.7 As for unbelief in a supernatural state .f
Rewards and Punishments, every one of the pieces
in the section I have named Charonic may be cited in
evidence. To die is simply to be carried i:.f from home
and friends, and all the joys of 6 dzradvwo A-(;.oc. the
Upper World. by the remorseless Charon. The- Earth,
which is sometimes spoken of as the Mother of Charon,
is also identified with him: and hence, in the dialect
of Epci.; s. one says for 'he died' either nrv E pa, c' iI rz,
or rve raayev 6 Xdpos -'The Earth,' or 'Charon ate
him.' The abode towvhich Charon bears off.tlth souls of
mortals, when he does not 'eat' them, is sometimi:s re-pre-
sented as an Undlli:r;toilnd Region to which thecr,: is 3
descent by stairs;75 and sometimes it is spoken of. with
.gniFinant allegory, as a Tent, either green or red outside,
but always black v\ithin.7 As for the Dead, they are repre-
sented, in general, as Shades as pale and mournful as in
73 As, for instance, in the last half dozen lines of Ya':.:', .\1..V'..N-
TINOs, 367. See also OIKONOIvDES, B. 8, 10, II, etc.
74 I allude more particularly to the Confessions with uhiich I as
favoured by a monk with whom I had opi-rtunriies of becon'ing
rather intimate. The poor wretch had had ith- doctrine of Hell so
ground into him, that he really believed he would bt ciernally
damned for his intrigues with country wenches when managLn; the
farms of his convent in the ilind c..f 'rhai.os, ind on the mainland.
He could not,however, see any real 'in in \.hat s,:.:med to him ;till so
natural; and he consoled hInself trith thie r:leccticin itat his Ifuture
torments would be as nothing compared .':ith those of hit trthren
who preferred more cultured indeed, but unnatural, objects of paDiion.
75 Trals. P. 117. : ; p 1r6, 1 ..

T.'c S :':':!- ,f Pag'.'::s.":. 15

Homer; and. a also in Hurrier. it is hl, their most atrlo'inus
criminals .ho ar.:, after d ath, aff'lct.d L1. puiii-hriie- e t for
dc.ds done in the bod:.-this, hr,,:,:-r, not as a Tantaliu
o:ra Siclpliius, but bv heing trans-foirmed int-., Vampil-s. In
the .i i. A;'i.: Dir'-es. Lihl, iiiiij-irner in io .inile in;tance
console thIicmeil\v'- \with the hopl or b-li:e! that tl: b:L-,ei.:
deal are in a state .ft bliss. The 'lead son can colfjiit
his mother onli b%\ ,liectiri her t,: a till '.'.here h.he will
find herbs of for'etftulnerls." And a '.~ can bLut say 'f,
her husIIl'ani that he ha; tak,:n th-: E;l:.ck Earth fur a
sr:con.d '\i[.:-, and a TI:mhn tone Ifor a moth.:r-in-lah,.
Even amongji the Son.:s ,ec:iall iitin::ui-A'h'd is p'-
KiuTI/Ki-R-.eli iciu, cr Chri~ tn11-a \~ itor to thl-. Other
World find: Good and Bad. .:ir rather 1':or and Rich, all
in one place, the onl difi;r:ni:c: i their condition being
that the Proor ar:.- in th,: *.1rn siunshin.:, and thel- Rich in
thIe chill' shade."'
8. The thiii characteristic o:f the S:n-.. I ha,.e dc,:in:-.d as
a profoujndi feeling of Fanily kIinihi, apn1,i patriotic devo:,tion
t., the Fath,-rlanid. In illustrations ._ the f.irmFer I niayrefer
g,-neiall, tothe Exile Soin's,.and toth,: .Vr ,.i::.:, ,: r )Di'rge ;
and ilso tij such inc!,lents. for e-amnple. as that of the
Brothers' rescue ,'f thl:ir Site.r from Chariin; and such
rc.quc:ata by a dying man as that his Mothler ina-, lbe told not
that hI: is dead, but orly that he is iai ril.:. in a far counrtrv.'
Ac to deu.tion t.:, the Fatherl:n,.J. the \.'hule clas- of His-
torical Soieis Ii. be cited in ,.ide.nce. The ballad of the
Cap.uic ', (.. nt ;.'.:,.'s'' ends 'Aith the assui red propl,-ec
that, after Ion:,i ;,ars, the Panaghia. and the Icorin shall
d vell a'ain in A.\, ia Sophia. the HolI Basilicon of the
Divine \\'is..din, founded by Constantin,:, and rebuilt by
Justilian. Never, through ceiturie ofl: opprcsilon. has the
hop:- ixpr.'sed in this prophecy\ been ex.tinguished. Gene-
ration aft.-r generation, mother rs hav: scnlt their cons to
battle against the Tur lks; and to rrmthers leS hIl-iiC. sons
have cried, Mother, I tell thee, I cannot seri e the Turk-
I canno-,t, it is beyond endiuiranc.'" .\gain and. atgan, times

' T ,. ; p. 25.
" /.'. p r. :-'.

I. pI .125.
p p. 4-3.

-j /,.. F. 101.

16 Hi'sori."c / Il/r/V'/.'.

innumerable, there h.is arisc-n from patr;ot: rnksl: the
Homeric hout ::
1 -, ,i'" u i,,.C ,.. .\ :. .-s m ... i- .
'I ,. I. I ,p.. a 7a , rp, i-.t
Heroe, take heart, ,huo'. ,ourelves Grecks '.
Arnd ,e II clre'r out the Turk-.' 4
Nor has this Lben s''r n ronl.!, but in great part donK..
And ) -l \\a--" En.laiied Greece '-i- nof\ re-
strictcd to: thio.: Northlirn and: still Tirl.-rLulil jIri:\ inces
w hnc lice cornme thCi: w :ls.
C. >uch. tOlw:n, as evidlrjencdr L,\ outir GrCLk; Folk-son's,
are the facts oft tlie .aurtvi\l i- \\'istls in l'ai nnini in
:rvy 'ni. iof its -.;serntial characteristics : and I maL add
that n:\whre. perhaps. \\ill th:. r.ander be more struck
i.ith th: abs-nc,.. :fi d]:-itinctivel\ Chiist;in sentiimelnt
than in the 'lOd,:s' for the Fea-sts of tlih Christian
Churchl-. Rcc'ogniivin; these I'icts., e as-k "ith a nic,'
intLcrst \\hat the o'riTin v\as o1 that lc-,:nd ',f tihe.: deith
of PIn W.hiich \-.a int improL,-,baly tr:ll t.: Plutarch
hirnself, as "\C' as to the pri:onage:-s of his Dialogue,'
at Delphi."' anrd htclih has l6c:n seized on with such
av''lit, iv CL\ ri-tian writei.s. :-is at lea.t ia ,istical t p,-
of, if not a direct t:.sinion\ to, the *ov-rthioi. i! of Pa-
..ani,'in. Thi question can hardly, I think. be dis-
nmiissc-d \ith the obsl:-eration that, of the: pa 's-ngers. \'.ho
heard the imyst:rir:ous- \oice. r iiany \'.ire drinking after
sup['er,'" though it may he noted that the stole' \\as told
by a professional Rhetoriciani. Most lictin:s have a
ke-rnel of fact." And, ridin'z one ida\ ,lon-, the sandy
beach na ar Nicropolis-ithii cit'. built t;: coeniminlnirate
that battle of Actiuin \lhich was not only a battle
-: "2 ,1,\.,r, 1. .', :,-. ,', .'., ,i ,;r t e1,:,'@ ,. ].'. \ .. 5 .,.
: Li rally Christlans but -,.e note, Tr .,'. p. :42.
'* 7T .',.. pp. 240, 242 ...'. '. 1.. pp. 9.4 ,:.','.
S6 l'lutarch seem., Ifrm ihati a h hin"self s I1':. r.u 'E;, o;..'1.
tn hiac t beni at DLilphi during' the CEnperor Nero- \isit. in 66 ..C.
Wild \ asc iet cen tie grcat .riti-h c\cle of Arhurian fiction lias
h.cn to, n -.y iM n. kLr. i fer . 'a .4 .. : .1 '; i .'. ,i and iiy-
s'll, (.-t:' :.ii .: L .:,.' ;', *4,1 to ha.-c a c car I.crrnel, not only of historic
fact and probable ii tie and place, but o1 ~.ill li\ing local tradition.

T'hc Srv,''al of J7Pa wns. 17

betv.een Augustri.S and Antrony, but a v.ar bet;,'c u-n the
EaIst and the Wc'et, and a \ict:.r,. th:iugh but a political
victory, of Eiur.ope pc *:r Aia-ridirn, :ilong thil hist.:ric
beach one day, and obscrrving that the landd rf Pa':i
v.as within clear \ icv. of the city v. heri according t to the
apocryphal Epictle to Titus. Paul ieterminedl t.:, ..inter '
-Paul vwThi ,z'.ve a rcligi':Ius victor tr, Asi'- c,.er Eorjpe
-there c'.,:,_rrcd to nmie v..hat I ma\ oflfr as a possible
an'.,er t1. thi.s qui:stir:n a; t,-, the origin of the l.gce:.d of
the diatli of Pan.
ic. Might it nt posiibL'-ol.c it- ori'gn to the en thuriia-tic
imragirIatLiui :If ;Cf .om lon\ert from rF', a: izrn, a prc-:L bter
cf the Pr imiti,:-, if n.it FPa'illine Church o' the:- Citv of
Victory; hit an lEpirte '- ersiLd In all hi: country "'. le,'ernl ,
and particularly ,Ith those whichc h had just betn ui-sd by
Virgil, anld \.h!:chl c':.ns.ecrated to svcrt Rcoman thle n-
'.ironi. ..:.f ald1,;:-:."i-ight it not lpos-.bl\ ov ,: its origi
to the ,poetic fanc of ian ccitatic .icj.llitat:in on the very
sea-beacl Ilong '.xhich I v.as joiirneying, .'i.ntidej the \\ail-
of the Pagian. and nOo':. lonig-ruinte cit ?A" For '..ihat .vwa
originall. but a fable, i-aking a line pelroration to an
edif\ ing disco Ire. v.o:i.uld naturall, get reported a= a fact
that had actually oi' ccurired. Or--till more pro:.babi,,
perhaps-migiht n,.-t ',:,\ ':,rs actually have he-ard Ic,-,o,
l-nthuisiastic co:n ert to Christianit\ i:li a still e\cnin,,
calling out fr..,m the beach of Pa:':i. 'A 'nit/taor-Spread
the tidiij's that th,- great t Pan i- dead!' W\hc-ther either
or nI-ither of theFe t v.,:' i.-rppoition3 be accepted, I velntu.re
to think that it is, at lea-t, important, '.ith reference to
the orikiln of this story of the- death of 'an. to note, nut
only the Pagan coi-,nscrat in tiof the scen,:'s : f it. buit-, lihat
lha:. not, -or far as I am av.are. hitherto ibeen r ited in tii;s
,, See for n. dir cul sion of the que-.tion as to thie .'*iniering of Paul 71L
N copolihs. i:; .N.'N, C"- :e,.', ni: ,?'., pp. \,X .ilh '.Ivfi.
*i- Sc- 1-.';a p. p.p .
in in the beginnir; ao the fifth century Ni copol;s wa.i plunderid by
the G(oths. It ;a. siill, hol".' cr, in the ii'ih rcrnury), he cap;a.il u.f
Epciros. Eut durnn, tih Feud-il F'riod it loS iti hub.ortlaice, and FPr.-
ve'a, at ihe end of the promonutoy, w.,s b. ilr out ` ri in;.

Hisiltorcal InJtrdeiae'l".

co.nnection-the pro\,irmit. of the \posti:-lic Church of
Nicopolis. Nor is it, perhap:-, less important to note.
along with this pro\imnit. of localities. a synchrnnism of
dates. The date of the repo-rting if thi sto-ry of the
death of Pan is the date also of the Apocalyptic litera-
ture, nf which the grcat masterpiece is the Revelation
-f St. John the Di ine.' Probably, also. as we\'i have seen."-
,:,r at Ieast possibly, it wa-s when he was at Delphi with
the EnIF" eror Nero. in iC. that Plutarch h inself heard
the legend v. which, in his Dialoguc.' is said to have Leen
reported at Delphi. And thel s\nchronism just noted
l.econes especially signihcant v.hen \\e r itlect r:-n \hat
Ner',: \.a;. to that last of the Hebrew prophets, the Seer
of Patmos. n, hen writing hic 'A-.roKec\uartie at Chritmnas.
6.-9c.' Thouih ignoniiniouly\ slain in June, 'S, Nero w.as
h, sonic believed to have taken reful:ule '.ith the in,;s of
the East.' the Kin.s of Parthia and] of .rmeini;a; by
others to- be re'uscitatedl in the false Nero,: \l heo i tabll;hed
himself in the island of Cythnos-, near th-t of Patmos.
And Nern v.a;, to the Hebrew Seer, at once the seven-
headied B;east, and that one moriu particularly of its
headss1 \Slhich \,a.s -as though it had been -mitten unto
Jeath, and his death-rtroke v. is lie-aled' --the EBast the
nuim.nric \aine of the letter' .-.f \ lho-e nanme. Nipwe Kaea'ap,
transcribed in Hel.rev, i_ Six hunldre and srxty and ssi:.ixt''
II. Such was the time. v.hatever ma\ ha\e been the cir-
cuinstances, ,:f the i:rigin i:f thlii' Apocaly-ptic legend of
the death of Pan. But the announcement of the Proee-
I\ te of Nicopollis-if so we miay call the. originator of the
legend-is now kno'v.n bv all scholar; to have .een as
xisionar.' a 'v,.as the re\elati,:n of the Seer of Patmos.
None. hov.ever. even of those writers who have most
cl]arlk pointed r.ut the slurtival of Pa anism in contem-
porar, oer recent Folk-belief. have. so far as I can recall.
: .-I'.,': p. I', n e .o .
:' '- F .'. L *'..':. /, claps. ::. i.-- ii.
1" r,- '\\\. I I.
'' I .'. .:. :*.i;; 3:. V I,: I '..

r', S ur:''i*al i? Paglniz.'s. 19

seriously attermplted to account for this survival. But.
uns.ati;liid with merely establishing the fact. '\e .hall
here endeavour to ascertain the cause. of the survival of
the Aryan Paqavnirn of the West. For the dizco:very of this
cause cannot but ha' e an important lbcarm.i on our \\hole
conception of Progress, and on our theory rroict particu-
larly of the origin. and hence nature and histon\. iof
Christianity. But before proceedingg to investigate the
cause, I must sa soinlethin;, m: le of the fact. This I shall
do in pointing out the rlati':ns :f the scenes ofthc modern
Pagan Folk-songs t t the sites; of the ancient Pagan
Sanctuaries. Foi thus., mmoti pe rfll. oerf erl rIps. than in
any other way, I may bring home the fact that. though
the sacred Oaks lie prostrate, chopped, and charted, all
about them there has nevur ceased to flourich a green
and lusty Copse ; that, prostrate as may be the Gods of
the poets. never to the Deities of the people have their
sacrifices failed : that never
"Fruom haunt,:d isplig and dal.,
Edged .ith prplar pale,'
never have the Nimph '- \iith Iflower-inwoven tresses'
really departed;' na\, that even the greater Olympian
Gods are transformed onl\, and deformedd' in Greek
Christianity. rather than derad -ruined though their
Sanctuaries are: and that ever\r glorious peak or pronmon-
r. As the E v. M.r. To-er mrildl:, puli itr, \\h n ln inrdeicrbini .
the u\t rthr.o. of F'ac.garnIjr [urie te tl-, ile-], heli.fi d on O:ne .f the
mc.t ceienti.- l elelenit in GIle.k m thiolgy. butt at ih.. ame time
had hardly i ealioerl. pe haps:. '...'' 'r .' ;. ;' ,.. ',, . ;.... :.'. -. ;
t 'i. :'.:'s.'- l/i'..: ; ) i ". '" : 1'-, 'i l. ii.. p. 5-
9: C mn'pare hec Chlitiait n poilini; 'i of Father Jehdi.ah v.iih th,:
Classic 'sati us of F.ther Zevs, the Chiiiiain portraits of Chriet ..;ti
the ClaIsic: stalucs of Ap.-:llo: ithi Christian portraits .f the "'hgin
Mar, y itnh ithe Claics iatuca of the v ir:in .\thirna. Christian ait
generall\ po.rr a.,s iq[ Cuds ii pair nign : Cla.h ic art, ;n staitu.A. Lit
a isatue ocf thl Trinity--an .:.d and a 'yung man % nili srr~ll I.rd
betv.crn the:i--iadorir the: (c.lhei Ia \'ieriri-a sitatei proflundly
instructive f,- r tihus. vhi urould urndt-istal.dl .rhy it 3as l ti tihe
b'lie v rs iin ;iIan ii iguied .A l:ah cuintemncid. and c...:lui irecd ih..ir
Christian advr5.isies, a.. plld them from A. a, and e :,li.iicnd ihmr
in Eur.ip:.

HIiscriL' ar In,/r',i,.qe/aO .

tor co.nsecrated of old to alniightv Zcvs. is sacred now
to the Omnipo'tent (nHarnToKMpodT p) r r of ol:d, to the Sun-
god.'Hto., .\pollo. now tc St. Elias i".l1-po EX'ai ; or
to the- virgin Athena (inap8ci'oe), no:\\ to the vir:irin Mary
(f-lar a.yla().'"'

Cr.ossii.ic the lake of loannina, and cimbin'i to a
shlephe:-rd-villaige on the ct,:cp sid: of NMltzikeli-an out-
\\i:rk: of Pindus, towering some three cr four thousand
feet aLbove the level of the lake. itself a thousand feet
above th,- levcl of thl- sea--\Le gain a platform from \nhich
we s ee a great part. and can cojnveniently begin the
description, f te of te irt of those Turkish provirnces of
Grecc: t:o vhich the follorwing Fi:,lkl-snr s Iclong. On
the Noverniber morning on which h I actually mn-de this
ascent. settin, orit on a shooting. e:.:pedition \with the
French Ci-nstul. lIke and mountain vic:re alikc covered
with a thick mist that made our cruising of the- lake a
Ionz and sonmei\\hat anm-:ious \o,\acel. But suddenly. as we\
approached th:- \'illa.e on the first ridge of the mountain,
the sun arose in ulnclouded clorv on the s.umniits of
PindluS, cornin-,- over the Thessalian plains from Mourrt
Ol3rnlpus. Before the all-conquering God the mist
\anishcd from the hollov. of the lake : traces only\ of its
discornfitur:ire \cre: I:ft in diajoiint.-d \\ri:ath. some lying
reluctant still on the hillsides, but most flostinL' swiftly
a\ia ; and all South Albania. or Epeiros, lay clear before
us. irori the Pindus tr the Ionian Sea. I look for the
localities of th, ".l-parTa -TO, 'H-"Hreipov, the Sonc's of
Ep(iros.' And pres-:ntly it strikes ne that the localities
both of the origin and of the sce-nes cf these modern
9? See PoiLtr., Nu.i\ '/.l Mh..:. \....-,;o: and compare the books
of T riiicr- n, of S.ANDLEIS, and of B. SCHI.IIDT, on the 1.'i/js,',-/- ci'r

Tflt St'vi'La! cf Paganism. 2

Songs are identical ith the site and en irons of the
ancient Oracle of Dodona, and Sanctuaries of Zc\s,
DionG, and Hades. A similar (.h.aervation v,: shall make
when looking for the localities -of th,: Songs of Thes-aly,
and of tilt Songs of iM\acedc'nia. Wth: shall find, in a Vword,
that the modern centres of the still charactlri-tically
Pagan Folk-songs of Northern, or Ensaved,' Greece are
none iuth':r than the ruin-couered -itcs of the ancierlt
Sanctuaries of Dodona, of 01 nipuus, and of Sanmothract.
And thus, ever where in Northern Greece, in describing
the country of the ancient Sanctuari.-s, I shall dc;cille
the scenes of the modern Songs.

SE.-.iECTION [.-A.l.'A;I.\.
i. Easil%, in the cleal air, \\e descri, frurnt \here \v.w
now stand, the rocl.y bridle-path over those hills of the
Souliots on the opposite side of the valley, v.hich take;,
one, in a couple of h.urs' ride from loinnina, to the Glen
of Dodona,' "of the hard winters:,'- bet 'th,: beloved of
Zevs."' Suime time before standing here on Met,.I-li, I
had had a week of e:..pluration and adventure- in those
niountains. Arrriv:( at the suinnnit of the rid.;e of the
bridlc-path, \ %e were litli \ivarir.d by a clump :tf fine oaks
that we 'v.ere about to descend to the Sanctuary of that
Dodonrian Zc', 7,-Tari? Father ZeLs, to i\i ulrn the oak 'was
sacred, nut unly because .,f the -.trength of its timber, but
the nourishment of its fruit.' .\ long. ;teep, and winding
SThe tIle site of DUodina ec:nms noi tI: hi.e been pr.,,Ve beyond
dri'putL b. the r.'sults o[ th.I dlgin5s ul ?,l. IM I'.\i Non, Ja set Lirlt in
his DO.'. : /.-.' ...,. Lut jt is instruci'.e ~utll to read Colonel
LE..iEt.S ardALiiucii 'l in support uf his cunje:.ctutail sitL o.f the ci[, of
iDodoni oGi th, hill of Kiastr:a, and of the temple of DudJona on the
rocky peninsula of loannina, the former to the ide' of, and the latter
facing Mll Ikcilli. whichh h=- identlii s aJ\th Tuiarsr., pointing out that
the name Is 1uill preservSed in the adjacent village, called Tonmarukhrjia
(\X'rti'lr/: UG '.'.'i. IV'C. .., pp. liS-:oi ). Compare al U PoLL t.L'. 1LL L,
C',axc, iae'/: '-.
.1i. ig' t 6\".pl ('ul' ^'. C. .55. 3'uwit t H L -pV p'^ '''. I'.
xSi. 234.
i3 1I, Zii'; ip9\llni. HE'IOD, ap. Schu l. in Soph. T,a'.:: ', I16 4 See DE. GLU .i KN,\Ti, .1/Ji:. c '- ,j /P''.:;..s, t. ii.. '---9.

II's.'0J7cfl1 J,:fi v.luc/.'on.

descent brings us dov n to a retired glen. W'e ride up to
walls of great stones, nicely fitted to each other, but
uncemented ; and of which the f-\:' courses thnt are still
standing form a quadrangular space on an enminence jutting
out from the hills. We dismo:unt, and climbing along the
walls, presently take in the holee scenic, and find it worthy
of its fame. East and west runs the glen ; low are the
hills to the north. \whence w\e ha\e come; but over them
rise. in the distance, the summrnits of Pindus. To the
south, to our right, therefore, as w\e look -astward down
the glen. towers up the great mass of Tomaros-now
called Olytsika-Lbctween 4,000 and 5,000 feet above the
iveol of the dlen. v which is itself some 1,5oo feet above the
level of the sea. This is the grand feature of the scene.
Abuov. the \illa.ges on the lower slopes is a fringe of the
primeval oak-forest. And abo',- this again a long range
of grandly precipitous heights.
2. For the ruined and razd lat-r TenmpI.k:- much. but
for the primitive Sanctuary little, restoration is required.
It w.as probably but a grove, o:f oak of a somewhat
grander size on this emine-nc,:e, with a fountain springing
up under their giant branches. Richly mosaic'd, indeed.
is the floor of thick Temple. ',it its pa;erment is only of
rough stones, covered with lichens and mosses; or of
gracses, V itl wildflowers interspersed. Rich gifts also
ad.orn its altars. But they are only the first lfiwers :of
spring, or first-fruits of autumn, or firstlings of the flocks
and herds nourished by these. Music agitates or soothes
the soul in this Temple. But it is the music only :f the \ind
itself on those sacred vessels of metal which commemorate
the origin .:.f ne-w powers over Nature and Man : or the
music of rustlin.:r leaves, and tinkling waters: or the music of
thundcr-tolts resounding through the re-echoing moun-
tains. And lght fills this Temple with jo.y and darkness
makes it the abode of terror. B1ut its light is ouly the
s A ery inrterest;in deisription of a picture of the temple of Dodona,
with its gari'rnded cal:, and .olden dcve, its. .:horal dance sacrificing
priests,and ministcrng pricse;ies. is giecn by PHILOSIRATIUS. /COn.
1. ii., c. 34, and is cited by LEAKr. At. I: n *: G.l. p, \cl. iv, p. 199.

Tk: Srri'i',! ,." P ,,nis..s':. 23

Star of our Earthly Day, or the Golden Lamps of the Day
of the Universe. The Temple itself is at once Temple
and Divinity. And the hymn that its priestesses chant is
but a first simple xer'e of that which e.ery prophet alnd
poet adds to, and renews-but a verse of the eternal hymn
of man's worship of the divine ensphering Hcaven, and
the maternal nourishing Earth.
2;... Z,:..2 'nr, Z '." '.,' ;, .' i.; ,\i Zi" !
I'., A J) "..: air... ,', i :\,r.;'ir \. .o p ir.i i' "'
Zevs wias, Zev. : is, Zev's ill be. O great Ze's !
Earth bringeth forth fruit;, thert'fore call Earth Mr-.ther !
3. But the Sanctuary of Dodona \%a.. only one locality
in a .sytctm of Holy Places which h together localh.re all the
chief ideas of the creed of Aryan Pa-animm. The Glen of
I)odona was the Sanctuary cf thl Pcla;gian G.rod of the
Upper.'.orld, the Sk -o, the Sun-ycd, Diespiter. Zt ;
TraTip. Diaushpiter. \\'ith hinm was joined Di6ne, but a
feminine form of Zevs IZet)i, gcn. l.;de, and thi naine
under which. hi the I'Plasgianz of Dodona. the Earth-
mother, Fri ti'rr;p, Ai,u I;/Tqp, was \,orihipped.' And the
deep and dark ravines of Souli vcrc the Sanctuary of
the Ged -f the Underworld. Hades. '"-Aci, "A '',ie', 'i-''o-
rev';,' the Dis l; en. Diti-' oc" the Pelasgians of Italy, and
the \'edic Aiti, the Earth considered as the Rec-ptack.
of the Dead. And just as, to the north, the strath of
lornnina is like a forecourt to th,: Sanctuary of Ze\s; so.
to the south, the Acherutian Plain, with its livers of
6 I'.AU .ANIAS. . ii. 10.

3 Srp.u-o. \i. 3-'9. The Diond of lte Pela;ian; of Doidona "a.;
afterwards identihed Ulth the H'r' of the Pela-giins of Pelopon-
nesus. 1H "Hjn. ._k...iq -ri. ai. ., ur.,r... (Schol. c.'./ in. 91 ; and HILrdL
would appear to be dereed from the old GCreek 't'o, the Earih.
E The proof of this is to be found, not merely. in ancient writers, but
in e.iistirn, facts. Two churches within, and two al Glyk) and Par.I-
mythia, entrances to, the mountain- of Souli, and thus no Iev.er than
four-ne.rly ll--the Souliot churches, are dedicated to .Av '*-.. under
the but slightly changed name of .\i a..'.ire. '.A;,.: -i.r'ir.g: i And the
legends attaching to At' Donato both a' a person and as a place-the
most remarkable, perhaps, of the latter bein- preserved in the first of
the Folk-songs given belo.--these legends are all ot a dJstinctively
Hlades characicr.

His/o'ica1 L airaH / .U/ ./,on.

Achdrcn and :. 6kvt-,'.' -is the forecourt of tI-he Hou'Ics
of Hale;.' To thij fo,recourt it .-:as that Od.Ysevs drew
tlihe Ghost of the Dead athirst for the blud :,of his
;.acih(ice-;: and here it wa? that pase-:-d. aIccoildiln to
Pauianinac,' thei- whole do the- .Aonderfiil. and often most
p-ithet],, -.,cne_ of the Eleventh B13:.,k .:'4 the O.115..r'.
For c e hr con!d penetrate t-:, the I Housi e of Hades'
itself. "pale fear .:at hold o1 OdI'' . :-.-t ti: hi;h
,i,,,e : Perwiphi'ine hlio.iuld .end hinm the head of C-orgko,
that .ieead ,nu:.ti-r, fri:'imi oUt of Hade-.'i2 The intimate
co-iirnclCtion of all the-e Ilocaltics. and the re-ason of the
distincti'-cli ;\ stemiati: character of .-\r;an Holy Places
_enerall; ha- not hitherto. I L.elic-e. been p..inted cut.
BLut h;re I can onl,. indii:atc the ras.or' ini tug:-l sting
that it i; I_-.iicctc.t d with that chAr.cterlitic r:,at.':'.t_ of
.\ryan coiincelti.o-nsi which ha ; cauriedi Aryan ther.il-._y t: be
alv ay; Trinitarian," and :0, tile antithel- ,:-, that Uni-
tarian Semitic thel:i.:y in v. lich God is represented, a.
the al ut.. One. Yahi\ eb. or Allah.;"
4. The A.-\cherian Plain, .:f old thie county ',:.-f the
The-,pro.tilan-., v;itli it; capitall PIand,:sia, on an cminence
in the middilc of tlih plain, -tCnld t.:. the sca. On a
conical il:.ck, ;.v.,pt i.:.nnd by tlich .aes, i th citadel of
the- famous Pari-- from v.hich comiie s-o man' of ,'ir
Son.,-, anid v.hich ''.as prr.baLbl fiinnded, about 133,:
by inhabitant-; tf the ancient Toi-rijn IPal.t.o- Pargal
gathering,' abI ut the sanctuary o) f the Hpr.a-raghia

S'1 here '.c.m ri o r,-.i-iior., uo Juubt lth:t the Curla, .:n r ..cr of Suli,
is the,. .:.' .:. -e i ''.7 -, ih .- .' of aiilro.ii . amd ih,: ;rc:a mnardh
,or lake beloi' .iasmi the .-l .. .*l; ... he ,couir- of the .\ch.di-r
l iirh i ih thih I 1 le in I Ih I L *',* .:ci r.'- s perfeciIl' v .ith th-i
Tetini'.n:,* of Thu.:', liid b., I ., [i.i .nd Sn Ib-: i- .ri the dJ ; r ree-
;Iblc I.l,'r ,--f the 1 l i.. ks. i i e i ncln d by Ir is rl'is. LF..\Ki .
.'. ;., , ''.t ,. v,, I, i.'., p. 5.3-
SI. \ i. 5.
UTI r t iTC'r: nd L. i'.. i: .-'' p. i' .
A; it) t e im lliIL:In I ., e-i the A\rv, n N-.,-Platon;c, ind that
riilonitrou; hybrid the S iniri:' Chri"nir in Tinimty, ste 'ii',i pp. ;6-8.
u See lurii-,i ith r.': ,rd 1o ih: mudit: of c.,nccI icrhie-! char.ctierislic
of the Semntc and Ar.'.in races resp-. ti.'cli .'W, Pp. 54-6.

T,.c S...'.',-::/ .' ,/P .,:im'. 25

Virgin. The v\.:sterr side of thc plain is bLouni,-dd L,
the hilly, and nov. IMusihm-peopled, district ex.-,tnding
t.:, and beyond, the ancient ThYarnis and modern
Kalarnas. Thlis .i, io i old, thre -outhern fr,.ntier of
the ,":,untry of the Chaoniian;,'" v.itl K.,rl.,ra iCorl'l,
imaginati.vely identilid xitli the, H mrn eric Si::.l \\i, ..r.:
dvelt tih PF'licacianis."- lin. o.ff Its couaSt-line. Andl as
the v. andring h, r icu .:,[ the ,IiL)y lands i.n the ThFi.-
prot:in ShI:re. rF\ t's \r, i'S.vect Haribour,', io,\ P.rt
Fanarii. the vandrirng h.: of tlhe -Ln;'. lands on thie
Chaonian shore at the ay o.f Pal',ds i't Vi-t indr,.i, near
the ancient c:itv of B i utrintloi.'" Acc;'rdin]' to
Diony-ius of Halicarnissu,'-: .Eneas, landing at Amiiracl:-..
nol- Arta, j:utiir ,d to Dldona. v.-hile i:i s.nr Ainchi;e
sailed on vhith tl'h~ IlC.t ut Buliro:,turn- \.lher: .Eneas
rejoined them. .Lut \\lhethcr join'iiurieinm up from l;uth-
roturi, as in the epic .-.f Virr il, o'r do,,,,n tol.ards L;utlh.
rotum from Dodoi-na. as In til le;,enid otf ilnsiusi, the
-cene it'. the pathetic irt vrciv. :'f .En,as v.ith Andr,,-
rnmche, the '.'id.'. of iHe Ctor. rlnay ..ith eqial r I.ason V.
placed i:n thL bank ls of the Th',tnims, near the conllucnce
of tihc stream no:,. called tin. IKrcrinit'ji. And the ruins
called Palka Venetii. and tic: t:,.. n .f Fhiliatefs--Jicil
:enms to: prcr'.i a reliilnicnlcncliC f the inam-e-ue ma','
identify with thl: Ne,'. Ilion. said to: hae been founded
Lb H illen-Us. and :.f 'i hilhli tih actual .:.i-t,-ncu is attst-..d
by Li'.y. and the Tale, s -'f Peltitingc:r.'
5. Lut novi--after this round through the n-i:.untains
of Dodc.na. do'.mi bi tlii:: Ache ron-Gur-lt Ia to the sa, and
up by the TIh'arriis-ilaiIrni.s, and the Ne. Ilion to
luAiinnin a-ain-let me di-.cribce v. lit lies at our feet das v.
stand here con a ride cof Mclt:illi. The ;at stra"li of
loaninrnia \'at of old the country of the i',olussians. and,
SB i,,iP:. ,'i ,,' ..7i.7i 1, -t..- T I CLiC' , it 1 24.
See \\EL L .:E A'-/".' ,....,'.., iP. 0 'J,L'. '. :,v .. .. '

a2 .';:a.'i. R,K ,. l. I, c. 50.
'1 See LEAi-E., v..':',"'v. C.'.:,, ~ol. i... p. i6 ri.

Ills/c,' lcal Iu.'ro, wdwn.

at a still earlier period, the man,-peopled, Ilock-and-berd-
covered, harvest-abounding land of Hellopia, described
by Hesiod-''- the original Hellas itself, according to
Aristotlec--the country of the primitive Selli, Elli,
Hellenes, and Greeks.:' South-eas.t'.,ard, it bends to Arta
and the Ambracian Gulf, on one side of which is the
ancient Nicopolis and modern Pr \ez'a; and on the other.
the promontory of Actium and outside of the gulf is the
learning Ionian Sea. \with its islands of Levcadia, and
beyond it, :,n the far horizon, Ii:phalonia. The town of
loi:nnina probably owes itc origin to refugees from
Dodona, after its destruction by the Goths. under Totila,
in the sixth century 1.551) ; an its name it certainly owes
to St. John the Baptist. wxhom its founders chose as their
patron. Its bishops sat at th. Council of Con.itantinople
in 879: it was tal:en in Iix.i by th Norman- Beheiinond,
the bLstard of the great Robe-rt Guiscard; and in 1431 it
surrendered to the Turl:s. On the inland slope of a high
and roccky promontory is the walled uppe,,r quarter of the
city; and this magnificently picture:-sque promontory,
crowned former by the C tle of th Cete t Lion of loannina,'
Ali Pasha, n-ow bears at its highest edge his Tomb I.S6-2).
beside the marble-columned,_ mosque of Arclan Aga.
I-Iaxin's, ever before nmy e\tcs, in tlie nunnrv at IoAnnina
where I lodged, the stupendous v all of MIet.:ikl-i on the
other side of the lake-, much had my curiosity been ex-
rit-d to see what was at the back of it-Zae,-,rie,"''1 hence
come nany of our Epirt-te son. gained the summit of Metzil: 1i, in our shooting expedition,
the French Consul and I looked down on a vast amphi-
theatre of forested mountains. descending l to a bottom at
=0 Ap. School. in C 'PH. Tri,::',. i"f..1.
S.I-.''.-..'. i. 14. But according to -Homer the name of Hellenes
wa; origin.-lly applied to thl inhat-,iianrs of Snuthern Thessal', and
the 'Phitide r,.'. ii. 6 ). iimncr himsellf as is eell knoun, calls the
Greek; Ach.t-ans. as these "ere, in hs time, the motI numerous; of all
tie Hellenic tribe (". i .S1 ; ix. 141 : ;;I. 251.)
F: or a disc.: -i,:n of the deri\ 3iinns :nd meanings of these names,
see M AUK ?,.':.:,n r a; ,'. G ...',7,*.*;:'.,', r. i pp. 3 30, te-.t and note..
A Slav name. me-inmng f behind the Mountain.'

7j'lc .Sr'P/v1Ia.cz- s.

a profound depth v. ith a rmid,.a'- .:one of scattered
'illagecs, and with. apparently, no means of comrrunic.a-
tion with the outer world d save. oer the trackless mountain
summits. A northern realization this out-of-thef-vorld
world seemicd to be of the Happy Valley of Rasselas,
Prince of Abyssinia.
Sur.-SECTITON II.-Ti ir- I..
I. From the [plain of loIinnina, the land, as we have
seen, of Hellop[a. and the primitive country of the
Hellenes, it is a long da\'i inmore comrnrnonly a day and a
hall's journey. up the hills adjoining Mlet:il:eli; down their
long and steep descents: aiong a succession of glens:
through their meandcrin' s3treamr times v.'ithout nunmbetr:
then again up lon-g ,'inJin-; ascents: and so across the
broad mount.in-spinc- of P'indus. \lach Shepherdes-cs
are among th most prominent figures in the Erotic and
Humouristic sections of the following Songs; and a \vc.rd.
at leazt. may be said. in pass-in.g of the Capital of the
scattered coninunitiesof the C i-Danubian Roumanians.-'

: Froim thl-e third ( to: th, thirtentih century (i:::\ t.
have n,. direct hi-tor.cal ef ;denice of the c..rtence, in Rour.ni.i. :of
ROLiiLaniaris. WV.rse dill-at the inrmcr dart they are mntniriron
ord.l as being ,.0;..' m 'r .,um- a.rnr.,. \\ hence had the) courn
hhen, at the latter diate, ,c Frid a.;jn. inr Roumania, Roumani:n: .
For more than a hundreJd '.ear: no-v hiz ,iJc:iion as to tie ,:.r, i
of thl l.ouinanrianr hi b,:n dch.ted ; and among the chiLc in'--
tiat.'rs of the problem mrna bt named '1huinmann (1774'. Sulzer
(i;3 Engel ( ,: ). i...-siler t i-i'. Pic (i .;;.. and Slavici ( 1:~ ii.
Acc.'rding to uie the.:'r-r- r h it mn .t b:e adi]i tied, of the major.t% or
thrie German %..riteri-ith:e r:ouLian;.ris did actually d;sappear Ir,:.m
Roumania, emigrtr;in. thence "hen Aurcliar. created hi. Ci lanubian
Dacia 1 270-75 ; and inmiglrating thither oi l;y :h.tly before ic hi,.e
documentary evidence i:.l [ii.in _-i-in in l :.r m-.i'n (1222). Accorli...
to the '.ther thcury-that, naturally, :f the rohimanians their niels
-ihere ca.s never a general immigration fr.:.m Trans-Danubian D.icia.
noti nhitanding the *-.rders of .\urclihn and hence, the urigin orf the
Roumar,;an; ;n l'ourn.inia is to be tr-iccd ltc ri other gener-il irr.r';-
gratir.n than that of the ,.',. ..':/. ..-.'pr of colonists ex i. .. ":
undcr Traian (j06). The Il"-auimiJ;ans- Iiha.e in- them not improb.-bly
some strain., at least, f the blo,-.d of the ancient Thira.:lar --and
D.iciian. See .'./,.' (p. 33., th re-peci to the connections of the
Thracianr v iii the Tr.uj.ns. and possibly ith, ithe Teutons.

2S H/ois/c'.ra! I Jutt/audwl.

lThs is ?,1..:.o o. the surpasningi p[ictuiresque Metropolis
of the \Mool-ntrin' It v.as founded b\ 'V lach shepherds,
l'o, in tie, six.teer nth ceiintur.. L-capingl from, Turkish
tvranin in the plains ofA Tlc ssal--no lh_.nr'er a semi-
independent i Blh',. ', B\nnaXa, Great VWa'llachIia--sought
here to p.rc:,-i. thc-ir freedomn. And froia Mhc>:a'o it is
but tvo, hIoiir-fir-t d.ol_.. n a stccp dciccnt. and then iup a
I:;:ng aci-nt to th- l.nl-Il:c inmmit. neck, ,ory .'-
aiii azin;i. n irro,. coinsid.e-rinii that it hIi. been the giat of
so mnialy invading horde:, anid iriiies- p.as-'ing from
Thc:-sSalh into Illnia, :. r fron Ill;, ri into Thessali-the
Z7' ..', fro-m v. hicli. ,pi-,ards of 5,'C:"--I f:ct abol:\; the -ea,
w-eo I. oi.: yv. ri on the firt of thi three ,great disi ions of
The-iai!. the ling and l e,\cr-v.idenirin' glen of the FPnci'i-S,
.and sice afi- o%.'t the eastern plain, tCe -Zin.ll.nut of
O1il', nis-nti-of chi. the bu~-in birtliplace, and di inc home
of tl"'- OI .ii pian Gods:; aind, in our ..', the clief foi trcss
of Frei-_do, and cradle :f Folk-song: ini Nortli!in Gr:ece.
2. Thi-roih encuaintin. forc:t-.elade,. \ie ride dov.n
the ..IlI (..f the Pene's._j to thI'..o' .o d-i lful .:iilHs, lIeTC'wpa
A oid 1 t, o-n v-liich the MJet..-ra M:rinatcric3 are perched-
tho:i-' cliff: il ,ich form oi e si ;de of the -;ateit into the
plains .:,f Tlies sal,-, And the beauty,. yet Won-ider aid tcrro-r,
of which hav\', in ,our Folk-.iong;. :itrt iched t one ..f thei,
the intir'tain-roc!.: of \'arliani iBot -' 7,, I,-A\Cii;,ui,. a
story y of a nu1ie-iie-.ded Drakos. I pa--.cd the nil.!t .it the
Turkish guiard-lou-e, of KI: :ca-V"isi ICold Foiintaitii, l.so
iiiCntiorTi-e in c..r Sn:,rL... And nc\xt da,, when. ifter being,
hatiled up ,. fl:,:t throw cii the air to the cloisters ,_f tihe
Great ?letL-. .ron, I consilered the p,:rition of thee: Morinas-
teri,-e.it truck ,nic ac a rather rcimarikable fact that between
the riincd arid ,l]zcitcd Sanctuari-s. of Greek Paganism
-hbet.'ccrn L.'odlona and Ol1n pus, and between (Ol) npus
and Sa. mothrace-there should ihae chbinced to be ,es-
ta-lisihed the chief, th..,ugh nov. declining. Sanctuaries of
Greek Chritianini--b.:t'.,.Len Dodona anid Oll nipus the
-: .mori. other r. ivii of C.i.'ar, after hi_ failure against Pompey
..t D r nachium, anid Lci.re l s ictcr; at Pharal.:ia. 4: t.C.

T/'c S.'/:':al of Pia7g :,:s,:. 29

Mid-air Monasteries of the 1letiora Cliffs. and tbet\\c:n
Olympus and Sainothrace the Herrnita.:.,e Convnits of the
Holy Mc.untain. Nor remarkable onl s-eeved thi fact.
but instructive the relations thus obs'.rved. For Hi-storical
Monuments are the telephonit M and phono.gr.ph by Uvhic:h
comurn itiei t .f mnr Il transmit thlLir \voice. to their f':1l owv
across the a1by-sss ofI Tilm:. Thi:.s \.i:ics, howt-cer. need
Gcnerall- to he sonmehov. nlagniied. so that \e nia hear
the-n. Nothiri, mi n:irifies like c:onitrast. H,-rnce. noting
the top.',graphical ruilations of tlhee M\etcora Monasteries
-between Dod:onaa and Ol rmpui -did make.:t their \oicce
auJible. Theie Mid-air M onateries are materialized
utterances of social d,:spair and discasE'd acpiration.
What else coi:uld have urged mnen tu_ the deadly perils .'f
scaling their inaccei-siblc prccipice- the prodii.ious
labours of crLi.n indmt thli'-r untroddlen summits ith iJidmed
and pillaged churchc"s. and i lleried and clcist,-ri d con-
vents And when we turn for erificati n ,if '.'ht \.c
se:em to ha\e heard to the hi-str'ical facts '..f the tine. and-
the circumstances .of thel builidA in mid-air and peopling
of these Mioinas-teri :, ive gain fulliet a i;surance that \.:
have not miis.heard their \uice ."'
3. As \e round tle caste rn horn, i.c,o fc:.t hih. of th,-
crescent-shap:d rancg of the preciFice s on v.hich the
Convents are -prched, and *:ome to the !illag e of Kala-
'' A. rnmausc-rpt. di:ci.crd an.d translate:d Ly MI. Htirt'.' i-'L i
C C-. r:' n '.,''iC.. Ai : .. .-. .J .. llarrch. i.-r. ;i.es us
an i-nvaluable detailed account or the Wjur dation of it'ic:. Moina.st:rri,
and pa'tircil-rly of thai of the great Alt ron. in the fo-.urteiv th cen-
tur:. and of their hlitor' up to ihe mriddle of thce -i ,enih -enittry
Nov., in its politl:ail -natchy and oci Al nviery', the iourteenih century
the century of the foundation of thes- Moinatenries, has nt South-
eastern Europe h:liAt the ,ighchil century had been to N.nrih-v.-teern
Europe. Fuor it ua. the ccrtury ol the iL tin Kin.m dur,', Pri.:ipalitieC.
and Dluchics. into v.h;ch the Greek Empire had been irtnnioned: the
century of the encroaching Sla" Empire of Stephen i;.1han (io,0i
on one side ; and on the oth:r. of lthe c:atcndinI OIttoman Elipire
of Murad I I'36o), presently Lt be established at Adri noFple I[ -n
and soon at Thes Falonica (i j.-). And hunted and harried the -;reeks
also now \ere by thoce sea-arnd-land-robbcr.-pirates and brigands-
the vermin ever bred by political anarchy.

H~I/iS/tV hl/ I/r~;oilllc/Wt~ L.

baka,' a magnificent view suddenly opens of the vast
Plains of The--aly. through which the Salemvria. or
Penei-s. henccfornard slows till it reaches the Olmpian
derile of TcmpL. A perfectly flat, unbroken, prairie-like
expanse of corn and pasture-land is the Wectern or
Upper Plain of Thesalv : and at the ex:tremity of a ridge
that juts into the plain from the Cambunian Hills. that
are its northern boundary, one descries t:ih ancient castle
and town of Trikka (Tpi'KKchl. which the Bl3zantines,
changing a name which had cea:-ed to have sion;licance
into one that had i.ig.nificance, turned into Tril;aln, the
'Thrice 'beautiful.'2" The Plain of Trikala, or of Upper
Thess'ly. is separated by a low idgc of hi:s fromn the Plain
of Lower The-taly, orof Larissa, which stands in the mid-
dle of the prairie on the flat southern bank of the PeneiCs.
Historic and song-fained Tirnovo is to the north : historic
and song-famed Armyro, Dumoko, and Pharsalia, to the
south-Pharsalia, the first of the three great battlefields-
Pharsalia (48), Philippi (42), and Actium i;i)-of the
tragic Trilu.gy of the Roman Civil "Wais-the fir-t here
in Thessaly, the second in Macedonia, the third in Epc.ir'3s.
To the east of Pharsalia, and thus in the south-eastern,
mountain-encircled corner of The-:slyv. vwas the Phthio-
tide, the Homeric Hfllas, the land of the Ach.eans. the
kingdom of Achilles. As the \western boundary of the
Thessalian Plains is the range of Pindus. its eastern
boundary is the range of Pelion, the chief seat of the
Insurrection of 1878, in which Mr. Ogle pcrished-killed,
or murdered.29 Running down into the lMagnesian pro-
27 Kalabaka was the scene of the besung victory (Tri;. p. 254)
and ignored rout of the Greek Invasion of 1854; undcr ihc name of
Erdyot it was the seat of the L;jli-.,pric that s.*j long conicrndd with
the Metdoron for supremac:y over the adjoining herT'ha,;e and
monasteries; and it was idinilicd by Colonel Leake \iti .Eginion,
where the junction was efftcied beivw,:n the for,:es of lulius C:car,
which had come over the figos l'.ls. and tlhore of hi~ lieutenant
Doniitius before the biatti of P'iharsali-.
':T Many similar .har;e3 might bh in-tance.d in Enrghnd.
\\l-etier killed or murdered was a quclion debated still with
e .rraordir,- ry pa-_-ion. %iher I '..as at \olo at', Chrin t ,ias. 18 o-- $.
S,-,roe l;rnie bcif:re hi- death I ha.d made Ite aC.:quainiance of Mr. Ogle
at the Sclavonic Athens, Ra, gu.a.

Tkc S:tr-i',al of Pagan':sm. 31

montory, the PIel:on range enc:loti:ss the P.Igasa n Gulf,
wheinc: Jason sailed : and into 'whi rh once morre will a
"Golden Fleee"' be brouzit to Vllo, the anJcint lo cos.
and future 'Liverpool of Greece.' Thei nolthi:rn and
southern boundaries -.of the Thessalian Plains are the two
great mountain-ribs. as it '.ctre. -'_ that nountain-back-
bone of Grce-c,:. thc range :of Pi'l.. It is thle southern
mc.untain-rane; that. in the \Vetern I'lain, is the moic
beautiful: the nortliern, in the Eastern Plain. The
former are the mountain. of Othr s. andi th:.r' -j AC~,iapha.
so often mentioiiJed in our 1lKkphti S.on ;;s and the beauty
and :zrandcur of their mistil\ blu: anid se.rratel J all is, in
Upper The-.saly'. a perpetual enchantment. But in Lov.:er
Thessaly I it i thei nirth rn rangl: that alone attracts our
c .c-; f:.r thlit, here, i the Shiniln; One.' the sublime
Olyml puls,"'" not an enchantment only, but a religion.
-. OlmiFpus belong:,; equally to two modern Provinces,
to 1to prluniti\i Per,:-opih ., aLnd to two orders of Gods. Its
vast ranIge at. :tends fr:on', thell d:f il of Temp6, which sepa-
rates it from the lmaritnie range of Ossa and P.lion, to
the detilc of the Saran.liporos, which separates it from
the inland range of tIhe Canibunian HIills. Its south-
%Western and landlard sid: belongs to Thiss;aly, it. north-
easternl and seav.ar1 siic to Macedonia. On the Lower
Olynipus. toward.- the defilt of Temp':. I spent a week
with 1 bLoar-hunti, I, part% ; -on the Higher Oly mpus, to-
\wards tlhei lelf Iif the Sara nd,-poros, on both its landward
andrdSealiarJ sides, anm in the adjoining hills, I spent six
,weeks with a brigand-lintihg expedition. Most strnkigiily
dir.:[siilar I found the as.pLctl of Oliij Fpu s on its T'h.: a-
lian aind Macedo:ni.-ii. its Ilndward and seaward sides-
the hoime-ftields each. rof ol., of a diff.rtnt race of Men-
the t:-nple--precinclt each iof a differentt order of Gods.
On it. Thessalian .id. and especially towards the Saian-
daporos., Olympus rises in mightit\ line,; steep and bare,
from an ard and desolate plain. On its Macedonian ;id.,
and especially\ towards T,,nip. Olrympi. to.'ering over a
-" i,. -ir.-a'rFpe ii .'I le rler.ed ifr-.. \ ,i-... See CURTnus, Grund-
J i ,- ; .' L .w....'... .- .. ........ ."....LS. b. i., s. 3 .

3 / Hi;/ori'cr If!roll,'!n:.,n.

ploriou7 sia.-plain, riisc- clothd vith oa:k -ind] pine fo.rests.
South of the abysmal rent that se.ers it in two is the
forest of KallipeuctL. through ., which the lgi,,ons of the
Co-niul Philip forc-d thcir v.:ay, andt turnl.d the position
of Persevc. Kingz of Nacedonia, on the l'i:an Plain; and
north of that sublirnmly '',v:'-ring ravine is the Pierian
Fo-rcst. dc iling thrl.ou'c.'h hic.h. by the. pass of Petra. the
youn.; Sci pi: a-ain turn'd- the po.-ition :f P'rs-\ s, \ ho
then. retiring b-:firc the uni-iti RIoman force-s. suffir-c_, at
P!i.dna a d,':teat \ which inc::orpm:rated- Macedonia in the
R...man Empire. Such are s* .me r: the historical
in..rno ri,:s of th.: Olympian Forects;. Dut, lil:e a Zc\..
with lover limbs only clothcd. Olympus sh.-'.\ a breast _of
which h the naked heiOht% holdF pcriannial -nno:va in their
creTices, and a brov dia-lerneid \ith marble'- pe-akc that
*i -am in the empnr:rian to,..i feet abo\;. the s a.
5. Such is the mountain, .r rather the inmoijntain-ranric
-the uncIn:luerrl hone uf Free'iom. and crad]L of Full:-
son-: in Noithe.rn Gr'.ece. Put, As I ha\e Said, 0lyimpus
.as. o':f :ol]d. the seat tof t\vwo IRac,::s c:f Men and the sanc-
t.ari of t-.v._ Order- of Gie.c These t\v.c: Race- \v.eri:- on
its south-v',-ctern. inland, or Thes alian sidt:,- the Pelas..i an
'PerhaebLans ; and on its northl-eastcrn, miaritimre, and]
lacedo'nan id,.:. th, Thracian Pierrians. Thracians and
Pelasiians-these are the th o Rac,:es .. : constantly en-
countcr at the oriiin of Hellinic history. What part had
they re.pectively in the formation and ed-lic3tio:n Af the
Hellenic: tribes', ve-ry mi.ed as the-e certainly v.cre in the
source s bth .O'f their blood an'd of their culture ? Can the
t. 'o reat rmiodern Races _f sternten Eur.ope--thu Teutolns
and the Kilt--bc connucted.- with either of this.. t"o
great primit'r.e I-ace; o:f .ArYan Eu.iroppi ? May the
Teuton, for instance, beli:\er that tlhe ancr::ient P'ieri:min (.of
: The topo;:r:,plical detailed ol thi; Ifimou5 c imrpa.'.i ais ivei\ n .,
Li'y ,i"lit.i. hate been adniir.,bly ,.orkel out by M. IHli .ZE, .I ..;,'
SFrequcnI'l in our Fctlk-on;s her moutrins of Northern Greece
are chariclericz d as: i,..,l.'.- .. I ...
i The s-ICI he.ht of l r o r.n-, .-':ccordin7 lto the A.1mnir:aly chi.-irs,
is 9,5-54 eei.

The Surva' off Pay:isn:.'

the eastern side orf COlyilmnpl '-and the Kelt, that the
ancient PerhelA-bans of the eastern si.le '--v*.ez ancestors,
or kinsmen of ancestors ? A\nd niay Tcuton -and Ielt
thus reverence l-01C3 ii, l no't as the birth-land only '.f the
Gods of the Greeks, but as the birth-land of the Go(:i
given to the Greel. s by th,[ ancestor- of Teut.Ln and of
lclt ? Tihes arc questions which can here IL.. .i ni
suggested fti consideration. I can here .rni\ further
point out that, on the Pela:ian side-- of (Olympus, there
was a Sanctuary o:f Zev,- at a Inore ancic-nt Dodi.na :- a
stra:un i ,Ii't fruoni th,- g'cg0 e of the Sarandiporios. to
\which an infin'al cirigin w-as attriblutei : and, at .lrian, a
Sanctuary of Hadl: ;; and that. on the Thnacian idle of
Olympus, theie \'.'w e the Sanctuaries ,o qlte another
orderr of Godr--the San'_tuari.is of Apollo andt thl- IMuss,
and the c Tomb of (Grphlis. : Th, diin: Rc-public of the
P: Dr, l.',r. L.Liu "nL. In ntiue hei I- al kinJy la.c.ured m i. ith,
sa:, that the e rlie.-I reference. S( far a hbe knu: v to the iTeuioric
-inship o- the Thracian;. i3 that b., lorN.'N. Er: in the i'.tih cenury;
after \.lhihn conme- a poern by [:cilIAr.l, the Ge;rmn :n :hol.m and
satrin s cf the sI'.tLenit century, .k, l aim:n Oiphc for rthe Ger-
manic ic.in ,ectin:.. ni t iname \c i: (end of la;t iind bL einnr;i of
thil century, in ti Lehe iedi.:ai n t i, iran ldat iii O1 the /.'. a' ind
C. i;.v. \\i IF H.ir iin l il .i .i ; ,: L' . '. 1 l laborately
argue : l.r thii kinship. The ai me ie.. . upheld by \'.\C t EL,
and b;, i cor ir-n;l.. s in hi; ,: . ,. t .*.i .. .- i'.: 4i. i.
I'rofe.or SCH~L I.ENi .ACK ipubli. hid a FpecLal treatie on ih.: ub. ct.
[I'- T/ ',' ,,," fi:.'" i. :,;'i, L ,; '' .... I._11. i A nd D r. I.i-i.A R
MNONIELIL', in a .1teaf c public e.l in hei I-; .'. '41,
etidiea u,, r; Io l- rJi r that Germanrrii populati.: ii d.el in ith, Danubian
co:untria in the i .lt century r h i th Tiroian. F ere c'.rtainlm y ol
Thra-ian or,.rin, and hb n.-c LIR. LLi CLS sipe:-.-.l c.itribui.n 10i the
c:.ntr:,er-y ia lamo in hi attempt ru pr-o e tihe G- ermanit: .:onnrecLiOn
of the Troin;. S e CHl In in, iti N' i 7u'iR T.. ,' .i..:." 4 i tihe
corrn-spondi ce. in tihe .-1. '. ofl Jan.nd Feb., I 01.4 ; and ho: article
in the Le,p:,- ,1, -a:.',.
2: in ite enlce to th-i. i- poh i- i of a :nriei:e rrn b ii:t'een the iKelts
and ihe I'l'e a. n_, it vould be dei table ihat the hlnguiai t reiaut-i n
of the t..o great KelI: dJialect. Gaelkc and Kiiri.:, t.w Lain. GInek,
and Albinia n. v*ern1 more full., in.erip'ed.
: Called L d.'.r.. ;i the an cnt .-iic d;alect uf the I'erild -ian-;.
Its site, a:iorjir.; t ., ; M H .Li I, ..,', -.'r **.., tp. .'1 .P toa piub.baly
near that of the rnonatieryv of the H.--.I, Trinity
"/.' 1. 3--5 Comp-are Li'C.'.N, ,'..i i. 7
'' IL is a great p.ramiidal maoun, up u.hich one raat inm in the

HIistor"`(7ic Zn/1;vduc/z'on.

Olympian Gods aroe, in fact. from the armed Peace of
the Olympian Races; and as we find a temple of Zev' on
the Thracian side at Dium. \e find a temple of Apollo
on the Pelasgian side at Pythi'on."


i. The two opposite sides of Pindus-Mh-tzikli and
Zygos-w'ere the stations from which we began our
survey (.f Epeir,.,s and ThEss-aly respectively; and now,
from the heights of the Castle of the Seven Tnoers," the
citadel of Salonica. \we shall berin our survey of Macedonia
-of the sites of its Sanctuarie and the scenes of its Folk-
songs. The chief feature of the landscape is oi'Po'r, O%. w7roe,
the divine Olympus, that magnificc.ntly closes in the bay' of
Salonica-the inner reach of the gulf-and makes it like a
vast land-l:ocked lake. Olympus, as hasx been said. belongs
g,c:ographically equally to Thessal3 and to Macedonia: but.
pictorially, it is incomparably grander as seen from the
capital of' MacoeJonia. than as seen from the capital of Thes-
saly. I have. indeed, seen nothing yet to be compared with
Olympus as seen from Salonica. Far overlapping the pro-
montory. no.' called Karlab:urrnoti, v which bounds the bay of
Salonica on the east, and \\here .Eneas founded .:Ena;',4-'
the line of tlie OIl npian range begins w;th tlie sudden cleft
which marks the defilc of Temp,_ between Ossa and the root
of Olympus. From the summit of the cleft the line ,radu-
ally and slightly declines. forming the ridge of the Lower

sea-plain under Olympui. According to PALU:'\I.iS the monument
.was1 a column v. irh a marble urn on the top of ir I '!/. 30o.).,
j Its probable site. a.-cordin to HU7r.uV, is occupied now.- by a
church dedicated to ":.1,'- ; r, ,.,no*;,, St. Friday, and I only succeeded
in bringing? a'ay a Christian in:crption.
Colonel L AKr. (.1 i.'ni : G.'ic,, vol. iii., p. 341). says that he
had "not been able to asc:er3tin the c'istence of any remains' :it
Pythium ; but, in the midst of our brivand-huniin'r, I vwas fortunate
enough to get two or three hours to explore this W\est-OlImpian
Sa.rciiiary of Apollo.
in Greet. E:-rr T .'-.,I.I ; in Turkish. I'-.I.-A' ,',i,'r-A'-t."'is..
2- DIONYS. H.,L., ..'.'!/ '. 1:.*. I i., c. 5o.

The Sur':i'a! of Paganism. 35

Olympus: and frrm the end of this lower range there rises
-to the height, as has been said. of :10,000 fet-the grand
outline of the many-peaked Higher Olympus. At the sea-
\.ard foot r.f the mountain lies the Pierian plain, the
original home cf the MuScs-
1M.-'1.. U '0U\ i.-,i.".' ,. .... I, A yt &iytoxoto ;43
the daughters of Ze'.s and i ncine'synd--of the resplendent
Sky and Memorr,. IHor profi:undly true is this as a
parentage of the Art--a my thic statement of the causes
of PoLes in eve\Ln oe '.i- it; foi:ms !) And away to the
right is the long broken I;ne of the Cambunian Hills-fine,
but withoutt the grandeur :,of the Ossa and Pelion range on
the left. But it is not the grandeur of its form so much
as the amazing and most poetic variety of its aspects that
makes Olympus s-. truly a mountain of the Gods. Some-
tin-is it appears in the ordinary light of a naked moun-
tain-mass. More frequently, however, it clothes itself in
all sorts of ethereal -airbs. Now its summits are hid in
clouds. whilee its sidcs and bascs are clear; now its sides
and bases are slIro.ulded: in mist, while its suirmnits are
divinely brvht ; now its peaks, or even its whole mass, is
glittering in the many-fild. c silver mantle of its snows;
no\v, it is touched \.ith the unspeakably mna'ical li-ihts of
sunr;ie or of sunset, or wIith the ineffable beauty of the
everlasting poem o:.f En.d mir.n and Selen ; and now it is
the splendid and nmale.~tic seat of the Sky-rod's darting:
o:f hi; lightnii-.'s_ ain hurling of his thunderbolts.
2. Such aie the views of Olympus that greet and
gratify eye and soul at Salonica. For nearly a year this
ancient and still rpoploul and mnany-nationed city-of
v.hich the naen wvas changed from Th,:rme to that of
Tlhers;alnil:e in hornour of the sister of Alexander the
Great--v.as imy headquarters; but never did I return
from one of rny '.ariousi expeditions, of many weeks each,
without t being ldehlrhtedl anew v.ith the divine and ever-
varying beauty of Olm01\pu. From Salo-nica and its
IllsLior., T'.' 25.

S 41

36 /:i's',rial IM/r QlW'.[! .io;.

suburb, KallarneriA, conrm many of our Songs. Steeply
the i:it rises from it_ '.va\c-washcd quay, or more
accurately, from the I :a -,.'..a., the old Roman road
from the Adriatic to the .TEigean, which here. tia\erring
Salonica in its whole length, forms its main street. At
the eastern end of the itrect, an': at the I:allamerid gate
of the city, sits, with hi prrirntit'e sort of lute, an old
blind Homer, a rhaps:odJt if theZL FIulk.s:..ronr, n and gene-
rally surrounded by a little crum.'d ,.f hltcLncrs. .t this
gate the walls have lbeen in p:it demolished. in conse-
quence of a sudden and Sh.::.rt fit Q:. Tinrl ish '* npro'c-
ments,'which exposed and destrn-ye,_ many .sci.ilptured
sarcophai. Save, hOi.e' er at tins c2ternt gate, and on
the side towards the sea, Salonica is -till surrounded by
towered and pictures:qut medi--tal \,alls, ,:f liwh;ch the
substructures are of Helleni,:, and e't:n -'elasgian anti-
quity. Only a passing l allusion can here be in.de to the
almost unparalleled number of treat historic Lt\enti \.it-
nessed by these wa:ls-a-i als, aplparcintl retaining tlih
same general lines, Iho\.':cl:r .ar:iouly reconstroIted-
historic scenes extending lback; to the Persia"n occupation
under Xerxes (480 B.C.I. .t the s-ea.cnd of the eastern
walls is the Venetian tfot, and Turl:ih prison, kno'.nn as
the Llo'od Tower. And Il.a ing it, the road along the
sea-shore takes one, in twenty nminutts. to the charming
marine suburb, with it-- appiopriiatc Gri:ck name, Nalla-
meria, 'Fairquarters,' but over-tovi.ered by the Slav-named
Mount Chortiatch-a conjunction of nrme.s siingularly
si;.nificant of the relations oft raics now in Nlaccdonria."'
3. To the west-to oLiiur light, as .\c tandl on the Citadel-
heights-lies the great scav\ ard plain of the Vardar: the
river which was celebrated by Horier nr- tlhe fairest
stream that flows in all the earth.," and of v which the
Homeric and Classical name, '".-le., \A.:rar = Axe or Esk,
is one of the multitude of names that testify to an early
44 Sometimes, h.uje err, lie r ,ii e i.f an in rind to%. n or village is
Greek, while :he p-:pulauo l is LIl2..uiatn, as in the ca-e uf Neclch6ri,
some four miles from SaIL.rii.:
45 0 ii. 850.

T/,'c S:,r!'i'al o.f PLaii. 37

Keltic occupation of Mlacredoinia :and Thrac e. The
term Macedonia I here use \\ith the v.idi meaning i ten
to it by later usta-.'. But originally. M.I cdoni:la was but
the country v.est of the A.xius. andi up to that m ountain-
range of Scardus which is a continuation of th1- reat
chain of Pindus. Her,:- in great upland plains. surrrounded
by wild arid r-cky, miountainrs, and in that particularly of
Pela:,'nia, nj\v Mlonastir, 1,500 feet abo,.e the sea, ;na.;
th. Cradle of the Macedonian Mona-rchy." E:.,tend.in
stcav.ar'], its capital v. :s LstaL'li cl- at Edes .a- noIv..
bccaune of its ;i.:x; ;. called. I 'dil:.: by the SlavC-v.itli
the upland plain of Erithia behind it. and under, and
bef,_re it, the cea-plain in \\i nch the nwc. capital of [Pella
was foundi:d by Philip, the father .:f .le...a:nder tic Great.
A .emnicircular SQeep of bilis b,'urunds thi.: plain to: the
south ; and theI Bcitrlhca I\Vcrtnai .-f St. Paul i arron,1t tl'i
towns built on their dccliviti-. A stalacn;mtic cacern at
the cl'ot of the hill; between \Virria and NiaCouta-the
anciiLTt lK:!',..--v.ith a foiuttain near it. and with a l,.-,ri;ous
view ,c.\er theL br',:ad plain to PIlla, may' :- ide, n tificd.
by a pazaze in 1linr,. v' with the cave t,'' w.hic.h Arist-otli
often retired \ith his ,_,ounig pupil, Ale.an.Ier. It is
called I-'..:-S5.tir:.. ha'.i ig. L[cn madc into a sort of
church. Its memories. I c-nture t_. say. make it wort hy of
a nobler c:onsec-ration. Behind these hill. '.th thi r mr..t
augu t and sacred cave in their northern face. is tih '.alley
of the Haliacmcn:n. And at .Eani v.e enter the rc:-ion,
already described, of the Holy Places of NMount Olympus.
-. Facin'; the Olympus range, and f -irming thle .astern
side of the culf of Salonica. is the Chalcidic Peniniila,
i'; In T- r.ce the.e n aines are particularl:rnurnerou.i Sadoi, Spira-
do.., Mcedic. Amadoc, iloru. Lutariu.. Leonor-iu, Cormontlriu., Lonm-
norius, Luariu', Cavaru -, Eithocusor 'ituuius. See RL.4 kN. .5'. It'.:.',
p. 136 jnd n.;and H ru. r., ,1/r. f pp. z9,A; .-, The origin
of many rin these name;, however, may date only fr rim thc liter Kelui.
K\ing;don';s eiatlihhed by lthe Gauls in their eatiern niirati'i n alter ithe
death of Ale .inder the Great.
47 See DU LAC. iiOtLONC E , ae :at r .'c.' .'/ '. P ':i- .;i: .,:.:,-
d ni'm 'in: A rch. ,,'-s .1/" '.:.'.:, i Serie, vmi., i 6 S.
4- b7'l. A'./. %.xi. :o. See the Memoir r.f M. DEI.ACA L'-NCtiE,
just cited (p. 7041.

,S H ,,d,'ori; I,'ri,.,ctii,.

with its t-hrtee lo.- fin ger-like promontories. Of the.e,
the westernmost is the pronmontory of Cassandra, of which
the villages w ere destroyed, and tihir inhabitants put to
the 5 \word, in con-eqiiunce of their having naturally, but
too rashly. declared in favour of the Greek Revolution of
I1:2. The easte-rnmost promontory is the ridge. some
fort% miles Ion.i, and four or five broad, of the "A'poi'
'Opj;, the Holy Mountain, cut across at its root by the
Canal of XNer:.er. and ending in the sublime marble peakl
that ri;es precipitousl from the sea to the height of be-
tv\een n.ooo and 7,oo:,o feet-the peak of the Thukldidcall
'A 11'i/, the- H:-:d.:.tean "-4t0dW, the Homeric peak oin \viich
H r& rested on her lli'ht from Olnipus to L crinos.''
But iimfferent are its associations now. Not a living
creature or E e's unhol\ se:i;--a;e inevitable insectS,
particularly of the carnl orous tribes- is allo\.d to
set foot on Holy .thos. For since the sixth century,
Athos has been the 'reat pilgrini,-visited Sanctuary
of Greek. or Eastern Christendoin--irndeed. the first
Con'ents here are said to haI.e been founded b\ the
Emp ress Helena. the mother of Constantine the Great,
in the beginning of the fourth century. During the so-
called Middle .\,;es,'" there \\er; founded on the 11ol
Mountain a- score of Monasterie-. Nowhere in th-e \rld
is there a set of Ibuildingv to be ciomparcd \. ith theirm in the
nuiriberof their reimarkibli characteristics-the picturesque
Grandeur of their site ; the antiquity of thcii older walls,
which h ae.rage. I suppose, some Soo years; the princely
spaciousness of their quadrangileS, \i-ilh gorgeously frescoed
clurches in their midst; the priceless treasures of thcse
chtnches, and of the convent-libraries; and. above all, the
)et breathing Christian Medie\al life of then inhabitants.
These Mlonasteris., howe"oTr, as comriiiiunitie numbering
some of them, c\en still, 300 monks or more. are but on

nI Possibly the legend ilma\ line sonec conncrionn with ihe tradi-
tional u.:cup.ni.n o' ihi. pTiooronc.r of .\lho- b the FPelaigian creators
and morshippers ul' Hdri.. See ai'a:.,, p. -3, and n. b.
-' See ..'Pa'; p 4 n. 7.

T' !' Suri;,Z':'al of P, a,,s:. 39

a lower grade of ascetic sainthood. Besides the score or
Monasteries, there arte a great number of Skc.t-s, 'Aaici-
Tlpia, or ZK'iea, connected with the Convent-, as the
Halls at Oxford \%ith the Colleges. The largest collection
of these ascetic households is in iLinblra--cous and gloriously
picturesque ra\ inis, fitly dedicated of old to Nereids and
to Nymphs. But there is a higher degree still of saint-
hood. In the carries, on the crags, and in the caves, the
most inaccessible all round the r-av.ard face of Athos-
one .of the cares to \vhich I climbed could be made utterly
mnaccesiLble by the removal of a narrow plank-live, in
solitary seclusion, an unco.untcd number of pie--eminently
saintly hermits. And across the sea tlhes miserable
wretcIh.s lo-,k unaihanied on the divine hoeic of the
Olympian Gods.
5. On the other side of Holy Athos one sees, rising sheer
sonie 6,oo0 feet C-i t of thle .astern sea, the Island-
Sanctuary .-f still elder Gods, the Gods of Samothrace.
But betw'-en us and it is the island of Thasos, an ancient
seat of Phcenician Ci ilization : ini the corner of the main-
land, the sacred birthplace of Aristotle. X radyefpcn, now
Isvor ;: and on the coast opposite Thaso-s, Abdera also of
philosophic fame. I chance to be the only Englishman
who has visited and c...plored Saiiothrace; but here I
need only briefly recall what I have elsewhere fully de-
scrilbd, or pointed out":--the supremilL beauty and sub-
limity o(f this volcanic, and often earthquake-rent island-
mountain the antiquity of itA delucge-traditit,-ns, and of
its consecration as a Sanctuary of the Gods of the Under-
world; the association and identification of the Kibeiri
with these Gods of Samothrace-the Kaibiri w\ho, as I
have Lindeavoured to show, were originally the divinized
discoverers of, and workers in iron, and hence institutors
of the Iron Age-
l,;Jl I t c*I .I , r ,..? i-; t l
u..ii;'l .p; i">. 1'i..' ju .-r.'. rh*i g j c h .\i r.i i.
51 Described in a levier of mine it the 7;.".', 21st April, i88r,
-:: C, -'' ,,./. ',i,; L:,'L':. M ay, i :!a .

40 His/orica;'a fii7'trodCio'n.

E\pert at the Forge

Fire-ponerfutl inhlabhant.s or Tlitvcian S-nio-s ;;
the s;gniicance of the site o" the Temple-city ot Samo-
thrace, and gran.ieur -f it,' ruins, dating from the earlieCt
age of tlh': Pelaslian immigration to the noblest period of
Greek art: and the renown of the hMyteries of the
Kalbeiri which brought to Samothrace pil griims the- most
delel:rateir--here, thlit Princ: of Macedonia and Princess
of Epeiros. wh: \\ere the parents of Ale\.anler the Great.
first fell in love with 'ach other''-andl which made it,
at lcinih. the one common Sanctu ary of till GrLcoC-Roman
vorld. But what it is h,:r chi'ily important for us to
note is the e\traordinarv c'lntinuity, to this dlay, in bMace-
donia, of Hellenic custom, sn:ntiment, and thought, in
conne.ctionr withl Sa mothrace. The great FewtivnlI of
Initiation into thie My teriee of the iaibeIri ;eems to have
I.leen h:lid abLout thle 2rnid of the nmo.ern Greek Jul. and
the beginning of our A\ugu.t.>' And at thi s very season
pilgrims -till recrt to Samothlrace from all the- ni:ighbLour-
in.; costs :rni. i.land,- : camping out in tel-nts :ind hits: in
the \\:ood- : cringe themselve of all man!rner of disezases
in the: miraculous hot .ulphur.-\ater returning thanks
still to the GodJ of the olil Greek Panthe.-.n, though under
new Christian names-; and really 1.eeping -till the Feast
of th: K;libciri. though calling it that of the Twelve
Apostles." And still the characteristic Son's of Samo-
thrace are about God:. of the Undeorworld-about Charrn,
\\ho, is really a I(abeirian God; though, in name, he
appears to be connEcted with the Egc ptian Horus." And
minist curious, p:rhlap.;. of all-not on ly is an ancient round
church at Salonica. built by Con-tantine, and now the
rio osqute of Sultan Osman, said to Lbe on the site of a
3 NCNNLUS. i .; :.:. X;.. 23, '.i I i'-:: rnd ce the other authorities
quoted in the abovc-cited article, pp.. -.4
.: Pt Li' ,.'.. r. 2.
-s See CO NZE, A, r:-'. '. :..: .' L .. H, ..:. ': .': iSa v.'.'. ;.. ,',
b. i I 39
See ak/..::-, p. 1 1.

T/he S.'ur:*:'a/ of Pan*'s::.

Temple of the K6b:-iri-but, in a Folk-Eong of Sal'onica,:I
thlre appears, as already noted," to, be a distinct reminis-
cence of the Kabeiri thIms.TAh s in the Tpi; fri'\'.nl 70T''
Kr.a'co-Ir wh,. watch the flocks of a Macedonian shepherd.

W\Vhn, on the steep side of MetLikeli, :our eye searched
for the localities of the origin, and of thli scmin--. of the
mod-rn Folk-songs of EpCiros. it found them all in the
mountains of the sit: and en\ irons of the ancient Oracle
of Dodu:on, and Sanctuaries of Ze\s. Dirne. and Hadls;
and similar has Libeni tilh result -f inquiry v itih rifi-renice
to the localities of the Folk-songs oi f Thes.-aly and ojf
Mlacedonia. Eesides this curious co: incidence of the chief
scenes oif modern Fclk-songi in Northern GrMecc: '.ith
the chief sites ,:*f ancient Sanctuarils in .Northern Hellas.
\we have found that these Pagan Sanctuarines have not
only Leen for ag',i- ruined and dc srtod, but that their
sites have been all overbuilt with Christian churches;
na\. mure: \e have found that ne\wv there tandi, and
has vi;ibll stood for a thousand ears. Let'.c.en the ruined
and deserted Sanctuarics of Samtothrace and l03rpus.
the Holy Mountain, the great Sanctuary of Gr-ek
ChristLndoin, and for half that period, between Olympus
and Dod:nia, tlh chiL.f 'Mffshloc t of this Christian Sanctuary.
the Con'.'vnts of the Metcdora Cliff-. But the most strikin,
characteristic o:f the modern Folk-songs :f \ hich th.e
scenes are thus identical v.ith the sites of the Ancient
Sanctuaries v. : ha\c found to be their almost unalloyed
Paganiim. Surely, then, these topographical relation
should not only brrlng hom:n t .1 uas that fact uf the unbrok-eni
c':ntiniiity of Pacani-m, in all its c sscntial characteristics,
from the Classic to the Modern Period-that fact of th'-
survival of Pagani-m v.hich \\as stated in our First
Secttio:nr; but should nake, at thi: same time, \isiibil,. as
it were. betfre us. the fact I:f the Jdomination of Chris-
tianity for nearly 2,000o ears; and s.,, Should enable Us,
perhaps, in sorme degree, not oni! to recognize. but to
"7 Tr .,';. p. 57. 1 .4- ',:',', p. I:,

.IV7~/o I ~CL?. / Vd/1C/iOL'.

r1eliZe the wonder and interest of this fac:t of the survival
of P.igani-rn-the wonder and inteliest of the revelation
made to us, not only, thou'4h perli 'ips most strikingly,
by Greeck Foll--lorL, but L. Ar, in Foll-lore generally-
the revelation in popular lie of a vast and ,pitofound
layer of untouched Paganism, sinilai, in its general
sentiment, if not in its special beliefs, to the prevalent
Paganism of the Higher Culture. And noi--the v;ondcr
and interest of the Survival af Paganism haviing, I trust.
been sufficientl\ Ibrought homtre- I v.ould proceed to what I
said, in conc luding our Fil t Section, v.*o:uld l_,c':. o I It ultimate
task, the investigation oft C the C e the urvival of
Fag.hiisin. Those reader- w.ho do not care fo:r such
inv'~t tigatio;ns--those readers to whoi:n--silihtiv to altLr
the well-known lines-
A primr-'is by the riher's brim
A iimpIl primi:r.e i. ,
And it is nothing m.:-.c-
may now conclude their prru'sal of: this Historical Intro-
duction. But those readers to \v.hom facts ai:- of intciest
only in their relation to ideas-in their relation to those
larger facts which are their causes--uch readers may,
perhaps, be ,. illing to fol:lo. nme a little Iurthei.

THE CAUSE OF THE Si'F.ViV\'L i'F P'.;,.\ :19H.
i. DuLi recognize this fact of the g-en iral PaI 'anis m, to this
day, of Folk-belief, as vid':nccd Lb its nmost genuine
expressions, and our ,ordinary historic of Religion, and
particularly of Christianitl, iill bi s,.en to Li: merely
histories of religious thinkers \ lo b:.;erci:ed but a more
or less partial, and more or less passing influence on the
great mass of the people. W\' have, at length, recognized
that a true history of Polit\ is sometlin'g very diffiirent
from what it was till xci\y r:ecently-a hist,_,r of political
acto :--kLing, sta-tersmn, and generals. But we have not
yet recognized that a true history of Religion is src imething

T :c S ;i:, i':',! ,f Pa .,,':: :.:. 43

very different from what it iJ still-a history of prophets,
popes, and hcresiarchs. Great, however, thou;lh the
effect of a Religious IRevo:lution may be on Literature and
Art, its effect on the essential contents of Folk-belief may
be almost : n!. And the immensely important historical
fact revealed. by stuld of the Folk-lore and Folk-life of
the Christian People;i is, that there is such a discrepancy
between nominal and actual! Belief and Conduct as is-not
unparalleled, plchaps--Lut e.traordinarily exceptional
in the \h:le hi.;tory :f mankind. The very basis of the
\whole system .f pr.ofescd Christian Belief is belief in
Hell. \itho-ut the sul-ppurt of this infernal crypt, the
Christian Chulrch, with its every pillar of doctrine, falls
sheer int._- the chaotic ruin o:f utter unreason. Yet, as the
sty o-,f Folk-lore. and *--: er other mode of experimental
inquiry, sho. l'., ponly oradically and spasmodically have
the nas.es :of the sr.-calld Christian peoples really
believed in tile Christian Hell, or really, therefore,
believed in that Guapel' of popular and historic
Christianity \\hich has n,- meaning without belief in
Hell. And similarly is it with regard to Conduct. Just
as the iii-,st characteristic of the moral prescriptions of
Isla;m is abstinrenne frn \\Wine, the most characteristic of
the moral prescriptions of Christianity is abstinence from
\Woimn. ..r, at least, strict limitation of sexualrelations to
but :one onl1 of the other se'<, and p'erp-ptutation of these
relations for the lifetime of the two parties. Subordinate
tu this is every other moral prescription of Christianitv.
And yet, here again, th- stud. of Folk-lore, and every other
mode o:fe:pecrimntal inquiry, shows that the most charac-
teristic of the moral prescriptions of Christianity is as
little obeyed as is the niost nmdispensabic of its dogmatic
assumptions believed. Monogamy denotes only the con-
ditions under which the State recognizes cohabitation, not
by any rmeans-though this appears often to be assumed
even by phil-sophlic writers-that there are no sexual
relations save under these statut.-,ry co-ndit[,-.ns. With
partial exception; in certain Prcotcstant countries, the

44 Hitorial Intru'if"t/l..

domination of the Chri.tian Creed and Chritian Code
has effected almo-t as little change in the essential
religion s beliefs. and actual sexual relation: of the Aryan
people. of Europe,' as is cfftccted in the social customers of
Asiatic people- bli' the domination of r ne\ Dyrnasty. But
the history of saluted Dynasties is not the hiiory\' of
Polity.: ncr is the history o:f professed Creeds the history
of Religion.
2. Not o'nl, however, is there beneath all our professions
of Christian E:lhef and Conduct a \'idlespread ;:r,.';,tl of
Pa.anisr m in all its ci: rltial charactcristi':s- its ifclin-; of
onlenic with Nature, and mythic prs.naliziig orits phcno-
nien" ; its Winconsiciousincs. of Sin in sexual lov:\e. and un-
belief in a future state of Rel:\\rds and P-'nnihments ; and
its fe-eling -.f Family kinship, arnd patriotic devotion to
the Fatherland-not onyv is there such a .a;i .ia!', 1ut in
no \\a%. perhaps, can. at least, the literary side of
thie Modern Re\,:lution Lc Lbettr charactcrizcd than as a
s,:c,',! of Paganism. That gr,:at literary move.nment, the
origin of \v hic:h v.ill 1,- for iicr as;:sociated \ith the names
of Nlacpheron and of Rlouiseau, is more .a.uely and
\ulgarly referred t.o a a return to Nature.' But if
v duly study the v.orls of the greater pouts of the
Mod'-rn Revolution-and especially ouf Lurns, vchi,:, as I
h1_\e else'.lIher Lncdia\oured to show_, t v.aS* the firit to
gi;e. though in fragmcintary form, full, forceful, and poetic
e:.pressiorn to all the moods of \v.hat \\e distinguish as tihe
D L)E'.i'-_.1HILNE, in the following srnence., accurately describes
IhiL se relations, noi only as they %erc in his c., n d..', but as, nr r iiith-
st.,nding the hyp'-'crisies c-f Chlir-ri vanity, they ~til are: 1,,. ;r.,..i,
rTol' r *, I i. r ,- .il.P.* lr- P*ll.- H
Letvcen ,:') and 1-62 I.ou-:.t-p.i completci d and publl-hed the
SA' il :, S. .,' C .':', ,and E .:.'i ; t w.~ in ihcs,.- ety cars
tli.it AM.\.1 i cr.Er N published his t-r,:-., :a.'!, .r GIr '.- .;r,. and
"y''.., ,,,: ., r,. :: :-.' I',-.-.. and i-e Poe'ms of ihe aridenoch
-highlandcr and Aberdeen Graduate e\cated i Eutc.pean enithsi.asm
r.o leis great than that e\i;ted bIl the Romances c.C his prea contem-
porary ,.i the Gernevan Lake and M'ontmrorency \W.-.ds.
3 *l'/i. htrs.; ./:;:, ,n'.;i' S ,/. .'* -... A .'. !;: ic- A- / i j 'r'
7i' ^''.''.'*: i': /-. .;., s .)i'. ^-;;;/*:., A pril, li35 ).

.T2t S. *::'a.' LPof /P,,,,'.'::. 45

MIll: in Spiri "--..e -hall find that what is really meant
by the v.'ague phlA.ie return to Nature,' w-,uld be more
cl chaliiact: i itics. N.-.twi\thstanding, however, a revival, as
iell as surva.l, of Pa'.;arii-ir in sentiment and in belief;
and not'. ithstaridltuir that the- facts of sexual relations are
pr.tically uiichal!ig;,d among the European as well
a; the Indi::rn Ai .ans ; et oerthrown ancient Paglinism
%a.; iii .1! it: iltitutinlS and sanctuaries, and with
Christiarit a i ,\\,o:ld unquestionably arose. A
problcin thuli prcsnt; itself of the high ;st historical
importance a problem which h may be thus stated:
Hc'Ax camei it tllht ancicnlit Paganism was overthrown
in ill i it i!;tituticrns arid sanctuaries, and that a new
v.ui Id arose ..ith Christiaiity; and yet that, notwith-
stanidiing tlhe dJoini tion (f Christianlit-, for nearly 2000
.cu-, a!':,g ,ni, iin; .1ll its most essential character-
istic.c still tflt.rishes in thi most genuine expressions of
popul'ir seiitimcnt and belicif: nor only has thus survived
in Folk-lure, b it has c:-\?:,.ih-rc, for more than a century
no.w, bc.fn maninifestly -re -.iing in Literature? Such,
stated in detail. ,i that q.uention which we have now to
consd~ilr v ith respect to the Cause of the Survival of
3. B %t \v.ith r: -ier,:inct riore particularly to the first
clause -of -ur pibblekrn-\What were the causes of the over-
thro. o't -n:cient P'ag:~i s1 ?-a preliminary question
arisn : Did that Er.a LI the birth of Jesus, proposed by
the Rornn ii A blbot -I t h L.a rbr tic court of Theodoric, the
O-trog:Oth. at R!3.enniia 15-51-Dionysius E'.i'iiil, Denis
lC Petit-really separate th, time '":eito:re from the time
after it iii an', -ucul d(-:P.?ic.e and general way as has been
s-upplted since the ad-loption of this Era in the darkest of
the dark ages;' Prifessi-.,r Freeman, in the Rede Lecture
of 1i-72." inplicjtl put this Era aside in insisting on a

1 Fu,',,. .I ,;.-.~ ::. Aprl,. i 2o,. p. -23.
a 'ubliihed in hi.,i "Lo ;: !e: ,..:'. ) I L'-3.,

46 Hist/orica! In!roa';c':c/ou.

Ulnit.y .'f H-i.-l1., in which there is nTi such thing as
'ancient' and modern.' The cause, ho'\,\c,, to which
Professor Freeman attributed; th,: origin of the distin'c-
tion v.hich he rejects is a ver minor one coiimpared
with that which a more philosophic outlook,: on History
v:,uld have s ho'..n to be the true cause, narnely, the
suprrne importance attributed, and necessarily attri-
biuted. h\ the Christian faith to the Era of that con-
ception at Nizarcthl. un-n birth at Frlethleh,:-i, fondly
iimaiijin.?ed to I-: I events in th,- Incarnation of thl- Creator of
thi' UnivIrs'-. AndJ Profe.--or Free-man'i- notion of the
' nit\A of Histor\,' i' ialmcst r~ a false a that notion :f di's-
unity iw:hi.h he attLI:cks. r-ecause there is noreally; trenchant
division Lb-t'.tven the Classical Period and that which
succL.-Ldc it. ProfcLssor FrL-lmian insist o.n our casting
away ail 'Ji'stincticns buLt\i. t-In ancient and modern ;' and
Lbcau.se the con'qu,:st., th,: la-,,. and the lani.guag of
Rome hatve immensely intlu'en,':ed a certain a',:. cf W\\stern
development. he insist- further on the absolute identity
of Romnan Histc-ry 'with Ulnier-;al History.'' But in the
spring of thi: saie ,-cear (S/3'i. in th,' autumnn of which
this Reed: Lectiire wa? gi.'en to the world in bol-I.-f.rm, I
puLlihed: ano:thi,-r theory of th,: Urnitv of Histo:ry"'--a
theor\ wvorlke out under the intiie:nce of Cc'mte. of Hegel,
an-d of Hurne-tle latter not only the true Father of the
Scottish School of Philosophy, but the true Fou!ider of
the European, a- Jistinuisih,_Sd from the Syrian Philosophy
L.f Histolry; a thecry V ihich, so far as it diTrllr fr:om the
theories of the thinker just mentioned. is based. philosco-
phically. on n-ew generalizatio:i of the conception of Lawv'
-the Principle of C.:'-exiztence-and hi-toricallv onr the
discovery of a great Europ.-an-Asian Rei-clution which,
while it trenchantly I dicd s 'ancient' from modern
history, unites, at the scame time', thi. histories_ of Europe
Frofessor Frenian'_ reccnr article on S. :..- .. ,:.':d 1', *.':: 0 y"
/ ;".'rL in the C(' :.'?. ..,. ri -'. :., Pl IS',. iS:4. .tL1is lto iow that
h;i3 notorns of h th. Unlty of llj tory' hi.c' been neilhi r corrected nor
dcclopcd sincee hii, ~iaiem;nt of ilcmn a dozen years a;-.

The Sur:'i'd ot/~ Pag.nis'::. 47

and Asia as at once correlative, and reciprocally inflncnc-
in- developments: a theory .vhich connects thiL discovered
fact of the Gencral Re\olution of the, Si.thi Century c.C.
with an Ultimate Law\ of Thought, more or le-s clearly.
and more or less generally stated by thinkers so different
as Scottish P\schologists, Hegelian Transceridntalist.,
and Spencerian Evolutionists; and a theory which, in
like manner, connects its profounder historical causes-
Economic ind Racial Conditi-ons-%with the fundamental
principles of the New Physio-psy-Fcho.logyv. Ignored, and
-so far as it has been in the power of able Editors and
others-suppressed as this theory has as yet been, I
venture to think that the results obtained in the course of
twenty lon g years spent in the verificationn of it justiFy
nme in predicting that it will, in the future, be the basis of
all scientific histories of Ci ili.:ati.in.
4. Th.: m':nnkiih Era of tile birth. .:.r rather, of the con-
ception' of J:isus, does ;:i', separate the times before from

: See te _X :..L '.'.".'."':i 1/ :.':,-> preri\ed as an i ;.',.'i,.'i:
to i. ,.I- .L'r,':-h.'i:,,l of which the iec ond edition was published
under the title /i" .,: .; e a.': o T,.i- Nrw T7L' I HI .,..- i
oitd !, : C :.':s ', '.:. '., :cs,' and New FJ 1,.;:,'n,'c r ,:
Hitl rt .:,' c.:';'.:.: '.; prefi d tc. ihe Ih;rd:,dit;on of :'.', ":.-
I ~:'.-. LiscldIe thiis general .tatentnti nt i nli Theory of
European-Asian C;iiliation, nicre 'picial raeiements '.f brirnhes of
m y Thco-ry ill be found in I;.'s ,: .' Os.'r;, i'.;r.',,:..'. ',.r:" ;:, and
E.nWd I "..' / ,.11 .and v.ith respect, r,-:ore parent ularly. It, treliJioiu
and rphilo-ophic development in the t.o first, and to economic and
political development in the lan. And already. in 1;60i,in that .peuial
study io the bs::.h Ct:nturiy xC.,. of '..hich si'rne re-uli- v,.ere *'ivicn in
my l-say on .-'.,','-.?:I L.:.; *'.w .t hoe nive Leiat half-millennial
Penrds cCo European-A.Sinr Ci\ll;:ati.n, xhich are consittuted by fhiv
great Epochs Uf s,nchronc.u- re t\lutklnary event--the s, th Century
B.c.; the First Century \c.: the SiNih Ccntur' ..c.; the Ele\enth;
and the Sixteenth-thcie Peri;od had alrcad), in 16-,. been stated;
and a p.ru- t ha;d been entered against that darkening of Hiitcrry
which ari es from lumping together the th-usand ;,ear; froin the zC-h
to the Si: tenth Century, and coniusin,; under the single name oi
SThe Middle Age's,' two utterly di erent half-millennial ir'rnds.
E The Era of Dionyiui began nine months before the bit.h of Jesus,
and the Incirnanon being the great event that dcietmined the Era,
Chriitian Chronologist-. \ere much e'erci.ed by the knotty question,
Whether they should date from the conception or from the birth ?

4S H's!o'ica! !i'oi (/i!'i'.

the times after it, as different AZe.S. The cnmbinbed
results of a vast varietyy ..f historical researches show
that it is not the century of Christ. but the siCth century be-
fore Christ, that truly 'ii irdes the Ancient from the Modern
Civiliz"tio'ns. For thei si'thi century before Christ was
the century of Confucius. in China; o:f Buddha, in India;
of Cyrus the Great anil the Ne..: Zori'astrianis.m. in
Persia; of the Flab-\ I~ nian Captivity tS.--53t). tile so-
called Second Isaiah. and thli. triumph of Jahvehism, in
Judaea; of P-airmnetlilchs, its la;t Phara,.,h, an-. of the
worship of Isis and Hori., the divine Mothe:r and Child.
rather than of 'Our Father., Osir;, in Egypt; of Thales,
the Father of Phil,.:.,ph. :f PFytha.,i.rac and Xeno-
phanes, the Fathers al-- .-.f rclikii'.us and ethical Reform,
and of Sapphl: and Alkal-:. the i1 st -of thle nI.:-. subjec-
tive and lyric school o'f I'oetry, in Gri,:icc: ; and finally, in
this rapid indication of itz grea-ter i\nchrc'nimrii. it w\as
the century of those Political Change- from Monarchies
to Republics which we':r but thle outward sign and -cal of
far profounder Economic Changels both in Grecc, and at
Rome.9 And of the events of this General RK\evCluti:.'n of
the Sixth Century B..,. the most pr,.f;:'.un.d, bit :ilso the
most powerful, as historic caules, were these Economic
Chlang:s. For they resulted in the destruction '-f ihe
economic s;. t'lin of Primitive Sc._cialism, and the: initiation
of that separation of Labour and Capital v.hich distin-
gui.cles our present system of Tranriti':nal Indi\idualnim.
And hain!g this result in Europe. the-'e Ec-onomlic
Changes effected, for the first time, a profo.:und dilicrentia-

9 The dates of the ';iith of Confucius V'ai y rnnli, bettcCn ;o5 and
551 Bc. As to the date .:'I Puddha. jEe the .L,;. .,':r of It Mtarch,
1884, in which Professor M.b: '.i[ller ;-i es rne. prools of the date of
hbi death being477-8 B.C.: and ,com.paMre Mr. Mtiiller's di. ic:d.in ol fthe
date oifChandra._,upta, the b.ai-i of India.n Chruonilr. :,, in hi; H-:s.'~:r,
,.r : .: L:...':.':., pp. 2:4'-- '-.. t. to the -iih r z)nchronirsm-., ec
SF-i roc .1: -!:., b. j. : Ew .IAL -.'- / /-.'-,'.;: ,'.. .. : 7.', ;..*'-,
b. 11., and G' Ita ni i .11.. -.'? g *.,..:e :,'. H i ; SH-Ar" ET ,
Egyptian .1.) .'..-,' *. ZLLLir, Rn,,, ;;c .t P .,'.',o./ ,' : -', /*75'.' Pc.v', :
Cr.,ici .,s:.'0,' ,V C7r .',. %ol. ii., p. 50; n., and F. DE COUL.u;GLS,
La C'...',. : :..

T7," Sr:,''/r-ai ,/' Pwi,'L ?..':. 49

tion Lbet'.een A iatic and European Ci('ilizatiian ,::-
nouiiic difft-erentiation v.hich I hat, bten. I believe, te:-
lirst to point uut as the profounddust fact and cau. iln tilhe
history, ,r f' Eu rol'pe n-Asian Ci,.ili.atio:in."' \Vc s- then,
that. in all thl rountrie. 4f Ci'viaili on, fr,_n i tie-
Hojn.nlhi. to their Tliber, their e 'cc:Lrret-d mi,:v c: nt-nt in
this Sixth Centur,. r'.c. tliat dilinitiv ,:l. br.kC; i Upi tIhe
previo:,usiy ex'itini., and d-icisivdi initiated, not only
ne'. frnr:i Civ'llzatii:'n, tat such new forms of
Ci\ilizatio:n--such nc,, Ifurris. that is, of economic and
political. of rclit. i-ui anJ mo-ral, and of philosophical
and literary Jdc.vel,:,pment--.uc>h n-\\ forms as must be
di:llstr ushed a : ;c';'ra markln, a newV AgVc, rather than
as /'c.; rmarki.:ng but a nV'. Period. Of course, con-
tinuity *:,f de,.c'lopmenLit can Ib cle-arl traced across this
Sixth Cintur% and that. rml-a'.,re co:mpaiativ-ly as are
clur records. lic t -: rcat is tiit dilff rrrnce between the
Civ'ilizatioi-c ,i:n this, an.d on the other, side of the Sixth
C-.ntur;i L.c.. that the in:rn -on the other side of that
great Epoch--the mrnn o:f Old India, Old Assyria, Old
Judiat, Ol E~ip.pt. Old Greece- and Rome-must be dis-
tiinguih'heJ a: Ancient. from Moderns. And so little, in
comiiparisin. i- the iilffLrenc bLetween the men on this and
on tlie other .ide .:,f tlie Clri-tran Era, up to the Si:'.th
Centur- r:.c.. that the name :,f Ancients' in nowise truly
bei:l~-rg t, ti heni; a-n has. indi.d, only been given to them
under th- iillucnce ...f the, fal:e monkish theory of Diony-
sius tlhe Little. Tlie, mren of the half-millennium ante-
ccJent to the Christian Era '.Uere but Midern of the
Clasicajl Perod..
5. But, '.:urthrir a: n a. acirent P'gianism thus 1e--an
to be in th? Si.tli Century L:.c. overthrov.n thlroii:h the
a ti._n iof iEconmriiic C lange'e that, in Europe, transformed
the very conii.titution of ciet, : overthrown through that

'* See E.:.,t .. ,Is'I i~ i.:-p, and puti; -.:u rl, pp. 471-4; and
..:t .a'.'": .: L. '., ,r 1i T.n : '. '"; '.;-, '.'. .:.. Erit delivered as a
Lecture i.j ,\\'.ki n n in .\pr;l, id:'. in. ali': d .ir.. published in
Ti.-.:''r, c.f Ociuber of tlic :.aim y.cir.

H tVii /ca! I / E h' ti ,on .

portentous succession of Per-ian, of Greek. and of Roman
\Vorld-conqu.c;ts, which fillck th:- whole of the Classical
Half.-illenni mi, intermingiNd at once th-. blood of Peoples_
and the rites of religion;, and i on for the Arian Race
Fuprelmacy over all other RaceS;: overthrown by the atpi-
rations of that vast NMoiral Revoluti:on indicated by the
change from the old Re'.II'ionz of Cujtonin to the new
Rcligio:ns of Conscience prnachud by the prophet; r.r
that Si':th Century-Confucius, Buddha. Zorna;tet-." the
Second Isaiah, and Pvthalmgras-that \Va-t Moral R.-volu-
tion indicated hardly les.; bI th,: chanLg from the o:bjec-
tive epic poetry of Holner and Hesiod to the eubjective
lyric poetr) of Alkaio-, and Sappho; and overthrown by
those greLat results of th.: criicnmon oLi of ldemotic and
alphal.b tic. in.-t-ad (i of hliiratic and hiero l\phic, vI.riting";
-the I ce of Phio fro he civad..llin.-bands
ofThecl .g'y, and the escape -of Literature from the coll-z'es
of Priests-how came it that ancient FPaganini. by ;o
many consilient caus;.- o\erthrow\vn, \.wa not c%:.tirpated ?
In order clearly to anv\'.,e-r ;uch a qut.etion. tlhe caLiuse
of the overthrow of, at least. westernr n Paganiim, must
be more clos:.l considered, and mor.: spci'ically defined.
In other words. we inmut considc-r aind detfin. the- forc-s
that gave Christianity its triumph. Nm:. from the point
of view of the great General ReIvolution :of the Sixth
Century B.C., Chriitianity nppearR ac but the \Western
result of 500 year- of the worlin'- of the force, of a
Revolution which initiated a nv. ,\g- in thle .ericral
de\elopiicnt of Humanity. This Revolution, in i:i\Ary
sphere of it, whether *icornomic and political. or moral
and religious, or philosophical and literary, i; marl:ed by
the same general characteristic of a nie\: development of
the Indixidual. and of Conscience, a nc\w development of

The date of Zoroa.-ter is stll ur.:clttrl :d but whether lie belonged
to the Sixth Century I. c.. or to a perld long -interior, the dloctrnes
associated with his name had ni.'.- thtir chief 'ogue and influence.
As to the date of the .ub;tiitlnon of denmotic inr hieratic ..riting,
see GnIVODwlN, ,...::c ,' p 1i C..tidg:', E s.'s I 853.

T': S: 'r:i':'l a/ f Pa,7a~:S.,

Inwardness and Subjectiity.. And hence that dcv.'clop-
ment of Conscience and t.if Subiectivit, which. thou,;l thi:
central characteristic,, is tIle hlthlrt.i unexplained cl,-inent
of Christianity, is expl-ained by referring it I, aln ar n-
tecede-nt and mio:re general IRe\:olution thus characcteri:ed ;
and [b-y sho'a in that the neiv de'.el.'pmenlt of the in-
dividual anrd o Subjectivity characteristic --"f that ant.e-
ccdent Rc.oltionn is in accordance v.itli, and. is a vcrii-
cation of a L.a, \ i f .Me ntal I~ievlowpilmnt v.h;ch has
its analogue in the La'. cf Plh snical Evo.ltio-n. 1 Iut
only a iienecral explanation is thus g\iv.n .,f the origin
of Christianit; The causes Of its triunmplh Iriust
ie more specifically defined. Nute then, that a new
SpLcies doesC nI.ot arise 1 is::'latidl-, but a, one .,f in-
niumcrablee other '.ariatioins. Nor is the irini.jo:r that
establshes itself as a new Species the best or the mo-st
beautiful, but only that best adapted to the conditions
of th..- ert.iro.nmert: and h.in:ce, that richest in elements
capable i:of nourishmlent, rather than liable tit d lstruclti,-'I,
by the environment. Thus it was v.ith Christian-ity. It
was theI Speciet:, Ino t thei L.est, n._,r tih.- most beautiful, but
the bicst adapted to condition. of icnoranc_ :, anarihy., anri
barbarism. For of all the innumerable Sects, the rivals
or distanced forerunners ofh Christian tv .' of all the Sects.
Stoic, and Epicurean, Neo-Platonic, Hermetic, and Theo-
sophic-the prod-uct oef that orinderful I tell.:ctual che-
mistry .vhich had in Alexandria its chief laboratonr.'"' at
thl beg.ininning of what \,e no\.. callI tie Christian Era-
Christianity alone. su.:cceed:d in c:mbLinin;_ the five ele-

*: Thi: Law of Mental D:vel.opmnent I ha'e thus stated : 7.' ...,;
,"/;. "; .*7'-'i;L','," V .'." 0 ';*., '::'/ ;. '. ,' .,';l'.;.;i. ., .... .,,.',.,-."." /.7. .-l..."'' ', .;.' C "..

c Lc liire leur co ie. itnt, ,-j)i'3que plu.eriurs sr'ieii c interCipc rainc rde
I're chrdtih.nne, d uiri.c un peu pasirieures ; cir 1'd.enremetii d une
religion rie dte que du jour oii elle csti accc pt par Itk pCup'tl, curome
le rc ne d'un pFrriend-in date de sa viciure.'- '.I -..I D, D .- '..
Tr.'s' e.; /'h'.' '., pp. :..., X l.
i' 'Cette dronnantc chimle intrlle'ctuLdle qui av.it iiabli son pr~n-
cipal laboratoire i Alcandric.'- /.:' p. :..

5- 2 If .il.'lo.'iL ; In'II,'L''i.".' .

rments of contemporary sentiment and thought, not tile
most rational. but the in-.st pov.ecrful.
6. Thes, el:ilm;nts vere. first of all, the inth of the
dvinsg _ind re-born Giod. Shatt led a v.:as b,-lii'-f in all
the tariol'u Gods to hoirn this nith 'wvas attachelei the
Le!i,:-" iin inci:arnatirn i \a; still as pr-\valerit, the mxth
of a G dJ-nan Ji i and riSin:.; a.in as calClLitintlg,
-ndl the leath-'r;s. of Linut, of Adi'ih;, alid of
M inr...s as patlhticallv at'i-eting a; rveC. .And at-
tachd t10 a iLnew pei',:,rna:,c, \v. hi; had actually ei'.,rcisc d
n commarnaring pEronal inrlucince, iandi didJ on the cross
of the Siun- eod;, the central mitlh .of Paganism could
not but lhav: a lne vCo',uc- and triurilph. S.:conJll in its
doctrine of Inimn.rtalit;, aind in its E.chatolog it'
do.:ctrin_ uFt the :nd of the 'o:drld, damnation. and gloiy.
Cihri tiinitv ga-ve a nv-v for i to doctn:rin-: no le:: pre-
valent than th mythl of the (God-nuan, thoiuch lair ls
ide:-plI r.ote.d in th, A!yain .\rli. ThirJly. in preaching
thel- necw-old dI:.trine. off Chriitianitx, the grcat Epihesian,
the author of the Fourthl Go:.rpel, and Paul of Tarsus. not
,onl took up all that '. a c niblest in the nmo:ral sentiment
of tl-he tinr,. butt ave it InsuLIrpassed r expresion. Pall]
made th t Clhrist-lege-,nd of thr Galil:ean a means of con-
viincing o:f oln and po.' C;lfiill persuadrnian to rvilhteou-rness.
And tlic tory of the Galil'i.an fishernri-n .\a: told by the
lnknoilli;wn Ephesian with a ifinplicit.. ne-ffL-ile tcildernes.,
and sublinity that make it--\en iore truly tly han the
story' told b "% Thul.:\ die--3 Aa tLd r'- fi d, a poss;ss:aion
for'i 'vei.' F.iurthly, uniting the r moral sentitiont charac-
teri;stc of the time \\ith the Inonalthelliin that had not
only biecn t.auphlit in thle fMisteries, but pull:.icl pFireai:hed
inceL tlhe Si\th ( Century c.c., God v\as [proclaimed as si
Fatlhler, and thlis--v.hich \..unl.I appear to bie especially
lduel to jcS.us-in ;a far closer and mot.re personal sense
than wihen the aiame1 name Ihad bLen ; iien ,o-f oldl to ZM'
ranTip. Fath:-r Ze;i. Finally-and this was the special
and triumphant distinct on of the new Sect that was to
beconie i ne.v RIe.rl,i:, n- nt only \ecre these \arious

Tl'- S.:t;'.:-a/ ,"' P,.;a; ::*. 53

sentiniments ind ideas common to all the Aryan peoples
thus i. produ.LcedL iin ist;anity, hut-as I have elsewhere
sh.jl.n'" in considlerinc the Christian Revolution 'in its in-
tellci:tuai aspec;t,'disicu sing th. cau' of the uncompromis-
ing hostiltvy L'.t h cn N..:--Platomnils and Christianity,
andl den-mnstrating the antag4oinismr of the fundamental
c.,ncepti-ns rn f the No:-PlatI: nic a:In the Christian Trini .
--th:-'e \ariou3 sE.nt imnents and iJdeasv were united with
the notion i: an E:.ternal and PI,-rs,:nual, as dist;ziishi d
from an Irimn-i.nlc-nt an-d Inipe':ionl God, and hence with
the n.otil. n of Creation as oppo dcJ to, Emanation, and of
Miracle a.: opposed to La". L'ut from this notion, as de-
ve.lopid: in Chisti;anit'', thcre ri-ulted the most direct
antat onismn to; every' ne o-if the ;-zcntial characteristics of
Paganism : theri r. s ul ted a dojin. izingc rather than diviniz-
ing of Natlrc ;' an ascetic adisJltin'-:iish c from a natural
c'nrc,'ptioin of PulritIv-- c:-,n:eption, that is, of Purity as
con stin,. not in th- prEi aj.mnian:ce of af:eti:on over
pasii:n,l but in abstirn'inc frWo.in Ec:.ual relations; an in-
sistanc- :n slp'.";istl'-i i: of futiurr; Reward and Punish-
inent deniounccd by ev\eri noble PaF'an,18 and uncricJite.]
even y boy s-a\- not vet '. a h..J for coin ;'19 and a sink-
mgi, if the Citizen in tihe S aint. And hence it is in ex-
aininin,. the nature and .rigin :ft the Christian God-idea
that '..e ma:i. at lengthl. di--:C-ver \\hat the Cause was of
the Sur ival .'f Pa-'ani-rn.
/:.;.: ,-..;' '.it ;., chap. i -e.:. ii 7T' D. :.'lopment of the Notion
'i.!/: .:,.'.
It iL .] ir- e .,x-cr -l.nal .laracter. ai I have elsewhere noted,
that his inma e so latr'i:.ut te l-i ,i i letter orf Basil the Great (b. 3:',
d 3-91 10 hi ftirn nd Grc;ory of N.a.aricrin diesiribing his mountain-
herin.n. e in rhe .Arrmennin fores' .. -erl~,.:kn; ih-l plain through which
loans the rapil Iris. See W 'Asi l i M., t.;: : xiv., p. 50 rnd c.:xxiii.,
p. 3.- On'iily in Gre:;or of Nysar, the hloriher i-f Elas], do .'.c find,
among the early Chrsrihns. a similar ,' refined leelirn, if. Natur".
i S e, for rni tan:, I'LL' i ., CcH, L.'. '..;.. '.':..:':*, iv,.; Alforalia,
t. iv.. pp'. ':I--:?. Ed., Dubrer.
di Sie JiJ'ui. 5 %i, -Y..* .i. i ,-- .
EVC .-e ailiquid MP.I is it Subte rrii.ea Re :,,
El conul[in ci Str'sci ran: ]in :iur- ie ni ri,,.
.-\que iun, tra3iniere ..:'iurn tio raillia cumba
A.\;' ,. :: :, "... '.:..' .;.'. in are lavantur.'

54 I."..'ri 'ca! In'/a'i' .',t,' :.

7. The Christian idea of a I ~;'le Interflrii'.; Personal
God is a distinctively Semitic idea and it is bLcaLiU
/l.'s idea of an Intfcp1' i::T God is a 1:stic"ti.'l Senm!:ic
idci. obnoxious to the :cL,:t."i: An'ry; i::i, It is becCiiuse
of this that Aryan Paganism has survived thr:.tu,-h all the
1:'nri d,:omination of Christiianity, and is et\er\vvhere now
r':-iving. Next to, or rather side bI c;def v itlh. Economic
Conditions, stand Racial Conditions, as the monnt profiou:nd
of Historical Causes. Nor is anYthin-, p,.rhaps, in lMan's
history more remarkable than the pernianence of the
spercicr characteristics that still diStinlluiih. al tht ha\c-
ever distinguished, tih two great Rac':s of the White
Species or Varict, of Mankind-S'e:jirit,'-:, and .\Arans.-"
Intellectually, Semites-Jews anid A.\rtbs- ur .still. as
thl-. have ever been, di-t;i;nuishe.i ,1 lsolutenes;,
conc:r'.tens,-, personality of cornceplti:n : Ar\ ans. by re-
lativity, abstractness, impersonality of' conception. Thl
evidence of these specific characteristics ii t,:. Lb found,
fir.t of all, in their respective IJI.Iua.W:. \\ith the
Semite,' says Professor Su\c:e.2 the Unit,.rs~ is an
undivided whole-not a compoLnd rIsohtabl- into its
parts. The Semite has never deve':,op': a t in verb .. the
Aryan noun, on the contrary, pre-supposes the verb. It
is difficult to compare the rich deielopmnlent of the Aryan
sentence.. .with the bald -iniplici;ty of Semitic exlpr[.es'in.
The Aryan sentence is as well Fitted t:, I1e the instrument
of the measured periods of reasoned rhetoric aS the
Semitic sentence is of the broken utttraniic.: of lyrical
emotion.' Next, such evidence is to be fou.iid in tlih con-
trasted Serlitic and Aryan co:nc-eptiOni-- of Gr,:. To thc Jews,
since, at least, the Sixth Centur\y D.C., and to: the Arabs,
since, at least, the Sixth C--etury A.c.. and to their respec-
tive prophets previously to th.,'se epochs of natii-nal Inono-
theisim, God isa Personal Being, external to the world an
Absolute One, Yah\eh. or Allah. To Ar an thinkers, unin-
2C To 'ri:. inher grECa Race of the White Species the ruling castes of
the Arn.icrcr Ev'piia.s seem, as I think, probabI.\ io ha\e bcl..n9ed
21 Science of L, ';4...z,., voL i., p. 178 ; nd compare REN.\N, H/:isteri
des Langues ',:.".;. .

T,:c Si'i al of 'z~Paws1i,:s.

fluencid bi- Semites. God has e\cr been either but a name
for the Infinite and Unknowable,-- or ha, L'LLn concciLed as
the Thought or PoC' r imimanuint in the \Voild,, or System
of Things;,' or as a related Trinity, the Supernatural
Persons of which but thinly disguise such natural elements
as thise nectssary for Generation ;-' or such natural
obLjctI as Ilcavcn, Earth. and tlhc Under-.o.rld :-, or such
natural processes as Creation, Preserv.ition and Destruc-
tion. Q-;' 'i;a;i; .lic.:.-. says, in reference to Pagan
Theologyv. Cicero, who had probably Lben initiated in
tl.1 Ml sterles of Snmothlrace-qi b:r xpi,'t..:... ad. ration-
q,. r'.'.'.'cU::, Ic~ i : w i'a i i,'ty i ,a, i qia t :. I i'nI;: cognos-
c.,i'-." And still further and conclu-ive c\idence of the
difference betweL-n thl fundamental intellectual concep-
tions of Sernites -nld Ai-\ain is to bc found in the fact that
those sublimn inti:ll-ctual cr'.ttions-Scitece, Jurispru-
dence. and the Dramna-?l-nkind o1v. to the Ar\an Race
alone.'' For the essential condition of these creations
2- 'Can ine ddrc.c HnI,, thcl. saii, or apprehend Himn ..rites Max
Muller of the indiant .\r:., n. No, the. r'.pllcd, "'ll e can say of
HiM is No, no . \V'-a er L .e I' e ca:llI i -HiA,,, haIt He is not. W e
cannot *omrrprhlend or nacm Hinm'-- ,:,..''u,.:..:. ;,' Religion,
p. 6,:.
The Gojd )ofAri.toile, for initlance, ..:: a principle c1 abstract
Thought which h ni'a es .a tccrnal Aorld of ktrch He, or It, can
neither _.h nge r,.ar su pind Ilit immruta.le La:'-s.
-: e 1'.\'. ;>L K iiiT. l -. s'.;' Pt:a : s, 'n. .5,i,.:..:.al Lan-
..ay o ,I .Al,':.:.' .4;: a..: .1 .'r "DuL.,ai 'u r. HI . 'oire d's
i..:.,5, *: c....'.s; and It:i.\ N, .. / ': '.'.: and /',.*a and
L_.., .'..'. i.. ..'; .
:- As in ihe Trinitr, .of LDo-,ona. See a.: .', p :;3.
:: ir the- rrahna ni.: ti n a,. -: ,,a DI '-'., i. 42.
MU t Vi 1l-he ::,es-it nai so1 i o-i called Arabian SciaiJce ,renames
of .ryans -rilng in .rab; the ar i t general langurtiae of Lier iture, in the
true mledie:v l Pci.a : .c....-i,',.. in the La. t, a Laln .as in the
West. And -cette sien.:e,' says M. Renan, e-ie 'ciencc et philo-
sophie Ar ibes n'etaient qu une me;quine trduction '. i science et
di Ia phalos,-.ph;e gic.que.'-- 'i ;' z P1 ,,' s-' *._... S .: .'.",...:, pp. 17,
l6. Compa-re the- aimed author's .: -*:i', i (I bn. R as. hd.), p. 88 .
The onltribufions made ,o ihilosoplh and S:in.:e b., persons of
'Sciiti.: blood. \et nir oinl, spedl;n; and i.ra iing. but thinl.;n.g ini Aryan
languages, cannot biL taken as e, idence oCl natrae Semiri.: capacity for
Philosopr,,' and '.:icnci. Lut eteri i such Scirnitri: :nrntribations to
Philo-.sphj and Scicnce are conaisid.r d. at willl Lb lound illat they are

5 6 Hi'sor.:i.,' /In'ra/.',d/i",.

is relativity of conception, indI vhat floi\s from that, the
notion of God a immanent in. rather than --\i.,:-rnal to
the Unive'rse:, and h.:lnc. the, notion 4:f Emanation rather
than Creation, of reciprocal .\ctin, ratthhr than arbtitrnry
Will, and of Law rather than .Miracle:.-
8. But profouulndly, d]frrnt as ai-r thuz the charactcriltic
intellectual conceptions of Srmitic and of Aryan .men.
Economic and Political C conditionss ma:a he p.vowerful
enough to induce in an intellectual\ higher, the ideas :of an
intellectually lower, Race. This is not thit place tc point
out the Econorri ;ind, Pol.tical Conditions that in-
duced in Aryans the l-:.'..'r int_.-llctuial _d'cas of Semrit,-,
and submerged, for a thousand y'ars, the splendid
conqusjiiLts of the Classical i:'riod of Aryan Science.
I must here confine n-,isel t.. indication, the frirther
proof of the Non-A\r, an character o'f the notion of
an External Innerfring 'rd. ani henrc- Creftion :and
Miracle, which is aff*orded \by the facts of the revilt .of the
Aryan mind against thi- Strintic nrtio:n \'.hr'-v.,:r it has
been imposed on .-Ar)an;1. Of thie rev-lIt their fiit p-rof is

not so much rr;- t;i.t a'; :'la.l;I talj.e not inunc rating ri ide-I a, bit
working out ideas alre'7il. r.nn riat.ild bI. .'ry in thinly : rc .
29 And that these anti-heti: n.-.iions -h ra.ctcri.e S.iei'ti .r,,l Aiy.In
T';:s :.:tii lvy, was th: opiriiin i alo of St. P'.ul 1 1 Cot. :. :2'. The
Jews,' he says, 'require a .i; an. the Gr.et. :.;. aft r .: ;.ii.m
30 This will, I belihe.e L.e found .to be I.o f rh' nis;t .inporiT'nt
principles of a Scientlr; i: i I lkl .llu.-y, and e phc]ll lv ,r,:.rt.lt ii' the
Le [.1in-n ion of the oriin or that mir., \atii.-'u-I v'' -instini td, p lh-.p; of
all Mylhologii,, the Greek. l'ht Grccl.o a. GAei., o.r mried., that
Aryans as Aryans, eir eter isa.a;ge:, is. I venture I:o tih;nk, a :coitra-
diction in terms. F.-r ihe nbl tra.:ne;s an. th e i;le.:til'.n .:haracter-
istic of Aryan, and [' .rtcuilailil .: Crc;ree piCee:l'i dJre. :tnl' c; ive a
natural savagery-a ._-.ge,i he h ies.ijl ofld..-Fcrnt b..i-n-dc 'eli',pn1nt.
But Economic ':..:.ndition: may s.. lio .r and de ac, mern rlithe highest
Races as to make p.:.'.s-bl: ihe :.ld'-ptio.:n, or even creation, of myths
monstrous even as :hrn; not *.nly pos.;ibly tiut nec,~.:r'ly c ligin.uing
in the I-rains of low:-r r .:c- And hen.:, in -ntudyin.; tie varied t'.eb
.of Gireek F:l.1k-mi. holo:'. I ., would r:garid rhoc,: m %hs v hi. h hat ,-e heir
analogies among the lot e;t s-a.age;, as rc::rds cirt.iinly of cnla'.e-
ment to rmritatei l, either of hii:i o'i n, I:i .f another Face. ind as ie-
cords probably also .f mi..ture. in third economic i-r political en-
t6'.laemTent, with cerebrally lI-.er kacei.


T,:'e S':r';-'::'! ,/ Pa :s:;.. 57

to Lie found in the long. deJiperat:, and, at lcn':th. dcspfir-
n g struggle uf the Ne,-Platoniists a-ain;st Chriiti-nitv.
For the secret of thi. strucggrle-as, folloo'.n NI. Julie
Sinmon,-' I have el;evhere hho;'wn with Silne fulrnes;:--thi
secret :of the bitter anil unvianqui;ha;blc antag;oniirl of the
Neo-Platonists to Christiairii-;n is to be. fL und, not in ai v
diffcrcInce ,:if oral spirit aind aspiration, but in a profound
difitciencie of intellectual co-nccptl--ri-a differLence r:\ec'aled
especially in the inve.tlgati.' ,.f the but superliciil!y
similar Nec-.-Plat..oric and Christian i d:lctrin s of the
Trinit. Thcev aic, in fact. t.'. riV.l3 philh:,:?ophle,: of
which h the latter i nmore particularly chrtracterLedi by the
entirely Ict;.: mnearni:l it ga\e to GOaLiva. and ,i;ai.,,ld.',
which. as vet. meiiat only a Wond:, ,'" i and nut. ;. a after
the triumph of Chri.tianity,, 3 Supernatural E L.cnt, :,I
act of an E-.ternal Gd.' Fur the Neo-Platon[ic and
Christian Trinitis are nut iinrely contrastcd in the
relations of their Hypo'stass or P,:rs:on to each ,.thier.
but--.'.hat i ofT. far m:re importance-in the relations
of these Triune II\rpo:ta.es, or P'er'onl. t.. Nature, 1.
the Uniicrse. In the Neo-Platonic Theory, the Uni-
verse itself i a 2sv:tcm 'of H _potasC, nmoic' or le;ss dii nc.
all caI..;.r,..;, from God I-by a necezzary e'.pai'si.o.n. andJ
returning to Him b\i a concentration equal l neceCsary.
In the Christi:Un Theory, the \\W'urld has nreitlher prcnceedeJ

: :'.'ir.,':'E C:. .':.i'. 1'... *r.:..'.. .1. il., pp.* 3*:' 41. Th,.ina T.I. l.r.
in lthe )::<, :-..;. 1.:. hi" Tra..'latjri 1F the / ,'' *.,' o' Pli'o
(1793', -i:' that ihire. is a differ'-n' :. b,_tF.cen thde "Je.:-Plat,:ni c: arnd
Lh-e t hri.ic an Triilit, and call- l. lau. :r 'a r p.: ,, ..r'i 'n i' it-
highe-: p r.ciFoI, friom -i Fii-l oFL ,.7.u .au s I p. I -':.. ELI I..: i'a:. no
c:iear, if .an noiion I .hni th-,t di fi.;rirc recall; i.
S/ ..'. ." C,.,,"., chap. i., ".: c..- ..vi,',.' . .: .." : : '. :." ' -
S" ,' .ht.', .
-. En comprinr t la TrinFri' c:lr cnri-e a ecc cielle d'Al'--an'lri.-,
MA. Jul:a Siinun n': :umpart don: ricn moins. qui J.'.:u: plI:,':.'phies
tia.les.'- S I ET, '. .,r : .P.' i .1 -' i., -. '* .'
ai Anid Ith is all it itill mean in ith, Creel: Fuolk-onicn See, fcr
instance, T'... .. .;... '.. t. :, ,'.... .. p. o1 -.
SH enr:e l-'roi'ss;rr H u- Le .'-s d'-liiiln .: a i ?.l iaci i; hi i,' .:ill.
untrue, and hi; *r-ni:tism of -it- me''!, d.lfinition ha; but a .t;ip-lif:ciaI
plausibility. See h;s Ha:.t... pp. I ;u, .'.

from, nor has it Lbe~-n engendered, but ir ,'a!c, by God, who
is conceived as outside and independent of the world,
which may be annihilated by a flat as arbitrary as that by
which it \v'as created. The relation of the Universe to
God is thus, in the Nee-Platonic theory, rcconcl!able at
leaWt with the conceptions of Science. For if the theory
of an Emianating Trinity is but dream, the notion of
Emanation is the pregnant germ of the conception .oI
Law, and a prcophlecy, of erifiable theories of E\olution, De-
\elopiment, and I Pro'gre-ss. On the other hand, the Christian
conception of the relation of the Universe to God is a
direct ne-ati.,n of tlie iiaost funldaiiental conceptions of
Science. For th.: notion of Crcation is but the s;upremest
form ,of the notion of Miracle, and a prophecy if the intel-
lectual e:ercitatiois alone compatible therewith-barren
disputes of Monk;, and logomachice of Schoolm'nun. But
masculine Reason was ro.erpo:w'ered by femiinine Emotion.
I'ic;/ G(i''.c.' And ever forecast of Greek Philosophy
as to the con eluenclCs of,.t the triumFph of this Gal.Ilaan
Religion vwas oni' too fatally fulfilled. As foreseen and
predicted by the Nco-Platunists. the triumph of Chris-
tianity cloe-d the Schools of Philusophy, and strangled
Science: briucght with it a view of Natire and Humanity
.which necessarily led to fanatical asceticism, and hateful
intolera.nce: and by giirng to IMorality the supernatural
sanctions o:f uc.it-n ianid lHell, gave a ne\\ force andl con-
secration to that base supernaturalism of the vulgar
Ethics fur which Greek Pliilo-.cphy had begun, at least, to
substitute tlh natural sanctions ,f tle Indiidual Con-
sciecnce and the Ccomrnon Good.
i. Yet, though vanqui.-slied, n.tI in \ain had the Neo-Pla-
tonists fought. Not only before, buti for a thousand \'ears
after, the cloiirng of the Schools of Alexandria and of
Athens 9'5',9', N eo-Platonism, \with its notion of E.manation,
and ierm, at least, of the conception of Law, urged and
enabled all Christians of great e intellectual capacity to
modifye, at least, the Sumitic anthropoimonrphisni of their
Creed. Great was this influence of Neo-Platonismi on the

His/torical Ih/rodutclioln.

T ,l' S.,'.:':'c:L /,f Pa.. .'.v.

Greek Fathers; and particularly' on St. Clement, Origen,
an.d Gre-ory f Nys:I; but little, on the Latin Father,.
save the rgre.itest, St. Augustinem ; who, hoev.er, knew'
the N:o-Platonuits only il Latin translations. Yet before
the closmin of the Schools orf Athen.. a Christiir c.,nitem-
porary of the list Athenian philos.,phirs v.rot, those
treatises.. vhich go urder the namn- .:,f Di'nj.sinis the Ar,--
pagite, anid 'whliich were detained not only to transmit tL- the
\West the Nc.:o-i'latonic tradition an.d influence, but to
carry it un till the rise of Modern Philo:sophly w-itth
Descartes and] Gac[n. For it chance.J tlhat thc works
of Di,':nysius. with the Cmimentar3 of St. Mav'.imun
the Martyr, v.ere presented by the Emperor of theI East,
Michael thie Stammerer, t.-i thle Emperr -..f the \W Lt,
Le\\is the D. bo nririr, and ,.-Ire. trainsiat-d b\ that e- [ latest
thinker of the Keltic Race., john Scot (Erig'enai.' AF in
the political worldd Cliarle; the Great, s.-,, in the intellectual
v.world, john Sc:t, at the court of the great t Em.peror
grandson. Chiirle; thle Dald, t..,wers abuoc all co-iiti::mpi:ra-
ries, not only of his century, but *.,f ti,: 'v.houl M'cdlia'. al
Period 1500-loi,). An\d in" Scot "'.: se' at O'ince the
inflliincLt of Neo-Platonism, and tlie revolt of Ariaii
thouhlit against the Semits-m of Clristianity, in such ideas
as these: Ignor.nce-or, as 've n'.o phrase it, gitiost-
cism '-n Thiolog'y is to 'Scot the sig.n of true v.is.dom ;
Creation in. not an arbitrary Mnrac.le-, bu t a necessary
Emanation, iind not accidental, therefore, but coeternal
\.ith God ; the Univer;e iS a series of rGod-manilestatiori,.
or Thec'fhami, of whichh l the Trinity itself is -e ; Death
is but a met:amorphosis ;: and all Creation returns, at length,
to its prim -.r.li ii unity vithliut l'';ing iri thing: saa.v It-,

:'? DBth ihe fact .ird the chiractccrrof the Neo-Platonic influcrnce cn
St. AiugJi-.Urne s e.*n'den in ;Uch t'ne and proi'ound p-' ;,..s a-, I.Mr
inrta.rice, these Verius e rC.im cogilaiir De ; iu iamr d;ciiur, .:t verii,
est quam cogitatlur' ('L' T,':.. Hi.,- 1 Or, a;.ain ,".'inec'mu n.n
invemenido invenrirc, potiui quam inveniendo lion inensire ie, Domine
r See GUIZOT, ..,'..' .' : C':-.'. ,.' Fr: i, i. ; and Si. 11Nl .
T.II.LANDIER, Sa'' -r< i;::.

Iiisieries and imnperfectirrin. But. true t.- it S,.emitic
origin. Orthodox Thel.',i;. y evn in the Gre,.k Cliirch
.f the Ea-t, haL_ al. .av- rep elld .* hate.' r tl-ndcdi
to weaken the notion .of a i'cr:._nald Cause. frei: and
int--llig,.nt. i.hich by an act of it \v-.iil has created.
and can similarly annihilate. still more zeerr has
been the Latin Chutrch iof tle \West. Ani ScI.t, there-
fore. had the h., niir If haint hiis .':,rl rs ,.-r,:ic in :ld
in his lifetime Lb the Councils o V\alcencce 1I551 and
Langrc-- i'50'. But in the ne-::t, o:r Ful:ial Half-Milen-
nium (Iooo-i15t-'l Scot': 1 Tian ldation of the Areopagite's
Theologia Mystic.: t:c.:arnji tihe te\t-hr.:k of all the greatt
M\',stics. The God. howev.er. .f the Frrrich 4M.titiH s-
HIiigh and Richarl, al.L :t= o-.f St. X\ictir, B.;itnajenrtura,
Ger.nn. and Th::nla.:-a-,l.-rmplir- a-_. still of the i:rtlh.-:lo::
and Semitic tyi. '--a i..r-r.ina! annd I.llim (G_'d *:cparati.
from the world. But tlle Gd -..f th,: Gerinan MN-tic--
Eckait, Tauler, SusO. aln:1 R' sl.rocl:-was m'i L clharac-
teristically Aryan-an al.-stIract im per.:son:l prnciple, truly
infinite, and therefore irj-ukno.:.,.able.
io. Nor onl\ is it thns, in the re'.,:lt of the Arian minil
against the Serritic Y'ah\eh-noti.:rin :of Chriztiani,.nil, tliat
my theory of the ca.i-F of the ;.jri. i.-al ojf Aryan Pa',aniri-m
miiay be x-rifiLJ. It iiia L.,e *erified alio in the -similar
revolt against thi Sriemitic A.-llah.-jn-tion ,oif Id.lami-sin. But
here Ican do no rore than point to the prof..'iinJ noridiii-
cation of Islamisrn arnion.-r the Ar',ans of Inii-, i. f P cr-ia,
of Anatolia, and '! f L.\ilania, aridt mor,- particularly to
the Creeds of tlic Sufi', and ..f the Dr.,rv:l-c [.encrally,
and especially tho:-,.e of the BE--ktail COrdlr, to v.hich al-

38 Compare such a.-.a:e., for inlta. .:'. a; th-I : fIlom i he P'r ':'
N'atr.: 'Deus per iirli-i-r:.rllin anm-.r dicitur, dunm C plus ru il,
nn11r. unumquemqui: sup:ri:[ arr-crem I -.:. 1. I. ~Lm ct crei-
tura in Deo eti -tub-i.iens., cr L-.:Las i n cc-tura riir:ibil et inei'abii
modo creature' mi. 1-, p. 2j.. *NuTlum mira.culum in ho.: mindd,
contra Naturam Deur i'.C;, Ili;.nur \. 2 ,. p. .i-''..
39 May this no'.r:iub hl. e L.:er ir '.rin,; i, t[i-it .l re adrnii\ture of
Semic.: ..lo-d.J in certniii, ph partI Il Forench pop lhi:h .1 en.an
has recently endeaouticd t.- I-i gr .undi fi'.r ahirmini; .

T'" S':!':v':,,.' c/" P nis*;:"."/. 6 I

most the -.:hoil nation of thie T lo:; Alb.-iians bd:ong .'
Yet tcvn t \is tofold revolt :of the .\r,'an mind 'li7inst
the Semitic Creeds impo ed uIpon, it, does not e::.haut the
means of historicall,' verilin: rniy theorir of the cause of
the sur;i'al of Atian Paganism. It iay be L'erieied alo:,
by the historic rs.ult i:o the itt',mnit t' i- L.:iio .is an
Ary-an, et believe as a Semite. The f.resuppilitioli, n oi"
Sch.olastlci.in-th. ot in:,n of %lich. Ly th>: '.a, vLc I'.ai
locally :ssci;atLe \.ith CantII-Lury and its atchbislrhop.
Ansenlm i, ;i-the pies ipposition ,f S.:iol,i'rtic n \.a:
the ration:iAlity of the d.giiia. Hence St. Ansclmn' CJ'.-
S '.'.'....'.,;a ,-- I bt li,:.ve in -:IdlLr to under. t.AT1.'" P iut
the attempt ti:o Underst nd iendeld 'tith thi. iipo-,iilit;yl ,
cf belieirin;. For it ended ..ith t[hE f-it-l altirmrati:,n
that a. thing mini.ht Lbe at oni..'. Jo,ati:ally tri.e iand
rationally false. LiA the end of the Fifteecth Centtuiy
the Aristcitelian lO'mrnpon:itiiis Ib',Id!,y applied this coin-
clusion, not only, t,-. the jdonm i f:i l the inini:rtality
of the soul, liLbut to all thle greater problems oif Philo-
sophy. And the Siteenth Century" is chara.cteri.-ed not
tinly bi that '. rtuail o'.eLthr,1: .alI :f Semilic Chri-sti. nit,
as an intillZctual s,,tW riI v.lhiI:h \,as thle ilo iC: al result
of Scholastic disput:tiun ; but b, a rLilh th of Scieence and
Philosophy, due to the n,.-.' fo.ci :l;i\ei to thle lstrug'.lini
Reason of the \West biy icconnct tion \ ithi Clasical
Arvan thought unloniin.itd a1 yet Iy Semitisin. It
is true that the very cIL--itut that sa'.\' the ri-e of a

S'e Doz '.'. ." ..... .\ C : r.r T ': ',.
S .. -. '; .... ,* 1)E NI l ' .
i.; i ,.'." l i :.'. ,'-" ., T f n.:Li.iCi;. .. :.i. i..*i a ri', .:. .... ,i i "- .'
cL 11. .. ..
L ;: -,, -tc.
r l ee.ii illh. Si henih CeriitL thie Ie.iinlr- A ihe ,.-.dern. and
the .Sr.th Ccnr ur y E.:., ie be -inn ;n; n the Cl ,ic:al 1-erLod, rrman,
ren-iarkable analoa i. miglh bIe p.-int -.J oiut. Sui.:,-e h.:Ier e., here
to ri.'te tc t, ih i:n the : :.i C.-rijy r..c. llie e C, -- inl.-i ci.-i"m.--n use
demotic .rnd alph.il.i,:c init:.-ed'J -o hirni'ic anid hi.-r.1i lpl h.: %riin g :
so. in the S;\tei nth Cenrtuwi ail : ,.Iii: a uper,-edi d bi- pinrin-. And
similar were the intelle.itui llv crlr.ln,:hi:ir." t huli S the new pi :lc.,l
art that ,i- tin-.ui'h.t each .:. ithei .e Centui e:- r pt,.C:- t c ..

.1/is/c ira! In I17'(/'7

Science and Philosophy bIy which thinkers \.ere more
and more emancipitc-d from tlie domination of the
Semitic notions cf Creation and Mir:ile, this very century\
saw., in another direetinn. a ncor, dr.rnination -i'en, in
Western Europ... at least. to thc-i Semitic notions as
anti-social as they are anti-sientiice. Yet thi i. ver fact
might be cited in proof of the neessity of Special
Economic Condi'ti'.nz to induce in Arnans belief in the
God of Semites. It 'A.ould. hc .\'- r, be hLre out 4.f place
even to attempt to indicate the E:ononi,: Conditions that.
in the Sixteenth Century, at once created the industrial
Middle Classes, and ma-de succe.-iful anlionf them that
\W.Vstrn Reforrriati-n, and E\langelicalism which more
closl3 than ever enchained in I'J.l is ; iup rstit iicns. It must
uftlice to remark that. Just as the politic_-l Barbnrismn of
the NWest caused th- Latin Fathcirs to b-- far more domi-
nated by Semitism than the Greekl Fathers: so. the
economic Individua!srm of the \\We has caused the \\est
European Peoples to L.c. since the Reformati.-n, far more-
dominated by Scmiitism than the East European Peoples
and particularly the Gre::.. And very inte:reting. I think
it is, to note that. just a: the Greeil Father; were less
Semitic in their Theol..-,cv than the Latin Fathers : so.
the Greek People are more Pagan nov. in their Folk-.onzs
than any of the W\'.t--rn Pc ples.
Ix. But was w.'ri!:ci, :/J. d,,. I. 't':f:'iu'i/:.' And the
large \iev\given of the history of Civilizati:,n by that General
Theory43 from which the thesis i:,f thl- present Essay is a
deduction, should enable us to ee., not ornly the Cause of
the Survival of Ar\yan Pacanisnm in such a fact as the
irreconcilable\ antithetic character ,f tlhe Smitic notion
at the core of th: conqucrinn Rlel;:ion-but should enable
us to see also the reason, the utility, the justification of
the temporary conquest effected by this Semitic notion-
this notion of an interfering P.rsonal God. and hence

42 E}) no means, Ioe.'.'r.r, rd,. 1 acn:cept iih He;el the conrciic of
this maxim : W as : ..I .: .;: '.-i: :'s:./.i- :':, : .';.'..
43 See above, p. 46

The7 S.rviv-al of Pagar.ism.

Creation and Miracle. The moral sentiment and enthu-
si'ani--the Love, in the highest sense of the tt cm-w\hich,
as the result of the ,rL:at Revolution of the Sixth Century
B.c., was the chief characteristic of Christianity, was far
in advance of any development yet generally given, in
the \\'e-t, to tle notion of Law. This hi;hly developed
moral S:-ntiment, therefore, could find adequate support
only in a personal conception of Deity, and a mythology of
Miracle. But ideas are worked clearly out only in con-
flict \with their antitheses. It is to the long struggle,
therefore, of the Aryan mind in Europe with the Semitic
notion of Miracli that we must attribute that supreme
det elopment of the idea of Law. which.in the Neo-platonic
notion of Emannation. existed only in germ-that supreme
deIelopment of the idea which enables us now variously
to detine it as Conii:'rvation of Energy, Correlation of
Force ,Co-ei .:t ne, Reciprocal Action, Mutual Determina-
tic-n." Recipr.ci:al Action, however, or Mhitual Determina-
tion, is but the intellectual conception, and technical
exprt:-sion of that higihet inoral ideal-Love. Adequate,
therefore, at length, to: the development of the moral
ideal. Loe, i: the developments of the intellectual ideal,
La..'.'. \Wh'n thi- is si'en. there can no longer be, for
Aranrs. a moral neccssit; for belief in that Semitic
Personal God, the '.cry notion of whom is the negation
of the idea .of Law\. Hence, Atheism. But it is an
Atheism that nmens denial only of the Semitic God, and
particilal-ly :of the God of the Jews. It is an Atheism
that is but a. return to the God of our Aryan fore-
fathers ; a return to that impersonal conception of the
Infinite and Eternal.' through which alone we can
The e.,ircine difference .of the conditions of the struggle, in the
East, bet.ceen Arian thought and imposed Semitism, as well as the
\ery much litLr date of the b L.ininn. iof that struggle-in Persia, the
Seventh Century (lraa',;d Ibn Abi \\al-ku'. 636-41), and in India, the
Ele.emnh (Mlahimud cf Gh'i:ni, loo1-4)1 or rather the Twelfth Century
(Molchammed o-f Ghore, rI ':i- I ':oy-surticiently e'.plan the fila that, as
the reCult of that ijrugle., there wa n.o development there, as in the
West, oC the scientific *:oncepton of Law
4' See ..'b:.. p. 5., n. 20.

64 H:',;''cai ln:'o t', o,:.

hilly -iter on our inheritance of the. matchlkss trceasurcs
of cla ical Aryan thought : a return toi that impiers'onal
God,h r tir'ugh the bonds of imposJed Scrniiti'ni,
at iLact half the gre .tet theo,lo:i:'ans ofl the Chritian
Churcl."'' and all the Aryin thcolo:ianc of IslaniN." have
strur:lecd ; a rtuirn to that iperi-:snal conception of the.
Infinite and Eterna::l whichh rerlers tinnecleary the con-
temptible fallacies: and deicradin hypocrisk:. oft the 'ain
attempt to recc.ncile thir Semnitic nation of n f Iintcrfering
Personal God with the Aryan conception of a Li\Ing and
Ordered Ioyn iro. the Aryan conception, in a \,.ird.of Law\:
a r,.turn to that worldviczw of our Aryan fort-father; in
\\hiclh Go is the sacred nanlm. not .olf a licttiti ous Divinity
indepe!ndent of Nature, but of the di\ine facts ,of Nature
itself, and of that s ipr,:nv-et fact of all, the C.i-c.lSTiNG.
I Ft NI.r T C.
See .'.': ", pp. tn--:.
M A'... p. iw,, n. 37.


blN SitL.iF (; FNNI n\hOj rit -Ill\'iI v 'uz;. c;- d rihe.e Transla-
ti:on, h:Ai dirLcted the cli:ecitir of the F:ll;k-onis with the aim
of giving a-. Lo:,pnlect .1 vie\.' s po:, ible of ill the various
pha.i- of G.rc:k F.olk.liie. A illuniratina., rierefore, all the
nine Section'rs o: I C.la-.'triculion o Greek F:.1k.-n:---a
clrasiication based nri ueincral I rirni'ples 'hlich he may here-
after haWec an t,[':'rtinlitvy Crl illuitratiIn_ andI defending-this
CCollction of Tr.nla-ti.rn riv.y, I hteici I'-irly claim to stand
quite- alone in it- -rompleter e:s. 1 lie Son-s belong, however,
exclus; icl to o thir pr,:in:e- ..I' Albinia. Therily, and Mace-
donia: and the\ may thus haven an addJinonal interest as
ex|rSio:ns o-f tle Folk-life of" Encilaed Greece.' The
(riLinawl w-ill. therefore, bi found chliel;\ in ARAVANDINOS'
S, : '," : ,'.'". .I\.H...1.-.: -'. : 'H-.,;u iSS:., 11i'1 CECONOmIDES'
. _.' '.' .. .' .:. ;. ..' i.- -,. '( :; --..U t88 ). B ut in
crdc:r to th c om.,reh,.n i\re:'nre aimed] at, tr.arnlations are also
_ch- n lrom K iN ,'s- .5 .y.-: '" '.:" (T,.*..:I'.?,'. ,r ; via.
"'E' "..,,.:, l~j1 33 ; P.: .1 \' -. /"'." iN.7," '. ''':. IT .'*: ...'..'I. P zat yxi a,
i"6o ; 1 'r .,.-' 'I _IL ...'. ....' .-.. r,., c.,.*,' A o'para, r861);
arnd \; riiiu-- ithcr S. ':rces
My Translatirons ha:ivr, ;r. veryv Lac, bici made directly
from tlhe Gr~~kr tit'.i, and withoutt recfrence to other
tranl il.irSm, eicn in the i.v ci.aMet, 31a'1.n; the Songs here
given. in vhich -uch translauonns e\xit. Mr Stnart Glennie
having ur, cd tihe iio-t c:;act r:productio:n osi0sible, the Songs

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