- 1'. -
COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOLS
PUBLIC SECONDARY EDUCATION
FOR NEGROES IN THE SOUTH
County Training Schools
Public Secondary Education
For Negroes in the South
Edward E. Redcay, Ph.D.
The John F. Slater Fund Studies
THE JOHN F. SLATER FUND
726 Jackson Place, N. W.,
Washington, D. C.
Copyright, 1935, by EDWARD E. REDCAY
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
THE MONUMENTAL PRINTING CO.
Every tenth resident of the United States is a person of
African descent. Our twelve million Negroes, in other words,
constitute one tenth of the total population. Of the 31,500,000
children 5 to 17 years of age in our population, almost 3,000,000
or another 10 per cent are colored. Proportionate comparisons
end here, however, for as commonly known, these three million
children of the Negro race suffer most unfortunate discrimina-
tion. Their school terms average 2 months less than the white
school year; attendance is difficult and irregular; enrollment
is congested in the first three grades; buildings are dilapidated
and inaccessible; and teaching equipment is meagre or lacking.
Even more serious is the instructional situation under which
large numbers of unqualified teachers are still retained and
paid salaries averaging less than half of the white school sala-
ries. Dominating all else is the problem of financial support,
involving a current annual expenditure of $87.22 per child
for the United States as a whole but an annual expenditure of
only $12.57 for the average Negro child.
Notwithstanding the discrimination cited above, amazing
progress has been made in all phases of Negro education dur-
ing the last twenty years. Nor is this a problem of the South
alone. Two million Negroes now live outside the South with
thousands more moving North annually. Moreover, the South
could not possibly meet the situation adequately, even though
inclined to do so, since the per capital wealth of this region in
1930 was only $1,785 as compared with $3,080 for the country
as a whole, and $3,609 for the North and West or Non-South.
Rather is the issue one of national responsibility, significant to
the North as well as to the South, and to be solved only through
Federal participation and financial aid.
The development of any race depends upon its leadership,
and leadership, in turn, is dependent upon advanced education.
This at once establishes the importance of secondary education
for Negroes and reveals the significance of the County Training
School which, as shown in this study, was the early fore-runner
of the Negro high school.
The John F. Slater Fund, under which County Training
Schools have been promoted, was the first educational founda-
tion in the United States to be devoted wholly to the education
of Negroes. Being first in the field it has naturally developed
pioneer characteristics and has worked out a number of basic
principles adopted later by other philanthropic agencies. une
of these has been the principle of building on the basis of
reality and of meeting people and conditions where they were
at the time of contact. Twenty or more years ago when the
Slater Fund became interested in public secondary education
for Negroes public opinion in the South would hardly have
tolerated the idea of secondary education for Negroes. It was
quite willing, however, to embrace the suggestion of industrial-
ized schools in which the Negro youth of the period might be
trained for greater efficiency in farming, home-making and
teaching. To develop these self-same schools years later into
full-fledged high schools became a comparatively easy task.
Another basic principle of Slater Fund policy, widely
adopted since by later foundations, has been the splendid co-
operation induced through its aid. County Training Schools,
in general, throughout the years of their existence have been
supported only in part by Slater funds, much of the remaining
cost being advanced by public school officials from local rev-
enues. This has proved a most influential force in stimulating
the interest and in the changing of attitudes of those respon-
sible for the distribution of public money.
With such a record of history and achievement it is most
appropriate that the activity of this oldest foundation in the
Negro secondary school field should be studied and evaluated
at this time for its own future guidance, as well as for the
many fruitful suggestions it has to offer other agencies. It is
fitting, also, that this study should be made by a young man
somewhat detached from the scene of action, yet close enough
to those who waged the struggle to catch something of their
spirit and enthusiasm for the conquest. Such a chronicler is
Mr. Edward E. Redcay, who has undertaken the present ac-
count and who seems admirably qualified for this task in both
temperament and background; qualified in background because
of his experience and close associations during the past several
years with President Arthur D. Wright of the Slater Fund;
and qualified in temperament because of his devoted adherence
to the ideals and methods of democratic human relationship.
These basic qualifications Mr. Redcay has re-enforced further
with two years of extensive research in the field, during which
time he has visited in person over a third of the county train-
ing schools now in operation.
The report thus presented by Mr. Redcay is not only the
first historical presentation of Slater Fund activity in this field,
but also the most complete analysis of the Negro secondary
school situation since the epoch-making study by Dr. Thomas
Jesse Jones of the Phelps Stokes Fund in 1915. Among the
significant findings of the inquiry, to which those responsible
for the development of Negro secondary education should give
attention, are the following:
1. There has been amazing growth in secondary education
in general during the period of this investigation. In
the Negro aspects of this growth the Slater Fund has
exerted profound influence. Notwithstanding this prog-
ress, however, in 1933 there were still 190 counties in
the South entirely without public secondary facilities for
2. Public high schools for Negroes are small and because of
this smallness require special adaptation and modifica-
tion of general secondary school procedure.
3. Negro children in rural areas do not yet share the same
opportunity for secondary education as that afforded the
Negro child in urban centers.
The recommendations with which the study concludes are
worthy of careful consideration, especially the proposal look-
ing to the establishment of experimental rural high schools for
Negroes in each of the Southern States.
In brief, students of education will find in this treatment of
the Slater Fund, and particularly in the wise and far-reach-
ing leadership of Dr. James Hardy Dillard, as reflected in
this movement, a most suggestive example of sound educational
practice. To all such, and to others concerned more generally
with the whole intricate question of American race relations,
this volume is heartily commended.
New York City.
A study such as this is possible only when many persons
cooperate. Not less than two thousand city, county, and state
educational administrators have given aid. The cooperation of
the State Agents for Negro Education in the Southern states
was particularly valuable. To all these persons the author is
Appreciative acknowledgment is made of the constructive
criticism given by Dr. F. W. Cyr, Dr. W. S. Elsbree, and
Dr. E. K. Fretwell.
The greatest indebtedness is to Professor Mabel Carney, and
to President Arthur D. Wright of the John F. Slater Fund,
without whose sustained interest and assistance this study
would have been impossible.
If this work possesses merit, it is by reason of the coopera-
tion of those who have contributed in ways too numerous to
FOREWORD -.....................----- ...... --------------------- vii
I. INTRODUCTION --.. --------------------- ------------- ----- 1
Historical Background ...---..__ ---.. ........ -- ........- 1
The Growth of Public Secondary Education for
Negroes _------___ -----_-_---- ...---- ------. -- 2
The Purpose of this Investigation _---------- 8
Methods Employed and Sources of Data .---....---- 9
Definition of Terms --------......---.--------- --. 12
Digest of Literature Relative to the Investigation 14
Summary -----------------.------ .---.----.--..-------.--.- 23
II. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOLS
IN THE SOUTH --- ------------------------- 24
The Beginning of the County Training School
Movement ---------------------------------- 24
Policies Effective in 'County Training School Es-
tablishment ----------------------------- ------------------------- 31
Aims and Purposes of County Training Schools .. 33
Teacher-Training in County Training Schools---...- 37
Growth of the County Training School Movement 39
Characteristics of County Training Schools _----- 45
III. THE PRESENT STATUS OP PUBLIC SECONDARY EDU-
CATION FOR NEGROES .---------------------- ---- 51
The Negro Population in the Southern 'States-..._-- 51
The Number of Schools______------------ 51
The Accredited Secondary Schools ----.--.----- 54
The Secondary Enrollment ..-- ----- .-- 57
The Size of Negro Secondary Schools ....-- .-------.. 60
The Instructional Staff ..------........-------------- 63
Organization of Public Secondary Schools for Ne-
groes -------------------------------------------------- 65
Public Secondary Educational Provision for Ne-
groes by Counties ....--- ----... ---------- ---- ----- -- 68
IV. THE PLACE OF COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOLS IN THE
PUBLIC NEGRO SECONDARY FIELD ...--..-------...----------- 74
The County Training Schools Aided by the Slater
Fund in 1932-33 .... ..---------------------- 74
County Training Schools: Past and Present -----.--- 75
County Training Schools and Public Secondary
Educational Provision for Negroes --.--.....--------. 83
State Recognition of County Training Schools--.. 91
V. SUMMARY AND INTERPRETATION---- --------------- -- 95
The Development of County Training Schools for
Negroes __ __ --------------------- 95
The Present Status of Public Secondary Education
for Negroes ---_-- -.------------------- 97
Public Secondary Educational Provision for Ne-
groes in the South by Counties ------____ 103
The Place of County Training Schools in the
Public Negro Secondary Field ----------_ 107
County Training Schools and Public Secondary
Educational Provision for Negroes --- ------ 111
Recommendations ---- -------------------- 114
BIBLIOGRAPHY ----------------------------- -------- 117
I. Distribution of Schools, Teachers, and Pupils Enrolled in
Public Secondary Schools for Negroes in the Southern
States in 1915-16 ................................................. ............... 15
II. Distribution of County Training Schools in Fifteen Southern
States as Aided by the John F. Slater Fund Each Year
from 1911 to 1932, Inclusive.................................. ............ 40
III. Number of County Training Schools, Teachers, and Secon-
dary Enrollment in County Training Schools, 1912 to 1930 42
IV. Number of Teachers and Enrollment, and Teachers Salaries
in 23 County Training Schools in Ten Southern States.
For 1917-18 and 1932-33 ........................................................ 43.
V. Public Secondary Schools for Negroes in Seventeen Southern
States and the District of Columbia, 1932-33, Classified
According to Rural and Urban Distribution.................. 52
VI. Distribution of Schools According to Number of Years of
Secondary W ork Offered ......................................... ........... 53
VII. Proportion of Schools by Years of Secondary Work Of-
fered Located in Rural and Urban Communities.............. 54
VIII. Number of Schools, Enrollment and Number of Teachers
in Public Secondary Schools for Negroes in Seventeen
Southern States and the District of Columbia, 1932-1933.... 57
IX. Public Negro Secondary School Enrollment by Years in Sev-
enteen Southern States and the District of Columbia,
1 9 3 2 -1 9 3 3 ......................... .... ........... ..... ....................... ... .. 5 8
X. Percentage of Negroes 15 to 19 Years of Age Enrolled in
Public Secondary Schools in 1932-1933............................... 59
XI. Distribution of Public Secondary Schools for Negroes in
Seventeen Southern States and the District of Columbia,
1932-1933, According to Size of Enrollment.................... 60
XII. Proportion of Each Size Group Located in Rural and Urban
Com m unities ............................ ........................... .................... 61
XIII. Distribution of Public Secondary Schools for Negroes in
Seventeen Southern States and the District of Columbia,
According to Enrollment, 1932-1933............................... ....... 61
XIV. Number of Teachers and Average Teaching Staff as Found
in Four Types of Public Secondary Schools for Negroes
in Seventeen Southern States and the District of Colum-
bia, 1932-1933 ................................................. .......... .............. 63
XV. Number of Counties and the Negro Population 15 to 19
Years of Age in Seventeen Southern States...................... 69
XVI. Public Secondary School Work for Negroes Offered by
Counties in Seventeen Southern States in 1932-1933........ 71
XVII. Percentage of Negro Population 15 to 19 Years of Age Liv-
ing in Counties Offering Less Than Four Years of Sec-
ondary Work and the Average Number Per County....... 72
XVIII. Secondary Enrollment, Number of Teachers, and Number of
County Training Schools Aided by the John F. Slater
Fund in 1932-1933 ............................................. .............. 75
XIX. Distribution of County Training Schools in Fifteen Southern
States, 1911-1933 .............................................. ................ 76
XX. Distribution of County Training Schools and Non-Slater-
Aided Public Secondary Schools as to Location and Years
of W ork Offered ............................................... ............... 78
XXI. Enrollment in County Training School Group and Non-
Slater-Aided Public Secondary Schools for Negroes in
-Seventeen Southern States, 1932-1933....................... ............. 80
XXII. Size of Schools Included in the County Training School
Group and the Non-Slater-Aided Public Secondary Schools
for Negroes in the South....................................................... 81
XXIII. The Average Number of Teachers Per School in the County
Training School Group and the Non-Slater-Aided Public
Secondary Schools for Negroes in the South........................ 82
XXIV. Counties in Fifteen Southern States Wherein County Train-
ing Schools Provide the Only Public Secondary Work
and Other Counties Wherein These Schools Offer the
Most Advanced Public Secondary W ork............................... 84
XXV. Relation of Negro Population 15 to 19 Years of Age, in
Fifteen Southern States to (a) Per Cent Enrolled in
Public Secondary Schools for Negroes; (b) Per Cent
Living in Counties Wherein County Training Schools
Provide the Only, or Most Advanced, Secondary Work........ 86
Tables in Appendixes
APPENDIX B -.......__ ______......... _____.. .................................... 128
Tables 1 to 4 Inclusive: Enrollment and Number of
Teachers in Rural and Urban 1-Year, 2-Year,
3-Year and 4-Year Public Secondary Schools for
Negroes in Seventeen Southern States and the
District of Columbia, 1932-1933.
APPENDIX C --__-- ---------- -- ----_..-- 130
Tables 1 to 35 Incnisive: Number of Schools by
Years of Work Offered, Enrollment and Number
of Teachers in Schools by Years of Work Offered,
Counties Offering 0 to 4 years of Public Secon-
dary Work, and the Per Cent of the Negro Popu-
lation 15 to 19 Years in a State Living in Coun-
ties Offering 0 to 4 Years of Secondary Work,
-for Each of the Seventeen Southern States.
APPENDIX D -----------.....----.------ -- ----------- ------ 165
Tables 1 to 4 Inclusive: Enrollment and Number of
Teachers in Rural and Urban 1-Year, 2-Year, 3-
Year and 4-Year County Training Schools in
the South, 1933.
APPENDIX E .. ----------------------------________ _.. __......... 167
Table: Disbursements Made to Public Negro Sec-
ondary Schools in Fifteen Southern States
Through the John F. Slater Fund, 1911-1933.
Reproduction of a Letter Pertaining to the Beginning of
the County Training School Movement for Negroes in
the South ...----------- .......-------- -- .._ ..... 28
Reproduction of a Printed Form Used by A. M. Strange
Who Helped to Establish the First Parish Training
School in Louisiana ------------- ----------- .... ________. ..... 29
Figure 1. Expenditures for Salaries in County Training
Schools as Disbursed Through the John F. Slater Fund
and from Public Tax Funds -----------__--------- 34
Reproduction of a Bulletin Sent Out by Dr. James Hardy
Dillard Pertaining to the Establishment of 'County
Training Schools _----_------------_____---- ---_. 36
Figure 2. Distribution of County Training Schools Aided
by the John F. 'Slater Fund, 1911 to 1933, Inclusive .. 76
COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOLS
PUBLIC SECONDARY EDUCATION
FOR NEGROES IN THE SOUTH
IP RIOR to the Civil War, few Negroes were offered the oppor-
tunity of attending any public school. In several non-
slave-holding states in the North they were permitted to
attend public schools along with white children, but relatively
few Negroes resided in the North and, consequently, only a few
children took advantage of the privilege of education at public
expense. Of those who did attend few reached the secondary
In the slave-holding states of the South during the same pe-
riod pfibliM-schools for white-children were very slow in develop-
ing. Public schools for Negroes virtually were non-existent, and
in certain states formal education for Negroes, directly or by im-
plication, was forbidden by law. So it was that the educational
opportunities for children of this minority race were only those
to be found in the scattered private schools for Negroes, most of
which were subsidized and administered by Northern religious
and philanthropic organizations. Educational opportunities in
these schools rarely extended above the elementary grades and
enrollments were very small.2
Shortly after the close of the War between the States, the
Federal government took the initiative in stimulating the devel-
opment of schools for Negroes in the South. Through the ac-
tivity of the Freedmen's Bureau the government literally in-
troduced the idea of elementary schools for Negroes in the
Southern states. Private organizations and individuals of both
races actively participated in establishing schools during this
early Reconstruction period. By 1875 the Southern states had
revised their constitutions to conform to the 14th and 15th
Amendments to the Constitution and to the Reconstruction Acts
of Congress.3 Thus, along with legal recognition as free indi-
xWoodson, Carter G. The Education of the Negro Prior to 1861. G. P. Put-
nam's Sons, New York, 1915, pp. 81-120.
rIbid., pp. 205: 151-178.
'Long, H. M. Public Secondary Education for Negroes in North Carolina.
Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, pp. 1-3.
County Training Schools and Negro Education
viduals, the Negro began to enjoy one of the most cherished
privileges of American citizenship-the opportunity to secure
an education at public expense.
Despite the handicaps of racial prejudice, misguided reform-
ers and philanthropists, sectional misunderstandings, adverse
political conditions, and other limiting factors, great progress
has been made during the last sixty years. The period of de-
velopment preceding 1900 was characterized by the gradual
acceptance of the idea of public schools for Negroes This, in
turn, tended to strengthen the ideal of public schools for all
children in the South. Perhaps the most important gain dur-
ing this period was the gradual recognition of the fact that
education for individuals of both races was mutually desirable.
and advantageous for broader social development.
THE GROWTH OF PUBLIC SECONDARY EDUCATION FOR NEGROES
The development of public elementary schools for Negroes
throughout the South preceded a similar development of sec-
ondary schools. The exact number of public Negro secondary
schools which were in existence before 1900 is not known. In
1916, however, Jones4 reported that there were 64 public high
schools for Negroes in the Southern states of which 45 offered
four year courses. According to the National Survey of Secon-
dary Education, there were 1,150 public secondary schools for
Negroes in 1930. This indicates a tremendous advance in this
field of education.
Undoubtedly many factors have contributed to this growth.
The popularization and development of public secondary edu-
cation in the United States as a whole must have been such a
factor. According to the United States Office of Education,
11,680 public secondary schools in this country enrolled 1,329,-
000 pupils in 1916. Ten years later the number of schools had
doubled and the enrollment increased three-fold. Considering
public Negro secondary schools separately, it is known that in
1916 there were in 15 Southern states 64 public secondary
schools enrolling 8,565 pupils.5 Data are not available for an
interval of ten years. Fifteen years later, however, the num-
'Jones, Thomas Jesse. Negro Education: A Study of Private and Higher Schools
for Colored People in the United States. United States Bureau of Education Bulletin,
1916, No. 38, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., pp. 41-43.
61bid., p. 42.
ber of schools indicated a 25 to 1 increase, while the enrollment
was 12 times that of 1916. From these figures it appears that
the amazing growth of public Negro secondary education is
not solely attributable to the general expansion of secondary
education in the United States.
Certainly the remarkable progress the Negro race has made
in other than educational fields since 1865, and particularly
since just before the World War, has been a contributing fac-
tor.6 Much of this progress has been due to the Negroes
themselves-to their own aspiration and initiative.
The growth of interracial cooperative endeavor must also be
considered. It shows a determined advance since 1912. In that
year the Southern Sociological Congress,7 by establishing an in-
terracial section, made possible the bringing together of repre-
sentatives of both races in the South. In the same year the
University Commission8 was formed for the purpose of interest-
ing college people, particularly those of the white race, in in-
terracial cooperation. Growing out of these efforts emerged
the well organized Commission for Interracial Cooperation,9 an
organization whose efforts are almost solely devoted to the ad-
justment of racial groups in economic, political, social and edu-
Then, too, the activity of religious bodies in promoting edu-
cation for the Negro must have had some effect in quickening
both secondary and collegiate educational development. Among
the most active of these organizations might be mentioned the
several Methodist Boards, the Baptist Associations, as well as
the American Baptist Home Missions Board and the American
Missionary Association of the Congregational Churches.10 Un-
doubtedly the independent Negro religious denominations ren-
dered splendid service to the education of the race by establish-
ing schools and colleges." The extent of the activity of religious
6Work, Monroe N. The Negro Year Book, 1931-32. The Negro Year Book
Publishing Company, Tuskegee, Alabama, pp. 118-122.
7The Phelps-Stokes Fund. Twenty Year Report of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, 1911-
1931. The Phelps-Stokes Fund, 1932, Office: 101 Park Avenue, New York City, p. 57.
8Ibid., p. 54.
"Ibid., p. 54.
'"Holmes, D. 0. W. The Evolution of the Negro College. Bureau of Publica-
tions, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City, pp. 67-137.
UIbid., pp. 138-149.
County Training Schools and Negro Education
groups is evident when it is pointed out that of 117 privately
and publicly supported institutions offering higher education
for Negro youth in 1933, 72 were under the control of some re-
More important than the activity of these bodies, however,
is the rapid development in Negro higher education which has
taken place since 1916. Of 92,593 students enrolled in insti-
tutions reputed to be of collegiate rank in 1916, only 2,641, or less
than 2 per cent, were of college grade.12 In 1933 the total en-
rollment in 110 institutions offering higher education for Ne-
groes had fallen to 54,163 students, but the number enrolled
for work of college grade jumped to 38,274, or 71 per cent of
the total.13 Educational advances and opportunities at the top
most certainly exert some upward pull upon the lower levels.
In this sense, this rapid growth in higher institutions of learn-
ing has played a part in the development of public Negro sec-
While the statistics are not easily segregated in order to in-
dicate the contribution to the advancement in Negro education,
it is certain that funds made available through such Federal
legislation as the Morrill Act, the Smith-Hughes Act, and the
Authorizing Act for Howard University, may have contributed
Another factor which must be considered pertains to the ac-
tivity of the philanthropic agencies in the field of Negro edu-
cation. The activity of the Educational Funds is particularly
important. With the exception of the Slater Fund, those most
interested in improving educational facilities for the minority
race have originated during the early years of the period mark-
ing the rapid growth in this field.
Two of these Funds were specifically originated to aid the
Negro's educational advancement. The John F. Slater Fund
dates back to 1882.14 Before 1911 this Fund applied its major
efforts to colleges for Negroes, and most of its activity centered
"Ibid., pp. 159.
"lThe John F. Slater Fund. Proceedings and Reports, For Year Ending June
30, 1934, pp. 16-21.
3Trustees of the John F. Slater Fund. Documents Relating to the OriKin and
Work of the Slnter Fund and Work of the Slater Trustees. Occasional Papers, No. 1,
1894, pp. 9-10.
around the improvement of teaching by increasing salaries and
enabling teachers to receive better preparation. After 1911 the
emphasis of this Fund shifted to the stimulation and development
of public secondary school facilities .The Negro Rural School
Fund, Inc. (Anna T. Jeanes Foundation) was established in
1907 and devotes its resources entirely to the improvement of
small rural schools for Negroes, by cooperating with public
school authorities in providing trained supervisors for these
schools.15 Both of these Funds are administered under one
executive and field staff, although they have separate Boards.
The interest of Julius Rosenwald in Negro education dates
from 1912, and a large proportion of his personal philan-
thropy has gone to Negro education.16 The Fund bearing his
name was reorganized in 1928, and a larger and more varied
program of assistance and stimulation in the interest of rural
Negro education has been put into effect.17 This Fund has exerted
wide-spread influence for the provision of better physical plants
for Negro schools in that it has participated in almost 6,000
building projects in Negro education, most of which have been
in the elementary field. Since 1928 its administrators have
aided also in the enlargement of libraries, the extension of
school terms, and in giving special assistance to counties where
no Rosenwald schools had 'been constructed previously.
The Phelps-Stokes Fund, established in 1911, has made di-
rect appropriations to schools, acted as a source and a dissemi-
nator of Negro educational information, and at critical times
has augmented the resources and activity of other groups work-
ing in this field.is
The General Education Board19 was incorporated in 1903.
While the activities of this Board are applied without dis-
tinction of race, it has directed its efforts chiefly toward higher
education, and all education in the South. The aid rendered
Negro education in the South has been used to help private in-
15Wright, Arthur D. The Negro Rural School Fund, Inc. (The Anna T. Jeanes
Foundation), Published by The Negro Rural School Fund, Inc., Washington, D. C.,
1933, pp. 1-10.
e1Leavell, Ullin W. Philanthropy in Negro Education. Cullom and Ghertner
Co., Nashville, Tenn., 1930, pp. 76-78.
17Ibid., p. 79.
1sThe Phelps-Stokes Fund. op. cit., pp. 3-31.
"'The General Education Board. Report, 1902-1914, p. 3-14.
County Training Schools and Negro Education
stitutions established by Northern church organizations and
Southern Negroes, and in cooperatively stimulating the devel-
opment of an efficient system of public education for Negroes
in the South. In the field of higher education the General Edu-
cation Board has acquired considerable authority and influence
through its own research and staff organizations. In the ele-
mentary and secondary fields of Negro education this Board
has always contributed large sums toward the projects of other
philanthropic Funds directly interested in these divisions. The
distribution of these sums has been left, usually, to the admin-
istrative personnel of the Fund directly interested in the speci-
fic field or project. One of the most potent influences appar-
ently related tq the rapid growth in public Negro education
resulted from the willingness of the General Education Board
to take up the task of supporting the State Agents for Negro
Education as members of the staff of State Superintendents of
Education in the Southern states. These agents stand as the
pivotal men in relation to Negro educational development in
their respective states.
In the past, two additional philanthropic agencies have
aided this field of education. The Carnegie Corporation has,
from time to time, augmented the resources of the several
Funds by specific grants.20 The Peabody Education Fund was
founded in 1867 to aid the more destitute portions of the
Southern and Southwestern states. The philanthropy of this
Fund was applied to both races, and it is difficult to segregate
that which was specifically allocated to Negro education. It
was at the request of this Fund that the General Education
Board took over the support of the State Agents in 1911. The
definite interest of this Fund in Negro education is indicated
by the final distribution of the Fund in 1914 after 46 years'
activity. At that time it made a gift to the Slater Board of
$350,000, because the latter Fund was devoted solely to Negro
Not only has there been great progress in Negro education,
but during the last 30 years the general educational develop-
-The John F. Slater Fund. Proceedings and Reports, For Year Ending Septem-
ber 30, 1930, p. 6.
2Leavell, Ullin W. op. cit., pp. 59; 83-94.
ment of the South has improved tremendously. Knight has this
"Measured by its own record . the educational progress of the
South since 1900 has been remarkable . Measured by its needs and
by national standards, however, the South is not yet an educationally
advanced section of the country. The Southern State which has made
the greatest progress should do twice as much as it now does for the
maintenance of its schools in order to rank educationally even as an
average State among the forty-eight-a place to which not a single
Southern State has yet attained."22
In concluding this discussion of factors which contributed
to the tremendous growth in public secondary education for Ne-
groes, this remains to be said. Factors which contributed to the
growth of all secondary education in the United States, directly
or indirectly, are related to the specific growth in the Negro
field. These factors are undoubtedly both numerous and dif-
ficult of analysis. Probably more important than any factors
mentioned is that which is concerned with the increasing willing-
ness of the public, both lay and professional, to support and ad-
minister Negro educational agencies. Stimulative appropriations
from philanthropic and Federal funds have been dwarfed by
the sums derived from public tax sources, a fact which is care-
fully pointed out in another chapter of this study. After all,
the remarkable growth has been in public secondary education.
Perhaps the most valuable thought for all interested in the
education of persons, regardless of race, color or creed, is that
we have seen in Negro education evidence to support the belief
that white and colored persons, local, state and federal govern-
ments, religious organizations and philanthropy have employed
and possibly learned the value of cooperative endeavor.
Prior' to the present study little or no attempt had been
made to present the historical facts pertaining to this develop-
ment. Consequently, there is need for an investigation of
the factors or agencies particularly involved in this great
advance in Negro education, about which there is available in-
formation. It is with one of these factors or agencies that the
present study is concerned. So it is that the following quota-
tion marks the point of departure for this investigation:
"Knight, Edgar W. Education in the United States. Ginn and Company, Boston,
New York, etc., 1929, pp. 489-490.
County Training Schools and Negro Education
". .in 1911 when County Training Schools23 were first established
there were no rural high schools for Negroes in the South and very
few in the cities."24
THE PURPOSE OF THIS INVESTIGATION
As early as 1910 Dr. James Hardy Dillard, the general
agent of the John F. Slater Fund, became interested in the
task of providing public secondary facilities for Negroes in the
South. At that time the movement to provide such education
was in its infancy. Largely through his leadership the Slater
Fund committed itself to a policy of encouraging the estab-
lishment and development of public Negro secondary schools
in county systems of schools. The major activity of the Fund
has centered in cooperating financially with local agencies will-
ing to share in the initial expenditures as well as continuing
support of such educational undertakings; and in encouraging
the establishment of County Training Schools as a type of sec-
ondary school planned to meet the needs of a Negro popula-
tion largely rural. During the last 22 years the constructive
and stimulative efforts of this philanthropy were applied in
612 such schools located in 517 counties in 15 Southern states
maintaining separate schools for the races.
The purpose of this investigation is to study and present
the facts and circumstances surrounding the establishment and
development of these County Training Schools for Negroes.
An attempt will be made to determine the extent to which this
movement in public Negro secondary education has developed
along lines indicated by the objectives and policies set forth by
those agencies instrumental in sponsoring it. An endeavor,
also, will be made to determine to what extent these schools
may be considered a significant part of the public Negro sec-
ondary field as it exists today.
On the basis of the facts presented it is hoped that possible
3The author was unable to secure conclusive data pertaining to the origin of the
term, County Trainin.g School. However, as is pointed out in detail in Chapter II,
these schools from the beginning were to be centrally located schools open to all
Negro children in a county. They were expected to supply the rural ele-
mentary schools with better trained teachers than were generally available
when the schools were started, and they were encouraged to offer "industrial train-
ing, laying particular emphasis upon subjects pertaining to home and farm." It is
possible that the name associated with the schools evolved from ,their functional
nature as conceived by the persons who sponsored them.
"Newbold, N. 0. "Common Schools for Negroes in the South," The Annals of
the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. CXXXX. 1928, p. 220.
procedures and principles may be suggested to aid in the future
development of public secondary educational opportunities for
children of this minority race.
METHODS EMPLOYED AND SOURCES OF DATA
One phase of the study concerned with those schools known
as County Training Schools will involve an investigation of the
early beginnings of these schools, the policies effective in their
establishment, their growth and the development of aims and
functions. This, naturally, must include a consideration of the
efforts and methods employed by the Slater Fund to stimulate
and raise the level of secondary education for Negroes. An
attempt, therefore, will be made to reveal some of the inter-
philanthropic relations whereby cooperative endeavor was di-
rected toward the development of secondary education.
The method employed for this phase of the study is pri-
marily historical. The data were selected from records, cor-
respondence, statistical and financial reports and audits, and
documents written by executive officers of the several philan-
thropic agencies who participated in the County Training
School movement; official printed reports and proceedings of
the Slater Fund; contracts of county superintendents of
schools; reports of principals of County Training Schools; rec-
ords, reports, and correspondence from State Agents of Negro
Education; reports of State Superintendents of Education and
state school laws. These original sources were supplemented
by such existing literature as could be considered reliable. Per-
sonal interviews with authorities familiar with this development
in education also proved helpful in conducting the research.
In order to determine how consistently the County Training
School movement had developed in comparison with the objec-
tives actuating those who sponsored it, certain factual data
had to be gathered. An analysis was made of the aims, objec-
tives, and policies operative in the establishing and functioning
of these schools. In light of the findings it was discovered
that the information gathered would have to answer such ques-
tions pertaining to status, as follows: How many schools have
been identified with the County Training School movement?
How are they distributed among the counties of the Southern
10 County Training Schools and Negro Education
states? Are they located in rural or urban communities? Are
they one-year, two-year, three-year or four-year secondary
schools? What is the secondary enrollment by grades? How
many full-time and part-time secondary teachers are employed?
How many of these schools are accredited? Where are they
It follows that this same information would have to be se-
cured from all public schools offering secondary work for Ne-
groes in the South if any indication of the place these Train-
ing Schools have in this field is to be revealed. Some questions
this portion of the study attempts to answer follow: What pro-
portion of existing public Negro secondary schools is identified
with the County Training School movement? How do these
schools compare with other Negro schools as to size, rural or
urban location, type of school by years of secondary work of-
fered, and accredited standing? What proportion of those en-
rolled in public Negro secondary schools seek education
in Training Schools? In how many counties are the Training
Schools the only public schools, or the schools offering the high-
est secondary grades? What proportion of the potential Negro
secondary school population lives in these counties? To what
extent do the several states rely upon these schools to provide
the secondary educational services for their Negro constituencies?
A logical extension of this phase of the investigation in-
volves an effort to relate certain aspects of the status of exist-
ing Negro secondary schools to the number and distribution of
the Negro secondary school population found in the geographi-
cal areas studied. Such a discussion should be of value when
considering the future development and stimulation of public
secondary education for Negroes. Some leading questions fol-
low: How many counties with a considerable potential Negro
secondary school population are entirely without public sec-
ondary schools? How many counties provide some public sec-
ondary educational facilities, but less than four years? How
many have at least one four-year secondary school? How
many counties provide at least one fully accredited four-year
secondary school? Where are these counties located? What
proportion of the potential Negro secondary school population
is enrolled in secondary schools in the counties in the several
states? What proportion of this potential secondary school
population in the different counties, parishes, and states is
without public secondary school opportunities?
The method employed in treating the several factors of
status relative to County Training Schools and all public
schools offering secondary work is largely statistical. A pre-
liminary survey of existing data about public Negro secondary
education in the South soon indicated that professional educa-
tors and research students in this field have been handicapped
by a dearth of reliable objective data. Much of the statistical
information available regarding secondary education makes no
intelligible differentiations with respect to separate schools for
the two races. Most specific studies in the field of Negro sec-
ondary education have been "sampling" studies. While val-
uable, they leave the picture incomplete as to actual status.
So it happened that part of this investigation had to be de-
voted to securing a more complete and reliable body of objec-
tive data than was available heretofore. All statistical tables
and data used in this study, unless labelled to the contrary,
are drawn from a special inquiry sent to every county, special
district, and city superintendent of schools in the seventeen5
states included in this investigation, and to the State Agents for
A concise and compact questionnaire26 was devised to yield
the data pertaining to status required for this study and, at
the same time, to be of practical use beyond the particular
needs of this project. Printed upon cards, and so numbered
as to constitute an accurate index, the questionnaires form the
basis for a file which lists all public schools offering secondary
work for Negroes in the individual counties of the states in-
cluded in the study.
Owing to the sponsoring of the inquiry by the Slater Fund,
which has been functioning in the field of Negro education
for 52 years; to a careful and insistent follow-up technique;
2Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mary-
land, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee,
Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia.
"The data secured by the author for this investigation are available in printed
form. The John F. Slater Fund, Public Secondary Schools for Negroes in the South-
ern States of the United States. Occasional Papers No. 29, (pp. 72), Washington,
D. 0., 1935.
See Appendix A for a reproduction of the questionnaire.
12 County Training Schools and Negro Education
and to the energetic cooperation of the State Agents for Negro
Education, very complete information was obtained.
In checking the accuracy and completeness of the returns,
the following sources were utilized: records and other data in
the offices of the State Agents for Negro Education in the sev-
eral states; annual and biennial reports of State Superinten-
dents of Education; bulletins and pamphlets released by state
departments of education; and data from the office of Dr. Am-
brose Caliver, Specialist in the Education of Negroes in the
United States Office of Education.
Throughout the investigation every effort was made to avoid
errors, by checking with as many sources as were available.
In nearly all cases where questionnaire data were checked with
such records as were usable, the factual data were found ac-
curate to an exceedingly high degree.
To obtain first-hand information concerning the study, sev-
enty County Training Schools and high schools were visited
in ten Southern states. Many rural elementary schools and sev-
eral institutions of higher learning for Negroes were also in-
cluded in the field trip in order to secure a more comprehensive
picture of Negro education. To check data, a visit to the office
of the State Agent for Negro Education in the State Department
of Education in each state was made. At the same time informa-
tion was secured to facilitate interpretation of the several phases
of the study which demanded particular explanation in view of
local and state considerations concerning Negro education.
Additional sources of data utilized in this phase of the in-
vestigation were: The United States Census of 1930; pamphlets
and bulletins issued by the several states indicating the prevail-
ing standards in accrediting schools; lists of accredited schools
and standards employed by regional accrediting agencies; im-
portant literature, some of which is reviewed in another sec-
tion of this chapter; and unpublished data in the offices of
the several philanthropic agencies interested in Negro secon-
DEFINITION OF TERMS
The term County Training School, as used in this study,
refers to those larger public county schools for Negroes in
the Southern states which are open in the higher grades to
children from all parts of the county, and offering, or plan-
ning to offer, work including the eighth grade or higher, and
which have been aided by the John F. Slater Fund. A care-
ful study has revealed that no school for Negroes in the South
has been called a County Training School unless it has been
aided by this Fund at some time.
For purposes of this study, the term status includes the fol-
lowing: number of public secondary schools, number of years
of secondary work offered, enrollment in secondary grades,27 total
enrollment in all grades in a school, size of school in terms of
enrollment, number of full-time and part-time secondary teach-
ers, number of accredited schools, the distribution of secondary
schools by rural or urban location, and the distribution of
secondary schools in relation to the number and distribution of
the Negro secondary school population in the geographical
areas studied. .
A school is classified as rural if it is found in the open
country or in a town or village having a population of less
than 2,500 persons. An urban school is one found in a town or
city of 2,500 or more inhabitants. Sometimes Negro schools
are located just outside the ordinary limits of urban centers.
These schools can hardly be classed as rural unless adequate
transportation facilities are provided. Such factors were care-
fully considered in making the rural-urban classification of the
schools included in this investigation.
In considering the teaching staff of the secondary schools
studied, a part-time teacher is one who divides his or her time
between the elementary grades and secondary subjects. For
purposes of comparison such a teacher is considered equal to
one-half a full-time teacher.
Throughout the discussion which follows, frequent refer-
ence is made to the Negro population between the ages of 15
to 19 years, inclusive. No brief is held that this age group
constitutes an entirely satisfactory representation of the actual
Negro high school population. It is used as the approximate
7In states having the eleven grade (7-4) system, the eighth grade was considered
the first year of secondary work; in the twelve grade system the ninth grade was
taken as the first year of the secondary school whether in an 8-4, 6-3-3, or 6-6 plan
14 County Training Schools and Negro Education
or potential secondary group. Since this study involves seven-
teen states, as well as heterogeneous political and administrative
units within given states, a common differential for compara-
tive purposes was needed. Owing to the divergent practices
employed by the several states in reporting enumeration, enroll-
ment, and other pertinent data concerning Negro educables, it
was found expedient to use the age group nearest to that of
Negro secondary pupils reported by counties in the United
States Census of 1930.
There is further justification for the use of this age group-
ing. Dr. Leonard V. Koos, as Associate Director of the Na-
tional Survey of Secondary Education, approved the use of
this differential for that phase of the survey pertaining to
Negroes in the Southern states. Dr. Ambrose Caliver contends
that these ages are more representative of Negroes attending
secondary school than the age group of 14 to 17 inclusive.28
The use of this age group is further justified by the fact that
the typical Negro student entering college is twenty years of
The non-Slater-aided schools are those which have never
been assisted by the Slater Fund as County Training Schools.
DIGEST OF LITERATURE RELATIVE TO THE INVESTIGATION
A brief summary of the studies applicable to this investiga-
tion is set forth in the following pages.
There has been but one reasonably complete study of the
early status of secondary education for Negroes in the Dis-
trict of Columbia and the Southern states. In 1915 the Phelps-
Stokes Fund, in cooperation with the United States Bureau of
Education and under the direction of Dr. Thomas Jesse Jones,30
undertook to supply, through an impartial and thorough inves-
tigation, the facts showing the status of Negro education as
revealed by an examination of colleges and secondary schools,
both private and public. The investigation was undertaken at
-.Caliver, Ambrose. Secondary Education for Negroes. United States Bureau of
Education Bulletin, 1932, No. 17, Monograph No. 7, Government Printing Office,
Washington, D. 0. p. 15.
29Caliver, Ambrose. A Background Study of Negro College Students. United
States Bureau of Education Bulletin, 1933, No. 8. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D. 0. pp. 14, 112.
."Jones Thomas Jesse. Negro Education: A Study of Private and Higher
Schools for Colored People in the United States. U. S. Bureau of Education Bulletins,
1916, Nos. 38, 39. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. 0.
a time when little or nothing definite was known about Negro
education in the South as a whole. It serves as a landmark
from which we can determine certain aspects of the rapid de-
velopment of secondary schools for Negro children.
The report indicates that in 1916 the District of Columbia
and the Southern states, which maintain separate schools for the
races possessed 45 public secondary schools offering four year
courses and 19 offering three years of high school work. Ap-
proximately 8,500 pupils were enrolled in the secondary grades
of these schools and were taught by 467 teachers. These schools
were all located in urban centers.
DISTRIBUTION OF SCHOOLS, TEACHERS, AND PUPILS ENROLLED IN
PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS FOR NEGROES IN THE SOUTHERN
STATES, IN 1915-16
State Schcols Enrolled Teachers
Alabama ............................. 4 541 19
Arkansas ............................. 5 253 22
Delaware ...................... ........ 1 60 11
District of Columbia.............. 2 1260 81
Florida .................................. 2 78- 6
Georgia ............................ 1 40 5
Kentucky ........................... 9 752 42
M aryland .............................. 2 781 42
Mississippi ............................ 1 49 3
M issouri ................ ............. 3 1163 61
Oklahoma .............................. 5 368 27
South Carolina ...................... 1 138 6
Texas ...................................... 13 1212 63
Tennessee .............................. 5 650 25
Virginia ................................ 5 1070 38
West Virginia ...................... 5 150 16
Totals ............................ 64 8565 467
Data taken from the report of Thomas Jesse Jones. Negro Education:
A Study of Private and Higher Schools for Colored People in the United
States. U. S. Bureau of Education Bulletins, 1916, Nos. 38, 39. Govern-
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C.
16 County Training Schools and Negro Education
An inspection of Table 1 reveals that the majority of
these secondary schools were located in the so-called "border
states." Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi and South
Carolina together are represented as having possessed only 9
public secondary schools attended by but 846 pupils. By
far the great majority of Negroes inhabited these five states.
North Carolina and Louisiana are conspicuous by their ab-
sence from the list of states offering public secondary edu-
cation for Negroes.
The Jones study reports 27 County Training Schools, located
in ten states. Practically all of these schools were found in
small rural villages or the open country. These schools en-
rolled 5,751 pupils in the elementary grades and 155 in the
secondary grades.)Several factors, undoubtedly, account for the
low high school enrollment, the chief one being that the inade-
quacy of the elementary school systems was such that few pupils
were prepared to use secondary facilities even when provided.
Another related factor of importance concerns the distri-
bution of these schools by states. Five County Training Schools
located in North Carolina and two in Louisiana, while enroll-
ing no secondary pupils at that time, had served to initiate
the movement, at least, in the rural public secondary educa-
tion field for Negroes. The location of seven of these schools
in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina indicated an at-
lempt to promote secondary education in states where little
had been done previously and wherein the Negro population
was concentrated and largely rural.
In a study of the development of public schools for Ne-
groes, Newbold31 was primarily concerned with the evolution
of elementary schools. The development of secondary schools
from practically non-existence in 1900 to more than 250 in
1928 is shown. The data, however, were complete for only
seven states and do not adequately represent the status of
public Negro secondary schools at that time. It is obvious that
the author did not intend his presentation to be representative
of the total situation. Mention is made of the fact that when
County Training Schools were started no public rural high
S'Newbold, N. C. "Common Schools for Negroes," The Annals of the American.
Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. CXXXX, pp. 209-223. (This volume
is devoted entirely to a presentation of facts pertaining to Negro life.)
schools for Negroes were in existence. "The leadership of the
Slater Fund, always in cooperation and with the hearty ap-
proval of the public school officials, must therefore be credited
with hastening the day of secondary education for Negroes."32
Dr. Lance G. E. Jones33 of Oxford University, England,
made an extensive tour of the Southern states in 1926-1927
and visited many representative schools and colleges for Ne-
groes. He found great variation in the quality of educa-
tion offered to Negroes. Vast inequalities existed in the allo-
cation of public monies for schools and the discrimination in
favor of white schools was greatest where Negro population
seemed densest. Educational provisions in rural communities
were invariably more limited and inferior than in urban
Jones concludes that the greatest handicap to the secondary
schools is the generally inferior, out-moded, and inadequate
elementary school system. He found the curricula predomi-
nantly academic and generally prescribed by state adminis-
trative authorities. Teaching was usually poor, classes large,
equipment inadequate, and attendance irregular. This study
was not intended to be a systematic survey.
Prior to the present study, the only other investigation of
County Training Schools was that made by Leo M. Favrot34
in 1921. The pertinent facts concerning the 142 County Train-
ing Schools in existence at that time are considered. The in-
vestigation touched upon the general administration and sup-
port of these schools; number, salaries, experience and quali-
fications of teachers; the curricula; attendance and age grade
distribution of pupils; and their achievement in silent reading,
arithmetic and English composition.
This study made at a time when secondary education for
Negroes was just gathering momentum was aimed primarily
at improving the Training Schools. At the same time Favrot
was attempting to learn the attitude of both races in the South
towards the Training School idea. He concluded that the
aIbid., p. 220.
'Jones, Lance G. E. Negro Schools in the Southern States. The Clarendon
Press, Oxford, England, 1928.
3Favrot, Leo M. County Training Schools for Negroes in the South. Occa-
sional Papers, No. 23, of the John F. Slater Fund, Charlottesville, Va., 1923.
18 County Training Schools and Negro Education
South was generally receptive to the movement and cognizant
of the possibilities of these schools. The work of the schools
was found not entirely satisfactory, and many recommenda-
tions designed to improve the quality of education were includ-
ed. The study furnishes the only source for comparative treat-
ment of several aspects of the present investigation, and more
specific reference will be made to it in the pages which follow.
In a study of public secondary schools for Negroes in
the South, Favrot35 reports 834 schools, of which 712 are pub-
lic, doing two years or more of secondary work. There were
63,059 pupils enrolled in these public schools. More than
two-thirds of those enrolled were in city schools and the re-
mainder were in rural schools.
Unlike Lance Jones, who found the opposite to be true,
Favrot reports that in so far as the number of pupils per
teacher affects the teaching in high schools it would appear
that the Negro high schools generally are not overcrowded and
conditions in this respect are satisfactory for efficient work.38
Favrot reported 282 counties in the South with a Negro
population of twelve and a half per cent or more of the total
population without high school facilities. Approximately one-
third of the counties in the South were without secondary
facilities for Negroes, either public or private. One-fourth of
the Negroes in the South lived in these counties.
In most states secondary enrollments were constantly in-
creasing and teachers were becoming better prepared. Favrot
concludes that the greatest difficulty lies in the problem of state
aid. When appropriations are made to various counties,
whether or not Negroes receive their just share depends upon
those in local control. Until states have worked out adequate
plans for financing rural high schools from state and county
funds, the Negro youth will have to attend high schools wher-
ever the facilities are offered, and that is in the larger centers
Robinson37 made a brief study of the opportunity for pub-
"Favrot, Leo M. "Some Facts About Negro High Schools and Their Distribu-
tion and Development in the Southern States," High School Quarterly, Vol. XVII,
1929, pp. 139-154.
"Ibid., p. 143.
37Robinson, W. A. "Four-Year State Accredited High Schools for Negroes in
Seventeen Southern States," Bulletin of the National Association of Teachers in
Colored Schools, Vol. VII, 1927, pp. 6-10.
lic education of Negroes in four-year state accredited high
schools in seventeen Southern states, and in no state was there
an approach to equality as far as provisions for the two races
were concerned. In a similar type of investigation made a
year later, he38 found that only two and nine-tenths per cent
of the four-year accredited high schools were for Negroes, al-
though these persons constituted twenty-five per cent of the
total population of the sixteen states studied. With the excep-
tion of three states, high schools for Negroes and whites were
accredited on the same basis.
H. L. Trigg,39 Inspector of Secondary Schools for Negroes
in North Carolina, studied the academic preparation of teach-
ers in the accredited secondary schools in his state and, quite
surprisingly, reveals that colleges within the state do not
supply a sufficient number of teachers to meet the secondary
demand. Of the 564 teachers studied, only 32.5 per cent had
been trained in institutions in the state.
The most recent significant study of the status of secon-
jdary education for Negroes is that presented by Caliver40
as part of the National Survey of Secondary Education. The
data reported are for the school year 1929-1930. An important
objective of the study was to ascertain status, yet at the same
time to collect and report all evidence possible which would
show noteworthy practices. The report contains valuable fac-
tual information concerning the organization of schools, the
Negro high school staff, the Negro high-school pupil, curricula
and extra-curricular offerings, housing and equipment, and the
availability of secondary education for Negroes.
The portion of the study of pertinent significance concerns
certain aspects of the status and availability of schools. Using
the best combination of sources at his disposal, Caliver found
that there were 1,150 public schools offering from one to
four years of secondary work to Negro pupils in fifteen South-
ern states. There were enrolled in these schools 101,998 pupils.
3Robinson, W. A. "Four-Year State Accredited High Schools for Negroes in
the South," Bulletin of the National Association of Teachers in Colored; Schools, Vol.
VIII, 1928, pp. 6-15.
"Trigg, H. L. "Sources and Comparative Data Relative to the Teaching Staff
of North Carolina Accredited Negro High Schools for 1929-1930," North Carolina
Teachers Record, Vol. 1, 1930, pp. 6-8.
Caliver, Ambrose. Secondary Education for Negroes. U. S. Bureau of Educa-
tion Bulletin, 1932, No. 17, Monograph No. 7, Government Printing Office, Wash-
ington, D. C.
20 County Training Schools and Negro Education
Of the total number of schools discovered, 643 were in rural
locations. Exactly 200 of these offered four years of secon-
dary work. The remaining '507 schools were located in urban
centers, and 306 were four-year secondary schools.
In 1930 there were 230 counties in the South with a con-
siderable Negro high school population entirely without public
high school facilities. Approximately 200,000 Negroes of high
school age lived in these counties. In addition, Caliver reports
195 counties offering some high school work, but less than four
years. More than 160,000 Negro children fifteen to nineteen
years of age lived in these counties. It seems that 37 per cent
of all Negroes fifteen to nineteen years of age in the South
resided in counties offering less than four years of public
Referring to County Training Schools, Caliver reports 131
and considers the growth of these schools as one of the most
important recent developments in Negro education.41 Caliver
concludes that Negro high schools are in general of recent de-
velopment and many are inaccessible to the constituency they
are intended to serve. Most of these schools began offering a
four-year program after 1915, and practically all of the 244
having an accredited status have attained this recognition since
1920. Differences in secondary school facilities between the
colored and white races are in most cases evident, and in prac-
tically every instance of major importance are in favor of the
whites. He concludes that in spite of progress made in sec-
ondary education for Negroes, they have a long way to go be-
fore the educational chasm between the two races is bridged.
Meanwhile the Negro race must continue to face the competi-
tion of American life at an enormous disadvantage.
Few state-wide studies of education reveal clear-cut infor-
mation specifically concerned with Negro education as a whole,
-much less with reference to secondary education. Perhaps
more accurate information is available concerning Negro edu-
cation in North Carolina than any other state. Long42 made
a study of secondary education for Negroes in this state. He
41bid., p. 33.
"Long, Hollis Moody. Public Secondary Education for Negroes in North Caro-
lina. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York
found that in no other Southern state has public secondary edu-
cation for Negroes developed so rapidly. This growth dates
from 1918. In 1929 Long found that there were 111 schools
offering one to four years of work. Inequalities in provision
for educational opportunity were evident, since every coun-
ty in North Carolina had at least one four-year secondary
school for whites, while 32 of the 100 counties were either with-
out public secondary schools for Negroes or provided less than
four years of work on the secondary level.
Buildings were, in 85 per cent of the cases, less than ten
years old and generally in a good state of repair. The pro-
gram of studies is predominantly academic, and college en-
trance requirements occupy a major portion of the time. Long
thinks that the program of studies constitutes the most baffling
and complex problem in Negro secondary education in North
Carolina. The Division of Negro Education takes the point of
view that curricular offerings should be the same for both Negro
and white races. Others favor adaptation to the peculiar needs
of a minority group. Long offers no solution, but recommends
study of the problem in great detail. With reference to the aims
and interests of students he finds that secondary students en-
tertain vocational aims they will never attain. Failure of attain-
ment is, in most cases, due to factors involving finances or men-
tal ability. The lack of a program of guidance in public secon-
dary schools for Negroes is bound to lead to much disappoint-
ment and maladjustment.
Florida43 sponsored a state survey of its public schools,
which very frankly sets forth the favorable and unfavorable
aspects with respect to the education of Negroes. Conditions
were reported as "spotty." Unsatisfactory conditions were
caused, usually, by official neglect. Generally speaking, the State
authorities were more friendly than local authorities. County
Superintendents did not supervise their Negro schools. The
curricula of Negro schools lacked adaptation to the needs of
the group which the schools were intended to serve. Atten-
\43Educational Survey Commission and Survey Staf Report to the Legislature of
the State of Florida. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University,
New York City, 1929.
Educational Survey Commission. Offcial Report on The Education of Negroes in
Florida. Reprint by the State Department of Education, Tallahassee, Florida.
County Training Schools and Negro Education
tion is called to the fact that the state supervision of Negro
schools has been ineffective, and subsequent development of
Negro high schools calls for intelligent guidance.
The County Training Schools, with one or two exceptions,
were not doing the work for which they were intended, nor
were they contributing what they might contribute to the
progress of Negro education.4
Any other Southern state would find in this report an ex-
ample for self criticism concerning the status of its provision
for the education of its Negroes. The survey could have been
more effectively presented if significant data for elementary
and secondary levels had been clearly distinguished.
W. E. Turner45 treats the development of secondary schools
for Negroes in Tennessee. As early as 1899 there was estab-
lished in Nashville a school offering high school work, but
according to Turner the work amounted to little more than
seventh grade work. It is interestingly pointed out that in
1915, when S. L. Smith attempted to establish County Train-
ing Schools in three densely Negro populated counties-Hay-
wood, Shelby and Fayette-he found it impossible to find stu-
dents prepared for high school work. The first high school in
Tennessee to be approved by the State Department of Educa-
tion, or any other accrediting agency, was the County Train-
ing School at Dyersburg. It was approved in 1920.
The history and status of Negro education in East Texas
has been traced by W. R. Davis.46 Little progress in secon-
dary education was made before 1911, when the law for classifi-
cation of high schools was passed, calling for grouping by the
State Department of Education into schools of first, second,
and third class. The major development in Negro secondary
schools came in the last decade, for prior to 1925 little at-
tempt was made by the State to classify Negro schools. In
1931 only 47 out of 300 schools had been classified by the com-
mittee on classification.
"Educational Survey Commission. Official Report on the Education of Negroes
in Florida, p. 23.
4Turner, W. E. A Survey of Negro High Schools in Tennessee. Unpublished
Masters' Thesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn., 1932.
"Davis, W. R. The Development aind Present Status of Negro Education in
East Texas. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, New
York, N. Y., 1934.
Davis found that insufficient laboratory equipment and
library facilities, excessive size of classes, short terms, low sal-
aries, and inadequate buildings retarded the growth of classified
Negro secondary schools. While Negroes constitute one-third
of the total scholastic population of Texas, only 47 classified
high schools have been developed, as contrasted with 848 such
high schools for white students. He believes that the County
Training School movement promises to relieve the Negro secon-
dary problem, as it is an attempt to supply the need for con-
solidated rural high schools.
These studies considered as a whole indicate that great
progress has been made in the development of secondary edu-
cation for Negroes during the past 18 years. The development,
however, has not been uniform and great variation characterizes
the secondary educational facilities provided by the several
states or by the counties of a single state.
An accurate account of the actual status of public Negro
secondary education in the Southern states cannot be obtained
from these studies.
Differences in secondary school facilities provided for the
two races are stressed in these studies and in most cases are in
favor of the majority group. It is quite evident that there is
still much to be done in providing for the education of
Negroes if they are to be granted an opportunity to utilize
education for what it is worth.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOLS
IN THE SOUTH
SOUTH of that somewhat vague boundary known as the
Mason-Dixon line, public education has, for many years,
been facing the social, political and economic problems
involved in seeking ways and means whereby two races might
live together under difficult conditions. While the task of pro-
viding educational facilities for the majority race was difficult,
it was more so with reference to the Negro. The persistent and
deep-rooted misunderstandings and prejudices about interracial
relations forced the South, with its low per capital wealth,' to
support two systems of schools. Under the handicap of inter-
racial differences, poverty and ignorance, progress in Negro
education has, in most respects, lagged decidedly behind edu-
cation for whites. Those persons concerned with the progress
of Negro education have been faced, not only with the problem
of stimulating better educational provisions, but also with the
necessity of adapting education to the prevailing aspects of
Negro rural life in the ,South. The County Training Schools
resulted from the attempt to meet this need.
THE BEGINNING OF THE COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOL MOVEMENT
Throughout the Southern states which maintain separate
schools for the two races, mention of County Training Schools
for Negroes usually leads to a consideration of the John F.
In the year 1882, Mr. John F. Slater, of Norwich, Connecti-
cut, founded the Fund which bears his name. The committal
SAverage per capital wealth of the South was $1,785; the non-South $3,609 and
the United States $3,088 in 1929-1930. See McCuistion. Fred. Financing Schools in
the South, 1930. (Issued by State Directors of Educational Research as a part of
the Proceedings of the Conference held at Peabody College, December 5th and
6th, 1930, Cotton States Building, Nashville, Tennessee, p. 30.) p. 6.
2 For purposes of this study, only schools assisted by the Slater Fund as County
Training Schools are considered. The states maintaining separate schools for the races
follow: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mary-
land, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee,
Texas, Virginia and West Virginia.
Development of County Training Schools in South
letter which was written to the first Board of Trustees on
March 4, 1882, stated that he was motivated in the establish-
ment of such a fund by the precedent set by the Peabody Edu-
cation Fund.3 The sum of $1,000,000 was appropriated for the
establishment of the Slater Fund for the general purpose of
uplifting the lately emancipated population of the Southern
states and their posterity by conferring on them the blessings
of a Christian education.4 The "largest liberty" as to chang-
ing methods of applying the income of the fund was given,
and authority was granted to invest the capital, after a lapse
of thirty years, in order to make advantages for education
more accessible to poor students of the Negro race. The fund
was to be administered in no partisan, sectional, or sectarian
spirit. The Honorable Rutherford B. Hayes was designated as
the first president of the corporation. This Educational Fund
was the first ever to devote its entire efforts toward improvement
of Negro educational opportunities. At the fourth meeting of
the Trustees held on October 16, 1883, a matter of policy was
stated as follows:
"RESOLVED, that . in all cases where appropriations are
made to schools, colleges, or institutions . it is particularly desir-
able to make such appropriations dependent upon a like or larger
sum being raised for the same specific purpose by the parties
It is significant that nearly all other educational founda-
tions have been substantially in agreement with this policy.
On February 6, 1883, Congress passed a joint resolution ex-
pressing appreciation for Mr. Slater's philanthropy and appro-
priated the money necessary to provide a gold medal, which
was later presented to him.
It has been said that the first great educational fund was
the Peabody Education Fund, and The John F. Slater Fund
was the second.6
While County Training Schools have been supported co-
3 Trustees of the John F. Slater Fund. Documents Relating to the Origin and
Work of the Slater Trustees. Occasional Papers, No. 1, 1894, pp. 9-10.
Ibid., p. 10.
6 The John F. Slater Fund. Proceedings and Reports, For Year Ending June
30, 1932, p. 2.
5 Ayers, Leonard P. Seven Great Foundations. Department of Child Hygiene,
Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1911, pp. 23-27.
26 County Training Schools and Negro Education
operatively at various times by at least seven different sources,
credit for the early stimulation of this development is allo-
cated to the John F. Slater Fund by common acknowledgment
of competent authorities.8
The facts which led to the establishment of one of the first
of these schools tell a story of wider significance than the
specific school situation itself.
On April 9, 1910, Professor A. M. Strange, B.S., the Negro
principal of the Graded School in Collins, Mississippi, wrote
to Dr. James H. Dillard, the general agent of the Slater Fund
and President of the Anna T. Jeanes Foundation, for assis-
tance in the employment of an industrial teacher for the girls.
"The aim of the school is to specialize two lines of work, viz:
Scientific Agriculture for the boys and the domestic sciences
for the girls. Hence the import of this letter to you is asking
aid in the interest of the girls."
By September of the same year, Strange had left Collins,
Mississippi, for he wrote next from Kentwood, Louisiana. This
time he was soliciting aid for a school to be known as the "Kent-
wood A. and I. Institute." Evidently Dr. Dillard was interested
in the idea, for on November 17, 1910, Strange wrote a letter,
part of which will be quoted. It eloquently reveals the grow-
ing economic problems of the races and the cooperative means
through which the early movement for public secondary schools
for Negroes gained impetus. Part of the original letter in
uncorrected form is quoted below:
7 The Federal Government through Smith-Hughes aid, State tax funds, county
and local tax funds, the General Educational Board, the Carnegie Corporation, the
Rosenwald Fund and the John F. Slater Fund.
8 Brawley, Benjamin. Doctor Dillard of the Jeanes Fund. Fleming H. Revell
Company, New York City, 1930, pp. 74-76.
Caldwell, B. C. "The Work of the Jeanes and Slater Punds," Annals of Ameri-
can Academy of Political and Social Sciences, No. 36, pp. 172-177.
Caliver, Ambrose. Secondary Education for Negroes, p. 33.
Dillard, James Hardy. "School Help in the Open Country," Opportunity, Vol.
1, No. 3, 1923, pp. 10-12.
Dillard, James Hardy. "A Happy Development," Opportunity, Vol. 8, January,
1930, pp. 14-16.
Jones Lance, G. E. Negro Schools in the Southern States, pp. 111-117.
Jones, Thomas Jesse. Negro Education: A Study of Private and Higher
Schools for Colored People in the United States, pp. 37-38.
Jones, Thomas Jesse. Twenty Year Report of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, 1911-
1931. The Phelps-Stokes Fund, New York City, 1932, pp. 46, 53.
Leavell, Ullin W. Philanthropy in Negro Education, pp. 95; 119.
Development of County Training Schools in South
". .I note from the tone of your letter that you are deeply in-
terested in our welfare. These is but one hope for the Negro, as a
mass in the Southland, and that hope is to have him imbibe and in-
culcate the idea of going back to the farm and there make good.
We see daily, facts demonstrated concerning the negro in the trades.
Since the northern white mechanics have come into the southland with
their unionized system of labor, painting, carpentry, brickmasonary
and various other bread winning persuits which go to make up a
working man's support in the city are now being closed to the negro,
it is only a question of time when the negro as an entiety will be
counted out of the trade life of the city. With above stated facts
we naturally conclude that the best form of education for the mass of
negroes in Southland is that form which will send him with head,
heart and hand trained, back to farm buy small plats of land build
good homes cultivate their 10 or 12 acres persue the tenor of their
way and make substantial progress.
"We have succeeded in interesting the good white people of this
section of parish and parish board of education to help us put the
before mentioned idea into execution. This school fosters the idea of
having boys learn scientific agriculture, dairying and horticulture for
grls sewing, domestic economy, cooking, dairying and poultry rais-
ing. We have cleaned up 10 acres and will soon begin fencing. We
need at least $4000.00 to finish our building and get in running order.
We therefore ask you as a conservative southern gentleman, to help
us in this movement, the best and conservative white ladies and gen-
tlemen of this section are doing everything to make movement succeed.
The mills have donated lumber, brickyard brick, the negro laborers
at the mills have signed petition to give 25c monthly for support of
institution ... We believe if this school succeeds with this unique
idea of education it's promoters must be southern men who know
every phase of negro life. We have 1500 acres of land reserved for
colored people cut up in 5 acre lots for trucking to put the school's
idea into execution.
"Thanking you for your kind letter and hoping that you will be-
come further interested in our work as one of it's promoters.
"Make donation to the Kentwood A. and I. Institute.
A. M. STRANGE."
Dr. Dillard's reply of November 23, 1910, is interesting
and important. He reminded Strange that there had been
numerous attempts to establish private colored industrial insti-
tutes throughout the South, attempts which had met with vary-
ing degrees of success. Further along he states:
"What I am greatly desirous of seeing is that . attempts should
be directed in the line of simply establishing a high school for the
28 County Training Schools and Negro Education
county or parish, which may some day be part of the public school
system. I wish, therefore, that the name of your institution were
Agricultural and Industrial High School, because the word high school
carries with it the local idea, which I think is the proper one."
At a time when secondary education of Negroes was almost
entirely dependent on private institutions, and when most of
the public secondary schools then existing for Negroes were in
large cities,9 this attitude of Dr. Dillard's was significant. In
brief, it indicates a recognition of the importance of enlisting
public support in the development of Negro secondary educa-
tion and, at the same time, would encourage making these
schools available to the majority of Negroes, since they reside
in rural areas.
Evidence that Dr. Dillard's ideas were favorably received
is seen in the reproduction on the next page of the letter of
December 2, 1910, and the hand-bill sent to the Slater Fund
office early the following year. The school was to be a high
school, the property was deeded to the parish board of educa-
tion, and A. C. Lewis, the local Superintendent of Education,
approved the project.
The scholastic year 1911-1912 marks the beginning of the
County Training School Movement as far as the Slater Fund
is concerned. Superintendent Lewis of Tangipahoa Parish,
working with Dr. Dillard, B. C. Caldwell, the Field Agent of
the Slater Fund, and Strange, worked out plans whereby the
"Kentwood A. & I. High School"'0 was changed to the "Tangi-
pahoa Parish Training School for Colored Children." The school
board agreed to furnish teachers and equipment, and the Slater
Fund gave assistance to the amount of $500 toward the salary
of an industrial teacher in the school. Lewis recognized in this
type of rural secondary school a potential means of improving
the preparation of rural teachers. This, then, is the account
of the establishment of the first of these schools. At the same
time it is probably the account of the beginning of one of the
first public rural secondary schools for Negroes in the United
Requisitions for Slater Fund aid which came from three
9 Jones, Thomas Jesse. Negro Education: A Study of Private and Higher
Schools for Colored People in the United States, pp. 41-43.
10 "A. & I." stood for "Agricultural and Industrial" in this case.
A. C. Lewis is now a State Agent for Negro Education in Louisiana.
Dr. J. H. Elk Pr dL
3 W. K. Arckm Soc. & T I
J. w. M q
W. D. Weh. May.
S S. H. ML.I.
eC t M .s.. l C..)
Sr..Tnas' .P'. llnrd,
^ "t "o Orlean, ,Ia.
, De.r S'*r:
. .. .
( -.----~- r-.~;i~-EP-U-- =
entwood A. & I. High School.
A. M. Str% e, Pricipa.
---- -r------- -- --;2
K*ntwood, LLa.r c ., 2, IIO.
Your kind and most considerate letter came to hiund a few
dayr ago and It was a grpat source o' delight to u: to Knor:
'that ,yoi -'ere interested in un. Te thank you very kindly
for the timely and anprolo.atc sufe ,;g:tion of channgin the name
f:.on instiUtto to high school which as ycui say, carries the
locnl idea.It is our aim to have this school become a part
of the public school l system of this parish, from the fact
*.hat we have deeded ou:r property. to the parish board of
educ nt ion.
To would consider: it quite a treat should you or the field
agent cone to see wzhat "7 are doing,. Mr. r.Y. Amackor, one
of thp trustees of 't.in schccl, -'ho wzs on-. of the students
of Tulnne Univers't y -'hen? :'or we-o: Dean, told me to notion
the f.'-ct that it -ould be a truet '.o us to have YOU come
and look the affair o'er *'1ith us.
:orinr. yo'u c .n a *range affairs so that yu' can get up
iand see us cre long and become a life long, friend to this
Institu t Ln.
L. ok-infg fcr. a favorably re-ely soon, 7-c bhoe to remain
)"7 ^ d ~
REI'PROnDTION OF A LETTER PERTAINING TO TTHE BEGINNING OF THE COUNTY
TRAINING SCHOOL MOVEMENT FOR NEGROES IN THE SOUTH.
(Nolicer Dr. James Hlard/ D)illard 's Note on tlhe Malrgin of the .'ltl'tr.)
Kentwood A. & I. High School.
A. M. Strange, Principal.
This introduces to-you A. M. Strange, principal of the Kentwood, Ag-
ricultural and Industrial High School for colored, located at Kentwood, La.
Of all the negro educators in the United States, we believe that his idea is
the'only correct one. He believes that his people are peculiarly adapted to
"till the soil" and that tilling the soil is their place as a mass, in American
He believes that on account of the number of white mechanics coming
from the north, with their superior skill and their unionized system of labor
the negro mechanic will soon be relegated to the rear and that bread win-
ning persuit will soon be closed to him. Being unprepared to meet these con-
ditions and in a state of hand-to-mouth existence he will soon become a bur-
den on public charity and a nuisance to progress.
He believes that worthy negroes who wish to build homes and be a
part of this country's future greatness should be encouraged to go back to
the farm and there make good. He believes that the men and companies
that own large tracts of land could do the negro the greatest favor of their
lives by cutting those tracts of land up into 5 and 10 acre plots and offering
inducements to go on that land, build homes, become producers and econom-
ical consumers, thereby adding to the wealth and comfort of Dixie.
He believes when the South gets ready to inoculate the negro into it's
civic life it will do so and not before and all the agitation under the sun
along this line is of no good. Prof. Strange is trying to put these ideas into
execution through the school that he is fostering. He enjoys the absolute
confidence of the conservative and best white people of this section. The
school needs money to put these ideas into execution; therefore we the un-
dersigned members of the board of trustees of above mentioned Institution
beg of you to give him a chance to meet your city at large and address an
audience in some public hall 'and then the various Commercial agencies
whose motto is: "For a Greater Louisiana," and subscribe liberally to this
movement. We feel that the movement is worthy of public notice, hence
we appeal to you and city to help same.
Kindly notify A. M. Strange when he can have the. opportunity of
meeting your people.
J. H. ELLIS, Pres. S. H. MCLAUGHLIN,
A. K. AMACKER, Sect.-Treas. W. D. WELSH.
J. W. MORGAN, S. FOLEY,
A. C. LEWIS, Supt. of Education. A. B. LEE, Pres. Police Jury.
REPRODUCTION OF PRINTED FORM USED BY A. M[. STRANGE WHO HELPED TO ES-
TABLIISI] THE FIRST PARISII TRAINING( SCHOOL IN LOUISIANA.
Development of County Training Schools in South
other county superintendents in 1911 indicated that the need
was felt for one larger and better school in each county." It,
also, was recognized that trained teachers could not be had for
the meager salaries paid rural Negro teachers in the primitive ele-
mentary schools. Through this superior county school, each
of these superintendents hoped to get a regular and fairly
good supply of teachers trained to do the work needed in their
respective counties. On February 3, 1911, Dr. Dillard, when
replying to a request for aid from J. H. Cole, principal of a
Negro school in Newton, Mississippi, stated:
"If there be any disposition on the part of the school authorities
to start a sort of industrial high school in the county, I should be glad
to cooperate, but I would want to know from Superintendent Mabry
something definite about the proposition."
The school was built, subsequently, through the cooperative
efforts of the Newton County public school officials, the town
of Newton, an organization of colored people who contributed,
and a pledge of $500 a year for three years on the part of
the Slater Fund.
Largely through the efforts of Superintendent M. A. Mad-
lock, of Hope, Arkansas, and H. C. Yerger, the principal of
the Negro school known as the Shover School, in Hope, the
Hempstead County Training School was established. In this
case, the Shover School was converted into the central training
school for Hempstead County. This was accomplished through
funds from the state and town school authorities, subscriptions
from the local cotton-business men, individual contributions of
white and Negro citizens, and the Slater appropriation. A
statement made on March 9, 1934, by H. C. Yerger, who is
still the principal of the school he helped to establish in 1911,
". .It originated during the administration of Professor M. A.
Madlock, who was City Superintendent at that time. Mr. Madlock
received a letter from Dr. Dillard asking him to suggest what best
use could be made of a small sum of money which he had for this
school. Mr. Madlock gave me the letter to answer and I suggested
that support be given to a centrally located school where colored rural
school teachers could attend after their teaching terms were out. At
"Favrot, Leo. County Training Schools for Xegroea in the South, pp. 4; 10.
30 County Training Schools and Negro Education
that time the majority of colored rural teachers in this section were
below the High School level in their preparation . . It is my
opinion that we would not have had High Schools for Negroes in
Arkansas as early as we did if they had not been brought under the
disguise of County Training Schools."
This excerpt from the minutes of the Hope School Board
indicates that the public school authorities were responsive to
"Be it resolved by the Hope School Board in special session as-
sembled: That it pledge itself to construct and equip suitable build-
ings for an industrial department in connection with the Negro school
of this district, provided an appropriation of $500.00 a year for three
years shall be guaranteed by the trustees of the Slater Fund to em-
ploy a teacher for said department and to maintain the same.
"Resolved further that a copy of these resolutions be given T. B.
Caldwell and a copy sent to James H. Dillard.
"Done by the Hope School Board in special session assembled this
the 25th day of August, 1911.
J. D. COTTON, President."
In Sabine Parish, Louisiana, the Sabine Normal and In-
dustrial Institute, a community school seven miles out in the
country, was made the Parish Training School through the ef-
forts of Superintendent W. S. Mitchell and R. E. Jacobs, prin-
cipal of the school. Support came from the parish tax funds,
liberal donations from the timber interests owning land sur-
rounding the school, and the Slater Fund's $500 yearly
In the establishment of these first County Training Schools
no one pattern was carried out. In each instance it was funda-
mentally a problem of local adaptation to be worked out
through a variety of cooperative sources involving both races.
There were, however, several common factors in each situation.
1. A recognized need for a bigger and better school to offer to
Negroes in the county or parish a more advanced education than
that afforded by the rural elementary schools.
2. The recognition of the need for better prepared teachers for the
county or parish.
3. The frequent mention of agricultural and industrial education.
4. The willingness to cooperate in order to secure the support of a
Development of County Training Schools in South
POLICIES EFFECTIVE IN COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOL
It has been shown that as early as 1910, Dr. Dillard was
committed to a policy of encouraging the establishment of pub-
lic high schools for Negroes in county and parish systems of
schools. The resources of the Slater Fund were directed to-
ward financial cooperation with local agencies who were will-
ing to share in initial expenditures and in continuing the sup-
port of such educational undertakings.
Certain requirements were attached to grants from the
Slater Fund. These conditions were designed to strengthen
the sense of responsibility of public authorities for providing
more advanced educational facilities for Negroes in rural areas,
and to raise the standards as rapidly as possible. At the same
time these requirements helped to avoid the pauperizing ten-
dencies which often characterize the mis-application of philan-
thropic effort. From the beginning, offers to assist in the es-
tablishment of County Training Schools have been made upon
the basis of conditions in effect in 1911-12, which follow:
1. The school property shall belong to the state, county, or district,
and the school shall be a part of the public school system.
2. There shall be an appropriation for salaries of not less than
$750 from public funds raised by state, county, or district
3. The teaching shall extend through the eighth year with the in-
tention of adding at least two years as soon as it shall be pos-
sible to make such extension.12
In the Proceedings and Reports for 1920, a further condi-
tion is indicated in that "the length of term shall be at least
The Slater Fund made its appropriations to schools upon
the understanding that aid would be discontinued after the
schools had become well organized and the public school boards
supported them completely. The following diminishing scale
has been followed as closely as possible: $500 per year for the
first three years, $250 annually for the next two years, and
12 The John F. Slater Fund. Proceedings and Reports, For Year Ending Septem-
ber 30, 1919, pp. 11-13.
1 The John F. Slater Fund. Proceedings and Reports, For Year Ending Septem-
ber 30, 1930, p. 12.
County Training Schools and Negro Education
$100 for needed equipment after the expiration of the five
years. It should be added, however, that this policy has not
been pursued rigorously.
In 1923 the necessary appropriation for salaries from pub-
lic funds was raised from $750 to $1,000'1 and in 1932 to $1,500,
for certain localities.
In 1925 the requirement pertaining to "adding at least two
years" was changed to "adding grades.""15 This was due prob-
ably to the fact that in 1924-25 there were forty County Train-
ing Schools which had reached the status of four-year high
A recent modification which concerned Slater support for
such schools for 1932-33 follows: ". . Schools that have at-
tained the status of four-year accredited state high schools be
not considered as eligible for further aid from the funds of
Another policy of significance concerns the disposition of
the Slater Fund to encourage and facilitate cooperation of other
foundations in developing the County Training Schools. The
General Education Board has aided in the purchase of equip-
ment and in building teachers' homes and dormitories. In
1920 it made an appropriation for teachers' salaries to be dis-
bursed through the Slater Fund, to enable local school boards
to raise the standard of the teaching force in these schools.17
The conditions under which such aid could be secured stipu-
lated that grants were to be decreased each year until after
the lapse of five years, when the entire support of the teacher
would be derived from local and state funds. This virtually
tended to set a minimum salary schedule of $1,000 a year for
principals, and $500 a year for teachers in new County Train-
The Carnegie Corporation and The Peabody Fund have con-
tributed sums, from time to time, to be distributed through the
Slater Fund, for the purpose of increasing the number of
24 The John F. Slater Fund. Proceedings and Reports, For Year Ending Septem-
ber 30, 1920, p. 12.
15 The John F. Slater Fund. Proceedings and Reports, For Year Ending Septem-
ber, 1925, p. 10.
20 Extract from the Minutes of the John F. Slater Board of Trustees in files of
the Slater Fund office, 726 Jackson Place, N. W., Washington, D. C.
'Favrot, Leo. Op. cit., pp. 11-12.
Development of County Training Schools in South
County Training Schools in the several states.18 Julius Rosen-
wald, as an individual and through the fund which bears his
name, has aided, not only in the manner indicated above, but
also by building many school houses and teachers' homes for
County Training Schools, and by helping to supply standards
for these buildings. When it is realized that these agencies
have augmented the monies derived from Federal aid through
the Smith-Hughes funds; the public support from local, county,
and state tax funds; and the contributions of countless patrons of
both races, this becomes a striking example of social coopera-
tion in education.
In the graphic presentation shown in Figure 1, the cumula-
tive effect of stimulation of public effort on behalf of these
schools over twenty years is apparent. During this time the
ratio ,of public monies paid for salaries in County Training
Schools to sums disbursed through the Slater Fund for the
same purpose grew from approximately one and a half to one
in 1912, to almost eighteen to one in 1930. During the twenty
year period the public expenditures for salaries in these
schools were more than ten times the disbursement for this
purpose through the Slater Fund. Evidently, the policy of
stimulative assistance to promote effort and responsibility for
public educational opportunities for Negroes was effective.
AIMS AND PURPOSES OF COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOLS
Since there were no precedents to follow in encouraging the
development of these schools, the spread of the idea to other
states and counties necessitated some determination of their
aims and purposes to lend direction to the efforts of the schools
already established and those to follow.
At a meeting of State Agents19 and others interested in
Negro education, a committee consisting of Messrs. Leo M.
Favrot, James L. Sibley, and Jackson Davis was appointed to
set forth the general aims and purposes of County Training
Schools, and to formulate a suggested course of study for these
1 The John F. Slater Fund. Proceedings and Reports, For Year Ending Septem-
ber 1930. D. 6.
s "State Agents" are agents for Negro education in the Southern States. They
are appointed by the State Departments of Education and the General Education
Board. The first one was appointed in 1910 by the Peabody Educational Fund and the
Southern Educational Board. The next year the General Education Board took
over the support of the Agents. By 1919, fifteen states had Agents.
EXPENDITURES FOR SALARIES IN COUNTY TRAINING
SCHOOLS AS DISBURSED THROUGH THE JOHN F.
SLATER FUND AND FROM PUBLIC TAX FUNDS
Year Slater Fund Publio Funds
1911-12 $ 2,000.00 $ 3,344.00
1912-13 2,000.00 4,612.00
1913-14 4,000.00 10,696.00
1914-15 8,090.26 17,986.00
1915-16 13,500.00 37,395.00
1916-17 18,660.00 55,020.00
1917-18 25,840.00 78,533.00
1918-19 39,038.00 131,158.00
1919-20 52,893.00 390,223.00
1920-21 61,500.00 340,821.00
1921-22 80,450.00 401,949.00
1922-23 63,300.00 513,193.00
1923-24 69,300.00 594,368.00
1924-25 70,028.00 767,172.00
1925-26 97,875.00 970,935.00
1926-27 106,000.00 1,104,510.00
1927-28 100,675.00 1,269,228.00
1928-29 118,479.95 1,464,368.00
1929-30 98,755.62 1,649,863.00
1930-31 97,648.46 1,752,264.00
1931-32 78,441.80 1,682,767.00
Total $ 1,208,475.09 $13,240,405.00
SALARIES PAID THROUGH THE
SALARIES PAID FROM
PUBLIC TAX FUNDS
JOHN F. SLATER FUND
FIGURE 1. EXPENDITURES FOR SALARIES IN COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOLS AS
DISBURSED THROUGH THE JOHN F. SLATER FUND AND FROM PUBLIC TAX FUNDS
Development of County Training Schools in South
schools. After several meetings wherein the opinions of county
school boards, state departments of education, and the philan-
thropic groups assisting in the establishment and maintenance
of these schools were considered, the following aims and pur-
poses were presented:
1. "To supply for the county a central Negro public training
school offering work two or three years in advance of that of-
fered by the common schools.
2. "To establish a type of Negro school in the county which shall
seive asa model with respect to physical plant and equipment,
teaching force, course of study, and plan of operation.
3. "To lay emphasis on thorough work in all common school stud-
ies, to relate these studies to the lives of the pupils, and to
develop standards of achievement.
4. "To give industrial training, laying particular emphasis upon
subjects pertaining to home and farm.
5. "To prepare Negro boys and girls to make a good living and
lead a useful life by knowing how to care for the home, to utilize
land, to make home gardens, to raise their own meat, poultry
products, milk products, etc.
6. "To prepare young men and young women to become rural
and elementary school teachers, by enabling them to meet legal
requirements of the state, by giving them a closer acquain-
tance and sympathy with rural activities, and by supplying
such elementary professional training as will help them to se-
cure the best results in this work. The need in the South for
properly qualified Negro rural teachers is everywhere ap-
In short, the purpose of the County Training School was
to offer a more advanced education, based upon a necessary
adaptation to the demands of rural life and to the training of
teachers for the rural schools within the county.
By 1924 it was evident that these Training Schools would
ultimately become high schools.21 In the beginning, however, J
these schools offered work that rarely extended through the
eighth grade, and it would have been inaccurate to call them
high schools. It seems that J. D. Eggleston, who was at one time
State Superintendent of Public Instruction of Virginia, and who
20 The Trustees of the John F. Slater Fund. Suggested Course for County Train.-
ing Schools. Occasional Papers No. 18, 1917, pp. 11-12.
\ The John F. Slater Fund. Proceedings and Reports, For Year Ending Septem-
ber\30, 1924, p. 12.
36 County Training Schools and Negro Education
Th7 John P. SlIp'r Fund,
County Training Schools
One of the greatest immediate needs is for even fairly'_ -
competent teachers in the small public schools. The Slater
Fund has contributed much to the preparation of teachers,
but in the past its contributions in this direction have been
mainly to the larger and higher institutions. There is now
great need for the preparation of teachers in a lower grade
of advancement The immediate conditions under which
such work must be done may be far from ideal, but the ef-
fort faces facts as they are. It is a fact that a very large
majority of the teachers in the small rural schools for Ne-
groes have got what they have of education and training in
their own or a neighboring county. Many superintendents o
are showing interest in the improvement of some central
school in the county which may serve the purpose of sup.
plying a somewhat better grade of teachers.
Such is the origin of the so-called County Training Schools c
of which we have aided in making a beginning. In 1912
there were three, in 1913 four, in 1914 eight, in 1915 seven-
teen. For the next session we propose to aid in about
thirty, provided the reasonable conditions are fulfilled.
These conditions, as previously approved, are:
First, that the school property shall belong to the State or
county, thus fixing the school as a part of the public school
Second, that there shall be an appropriation of at least
$750 from the public funds for maintenance;
Third, that the teaching shall be carried strictly and hon-
estly through at least the eighth grade, including industrial =
work, and in the last year some training, however elemen-
tary, for the work of teaching.
Under these conditions the Slater Fund has agreed to--'
appropriate $500 for maintenance, and in the first year,
where new buildings or repairs may be necessary, to aid in
supplying these in cooperation with amounts raised from
other sources. (Extract from Report of Director, April 28,
REPRODUCTION OF A BULLETIN SENT OUT BY DR. DILLARD PERTAIN-
ING TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOLS
Development of County Training Schools in South
later became President of Hampton-Sidney College and a mem-
ber of the Slater Board, suggested that they be called County
Training Schools, and that, when they had developed into high
schools, they be so termed.22 As the training school movement
gained momentum, the aim to develop these schools into regular
four-year high schools gained impetus.
Many schools formerly listed as County Training Schools
have now become wholly supported by public funds and are
listed as rural high schools. Certain private and denominational
schools, by arrangement with county school officials, have be-
come County Training Schools.23 There would be no objection
to calling these schools "high schools," but the term "County
Training School" is traditional in many communities, and is
looked upon with especial favor.
TEACHER-TRAINING IN COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOLS
At the time the training school movement had its incep-
tion relatively few Negro teachers in rural elementary schools
had more than the crudest kind of elementary education. Even
as late as 1930 more than 18,130 of the Negro teaching force
in 15 Southern states had less than a high school education.24
Mississippi, alone, had 1,312 Negro elementary teachers who
had only an elementary school background.25 From this it can
be seen that County Training Schools, by merely offering sec-
ondary work, gave their graduates a formal education superior
to that of the strictly rural elementary teacher. The teacher-
training function of these schools, however, went further than
From the very beginning of the movement the authorities
actively concerned with the actual establishment of the County
Training Schools were entirely cognizant of the practical op-
portunities the schools offered for giving Negroes a simple
preparation for teaching in the rural schools of the county
21 The Slater Fund. Proceedings and Reports, For Year Ending September 30,
1929, p. 13.
3 The Slater Fund. Proceedings and Reports, For Year Ending June 30, 1932,
r McCuistion, Fred. The South's Negro Teaching Force. The Julius Rosenwald
Fuhd, Nashville, Tennessee, 1931, p. 19.
A Teaching Training Program for Colored Schools in Mississippi. Bulletin
No. 61, September, 1930, State Department of Education, Jackson, Mississippi,
County Training Schools and Negro Education
wherein the Training School was located. It should be men-
tioned that the responsible officials cooperating in the opera-
tion of a County Training School are the county school board
members and the superintendent. In addition to these officials,
the State Agents for Negro Education, besides assisting the field
agents of the Slater Fund in selecting suitable locations, also
serve as advisers and supervisors in planning the work of the
schools and assisting in the selection of capable teachers. It
was a group of these men who formulated a course of study for
these schools in 1917.26 Included in the printed version, copies
of which were sent to all such schools, was the following course
recommended for teacher-training:
1. Observation and Practice Teaching
(60-minute period daily.) The first five grades are used as the
practice school and the primary teacher is usually in charge
of the teaching work.
2. Elementary Principles of Teaching.
(30-minute period daily, one-half year.) The principles are to
be worked into practice in teaching.
3. School Management.
(30-minute period daily, one-half year.)
No organized program approaching a professional level, how-
ever, was attempted in the majority of these schools.
The exact extent of the teacher-training activities of these
schools will never be known. In 1921 a study27 of the subjects
listed by principals in 107 County Training Schools indicated
that "Principles of Teaching" and "Practice Teaching" were
listed 20 times. "Methods" was mentioned in 17 instances
and "School Management" appeared 15 times. Since the
number of County Training Schools has grown steadily, it is
likely that numerous other schools have offered, at one time or
another, modest courses.
As teacher-training facilities at the college level developed,
the opportunity for the public secondary school to discharge
this function naturally diminished. With higher standards
for certification paralleling this development in professional
education for Negroes, the opportunities for graduates of teach-
"' Davis, Jackson, Dillard, James Hardy, Favrot, Leo, Sibley, James L. and
others. A Suggested Course of Study for County Training Schools for Negroes in
the South. The John F. Slater Fund, Washington, D. O.
27 Favrot, Leo. op cit., pp. 74-75.
Development of County Training Schools in South
er-training departments in public secondary schools to be
placed diminished proportionately. In 1930 eight hundred-
forty-one students were graduated from teacher-training de-
partments of Negro secondary schools.28 Of this number, 765
came from Alabama, Florida, Georgia and Louisiana. All of
these states issued teaching certificates at that time, only to
persons having completed work for graduation in a school do-
ing work approved by the State. Just how many of these
came from Training Schools cannot be ascertained. It is highly
improbable that many came from Alabama.29 It is probable
that at that time the County Training Schools of Florida and
Georgia carried on a relatively small amount of teacher train-
ing in an unofficial way. By 1932, however, except for Louis-
iana, all these states had very definitely abolished teacher-
training work in the public Negro secondary schools.
Louisiana, almost from the beginning, has utilized these
schools to serve two principal purposes. One is to pro-
vide secondary work for Negro youth, and the other "to train
teachers for the rural schools."30 In 1930 there were 28 pub-
lic Parish Training Schools31 wherein the teacher-training work
was done in the tenth or eleventh grade.32 This work, today,
is directly in charge of an experienced teacher, termed the
"teacher trainer." Each school is carefully supervised by
members of the Division of Negro Education in the State De-
partment of Education. State teachers' certificates are issued
to graduates who have reached eighteen years of age.
With the exception of Louisiana and a few schools scattered
throughout several states, the teacher-training function dis-
charged by County Training Schools is no longer of primary
GROWTH OF THE COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOL MOVEMENT
By March, 1913, Dr. Dillard was convinced of the value of
these "county industrial training schools,"33 and wrote to
28 McCuistion, Fred. Op. cit., p. 14.
-9 See quotation on page 93.
30 Newbold, N. C. (Chairman.) Report of the Committee of Investigation of
Certain Phases of Negro Education in Louisiana. State Department of Education.
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1930. Section A, Part III, p. 10.
1 Same as County Training Schools in other States.
32 Louisiana has the 7-4 type of organization.
3 The Trustees of the John F. Slater Fund. County Teacher Training School
for Negroes. Occasional Papers, No. 14, 1913, p. 3.
40 County Training Schools and Negro Education
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Development of County Training Schools in South
-State Superintendents explaining the plan. He suggested that
Nin many counties there were already central schools which
might be turned, with small expense, into the type of school
outlined. "The Slater Board is desirous of aiding more im-
mediately than hitherto the educational conditions in rural
districts and would be willing to cooperate with county boards
and superintendents . .
Six State Superintendents of Education35 expressed inter-
est in the idea and promised cooperation. Table II36 indicates
that by 1915 all states with the exception of Florida, Maryland,
Missouri and Oklahoma had one or more County Training
Schools receiving assistance from the Slater Fund. The four
states considered as exceptions have fewer Negro inhabitants
in comparison with the other states listed. During the twenty-
year period from 1911 to 1931 the number of County Training
Schools assisted during a given year has grown from 4 to
390. The rapid increase probably indicates that the South
recognized the value of the training schools; a conclusion which
is substantiated by the great gain in support from public funds,
which is shown in Figure 1, page 34.
Public support of County Training Schools was stimulated
with marked success from 1920 to 1930. From 1911 to 1920
the annual number of schools assisted increased from 4 to 142,
showing a gain of 138. From 1920 to 1930 the increase was
244. During the same interval, public support increased more
than 300 per cent as compared with an increase of less than
100 per cent in the contributions disbursed through the Slater
The number of County Training Schools assisted during a
given year, the number of teachers, and the number of second-
ary school pupils enrolled annually shows a determined growth,
and is indicated in Table III.
*8 Ibid., p. 3.
s Henry J. Willingham, State Superintendent of Education of Alabama; W. M.
Sheats, State Superintendent of Education of Florida; J. Y. Joyner, State Superin-
tendent of Education of North Carolina: J. R. Brister, State Superintendent of
Education of Tennessee; F. M. Barlley, State Superintendent of Education of Texas;
and R. C. Stearnes, State Superintendent of Education of Virginia.
36 Compiled by the author from data secured from the files of the John F. Slater
Fund in Washington, D. C.
37 Figure 1, page 34.
County Training Schools and Negro Education
NUMBER OF COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOLS, TEACHERS, AND SEC-
ONDARY ENROLLMENT IN COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOLS,
1912 TO 193038
Number of Number of Average Number
Year Schools Teachers Total Per School
1911-12 4 20 77 19
1913-14 8 41 184 23
1915-16 29 135 404 14
1917-18 53 308 948 18
1919-20 107 624 1649 15
1921-22 155 963 3782 24
1923-24 204 1297 6189 30
1925-26 275 1889 9483 34
1927-28 335 2379 14092 42
1929-30 381 *
Data not available.
During the early years the average number of secondary
pupils per school fluctuated owing to the fact that many of the
schools aided as County Training Schools had to develop stu-
dents to qualify for the upper grades. The steady'growth of
the secondary enrollment from 1920 on might have been due to
several causes. In the first place it is quite possible that after
ten years of activity, the County Training Schools were start-
ing to develop the higher grades of secondary work. Then, too,
the Julius Rosenwald Fund during the years from 1912 to 1920
assisted in the construction of 400 rural schoolhouses for Ne-
gro children.39 By imposing conditions designed to stimulate,
this Fund spurred support from local Negroes, whites, and pub-
lic tax resources. Add to this the steady influence of the
Jeanes Supervising Teachers whom the public increasingly has
supported since 1912-13, and the cumulative effect of this
growing cooperation in behalf of the Negro rural dweller is
Not only was there pronounced growth in the number of
schools, but as Table IV indicates, the larger rural schools
tended to develop into secondary schools.
"Compiled from the John F. Slater Fund Proceedings and Reports, and data in
the files at the office of the Fund in Washington, D. C.
0"Leavell, Ullin W. Phtianthrophy in Negro Education, p. 118.
Development of County Training Schools in South 43
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44 County Training Schools and Negro Education
Comparable data were available for 23 schools aided during
the years between 1918 and 1933. During this time the total
enrollment of these schools showed a gain of 52.6 per cent.
At the same time the gain in enrollment above grade 7 jumped
352.2 per cent.40 While five of these schools lost 287 from their
total enrollment, they gained 259 in the higher grades. In
1918 the average enrollment above grade 7 was 16 pupils per
school; in 1933 it was 73, in the same schools. The evidence
points to the conclusion that these schools have shown a decided
tendency to develop along secondary lines.
Another early objective of the Slater Fund was to improve
the quality of instruction by defraying, in part, the salaries
of teachers. During the fifteen-year interval the number of
teachers employed increased 61 per cent. At the same time a
gain of 144.7 per cent in expenditures for teachers' salaries
occurred. In all except three cases the average annual salary
per teacher showed gains ranging from 13 to 165 per cent. The
data on salaries show an emphatic upward trend. If the widely
held conception that better qualified teachers command higher
salaries is true, then an improvement in instruction should have
resulted in these schools.
The schools included in Table IV have been assisted by the
Slater Fund for a longer period than is usual and consequently
any conclusions pertaining to these schools must be considered
Perhaps the principle of diminishing returns operates in
some cases involving philanthropic assistance. The case of the
Lavaca County Training School in Texas is to the point, as is
shown in Table IV. In 1918, each of three teachers received an
average annual salary of $539, and they taught a total of 113
children, 15 of whom were in grades above the seventh. In 1933,
each of five instructors in the same school received an average
annual salary of $376, and they instructed 80 children, 32 of
whom were in grade seven or above. In almost identical fash-
ion, comparisons could be made for the Training Schools in
Covington and Lamar counties in Mississippi. In the cases
cited above the growth of the schools does not compare favor-
40 Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas and Virginia
have 7-4 grade organizations.
Development of County Training Schools in South
ably with others included in Table IV. With 410 counties
possessing a considerable Negro secondary population practi-
cally without any public high school facilities, it would be jus-
tifiable to withdraw aid from schools in this category and apply
the philanthropic assistance elsewhere. This should not be done,
however, until a careful study of each school has been made.
CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOLS
The large majority of County Training Schools were, in
their early days, somewhat larger elementary schools located
in rural areas wherein the Negro population tended to be
dense. Frequently the smaller neighboring elementary schools
were absorbed into these larger and more centrally located
schools. While certain of them offered some secondary work
at the time they were selected to serve as Training Schools, most
of them had to evolve gradually into high school status. As
the demand for more advanced education increased and means
for providing it were made available, the secondary grades
were added. Today in many counties in the South this same
developmental cycle is in process in County Training Schools.
In practically every case the enrollment is largely centered in
the elementary grades. The sizes of these schools vary tre-
mendously, ranging from slightly more than 100 pupils to well
over 800. The average Training School in 1933 possessed a
student body numbering 300 students, of which 46 were to be
found in the secondary grades. From this general account it
can be seen that these schools represent a somewhat unusual
type of consolidated school development.
Some of the schools which are located in the larger urban
communities have tended to develop along conventional Ameri-
can high school lines. On the other hand, the large majority,
which are located in the open country or in small rural places,
tend to adapt their educational offerings to the needs of the
rural constituencies they are intended to serve. The attempt
to aid the rural Negro is reflected in many ways. Practically
all Training Schools offer instructional and laboratory facilities
in the agricultural, industrial, and domestic sciences. These
services are usually made available to both students and adults
residing in the county. Invariably the "Smith-Hughes-teacher"
County Training Schools and Negro Education
is placed in these schools, and not infrequently he serves as the
principal of the school. In attempting to make these schools
more available to students from distant parts of the county,
dormitories are at times included as part of the physical plant.
In 1927 there were 66 Training schools possessing dormitory
facilities for students.41 The problem of providing suitable liv-
ing accommodations for teachers is nowhere more serious than
in connection with Negro rural schools. Teachers' homes were
included as part of the plant in 98 schools in 1927.42 Because
so many of these schools are the largest or the only secondary
schools in the counties wherein they are located, much of the
community, social and general activity of the Negro population
centers in them. Efforts to harmonize the interests of County
Training Schools and the communities which they serve have
in many cases met with marked success.
A better conception of the general nature of these schools
can be gained from a description of several of them. While the
following examples naturally are not typical of all of these
schools, they give a general impression of the physical set-up,
and show what is being done in some of them. The data pre-
sented below are taken from records which were made by the
author while visiting schools on a field trip.
Warren County Training School, Wise, North Carolina.
This county is inhabited by 23,000 persons, of whom 15,000 are
Negroes. Two schools offer secondary work-the County Training
School and the J. R. Hawkins High School at Warrenton. Each
school serves, roughly, half of the county. Largely through the finan-
cial efforts of the Negroes themselves and the Rosenwald Fund, fif-
teen buses have been secured. With the exception of a small section
of the county possessing only paths for roads, every section can
offer the Negro youth an opportunity for high school educational
facilities at public expense. This county serves as an excellent exam-
ple of what can be done in providing transportation.
The County Training School is located in the open country. The
physical plant consists of an eleven-room brick building erected in
1931 to replace a frame structure destroyed by a tornado; one four-
room frame structure housing the seventh grade and the elementary
school library; another frame building wherein the agricultural, in-
dustrial, and domestic science classes are conducted; a combination
~1The John F. Slater Fund. Proceedings and Reports, For the Year Ending Sep-
tember 30, 1927, p. 17.
2Ibid., p. 1.7.
Development of County Training Schools in South
dormitory and teachers' home; the principal's house, and several small
frame structures which were erected by the boys in the manual train-
ing courses. These buildings house farm machinery, cattle, pigs,
A staff of five teachers and the principal conduct the educational
offerings in the secondary grades. One of these teachers is the
"Smith-Hughes teacher," who has charge of the industrial and agri-
cultural work conducted in the school and in the neighboring county.
The student body approximates 300 persons, of whom about half are
found in the high school grades. This secondary enrollment is some-
what higher than that usually found in a Training School of this
size. The main building has a large auditorium, which seats 350 per-
sons comfortably. A fine secondary school library is also housed in
this building. The work of the school is fully accredited by the State
Department of Education.
Some idea of the school-community relationship can be sensed
from the following account of this type of activity. Prior to 1929,
the Negroes in this county raised largely cotton and tobacco crops.
When the depression set in, few of these farmers re-directed their
efforts toward producing crops which would be of use in daily living.
With the cotton and tobacco markets virtually closed to them much
poverty and suffering resulted. In 1929 Mr. Cheek, principal of the
school, with his staff and others, initiated a campaign to persuade
Negro farmers to raise corn, wheat, cattle, pigs, and chickens on a
scale large enough to supply the Negro citizenry with food. Suffi-
cient money was raised to purchase modern farm machinery. This
was sent out from the School and used cooperatively by the farmers.
The first year three families raised 300 bushels of wheat between them.
Three years later 125 families raised 4,500 bushels of wheat. One
Negro started a flour mill. Negro farmers now cooperate in using
this machinery and do much corn-cutting, threshing, etc., for white
farmers. With the money raised, they have purchased a pedigreed
bull, several fine breeding hogs, and fine Leghorn and Rhode Island
Red chicken breeders. All are kept at the school and tended by stu-
dents. All are used cooperatively by the farmers. Adult classes are
offered at the school, and garden and poultry projects are conducted
by students at their homes. From what has been described it can be
seen that this school is, literally, the farm center for the county.
The Montgomery County Training School, Waugh, Alabama
This county is inhabited by 98,000 persons, of whom 52,000 are
Negroes. Two schools in Montgomery (City) offer two years of high
school work to Negroes. The County Training School is the only
one in the entire county offering four years of secondary work. Little or
no transportation is provided.
This school is located in the open country, with the surrounding
area populated almost entirely by Negroes, and is about twelve miles
48 County Training Schools and Negro Education
from the nearest city, Montgomery. Four frame buildings constitute
the major portion of the physical plant. This plant consists of the
main school building, the domestic and vocational science building,
and two frame dwellings occupied by the teaching staff and boarding
students. The grounds have been nicely landscaped and are clean
and well-kept. The main drive has been named after Dr. Dillard,
former president of the Slater Fund, and Lambert Walk has been
named for one of the present State Agents for Negro Education.
The buildings have no central heating plants, no running water, and
all toilet facilities are out-of-doors. Electricity is supplied by a
plant on the grounds, which was secured through the cooperative
efforts of the Negroes themselves. Several smaller sheds and build-
ings house farm implements, cattle, pigs, chickens and mules. Sev-
eral acres of gardens and fields are part of the school property.
The school is organized on the 6-3-3 plan, and has enrolled 325
pupils, of whom 85 are in the secondary grades. The principal, who
holds the M.A. degree from Harvard, and three additional teachers
provide the instruction in the secondary grades. The school is ac-
credited for three of the four years of high school work that is of-
fered. One senses a fine attitude of cooperation about this school.
Modern progressive techniques are employed, especially in the lower
elementary grades. Here, however, general over-crowding prevails and
limits the extent to which these techniques can be applied.
All the girls wear colored cotton dresses, which have been made
in the domestic science classes. This is not designed as an attempt
to provide uniforms, but rather as a matter of practical economy
both for school use and in the home. The material is durable, wash-
able, inexpensive and not easily soiled. Adult women attend classes
and learn, among other things, to make these dresses.
At the time the writer visited the school the "Smith-Hughes
teacher" was conducting a class in Biology. A practical lesson was
in session. A pig, raised at the school, had just been slaughtered
by the boys, under the guidance of their instructor. In a short time
they were joined by the girls of the class and the entire group pro-
ceeded to study the animal. The teacher used every opportunity to
have each member of the group participate in this real-laboratory
situation wherein the details of external and internal bodily structure
and the functions of certain organs of a mammal could be studied more
effectively than would have been possible in an ordinary class-room.
After the boys had attended to the details of cutting and dressing
the pig, the girls aided in cleaning and preparing the utensils to be
used in making lard, sausages, etc. Throughout the entire project it
was obvious that the instructor was using this common-place rural
activity,-conducted in a practical, sanitary, and economical manner,-
as a medium for vitalized learning.
These two examples are illustrative of County Training
Schools which have been thus identified for ten or more years.
Development of County Training Schools in South
The success of their work is largely a reflection of wise admin-
istrative guidance on the part of the principal and local and
state officials. The Slater Fund has played a minor part in
providing stimulative funds and, in the earlier history of these
schools, some advisory assistance.
The final example to be submitted concerns a school in an
early developmental stage. It is indicative of many County
Training Schools in their formative stages.
The Spotsylvania County Training School, Snell, Virginia
This county is inhabited by 10,000 persons, of whom 3,000 are
Negroes. In addition, it should be mentioned that the population of
Fredericksburg city, which has a political autonomy entirely separate
from that of the county, aggregates 7,000 persons, of whom 1,200
are Negroes. The Mayfield High School is located in this city and
offers four years of secondary work to Negroes.
The Spotsylvania County Training School is fifty-odd miles from
Washington, D. C. The school was formerly owned by a Board repre-
senting several denominational interests. It has been turned over to
the county. In addition to the solitary building, the school grounds
include 250 acres of land, much of which is covered with timber. The
building is a crude, frame, barnlike structure containing a basement
and two floors. Six rooms on the first floor are used for classrooms,
and the second floor serves as living quarters for the teaching staff
and several boarding students from Louisa county. There is no cen-
tral heating plant, each room being supplied with a small "cannon-
ball" stove; no electricity; no running water; and a single outside
toilet serves the entire school. The grounds and building quite ob-
viously needed renovating.
The school offers four years of high school work, and of the 200
pupils 48 were enrolled in the secondary grades. One part-time teacher
and two full-time teachers present the high school subjects. The science
equipment represents the bare minimum essentials. There were too
few seats for the pupils, and very few text books and supplies seemed
to be available for student use. There was no "Smith-Hughes teacher"
placed in this school and consequently no agricultural work was of-
fered. The principal, Mr. Duncan, is a graduate of Tuskegee Insti-
tute, Alabama, and, while able to offer the manual training, could not
teach the agricultural courses. It was the principal's first year at
this school. He was working hard to secure community interest and
cooperation, and reported that his greatest obstacle was to overcome
the lack of parental interest in the work of the school. He was trying
to raise $200 in order to bring the school library up to the standards
set by the state. The work of this school is not accredited.
These examples are not entirely representative of County
County Training Schools and Negro Education
Training Schools wherever they are found. They do, however,
give some concrete factual information which should facilitate
more intelligent appreciation of what these schools are and
how they function. In the last example it should be seen that
much remains to be accomplished in bringing this school to a
A final caution is necessary for those who are not familiar
with Negro schools as they are found in the Southern states.
There are some splendidly equipped and well staffed schools for
Negroes in the South. Unfortunately they constitute a far too
inadequate minority and are too largely available only to an
urban population. The great majority of Negroes must resort
to far less impressive educational agencies than those just men-
tioned. Frame buildings, frequently outmoded and worn-
out, without central heating plants, without running water,
without electricity, and with outside toilet accommodations are
the rule.43 County Training Schools are no exceptions to
this general type, except that they are usually larger and
somewhat better equipped.44 Schools offering elementary work
are invariably badly over-crowded, especially in the first three
grades. There is an appalling dearth of text books, and many
of those in use are in poor condition or poorly adapted to the
students who are supposed to use them.45 The same scarcity ap-
plies to teaching materials. Both of these insufficiencies are due
largely to the fact that the majority of Southern states do not
supply these items free of charge. When it is recalled that the
South as a whole compares unfavorably with the per capital
wealth of other sections of the United States, a further reason is
seen for this educational poverty. And in these Southern states,
the Negro, more often than not, is the poorest of the poor.
Finally, one must bear in mind the fact that in the allocation of
public monies for educational purposes, a discrimination is prac-
ticed to the disadvantage of the Negro, which is exceedingly
adroit, if not downright dishonest.46
\3Caliver, Ambrose. Secondary Education for Negroes, pp. 116-117.
2'"See Chapter IV, section on State Recognition of County Training Schools.
4Caliver, Ambrose. Rural Elementary Education Among Negroes Under Jeanes
Supervising Teachers. U. S. Bureau of Education Bulletin, 1933, No. 5, Government
Printing Office, Washington, D. C., pp. 53-57.
'"McOuistion, Fred. Financing Schools in the South, 1930, pp. 16-18; 20; 24-26.
Committee on Finance of the National Conference on Fundamental Problems in
the Education of Negroes, (Fred McCuistion, Chairman). School Money in Black
and White, Published by the Julius Rosenwald Fund, Nashville, Tenn., 1934, pp. 1-22.
THE PRESENT STATUS OF PUBLIC SECONDARY
EDUCATION FOR NEGROES
BEFORE any attempt could be made to determine the extent
to which County Training Schools are a factor in pub-
lic Negro secondary education, it was necessary to se-
cure information which would indicate the present status of
this field. This chapter attempts to present a more nearly
complete statement about the provision of public secondary
educational facilities than has been available hitherto.
THE NEGRO POPULATION IN THE SOUTHERN STATES
A study of the Census returns for 1930 indicates that there
were, at that time, 9,586,000 Negroes living in the District of
Columbia and the seventeen Southern states maintaining sepa-
rate schools for Negro and white children. This number repre-
sented 81 per cent of the total Negro population in continental
United States. Of these Negroes, 1,081,600 were adolescents be-
tween the ages of 15 and 19 years, representing, roughly, the
potential secondary school population residing in the Southern
states. The next phase of this study is concerned with ascertain-
ing how much secondary education is offered for this group.
THE NUMBER OF SCHOOLS
How many public secondary schools are there for Negro
educables in the states maintaining dual systems? Are they
located in rural or urban communities? How many years of
secondary work do they offer? How many fully accredited
four-year public secondary schools are there? The answers to
these questions on numerical status, distribution, and types of
schools are indicated in Table V.
Data on private secondary schools' were not collected for
this study and, consequently, Table V presents information con-
cerning public secondary schools only. This, however, is almost
I In 1929-30 only 9,868 pupils in Negro private secondary schools were reported
to the United States Office of Education. Caliver reported 112 private schools in 15
Southern states, 94 of which were accredited.
52 County Training Schools and Negro Education
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Present Status of Public Negro Secondary Education 53
complete. Any omissions which might prevail would be confined
largely to a few schools offering one or two years of secondary
work to relatively few students and would usually involve
one or two-teacher elementary schools in rural locations. There
were not less than 2,003 public secondary schools for Negroes in
the states included in this investigation in 1933. One thou-
sand three hundred seventy-two of these schools are located in
rural places and 631 are found in urban centers. Since 67.4
per cent of the Negro population of these states is rural, and
69 per cent of all secondary schools are located in rural com-
munities, the division seems consistent. Some interesting ten-
dencies are revealed, however, when this rural-urban distribu-
tion of schools is studied more closely.
In addition to showing all the secondary schools classified
with respect to the number of years of work offered, Table VI
also makes possible a comparison of the proportionate number
of the four types of schools found in rural and urban localities.
DISTRIBUTION OF SCHOOLS ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF YEARS OF
SECONDARY WORK OFFERED
Type of School by Years of Work Offered
Type of School
by Location 1-Year 2-Year 3-Year 4-Year Total
All Schools Reporting
Number ...................... 402 462 332 807 2,003
Per cent ..................... 20.1 23.1 16.6 40.2 100.0
Rural High Schools
Number ...................... 340 373 271 388 1,372
Per cent...................... 24.8 27.2 19.7 28.3 100.0
Urban High Schools
Number ...................... 62 89 61 419 631
Per cent ...................... 9.8 14.1 9.7 66.4 100.0
Only 40.2 per cent of the Negro secondary schools offered four
years' work, and the majority offered amounts varying from one
to three years. Of the schools operating in rural and small
population centers, but 28.3 per cent offered four years of sec-
ondary work, and 52 per cent offered two years or less. On the
other hand, an analysis of the distribution of urban schools
reveals that 66.4 per cent offered four years of secondary work,
and 23.9 per cent provided two years or less. Looking at the
comparison in another way, it may be seen from Table VII
54 County Training Schools and Negro Education
PROPORTION OF SCHOOLS, BY YEARS OF SECONDARY WORK OF-
FERED, LOCATED IN RURAL AND URBAN COMMUNITIES
Type of School Percentage of Schools Offering
by Location 1 Year 2 Years 3 Years 4 Years
Rural High Schools.............. 84.6 80.7 81.6 48.1
Urban High Schools............ 15.4 19.3 18.4 51.9
that 84.6 per cent of all one-year, 80.7 per cent of all two-
year and 81.6 per cent of all three-year secondary schools were
located in rural communities. Thus it is seen that, in so far
as the Negro secondary schools are concerned, certain educa-
tional problems are confined, by and large, to those rural
schools offering less than a four-year secondary course. It is
seen, also, that but 48.1 per cent of the public four-year secon-
dary schools were in rural places although 67.4 per cent of
the total Negro population lives in rural localities.
THE ACCREDITED SECONDARY SCHOOLS
An interesting feature of Table V is the number of ac-
credited four-year secondary schools available to 148,754 Negro
high school pupils enrolled in the 2,003 schools considered in
this investigation. Three hundred sixty-seven of the 807 four-
year secondary schools have been accredited by the authorities
in State Departments of Education. Thirty-nine of these state
accredited schools have also been placed upon the accredited
list of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary
Schools;2 six have been accredited by the Middle States Asso-
ciation of Colleges and Secondary Schools; and two are in-
cluded in the list of the North Central Association of Colleges
and Secondary Schools. Of the total number of students en-
rolled in all public Negro secondary schools 79,265, or 53.3 per
cent, were found in the 367 accredited four-year high schools.
The fact that 224 of these accredited schools are located in urban
communities indicates a further unfavorable distribution of
secondary educational opportunity for rural high school students.
It should be mentioned that wide differences in methods and
standards for accrediting exist among the several states. In
all but three states, secondary schools for Negroes are accredited
' Listed as of December 8. 1933.
Present Status of Public Negro Secondary Education 55
on the same basis as schools for whites.3 There is a tendency
among the several states to accredit the larger schools, and
standards reflect the familiar characteristics of the more privi-
leged urban schools. Some indication of the wide differences in
practices and standards employed in accrediting is at least
partially reflected in the numbers of such schools listed by
states. Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina
reported a total of but sixteen public Negro secondary schools
fully accredited for four-year work in 1933. All are located in
large urban centers. On the other hand, North Carolina had ac-
credited ninety-nine secondary schools for Negroes, which were
almost equally distributed with respect to rural and urban lo-
An important phase of this investigation involved an ex-
tensive field trip wherein visits to many schools were made
in order to secure knowledge of use in the interpretation
of data, and to assist in validating conclusions. The outstand-
ing impression gained was that certain states, such as Louisiana
and South Carolina, possessed unaccredited secondary schools
which compared favorably with accredited schools in other
states, such as North Carolina and Virginia. Similar compari-
sons would hold good for other states.
This is not a criticism of the accrediting standards in any
one state. It does reflect, in a measure, the attitude of certain
states toward the general problem of accrediting public sec-
ondary schools for Negroes.
It is generally conceded that the fundamental purpose of
accrediting is to improve the quality of educational offering.
Students attending such schools, in general, should be better
prepared to continue their education in higher institutions than
those attending unaccredited schools. As Negro educational
authorities4 are urging greater selectivity in admissions in or-
der to reduce the large number of poorly prepared students
who enter, the number of Negro students enrolled in accredited
schools is highly important. If selection is to be exercised,
then a sufficient number of subjects to make it feasible must
3 Robinson, W. A. "Four-Year State Accredited High Schools for Necroes in the
South, Bulletin of the National Association of Teachera in Colored Schools. Vol.
VIII, 1928. pp. 15-16.
SCaliver, Ambrose. A Background Study of Negro College Students, pp. 104,
56 County Training Schools and Negro Education
In a study of representative public and private schools in
the Southern states it was reported that of those who enroll in
Negro secondary schools, only 8.6 per cent remain to grad-
uate.5 Thirty-five per cent of these graduates continue their
education in some college or university."
Since the author was unable to ascertain how many of the
9,868 Negro secondary pupils who were enrolled in the 112 pri-
vate schools were in the 94 schools which were accredited,7 the
entire number was added to the 79,265 pupils who were reported
as being enrolled in public accredited schools in 1933. For pur-
poses of the discussion which follows it can reasonably be as-
sumed that 89,133 would include all Negro secondary pupils
who were in accredited high schools in the South in 1933. Using
this number and on the basis of 8.6 per cent, about 7,600 Negro
secondary pupils could be expected to be graduated by the ac-
credited schools. Of this number, 35 per cent, or approximately
2,660 students, could be expected to go on to college.
A recent study of 112 out of 118 public and private Negro
colleges and universities reported 9,461 students enrolled in the
Freshman class.8 Of this number approximately three-quarters
came from non-southern states.9 When the number of those
admitted to higher institutions is more than double the number
graduated by the better secondary schools it is obvious that
the problem of selective admissions has a direct relationship to
the number of accredited schools. As things stand now it is
likely that the better higher institutions will be able to exer-
cise some selection, while the remainder will have to be far less
selective until the general level of secondary schools for Negroes
is raised. Seen from the point of view of college entrance, it
should be desirable to encourage Negro secondary schools to
meet accrediting requirements. On the other hand, it is equally
desirable that schools be adequately adapted to meet the needs
of the vast majority who do not go on to higher institutions.
r'Caliver, Ambrose. Secondary Education for Negroes, p. 56.
0 Ibid. pp. 59-60.
Ibid., pp. 14, 26.
8 The John F. Slater Fund. Proceedings and Reports. For the Year Ending June
30, 1934, pp. 16-21.
9Caliver, Ambrose. Op. cit., p. 10.
Present Status of Public Negro Secondary Education 57
There is nothing necessarily inherent in the function of ac-
crediting to prevent the realization of all secondary educa-
THE SECONDARY ENROLLMENT10
Comparative facts regarding the enrollment in public
Negro secondary schools are shown in Table VIII.
NUMBER OF SCHOOLS, ENROLLMENT AND NUMBER OF TEACHERS
IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS FOR NEGROES IN SEVENTEEN
SOUTHERN STATES AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA,
TyDe of Number of Secondary
School by School Teachers
Years of Number of Schools Secondary Enrollment Full Part
Work Offered Rural Urban Total Rural Urban Total Time Time Total
1-Year 340 62 402 2,784 3,915 6,699 196 359 555
2-Year 373 89 462 6,344 2,667 9,011 327 354 681
3-Year 271 61 332 7,960 4,665 12,625 448 215 663
4-Year 388 419 807 30,662 89,757 120,419 4,327 550 4,877
Total 1,372 631 2,003 47,750 101,004 148,754 5,298 1,478 6,776
While the 1,372 rural secondary schools constitute 69 per
cent of all high schools reported, only 32.1 per cent of the total
secondary enrollment is found in the rural schools. It was pre-
viously indicated in Table VI that 60 per cent of the rural schools
offered less than four years' work. On the other hand, the re-
maining 631 urban schools accommodate 67.9 per cent of the
total number of Negro secondary students. Sixty-six per cent
of the urban schools offered four years of high school work. More
than half of all four-year secondary schools are located in urban
communities. While a few of the most progressive counties in sev-
eral of the Southern states are providing transportation or pro-
viding board and room at reasonable prices," relatively little
has been done to make secondary schools accessible to the con-
stituency they are intended to serve.12 When this fact is asso-
ciated with the observation that 67.4 per cent of the total Negro
population is rural, these figures have a further implication.
The disproportionate ratio proves that the general availability
10 Appendix B includes complete state-by-state compilations of facts pertaining
to numbers of schools, the enrollment, number of teachers in 1-year, 2-year, 3-year
and 4-year public secondary schools.
n Long, Hollis M. Secondary Education for Negroes in North Carolina, p. 28.
12 Caliver, Ambrose. Secondary Education for Negroes, pp. 34-37.
County Training Schools and Negro Education
of secondary facilities for Negroes is tremendously in favor of
the urban dweller.
The enrollment that would correspond to the four years
or grades included in the public secondary schools for Negroes
in the South is shown in Table IX.
PUBLIC NEGRO SECONDARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT BY YEARS IN
SEVENTEEN SOUTHERN STATES AND THE DISTRICT
OF COLUMBIA, 1932-33
Secondary Enrollment by Years is of
State First Second Third Fourth Total Total
Alabama .......... 3,454 2,224 1,686 1,372 8,736 15.7
Arkansas .......... 1,512 1,005 625 466 3,608 12.9
Delaware .......... 309 235 190 112 846 13.3
Florida ............ 1,952 1,463 1,033 758 5,206 14.6
Georgia ........... 4,477 2,694 1,870 1,330 10,371 12.8
Kentucky ........ 1,873 1,383 1,031 819 5,106 16.0
Louisiana .......... 2,922 2,042 1,358 1,197 7,519 15.9
Maryland ........ 2,129 1,376 978 765 5,248 14.6
Mississippi ...... 2,603 1,763 1,026 586 5,978 9.8
Missouri ............ 1,934 1,331 928 716 4,909 14.5
North Carolina 9,143 6,095 4,438 3,369 23,045 14.6
Oklahoma ........ 2,005 1,616 1,275 994 5,890 16.9
South Carolina.. 4,576 2,812 1,975 1,206 10,569 31.4
Tennessee ........ 2,823 2,682 1,779 1,355 8,659 15.6
Texas ................ 8,231 6,124 4,426 3,800 22,581 16.8
Virginia ............ 4,612 3,091 2,217 1,510 11,430 13.2
West Virginia.. 1,471 1,045 737 617 3,870 15.9
Dist of Columbia 1,749 1,582 996 856 5,183 16.5 .
TOTAL ............ 57,775 40,573 28,578 21,828 148,754
Per cent of total 38.8 27.2 19.3 14.7 100.0
At this time no intensive comparison by states would be
expedient. It should be noted, however, that 38.8 per cent of
those pupils who survived the elementary school and enrolled
in secondary schools were found in the first high school year.
Only 14.7 per cent of the total were in the last year. This de-
crease in percentage represents the approximate elimination
which takes place. The percentage of secondary enrollment
in the fourth year varies considerably. Mississippi with 9.8
per cent stands at one extreme, while Oklahoma with 16.9
per cent is at the other.
Some indication of the relation the secondary school enroll-
ment bears to the approximated Negro population of high
school age is indicated in Table X.
Present Status of Public Negro Secondary Education 59
PERCENTAGE OF NEGROES 15 TO 19 YEARS OF AGE13 ENROLLED IN
PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN 1932-33
Negro Population Negro Population
15 to 19 Years of Age 15 to 19 Years of Age
Per cent Per cent
Total in in High Total in in High
State State Schools State State Schools
Delaware ............ 2,985 28.3 Arkansas ........... 52,545 6.9
West Virginia.... 10,109 38.2 Virginia ............ 73,443 15.6
Dist. of Columbia 10,675 48.5 Louisiana .......... 81,293 9.2
Missouri ......... 17,735 27.7 Texas ................ 92,696 24.4
Oklahoma .......... 18,811 31.3 South Carolina..105.429 9.9
Kentucky .......... 20,762 24.6 Alabama ...........109,216 8.0
Maryland .......... 25,417 20.7 Mississippi ........114,893 5.2
Florida .............. 43,355 12.0 North Carolina..115,166 20.0
Tennessee .......... 51,835 16.7 Georgia ..............134,216 7.7
Of the total group between the ages of 15 and 19 years
13.7 per cent was enrolled in public secondary schools. This
means that about 932,800 Negroes of high school age were not
enrolled in public secondary schools. To be sure, some of
these were in private schools, and a relatively small number were
in the elementary grades.
Among the states listed, West Virginia, Delaware, and Okla-
homa show the highest percentages of Negroes 15 to 19 years
of age enrolled. On the other hand, Mississippi, Arkansas,
Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana and South Carolina 'enrolled less
than ten per cent of their respective potential secondary pupils.
The relationship existing between the percentage enrolled
and the total number of Negroes of secondary age may be
seen in Table X. The extent to which these factors go to-
gether is indicated by the coefficient of correlation of -.79 --
.06. This correlation indicates that there is a decided ten-
dency for the percentage enrolled in the secondary schools to
be higher in states possessing the fewer Negroes of high school
age and vice versa. One might be led to think that this re-
lationship is more or less inevitable but it is seen from Table X
that Arkansas (6.9 per cent) and Florida (12 per cent) are
exceptions since they have smaller Negro populations. North
Carolina (20 per cent) and Texas (24.4 per cent), on the
other hand, are exceptions to the relationship indicated above
since their Negro populations are very large.
'\ All population data used in this study were taken from the U. S. Census of
60 County Training Schools and Negro Education
THE SIZE OF NEGRO SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The distribution of public secondary schools according to
size of enrollments is shown in Table XI. By giving the per
cent in the enrollment range, and grouping the schools in
intervals of twenty and fifty pupils, it gives a general view
of the entire situation.
DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS FOR NEGROES IN
SEVENTEEN SOUTHERN STATES AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA,
1932-33, ACCORDING TO SIZE OF ENROLLMENT
Distribution by Size of Enrollment
20 21 41 61 81 101 151 201 251 301
Typeof or to to to to to to to to or
School less 40 60 80 100 150 200 250 300 More Total
All High Schools
Number .............. 787 393 228 139 102 149 78 34 15 78 2,003
Per cent............. 39.3 19.6 11.4 6.9 5.1 7.4 3.9 1.7 .8 3.9 100.0
All Rural High
Number .............. 696 295 149 84 50 62 18 9 3 6 1,372
Per cent............. 50.7 21.5 10.9 6.1 3.7 4.5 1.3 .7 .2 .4 100.0
All Urban High
Number .............. 91 98 79 55 52 87 60 25 12 72 631
Per cent............. 14.4 15.5 12.5 8.8 8.4 13.5 9.5 4.0 1.9 11.5 100.0
Considering first the distribution of all schools, it is ap-
parent that 70.3 per cent of the public Negro secondary schools
enrolled sixty or fewer pupils; 82.3 per cent had enrollments of
less than 101 pupils; and but 3.9 per cent enrolled more than
300 students. Less than 2 per cent of the high schools in
rural areas enrolled more than 200 pupils. Slightly more than
42 per cent of the 631 schools functioning in urban centers
had enrollments smaller than 61 pupils per school, whereas
83.1 per cent of the 1,372 rural schools indicated enrollments
per school below this figure.
The data point overwhelmingly to the conclusion that Negro
schools offering public secondary education are small in size as
measured by enrollment.
Table XII shows the comparison in a somewhat different
manner. As the size of enrollment increases in schools located
in rural areas, the percentage of the total number of schools in
a particular size-group decreases. Urban schools, however, re-
Present Status of Public Negro Secondary Education 61
PROPORTION OF EACH SIZE GROUP LOCATED IN RURAL AND
Type of 20 21 41 61 81 101 151 201 251 301
School or to to to to to to to to or
by Location less 40 60 80 100 150 200 250 300 More
Schools .... 88.5 75.0 65.4 60.4 49.0 41.6 23.1 26.5 20.0 7.7
Schools .... 11.5 25.0 34.6 39.6 51.0 58.4 76.9 73.5 80.0 92.3
veal a relationship in size in the reverse order. Thus it is
that 88.5 per cent of all schools enrolling twenty or fewer
pupils are found in rural places. At the other end of the scale,
92.3 per cent of all schools enrolling more than 300 pupils are
found in urban centers.
By turning to Table XIII, the different types of schools
grouped according to enrollment range and location may be
DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS FOR NEGROES IN
SEVENTEEN SOUTHERN STATES AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA,
ACCORDING TO ENROLLMENT, 1932-33
Number of Schools
Enroll- 1-Year 2-Year 3-Year 4-Year
ment Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Total
1001 and over 16 16
901-1000 2 2
801- 900 3 3
701- 800 4 4
601- 700 1 9 10
501- 600 1 10 11
401- 500 1 14 15
301- 400 4 3 12 19
251- 300 1 1 3 10 15
201- 250 3 2 0 9 20 34
151- 200 6 2 2 18 48 76
101- 150 1 3 4 5 2 54 80 149
81- 100 1 1 4 5 2 44 45 102
61- 80 1 4 4 10 7 70 43 139
41- 60 3 26 7 37 11 86 58 228
21- 40 14 9 89 31 109 21 83 37 393
11- 20 49 8 137 24 82 11 13 6 330
1- 10 277 25 113 11 23 4 2 2 457
Total 340 62 373 89 271 61 388 419 2,003
Mean size 8.2 63.1 17.0 29.9 29.4 76.5 79.0 214.2 74.2
Median size 6.9 12.9 16.4 27.5 26.6 35.8 67.3 109.4 26.5
62 County Training Schools and Negro Education
The distribution begins at one extreme with intervals of
one to ten, and ends with schools enrolling more than one
thousand pupils. By using narrow intervals in the lower
ranges of the distribution, Table XIII reveals clearly the large
number of extremely small schools which attempt to offer
secondary work. Generally speaking, a rural public secondary
school enrolling 200 pupils is considered comparatively large.14
On the other hand, it is claimed that schools of fewer than 150
pupils do not, usually, render the full service of secondary edu-
cation.15 But eighteen of the rural schools enrolled more than two
hundred, while 1,330, or 97 per cent of all rural schools, enrolled
less than 150 pupils. Referring to the urban schools, those enroll-
ing more than 300 pupils stand on the border line between what
are ordinarily classed as small, and those classed as large, secon-
dary schools. Only 70 urban Negro secondary schools enrolled
more than 300 pupils. A comparison of the mean and median
size as shown in Table XIII further emphasizes the limited size
of these schools. Thus it is concluded that Negro secondary
schools, regardless of location, are small schools. Unless consoli-
dation and transportation is practiced to an extent apparently
unlikely, these schools will remain small. Obviously then, what-
ever may be the problems inherent in small secondary schools,
they also are the problems of practically all public Negro secon-
dary schools. If the child attending the small high school is, in
most cases, instructed by a poorly trained and over-burdened
teaching staff; and handicapped by a limited, narrow, malad-
justed program of educational activities, and by the absence or
meagerness of educational equipment then most Negro chil-
dren attending secondary schools are also sufferers from these
Undoubtedly many small secondary schools do superior
work. On the other hand a large part of the problem hinges
on costs. Practically all studies report higher costs in smaller
than larger schools, while, at the same time, lower teacher
salaries, more limited curriculum offerings, and shorter school
terms are the rule in the smaller schools. This factor of higher
"4Gaumnitz, Walter H. The Smallness of America's Rural High Schools. United
States Bureau of Education Bulletin, 1930, No. 13. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D. C., p. 12.
's Ferriss, Emery N., Gaumnitz, W. H. and Brammell, Roy P. The Smaller
Secondary Schools. United States Bureau of Education Bulletin, 1932, No. 17,
Monograph No. 6, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., p. viii.
Present Status of Public Negro Secondary Education 63
costs prevailing in small secondary schools is particularly im-
portant in the South where a low per capital wealth prevails.
By and large, the implication is that very small Negro
secondary schools should be reduced to the lowest number pos-
THE INSTRUCTIONAL STAFF
The number of teachers and average teaching staff found
in the several types of public secondary schools are indicated
in Table XIV.
NUMBER OF TEACHERS AND AVERAGE TEACHING STAFF AS FOUND
IN FOUR TYPES OF PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS FOR NEGROES IN
SEVENTEEN SOUTHERN STATES AND THE DISTRICT OF
Secondary Type of Secondary School
Teachers 1-Year 2-Year 3-Year 4-Year Total
Total in all Schools:
Full Time.... ................ 196 327 448 4,327 5,298
Part Time...................... 359 354 215 550 1,478
Average Teaching Staff per School:
Full Time .................... .3 .8 1.4 5.3
Part Time .................... .9 .8 .6 .7
Exactly 6,776 teachers were employed in the 2,003 public
secondary schools included in this investigation. Of this num-
ber 5,298 teachers devoted their full time to secondary school
duties, while 1,478 were occupied part of the time with ele-
mentary school duties and the remainder of the time with
secondary school work. The rural teachers numbered 2,423
full-time, and 1,152 part-time instructors.
The average number of full-time teachers per school in-
creases as the school offers more years of secondary work and
the part-time teachers decrease.
Disregarding any rural-urban differentiation, it is seen that
the average teaching staff index of the typical four-year school
would be five full-time teachers and one or two part-time in-
structors. It should be pointed out that many of the full-time
teachers reported are also principals of their schools. As such,
their time is divided between teaching secondary subjects and
the exercise of administrative control over both the elementary
64 County Training Schools and Negro Education
and secondary departments. The significance of this is seen when
attention is called to the fact that 89 per cent of all Negro
secondary schools are essentially elementary schools with one
or more years of secondary work included at the top,-often at
the expense of the lower school.
Then, too, many "Smith-Hughes teachers" are listed as
full-time secondary teachers, even though they spend much of
their time in agricultural and industrial extension work in
the surrounding communities.
For purposes of general comparison it may be stated that
the average public Negro four-year secondary school enrolls
149 pupils and is taught by a staff of six teachers, two of whom
devote only part time to the high school subjects. The number
of pupils per teacher would approximate 25. This agrees with
Favrot's16 conclusion that Negro high schools generally are
Reference to Table VI reveals that 84.6 per cent of the one-
year secondary schools are in rural localities. Table XIII shows
that the mean secondary enrollment per one-year school is eight
pupils. If the mean size of urban one-year schools is corrected to
allow for the high enrollments in the last year of the junior high
schools listed in this category, the mean is but slightly higher than
the figure for rural schools. Table XIV indicates that the
average one-year school does not command the services of a
full-time secondary teacher. The average total enrollment of
these one-year secondary schools is 140 pupils.17 Of the rural
one-year "secondary" schools reported, 90 schools had total
enrollments of less than 75 pupils, and 158 enrolled numbers
varying between 75 and 150 pupils. Furthermore, it is probable
that there are more of the one-year type which, for one reason
or another, were not reported by the different county and state
The implications of these facts are both pathetic and ex-
tremely serious. In the first place, it appears that the great
majority of these rural one-year secondary schools are in reality
one and two teacher rural elementary schools trying to satisfy
"1 Favrot, Leo M. "Some Facts About Negro High Schools and their Distribu-
tion and Development in the Southern States," High School Quarterly, Vol. XVII,
1929, pp. 139-154.
17 Elementary and secondary students.
Present Status of Public Negro Secondary Education 65
the growing educational demands of an under-privileged con-
stituency reaching for secondary educational opportunities.
With few exceptions, the two-year secondary schools also are,
fundamentally, small rural elementary schools trying to offer
something which goes by the name of secondary education.
In a sense, it indicates the popularization of secondary educa-
tion among Negroes, and at the same time suggests the willing-
ness of the Negro to accept whatever secondary facilities are
available to him.
This zeal of the rural Negro educator and student does
not, however, act for the best interest of the cause of educa-
tion. It simply causes the veneer of education, already ludi-
crously thin, to be spread more thinly. The rural Negro ele-
mentary schools represent much that is least desirable in the
entire American educational system. Herein are found most
of the poorest trained and underpaid teachers. It is neces-
sary only to examine these schools to find the shortest terms,
the poorest attendance, the meanest equipment and teaching
materials, and the crudest buildings serving as school houses."1
While the motive which prompts educators to stretch the
meagre assets they possess may be noble, it is educationally
ORGANIZATION OF PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS FOR NEGROES
It is not the purpose of this section of the study to in-
clude under organization, ". . all the arrangements which the
school makes to furnish a framework for effective education."
Rather, interest here centers chiefly in presenting the types of
organization found among Negro schools in the several Southern
states. Since 1910, secondary schools for children of the ma-
jority race have reorganized increasingly along junior-senior
high school lines. Some conception of the extent to which this
movement for reorganization has affected Negro secondary
schools will be revealed.
Fifty-eight per cent of the total public Negro secondary
population of the South resides in Georgia, Louisiana, Mary-
land, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, and Virginia.
"sCaliver, Ambrose. Rural Elementary Education Among Negroes Under Jeanes
Supervising Teachers, pp. 53-57.
County Training Schools and Negro Education
Except for a few urban systems, all schools within these states
have eleven-grade systems with the conventional four-year
high school composed of grades 8 through 11. Danville and
Roanoke, Virginia, reported twelve-grade systems with the regu-
lar 8-4 organization for the elementary and secondary divisions.
The only reorganized secondary schools for Negroes reported
in these states were found in four large city systems. Sa-
vannah and Atlanta, Georgia, and Baltimore, Maryland,
provide six-year elementary organizations and separate three-
year junior and senior high schools. New Orleans, Louisiana,
reported a modification of the 7-4 organization, two junior
high schools grouping grades 8, 9, and 10 in separate build-
ings, and one senior high school consisting of grades ten and
eleven. The reorganized schools of these seven states enrolled in
the junior-senior high school grades 13,951 pupils, of which
5,724 were in the last four secondary grades.
In the ten remaining states included in this study, 12-grade
systems prevail, and several variations for the organization of
the secondary divisions in Negro schools are employed.
Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Tennessee are almost
uniformly committed to the conventional 8-4 system for Negro
schools, and grades nine through twelve constitute the secon-
dary division. Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Nashville, Tennessee,
however, reported the 6-3-3 type of organization.
With the exception of eight schools, Kentucky seems to
employ the straight eight-four type of organization. In only
two of the eight reorganized school systems, Louisville and
Paducah, are separate three-year junior and senior high
schools reported. Four of the remaining reorganized schools
employ 6-3-3 grade groupings, two use the 6-6 plan, and one
reported the 6-2-4 modification.
The majority of Negro secondary students in Delaware at-
tend the high school in Wilmington, where the 6-6 plan of
organization is in effect.
Alabama, Florida, and West Virginia have reorganized
practically all of the Negro schools in so far as the last six
years constitute the secondary grades. The State Departments
of Education have adopted uniform programs of studies and
standards for the reorganized high school divisions. The ex-
Present Status of Public Negro Secondary Education 67
tent to which actually reorganized procedures have been ef-
fected, however, varies both between states and within a given
state. The public Negro secondary schools of Florida are mostly
located in urban communities and the majority report 6-6
groupings of the grades.) In Alabama and West Virginia the'
schools are about equally divided with respect to rural-urban
distribution. In Alabama, while most of the schools reported
6-3-3 organizations, it is certain that few had separate build-
ings for junior and senior high schools. The movement is
state-wide, and most of the schools are just beginning actually
to incorporate methods reputed to give the reorganized group-
ing of grades some educational advantages not likely to result
under the conventional scheme. West Virginia schools largely
reported the 6-6 type of reorganization.
.With the exception of a few schools employing the 8-4 grade
organization, the six-year elementary system prevailed in Ar-
kansas in 1933. Reorganized schools were accredited by the State
Department as 6-6, 6-3-3, 6-4, and 6-3 types. There were no state
high school courses of study, but, in general, an effort was made
locally to attempt junior high school programs. The supervision
of such programs seemed to be exceedingly limited.
All Negro schools in Washington, D. C., are organized on
a six-year elementary basis, with separate three-year junior
and senior high schools.
Approximately 71,000 Negro students in the South are
enrolled in the last six grades of those schools found in re-
organizations involving some modification of the six-year sec-
ondary school scheme. Except for schools in eighteen or twenty
cities, it is extremely doubtful if many other separate three-year
junior and senior high schools are to be found. With few
exceptions, the secondary schools which are based upon a six-
year elementary school are in reality six-year high schools.
Many of these schools have failed to incorporate supposedly
desirable features concerning articulation, guidance, program
of studies, extra-curriculum, and composition of teaching
force. These features are supposed to be of vital importance
in securing the educational dividends yielded through reor-
ganization. The reorganized Negro schools have adopted, gener-
ally, a somewhat more comprehensive and flexible organization
68 County Training Schools and Negro Education
than that which characterizes many of the more conventionally
Brief mention should be made of the many schools, princi-
pally in rural districts, offering two or three years of secondary
work and calling themselves "Junior High Schools." This is
done often without the sanction of school officials, but not
infrequently the use of the term is encouraged by local officials
who seek to mollify the demands of the Negroes for more ad-
vanced education and, at the same time, avoid antagonizing
those members of the majority race who might object to regu-
lar high schools for Negroes. Increasingly, however, the sev-
eral states are causing these schools to conform to standards
of an acceptable nature and are organizing regular two-year
high schools. These schools, however, are not considered as
junior high schools.
PUBLIC SECONDARY EDUCATIONAL PROVISION FOR NEGROES BY
In discussing educational provision for Negroes or any other
group of persons, the presence or absence of a school in a
given community or area is of prime importance. This is not
considered a complete index for purposes of measurement, but
that it has value of the first order in any consideration of pro-
vision or availability can hardly be denied.
To ascertain those aspects dealing with public educational
provision for Negroes with which this study is concerned,
each state was separately studied upon a county-by-county
basis. In treating this phase of the study original data em-
ployed in the investigation were combined with factual informa-
tion secured from the United States Census for 1930.19
Counties Having Little or No Negro Population
A glance at Table XV will expedite the discussion to fol-
low. There are 1,501 counties in the seventeen states, wherein
were found 1,070,906 Negro boys and girls ranging from 15 to
19 years of age. In the entire South not more than a score
of counties having a Negro population of less than 50 in this
19Appendix C includes a careful county-by-county analysis of each state, which
has been checked by the State Agents for Negro Education. These lists include
information on the following: name, approximate location in the state, and number
of Negro inhabitants 15 to 19 years of age in each county. The counties also are
classified according to the number of years of public secondary education offered and
as to the counties having one or more accredited four-year public secondary school.
Present Status of Public Negro Secondary Education 69
NUMBER OF COUNTIES AND THE NEGRO POPULATION 15 TO 19
YEARS OF AGE IN SEVENTEEN SOUTHERN STATES (U. S.
Number of Counties
Than 50 Negro
Negroes Total Number Population
15 to 19 Years of Counties 15 to 19
State of Age in the State Years of Age
Alabama ............................ 1 67 109,216
Arkansas ............................ 25 75 52,545
Delaware .......................... 0 3 2,985
Florida .............................. 0 67 43,355
Georgia .............................. 11 159 134,216
Kentucky .......................... 46 120 20,762
Louisiana .......................... 0 64 81,293
Maryland .......................... 1 23 25,417
Mississippi ...................... 0 82 114,893
Missouri ............................ 74 114 17,735
North Carolina .................. 10 100 115,166
Oklahoma ............................ 27 77 18,811
South Carolina .................. 0 46 106,429
Tennessee .......................... 25 95 51,835
Texas ................................ 117 254 92,696
Virginia .............................. 10 100 73,443
West Virginia .................. 26 55 10,109
Total .............................. 373 1.501 1,070.906
general secondary age group provided transportation or high
school work for these persons in 1933. Consequently 373 counties
in this class were definitely located in order to offset any possible
misconception regarding the actual number of counties having
a considerable Negro population for which some secondary
facilities might be provided. The average number of Negroes
15 to 19 years of age per county in the 373 counties was 12.5 per-
sons. This group constituted 4,701 Negroes or .5 per cent of the
total number found in the 1,501 counties. Certain of the larger,
sparsely settled counties in Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and
Texas, as well as those located in the mountainous sections of Ken-
tucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia accounted for the greater
part of this group. Thus it is that attention is centered upon
the remaining 1,128 counties and parishes,20 possessing a
considerable Negro constituency.
Counties Providing Less Than Four Years of Public Secondary
Some indication of educational provision, as measured by
the presence or absence of public secondary facilities in the
2Tha equivalent of the county in Louisiana is the parish.
County Training Schools and Negro Education
several counties and states, is presented in Table XVI. It
shows, in close juxtaposition, certain facts pertaining to coun-
ties entirely without public secondary facilities, counties pos-
sessing one or more schools offering less than 4 years' work,
those possessing one or more four year public secondary
schools, and the approximate Negro secondary population.
Of grave importance is the situation of Negro boys and girls
who have no opportunity to attend a public secondary school
unless they leave the county in which they reside. There were
190 counties in the 17 Southern states entirely without public
secondary facilities in 1933. These counties contained 66,426 Ne-
groes of the estimated secondary school age. They represented
6.2 per cent of the total group of high school age.
Sixty-eight counties offered one year of secondary work to
approximately 42,625 Negroes who would be included in the
15 to 19 age group. Counties offering only two years of secon-
dary work numbered 153, and living therein were 81,990 per-
sons, 15 to 19 years of age. It was previously pointed out
that the large majority of one and two-year Negro secondary
schools are essentially elementary schools and but crudely
adapted to offer anything in the way of secondary education.
Therefore, one may conclude that 191,039 Negroes of a po-
tential high school age residing in 411 counties have been pro-
vided with few if any public secondary schools in the counties
wherein their parents reside as citizens.
In addition to the counties already considered, there were
117 counties wherein 83,786 Negro boys and girls resided who
had some opportunity to attend a public school offering three
years of secondary work.
Five hundred twenty-eight counties in the Southern states
offered less than four years of public secondary education for
Negroes in 1933. Of the total number of Negro boys and girls
15 to 19 years of age in the Southern states 25.6 per cent, or
274,825, resided in these counties.
When the facts pertaining to the years of public secondary
work offered in counties are translated into percentages, a most
interesting tendency is revealed. This is shown in Table XVII.
Present Status of Public Negro Secondary Education 71
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72 County Training Schools and Negro Education
PERCENTAGE OF NEGRO POPULATION 15 TO 19 YEARS OF AGE
LIVING IN COUNTIES OFFERING LESS THAN FOUR YEARS OF
SECONDARY WORK AND THE AVERAGE NUMBER PER COUNTY
Negro Population Negro Population
15 to 19 Years 15 to 19 Years
Per Cent Living Average Per Cent Living Average
in Counties Offer- No. in Counties Offer- No.
ing Less Than per ing Less Than per
Group 1 4 Years Work County Group 2 4 Years Work County
N. Carolina........ 2.7 1,338 Virginia ............ 19.9 816
Maryland .......... 3.9 1,115 Louisiana ........ 20.9 1,270
W. Virginia........ 8.3 341 Alabama .......... 23.2 1,655
Tennessee .......... 11.9 741 Florida ........... 24.4 647
Texas .................. 11.9 678 S. Carolina....... 24.9 2,313
Oklahoma .......... 12.9 370 Georgia ............ 45.0 920
Missouri ............ 17.8 423 Mississippi ...... 50.5 1,401
Kentucky ............ 19.3 281 Arkansas ......... 57.9 1,051
By using the total Negro population 15 to 19 years of age
living in a given state,21 it was possible to compute the percen-
tages of such persons living in counties offering less than four
years of public secondary work. Arranging the percentages in
rank order from the lowest to highest, two groups were formed.
Taking cognizance of one or two exceptions, it is still quite
evident that, in general, the probabilities in favor of the Negro
student having access to a four year secondary school located
in the county wherein he resides decrease as the total Negro
population in a given state increases.
Counties Providing Four Years of Public Secondary Education
There were 600 counties having at least one public secondary
school which offered four years of secondary work in 1933. Of
the total Negro population 15 to 19 years of age in the 17 states
73.9 per cent, or 791,380 persons, resided in these counties. Of
these counties, 255 had one or more fully accredited four-year
Certain limitations in the county-by-county analysis should
be mentioned. The mere presence of a secondary school in a
county is, at best, only a rough measure of the educational op-
portunity provided. Transportation is undoubtedly an im-
portant factor. However, transportation for Negro high school
students is not provided to any great extent."2
2In states having Counties inhabited by less than 50 Negroes of this age
range, both the number of Counties and the population involved were excluded from
the State's total.
22Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas in 1930
spent the following amounts for the transportation of high school students: White,
$5,594,942-Negro, $30,189. The ratio of white children of high school age to
Negro is 2 to 1 in these states. -
Caliver, Ambrose. Secondary Education for Negroes, pp. 23, 112.
Present Status of Public Negro Secondary Education 73
Another factor involves the tremendous variability in the
area of counties. Any one of a dozen counties in Florida or
South Carolina would be five or six times the area of many
found in Georgia, North Carolina and Virginia. The counties
in northeastern Texas are small in size when compared with
many in the western part of the state. Other states would
yield similar comparisons.
Add to these considerations the lack of sympathetic coop-
eration between urban centers possessing high schools and less
fortunate neighboring rural areas, and it becomes certain that
there is less opportunity to secure the secondary level of edu.
cation than the county-by-county analysis indicates.
THE PLACE OF COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOLS IN THE
PUBLIC NEGRO SECONDARY FIELD
NE of the most important recent developments in Negro
Education has been the growth of County Training
Schools, made possible by the cooperation of the county
school authorities and the John F. Slater Fund."1
The purpose of this chapter is to present evidence which
will enable one to determine, as accurately as possible, the
place held by, these schools in the field of public secondary edu-
cation for Negroes.
THE COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOLS AIDED BY THE SLATER FUND IN
Some conception of the extent of the county training school
movement can be obtained by studying certain facts pertaining
to the schools assisted by the Slater Fund during a given year.
Table XVIII presents this information for the school year, 1932-
During 1933, 356 schools located in 352 counties in 14
Southern states were partially subsidized. More than 170,000
pupils were enrolled, and of this number 16,389 were in the
secondary grades. The entire teaching force aggregated 2,601
persons, and 936 devoted their full time to the secondary
subjects. The remainder were employed in the elementary
grades. Therefore, 11 per cent of all Negro children who were
enrolled in the public secondary schools in 17 states were attend-
ing County Training Schools aided during 1933. They were
taught by 17.7 per cent of all Negro teachers in the South de-
voting full time to high school subjects.
The percentage of a state's total public Negro secondary
enrollment found in County Training Schools varied greatly
from state to state. Louisiana with 26.8 per cent and Mississip-
pi with 23.7 per cent represent one extreme; Missouri and
SCaliver, Ambrose. Secondary Education for Negroes, p. 33.
Place of County Training Schools in Secondary Field 75
SECONDARY ENROLLMENT, NUMBER OF TEACHERS, AND NUMBER
OF COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOLS AIDED BY THE JOHN F. SLATER
FUND IN 1932-33
K entucky ...................
M ississippi .................
M issouri ......................
N orth Carolina............
of H. S.
In County Per Cent of
Tables XVIII to XXV inclusive were compiled from data taken from question-
naires which were returned by superintendents of schools in the states included in
the study, and from contracts between the Slater Fund and superintendents of
schools. See Chapter II for details..
Oklahoma, with 1.7 and 2.7 per cent, respectively, were indica-
tive of the other trend.
A more significant fact than any mentioned previously is
the extent to which these schools provide educational oppor-
tunities in the several counties wherein they are located. In
205 counties the Training School was, for Negro pupils, the sole
source of secondary education at public expense. To Negroes
in areas wherein public secondary education borders so closely
on non-existence, these schools render a service which is almost
COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOLS: PAST AND PRESENT2
By pointing out the geographical spread and the educa-
tional range of the County Training School movement, some
idea of its importance was obtained. However, any real at-
'This study does not include many private secondary schools and public high
schools in cities, which have been aided by the Slater Fund. Only those schools
aided as "County Training Schools" are included.
76 County Training Schools and Negro Education
tempt to understand the actual place these schools occupy in
the public Negro secondary field necessitates consideration of
all schools identified with the movement since 1911. Figure 2,
graphically shows the distribution of County Training Schools
which were aided by the Slater Fund in 1933 and the schools
which were assisted in the past. Since 1911, six hundred
twelve schools located in 517 counties in 15 Southern states have
been aided by the Fund. Some of them have lost their identities
as Training Schools. One of the oldest in the United States, that
at Hope, Arkansas, was first known as the Shover School, then the
Hempstead County Training School, and is now known as the
H. C. Yerger High School. On the other hand, one of the most
famous Negro schools in the South has always been known as
The Virginia Randolph Training School, and is located in
Henrico county, Virginia. For purposes of comparison, atten-
tion should be directed toward the County Training Schools and
their background of the total public Negro secondary field.
Distribution of County Training Schools
Grouped according to geographical distribution, type of
school, and the years of secondary work offered, these schools
are represented in Table XIX.
DISTRIBUTION OF COUNTY TRAINING SCHOOLS IN FIFTEEN SOUTH-
ERN STATES, 1911-1933
Distribution by Years of Work Offered
1 Year 2 Years 3 Years 4 Years
State Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Total
Alabama .................. 1 .. 3 1 3 .. 35 1 44
Arkansas .................. 7 2 6 5 4 2 2 8 36
Florida .............. 1 1 5 2 .. .. .. 14 23
Georgia .................... 4 1 13 6 6 1 20 13 64
Kentucky .................. 7 1 4 1 11 20 44
Louisiana ................ 1 .. .. 2 1 13 19 37
M aryland ........ ........ .. .. .. .. 1 1 2
Mississippi ............... 2 .. 18 2 4 6 11 11 54
M issouri ....................... .. .. 1 2 3
North Carolina.......... 1 .. 1 1 4 1 44 27 79
Oklahoma ............... ... ..... 1 .. 1 .. 6 3 11
South Carolina.......... 4 1 7 1 16 3 13 14 59
Tennessee ................. .. 3 2 1 3 10 15 34
Texas .......................... 2 .. 1 .. 9 2 22 18 54
Virginia ...................... 2 .. 7 1 13 1 41 3 68
Total ........................ 25 6 72 22 67 21 230 169 612
Per Cent .................... 80.7 .. 76.6 .. 76.1 .. 57.6