NESE RADUAE STU ENT
Ube z1ntverstt of Cbicago
THE ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS
OF CHINESE GRADUATE STUDENTS
IN AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES
A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE
FACULTY OF THE DIVINITY SCHOOL
IN CANDIDACY FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
DEPARTMENT OF PRACTICAL THEOLOGY
Prr. jt Edition, Distributed by
TIlE liNI\ERSITY OF CHICAGO LIBRARIES
This study of Chinese graduate students is an outgrowth
of personal experiences. After three years of residential
work in American graduate schools and the contacts he
had with many of his fellow students, the writer asked
himself the question: To what extent are the problems
arising from the adjustments which the Chinese students
have to make in American institutions similar and to what
extent different from his own, and, how are they attempt-
ing to solve them?
Familiarity with the field of investigation and intimate
relations with the contributors to this study have enabled
the writer to lift out the most significant difficulties aris-
ing and to organize them around four major issues: (1)
personal habits and personal problems, (2) social con-
tacts, (3) academic work, and, (4) national and interna-
Grateful acknowledgment is here accorded to the many
Deans, Professors, and Advisers to foreign students of the
universities who were interviewed; including, Dr. G. Carl
Huber of the University of Michigan, Dr. R. D. Car-
michael of the University of Illinois, Dr. R. G. Dukes of
Purdnl TTiiv'.rity, Dr. Georrge H. Betts of Northwestern
TiUi\-vr.ity. ;oid-1 Dr. W. H. Kilpatrick, Dr. Harold Rugg,
Dr. .TJoli L. C'liil.1, Dr. Adelaide T. Case, of Teachers
('-,lll.t_ i.., (C'lu! lii UnIivi:'r-ity. For suggestions in using
theI- t;.m -i lize- I .d.--, tliie writer would express his thanks
to Dr. L. L. Tlhur-trel,. Dr. Frank N. Freeman and Dr.A.J.
BrmiUna-ti. He i- '->:. ipcinlly indebted to Dr. E. J. Chave
i1,'l Pr'ol, Vr W. C'. B.,wer (his adviser) who have
given ii cl i t-' t Il li iiii': to:' the reading and criticizing of
the mani;--rl il.. IIe i ajlo, under obligation to the many
Chim.e-,' nr-, h in'. I'hil,'llnt who so cordially and helpfully
coiintri ii.l.d I t lh:- :lat-i e:-c'lected.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
L ist of T ables ......................... ............... 2
1. The Purpose and Method of the Study.............. 3
Survey of the Field ........................... 5
Purpose of this Present Study ................. 9
Methods and Techniques of Investigation ....... 9
II. The Background of Students .................... 12
Distribution in American Institutions ........... 12
Major Academic Interests ................... .. 13
Length of Residence in America ................ 15
Age of the Students........................... 16
Family Status and Parental Occupation......... 17
Size of Family from which Students Come....... 19
III. Student Characteristics ........................ 21
Scholarship of Students ....................... 21
Analysis of Time-Activity ...................... 25
Emotional Tendencies of Students ............... 29
IV. The Areas of Adjustment Problems .............. 35
Area 1.-Financial Conditions.................... 36
Area 2.-Moral and Religious Interests......... 41
Area 3.-Homesickness and Loneliness .......... 51
Area 4.- Health Conditions ................... 53
Area 5.-Boarding Conditions ................. 58
Area 6.-Rooming Conditions ................. 61
Area 7.-Vocational Opportunities and Problems. 65
Area 8.-Contacts with Persons Outside the Uni-
versity ..................................... 69
Area 9.-Social and Recreational Contacts ....... 72
Area 10.-Contacts with American Students. ..... 77
Area 11.-Contacts with Professors.............. 80
Area 12.-Contacts with Chinese Students......... 81
Area 13.-Marriage Problems .................. 83
A i',:. 14 Educational Problems ................ 87
Ar.a 15 -Administrative Regulations ........... 91
\Ar.:i 16-Sino-Japanese Conflicts ............. 100
A ra 17 -Immigration Law .................... 104
V ('rlI:lluions and General Implications ........... 107
.., ......................... ............ 123
Appli ..... ................ ... ........................ 125
LIST OP TABLES
I. Distribution of 125 Students Iirt.rv\.r...l Iii 1::.;'--
33 ..................... ................ 1 :.
II. Distribution of 90 Students A.:. .:. .1 .- i\ M:ii..r
Academic Interest ......... ......... ...... .. 11
III. Distribution of 90 Students A.-:.l.,,iir- t, L.-ir.,tI
of Residence in America..... ........... .. 1'1
IV. Distribution of 90 Students A..:.:ii liiri t.:, A-. 1';
V. Parental Occupations of Stul:ntut...... 17
VI. Distribution of 90 Students Ar.:-,.l.in r. t:. N,.!Il..:i r
of Living Children per Family. .... .. -0
VII. Average Time Spent in Diffe.:.rnt A.-t\,it. .. ''i
VIII. Frequency Distribution for Personality Schedule.. 30
IX. Divisional Order of Adjustment Problems ........ 35
X. Problems Involving Financial Conditions......... 37
XI. Problems Involving Moral and Religious Interests. 42
XII. Distribution of 90 Students According to Reli-
gious Affiliation ............................. 43
XIII. Interpretation of Scores on Attitude Toward God. 48
XIV. Responses of Students on "Definitions of God"... 49
XV. Problems Involving Homesickness and Loneliness. 51
XVI. Problems Involving Iealth: Physical and Mental. 54
XVII. Problems Involving Boarding Conditions .......... 58
XVIII. Problems Involving Rooming Conditions .......... 61
XIX. Problems Involving Vocational Opportunities and
Problems .................................. 66
XX. Problems Involving Contacts with Americans out-
side the University ........................... 70
XXI. Problems Involving Social and Recreational Con-
tacts ..................................... 73
XXII. Problems Involving Contacts with American Stu-
dents ..................................... 77
XXIII. Problems Involving Contacts with Professors..... 80
XXIV. Problems Involving Contacts with Chinese Stu-
dents ...................................... 82
XXV. Marriage Problems ........................... 84
XXVI. Educational Problems ........................ 88
XXVII. Problems Involving Administrative Regulations... 92
XXVIII. Favorable Appraisals of American Education..... 95
XXIX. Unfavorable Appraisals of Amen'i,.,i E.I.-,.|I, '.i
XXX. Problems Involving Sino-Japan-.- (' .I:.tll.-t! lI1
XXXI. Problems Involving Immigration Law ....... ... .1
THE PURPOSE AND METHOD OF TIHE STUDY
The history of Chinese students in America begins with
1872 when Yung Wing, Commissioner of Chinese educa-
tion, initiated a program of sending students abroad. The
initial proposal was to send the students of 12 to 14 years
of age to study in America for a period of 15 years so
that they would be adequately and thoroughly educated
for the public services of China. A wholesale and malig-
nant opposition was expressed immediately by the nation
because it was contended that these youngsters would
change from their own language, customs, and moral stand-
ards while in a foreign environment. To many people such
opposition was intensified by the Chinese proverb that
"He who stays near vermillion will be reddened, who near
ink, blackened." But Commissioner Yung Wing appealed
to the nation in the following address:
My elders and juniors: Iaving all of us seen how
incapable our old civilization of Ethics and Con-
fu,:inn-i.'i 1i _, l .i 1.en i to-ldinir tli.-
,. I, ld.M t d ., -. :11 : ,II l .; 11 ilz.lti.i:ii Tl :.llii. i. f 1y 1u ,1, 1l fi',,
'Iil-' .1; ,Illt, I? .ill 1ii tIl' n. llNi I' f11rini ft i ,'
>\i'lr- ., vin- ltt i_.d tl,:1 in. ( .,ni 1 o -, ,l ,i t' tit. t11.ellir,
Vo' lltill',. t, 1' '_' -1 ilm t ytipu l tI f im ,." tzlkt.' A,,:' ,., f y,.,ir
In.., t h 111 -.. O i l -t1 l,,. F .,r I,.. it fr,:,in m e 1,- ,
IIi -. il' Ir. ii I i 11II" Il v i itii I.i l',i i :i i i '" l iiit : i' i ]il.' i I
:.l .I. iii l l \,., -l lli tie- i :'a t' l iir, i. "-h tll bl r
ti ,:. ( i-... i i. i:r .,ii ,I, 1:, ii ,. -,v l l |i it o, tl l i l.,l r t lit.
1Y 11il ill i ,i i .' i I. "'l.-i irill ill.i. ll l t .i ll Ie :.- .11 1 \11lll 1 ,1t.
.it lh rI_-]. o l i: t lh iri itljln l ii,,: n |i Ill dl i..i; T ii r: -ll':i'e1
Sli" Cilh l .. l .. ll l].iii lll Ii i I.nI l ..li ll .i l 1li:' i
Commissioner Chen Lan-pin was .-1pl.iiinti.-l to. -,:fli that tlhe
students should keep up their I:n:\.wld'il.'- If 'liine-e litfe
while in America. UnfortunaTi:-.y it w: i f'ind that
"Americanization" had set in amin lI lliii-. yio-t y.uii-n-
sters who did not live according I:, tiir .-n w ..il-,i'm -ill1
moral standards as embodied in Ille <'i:.- -i,:-. A 'acn.tin-
ary movement was instituted on Hl:l pa,.irt ft tlI, 4_'iiiin C -
government and consequently thj,.i. .liiil:-il \i.':.:' 1:.Ill1:i
back, except for a few of them whl \vi:r,: l-if--*lt'i.-:iii
or were maintained in America ;:- \\w-1 ,1- ill Eiurili:'- and1
Japan by some of the provin,.::.- .,ir .'hlin<: lj.' \-inil
governors. The Chinese governmiij-et diid n. t i n.1. -: e-
ond group of students to Ameiic- unlil 1T111. Afti:rt tihe
country had been humbled by hil. B. i'xr ,-ntil'eI-,ik it, 1I'.I:.i
an urgent need of an educational isy-st.m wa- .ianin k':.',nly
felt. In 1903 a special commissi'.'I w..1 .i ,.''li'll ..l 1:.y tll.:
government to draw up detailed plan i'ir :ai ht;liinl pub-
lic school system. With the ,e-t: lihii-imrint .it m!ni1i,.rn
schools, the interest in the new le-,ii Iii.-' l2,'ani'- mrn'r prr--
nounced. The number of Chiiin:.', -tul.1'-nt6 in Amli.rica:
has increased a great deal in re':.int yi:'ai ., e.spcia-llvy -.inc.
1909 when the United States gov.-:ritu!i:en tirurii'. tlihe B.:er
indemnity into a fund for the :linu:-ilii ,.,' .'linii'.' -tu-
dents. Furthermore, the provinii-'1I ailniili-triatir, se-l:,ct
and send students abroad in ordi-Ir l1, I1 iir'-u te-:hliii iii1. i:al
courses of study.
The procedure of educating 4_'liin'--e slu..lient ailr:'a']
has been undergoing a continu,'ui et'ff'.t'l It evI:-liiat,' tllh
results with particular referenc.--e tl-, tnI.- ir'.- l ii..e'l.s Ift
China, and with reference to ti-- ;.tlju-tm:'nt p)ril.l:.-i .
which the students meet in O':i.l:lintLil I:oii:untri'I. Thi,
Chinese government has attemilt'-d to, reiri]mni1.mi'.l ,1nly
those who have reached their m.turity :in1 \'1ii li::'.. .s-- a
training which will qualify them 1to *intur Ai,'riian gr:diu-
il,.. schools. This evidently means two things. First, the
('lIii..'-.' students must become familiar with their own
coil ry and :ppreciale their own culture. Through such
a tililb; rity they will make a better judgment of Western
;ivili/;lini, and select what is desirable in the light of
their own culture. In the second place, it means that the
students must reduce their cost of education by spending
their time wisely and making their work more productive
through using more initiative. These historical facts have
turned the writer's attention toward an explorative study
of the adjustment problems of Chinese graduate students
in American universities, particularly four middle-west-
Survey of thie Field
Research studies have yielded a fund of information re-
garding the Chinese students in America. There is, how-
ever, a noticeable lack of information relative to the areas
of -.< Ilirie ,-'L ii1 w hv. i li l ,1'y i.1 ill i.,.,' ;iljI -t.i i ..ii Irn.i,-
aIn 191).l ',.*l'tl.~1i ir tI l Il i I l ii'. l tii'll" l il : i i.'alii.ii Iia.
i',. i ? i! -I .I l l ., l i. I ,r 1 :1i l y Ii: I, -li l lj ion i'nI d I 1 I
\1l, .-i 'l'i i l ii: r I~iii i I:il i -i l Tl i ll i TII Iii Iif ',rh l ; II ,:ii .'l
l a i. t ll, i,, I a t'ii:.: -Itli,, 1 I I. i l: t i I'., -ite.l If a -
,ll ,li.i] fl i,~ i ;,i .II i II.ili l IIlI: i f i ll ? I ll ii I l -
1 il -, I _Dr. *..'. I-'. i_ ,.'n i -r-l 'ii' l ;It l il l!.. i ,_- O Ir,:I. :r ill'-
I. c ir,.d "'t11 1, l i ,: II t t: l i i. : l l iil,',lJ l h':ll N ,i l .
eign students, and specific opportuiiti-- iifftrid-i th fb'-m.
Such information was centered aronnuli thi- Ait.-i i;co; n -r-
ganization of education; the orgalir:-il;. lii :I a i yl.pii:al
university; Ihe independent, techni.i'il, a;ii piro,:l'-.iilli
schools as well as the denominati.,inal :IiI:lle. Iih.- pro-
visions for the higher education of .ii'ii'-ln: t1,. cI:n1111iri -..nl
of American and foreign institutinm-: ti:- liviiing .-lll.li-
tions; the college life; the major cnclll-il if i'hli'-.:i' e-:lue--
tion; and, the college entrance reql1iii.l'ell- n-.' Dr. D 1'apen
realized the adjustment problems a!-d ll'i-.ultic.- thlii the
students from other lands face in A iniri: ai, Itl lie o!f'i.rel
no solutions for these problems.
In 1921 the Institute of Interna;li iniil '::lue-tii:iloi p':e-
pared the first edition of the Guide i:.'.,.,- I, F,I .I.i,, .1,-
dents in the United States.2 The tliirid -:-litio:li \wva. lin1-
lished in 1931, and treats the subj,_-t- -it I:.r- niza:ti,:,n ..1i
education, the undergraduate college., I":- tgil iua ,_.' ,d'lu.:a-
lion, professional education, sumin,-c aind -xtira-miuiia
instruction, women's colleges, coll:-:. iil'fe. plh-.lininary
preparation for foreign students, ft i'.n stuii:.il .-,rt-an-
izations, and living conditions. Thi- li- -k .':1'> i:-r,:\'i.lte a
fund of information for the student in inakinil ipl-an,. lint
it does not treat the specific individual iIro:l.''Iisi-, whi-ch thl:.
foreign student meets in various soe'-aI -it il''ii:n-.
Also reported in 1921 was a study,- inale 1- I Dir. (I'hu.i, ii
which he investigated the qualiti.-" ;i.;l,-iatl:-.l ill, the
success of Chinese students in insl;lutit:tiif- t ;I ii ji.-r I.-I.i-
cation in the United States.3 Some .itf I le -l...':-ifti m'-thLd--
used were the judgments of associa it,. ''liI.,Ilrii,!' .'.f tlih
'Samuel P. Capen, Opportunities for Fore,:r i '?tr '. ,rr r ,il,..I *r,, i
Universities in the United States. United -'r:.-:. r:. ir. ..1. E.ii,..ritr.n
Bulletin No. 27, 1915.
2Institute of International Education, Gai, lI;,,,,: i-,r 'r.-:l 'i. d ,,i
in the United States. First edition; New Y..rk. l:r'l.
aJennings Pinkwei Chu, Chinese Students .., 4Ari ,;: .i. n ,t.n:;, j..
cited with Their Success. New York: Te4'-:li.- Ci.. II :,.IIiili i lin.
judgments with high school marks, and, with individual
records of achievement; the number of years spent in
America also operating as a factor. This study, though
interesting and suggestive, does not deal with the problems
with which the present investigation is concerned.
In 1925 a study by the Commission on Survey of For-
eign Students in America was made under the auspices of
the Friendly Relations Committees of the Young Men's
Christian and the Young Women's Christian Associa-
tions.1 The problems discussed in this survey center
around the history of students' migrations, the social and
religious backgrounds from which the students come, the
influence and careers of students who have returned to
their homelands after study abroad, the student's contacts
with American life and college, and, the conditions which
the students experience in this country and their resultant
reactions and attitudes.
A i '.-: l ,t I liI- i.i-t -'l'll- ', .1 -,,?, t. i rivu i-t.'i,.t tii.,n ia.
ir, .h_-d i l i:.l l i.'!".i ,:.,-. -ii l, ,: ., rl,,u i ioi,, \,: ;,!1 l:,\,., t.,1 t, : ,.,
A m ,.,rie:, ti,, v,:,lu i,-,'. A .-il',.. r' l,- fri thi..-m i, C,,n-Midi-r,,l ",<
ilil.i\' inl.l lh.l Ir |l. ,i 11 i .1'* I ... 1.1i t, '.r A- ll -_l-rf li W i !. -l it lt i nll- ac
'..r:tf'ilialt i [lil ntrit., irat il tl:ii i i li 'i'r.i.i; :il,* F ulr-
tIi'r, i it i ' tiI- I. ( 'tI lia It ,i1..' i j c..ft t iuld :-t.i ,ii1 ri ..li11-i 11u-
,:Ir 111,' l T11 l -, n il* i l- ..it llt,'r titii rMiii' 'ii i': r. Il'l .i.i-
licl tI'ro:,!>i ., i;l i.1.;iti.ll-ii All.], tlIi t Ii l ',' ,i.ri i .1 1u 1 1,jils
"hl ,,i i ll 1, *tlil '"(- 1'] l t ti, I \', :IrI \' IIv,..i I'. :-i;,'l" li'l 1 I ^- niIl t.,.
, i ll I.1 .il.-iJ i' llhoii i ll ,-,fli, i l l.iI,. 11iI'-.\l **,:.l' e al n
il t[ll i nli, ll l i,-, il,] n I 1 I, i:, ri -' it ki 11 I: 1 .ii i .' t iir ,-lc ,-i
S1i Ii l i l t 1iit ii1i i ,I 'III li "Ir rl| : ri :'*, I il l-'i *i i les. ii 0t
w ,rli\ ii II .iii ,l \, .i,.'i. ii li:\ i ui r i l r\'ii: v lI -ii'_'.**i .... ,;.1
n I p .' 1' |i lo frl ii r 1. til. f r- : li, l it ik n,-,t
,i ,..-la ih l.in l\ 1 i l it .-l ,-I w i(l r ft'.'r,:ii,.., 1,:, ;I I a rlticnllmr
\V I i."nih:ilI 1 ,'l, 'i r .i i. i'r l ',,r, #' t , i rl ,i 1,1 l !,,t n ,.'. '..**
Y..rlh : T h. .\ ... ,r .. .l I'r. --. 1; ".
race and nationality in so far as "llil-tmn:t 1.r,''hl.mI a11re
In 1933, the National Students 'l.ninlil ,,) ,hl Y C. 'A.
authorized a survey of the pre'..-iit -ilinati-in itf ti' f.li-i.r
women students in the United Stil;te- -iil rt ithli \w.k 1he-
ing done by the International Sluleiil ('.:,iiiill, i.' Dr.
Adelaide T. Case of Teachers _''lle..'-, -'i.,liiaiii:i TTUliivr-
sity was the chairman of the coiarjuile,:- 'if t :'it i'ol.:-rs-
which directed the survey. The slui.ly in- -ii n Ir:iijt t, give
a general picture of the present -inilo:n ,:,1 '.:' ir-P i \w'.:lI'men
students, as well as an endeavor Il-,:i -i'.l;ie' Ili- -.iwrlk .:i'
the International Student Comniiillt'-. ..ir il- Imi.lIi,,d of
procedure. In general, this stnul li.- il'Il'.d 1l11,: iiIril-
lems and revealed the significanr:- ...f I. \,-i.,iik ca;;ri'ill .ii
by this Committee with foreign -tul.nl-. Thi:. ':nitrial
question asked was, "To what cxe\.'.t .1':":I tlih; C','iiliaitilt'-_,
accomplish the most for foreign -tu..lI:it-''" An an-w-1er
to such a question would call foi ,in ;n llli'enYt ari;.il-i- ,if
the total situation in which ea h oii ,ii."ril r-'itn1, if .tu-
dents find adjustment problems.
The principal conclusions are: (1i th:i thi Iii-rna-
tional Student Committee should !bi:- !..i-;l i.l I.''I.lsnii- 'o'
such needs of foreign students a- til I.-nl: o'f ri'iinli.,e
friendship and understanding on the i'- r't it f Ai\meri.;inu
in their relations with foreign ,sl-I i iit-; : .! 1 I ') l!,- lim-
ited opportunity to make inforii.l ;inI1 -tiaihtiiil -':o.i;al
contacts with groups of Americian aiil. pli;i.-i- .if Aini..rirn
life, as a means of gaining a dec-pelr un,,iil-r tilii n''.
A critical review of the above, -i' .l ftll.i.lli..' ,:-iii-,il1..'rai n
of other related inudies of le ,-r- ii l,.,irliaan:i ili.I;:a l'.. tihat
there is m uch Ir.-..1 f,,r rI-l:-,:Ir :l i ; I- \\ Ih:it IhI:-..-,lii,.-.ltc |,t
'National Studn(ir ''.. .. l 1.Y. \Va11,,. 1 Illi a! .ii .\ a... [.itil. J
Survey of fth PIr .. ,! ... .... .....,. ir .. .-ntr 'ii. ,t Iir l t.' ,l
States. New Yorl : N ari..,ii i| i.l..IIi i',.. i. 1',..'
pr1i',l.,in- of Chinese graduate students are in different
1:l;linlig institutions in this country.
Purpose of tlhe Present Study
The purpose of the present study is three-fold:
(1) To discover the areas of experience in which
the Chinese graduate students find difficulty in mak-
(2) To discover the attitudes of Chinese Graduate
Students toward American life, and the situations in
which adjustments are necessary.
(3) To discover what the Chinese graduate students
do with reference to the conditions and situations in
which they face difficulties.
Methods and Teclhniques of Investigation
In order to develop the methods to be used in this inves-
ti atinii, pri:.iilin:i ry ..x-pl r ai ry -hiuly of the Chinese
-r Iarlu. te -I d' ontl n 1 i .I I ,CleI:I at tih: University of Chi-
<:-i-', \\.,I- i. l:.'. Thl.- iln-trin.oll .n .:-'n loyed in this part
0.,f' th,.. -tiT \ i',vi. :
1. S t.n inid ii.,.-,d t...t :
T lii-1 t..nI P... I-c n altl v I ,.i ,l.,ul ,.e, 1,. L. Thurstone.
S.n i- i ".\ l li l tiitiI T'iv. Il I ;-"]" (Form A ): and
1-.h, I: li-I l,..Ii ilinili .rf .,,'n E .T. Chave and L. L.
O1i- SI-l'-A\l iiii-l-r.;i '- TI.-l <1 Mfental Ability,
F,rmn .\, I-[irh,.i E1x niiniati.',l.
2. Tim'..-A.lit l \ An l-,I-i '.l.iil,. published by the
D.- ;ir i t f..1 P'r.-eti-:l Tl,-.,l..'y, University of
'h i :.,i ,.
*.. Ii ltrlnIii.' i t t'r riii'" riiili" l]it',: -Iii-lory, develop-
:', I'v I i'.'i i ili iN l- r.
4. Soll'du ,' 1i t inl,," .,'-k:., f D[' P ;" n-, A ,l\i'o:'r-
Ito Fr,_i._.iN S(lo,,1,nw T, ii\':r-ity Y.M.C.A. Secretaries.
As a means of securing data cor.e iiin'. til.' a :an'l'iic
work of the Chinese graduate student-, an liaily-sis o:f thi.
scholarship records in the files of th.- uiiv ei il, i- w;as ':.n-
ployed. The various instruments lit,- v.. W .-: i" u'sed wit\\
each student in the course of personr l iintl'viwi'.
As a result of this preliminary expl-.'lortI.ry- tu.ly it wc;,
found that the Otis Self-Administeri11". T'--.t-; i.f IMe\-t:;
Ability were not adaptable to the Clhii.-.' -tuiileijnt-. Thi-
test was given to a total of 27 students in t!,: Uiiiv-'erity rf
Chicago. Twenty-five of the returns ,-',iidl not 1t s-:.oIredl
because they did not meet the dire:- ti:,n I- thb: r'. iQuire-
ments of the test. The difficulties w>_r.- tv.-.-f':oIhl; ) I I,.
test involved language difficulties whlh *"..uiil iio:t be ':iv:ier-
come in the time limit of either 20 or ;.1, uin'jlt,i'. mii.. 12(
the unfavorable attitudes on the part o:f tiI,. s-tIu:lenti. w-,In-
felt that the test was designed for Anmerieaiin
was unsuited to them.
Following this exploratory study ItiWi iive;ti';ti,'n wac
extended to include Chinese gradu.it- -l1ileltnt- ini irsi-
dence at the Universities of Michiri,-iini :-1 Illinoi'. n,.1
Purdue University. In this phase of tlhe ii':.-.slilntioin the
Otis Self-Administering Test of M:i.:titl Al.iiity wi\,- i.t
used. The methods of procedure emplyl..,l w..e-r imiilair tc-
those used at the University of Chic:,.io. appii':i)tmun'I.- e-
ing arranged either by friends of the- ill. ;tio,,lll:lr ._r iyv
the Dean of Men. Included in this intisiv:- s:;-.tii:ii A:If the
investigation were 90 students, resil'li.nt Iamii'i.i tilie sti-
dent-bodies of the University of Chica'i, the Uiv'-rs ityi of
Illinois, the University of Michigan, nii Purlduic T Univ-er-
To supplement the data obtained ilM tih:. i!'\l:titi.til- of
this group of 90 students, addition, l iiit'norLitio1:. w:\'
secured by interviewing 35 Chinese r;.d.lu:-ti. s..frlt-ent in
twelve other colleges and universities. TIhn- ilr'irpose in ex-
tending the study to this additional group was to discover
if there were in existence any substantial differences in the
adjustment problems faced by the Chinese graduate stu-
dents in the four Middle-Western Universities and those
in other parts of the United States. A slightly different
procedure was used in this phase of the study, in that the
testing instruments were not employed and the interest
centered on the interviews with the students and with the
Deans of the respective Graduate Schools.
The four Middle-western Universities were chosen as
the field of intensive study since the enrollment of Chinese
graduate students is larger in these institutions; access to
them was more easy; and the Chinese graduate students
resident in these four universities are considered repre-
sentative of the total group of Chinese graduate students
in the United States.
THE BACKGROUND **FI TIilE SlI.-i:NT-
An approach to the backRli,.iml o:f tl.. -tii-.l.il. inki..-
for an understanding of soni,- '-f li.:I dihiii-lti, tli-it 1'lhi-
nese students face in Ameri..:.-;. ThI..ir il.iail .:il -:,.iniil in-
heritance, which differ widely y, ;iier..-'n lie Il ii..iliililii-. i-I1
maladjustments of various ]ki.:i-. It is thii ailt'.l'ill *.f tfhi-
chapter to give a picture ot 1lii. -liidlij-' \\.i.- .,'f' -:lvet-
ing American graduate sch<.. .;al..l-iii.. inlit..-I.:l, l,:...lhl
of residence in the United lt,;i -, :L,.,- .i1,l f:hiiil.- t.litu-.
These factors may affect tl!eir lil.ij-tni:- t Ilr'hIle!. oj 1:.
way or another.
Distribution in A- .ii.,' I tit 'it;i,
In order to facilitate a Il-tt.-r uieIr-atnlinl i t' tih.-
Chinese graduate students iin Ai,.n ic.i iAilitutii-, a
short description regarding thli-i -I.-l it...l, .1I in-lilil;,:.n =
seems to be of importance. ThrIuiit p.-i-mi:.l-oi .,nfi-ii'e-
and discussion, the writer fI.'ii'.l Ih.il tlh r,-i' : \e.-i' i. Iiv
standards used by the stu'.l-ntij ThlI. .:.-. inl i,:,jeirl-tivN-
and curricula of institution- Hwe i:I' -Iniul Ir'iii l. ili.-liij-,
catalogues, and particularly ti ,ri.,ujiij tifl ifl '_ orm ti,.iln -:.-
cured from friends. Expi.i ,. -..,:,0 iii .i Iit:. ,i..i n-i-ler l.1
much more than other itemn-. Fiirthir, -tn>l. it, t ,:.l-rt.:.il
institutions according to thl.. i ..i 'iili ,li' 1 1;1i i' -ii.i'o .,f
faculty members, and some. i.t Hie-f i i..".m 'rt..-1 that tie.
selected institutions in the l'-lit i-, lIth iiiijil.er *.f I'lill'. .
Table 1 shows the total numiill.-i:' If Inlet int: l i\'.-il
from sixteen institutions. Furty .,f I In S'2 -tud.leul- at
Michigan were interviewed; 27 of Illt ...'- :' t I'hhli n'I: 14
of the 152 at Columbia Univ- .-il\v 1;2 If tIhe 14 ;.t Illiii-;,
10 of the 11 at Purdue; 4 of the 7 .,I I:.,-t,,i Uni ,: ,ily: 2
of the 10 at Washington Starf ('ill.e'; .':: 1.it thl- 11 il ;t P.-en-
sylvania University; 2 of t he_ ;il Ni-irllI vih tei 1 Tnivi-.r-
sity; 1 of the 2 at Western Reserve University; 1 of the
32 at Harvard University; 1 of the 11 at Yale; and 1 of the
4 at Oberlin College. The total number of Chinese students
at the following universities is not reported; but 4 from
Cornell University were interviewed, 1 from Washington
University, and 1 from the University of Kentucky.
DISTRIBUTION OF 125 STUDENTS INTERVIEWED IN 1932-33
Institutions Men Women Total
*M ichigan ........................ 32 8 40
*Chicago ......................... 25 2 27
Columbia ....................... 11 3 14
*Illinois .......................... 13 0 13
*Purdue .......................... 9 1 10
Cornell .......................... 4 0 4
B oston .......................... 3 0 3
Washington State College......... 3 0 3
Pennsylvania .................... 3 0 3
Northwestern .................... 1 1 2
Wc l.l In Reserve ................ 1 0 1
\W .i' hili ton ..................... 0 1 1
l[aii l v r ....... .... ...... . 1 0 1
Ya:. .... ....... 1 0 1
-l .i l ril . . . . . . . . . . 1 1
K eii i k ...... ........ 1 0 1
T.:,tal l i titul iitns). .. 11. 17 125
I' ,. '"1 1Il.I11. ..r 11 I" |,/hlm iit i' ,'l i.. Illifr..i-, ../ u lI Purdile are the
M...1- l'.I, I 'r. ifi/i/'ii /.I.r n \./ I* / *S.' /,. I1
An j h.it I.'11111 .,1 I,. i.i' 1:, lIind Ill. : ,iii e.ij r a: adem ic inter-
,-t.l. .,t it l ..: l Ii w o \, ..- .: iir''lhI:d in tlh: different insti-
:-.i':n.. '; 2 1.. iiiin:,nili:. : ; I ih iliyvii:e icl iences; 35 the
,rn.:i:il -.i,:.n,:e .; 2- l -' i t *n-'i.11 -erin; -sciences as their
ftild ,it' l:ij':,'r inl.' r:-l. In ianaly.ziii- tihe-e divisions of
t.Itudy, tt'ogeti.:r xwii i.th... iiiilber or' .,titlitts in them, one
will see in Taill.. II tihe variety .-f interests.
DISTRIBUTION OF 90 STUDENTS ACCORDING TO M.\01:,R
The Divisions No. of Studl..- l'..r.il
Divisions of the Social Sciences:
Political science ................... 16
E conom ics ........................ 6
E education ........................ 3
Social service ..................... 2
Sociology ......................... 2
L aw .............................. 2
Religions Education ............... 1
Com m erce ........................ 1
H history .......................... 1
Anthropology ................... 1 35
Division of the Engineering Sciences:
Electrical engineering .............. 6
Chemical engineering .............. 5
Mechanical engineering ............ 4
Civil engineering .................. 3
Aeronautical engineering .......... 1
Marine engineering ................ 1 20
Division of the Biological Sciences:
M medicine .......................... 5
Psychology ....................... 4
Phyviv lon v ....................... 4
D i i n ... .' h ..............n l ..........
P l~iy i: y ........................ I
;itr:in-t lii ......... ............ .
P h'y, i,:.. ................... .... 1 ;
Liti:ra ur: .. ..... .. ........ 1
P hlil...sop: hy ....................... 1
G ranii. T rta.l .................. 9.)
Considered comparatively, 38.9 percent of the 90 stu-
dents were mainly intere-fld. in the social sciences; 22.2
percent in the engineering sciences; 18.9 percent in the
biological sciences; 17.8 percent in the physical sciences;
and, only 2.2 percent in the humanities.
Length of Residence in America
With reference to the length of residence that these Chi-
nese graduate students have in America, it is shown in
Table ITT that the range is from one to fifteen years. The
average length of residence for the group is two and one-
half years. It is to be noted that a fairly large proportion
of the group have been in residence in American institu-
tions of higher education less than two years, and that a
small number of the group have been in residence in Amer-
ica more than six years. That these facts have relation-
ship to the adjustment problems of these Chinese gradu-
ate students is shown in further discussion of the areas
in \shi ti fhi.ir' al.ju-lin:nt 1i,,l.li,:nI .,iinr. Thit the0,..
l, :latil, ill ll i ',:. ill, -, :* el. l in te i, ,s:.,i ll i jr1'.,j t11l 1an in
,lh,-r. is .!I":,,n in the ,n : ,':- .],l-,m ,:. <>l th.le ,d1 te.
D1 i i _il ,-N ,,F 9- 1 i S i i.ir .N i"- .\ ',i ,I G Tr, LF.:,TI-I iF
F: NL"'. L IN i- ri i .I .
Y-..a' i i., '|,-In ..r (S illl, ,t .-[' l iii.
O n.. ............. ...... .... ....... 3
T ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I
Thri.,-. ................... ............. 1G6
F ur ... .. ... . .. . .... .. . 17
F ive .... ........ ..... . ....... . 7
S L . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
Sevll .................................... 1
T-n .................. ...............
T lji l...i . . ... .
FI'irteeii ............. ................ "
Fi ftii ........... ... ............. 1
T ltal ......................... .90
Age of the Students
It is desirable to know the age of these -t'Iu1i.-iil- iii .
it may have some reference to their adjustment ipr':ll,.:mi-.
The range of ages for this group of 90 stud,1inl i- Illni
20 to 45 years. The average for the group full v. illi, thI..
range 26-27 years. Some evidence of the comp.;r.:ti\'i:- n.;-
turity of these Chinese graduate students i- I, Ie f'niiil
in the fact that practically two-thirds of the t' i-o ,p a'e- ';
years of age or older. That these students hlv.: c(.,iI. tI,
America with some considerable background t' traini.1-.
and experience is indicated by the small iil.i:.r in tli,.
group who are less than 21 years of age. TI iV alf-, n1i-
portant to observe that the proportion of tlih.,: III\'. :','
years of age is quite small.
DISTRIBUTION OF 90 STUDENTS ACCORDING Ti, A.I:
Age in years
T otal ......................
Numb '- .*. l'P-i. -,[ .'
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
... .............. ..
Family Status and Parental Occupation
That these students come from many different fields of
social life is evidenced by the occupational distribution oi
the parents. The data presented in Table V show this dis-
tribution to be rather wide-spread, with a rather definite
proportion in the professional or commercial groups.
Some suggestion of the pervasive influence of the tradi-
tional attitudes of "filial devotion may be seen in the fact
that twenty-eight students did not give their parental
occupations, being reluctant in many cases to disclose these
facts. In a few cases the parents were deceased, and in a
few other cases there was evidently a refusal to report
the occupations of the parents because these were not high
in social standing.
PARENTAL OCCUPATIONS OF STUDENTS
Number of Percent of
Occupations Students Total
M merchant .......................... 21 23.3
Teacher ............................ 17 18.8
Government official ................. 5 6.0
P astor ............................. 4 4.4
B anker ............................ 2 2.2
Prl*.llrietl .. ..................... 2 2.2
('a; rl: l- ..r ... .. .................... .. 1 1.1
.' ernii ......................... 1 1.1
rk . ... .................... 1 1.1
Dilct r .. ............................ 1 1.1
TEdil....r ........................ 1 1.1
Ei, in, er .......................... 1 1.1
.T I;, .-,,.. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 1 .1
lOti: ial ..... .. .. ............. 1 1.1
trl:.. alnl \>;nit
N.,t r,.l" :.r ed ....................... 28 31.0
T otl l ...................... 90 100.0
Compared to this is a study of pale]tal oi,:,I. ll ti.,ins ot'
931 Chinese students enrolled in high wIo.l- nid'I.,1 ,lI.-c.:l...
and representing 1,270 families in Chlii l. Tlii .-liidy wa.
made by Ava B. Milam and revealed ll, t'1: ll, -i ,l.:i-Aiti-
cation of parental occupations:'
36.0 percent belonged to the mei:rli;iit ila-
13.6 percent belonged to the official e;lA;i-
13.6 percent belonged to the -l.dll-n:t ;iiin. t.eahLii
11.9 percent belonged to the pie:i.-li r i:--i
10.9 percent belonged to the nitiutil'h:- *..upi:lti,,iiS
and specific occupations not classilild
7.3 percent belonged to the fai iii-r i.a.i-
6.7 percent belonged to the do,-t:iw ,-l:-.
Lewis in a study of twenty-five girl-' Iliii -......Is ill
China found that the parental occupatic-'i.- ._ 7I.5 -ltI.l,..itl
were as follows :
49.5 percent belonged to the mcniLi:In1i( .:iz-i
38.5 percent belonged to the scb.lhii -I ia
7.7 percent belonged to the farinir i-l:i--
2.7 percent belonged to the serv'anl i:la-z
1.4 percent belonged to the alti-il :,Iit
1.0 percent belonged to the military i:lav .
In this present investigation, as alre:.-i:y i.Il-ed, iI he nelr-
chant group ranks 23.3 percent, being thi Iji.hii.-l p:ro:i-..1i-
tion from the group of 62 students whi- _Z-v, ;-i dilfilie r- I.-
port on their parental occupations. Thei- n,.xt il rank; i-
the teacher group, with 18.8 percent. The *,.'ll.' II ':-rei-
ter, chemist, clerk, doctor, and editor Ic,-ni.'y the li.\-'esl
proportion in the classification.
On the basis of these comparative il.at:. it i iy 1.,.' ..cIn-
eluded that this group of Chinese n-idat.-c -t tuint- it
fairly representative of student pop-ula;li,_,ii inl ('liin,:. in
'Ava B. Milam, A Study of the Student Ho,'r ... .. i 2. N' .
York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers Coll-.,- 'I.InI.I.i. Ii- '-r it-.
'Ida Belle Lewis, The Education of Girls in ("i .r. .i.. .' N,.w Y\,.rk:
Bureau of Publications, Teachers College Colu:i.i Ja i Uli r-irty 1:2.
.:i t'f:r :i- tlhir tfmilv -t;alus as shown by parental occupa-
lio n is i.-< ,ni>:.' rii. ,l.
,'ii; I,,,f F lrt fr'mn WiTnicih S',ulents Come
In Tll.,_-. VI tliIl.. i .i: .ls of the students as to the num-
lier ..' t I;vii.: :hliiilihren iI their respective families are given.
Th:- -i..: it tlli- famiily varies from one to seventeen per-
s.onsi. TI ., :;ritl liertieal ;.I -rage is 3.5 per family.
Of tI- 9' -tiidleiit-, 42 are first-born children. From the
varii.m. Ifan;il', unit-. ti i-e are distributed as follows: In
tlii 2-,-li .l I.,,nilieir. l' '.f the 14 reported are first-born
lihl,:.i ; i, I1i: :.:- 'liil.l t.im ilies, 9 of the 20 are first-born
children' ; inI tihe -cI ild families, 5 of the 17 are first-born;
in the 5-child families, 4 of the 13;- are first-born; in the
6-child families, 1 of the 8 is first-born, and the inclusion
of those who are the only living child of the family, 12,
makes a total of 42 first-born children. The large number,
42 :. t i I. rni. I, ai:- litr -born children reflects the com-
iI,:. ilr-i':ti:t, i in ('ihin: :' providing for the eldest son the
I-,:.t pl:.-il.l' ,.,lu'.u'tti:-iiil opportunityty W ith reference to
tli rui l nilnh.'c o. f : ,1l. r_ .',ii .. the large number of students
V.,II:, iiirent- ;:a iin i,,rl't'-sional or conunercial pursuits
i- t: I.:e i,:.t-l]. Tlie rI. l'."- ce in American institutions of
ii.-I.I r ei:- ]lnati :'n .it c1,il.[lr'-n other than the first-born of
tIl. fonily ; i r pinti.ll.y Ie: .I.i. explained by the fact that the
aw\v:i liing l..f -.ii'.'.eriiin IIt foundation scholarships under
whi'lic Ih y i<:,' :m i.. i- ni:... :1i the basis of qualification; and;
p.irtially I, i- t.e llt tli,-t both family support and self-
'4Ulll>>-rt ai. .l-.o illvolved.
DISTRIBUTION OF 90 STUDENTS ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF
LIVING CHILDREN PER FAMILY
Number of Living
Children per Family
Number of Students
in Each Group
One ...................... ....... 12
T w o ............................... 14
Three ..................... ......... 20
Four ....................... ........ 17
Five ............................... 13
Six ................................ 8
Seven .............................. 1
E ight .............................. 1
N ine ............................... 2
Ten ................................ 1
Seventeen ........................... 1
In the second chapter, data were given relating to the
individual and social backgrounds of the students included
in this investigation. The discussion to follow will set
forth certain characteristics of the group; such as schol-
arship, time spent in various activities, and emotional ten-
dencies. These data represent responses to the questions
asked the students in the interview procedure, from the
use of the Thinrslone Personality Schedule, and, from the
information obtained through the Recorder's Office of the
Sclolarship of Students
It is not the endeavor to compare the scholarship of the
Chinese students with that of American graduate students,
nor to designate the success of the former with reference
to. the '_,ralde received. The analysis gives the indices of
tli:- -.lin.a;.:,Ia l .status of these 90 Chinese graduate stu-
dilt- .11 -.,.']n-h indication of their relation to the adjust-
Iimenrt p1I .I'Iii. f these students.
At tl liTiiv\i:rsity of Michigan, in the Graduate School,
in adlition i,.. t language, thesis and examinations, residence
and -.:u 'ii: t-. iiiirements are of primary importance. "To
-.aii -II.i rI.-i'l.-Ince a student must complete satisfactorily
i,-i,1 1.-- tli;ii niiie hours of course work in a semester, and
I I..I 1.-'- IIt:in -I;X hours in a slummler session, with a mini-
u iiii of I..,-.iily-l'our honors of graduate work for the Mas-
t- '- il-r.'ri: and must select a department of specializa-
tilin.."' Thrl. I, rks used to designate the grades are:
**A"-EI.;-ll.:,!. ; "B"-Good; "C"-Fair; "D"-Poor; "I"-
ln-..nillli'l':1; an,1. "X"-Absent from Examination.2 Of the
S;,,,,, ..., 1 . i. .ll;, ..;,.,,, I 'f..",.IL! 1l,,h l.l, ,,i,,,, Vol. X X X IV, No. 57.
.\AiM .\ lh 11 II .:ll. ,1 ile I' .:.9 .
E:iiii:iniiii l I-|port", Graduate School, University of Michigan, Ann
AIbL.r, .3i>:biguar .
total number of 40 student, r'-i.-t er:. at thli. UIniver-
sity and studied in this inv s.-.ti-- i tloi ,i ti -t :i\-er:,;, : lt *;i :I
ranking for the academic y.;-,i 1' :I2-, :. a ol, -: 4 -
percent received "A" gradei-; 4'.1 ] per-nt .-i''.- iv,.l "B:"
grade; 13.6 percent received "**"' *rile; .il 'only : l-'r-
cent received "D" grade.
At the University of Illino'i-. .i,. v,:-;ar'- :r.'.l t'., \\o.'rk
in residence is required for tili. .''- Ii- 'itf IM,l-I.-r 'f tArt-
or Master of Science; or, a mininziuii iInrii:II li i- :; !\ear.l
for the degree of Doctor .a Phil--oihi vy, iirliniir.- in all
cases theses and examinati.,-.n.' TlP.- .r.'.l'.'- ;iven .it IhL.
end of each course are ind;ier.led i'- thli. i.t.:i- A. L,_'. I.
and E. These respectively i11.'t-:'iint tli -Ih aiii; 11 4tui-
dents as "Excellent', "Go:,:,", **F;.r", "l.'c.ir" -, ,l
"Failure". On the basis of ih.:- ni:\- -laind:,rd. ot, tlLh 1U:
students studied, the aver s-: .ra1i r.-'nlkini t':ir thl, ;i:a-
demic year 1932-33 was a- f'ollow-: '.3 eIl:':eht r.-:,ivi:.l
"A" grade; 66.7 percent r-creiv.:.l ''''" r.'e;;1 .nd ".5 ) r-
cent received 'C" grade.
At Purdue University, i.li.:-'r i: .- ?-: ei: f:r :.ld in 1 uer,
of semester hours of graduate. iitl.-' '"At l,'a-t thirty
semester hours of gradual'..- <:'li-, Al. .' \.lfiil: i Iril.-t li.:'
done under the direction o:f iiieit l, -r o:f thie Frii:nly :f
Purdue University, are re.juirii.,l ft:, tlie Ma; .tr'- l'.I n'e.
An acceptable thesis must a.11, I. li.-' rel.ard." TIlic -l.n1-
ards of work are stated as Il:llowi :
The letter grades appli:-d.1 L: iii:ler'gia;I;"te wo\.i'k
are used in connection with g-idnlt.. -titudy, liut n..
course work will be cr.en.litel tl-iward .iitlir Mast-r'.a
or Doctor's degrees unlle I he rI'ndle is A., luac-f as high
as "B". A "P" grade inay ni,.t bi raiie'.l to cre.ilit
hn is. r--.ept by ropeatil' tH:- ,I.:Ioir'e 1 liy x eX:lli1la-
li,. ,; aiil ,lii ,.'iily w ith I Lit.. 1 i'lrov;fil ,o'f tli':- D)o 1Ai o
'* /. ,,. I i, 1. In ,,,.;, li 1, ,,l i ..I X X X. N... "T. I', i .-71. U rirl. ra.
1Bulletin of Purdue University, I. 11'.1 V..I XXXIII. N... *. L fii .yetr e.
the Graduate School. A grade of "C" or "D" re-
quires that credit can be obtained only by repeating
Such letters as are used to designate grades and hours
are "H", "A", "B", "P", "C", "D", "I", and "F".2
Of the 10 students studied, the average grade ranking for
the academic year 1932-33 was as follows: 10.6 percent
received "H" grade; 29.5 percent received "A" grade;
34.8 percent received "B" grade; 23.5 percent received
"P" grade; .08 percent received "C" grade; and, .08 per-
cent received "D" grade.
At the University of Chicago, degrees are conferred on
the basis of fulfilling the requirements which are stated in
terms of educational attainments, and are measured by
examinations which may be taken by the student whenever
he is prepared to take them, at any scheduled period. The
ritii *- -l' 4I i ui-i. I i- th,.: thi-:l. point scale; namely, "S"'-
Satita.,lor; U'"- UnIati-l:toctry; and, "'R"-Reading
co'iii,. ithiintl ,.-iriii. ir.,-lit. Unlike the grading systems
.it Plrdi'.i. Illioii, mii .1 -hl ii';in, this rating system does
Iiot 4 I.it tihe d':. '. : -f pr'. it',.:y in a student's academic
worl:. An i!l trnitivt e tl ini.iit '.f requirements is:
t',.:iiid:lit t or tli-. ,l.-rc : of M aster of Arts in the
D,:lpairti n: iit of E.l.di.ilii, are required to show, by
p.,iin aZ -, 0oii Pre'-liteniv, examination, knowledge of
liii ti Jlnn.a.Inre-n i n,! hiar-In l.:ri ties of the American edu-
.itional iv iise an 1 :I.'q-li:i lance with the techniques
of sij, nlii ,:ti i :sli iti:ll inl the field of education.3
Of tih 27 1tudentt li,.ii.'l1, t 'i.- average grade ranking for
thie a':Id':lniir y..-r 1!12-2:.:; \'I- a, follows: 96.8 percent re-
c?'iv.l "'S" ra.. : a .ii ..2 ri':.ent received "U" grade.
It i .s ..-i, l I1111 Ill,.- imiij'rilyx of students were not
fotnl: l I... h v. lili .r l li,.: i ill pir i 5:. 1 vmi c.-iii w iorl:. Through
.1 . 1 117.
3 J n t. *to ,.,! ilI,,,, .I,, ,... m..," p. 275, Vol. XXX III, No. 8.
Cni,.agn, ] .'..'
personal contacts with Deans of Gradlinl: S1hIIi.1-, the
writer found that the failures to attain -;r -fa-t' try --.li:-
lastic ranking were largely due to physi.-ol h indic-l.ap. ....r
preparation of assignments, and, particui:rly- tie IiiiL -nrE;
difficulties. It was not found that the fs: it .1 4-tlin- ;af-
fected significantly their success or failure' in ad.a-,1ii.
work. In other words, the older studeni- i:11 l-4.5 yI.-ar- :it'
age) could do just as well as the youici-'_r -til:!i, who
range from 20 to 29 years of age. This -e-'niI te II- i1n ii,,n
with other investigations connected with adult learning.
In general, teachers of adults of age 25 to 45 should
expect them to learn at nearly the same rate and in
nearly the same manner as they would have learned
the same thing at fifteen to twenty. . . Age, in it-
self, is a minor factor in either success or failure.
Capacity, interest, energy and time are essentials.'
With reference to the major academic interests, the find-
ings reveal that 65.6 percent of the students who are above
26 years of age report that there have been no major
changes in interest; while 36.4 percent of the students who
are 20-25 years of age do shift their interests in various
ways. Of this 36.4 percent, 4 percent have shifted from
literature to chemistry; 7 percent from social to physical
sciences; and, 1 percent from religion to psychology. How-
ever, 16.4 percent of the younger students report that they
have not changed their interests with refereni-:- te-, ;na-
demic work, but they have changed in social, volhinta.r
cultural, and recreational activities. A total o( I' ee-r*.-eI1i
of the younger students have shifted their irlr:.--t tro:
international affairs and political problems t,., ll:n li-:i[.il.-
tion in social functions.
Thus the findings show that evidently the Chiir.-. *Ir.d-
nate students who are above 26 years of age:. ..,ri Inrole
sure of their academic interests. There are, helv.vi.', :.
'E. L. Thorndike ft al., Adult Learning, pp. 177-179 N,.a Y..k:
Macmillan Company, 1928.
few cases showing a change of interest. One student says:
AlM interests are changing all the time. But I am
sure that I have had a definite outlook toward life.
I change from the intellectual to the social, from the
social to the cultural, and from the cultural to the
aesthetic interests. In the last analysis, my intellec-
tual, social, cultural and aesthetic interests will all
stay with me.
On the basis of the data obtained through the interviews,
it is shown that the students do not generally make any
significant changes in their academic interests. The cases
that do show changes in academic work indicate that they
are made with reference to future careers in most in-
stances. Some changes are the result of the limitations
set by the student's capacities, while the others are made
in the light of the social conditions and changes in the sit-
uation in China which .may determine the possibilities of
future employment., .
In general, the data obtained through. th,e interviews
indicate thac the beginning &gradnate students who have
just recently entcr.-d the Graduate Schools of. American
institutions face more difficulties in doing their academic
work than those who have been in America for more than
one year. This is due chiefly to the limitations of prepara-
tion and particularly tie language difficulties faced by the
-tIil.t'iit-. Thi.. -Iiil.it- who have had better training in
Ei'-li-Ii plriur II-, ni .1.ii : Io. the United States do better
w.,-rkIl. ILii l:-.- wh'... I.,... in their scholastic experience
ir.n.. Iv -j .'ii'lu- II. li:. initial years securing a knowledge
o:f En lish.
Al /ql!l;* of Activities
The 'Till:t--.\.1 vitv A.\ lysis for College Students" was
u, ,,- 1 t .: ,lie-c .-,.,.. ii .w a, 'llilii:-:, urnd t.1 :.I -1iI]'. 11t spent his
lili.- wilmli r.. l' t-'..-.-e t Ii- ailjuii- i--nt problem s. The re-
s.ilI, .:t I< ... ii :-lig'-;tit'lin in the four universities are herd
0 -1 I .im I '.1d.
AVERAGE TIME SPENT Ir I'IFTI-F:l.NT Ac'rilliES
.\A N o. ..f II...n -
P.-r XV'... I:
I. Academic Activities
University of Chicag,,
27 students......... ...... 44.0
University of Michigan
40 students .................... 44.5
University of Illinois
13 students .................... 46.8
10 students .................... 45.4
II. Voluntary Cultural and Recreational
University df Chicsa'g
27 'siudeht ........... ;.: .. .. ... 13.8
University of Michigan
-40 students,., -,. ... ....... ..13.9
University of Illinois, ,
13 students ............. ...... .. 16.6
10 students.................... 9.8
III. Social and Fraternal Activities:
University of Chicago
27 students .................... 5
University of Michigan
40 students..................... S 4
University of Illinois
13 students ................... 7.-1
10 students.................. ..
In the analysis of the academic activities it \.'a- fo':uid.
that on the average the 10 students at Purd':,. -pent 4.1.4
hours a week at them; the 13 at Illinois spent 41.S. l'-rii-
a week; the 40 at Michigan spent.44.5 hours a nee': k; ind.
the 27 at Chicago spent 44 hours a week. Activities in-
cluded in this classification are: class work, study, labora-
tory work, music lessons, and conferences with instructors
regarding course work. The average time given to the
academic activities by the 90 students in the four univer-
sities is 44.7 hours a week.
The interest of students in voluntary cultural and recre-
ational activities took the form of the reading of news-
papers, magazines and books; conversation; participation
in athletics; attendance at the theatre and movies; listen-
ing to the radio and lectures; sight-seeing; going on pic;
nics; and "day-dreaming." It was found that the 10 stu-
dents at Purdue spent an average of 9.8 hours a week in
such interests; the 13 at Illinois an average of 16.6 hours
a week; the 40 at Michigan an average of 13.9 hours a
week; and the 27 at Chicago an average of 13.8 hours a
week. The whole group of 90 students spent an average
of 14 hours a week in the voluntary cultural and recre-
The interest of the students in social and fraternal ac-
tivities took the form of dating, social calls, and informal
social functions. The 10 students at Purdue spent an
average of 7.7 hours a week in these activities; the 13 at
Ill11oi l, .1iv :A'l;- -' of 7 hours a week; the 40 at Michigan
.111 aV;',:raI.' f .4- hours a wek; and the 27 at Chicago an
av-\ran'il.' f .5, hI-iurs a week. Of these activities, the in-
ftorim:l .: .-i.il f'lnii:tions are regarded as the most impor-
Thi- lIfilin'-.- 'if this study also indicate that a small
,in1il0r ,..f 1 1.i11.nl engaged in such activities of college
i:,r.-j.,ini:.,,li,:,n ; -, athletics, music and the class meetings.
AI ('hir:-i':', :f Ih... 27 sidll ,:'llt 7 spent an average of 3.7
hour,- :\ w\. i.i ::-, Ml.iig.i i 9 of the 40 students spent an
a vri. o( 7.S I:uiirs a v.-c.:k; at Illinois 5 of the 13 spent
an average of 3.2 hours a week: n;al. at Purdiiu no,-: I.,F
the 10 students spent any time in I n-ll 'ti ilii:-- of .i I :-,l-
lege organizations. A total of -1 f lli,- !" t.iuilentii 1p:ir-
ticipated in such activities as her- ,iii i..illil, -iien- lill- nnl
average of 5.3 hours a week in tlh:.I.
In remunerative work, 1 of tli-: 27 .-IidI'Ijt- ;it t 'hli-:,i-,
spent an average of 10 hours a \\ee:: 2 -.t' the 1:-'. -tI.1'ltiil-
at Illinois spent an average of 14 li.ur ; w:. -a:::; ltf tl.e
40 students at Michigan spent an average of 1U.6 hours a
week; and, none of the 10 students at Purdue did any re-
munerative work. Such activities included manual labor
work as student assistants and writing for publications.
In religious activities, 16 of the 40 students at Michigan
spent an average of 1.2 hours a week; 3 of the 13 students
at Illinois spent an average of 1.7 hours a week; 2 of the
10 students at Purdue spent an average of 1 hour a week;
and, 7 of the 27 students at Chicago spent an average of
1.6 hours a week. A total of 28 of the whole group of 90
students spent an average of 1.3 hours a week in religious
activities. These data are to be seen as having relationship
to problems involving religious and moral interests. These
relationships will be discussed more fully in connection
with the treatment of such problems.
With respect to changes in the activities of the students,
there is shown to be a difference between the students who
are below 30 years of age, and those who are above: tisi
age. The students who are above 30 years of age d1- n"t
deny an interest in voluntary cultural and recr<.:-li.iIal
activities, as well as social activities. However, lii ..-y do
manifest their likes, dislikes, and indifferences to s:iine oft
these particular activities. For example, the olcd;.r -In-
dents are more interested in the activities that may I-e fol-
lowed largely by the individual, such as sight-seeinc- at-
tending the theatre or movies, or playing solitaiire. Tli,.
younger students adapt themselves easily to the social sit-
nations, as a general rule, and shape their living with ref-
erence to the changing conditions. There seem to be sev-
eral reasons for this situation. In the first place, the older
students, unlike the younger, do not change readily the
habits and customs that have been acquired and established
at home. In the second place, the older students have
had more limited residence in America; and also report
that they are overloaded with research and laboratory
work, so that their interest in a variety of activities must
As compared with American college students, these
Chinese graduate students evidence a greater amount of
time spent on the academic activities; less time on such
activities as attending the theatre, lectures and concerts; a
great deal less time in fraternal and social activities; and,
considerably less time in remunerative employment.1 Each
of these conditions is indicated as having relation to the
adjustment problems of the Chinese students and discus-
sion of each item will be developed in connection with the
particular area of adjustment, problems involved.
Emotional Tendencies of Students
The Thurstone Personality Schedule was used to obtain
an index of the emotional tendencies of the 90 students.
In the exploratory phase of the investigation, that involv-
ing the 27 students at the University of Chicago, the method
of scoring this instrument was revised in the light of the
:liiuri;d 1,;li',i round and personality traits of the Chinese
l ul.h..r s. Th.. ''23 questions in the Schedule were examined
:1111 m.-.d r in. made in view of the mode of response
'. i ..I.. -r i .II .i nittee I I-. riiitt e o r ..n II"I I ll li ii 11r' Tim e, Report
,,f i, *:,illt it,, F, (,t C(' immittee ,,I l' 't?,I, ,.'. >.'tuddcnl's Tiu e,
I.u. II. -', l 41 . 'lT in-.go: Ul iii .-r'il. ,., i. i...,.. Press, January
which would be diagnostic of emotional t-_n.l-l-ii i- amorn.:.
Chinese students. These results were ch:.tl:-,.d :inul :.rn-
pared with those of the authors of the ihslrinu:lit. In thi-,
comparison it was found that the met'h..d .,'f :'.lrir iie-
veloped by the writer gave substantially ile s-m. rult-
as when the responses of the Chinese graduate students
were scored according to the directions given by the au-
thors of the test and the method of scoring employed by
them. Hence, in the further development of the investiga-
tion, the method of scoring used by the authors of the in-
strument was employed. The distribution of scores for the
entire group of 90 Chinese graduate students, according
to the scoring method set forth in the directions for using
the instrument are as follows:
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION FOR TIHE PERSONALITY SCHEDULE
Schedule Score Number of Students
0-- 9 ............................... 8
10- 19 ............................... 10
20- 29 ............................... 12
30- 39 ............................... 15
40- 49 ............................... 20
50- 59 ............................... 8
60- 69 ............................... 5
70- 79 ............................... 8
80- 89 ............................... 2
90- 99 ............................... 1
100- 109 ............................... 1
T otal ....................... .(
The mean of this distribution is 40.56 and tl-i .Il-nt;t.i:rd
deviation of the scores which range from 0 to 1i9 is 22..'l
According to the norms set forth in the publli-hl,-1 di.ir-
tions for administering the Personality Schednl-'i. .'ti tIh
whole group of 90 students, 14.4 percent wern. i.-1tr,:.ml:y
\l.-ii adjusted (Group A); 18 percent were well adjusted
(Group B); 48.8 percent showed average adjustment
(Group C); 14.4 percent were emotionally maladjusted
(Group D); and 4.4 percent were indicated as in need of
psychiatric advice (Group E). It is important to note that
the distribution of scores in this group of Chinese gradu-
ate students follow very closely the curve of distribution
given in the published reports concerning this instrument
as representing the scores of American college students.'
However, there were certain differences between the re-
sponses of thlie Chinese students and those of the Amer-
ican students which should be recognized. The authors of
the Personality Schedule have listed 42 questions which
nr,:. h.nf i to I:l1.. hi-hily ,li .2noi ti: of n:it ira:. tic tendency,
.,." Ii._. l xhlr i ,i: *ii' ll- t,, \ li i,:li l?:--L ii,:- iii elieatilg m al-
:iil iui tilu :' l ,*:.\ i11.1. ,. i.i. lli, ,,. i il tin: *-' l i 's D and
" E ". T h1r-,'. ,lU,'.,ti..iii i,.; n.- I ',ll' l \,w :
ID v,-, .i t -in ,:- tri'i lt .'
/L><, i f i,,-i\ .- dill,:llity ill lt il ii_ ,i conversation
I).:i >..11 \\ i ': r. tI l.. I ii. Mi-i er l .l I~ lliii ili l ing experi-
i., 1 -.iii i- li, I 1 :*l I,,,l :.ni. ,-
Li.. y ,i iiia li x'-l ill i 1 ii llh.r II*.-l OUS person?
A I:L ', 111 l',:1.1 ]iuCa. I.:.,i ily I il :'
i ... i .i.-'i inu h l i Ilii r;,inii l n a :-ir!i occasions?
DI, i.1.: i, ....I l l n 1l li I l, iii lr li so that you
,:i 1 I i 1,i .' [: .'
A i'' I i ii', ih -i ii ily ei ii d I. : i O.1 i? of remorse?
I iil' it'. ii,. v iill,' nii>t< i ',Ii,,: li |:, l piness and
-.i i I:.-" \ ill 1,tl .ilaf a l |i,; i'i..ljl I' -a: i .-
A r1 vi1i ti i u .-,I.,l w itli -'l' i i,'' I '
Hav% y_. .vll .,.I h d -11m : :'llk Af dizziin, 7
Iii, o u ,i l d i--:-,iiira,',edl ,-*i- 1 "?
'1,. I. 1.I.I f. i a. Tllir-.:.cI.... ".\ N'..,r..ti.' Ii.'.ntrarv". l.,,,rnal of Social
P jfhltroh !. 1. N.:. 1 I 1i'31.i, 22-'23.
Do your interests change quickly?
Are you easily moved to tears?
Does it bother you to have people watch yu iat
work, even when you do it well?
Can you stand criticism without feeling hurt?
Do you have difficulty in making friends?
Are you troubled with the idea that people are
watching you on the street?
Does your mind often wander badly so that you lose
track of what you are doing?
Have you ever been depressed because of low marks
Are you touchy on various subjects?
Do you frequently feel grouchy?
Do you feel self-conscious when you recite in class?
Do you often feel just miserable?
Does some particular useless thought keep coming
into your mind to bother you?
Do you hesitate to volunteer in a class recitation?
Are you frequently in low spirits?
Do you often experience periods of loneliness?
Do you often feel self-conscious in the presence of
Do you lack self-confidence?
Do you find it difficult to speak in public?
Do you often feel self-conscious because of your
If you see an accident are you quick to take an active
part in giving help?
Do you feel that you must do a thing over several
times before you leave it?
Are you troubled with feelings of inferiority?
Do you often find that vou cannot make up your
mind until the time for action has passed?
Do you have ups and downs in mood without appar-
Are you in general self-confident about your abil-
Out of the total list of the above 42 differentiating ques-
tions, the findings of this study would indicate that 13 of
them are diagnostic of maladjustments with the Chinese
Do you have difficulty in starting conversation with
Do you worry too long over humiliating experi-
Are your feelings easily hurt?
Do ideas often run through your head so that you
Are you frequently burdened by a sense of remorse?
Do you get. discouraged easily?
Can you stand criticism without feeling hurt?
Do you have difficulty in making friends?
Are you touchy on various subjects?
Do you feel self-conscious when yon recite in class?
Does some particular useless thought keep coming
into your mind to bother you?
Do you hesitate to volunteer in a class recitation?
Do you often experience periods of loneliness?
Likewise the findings show that the following 15 ques-
tions are diagnostic in the responses of the Chinese stu-
dents, but they do not appear in the list of mal-adjusted
questions for the American students:
Do you usually control your temper?
Do you lose your temper quickly?
Does it upset you to lose in a competitive game?
D., yv:l -et .li,:ouraged easily?
DL e iti.rciiir disturb you?
D,. v.,u I.-.ir Ihve a queer feeling as if you were
nl-,,t Vyoi r 1 ld :.1 1 '
iD. yu; f,.el I.l;al life is a great burden?
D -i, lu tlb .i iil ni'cessary to watch your health care-
,:ilI' yvii tiii l disgusting smells?
D,, y.) pi.f lr participation in competitive intel-
i..ii iil iiii n-,i ,iits to athletic games?
H-flv... \'ii f1'lniidI books more interesting than people?
DI .iinI ii-ii.illy get turned around in new places?,
DI '111 i:i\-.. reat difficulty in finding your way
Illa il iii iii llq I l. i!l ?
Lit ., I:-..-l tlil, habit of leaving a lot of tasks un-
i.i, you .: tiln 1i of work easily?
rJli.'.. \.er. *il.-.: -i: questions out of the 223 in the in-
tl'lllii-nt tul -..i i..i:ilin_ with the family and family situa-
tion.,, w iiti.h w.r.. n t., trA .,d **ri-.u.-ly by the Chinese
students. The general attitude was i-ni: ...f iidiffi'.,-'rei':
toward such questions. This situation i.tle,-t. tli.- (ullIirl
background of these students, with it- -iulhai;-i- .it "fili:il
devotion" as a virtue, and the conseeiiuiit i'linitaiir- :,l'
the Chinese students to respond to 'iu,..-ti":'n. ,, cI:-i erlil-i
family status or conditions. The questions are:
Were your parents happily married?
Do you love your mother more than your father?
Have your relationships with your mother always
Do you love your father more than your mother?
Have your relationships with your father always
Do you occasionally have conflicting moods of love
and hate for members of your family?
It is suggested by the authors of the Personality Sched-
ule that, "the fundamental characteristic of the neurotic
personality is an imagination that fails to express itself
effectively on external social reality."' In comparing the
emotional tendencies of the Chinese graduate students
with those of the American students, as indicated by their
responses to this schedule, it is to be noted that with the
Chinese students social and emotional expression is
largely inhibited. The influences of the differences in cul-
tural heritage and language, as well as the feeling of isola-
tion and strangeness in surroundings in the United States,
are most probably quite prominent factors in producing
such a situation.
* L. L. and T. G. Thurstone, op. cit., pp. 22 f.
THE AREAS OF ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS
The data obtained on the 90 Chinese graduate students
reveal seventeen areas of adjustment problems. In Table
LX these areas are grouped under four major divisions.
In each division the areas are listed in the order of the
number of cases reported in each year of adjustment prob-
DIVISIONAL ORDER OF ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS
Problem Areas Cases Reported
Adjustment difficulties arising from personal
habits and personal problems:
1. Financial conditions................... 89
2. Moral and religious interests........ 41
3. Homesickness and loneliness............ 81
4. Health conditions .................... 71
5. Boarding conditions .................. 86
0. Rooming conditions .................. 65
7. V,.,ea tioii al opportunities and problems.. 41
Ad.jui.-.Iiin.iit dilieiiulties in social relations:
S. C',iilital with persons outside the uni-
v,.eri ily ............................ 81
S:. ,S,:ial :ii recreational contacts........ 79
10). C('it:il.- with American students ...... 77
11. Ci:1l,.it\ ".ith professors .............. 30
12. C':iit; t.s v. ith Chinese students........ 32
13. M arrii ',:. problem s ................... 16
A'.ljui n,-ti:r dilhi Illties in academic work:
14. Edlu:al ional problems ................. 88
15. Adil i i -ii rative regulations ............ 53
Aij.lj-itUlo. dilli.ulties with respect to National
and Iiihtiruiiaional relations:
1. Siiil: .-J, i pai ..':- conflicts ................ 90
17. Ii i -.l-r:i tion L aw ..................... 36
A. indii:-0.,-l1 ii the table, these 90 students report a vari-
-tyv o:, adjutimeit problems, di-lriluttid among the seven-
teen areas of experience listed. In : ltii.ly t' i.--..
Freshmen in a denominational college, Enuni: .li-i:V' ii:.:d
a total of 5,959 adjustment problems .,n i''-w a 'rA,11[. t 7:
students; the problems being distribut.-'d tliir'-:tli injiireiti
areas of experience.' With this group ,'f Ai.\,inriran .,ll-e':,..
students the character of the probleim- aii tl rl,
frequency in which they appear is markedly different from
that existing in the group of Chinese graduate students
with which this study is concerned.
While with the group of American college Freshmen the
most frequent problems were, in the order named; those
involving courses, religion, relations with teacher, and,
economic conditions; those of the Chinese graduate stu-
dents which were most frequent were; reactions to the
Sino-Japanese conflict, economic conditions, religious and
moral problems, and, social contacts with persons outside
the university group.
There is some suggestion in the differences in frequency
of particular types of problems which suggest that with
the Chinese graduate students adjustment problems aris-
ing during their residence in American higher institutions
of learning are related to differences in language and cul-
tural heritage. The particular problems involved are listed
in Table IX and discussed in the following pages.
Area I.-Problems Involving Financial Conditions
While the problems arising out of the Sino-Japanese
conflict were reported by the largest number of cases, those
having to do with financial conditions seemed to be the
most intense. Such problems were reported in various
connections during' the course of the interview- a tl:ktal 'of
207 tiii'-i : lii,. imd:li diltu l JIril. i14 laii' .' ,i,',\ .r a IraOhll
SE E. L iEI -I "Trb. .\.i ;]-tlh t [ l'! ..I.Ii,, .:1h ,.'Ii..lb :- I'rl-lJl ju tl ih ;
('l[ ll'.h b '.ll.-- ." '. ". ; I'l 0 L 'i~ .-lti ii..u Il r.. -ir.( .:.fg C'hi_.. :.. 1 :D2.
PROBLEMS INVOLVING FINANCIAL CONDITIONS
Types ol I'robllIms No. of Cases Totals
Ihniiigir.aiii Law restrictions too stringent.. 7
Employment Offices do not help foreigners.. 4
Difficulty in finding work ................. 3
Difficult to find work I can and will do...... 3
Low manual labor wage............. ... 2 19
Relative to School Progress
Insufficient money to buy books............ 8
Research work very expensive............ 7
Insufficient money to publish thesis........ 4
Spent too much time writing articles for
money, limits time for daily assignments.. 3
Saving money by cooking and washing limits
study ................................. 2
Work interferes with assignment prepara-
tion ................................... 1
Work too irregular to permit continued study 1 26
Relative to Social, Cultural, and
No money to attend parties or make dates.. 2
Work limits participation in social life..... 2
No money to entertain friends............. 1 5
Relative to Health Conditions
111 hicailLt and.1 ii,-.lil-;l c:;i ie very expensive.. 3
Work,.in eulitlio~i. detriinental to health.. 2 5
I-i:-Iti\' t o. Fl mi ily Conditions
lh-lay in r 'i.ciptl ifI n,,n1-y from parents ... 15
In- ialici.-nt mineni-y froimi parents because of
proierty :,lo-s in Sin':-.lapanese troubles.. 3
l n.rp.n-ilijlit y i' *.iluc..:ition brothers and
i 1. r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
W\ I:Irry al.iut :ili'-,ti-nii- lo maintain family 1 21
1?iIliti\ve t, Sii.'i; r.sli il.'- and Fellowships
,--I'r mi :-1Il s-.hli:'l: Ir .liiiI funds delayed .... 5
lJa p nes. ,:, -ii: p,ili,',, ol Manchuria cuts aid.. 3
Worry a'l,,,t i>o-:Iilit; >Of renewing grants 2 10
Pl:.r l.il.x ini Problems
I~ it vwisse t:r .'i iil.:'-. students to earn part
ir all itf ix li.*:nii.,-' ilt attending graduate
,_ I,,,:, ........................... 1
Is it wi .-: t.i: bl.i'rrw mnii:..y for advanced edu-
anti:on i in A riet:' .... .............. 1
Should I oi( frt r :i t!':'orahlei r:ite F ex-
Slin :. lefor' I:. l:vin-' lor Am rii .a '...... 1 3
Total ca:.seL' in Alliea I................ 89
The financial problems of Chinese tiid-lllito. :-ire .luite
different in many particulars from thoI.i: ift Amu'ri:a-
students, as the latter are reported in diflo.re-nt itvis.uir.i-
tions. With this group of Chinese stiuilde-it tin: InI Il.l:.lns
involving economic conditions are second iin thie olr'r o
frequency. Such problems ranked fourth in Ite study of
American college Freshmen made by Emme,1 and appear
third in the list of problems reported in the survey of
Methodist Episcopal Colleges.2
Not only are financial problems more frequent for the
Chinese graduate students, but they are of a different
character. The usual problem of obtaining work for self-
support is to be found with these as with other students.
However, certain peculiar problems also appear. Among
these are the acute problem reported as "delay in receipt
of money from parents," as well as the problems of delay
in receiving government scholarship funds, and, in par-
ticular cases, delays due to the Sino-Japanese conflict.
Since these are graduate students, the problems related
to carrying on research work and the expense of publish-
ing theses are recurrent.
The problems of self-support involve difficulties in secur-
ing work that is congenial, of sufficient income, or so sched-
uled that it can be done in conjunction with the course of
study required of a graduate student. With respect to
the finding of work, two significant considerations appear
in this investigation: (1) employment offices do not seen
to offer help to the foreign students; and, (2) the Immigra-
tion Law restrictions are such that they discriminate
against the foreign student. As a result of interviewing
the advisers of students, the situation may be character-
Under the restriction of the Immigration Law, it is
difficult for us to help foreign students to look f-r the
type of work that the American students can dlo. TIe:
'E. E. Emme, op. cit., pp. 33 ff.
SF. W. Reeves and others, The Liberal Arts College, p. 389. Chi'.ie..:
The University of Chicago Press, 1932.
law may not interfere when we give foreign students
the type of work that American students could not do,
but we have tried our best to create some types of
work particularly for the foreign students. For in-
stance, some work related to Chinese literature is
asked to be done by professors in the school, or some
work related to lectures on China is asked for by a
religious association, then we have this done by for-
One of the students has also described this situation
when he says,
No one can get by without money in America, par-
ticularly the foreign students. When I lack money, I
cannot borrow from friends. When I try to look for
work, I can not find dependable sources of information
concerning the opportunities for work. There is an
employment office on the campus, but I find that it
usually gives first opportunities to American students.
In fact, it is not founded for the foreign students.
When I asked the Dean of Men, he said, "Hard to
solve as we have few funds available for students
from other countries." Sometimes I would like to get
work at other places, but the Immigration Office
watch,.i- mni to:. rn.l-.l-. T cnriinot have work unless I
r'i;i.ltor iin ischi- ol -i a full-tini e student.
TI:' Ir-vi-ion,, i.f tin, lw I irimetioned by this student
(covi r tIr. ie-ril.lit;i-i- uniiile'r wli'h a foreign student may
takl- 'emrployn.till. :in1l c-*onielnlc] with a very flexible clause,
"In In: '.v ill :, stiui'-l it 1 1..-: l. fitted to accept employ-
mI.ntl f a n atuii to Int;'rtV:e' v.with his full course of
It n,:l i s.
Thi.. ,el!:-ins iinv.lvinil reli:llionships to academic work
in M\hich liiina .-. *re ,' prol.lonii -em to arise to a large
'I.xl it.nt .ol ..f ili -t:,lu i ,t IIIh. lChinese students as gradu-
:i:t s l 'lt. l. :s..' ir ,-! u -r: i- ::. pensive for any student,
woarkint. o lsii ,: :il-w:ay- inliiin.-i.:- daily preparation, ir-
r,?.nl r \ ,1a1rk iproi,.'ii-i i!-lulil:-i.n1t money to continue
TIn, ie.- a I ie ..h4 i ll Ir', lli 1 :,Illlii l :DIuv C lllu'eit i20 1.1 1n-
'r iji.-q-,l ^ il.lllti l rt (, ;pil: "ll cirrlr" r li.y.n, liook'-. ii ilA-.,l ,"[ i in lll' K.'l -dh
i . ,,J,. J. 1,. i ii. tr i f i ,,- r, 4 ,: 1 li l .. I ', ]a ,J .f I2 ali, a] i .lr ,
U. S rLi..ir in f *:' 1. l...r, \' [a .. Tato C. June 20, 1933.
previously, the significance of these 'i.lt-,' wouiiill apl.:-"':r
to be in that they contribute to the tt:il -ilniiti'ni-s in wlIcli
the students find increasing tensi(i ai- d riini.- i.. litiic-ilt
problems because of the whole fin.u'ilal -ilualti., ratli.r
than any particular part.
While the Chinese students resid.: in A.\ i.-i;:a Ilh.-y :n,'
usually eager to see as many different places as is possible.
Also, occasional side trips relieve the monotony of their
work and study. Among the ninety students, however, only
5 reported insufficient money for social purposes; such as
parties, entertaining friends, and trips. From the data at
hand it is now possible to determine how significant these
five cases reported may be, and so no conclusion can be
The health of the Chinese students seems to have been
fairly good on the whole. But three students report heavy
expenses in connection with illness. All students find sick-
ness a handicap financially, but the foreign students seem
to have special difficulties and expenses in so far as illness
The most significant differences for Chinese students lie
in the relation of finances to family conditions at home.
Within recent years there have been losses of family prop-
erty for some students because of Japanese military activ-
ities. The Japanese occupation of Manchuria has cut off
aids to quite a few students resident in the United States.
One of the most significant problems for Chinese students
is in the delays frequently incurred in the mail -r-i.i-e
which brings their money. The following quot:-ti-clii inldi-
cate both of the conditions mentioned:
The Japanese occupation of Manchuria Ila- r.i ,.ff
financial aid for my staying in America. I :an nt liid
my way to keep me in school. I have de
ready to go home. My parents wr.i ini.. tiit Ihli: Iri;,I
left the trouble zone immediately alt'.-r t11,: I-- 1' tL -ir
property and the destruction of 'niii i'IIIi. T d':1 n't
know where they are now. Our Anii..,iii iiri..i~-~Ie
and fellow friends are trying to rai'o- in ll.vy f,,r imy
trip to China.
hOn,? ,.i' h.:' D,:'., .:t M,-n at a State University re-
l 'l <]. n :
M:; experience with the problems of adjustment of
Chinese graduate students indicates that some students
have had difficulties due to checks for tuition and liv-
ing expenses being delayed in the mail from China.
.... There has been some difficulty at times over the
rate of exchange.
Along with delays from home, there are also delays in
the arrival of scholarship funds. Then, too, many of the
students seem to worry considerably about having fellow-
ships renewed. In these financial problems, the rate of ex-
chanmP c i n very important factor, for some students do not
le:ve -'11li;a nil ;.. fI'vorable rate has been reached; and
-...' 11 laiili.- i .1 i.i. find it possible to provide as many
Amni:.ri.,:iii l.lli!- ,1- is necessary for the expenses of the
lu.litiAt lir... Anl iiilL-tration of the difficulties here is the
rapid liw i,:'tiii 1i lie rate of exchange, and the amount
.:' the varialiat.ii Ii 1931 the rate was five dollars ($5)
in -ilvl.r ii \li.:ic,:.l i for each one dollar ($1) in United
Sti:- ,..- ,:i 1 l ..,,.. ill 1934 the rate is three dollars ($3) in
ilver' I Ml:e.i.;n I '.,r each one dollar ($1) in United States
i_ ll I'1 i _'y .
rTIi.--. pr..liii:.1:- at'. indeed perplexing and tend to in-
le'-iy l' :lli.:t |Il'l.Ins of the Chinese graduate students.
lB:I.;I -,: l t h: .nl are foreigners, and because of con-
litiiin- ;it I,:.'iii.. 1li: financial troubles may vary in in-
l.yn-ily I'! 'iii linte 1I. time, but for some of them the money
'-lli'-l i, i- :il'.iny- :,iong the leading problems that cause
\ .>rry .-,1 .1 I,,id-i pil
-1, _ri :.- l'r,-blems 1I,.,I i,,i Jforal and
li'ligious I',tl r, i.
Trlj- i, I li:'l' l- i' III is area n;i'. di.-i illiled over a wide
r.111-:.., ;01a 1 ill 1111111 l'r of cases seem to be most acute in
Ill :.ir I:.'.. ''-*-. 1 11: 111. ]11 i rll llC il_, I \\ 11 li yi ,l 'i l. -il i l- O f th ese
p rihli. -, l..- r,'-, ,., 'i l; ,.,l ii.m I: I,,o b i ',.1,.. ,.,1' Ill. 1 relig ious
ltlitnudi-: .,' II -t ni ,', w, .il "a- .... I .iri r:.li'i1 ous affili-
a li'.,i b.
PROBLEMS INVOLVING MORAL AND RELTi':I:,.r INTLrE.sr
Types of Problems N .. I ..-- ..r l,
Attitudes Toward Religion
Can a philosophy of life be formula ell
without religion? ...................... 9
Conflict of religious and scientific ideas ..... 5
Preachers should give their messages
through their own personality ........... 1
Change in religious attitudes corresponds
with change in living habits since coming
to A m erica ............................ 1
Religious concepts have no real meaning.... 1
Christian religion too institutionalized ..... 1
Church is intolerant and conservative. ..... 1
Radical thought in religion not agreed with
by my associated ....................... 1
Contrasting experiences in living minimize
my religious interest .................... 1
Isolation in religious life stimulates my in-
terest in books rather than people....... 1
Philosophical approach to religion minim-
izes emotional satisfaction in life ........ 1
Desire to prove the reality of God......... 1 24
Church program not as appealing as other
social program s ....................... 2
Do not have tim e........................ 2
Since church people are not real Christian
what difference if I am not one?......... 1
Why should I attend church when American
students do not? ........................ 1
Cannot find girls to go with me............ 1
Do not feel at home when attending chapel. 1
Do not like to see rich in front pews and the
poor in the balcony .............. ....... 1 9
Worship time is not convenient for me..... 2
Difficult to find a genuine worship program.. 1
Physical setting not conducive to my own ex-
perience in worship ..................... 1 4
Diffiilt 1,:, 1hi:ar ':',,1, .1i, ,l;.er- ...... .. 2
S i. 111' I I I1' . .. .... .. . .. ... ... . ......
(',iurei. h ;.llJlmr'! t.i"1 Ii\ ,".*Ijilali-t.--.-r.l i' I, ].
.se ,, Ir. ,hibit.',l .l ..................... 1 4
T.,tol -i:z,- i A n-a "2 ............ 41
In considering the various religious problems, it would
seem to be necessary to recognize two classes of Chinese
graduate students, the Christian students and the non-
Christian students. The distribution of the 90 students
according to their religious affiliation shows approximately
one-third of the group are professedly Christian. Table
XIT also gives evidence of the large number of this group
who do not classify themselves with any particular re-
ligious sect or organized form of religious expression.
DISTRIBUTION OF 90 STUDENTS ACCORDING TO
Type of Religion Mlen Women Total
Christianity ......................... 23 5 28
Buddhism ........................... .. 1 1
Confucianism ...................... 20 2 22
Not classified ........................ 36 3 39
Total.......................... 79 11 90
On the whole, the Christian students seem to be troubled
by religious problems which may be characterized as those
pertaining to chapel, sermons, and attendance at worship;
as well as those involving attitudes toward such concepts
as, the Church and the Idea of God. The non-Christian stu-
de1nl. ,a. :ill Ii.r neutral or indifferent to such problems and
d,11 i1.'t c:li. t,: make replies to questions concerning them.
IFor hli: 'ristian students these problems seem arising
1,1l -" f .'l -ocial situations in which there are conflict-
in' :eiil .:.r-itr:,-ting experiences. Two focal points of dif-
rlicllty c.1:i.ir.: as the dominating emphases in this sitna-
tii.i. One i- t.liat which related to the differences in social
an-11d m:llr:1 l.:ickground which make it extremely difficult
f'.,r Ili C(irii:., student to adjust to the situations lie finds
in the American college community iiin fir :i- rt i.-:1'ii'
attitudes and observances are concerijrl. An ill iitrlili.nii
of this type of problem is the followii: .. i;lnl:-t.-;tii. r1-
sponse of a woman Christian student :
When I was in China I had r':-li.ii inti.--t-. I
went to church every Sunday a.,i v.,- Il'iri.-It..I I iln
various religious meetings. My prI-,nlit -, lii'th:r-. i~ -
ters, relatives and my friends w.-r'i.: -ill1 -th 1i ..'. My:
life seemed much happier at that tinm'i. N:.it ;nI;i..tiii,'
disturbed me, and I had no exces-i'.v:.r '.! ;il 1i'.,!m;..
In America, however, the envirown iit i- -.1I li'lf..-:i-t.
I am a stranger. The people whom I 1no.1l l'-, ir..t 1,1l1:
about religion and are not religious in any sense.
Sometimes I go to church but I do not feel as if I
should be there. The church people are cordial to me,
but they do not treat me as one of their group. They
simply treat me as a guest.
Much worse than the church is the life in the social
circles. Many places T cannot go. Besides this environ-
ment, the class work is another barrier to hinder me to
participate in religious activities. During week days,
I am busy with school work, and during week-ends I
like to have recreational activities. But on the whole
I do not have a normal experience in living.
The second point around which difficulties appear to re-
volve is one frequently expressed by the students of this
group. For the Christian Chinese student who comes to
America there seems to have been built up in many cases
an idealization of the religious situation in the United
States through contacts with missionaries in China. In a
great many cases the experiences of the Chines'. f-tiidllnt
after coming to this country are such that thbri- '.e:-iii
great contrasts between the actual situation found .iir.i lh'..
idealization that has been built up prior to comini- 1I:I tie
United States. To some extent, this, as well as II!. c:.lli-r
points mentioned in this connection are related t,:i ri.:ill
and cultural differences and the difficulties and di,--riiiiia-
tions growing out of them. However, that this "'-.'-," 1Ie-
tween the ideal and the actual is a real one is illnutrat;-
by the following response of a Christian Chinese graduate
The whole church is like a lecture hall. There is too
much lecturing and too many announcements; too
many standings and too much singing; too little time
given for self-examination and for meditation. It is
unfortunate that the pastor speaks like an advertiser,
and does not condition me to respond with the group
in seeking the quality of experience in life. It is also
unfortunate that the whole group does not have a gen-
eral attitude of reverence.
That some of the adjustment problems of the Chinese
students in this area are related to changes in their atti-
tudes and habits since coming to this country is illustrated
by the attitudes they have toward chapel attendance. When
they find that the American college students do not attend
chapel in any great numbers, they tend to follow the pat-
tern set by the social situation in which they find them-
selves. In this, they show a great similarity to American
college students in similar circumstances.1 Probably one
of the most fruitful sources of difficulty here is the need
for time to work, and the use of Sunday for this purpose;
allied with the trend toward seeking social and recrea-
tional diversion on this day. Differences in language and
customs are also the sources of problems arising in this
connection. One of the Christian Chinese students reports
his experience as follows:
The church ponple g to church every Sunday. It
I| I:':. not ll : i ll al l ht.hi v art.- r i .,,li i. Tlhi .ir r,:lizi,,i i
I.,,.,.*',.,i, :- ; .i ,:, .t,.,m ; tlh i'r .ha r,.h -'-',..in .- a l:,l it. W ],:ie "
Uh,:. ,.h* l ri l, I,,:.11 rin .-, t .: l r: ,.,, ,]i: li ,in,:.il t.. ',,. W hv.-n
111; ,,:,'vi,:.v ,l 'ts, tlhe\' t',l11-w llr,-i ,lh thi r,- utitl,,. T hi ,
,l11~i pr, I'i do
it,-,( l:,.,, ll,,?ir '.v iirl, :in,] lh,:. lIi : hiym n ,. ; i n
fI I im1 , 1 v 1 t I. I ,Iy f r I. I i,1ll 1 til. II,:,:,ll .-l,..I
W. I 'l l mI:,i, *Irn \ ,I.ild, \:'i,.%.\ .
i 'ir :. .i I i l .\ 11 ...ll I. ..' I, :ll r i, I -F' II .I', I I l ,- 1 "
1..rl:. T n.. i .'l-i f r i II n, i - I n ., 1.i.,1
A point at which there seems to be 'rnilt iuilnrily 1e-
tween the adjustment problems of Chii'.-,. 'rat1luat1e -tu-
dents and those of American college -tilent- i.- thirit in-
volving the reconstruction of religioun- mttiti:lde:-. nal le-
liefs.1 In this respect, however, the roni:it IIprominent ':on-
flict centers around that of the religious and scientific in-
terests. One student relates three stages of his religious
experience and thinking:
My religious interest has gone through three stages:
During the first stage, I believed in religion but did not
know it. I went to church as my parents did. I took
everything for granted without questioning. I was
rather sentimental about things when I went to the
bottom of my religious thought.
After I entered college, my intellectual interest was
widened. Then I took a critical attitude toward church
practices. I did not go to church because I found that
the church program did not attract me, particularly
the sermons. Through contacts with people on the
campus, I found a better world view and a more
logical interpretation about religious principles. So,
I was more interested in the intellectual phase of re-
ligion. This was my second stage of religious interest.
When I came to America, my religious attitudes
changed as my experiences in living changed. Now I
am rather indifferent toward religion and have a dom-
inant interest in scientific research.
This quotation indicates that some very interesting
changes take place in the life of students who develop a
very strong scientific interest. Some of the students have
broken away from the conventional conceptions of religion.
This is reflected in their attitudes as mentioned previously;
lack of interest in institutionalized religion, reactions to
intolerance among churches, dissatisfaction with conserva-
tion and meaningless abstractions. The changes in par-
ticipation since coming to America also seem to lessen the
satisfaction with various forms of religious expression.
IIbid., pp. 276, 316. E. E. Emme, op. cit., p. 164.
The non-Christian students do not face these problems.
They are, nevertheless, interested in the problem of how
they are to develop and organize a philosophy of life. For
all the students, this problem seems to be acute. The Chris-
tion students attempt to meet it through religious beliefs
and identification with a church; the non-Christian stu-
dents attempt to be intellectual, rational, and very calculat-
ing as to how this is to be done, as to how they are to enrich
their lives upon a moral basis without religion.
Another approach to the problems in this area is through
an analysis of data secured in the investigation regarding
the attitudes of these Chinese students toward God, and,
their conceptions of God. It will be noted that a number
of the problems are so stated that they seem to involve
antagonistic or radical reactions, a tendency which is fur-
ther illuminated by an analysis of the characteristic atti-
tudes toward God and the conceptions of God.
In securing responses regarding these religious atti-
tudes, the scale of "Attitude Toward God" developed by
E. J. Chave and L. L. Thurstone of the University of Chi-
iag<:, \\i- *iIplj:y. ed. This attitude scale states as its pur-
p11:'. file ,l1 -:.rili iOn of the attitudes of students without
any iiiIil:liatliii I: hat one attitude is more correct than an-
i:,l.-.ir. TI.' .1i lriblution of the responses anong this group
i:,t' ") 'hliijir'-e ir; late students is as follows:
INTERPRETATION OF SCORES ON ATTIru.F.r T.'\v.w.'r (.
Scores Description \... .i. Ii -
0 2.9 Strongly atheistic attitude......... 19
3.0- 3.9 Atheistic attitude ................. 15
4.0- 4.9 Disbelief in God ................... 10
5.0- 5.9 Neutral, hesitant or agnostic attitude 13
6.0- 6.9 Slightly favorable to the God concept 11
7.0- 7.9 Belief in God ...................... 18
8.0-11.0 Strongly religious attitude toward
G od ............................ 4
T otal ....................... 90
A person's score is the median scale value of all the
statements that he has checked. The classifications are
roughly made and are merely suggestive as to the general
point of view of those scored in the respective categories.
The following table presents the responses of the students
to the check-list on "Definitions of God."
.S 1:11 ,'lll tl F r" I ts ..".
20. God is a hypothesis to explain the unknowable 36
22. God is a useless term in modern life ......... 33
2i. God is the symbol of the highest values of life 33
27. God is the eternal problem and quest of man-
kind ................................... 33
13. God is the creative force of the universe, mani-
fest in law, beauty, truth and moral force.. 32
14. God is the symbol of man's assurance that the
universe supports his struggle for the larg-
est social values of humanity............ 30
12. God is the name given to the underlying, in-
tegrating reality of life ................ 28
24. God as a personal force or being in the uni-
verse is entirely outside any scientific view
of the universe .......................... 28
15. God is the personified, interblended life of
hum anity ............................... 24
18. God is Nature working in natural laws...... 24
25. God is the supreme integrating personality of
our universe, with whom man may have
both personal and social relationships by
recognition of the underlying laws of life.. 23
9. God is the personality producing force in the
wnrld ........ ........ .......... ... 3
f lif ................................ "
is. ,.I:l i Ms I i i' I Mlli,] "k ul.,ii rlk ii in nT Vr-
.-" l It-iw .............. ................. 21
1. ; i 1 is t h. I,:. ; v.. l F> 1 i r.................... 21
1.. G ,.: is tih,_ .ihii ,-_ i l- il it \ !,, l'v i n t ie ivorbl.. 21
"_. ; -l.1i ,I v .,.l'.,.i ..ll ., Il[. _'l.' ll. il i' I . 1 2 1
1. :;nd ik l lit-l F L . -. . . . . . . 1
tIIII'Gd l I i'. i I ,, | ir ,,.iii, cii.[i.' iiktiilag li fAl ...... . 21
11. God is tlhe I l.t I. livp:tl .. i 1 iiln in-: to exllalin
Il, .............. ................... 20
2. (G.1 i Ihi, I'i .. it :l' Su-t;iilor .if thl.
Uni v:r ....... ............. ........ s
21. (I,:.: i- M1 h.h ...................... ...... 1 _8
1 I. G d ii i ii: i I. 1' ;t \\ k li i ....... ......... 17
1i. Gud1 i. I. -u. eru'ii :il1n:ii pii: r.i thai ~(i\'.:rI,-
all . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
:3. ;,,,1 i. tli LI: r. I.,r, I.,t u h ,- i, nd ,1 1 rth ; al-
n i..'h ly ,:t,.rr l,'- lllti;In . 1 1,:-.i f,.' .1.......... 16
4. G .1d is tIhl T rinity ......................... 13
10. G ,.,,I i_ :i ,,li/ i ii ,.:- pi:r.r- li '.h,:, ;n-.\v,:,r. p ray
7. i 1,-. is I lit d.l.'..run ini r of l, -l iny ............ S
T o:I l uiillm l.n:lr lof 1't-.' ips.i' ............... 611
Significant changes in Chinese religious. thlo:,u h11 iid not
arise during the period that these students liav bi:n-ie ini
America. The years 1921-26, known as a poi idl 1' h 'liniil-
renaissance, mark the climax of the growth of distrust of
religion on the part of most Chinese minds. This was par-
ticularly due to the readjustment of the economic and
political phases of their national life. These students seem
to show the influences of this movement of thought in their
sceptical attitudes toward the concept of God. The high-
est frequency of the distribution is 36; responses to the
statement "God is a hypothesis to explain the unknow-
able." The conservative, pious type of concepts ranked
the lowest in order of frequency. Illustrative here are the
statements "God is the determiner of destiny" and "God
is a definite person to whom one can pray and who answers
Quite naturally, it is to be expected that students who
developed tlier conceptions of God against the background
of such a cultural situation as here outlined would find
difficulties arising when introduced into a situation where
difference in conceptions of God arising out of differing
cultural patterns was to be found. Points of tension lead-
ing to the development of problems of adjustment in the
area of religion arise thus from the differing interpreta-
tions put upon ethics and religion in the two cultures.
Chinese thought has been characterized as more practical
than speculative, more ethical than religious.' Hence, right
behaviour is defined with reference to human relations
rather than with reference to the Idea of God. The im-
plications in this situation for the development of such
trends as shown in this group of Chinese graduate stu-
dents are thus rather clear.
'W. Reginald Wheeler (ed.), The Foreign Student in America, p. 47.
New York: Asscoiation Press, 1925.
Area 3.-Problems Involving Homesickness
Re-emphasizing trends that have previously appeared in
the analysis are the problems involving homesickness and
loneliness. Particularly of significance here are the differ-
ence in language and environment, the delays in receiving
mail from home, and the feeling of isolation in situations
with strange customs and patterns of social relationship.
PROBLEMS INVOLVING HOMESICKNESS AND LONELINESS
Types of Problems No. of Cases Totals
Homesick when I do not hear from parents
regularly .............................. 19
Think of parents especially during Christ-
mas and New Year holidays ............. 14
Sensitivity to race prejudice makes me
lonely ................................ 12
Homesick when maladjusted in social life... 9
Strangeness because of contrasting customs
and habits ............................ 8
L.ck ,:..od:' t' il i.li t:,' talk with............. 4
Inulticielt mn,,'n, :ild heavy work c-use
] i,, m e- ikl.-: . ......................... 4
U stu illy lomscick '.'hiin ill ................. 3
IFeel I-'n ly i:nov we,-k-ends ................ 3
Ilianit finil -.ilriptli:tlic people when in diffi-
c:u lty .................................. 2
Il':Inio. ha..'e Cilli c.: Ih t see fellow students as
:t'tLii as wco l lik. ...................... 1
WIen, otllers ai- v:i homesick, wonder if I ap-
prI:.il,;i : ( i-iy i;'irtiit ...................... 1
1,I.s, |..) l" ii,,'l' fit ideas of home ........ 1 81
To:ltal niiiiiiml- of cases in Area 3... 81
In th? i, ve I, li'.,.ItiI, of the length of residence of these
i90 -ltudr.clt- iln ltl United States it was found that 41 of
them had been resident in America tw.' \-;nae ,., r i,.-
(Chapter II). Within the period of ithf hi, t ve:ir f re-i-
dence, homesickness and loneliness ipr,.-,nit ve1y .-,nii
problems for these students. Such a vlrlm.ri 'nln may Ii e
regarded as a natural result from the .l,:,i-,' which have
been made. After these first adjustments to new conditions
and strange people have been made, to some extent at
least, then homesickness and loneliness appear to be a
function largely of the social situation. Thus, there may
be periods of loneliness which seem to grow out of watch-
ing Americans engage in holiday activity; or, it may be
caused by not hearing from home regularly, or, from the
lack of contact with other Chinese students. Since this
appears to be variable, it is very difficult to obtain accurate
information as to the intensity or frequency of the prob-
lems in this area. Also quite difficult is the endeavor to
correlate the problems with the length of time in the
United States, although there does seem to be a general
trend toward a lessened number of such problems as resi-
dence is prolonged.
Again, it is to be noticed that homesickness seems to
characterize practically all students at first. However, in
the case of the Chinese students, this is intensified by sev-
eral different conditions. In the students reporting, there
were 19 instances in which mail irregularities would bring
on homesickness. Then, too, the question of race prejudice
seems to play an important part, for this situation prevents
the students from carrying on what might be normal social
intercourse, and in this way occupy both time and atten-
tion. It also sensitizes him to the fact that he is among
strangers and a long distance from home.
It is commonly recognized that in America the individ-
ual is subjected to a higher rate of mobility than in China.
The students coming from Chinese homes have u-rally
1h:id a large and varied range of intimate family contacts.
To come to America means a complete severance of these
contacts, and in their place is found a relatively high de-
gree of isolation. When Christmas and New Year holidays
come, these activities are reminders to the Chinese student
of what is taking place in his family circle at home.
Strange customs, strange faces, and strange foods are not
conducive to peace of mind during the holiday season.
One of the Chinese students describes his situation as
Homesickness is a natural phenomenon. I think
every foreign student has such experiences. Some-
times I do my routine and do not think of it. At other
times, I feel very lonely when at socials. I may be
worse than anyone else, for I am very serious minded.
American students are not usually that way. Their
interests and customs are not like ours. Socially, I
am disintegrated. I have language difficulty and do
not easily get acquainted with them. I am sensitive to
noting their indifferent attitude toward me, and hardly
find good friends to talk with. It is apparent except
for my academic interests, I do no freely make my-
self at home in social life.
In this quotation there are mentioned many of the situa-
tions which develop loneliness and homesickness; race
prejudice, language difficulties, lack of congenial friends,
difr t',i:..i-i in inl.r'..sts as well as customs, and, inability
ti., Iinal: t _;I\% ral'l'. -',cial contacts upon all occasions. These
;:.-)1, ~ -.-.,* t.:, .,..'institute the significant differences be-
t\\..il Ai.\i.-ri':aiin :11i.1 Chinese students.
Ai :i. ;.--Problems I,,,,1, ir,, Health:
'Physical and Mental
Th.' l..rblonim ... f physical and mental well-being are so
ilitiMlit.ly .t'.l.t.eilt with other problems of the Chinese
ti.ncl ithit tIi,.-v cannot be iv.l;Il':el and handled without
tankin-' iiit' (i:.' dlt~.~r l i.,iiI the \l.i.I- of their social situa-
tion. There are several outstandIin e-e ;. Ibut illn -enera
these problems seem to be in tii nitur'.. .t -y.l t: in -ft'
underlying difficulties, rather thi:,ii -i.ili.ti iilt Iri.illiii inl
themselves. As such, they are to Iho -,c.i- iln ii li',:,til \.Ilthl
the whole range of adjustment I'l.Ili: : .1i.ei;illly. thl:ie
which are shown to be either inrt.le .-.i: ir seuiit.
PROBLEMS INVOLVING HEALTH: PHYSICAL AND MENTAL
'Types of Problems No. of Cases Totals
Need appropriate exercise ................ 24
Loss of weight........................... 18
Feel tired easily .......................... 9
Inadequate physical examination .......... 3
Suffer from lung trouble .................. 2
Suffer from liver trouble.................. 1 57
Concerned too much about finances......... 9
W orry about degrees..................... 2
Worry about parental old age............ 1
Worry about health of wife and child....... 1
Worry about brothers and sisters who give
my parents much trouble................ 1 14
Total cases in Area 4............. 71
The problems of physical and mental well-being are so
intimately connected with other problems of tihe Chiilnei
students that they must be seen in adequate plrl' le--.tive.
The question of under-weight seems to be such a piroli 'iii,
and is one that appears frequently. But, just whliat ina.ler-
weight may be for a Chinese student is an open iuetitii.'n.
With respect to this and the physical examinati'.ii, ..-' ot
the students reports as follows:
All students on entering the University fo:r tlii- tir'l
time are required to pass a medical and phy-ical ex-
amination. It is a good idea, but I feel that the exam-
inations are usually inadequate. The doctors examine
hundreds of students during registration week and do
not pay much attention to any. Many things are
guessed at or taken for granted. The medical and phy-
sical examination is just a "flop."
It does much more harm to me rather than good
when the doctor merely says that I am underweight
when compared with American students. If he discov-
ered an average weight from a sampling of Chinese
students and uses it as a standard for other Chinese
students, he would certainly not discourage me so
On this point, the statement of the Medical Examiner of
the Student Health Service, University of Chicago is most
It is my impression that Chinese students are less
tall and weigh less on the average than do entering
students from various parts of the United States. In
general it may be said that underweight students of all
races are statistically at a slight disadvantage com-
pared to normal or over-weight students with respect
to certain infectious diseases, especially tuberculosis.
This statement is based on life insurance actuarial
It is my impression that the incidence of tubercu-
losis among Chinese students of this institution is
slightly higher than among the total student body.
Thick sctntment, and the first one made, are impres-
'si,:ni nI Ir.i.-l1 on an actual study of figures.
Seari.h Ii, tir: 1 files of the Library of the University of
c('lii:- .., 'c..'\..al,:.d no) significant study which presented data
;i-, I. tlie :ii' ;n prive weights and standards for weights
of tor:i: in -tiinlntz as compared with American students,
i:.r, p).Irthiiilai l f:or Chinese students as compared with
.Amer'i.:-;io -liii.,-. From the statement of the Medical
ExSlinii:, t.f v; rii:,ns Deans and Advisers, and, from the
studl:-nts lih..inI:el..-, it would seem that there is a tendency
lwri1l uilel'r-'.-..'i.-ht on the part of Chinese students in
Ami.-ri,; n inll itltions of higher eldut;;atiol i. In view of the
implications of such a condition, it m:v .iy -,,.,ii tliiht thi-
situation is quite naturally productive I:i' 'li.lws-m in tlih
endeavor of the Chinese student to adjul-t Ii hi- -iluati,.n.
The underlying causes of this condition ,if in1d-r-weihlit,
so prevalent among Chinese students, are I- 1ie f" u iid in
a variety of situations. Perhaps one of the most fre-
quently noticed, even by the students themselves as shown
by their responses, is the lack of appropriate exercise. The
report of 24 of the 90 students that they definitely feel
the lack of proper exercise may he related to some extent
to the fact that a majority of the students studied very
hard, devoting a great deal of time to academic work, and
to the fact that they did not have their work so planned
as to give time for exercise. Even more influential in this
situation is the social and recreational situation, which will
be given further discussion later. Here it may be men-
tioned that the difficulties of making social contacts and
the discrimination operating were in many cases result-
ing in the difficulty of finding persons with whom games
might be played, dances attended, and participation car-
ried on in other activities affording exercise.
The question of mental well-being is, of course, con-
nected with all other problems. Financial worries, anxiety
about the conditions at home, health problems of a phys-
ical nature, lack of speedy progress in academic work,
problems of marriage, future career, race prejudice and
discrimination-all these contribute significantly til- th,- .
cases which show clearly that adjustment is iul'i iii.<.'
difficult by disturbed mental conditions. Ther... i-. f.t e.-'
ample, the student who apparently suffered c''.-lid.i; bly
from worry over the cost of needed medical cir-, in-lio...
of being relieved by its provision:
I need at least $600 a year in the Univei ily. Iin I It
last year I had liver trouble and saw the -.-:,,:,l !y-
sician at various times. He discouraged I'l: at tii,-
and it is impossible for me to do my best on my
studies. The trouble w\ilh me is to have sufficient rest
and adequate diel. I have not written to my parents
about this for I do not want them to worry about me.
Last year I paid Ilie physician about $60, and I do not
plan to see him again because I cannot afford to pay
Some of these anxieties seem to be those found com-
monly among most students, but for the Chinese there are
a few differences that would seem to be significant. One of
the most outstanding is that connected with China's forced
de-militarization. Since the Chinese students take a very
active interest in the welfare of their country, the Sino-
Japanese developments reflect upon the students now resi-
dent in America. As pointed out earlier, some have lost
their scholarships or fellowships because of the Manchu-
rian situation; others have lost property or business so
that the funds for attending school have been either re-
duced or stopped entirely; others do not know what kind
of a future to prepare for because of unstable conditions
Then, too, another difference may be found in the family
system of China as compared with that of American stu-
dents. Because of the type of family organization prevail-
ing in China, the brother feels responsibility for aging
i':,'rn-. ':n- I'Ir Ithe I Truble that may be caused by younger
.liihli ,.i. P:.- I lII in school, these obligations are merely
u.i ri:'l ;.il:,iit I,.',..i;use of inability to do anything. Al-
th.,u---' tim ? fIil. iil China may be changing, it is still in a
peril .t ,..,:,nli,.trni ideals and ideas.
TIii- n:ii:.ril;i -i_'Nsts that the adjustment problems are
;.11 illnti..rI::l ;;I Sin'e this investigation is not one de-
.si~r.:l to:l .I..ic.ili:.i. upon any one aspect, the question of
niix:i'-t. .-,r v.-i.r'' i.- would require a much more detailed
and pi':'lIr.tr,itiir'" a ;ilysis than is possible here if it were
to deal with the elusive but yet import Till piat such fa:-t:,rs
play in the total adjustment of the stui-lent.
Area 5.-Problems Involving Bo.,-r;,,ii Cc'j.il;t;.,,s
Quite closely related to problems of l'li-ic-.,l hl.i-lti h I-r
those involving the conditions under which the Chinese
students procure their food. Most probably the occurence
of under-weight among a large number of this group is
connected in some ways with the difficulties faced by the
Chinese students regarding their diet.
PROBLEMS INVOLVING BOARDING CONDITIONS
Types of Problems No. of Cases Totals
Prejudices against American food:
Do not like cheese, mashed potatoes,
pork chops, lamb stew, or too much
m eat served ....................... 42
American food satisfies hunger but not my
appetite ............................... 27
Chinese food expensive in the United States
Tastes in food expensive to satisfy; and
Special diets expensive and hard to find 13
Dormitory requirements do not permit eat-
ing outside ............................ 3
Insufficient food served ................... 1 86
Total cases in Area 5............. 86
The problem of securing adequate and appetizing food,
which bulks large in this area of problems, does not, of
itself seem to be an outstanding difficulty with this gronp
of Chinese graduate students. However, when seen5, ilin -,i-
nection with certain other situations, it take --,i n.iw
meaning and becomes most intimately related wilh Ipr.1'-
lems in other areas. This is particularly true of ti"e 'ln-
nection of this problem with those of physical health and
financial or economic conditions.
The chief sources of difficulty are related to differences
in national likes and dislikes of foods. In general, it ap-
pears that the Chinese students find it possible to satisfy
their hunger but not their liking for particular foods, un-
less they can so arrange as to cook their own foods. Where
this is possible on the part of students who live in apart-
ments or who live co-operatively in students quarters, the
problems of adjustment seem to be fairly well worked out.
In such cases, foods are served which give the students
pleasure as well as satisfying their hunger. The cooking
program is usually worked out in advance, and where done
co-operatively, the duties are usually divided between cook-
ing and marketing.
However, for the most part the Chinese students have
their meals in the cafeterias, lunch counters, or restau-
rants. In some of the university communities, they fre-
quently go habitually to one place and use this opportunity
as a social meeting-place. It is among this group of stu-
dents where the most frequent problems regarding board-
ing conditions arise. Practically all of the Chinese students
do not care for some of the more stable American foods;
mashed potatoes, pork chops, lamb stew, and cheese par-
ticularly. There are likewise some things that they do not
like in the Chinese diet, though these are minor in their
owclii.nc,. A characteristic reaction to the difficulties in
W\hnii I came to America the most difficult problem
1 ha.d war the diet. Next to potatoes and bread, the
Amlrwicani live on ice cream and salads. Here the vege-
tal-le< :ir prepared only in salt and water. On the
Ibnat cminllig over, I was not familiar with the menu,
s:C I li:-1 hlth meat and fish; and I supposed it was a
typical American diet to be found anywhere. Later,
I ft-und it was to be had only under certain conditions.
If I now want both meat and fish. I Ir.iv tI, l.-ay tar
two meals. Americans cannot get o,,1ii2- w-ithli.o.t miilk.
and that is not in the Chinese diet. Al; tli,.v lik. lot--
of sweets, such as cakes, pies, and randly.
I was very much amused at tli.h Air:cri.in talil-
service when I was introduced to il ft'r IhI. li -t t'in-,.
On the table there was a dinner f ,-rk., ;i;-ind fr!:l. 1:i--
sert fork, and napkin. Then on the other side of the
plate there was a steak knife, butter knife, teaspoon,
and bullion spoon. I had to follow my friends and
when alone did as I thought best. At home, we have
only chopsticks and a soup spoon.
There is no question about likes or dislikes. I can
only say this; I am not accustomed to American food
after two years. It merely satisfies my hunger, but not
my appetite. I do not like cheese, just like Americans
who dislike the Chinese "century old egg," which is
preserved in lime for at least thirty days.
In this connection it is interesting to note the difficulties
of American college students in this same area. In the
study made by Emme, the students state their most fre-
quent problems as being related to unbalanced diets and
the provision of foods which might be nourishing but were
The relation of problems in this area to those of health
and finances is quite clearly pointed out in the illustrative
case cited. Because of differences in menus and the pro-
hibitive cost of securing both an appetizing and adequate
supply of food, it is easily conceivable that a resulting ten-
dency to under-weight might be developed. The influence
of such a condition upon both scholastic achievemn.'il -nid
social relations has been pointed out to some exl-nt. rI i
needs here only the further mention that it beCo':cl1i'.: ;ia
acute one when the connection with problems in ot li-i a' !-:,-
such as the economic and hygienic is seen in its lull -i -
SE. E. Emme, op. cit., p. 74.
2 A. E. Neely, op. cit., p. 25.
Area 6.--Problems Involving Rooming Conditions
The problems in this area are intimately related to those
in both the area of boarding conditions and contacts with
persons outside the University, as shown in the follow-
PROBLEMS INVOLVING ROOMING CONDITIONS
Types of Problems No. of Cases Totals
Difficult to locate reasonably priced rooms. 21
Difficult to find rooms-landladies prejudiced 20
Difficult to make adjustments if living with
American students ..................... 5
Landladies treat us worse than they do Jews 4
Rooms are poorly equipped and ventilated. 3
If living with Chinese students, annoyances. 3
House too far from the campus............ 3
Difficult to observe dormitory rules........ 3
H house too noisy .......................... 3 65
Total cases in Area 6............. 65
The problems related to rooming conditions may be seen
as falling into two major classifications; those connected
with the cost of acommodations, and those which involve
the reactions of persons who have rooms to rent to stu-
dents. While the problems of the first type may be related
to the financial conditions in which these Chinese students
find themselves, they may also be indirectly related to the
discrimination which seems to underlie the problems of
the second type. There is some similarity between the
problems faced by the Chinese students and those which
Almiri.:.aii ..ll.ge students encounter.1 However, the situ-
Si,-ii- ::-I 1'i for the most part to involve discrimination
,-1111 C'.i;l,,I [pr-'-judice.
L. C E iniil.. "i.. at., pp. 66 ff.
There seem to be several wayS in whlii.-lh I:ii,1;iti-. ,:,f
private residences find it possil:l,:i to rf:i'fu, ri :.:im, t4o
Chinese students. These are, of ,:-'.ir-'-, l:r.li l.l y "(lri--k
of the trade" and would be used t:. ri'fu-.: *ntrain,:C t,: iiy.
undesirable prospective tenants. _Ain:, -ii l l ra..-:ti,:.-
are the following reported by stu i.int- ...f thi- r. 1 'I'1:
"I am sorry boys. I do re-l i.-iit r.i'.i- t t'..-fr.iu
students because I have a couple of American boys
here. If I take you, I am afraid that the American
boys would want to move. So far, I have not taken
any foreign students."
"What kind of rooms do you want," ask the land-
ladies. "We want single rooms," reply the Chinese
students. In reply the landladies say that they have
only double rooms. Later, other Chinese students in-
quire, asking for double rooms. In reply, the landlady
says, "Sorry, we have only single rooms."
Chinese students tell the lady that they are inter-
ested in looking at her rooms. "Sorry," shaking her
head, "we have no rooms available."
It must also be recognized that in many cases the prob-
lem stated as "difficult to locate reasonably priced rooms"
may have as its fundamental cause the unwillingness to
have Oriental students in the house; basically an attitude
of prejudice and discrimination.
All landladies are not of this character, however, for
there are cases in which misunderstanding that is basically
dependent upon cultural differences has been either over-
come or removed. In contrast to the majority, thfl--r~ w.as
one reported case of an entirely different chaiii:-to-r. Thi.
more cordial attitude resulting from actual aiiIlii ,li il.
contacts is most marked here:
I have had seven years' experience withll 'li ie'-.,
students. Some years ago I have five of li.:m liviin -
in my house, but no Americans. They -ern- V-.''.r
cordial and friendly, and I found in them -,.m..e iji;ili-
ties I had not found in American students.
First of all, they were very quiet in the Ili:.-ui Thi
American boys are usually noisy, giving cheers and
doing other things. Again, I gave them reasonably
priced rooms. Unlike the American boys, they paid
their rent regularly, while the Americans would take
higher priced rooms by preference, then did not pay
their rent when they did have money, but instead spent
Some ladies have asked me why I like to take the
Chinese boys into my house. I have told them that
they were as good as the American boys. If you know
more about them, you find that they are much better
than the American students.
In the institutions studied, there was routine provision
for the assistance of students through the office of the
Dean of Men. In some cases, it was reported that this
officer actually had aided in securing more suitable room-
ing quarters, through personal attention to the needs of
the students. In most cases, the resources of this office
included the services offered in securing from landladies
a report as to the number of rooms available, locations,
regulations, and price. Such service may be seen as in-
adequate for the needs of the Chinese graduate students
in the face of prevalent attitudes of discrimination and
Relatively few of this group of Chinese students re-
ported that they lived in the University dormitories. The
two main problems here are: (1) how to attract Chinese
students to the dormitories; and (2) how to solve their
living problems and problems of association after they
take residence there. Neely considers this type of living
situation the most satisfactory for foreign students, al-
though she recognizes similar problems as those men-
tioned, and adds the further difficulty resulting from in-
uilnli.i.-int :-cvil-inmmodations to take care of all who would
lil:.. Itl, i; i, i he dormitories.' Evidently, in such a situa-
tion: ti,: t':ori.nii student, particularly the Oriental student,
'Ann.:- K N-*:yl. op. cit., pp. 11-12.
will have his name placed far d:owi o:, I:.. walii.i-: liit
unless a definite attempt is made I.- av.-,irili, :id:lid:': a nd
provide for the Oriental student.
W while it might be advantageous l':or tll e Cliiii.:-.. -I 1 l,.n-i-
to live in dormitories in order tlih t IIhi:;. \',.ild ll '..- a
better opportunity of practicing the English language and
learning the American ways of living, customs and ideals;
the difficulties already mentioned, together with the higher
cost of such accommodations frequently results in this
opportunity being denied to them. With respect to those
few students living in dormitories, it appears that the
Chinese graduate students do not find the conditions as
satisfactory as could be wished. The rules are usually de-
signed for undergraduates; there is no freedom in taking
meals outside; and there is usually considerable embar-
rassment in adjusting to the ways of living of the Amer-
ican students. A characteristic report is the following:
I live in a dormitory for undergraduates. The
dormitory life is not very free. At night all the doors
are locked, about eleven on week days and at one on
week-ends. I can enjoy good feeling and friendship
with the American students, but it is also true that I
find many of them uninteresting. Their interests
differ from mine. Sometimes they come to my room
and talk a great deal about dates, dances, and good
times, then I try to get rid of them as soon as possible.
There are also relatively few of the Chinese graduate
students of this group living in fraternity houses. These
are not the houses founded for American students, but
rather those organized and financed by Chinese students.
The fraternity plan seems to involve a heavy fiinr.-i;il re.-
sponsibility that the Chinese graduate student- ;r,. iii.
prepared to meet.
The problems involved in rooming conditi.lw-s ;nl:- il,-h
as to point toward the most serious problems ..f -ldiilct-
ment faced by the Chinese graduate student ini the- UTiiitl.1
SItl-i.. The difficulties are mainly those connected with
Il:t- I.li,:-imination and prejudice shown by landladies,
whii,:i m;-i be seen as fundamentally due to the differences
in I: I-i,;ige and cultural background. The financial con-
,lili:.1'- preclude the use of the dormitories, as they do of
tIIe f.t,:.rnity system. On the whole, the most satisfac-
ti'r tylv, of adjustment in living conditions yet developed
hi-- Ie.nI that of such projects as international houses.
Yt, tlhce are not wholly adequate solutions to the prob-
l,-n; ,iiid indeed, no adequate solution to this area of
difticul.ty has thus far been found. The situation is sketched
by the Dean of Students of the University of Chicago:
In general, no adequate solution of Ihis problem has
yet been found. The establishment of international
houses represents the most significant approach, but
their luxurionsness is hardly representative of typical
American life. An alternative may lie in the founding
of a number of less pretentious houses in which Amer-
ican and foreign students may live together. This
arrangement supplemented by opportunities for stu-
dents to be guests in representative homes may be a
means of conveying to the foreign student a better
interpretation of American life.
Area 7.-Vocational Oppormtnities and Problems
Included in this area are those difficulties the students
faced in connection with both their choices of academic
work with reference to vocational choice, and problems in
VOCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AND FPibiPLEMs
Types of Problems N..
People with exceptional training art. often
left out while others less well equipped
secure better jobs ......................
I would like to get government work, but
lack political "pull" ...................
Worry about how to do my work when asked
to do it........... ..................
I desire a job in China but after six years
here I have lost contacts ................
American education unsuited to vocational
n eeds .................................
Chinese situation changes to rapidy, I do not
know how to select my life career........
Would like to stay in America and work here
if possible .............................
Would like to teach and continue my re-
search if our school continues to have
Desire to raise money to start and operate a
school in my district ....................
Need funds to organize and operate a fac-
Desire to improve air force if parents will
consent ............................ .
Parents want me to stay in America two
more years so as to get experience.........
Difficulty in getting co-workers with similar
training and ideals .....................
Conflicting opportunities .................
Total cases in Area 7............. 41
In the data from the interviews with these 90 Chinese
students, there appear to be three situations which seem
to be of the most importance in this area of problems. The
foremost of these is the difficulty involved in specialization.
Nineteen of the students reported that they :coisi:dlied
special training not to be of any particular benefit iin t-et-
ting a position, for in many instances they hail biserve.1d
that people not as well prepared in a particular fil-l had
S..1' 1':1-.': "1. 1;
I,-e i ail- to1 secure positions. As a rule, when the Chinese
ltuid.lt leaves home it is for a very definite purpose of
becoming proficient in some particular line of work. After
going through the period of preparation and then facing
the problem of occupying oneself with congenial and re-
munerative work, conditions may have so changed at home
that from a distance they are not able to determine whether
their training will be applicable or not. This situation is
further reflected in the second type of problem.
The Chinese government early took the initiative in
sending students abroad for training. The purpose was
to prepare for national development. Many of these
Chinese students looked forward to governmental service,
for in this service future development offered a better
outlook than in other occupations. Some of these students
in the group covered by this study felt that unless they
were well known or have "pull," this form of employ-
ment would not be available to them.
Some of the students in this group were of the opinion
that they would not know how to do their work when em-
ployment was offered them and certain tasks assigned.
There is a distinct feeling that they do not have practical
experience and cannot apply their theoretical knowledge
gained in American institutions even if asked to do so.
Although this does not represent the majority opinion of
the group, there is here an indication of a feeling of in-
l:..i' lllc wlhiih ini.hit -ensitize the student to other forms
:If Im laldjuItmntt. \hi ich might develop into a thoroughly
pIc--imi-tic O:,utlo.ii:l; UlI.i the whole educational career and
pro-iet-t. Th. .ff,-:.t :f' such uncertainties regarding voca-
ti'.m ip':I tlie' i:xp,-riiecll( s of the student is also pointed out
liy K:alz adii Ailliortl in their study of Syracuse University
tilileiI.' It 1 i- L',h illustrated by the reaction of one of
tlie ('hiniv'ci iraiidnat' s-tudents:
TherI.- arn- run ri students returning to China from
D. Kri' adanl F. FI .\lII.rt. Students' Attitudes, pp. 120-127. Syracuse,
N-.v Y.-'rk: The Cratr uinui Press, 1931.
our department. Some of them have shown tli-i" r'x-
ceptional ability in academic work, and some simply
pass by. In fact, the students with poor quality in
personal matters and less well equipped in training,
get better jobs. The students with better training,
experience, and personal qualities do not get jobs.
Where there is a "'pll" there is a way. I work very
hard in my school work. What shall I receive from
society? Do people make an intelligent selection of
the type of men for the type of work? Really, I am
The other items pertaining to vocational problems are
of rather infrequent occurrence. Here are to be noted such
problems as: loss of contacts in China because of long
absence from home; American education unsuited for
needs; desire to stay in America if possible; financial prob-
lems related to vocational choice; and, the difficulties of
making a choice of vocation and studies preparing for it
in the light of changing conditions in China.
In some respects, these problems are similar to those
faced by American college students; particularly those re-
lating to the difficulty of selection of vocation and of the
particular type of specialization in the face of changing
conditions. On the other hand, the problems of these
Chinese graduate students with reference to vocation show
certain peculiarities. Evidently the vocational problems
bear some relationship to length of residence in the United
States. Of the 19 instances in which a problem is stated
regarding the discrimination to which persons exception-
ally trained are subjected, 14 have resided in the United
States for periods of three to five years. Of the remaining
5 cases, 3 have been in residence in the United States less
than three years and two for more than six years. When
this group is considered in connection with those who state
a problem related to a desire to secure a position in China
but suffer from loss of contact which is the underlying
cause for the problems mentioned in the first grouping of
Regarding this same problem there seems to be a gen-
eral tendency on the part of Chinese graduate students to
minimize the vocational situation the first one or two years
of residence in the United States. After residing here for
four to six years anxiety concerning the loss of contacts
and the vocational situation seems to develop. When the
student has been in the United States for more than six
years, the tendency is to think in terms of securing a posi-
tion in this country and maintaining more or less perma-
nent residence. The following is a representative student
expression on this problem:
I have been in the United States for six years. I
hardly understand the changes that have taken place
in China. I would like to go back to China and find a
place in which to work. The thing that troubles me
a good deal is the fact that I have been isolated from
home and lost contacts with friends. It is very diffi-
cult for me to secure a better job without any means
of political "pull". In order to avoid such excessive
worries, I desire very much to stay in this country as
long as I can make a living.
Area 8.-Problems Invol:ing Contacts With Americans
Outside the University
The data collected with respect to the contacts of the
Chinese students with Americans other than students do
not fall clearly into distinct classifications. For purposes
of discussion they may be divided into those factors such
as differing interests which contribute to a lack of mutual
understanding, and, those factors which are derived from
differences in customs, habits, and language. To disso-
ciate these two groups would clearly be a distortion, for
in reality they are interlocking and of reciprocal influence.
The detailed analysis of the problems in this area is pre-
sented in Table XX.
PROBLEMS INVOLVING CONTACTS) M3Viil Ab Il:E1.\N.-
OUTSIDE THE UNIVEEIITY
Types of Problems No. of Cases Totals
I am deeply embarrassed by America's racial
discrim nation ......................... 27
Most Americans do not understand me...... 10
Americans do not understand that they can
learn more about China from Chinese stu-
dents than from laundrymen.............. 7
Language difference prevents better contacts 6
American racial prejudice makes me sensitive 6
The customs, interests and language of
Americans is so difficult I cannot talk with
them .................................. 4
I cannot have as much fun with Americans
as with my fellow students .............. 5
In contacts with people not associated with
our people, the racial prejudice is felt on
both sides ............................. 4
Americans patronize us or appear to be giv-
ing charity when they treat us well....... 3
I feel that Americans are very courteous and
friendly, but is questionable if they are
real and sympathetic friends............ 2
When asking questions, Americans are
usually so unfamiliar with the Chinese sit-
nation that they embarrass me.......... 2
It is hard to make contact with Americans of
the best type, at least socially ............ 2
Americans are kind, sympathetic, and humor-
ous. They treat us better than their own
folks, they show their hospitality, but not
their deep understanding ............... 2
Americans use poor slang to hurt my feelings 1 81
Total cases in Area 8............. 81
The most important of the factors contributing to the
first grouping of problems is that of racial discrimination.
A total of twenty-seven students report that they are em-
barrassed by this element. Ten students also report that
"most Americans do not understand us." That is, of
course, a very broad statement; but it does point to the fact
that the usual American does not have many, if any, con-
tacts with Chinese students and what few there are may be
prejudiced in nature because of fixed ideas. The Americans
may have-gained their ideas from observing Chinese laun-
drymen or gardeners; or perhaps what knowledge they do
have comes from the theatres, comic pictures, or, unrepre-
sentative books. In these types of situations the Chinese
students feel that they could correct the American's im-
pressions if they had the opportunities under favorable
conditions. As one student remarks, "Americans are so
unfamiliar with the Chinese situation that they embarrass
It would not be fair to either the students or Americans
to leave the impression that all judgments were unfavor-
able or based upon race prejudice. Some of the students
think that the Americans are very fine, sympathetic, hu-
morous; and that they treat the Chinese students better
than they do their own folk. This is hospitality, and yet
underneath this the students detect what they think of as
the lack of "deep understanding." So, in spite of this, the
students really question the fact as to whether Americans
are real and sympathetic friends.
The problem of customs, habits and language provides
many perplexing situations for the students. Because of
these, many desirable social contacts are either impossible
or not taken full advantage of by both parties. A total of
10 report that better contacts are prevented because of
linguistic difficulties; one reports the use of slang by
Americans to "hurt my feelings." Along with these differ-
:'lnc in --customs and habits, there is implied a difference in
intlri', t.. There were 5 students who reported that for these
ri.;-:').- Ilhey could not have so much fun with American
-tunh:il-~ as with other Chinese students. While Chinese
students are in America, they are eager to li..n n :-t.:,iit the
ways of American life, and in some instan-e0 tlii i doi,1e
very effectively. In other instances, there een-m to bep too
many obstacles to overcome. This is reported very well by
one of the students:
Living in the middle-western community, with its
location far away from larger cities and its tempta-
tions, is a good place for the foreign students; and a
great moral influence in itself. I have a chance to learn
about American life and to see some typical homes,
but I do not have a chance to get acquainted with Amer-
icans outside the University. The town people are
more or less conservative. Rome of the church organ-
izations provide chances for making contacts. How-
ever, the activities are institutionalized, and as a whole
very superficial. It largely depends upon the leader-
ship and hospitality of the church members as far as
success is concerned.
Outside of a language handicap, I am not free in
making contacts which are mutually helpful. Some-
times I feel that the people are very individualistic
and indifferent toward foreign students. This is an-
other reason why I segregate myself with my fellow
Chinese students; with whom I have more fun.
With such a contrasting difference in customs, habits, in-
terests, and language, it is not surprising that the Chinese
students feel that their adjustment problems are intensified
by these rather difficult social conditions. The difficulties
are seen by other investigators as contributing the greater
number of problems to the adjustment of foreign students
while in the United States, particularly to Oriental stu-
Area 9.-Problems Involving Social and
In the questions of social and recreational contacts, the
cultural differentiation between Chinese and American stu-
dents is thrown into rather bold relief. The Chinese student
1R. E. Park, and II. A. Miller, Old World Traits Transplanted, p. 3.
New York: Harper and Brothers, 1921.
is confronted with a problem of participating in various
f.iii; of amusement and social activity which are at first
entirely strange and to which lie may never become accus-
tomed to the point of real enjoyment. It is also in this area
that much of Ihe foregoing material about race prejudice
and discrimination, language barriers, and, sensitivity to
strange habits and customs becomes very applicable.
PROBLEMS INVOLVING SOCIAL AND RECREATIONAL CONTACTS
Types of Problems
Embarrassed by movies derogatory to Chi-
nese life .............................
Overload of school work prevents participa-
tion ............................... .
Racial differences handicap in taking out
Am erican girls .....................
Golf and football of no interest............
Language difficulties prevent contacts. .....
Difficult to find dance partners............
Sensitivity to race prejudices minimizes in-
terest in social affairs...................
Difficult to have conversation with friends
particularly women ....................
Campus social programs uninteresting ....
Do not care to join Cosmopolitan Club; Club
fee too high, cannot get along with Jap-
anese, no interest in the program ........
American girls like Chinese parties but do
not care to take me to American parties..
Good movies are very expensive............
American girls like expensive places-diffi-
cult to afford ........................
Wee.-:--iid trips are very expensive ........
Difficult to find tennis partners ............
American girls like to have other American
boys go with us to parties ...............
Difficult to find good movies-they stress sex
and love too m uch ......................
N i: intl.' i ,It inl I jrnorous talks, or in other
di ,lIS'c ii-.Il ............................
To:,t l ,r'; ,. in A rea 9.............
No. of Cases Totals
The data gathered represent 133 separate. -tnat..'LI2,tI-
made by the 79 students, thus indicating on ov.rl:pping
and that more than one problem may be f.;i'ed ,>y til:e amie:
student. But from the accumulation, no one pal ticulal a.,
pect seems to be predominant. Seventeen reported that they
were embarrassed by movies derogatory to Chinese life,
while a few others reported good movies as too expensive
or that too much sex and love was stressed. This does not
imply, however, that the movie is not a popular form of
voluntary recreation, for there are after all relatively few
of the American movies that deal with themes of Chinese
The chief factors which make up obstacles to participa-
tion in social and recreational life are to be found in race
prejudice, overload of school work, lack of interest, and
the language difficulties. The problem of expense is an
ever-present one. Race prejudice makes difficult the asso-
ciation with American girls, as well as minimizing interest
in the ushal social functions. It makes it difficult to have
dancing partners or even conversation with women other
than Chinese. In some instances it makes it difficult to find
tennis partners or groups in which games may be played.
The influence of being overloaded with school work was
mentioned previously in connection with other problems.
With respect to recreational activities, 9 students reported
this as an obstacle to participation. Because of language
difficulties and differences between Chinese and American
sports, some of the students develop no interest in them,
particularly golf or football. The problems of recreation
related to expense do not loom up significantly in the total,
but they do limit the amount of traveling or week-end trips
which the students may take.
On the American campus, social dancing iF- onie- of the
main forms of recreation, as well as of social 'inta,.t. An
American member of the Activities Staff of the Chicago
International House makes the following comments regard-
ing these activities:
Oriental students participate rarely in American
social dancing because they experience little pleasure
by taking part in such activity ..... Probably one third
of the Chinese students go to International House
dances from a sense of duty in order to see that China
is represented at an International gathering. Others
go to dances to see and experience at first hand a char-
acteristic American social activity. Still others go be-
cause of friends, especially American, who have taught
them to dance and hence take a whole-hearted friendly
interest in going to social functions with them. The
Chinese students become members of a social group
which included a number of interested American rather
than as "Exhibit A."
There are a number of organizations in America
bearing the name "Friends of .. .," with respect to
some foreign country. Unfortunately a number of these
organizations, of which many are chiefly social, fail to
take advantage of the opportunity of making foreign
scholars from the country they wish to befriend be-
come participating, regular members of the organiza-
tion. Foreign students and other scholars from abroad
are occasionally asked to address a gathering or to
be present at a banquet, but no provision is made
whereby the members of the organization will have fre-
quent contacts to make possible real friendship between
American citizens and foreign citizens. The majority
of the foreign students in the United States are glad
to have the opportunity of joining such organizations
as the Friends of China, the Friends of Japan, the
German-American Society and others; but foreign stu-
dents avoid being made exhibits before American or-
In further consideration of campus activities, one of the
Chinese graduate students comments thus:
There are many social activities on the campus. Most
students have come to care for the social functions
because they are the masters of the situation. I usually
demand some social relations with women, but this col-
lege town is not developed socially for forpl'in u in-
dents. Sometimes in the classroom work T :.is::-iati:
with some American women and form normal r,:.ltioln-
ships. Outside of the classroom, I find difficulty in ask-
ing them to go to dances in the surrounding quarters.
By way of contrast with the difficulties experienced by
these Chinese graduate students in developing social and
recreational contacts are the problems reported by Amer-
ican college students in this same area. The survey of stu-
dent experience published under the title Undergraduates
finds that American college students experience such prob-
lems as; discrimination because of inferior economic or
social situation; pressure toward conformity to "crowd
standards"; and, the difficulties involved in the prevalent
"revolt against authority" among American youth.1 In a
study of a group of college Freshmen in an American de-
nominational college, Emme discovered the most frequent
problems in this area to be: not enough provision for small
groups, mainly informal in nature; that too much of the
social and recreational life was "formalized" and conform-
ity to the form demanded; and, that suitable placed and
circumstances under which college students might meet,
particularly members of the opposite sex, were lacking.2
With reference to the problems of the Chinese graduate
students in this area, it is indicated that racial and cultural
differences, that were most potently expressed regarding
relations between persons of opposite sexes, were the focal
problems. While there have been some definite attempts
made to meet the problems, the evidence secured in this
investigation leads to a recognition that these were not
wholly satisfactory from the viewpoint of the Chinese grad-
uate students themselves.
SR. H. Edwards, J. M. Artman, and G. M. Fisher, Undergraduates,
p. 215. New York: Doubleday, Doran and Co., 1925.
2 E. E. Emme, op. cit., pp. 60 ff.
Area 10.-Problems Involving Contacts
JVith American Students
From the information secured about the relations of the
Chinese students with American students, there seems to
be two fundamental distinctions which may be made for the
convenience of discussion. The first of these is derived
from the experiences of the Chinese students by which they
come to judge American students as well as other Amer-
icans. The second is the tendency of the various culture-
groups to segregate themselves and organize around com-
PROBLEMS INVOLVING CONTACTS WITH AMERICAN STUDENTS
Types of Problems N(
American students take an indifferent atti-
tude toward us .........................
American students like to talk about dates,
dances and good times. It is hard for me
to get along ............................
American students do not care to discuss
c l- rio:L i l.i .lem s........................
It is i.lilliciilt to meet American students
sullt..ii.:ntly t., get acquainted with them...
During tlih- eek, everyone seems busy; and
tlihn '-, \.:,.ik-ends they are all going out
for a cll-b ration .......................
T :,tal cases Area 10...............
o. of Cases Totals
'Thli idl-ai upon which judgments are based, as very
lk.::,rly shli.,w, in the opinions collected, are influenced by
llih: -.iiiliv;ity of the Chinese student to prejudice, racial
unil.l;'.ii-nI, aind the strangeness of his social situation.
Froim ,a -ini. I.- experience, a student is likely to draw a gen-
..;raI i:ion i i.- on which is used to characterize all Americans,
both students and non-students. With resl:peit ito su:ihi an
experience, one of the students reports as fellow, :
The first and deepest impression in nmy min!d i ini,
from the time that I walked into a ve.cterin bLiber
shop. When I went in, the barber said, "I am sorry."
I did not understand what he meant, so I sat down and
waited for five minutes, and made myself at home. But
no one came to give me service. Because of this im-
pression, I feel unable to get acquainted freely with
Americans wherever I go, except the contacts with my
professors. The landlady also understands me.
It might be expected that the Chinese students would
have more contacts with other students and thus have a
range of experiences which would permit them to form
what might be thought of as an adequate or fair judgment
of the American people. Such, however, seems not to be
the case, since so many of this group tend to generalize on
the basis of a single or limited experience. This indicates
that although 43 students report that American students
take an indifferent attitude toward them, some question
should be raised as to the source of these impressions and
as to how extensive they are. Another investigator raises
the same point regarding all foreign students in her con-
clusions.1 When the Chinese students report that American
students are interested only in dates, dances and good
times, it is fair to ask if these American students are un-
dergraduates or graduates, or if these are not impressions
gathered from non-representative experiences and used to
classify and describe all American students. These prob-
lems point to the fact that no definite conclusions can be
drawn, and at the same time indicate that the impressions
are present and do determine just how the Chinese students
feel about their relations with American students.
The Chinese students also report that they think the
'A. E. Neely, op. cit., pp. 13-14.
Annmricalis ;ro not interested in discussing serious prob-
Iomon. This is indicated ill tlh student's report following-
M -, l. I f the A ,ll 1r-c1.;I 11 tillllliits al... indil l' :'. c-ll t t,-,-
w 1i,. ii-. Sili'. tIhey iihaV'- i i te rest ill 11., wi a e.. *
v y I r ii tive abi oult ilir ii1if. ivoralilo atltilu,.de-. w lIh n
I ti to taI k w l talk with t l.hem A i t -.m iln:, iitriiltn i iI .r,-,.i-
le'u ., tln*"Y -i plly cxpr.l:,r il. r ,l"11,ni.'11 1- :il, ,] il, not
l'itare Ill lI cIt:i A. ld, PIpl'rtiiillarly, tlh.-y d1- nol. halV,
T1l iiu ilj ht h.:- l ilt xv thaiit'hiii. tl.II .tl'I like it n a-1* -' -
ilate \\l i i e: 1:1 ) l i ther I.i :Si.a .l ,. ,ft sjilil a ti :nltl ir"il I.t3a k-
.ri'l il.lh ti,.. Amei.rirni st sti ]denits ;ilr- may lI' i tinav :1110
il id.' "- t [' \\ r i. t ll, I ii ot .it nila li .ki roi llid,,
p '|ilri ali l i:nntr? ; is i i,:- l .i T is sitiu:l.i.tii in- very altly mta:te-d
b.,y tIS D i,:,:-t-tr -,tf i:1-."enr:-l, in ; l.lr'_' nnm v.r-ity,:
It i-. nil It rIl ; aiii ] i-lt tbi* t lt 'h'1 I-iin -? iinu l ni t.. h ni .,ti
t lit.-i 'i i i. i t.111 ll iver iti t.-i "i hl11i l 11. i .ii?* r(? :it 1 i ? .]: l: l.e to
U '.'.:t :ti1,.1 Wish.,u ite w ilth .it fli(nl.:1 ,1 o ,;,n,011111101t
level ol culture nd s-,-inl ,hlati,,n llii,. Na:i,:. thel ..-,
m ,:,.t A i,,..ri,:aii lh<.ve Illir 1 o-" l, ,:ir,;-le "If frii.- and
in roi ,ini llll" .ihtiis the l" in tnrilly *.o l'i th :llu r, not do:.t -
.i i l._, a l-,-,i.t h].,1< i t". l it !;r ,,rli io ir in;i tiv,., (t: 1.iO :, k
in IaltI. n their ],l, -kInit ,:r a i;a ili It '-i e al:out,
lhher-..,,r l 1:a 'hin .e -lndrnts i often lhavi di .tti ilty
il ,ntriin fully inlo< ;an u:- life. Thi. is li, t w it :
the1 A Ill:'.ri- ol .til ,:.nl tlhinl; thie (hliil o infl'erior S.-
:i vlly or illn ;Illy w .ly, liil fr'cill tilt- I tiyti ,l Clal hlip
tliit -. s I ,. I,11.1 hi i? One fe:?_l ll'r, of hll.l .ill lin tillll'ir .
ThIus, the naturall differ,'ntiitiol It ,., ('t i I 'hine,, and
A lli c.le : i I ?tn l.d :tl a n id, I .: : -l:i r;i-lli.i l i : ,f ]Il i I;.ill U;lt-
tnril <,: 1,o ililli t ndi t thill... d -.\'(,J-?l ,pli, ll :1 of fnvNoralille
fittit ,le ,-' :,lll l -,_,, .*i l r,?li1i tio n 1 Ilt\M l. file l w c, t l(-,1i |:,..
it *lip;:'irS that ( .lruie .1W Al16 .: 'I'', tI 111, i in;' ,u l, and ti h-. K oik
ol Op, 'i, l l, iil 1 t,, lI,,ri, Iiiitt ,ll1 *:,, '.'ni ial ,.",,nt,,,:t- w otd(
tenl.d to n:r ,-w i l ,,. po'1 ibiliti,: whli,-lI '-
tlinig" tuin, h vl,-opilln,: t a, f a d,,lu.ite <:l1 iii l> ,of aO-f.-
*E II. dr .. I. i i l n *._ iilhr..,- I .Ii '. in I'..ii, .- <'..,[m Llm i[ i ," 2i'.,14 -1., 4 .
els/.,.:,rt ,,,,, \ \i .\' .1.n 1. :'-"'i -1" -41. "
Area 12.-Problems Involving Contacts Wilk Prf['',f.isi
The reactions of the Chinese graduate -tui.rit- tit the
contacts with their professors are presented in Table
PROBLEMS INVOLVING CONTACTS WITH PROFESSORS
Types of Problems No. of Cases Totals
Difficult to get acquainted with professor.... 10
Some professors are not interested in the
personal problems of students........... 8
Most professors are indifferent to foreign
student's need for personal relations ..... 6
Some professors are no different from the
common people in their race attitudes.... 3
Some professors are intolerant of my opin-
ions, so I lost interest in the classes ...... 3 30
Total cases Area 11.............. 30
Chinese student relations with professors deserves spe-
cial mention. At the time that the student is planning upon
coming to America, the choice of an institution is in part
determined by the reputation and work of the faculty mem-
bers. The student looks forward to contacts with one or two
of the faculty. While in school at home, many intimate and
very personal contacts are possible and the student expects
this situation to be carried over to some extent. But the
American graduate school presents an entirely different
situation. Classes are usually larger and the professor is
engaged either in research or other activities which very
definitely limit the amount of time he has available for per-
sonal contact with his large number of students. One of
the students says:
I have been in this institution two years. Before I
came here I trusted that some of the well-known pro-
fessors could be of most help to the students. Prac-
tically speaking, it is not so. They come to class and
give lectures. When their lectures are done, the job
is over. They have office hours but they are usually out
of office. Some day when they are in the offices, many
students try to see them. So, such interviews simply
permit a few minutes and everything is done in a rush
with superficial consideration.
This situation is also recognized by some faculty mem-
bers. One professor says,
We admit frankly that we cannot give very much
time to students. In addition to lectures, we have to
spend much time on research work, which is part of
our working agreement with the school. Besides, we
are asked frequently to give lectures and attend meet-
ings outside of our teaching and research work. We
have office hours arranged for the students, but can-
not have time for personal relations with the students.
I, tihe .o'tltr items reported, the Chinese students seem
tI: l1;v\. Iii'ucl in common with other students with respect
to- tlh r.iel.ati.ins with professors. Although they indicate
tlhit si'ine professors are not interested in students' per-
:*iiail prbllml sin or what they feel to be a need for educa-
ti.;nal -iuidlan:i:, a difference of opinion is reflected in the
adlini Lt i iti-,- phase of the American graduate schools
with rep- (:.-t t, the professors' responsibilities of teaching
,_'r I'cselrl- in contrast to faculty personnel activities.
-.1 : a 12.-Problems Involving Contacts
With Chinese Students
TlIt tlil:-. students also found certain problems of ad-
.iJtlilLIt arlinig out of their contacts with other Chinese
-tulciid nt i- ilnicated in the following table and discussion.
PROBLEMS INVOLVING CONTACTS WII H .'HINE-lI STi;[T.'NTS
Types of Problems No. of Cases Totals
All Chinese students are very studious hence
have insufficient time to associate........ 18
Free association of Chinese students is han-
dicapped by difficult dialects............. 8
Class grouping of Chinese students because
of wealth and interest differences is a hin-
drance ................................ 6 32
Total cases Area. 12.............. 32
When the problems of free association among the
Chinese students is investigated, there are several ob-
stables to the development of congenial relations. The
first of these is derived from the fact that the students do
not find sufficient time to associate with each other.
Eighteen reported that they had to spend too much time
with their academic work to permit much contact with
other students. The students are here for a rather limited
time, frequently with insufficient money, and this neces-
sitates carrying a heavy school schedule. In addition,
there is the difficulty of working with the English language,
and at the same time learning both German and French,
which require extra long hours of concentrated effort.
The problem of different interests is also important. For
example, a student in Chemistry may have very few occa-
sions for meeting one doing his work in the Humanities,
Mathematics or Education. Such a condition would add
One of the obstacles is inherent in the problem of the
differences in dialects. This is described quite adequately
by one of the students:
In the University are found a large group of I.'liii _.e
students, both men and women. They come fri.m dil-
ft'renit parts of China. In general they understand
'e:I:h : hie:r, except those who come from the extreme
-.uitlh. It is apparent that I find difficulty in mingling
with tlhem. It is not because I am disinterested in
tIhlrn, IiIt. because they do not understand me when I
:i:l:,;ik "I(:antonese." It is more natural for me to be-
lo,.ng to the group of our own in which I find a satisfy-
inL- c:,oiilnet than I do with other Chinese groups. I
t'f.l., hl.ow-ver, that this is an unhappy gap existing
amioii:, -'r..-ial attachments.
Thli :.r,:I.|.-a rs to be very little of class grouping of the
tulden-1t I-; -u'e of differences attributable to either wealth
:or iter'"l Six such instances were reported and are
i1:.-.:i iliadl I'y onie of the fraternity members:
In oiur fraternity there are relatively few members
liviu,. iin the fraternity house. We are bound together
Iy illie -inme desire for companionship with congenial
fri,':',. In social functions we are not isolated but
fti, ri;thl.r easy entr6 to such functions with American
students or friends in the community, as well as with
other Chinese students; but it is difficult for us to in-
vite the latter to come.
Area 13.-Marriage Problems
Only a few of this group of students are concerned with
mnarria ; : probl, ms. It is significant, however, to note
lhe.-e fe'w :op1 inions and problems as they reflect some of
the cl: ionlict 'of ideas and ideals which is a result of the in-
?vi:il.ik- ch'li:;Ig :in the Chinese family resulting from Occi-
idental p.-net raution.
MARRIAGE, PRORBIF M-
Types of Problems N... .r '. -. T.I
What standards should I have in choosing a
g irl? ......................... ......... 2
Desire to marry but have no employment ... 1
Believe that previous engagement was not a
right one .......... ..... .............. 1
Shall I have Chinese or American family
system ................................ 2
Troubled by unhappy marriage ............ 1
Conflicts because I prefer modern living in a
conservative home ...................... 1
Desire to marry American girl but her
parents and friends object ................. 1
How can I provide good environment, mod-
ern education, and good care for my child? 2
Too great responsibility in parents giving
me freedom to choose a wife ............. 1
Can a girl serve her country better by not
marrying .............................. 1
Troubled by Chinese girls honoring them-
selves too much as "wives", but not mak-
ing good homes........................ 1
Parents indifferent to my engagement ...... 1
Is it right to disregard the problem of an
American girl in adjusting to Chinese
home conditions ........................ 1 16
Total cases in Area 13............ 16
The Chinese family cannot be considered, in general, as
the aggregation of three or four generations of collateral
branches living in one house. Nor is the Chinese family
to be understood in any sense as a parallel to the Occi-
dental family which usually represents two geneati'., ..
It is, like all families, to be thought of as a unity Iif inte!r-
acting personalities. This unity has through traditiin
come to be formed and organized in a way peculiarly
Chinese, and it is those traditional functions as well as its
organization which are being changed by Western penetra-
tion. These changes are usually thought of as being due to
industrialization and to the acceptance of some aspects of
the Western ideology. These changes are coming about
slowly but compulsively. Where formerly the social or-
ganization left no judgment to the individuals as to their
marriage, these individuals now find themselves faced
with making profound and significant decisions. This
question applies not only to choosing a wife or a husband,
but as well to the kind of family system to be set up and
maintained. The problem most frequently faced is that
of choosing a wife. One student relates his reasoning as
Choice in love demands some standards. Instinct
is not a safe guide but leads to ill advised selection.
If I do anything wrong, I may come back and make it
right again. If I make a mistake in love, it means a
mistake in my life forever. Physical charm is not the
most important element in the love selection of a girl,
though it may be paramount beyond question. Love
is not vehemently impulsive. A power of self-analysis
is necessary. Should I love her according to kindness,
ardor, sympathy, intelligence, capability, vivacity, or
With respect to an actual engagement, which shows this
conflict of ideals, the following case was collected:
My parents chose a girl for me when I was in col-
lege. I know her but we do not see each other often.
She is now in college. Sometimes we write to each
other, but we do not really understand each other. I
usually feel that love cannot be created by the third
party. If so, this is not love but a bargain. Love can
1:e ,t-itl-d in terms of romance, but cannot be measured
on a :si :ile. It means a creative force which makes the
tw'\' persons' lives in harmony possible.
I agri;e with the fact that the parents may share the
process in love selection as I have hiz d i1 ,::11:'ri:'n:,.I
in the matter of final decision. Pu Ir ., '. .t I'.-.-:
with the fact that I should be obelet:-i, tl. th:- iar:iL.t-.
to the third party, and to Fate. I f'::l my : <:_",,ii.-:t
is not an ideal one.
Two of the students reported a problem in trying to
decide whether to have a Chinese or an American family
system. One of the students has made a rather keen
analysis and states that:
I admire the American family system. The reasons
are these: Husband and wife can have more enjoy-
ment; they also can express themselves fully; chil-
dren have a better chance for education and care; there
is less chance to create quarrels among the members
of the family; a spirit of independence can be devel-
oped; household affairs can be easily managed; finan-
cial difficulties are more easily solved; misunderstand-
ing, if any, can be more easily removed. These and
many other things are not usually found in a family
where the oldest father, his wife and sons, sons' wives
and children live together.
I still find some things that are not bad in the exist-
ing home conditions. For instance, my parents are
educated; they know our likes and dislikes; my broth-
ers and sisters are in school, and they are very lovely
and do not cause much trouble; we have not had any
experience in home affairs but my parents would bo
glad to help us if we lived with them. In the American
home I feel that loneliness is inevitable. If we live
with parents and brothers and sisters, there will be
no such feeling; if difficulties arise, the whole family
will help us. An intermediate type of family system
is hardly realized in my home.
For some Chinese students there is the problem of cross-
marriage. Although these are not frequent, yet they are
significant from the standpoint of race crossing and the
breaking down of racial barriers which may lead to: t'urtlr
social maladjustments. One student confronted with llik
problem reported that,
I have been in America for five years. I adapil uI -:lf
pretty well to the American way of life. I w.-'id lik..
to marry an American girl. I think that my parents
will make me marry. The girl wants very much to
go to China with me. I admire her very much and
there is no reason why I should not marry her. The
difficulty is a matter of objection on the part of her
parents. When her friends find this out, they also do
not agree with her. Perhaps they gossip about her,
maybe they think she is wrong. Her parents and
friends think that she will not be happy when she
goes to China because of the differences in language,
living habits, and customs.
In the group of 90 students, only 11 are married and the
information on these cases has not been isolated from the
other problems of finances, health and anxieties that are
related to marriage problems.
Area 14.-Educational Problems
The distinction between administrative and educational
problem; is a little arbitrary in giving an analysis of the
IaIt,i colli d.cl.l .luring the investigation, but necessitated
lv Ih.:. v i-ry iiu;l1,r 'if the data.
Types of Problems No. of Cases Totals
Selection of Courses
Lack of information makes selection difficult 12
Language difficulty does not permit me to
take the minimum requirements ......... 2
Interests have shifted from field to field... 1 15
Change of Major
Chinese conditions forced me to change
from political science to economics...... 4
Poor work in architecture forced choosing
blindly a new major ................... 1 5
Class and Laboratory Work
Lack of suggestions and guidance for pro-
ject negates interest in seminars........ 12
Classes too large; little time for answering
questions ............................. 11
Achievement determined too much by final
exam nations ......................... 1
Lack of interest in poorly conducted recita-
tion .................................. 1
Initiative not encouraged ................. 1
Interest in discussions lacking because of
insufficient preparation ................ 1
Lectures in class usually meager and con-
fused, professor does not make students
grasp essential points .................. 1
Need guidance in laboratory work......... 1
Insufficient opportunity given for real think-
ing ................................... 1 40
Study Habits and Methods
Hard to form correct habits and methods.. 3
Difficult to take intelligent notes rapidly... 3
Poor health handicaps effective studying.. 1
Lack of concentration due to loss of sleep.. 1
Unsuccessful research work proves disturb-
ing and discouraging ................... 1 9
Attitude Toward Practice vs. Theory
Theories over-emphasized in curriculum... 6
Lack of opportunity for practical courses.. 6
Laboratory work usually devoted to theory 4
of little immediate value ................ 4
Worried about research and benefits derived
from it. .......................... .. 19
Total cases in Ar ivt 14.............. 88
In the same way that the lack of information creates
administrative problems, it also makes difficult the selec-
tion of courses. Twelve students reported this difficulty,
while others report again the language problem, and as
well their shifting of interest from field to field.
In the changing of their majors 4 students were forced
to do so, in their opinion, on account of changes in condi-
tions at home. These were changes from political science
to economics as the major field of study. The Chinese
students do not find much interest in seminar classes, 12
of them reporting that the lack of suggestions and guid-
ance with respect to projects negates any interest they
may have had. This seems to be consistent with the fact
that 11 of them feel that the classes are too large and that
too little time is spent answering questions. Because of
language difficulties, Chinese students are likely to find
that the lectures are not adequate. One of them says,
Our professor is supposed to be a well-known figure
in political life. But he usually comes to class with
a body of information poorly organized. Some of the
t-l.lrnt, hl\.i too much interest in him and too much
..,l(..iu.li.,:e upon him. The reason is because he is
w:ll-kno', I am very disappointed. His lectures in
,la- ,..ne meager and confused. He does not care
wihth:r or i, not the class can grasp the content, pur-
pI'-e atnd muilhod of the course. One of the disap-
prrval- ,:if tihe instructor is that he does not lead a
.,,*',:;,ful di-cussion for the whole class, and that he
di....:- i,.'I -ti iulate the class to think in order to in-
It-:.ra;tl thlii course with their own point of view.
The d:its te.1d to show that the Chinese students appar-
ently ,,-i;irpt thii,.uielves quite readily to American school
si(uatio ls, for only 3 reported that they found it difficult
to form o.'.irri: habits and methods of study. Three others
found il diffliult to take intelligent notes rapidly. Only in
a feot \\ .a v.-ier:, problems with academic work reported
a- i.'orv\.in.' ,ut of poor health, lack of concentration
through loss of sleep. ao-, l.1 ;1-r1our .";ii :men11 t Xvill, the t de-
mands of research \v.'.:I:-. W'hir' pre-e~t, t. fli lanu:.e
difficulties handicap iin t\.l n ii1 xlha;t Ihe l.-iri v.ile
in America, as described by one of the students:
I cannot follow the daily assignments nor meet defi-
nite requirements. The whole trouble of my poor
preparation is the fact that I have no command of
English. In class I cannot locate the vital part of
the lecture and communicate what I wish. Outside of
class, I do not study rapidly or aggressively. My
class notes are incomplete. So, it is impossible for
me to organize my notes for answering questions as-
signed in class.
I do not carry a minimum of requirements-only
two courses each semester. But the instructors give
examinations to the class very often. I cannot write
English. One of the instructors asks me to answer
them in Chinese. I feel, however, that I do not learn
very much when I come to America.
Somewhat in keeping with the earlier problem of prac-
tice versus theory, it was found that 6 of the students think
that the curriculum over-emphasizes theories and that an
equal number feel the lack of opportunities for practical
courses. Four of them doubted the value of laboratory
work, while 3 worried about benefits derived from research
It is evident that these problems are expected from prac-
tically any group of students. If there is any difference
between groups, it is best characterized by one of the Deans
of a School of Engineering:
With very few exceptions, the Chinese students are
industrious, courteous and have superior mental at-
tributes. At the same time, they lack inifiitiiv:. ;ain
are less practical than the average student xwli i' :
native of the United States, of Great Britfil. or i-f
Continental Europe. Inability to apply th:-or.ry o-<-l:r.'
to be a fault common to Chinese and to stud.l-nlt from
other Oriental lands; to a considerable ex4:lt tlhi- i-
niso I ruI: Ie f Russians. To improve the practicability
ot tIl. C(hin:se-: students or to enhance their power of
iiitia ti\v1., 1ey should be encouraged to work with
lols and nri; uines, drive automobiles and to be thrown
I11.iu lleir oqwn resources in dealing with life's prob-
This .luotaticio appears to involve an observation, and
to wliat extent it i.- valid there is no way of telling. It is
'ugg,-.t:. 1u.:,,\evir,. that when considering environmental
1;,ekgr~iound it w\iMl probably hold true. Chinese students
ldo: not 11.,ve l,. uiii opportunities to ride bicycles, use roller
.::, l'.. .r dri \.lI a_ lomnobiles; in fact to do much mechanical
work. Ti.:, 1.r1.iI.'iJ:'n of practice is very acute for the engi-
iIe-liniig clud'-i-, for when they do return to China they
imu.-[ I.? :tii- toL do practical things in order to secure work.
A.r,.I: 1.;.-Pr,1l,, Involving Administrative Regulations
.lAdjut-tmuint p'liollems of this group of Chinese graduate
stindl-iit with r--l-pect to administrative phases of the
Gradiia[l._ S'il...-hi.L, center around course requirements;
liir;iry f';ailiii -; i..xaminations; and, degrees.
PROBLEMS INVOLVING ADMINISTRATIVE PEG LATIONL.
Types of Problems No. of Cases Totals
Little freedom is given in selection of
Required to take courses with no interest..
Want to take additional work because of lim-
ited courses offered ....................
References not available ..................
Reading rooms noisy ..................
Books not properly placed ................
Light and heat not regulated properly.....
Examinations and Degrees
Have difficulty organizing material when
final examinations come ................
Difficult for the Oriental students to learn
French and German ...................
Do not understand the nature of finals.....
Degrees not offered in accordance with the
needs of foreign students...............
Total cases in Area 15...........