Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: core of America's race problem
Title: The Core of America's race problem
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098499/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Core of America's race problem
Physical Description: 31 p. ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Height, Dorothy I ( Dorothy Irene ), 1912-
Publisher: The Women's Press
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1945
Subject: African Americans -- Segregation   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: "Reading list": p. 30-31.
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Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07681428
lccn - 47024699
oclc - 7681428


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Back Matter
        Page 32
    Back Cover
        Page 33
        Page 34
Full Text

of Ntlrtia

The Core

of America's Race Problem

Edited by
Dorothy I. Height

Ten cents

The \Woman's Press
600 Lexington Avenue
New York 22, N. Y.

..J ) J,




i:., ri. 'hr, i, -";, i 'b, r l",
"d.ih .'-.n l i.-.Jr.J .. i l,.. 'i.,,u. \ i.r i .rr_ i.l' iru n .lr ..,) :aiI ..'ri'
..,I tlIe Linir,.l r j'Sri .,.t A IT%.I]:.i
Prir. I] in th,. LUnit:d S'ire ..t ,\t1m :ic


S482 3 /


T HE request came trom sewvral ,rgpanzations to make available
to the general public the material now in this pamphlet which
hrit appeared as a mimei-,graphed bulletin issued by the Public
.rftirs Committee of the National LoJrd, YWCA. The Core of
.-hli;:e'.i', Race IPr.Ilen, therefore, is presented herewith in printed
t'-r m.
.-A ali!ble resources on the phenomenon of segregation are sum-
marie.d briefly against the iJdeal and structure of American democ-
rac\ as background. The summrar) is bh no means an exhaustive
.anl\isl :t segrecgatiun in American lt'c Rather, it is offered as a
guiJec 'or studs and .iLtion The suggestcd readings are vital to 1
fuller undertanding of the problem; those excerpts which are here
included re but kes to the original documents.
Those who c",ul. use his material i~ll find it helpful t.- hive
in h.nJd An .Inmerican Dr!eia,;.z* by Gunnar Myrdal and Pattern.
ol Nerco Segregaui;,.n h\ Charles S. Johnson. In addition to these
basic larger Iw.orks the bulletins ot the National Urban League and
uther publications listed arc essential for a better understanding of
the problem. The R.ice Relations Dep.ircment of the Federal C.-un-
ci of the Churches *' C'hrist in Americat and the National Ai,,cla-
tiun for the AldIanceinent o:f Colored Peoplet offer other ex:cellent
I c urce'.

*Fo.r .,itli 1-. r r- .r. .,'.:f i. :ill r.i-:I -n.r::- ii:ntioned in this parnpl.l *r.
REj.linz Li r .:n p'i,: .
t:.,- F.tr-uih i *1i' a.. N:w Yor: io. N. Y.
: '. Fhtuh A. :n...., N.v York, N. Y.

[1 3

I F I i -

I rri"'lli '-'n 5

Di \M' Bi eil'., i-n Equalli,; S

iiii n utinal S~c.;rc nation

EnIoin in t "1

Educ iti n 5i

Iran pI irtatr or I

'Nec r, atin In

The Arnrimd Foircc. I'

Th Lc bloodd Bank 22

lMdical ('Crc ,

Mortuar\ Scr. ces 24

F-lc,. S(gircal'on Bc ln a PaJtt rn 24

Scr:jcarmn AIt,:tr .'hitr Tn,) 2-

Arc Ncgr,.cs iHappillet among g Thml.cs"' 2-

Readiin4 LLst 3."



B EC.LISE Negroc ;arc the I.,re'r r icial minority in this country
nd ;LjtTcr nmore kinds of inequallt thr.a any other minority in
the United Stats,. this pamphlet di'siscs segrcgation as it relates to
the Negro in \Anerican !i,:. 'Th solution of the problem of segrega-
tio n Negro-.'. hire reluio,nhhips is ssentil.l to the solution of the
problem i. it reli:aes t other minorlue h v. here racial, religious,
ciultJiral or economic.
America is the refuce i:,t peoples cof dillercnt backgrounds who
ha'e Ci:,me to its shores in search ot freedom and equality of oppor-
tunirt. .-\inericans believe that all men are created equal" and from
that creation as equal theN deri\e rights inherent and "unalienable"
among which .re the preser\atrln .io "Life. Liberty and the Pursuit
of H.ppines". Declarati on of Independence.)
This creed has its root' both in deinmicrac, and in Christianity.
Those ho \1.ouild be democratic or Chritian cannot escape the
stud] :of the prc:blem of segregation i which threatens the integrity of
,our American lfte.


1 he coe :' Hider', ait i 0 a ;;ci;, ,.iotrine. The cOre of the
ati of tl/ e lapan.,ese ipert ialut is another racial doct:'i-e. The
\V:,i ,an'! the I.;paesee aLc ot to ,.' oi'.'iae the world, ,eca;: s.e thc
/h ':ectlt bei:l e f in ,ac'.;/ ea./.iLt, .
"'7hat i it i .I e of the LU.iteJ, Natio': ca.;n io longer ,.ioie th,-e
qs.estiou. if e jo .''el. t1 for Pio:,ti ea, be/orwe the war. B.t :o:w it
t ,ifitie l, e O" a., .' i. C- it a b Lt. ,o '',,, k' :p our nun,./ .'ii e i t',lv
;17r ue it 'er. Do iLe e e ie : raei,.;! e,.w;/' i, or don't :e.
// .'e don't. :t e agree IL itl nr eCei;tie. 1i e are [;1:n:; fa.ci.i,:
bait ae accept theIa bai: prrilciple; r' ,.'im.
"If :e do. then it i rnot eno:;k to .t .-so. If we ajy o'7e th'nl,'.
a ', .tdo the oppo.'ite. people all over the t orld wil ioin :,s' as
I crate.


"Apart from the war, there is another thing to reme,,rier if'e are
Christians-or are we? Christianity stands for hum,.i',' rother/,oo!.
And how can men be brothers if they cannot use thc ia,,,e nreitl.
work in the same factory, live on the same side of the ra.,hi:l trac'-/;.
pray in the same church? How can Christians hope to per,'miaie th'.e
rest of the world of their sincerity unless they ca., practice at leaIc
as much of human brotherhood and equality as, for .ei,,'ple. the
Russian communists?" (Written by Gregory Vlatci, exp.ci.ll\ for
the World-Wide Observance of Business Girls of the Y\WC'
We see signs like these in many places in America toda'.,-either
imprinted or implied:

WHITE Icolord

They challenge us to examine our ways of living -n the light ot our
stated beliefs. America's beauty is marred so long as these sins
highlight her "unfinished business". Let us look into 'sonme major
aspects of American life and see how segregation operated
Segregation of Negroes has been defined as the enforced ctring
apart of people on the basis of race and color, the deni.il :4F parclipa-
tion in public, quasi-public, semi-public institutions and .ctviltes
whether such denial is by legal means or by custom.

The Constitution of the United States s.\ s:
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude .. hall
exist within the United States .. ; (Amendment
All persons born or naturalized in the 'UnmeJ
States . .are citizens. . No state shall mike or
enforce any law which shall abridge the pri ileges
or immunities of citizens of the United S:.te .. :
(Amendment XIV)
The right of the citizens of the United SI.Lcs to
vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United
States or any state on account of race, color. or
previous condition or servitude. (Amendment XV)


The Fourteenth Amendment declared the Negro a citizen. In
.rder to estjblsh Jim Crow in the face of these Constitutional
Amendment. the southern whites coined a term which is expressed
or implied in rmot lnm Crow statutes, "separate, but equal". To
.ihieye their purpose of separation from whites, they promised equal
.ccommod.tions to Negroes. A careful study of transportation or
eJuc.ltion in the Souith reveals a glaring example of how segregation
result' in disclriminj ton.

All southern states and most border states have state laws and
municipal regulations which prohibit Negroes from using the same
schools, libraries, parks, playgrounds, railroad cars, railroad stations,
sections of streetcars and buses, hotels, restaurants and other facil-
ities as do white people. In recent years the Supreme Court has be-
come increasingly prepared to observe the intent of the Thirteenth,
Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. Accordingly, it has ren-
dered an increasing number of decisions which expose the statutes
backing the system of institutional segregation as unconstitutional.
In the North there are no Jim Crow laws. Yet, there is institu-
tional segregation*rMany institutions such as schools, clinics, hos-
pitals, parks, playgrounds, theaters and other places of amusement
have a community basis and, therefore, residential segregation is an
effective means of getting separate units for Negroes. Residential
segregation is the main cause of institutional segregation in the
North. )(
Eighteen northern states have Civil Rights laws. These laws are
not always enforced, and there are ways of getting around them.
However, their very existence makes institutional segregation a
qualitatively different problem in the North from the legally en-
trenched segregation in the South.
In the northern states, even where there are Civil Rights laws
which provide that no person should be denied service, accommoda-
tion or the use of facilities because of race, creed, color or national
origin, devices have been used to keep Negroes from using facilities
without violating the letter of the law. The methods used are subtle.
For example:
A Negro couple went into a restaurant in New York and seated
thiemscles at a table. For a few moments they continued their
con'.er:r.jon. After a while they realized that persons who had

entered after their arrival were ser'cd. The\ remained calm even
when the waiter came to them twen-t\-ive minutes later. He
gave them a menu after they insisted upon h!n~, c oine. During
the same period the waiter was courteously and quickl'k serving
others at tables near-by while this couple 1\\1ad indetinitely.
Almost an hour after their order %\a_ taken the waiter brought
the food. They left the restaurant two hours aft,.r arrival
with the realization that the restaurant had made eser', effort to
make them walk out without being served.
A Negro girl found it necessary to stay osern;i:ht in Chicago
while en route to the West Coast. In the station she telephoned
a hotel in the Loop and was assured accommodating. \\'hen 'he
reached the hotel the clerk seemed quite shocked. He consulted
several persons and then returned t:, tell her there was no room
left in the hotel. She told her st.,.r, but the clerk held firm ire hi.
statement and said there must have been a mistake. She sar in a
seat quite near the desk and sa, twso white person, request and
receive rooms without previous reservations. Hers wjs the prob-
lem of finding a place where a Negro .\American could stay that
In a first-class restaurant which has a fountain service in New
York' City, two Negro college students stopped for a light lunch.
They were quickly served. Before they left the;r srats at the
fountain the attendant broke the dishes they h.id used before
their eyes. The students and other: at the fountain recognized
this as an insulting protest against serving them because they
were Negrdes.
Individuals and groups mold opinion:
Often we hear persons say, "Whji can I do" I'm IList one person1"
There is a great deal that one person can do to foster or to break
down segregation. We all know how the actions of: jn individuin
or group help or hinder progress; in breaking do,\ n barriers. For
A Negro youth leader was invited to speak at a white church
in a New Jersey town. She arrived carls and sat in a per. near the
rear of the church. A woman sitting in the pew uttered a few
words of protest, took her two children bv the hand and moved
to another section. Other members came and quickly turned from
their customary seats to new sections.

.\ YWCA cafeteria revised its policy and welcomed Negro
pIjr.,n'. .\t the ,outset there were white patrons who threatened to
i rhdraw iJ Negroes were served. Some individuals stopped at
the desk and complained to the clerk. The YWCA upheld its
pIlii. and p.itrons of all races now appreciate its service.
A Negro secretary-stenographer answered a call to work in
Washington. She had passed the Civil Service examination and
was both qualified and efficient. When she was assigned to a unit
for work she was abruptly rejected by a government official who
refused to work with a Negro secretary.
The manager of a restaurant in New York says that he instructs
his waiters to be particularly courteous to Negro patrons because
he feels responsible to counteract the discomfort they may often
feel from the stares or insults of individual white patrons.
It is astonishing to note the extent to which white patrons stare
and seem surprised at the presence of Negroes in public places,
even in the North.
What are the problems of minorities in institutions in your com-
munity? Is there a Civil Rights law in your state? What does it
cover? How can it be enforced? What can be done collectively to
secure a Civil Rights law in your state? How can Jim Crow laws be
Read and Discuss:
An American Dilemma,* Gunnar Myrdal, Volume I, Chapter 29.
Patterns of Negro Segregation, Charles S. Johnson, Chapter I.
"To Secure for Negroes Their Basic Civil Rights", Public Affairs
Bulletin No. 2, Series 7.
A Guide for Study and Action, a suggested draft for states' civil
rights laws.
The segregation of racial, religious and cultural minorities in
housing is a number one problem in American life today. The
housing of Negroes in any town is a complex of low income, neigh-
borhood restriction and housing shortage, with resultant overcrowd-
ing, congestion and blight. The following is a typical sampling
of comparison of the average income for Negro and white families
as shown in the Study of Consumer Purchases, Urban Series, 1935-
36, Vol. I, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
*For publishers and prices of all references mentioned in this pamphlet, see
"Reading List" on page 30.

Negro Families White Families
New York City $980 S1,93p
Chicago 726 1,687
Columbus, Ohio 831 1,622
In small towns in
Georgia, and the
Carolina's 330 (median income) 1,220 (median income)

It is a well-known fact that, whether in the North or South.
Negroes receive low wages and work at jobs that yield salaries fir
from commensurate with present-day living costs. Despite this fact,
Negroes are compelled to spend a larger proportion of their earn-
ing for housing than for food or all other necessities put together.
Because of residential restrictions Negroes do not hacve full access
to the housing market. Therefore they encounter disadt:,ntages re-
sulting from the element of monopoly involved. The majoritv of
housing available to Negroes has been described as phviscallv un-
safe or makeshift. A small amount of sound rental hou'in_ ha.
been made available to Negroes through public housing units and
some private developments such as the "Rosenwald .\p.rtments"
Chicago, "The Paseo", Kansas City, Missouri.
Negroes are forced to fill their homes with roomers in order tu
pay the exorbitant rents. The result is overcrowding Eien those
who attempt to purchase their own homes often face thit- same
necessity because of low incomes.
If Negroes wish to buy outside segregated areas they must combat
racial restrictive covenants. In essence, a restrictive cuxenant is an
agreement signed by home owners in a neighborhood ith the
understanding that no signer will ever sell his home to Negroes ur
other designated minorities. The constitutionality of cuioenajns is
not easily challenged in the courts because the coxenunts eu'l\e
around the property rights of the signees.
Residential segregation thus operates against Negroes of all in-
come groups and, in its ultimate effect, against the whole community.
Racial restrictive covenants are a community menace jnd serle
to undo property standards. They prevent what would otherwi se
be an orderly and normal expansion of people in need of more I\ in_
space. Dr. Robert C. Weaver suggests that occupancy stand.irdJ be
substituted for restrictive covenants when he says:
[ 10

"'I, in;cad of restriction; on account of race, creed and color,
there : ere atgrfeetenti binding property owners not to sell or
lerce e.tcept 'p o ;ingle families, barring excessive roomers and
uaternis e dealing i it/: ite type of occupancy, properties would
.' protected during both white and Negro occupancy . ."
-From statement by Robert C. Weaver quoted in
"Racial Problems in Housing",
National Urban League Bulletin No. 2
Mlan\ ind it difficult to agree with Dr. Weaver because they are
influenced by traditional racial stereotypes which make them un-
prepared to acknowledge either that Negroes are capable of observ-
ing occupancy standards, or that they can live normally side by side
,. ith -. hits.
The reports of the Federal Public Housing Agency demonstrate
the fact that, in the housing projects, Negro and white low-income
f.,milies ".ho had lived in the slums maintained their new homes
in crc'dtl ble manner.
Broth in northern and southern communities Negro and white
famnimlc Ilt.e amicably side by side. In Georgia, Alabama and other
,outhern rates, Negroes and white families can be found who have
lic'.cJ amicably side by side for generations.
The National Urban League reminds us that residential segrega-
tion ;s relatively new in American community life. It was scarcely
I:no\. n before 191o.
Segreg:r. .in in housing is expensive both in taxpayers' money and
in racial amity. It is detrimental to normal community development
.anJ uu, ill establishes a pattern which results in segregation in
other rin, (iuions and social services.

".It some point down the road, America is going
to accept the fact that healthy social growth de-
,I' ':ds.upon elimination of biracialism. What is im-
['jotant today is that those who plan housing for
toolorrow will read the signs of the future correctly
,.:,' not complicate the housing and other social
pi oblems for coming generations."
-"Racial Problems in Housing", page 16
National Urban League Bulletin No. 2


Housing presents a problem to every city in the country. No city
has adequate housing for its total population. Negroes h.ve even
a greater problem because segregation and discrimin..or\ practices
keep what housing there is inaccessible to them. We find the follow-
ing examples given in "Racial Problems in Housing":
"In Chicago-racial restrictive covenants and adverse ncighbor-
hood pacts cover 85 per cent of the city's property, obstructing
both rental and purchase of houses by Negroes.
"In Baltimore-Negroes, who are 20 per cent of the prpulitnn.
are crammed into 2 per cent of the residential areas.
"On the West Coast-In the Central and North Pacific Arejs
... there is noticeable hostility toward in-migrants ... pjrticulirlk
Negro. . There are reports of subtle efforts to lthhold neces-
sary community adjustments so that they will not he jatrictcd
to remain permanently.
"In the Buckeye Road section of Phoenix, Arizona, Ncgrresi.
Mexicans and Indians, many of whom were imported a' cotton
pickers, live in blocks of huts built from miscellaneous pieces of
wood and tin.
"In Los Angeles-the Little Tokyo District which, before the
war, housed 7,000 Japanese, now houses 30,000 Negroes.
"In the Nation's Capital-living conditions o; the masses of
Negroes were described as 'so deplorable that the\ constitute a
widely publicized national disgrace'."

Get the facts about housing in your community. What are the
causes of segregated areas? What must public and private housing
do to provide housing and improve housing standards? What can
you do to interpret the facts about housing for minorities and the
truth about Negroes as tenants?

The following quotation describes some of the records of Negroes
as tenants in public housing units:
"A 1942 Public Housing survey of 46,582 dwellings,. of an ct:c
Negro families occupied 20,426, revealed the rent-pav.ng record
between the two groups as similar and that the slight di fei ence
in record favored projects occupied by Negro :enar,;. Ftr': r.
that definitely the determinant was sound management.'
Corinne K. Robinson
Federal Public Housing Agenc; 1i4;

Read and Discuss:
"i'.ci.ll Problem' in Housing", National Urban League Bulletin
No. .
..-l': .1-ie,-can Dilemma, Gunnar Myrdal, Volume i, Chapter 16
'Pattei .,: o/ Ne,'?r.> Segregation, Charles S. Johnson, Chapter 8

"'Do .u '.ant \-,ur daughter to marry a Negro?" This is a ques-
tion th:n in nc-,. .ai relates to a man's quest for a job. It is the most
illo:ical and, at the same time, most effective one raised when the
demand for equal economic opportunity is presented. We must
thinly: trai.ght and see that the Negro's struggle for employment is
not social, but economic. Such illogical fears, work competition
.,ind pruopag.nda which tended to divide Negro and white workers,
se-rc-.tio.n laj s and economic conditions have led to the denial to
Negru.es ,:,f the most important right of all-the right to free work
oi,p 1t,-,I 1:.. r- .
he Ne.ro isthe st to be hired_ and-the first to be fired". Myrdal
p'.'ints out that the vicious circle of job restrictions, poverty and
all that ti.,llo,' s .. ith it tends to fix the tradition that Negroes should
be kept out of g .()d jobs and held down to unskilled, dirty, hot or
other.'. ise undesirable work. Residential segregation and segregation
jt place, s of \urk hinder whites from having a chance to get really
acqu-inted \.ith Negroes and recognize that Negroes are much
like themselves. The Negro-white work pattern has developed
rhriu-ch the \ears.
Segreajtion in employment means that Negroes are not given
equal pa\ for equal work. They usually receive low wages and
..ork at jobs that are either seasonal or temporary. Such jobs-usu-
jll\ custu.dial or sert ice tasks-yield salaries far from commensurate
\ith pre'cnt-day living costs.
Negr:ioe ha.'.e been kept in unskilled jobs. Their insecurity as
A ,rlers t-tcem. frrim the withholding of opportunities for training
and uplrr.iding. Since 1863 these two factors have been responsible
tor the lo'. economic status and kindred social disabilities of
"7 /he pF olc'i: of Negro workers have stemmed from the will
oi the majority group to obstruct their integration. Integration,
hower er. 'i tr. na,,tural process of progress and cannot ever
[ 13]

wholly be denied without serious bor.mcering on those whl-i,
would impede it." -"Employment Problem if the N'.-cro'
National Ur-.an Lea.,t E:lltn:: N.. i
The Myrdal study found, for example. th:a in M n-Imi, Flridj, it
has been impossible to use Negroes in .i:llcd oir scmisl:illd '.orlk
since there is a city ordinance forbidding their cmpli:.mrrienr t i s.i.:h
occupations outside the Negro section.
Laws on industrial segregation have been passed b\ N.rrh Car...-
lina, Texas and South Carolina. "The lecisljaure h.is .found ir de-
sirable to segregate the races in cotton textile fac,:Torie. This icr deinic.
the two races the use of the same means -.4 cntrjnce and c:.i it rth
same time, the same pay windows, stair\ a s. lavat:'rijc. r d:rinl.in..
utensils." (The Legal Status of the Neyro. Charlc-, S. NMinum,n
page 175)
"Employment Problems of the Negr,", N.uliunal L'{'.:n Lca..:.i
Bulletin No. I
"Fair Employment Practice", Public Afla,, B:illctin N(i. ., Scri!c,
How would a Permanent Fair Employment Practices Commission
with enforcement powers assure equal ,ork opportunity?

The American Federation of Labor has ninfLtC n mn,,mber LunI-,ii
which refuse membership to Negroes. It is to ie nted thli .ill rlt
all the Negro-excluding unions are either AFL .:,r indcp,.'ondc i aill-
road brotherhoods.
These unions exclude Negroes either 1 .;, c:nstrjiitiM:nal pr.0 1 !ln~in
or in their rituals. Eleven of these haxc rail imp.:rti.n.:c froi the
standpoint of barring Negroes from il.bs. Thcy .are: thc l-;oilr-
makers, the Machinists, the Commercial Tel::-.rapIhcrs. th R'llr.:iid
Telegraphers, the Railway Mail Club:, the Ra.il".j\ lul:. tlh
Freight Handlers, the Switchmen, the Firemen arid En.!incmc en, the
Trainmen, the Conductors and the Locom'.lt c Enylncicr.,
Five others exclude Negroes by tacit aurcerneni. the Elecit' iinii:
the Plumbers and Steamfitters, the Bridge aind Structui Jl 1r.n
Workers, the Granite Cutters and the Flint Glja, \W\'rkcrs.
Other craft unions segregate Negroc, b\ g;viriL: them u.ili.r',
status. Thus the Negro workers are organized as -cpar.atc unit,
C 14 ]

have the privilege of paying does, but have no say in the organiza-
tion, no voice in union affairs. The. do not have the right to bargain
collectively but submit their grievances to the officers of the "regu-
lar" (% hire) local who present their cases for them.
Many watched with disappointment the failure of the AFL con-
vention of November. '144, to adopt the nondiscriminatory resolu-
tions presented by the Negro minority leaders.
The CIO from its very beginning has followed the principle that
Ne-ro and white workers should be organized together. Many of
the new unions hjve made a courageous start in worker's educa-
tion and an important element if th;i education is to spread the
principle of universal labor solidarity and to combat racial prejudice.
The CIO has established a Committee to Abolish Racial Discrimina-
tion which operate s as n integral part of the CIO machinery.
W'hy do some AFL unions oppose legislation for a Permanent
FEPC with enforcement powers? Inquire from members of these
unions whom you knot. Discuss the problem in your groups.

In iuj'., the aserjec expenditure io:r every pupil throughout the
nation \x~; ,n ...i The expenditure fo:r white children in the South
'..is ~44 3.. lcs; than h.ilf the national average. The expenditure for
Negro children :s i-:.57. onl. one-quJrter that of every southern
\ white child and ab:,ur .:ne-cighth that of the average pupil in the
nation as a % hole Nor onlN are the funds appropriated by the state
for the education of Negrio children less than they are entitled to,
but the counts and local district boards often discriminate further
and divert to white schools a large proportion of those already in-
adequate funds.
Seventeen states and the District of Columbia have laws estab-
lishinc t1.o complete sets of schools-one for Negroes and one for
v.hiaes This dual systcrrm s costly as it calls for separate facilities,
teachers. pupil supplies, etc. The entire community must bear the
burden of the coi:st k which. in most cises. is far in excess of thar i\ which
I ne set :t schools would require.
The chief incqialiry in educjtihn in America lies in this system
of s.parjre schn,,il for the tmo raccs These are some of the ways
the inequilities oper.ite:
E "]1

The most spccr.iular e:.aimple i.f inequality in per-c.cpit.i c\pcndi-
ture for education is rhat of N Msissippi here the minney expended
for white children is About nine times ;s rreat as that e'pendcd fir
Negro children, although Negroes arc 4i) per cent of t'h.. piopua Iolin.
In the majoirnty if se;regat(d sch.-ools there is a dilercmnti l be-
tween the salaries pjid 0. white and Nearo, ic.ichers ;.h.. pertOrm
the same duties. During recent eaJrs the NAACP., .itin, upon re-
quests fr-min inlli. du.l te.chcr, \%ho \erc 'illing tr' minlke theirs
test cases, has t.ikcrn ith ine.qualir, betfre the court \ ith re.asonabhle
success. The result has ich.ri the. equlizjati.n Ct'f al.l ,s in 1:.rca.iIs
in thirteen st.ites.
A glaring e:.mlrple :,t the results of 1 dual e*ducajiin(n l s\.rm
was sho,. n .i te \cars .Jiu V'. hn the DAR denied M.rijn Ander-
son the us,. i~' Con'titutcion Hall in W\V:shingti.n. i).Ct., for a c(iicerr.
Her management .ppcaled to the Biard if Educatioin if the Di-
trict uf Columbi.ia ..r the use of the xhite hich schl-ol aud u'riumn
Because .,f the possibilit, J Neg'ri.. a]udicnce the B..jrd Interprreted
the law .nd du.al '.Wi tem ti m lean thict thie xhit. high sch.:ool Ludi-
torium could not be used by members of the Ne'.rri race and (lt.t
the Negri, high sch.i_.iil auditurIurm could not be used b, v,.hite
people. 1Deqpte protests, the licird held hrm to its decision. 1 he
Secretary if the Inrerir in ited MNarian Andcrs.ini to sini oIn a.rier
Sunday in the outdoor >.-n the steps of the Lincoln iMe Njria-l;
75,000 iprs(ons of jll r.ices came fromn .ll parts of the couunrry ito
hear her.
In sixteen states there is n .t a single instituLti[in where Negro
student may pursue _ridu.ite i.,r protessiinal woiirkl. Yet .iII thee
states provide sta.rc-supported universities offering graduate and
professional courses to, \hitc students.
[ 16 ]

Less Infinc\ is pcnrt per capitala for Negr.. children
than tfir htrce children;
Equipment in NL ro ,choiols is less jdciuate anJd
uLU.1dl' inri riiIr in quality t that in W\hite sch:cCOls;
The schi..Il term t'or Negri-' children is often shorter
thjn th.it f',r \'hitc children.

In the North. Negro students theoretically have the right to
attend the same schools. colleges and universities, and under the
same cunditiuin as whlte students. In practice, however, they suffer
Jiscrimin.ation ranging from petty annoyances to complete exclu-
sion. Some northern colleges accept only one or two Negroes each
ca.r. Mn\' profess-ional schools will not admit Negroes.
Dc pite prohibiting state laws, some states, such as California,
Pennsvlvania. Nc~ % crsey and Illinois, have excluded Negro stu-
dents frorm public schools in the southern sections of these states
.ind set up scparatt schools for their education. These segregated
school' .are us.uall. inferior to white schools in the community.

'TIhe rche'st resources of a nation are its people.
l'I- cannot ie i as a democratic nation half edu-
catl. and! hai/ ignorant any more than we could
t' i t h,/l sla 7; and half free."
The Black and White of Rejections
for Military Service, pages 46-47

Ho%, wouldd Federal Aid to Education help equalize educational
opportunity? Discuss the relation between educational opportunity
and higher rates of Army rejections due to less than fourth-grade
I 'e Bla/. atn.i II i...te of Rejections for Military Service, American
Te.ichers associationon Studies
Selecin c Sr,: ice Reports, Volume IV., No. 5, May 1944

The "sep.arat hubt equal" theory is carried over into segregation of
the races on pubic conveyances-trains, streetcars and buses.
The Jim Cro'.' lja, if the State of Kentucky is typical of such
la. s. It spcifies that all railroads must furnish separate coaches
or cars for Ni-gres and whites; that each compartment or coach
divided bh substantial '0ood partitions shall be deemed "separate";
thit each unit rmus bear the name of the race for which it is in-
tended: that there must be no discrimination in the quality or con-
[ 17

veniences of the accommodations and, should an) passenger refuse
to occupy the urut :t which he is assigned, the conductor may put
him off the train.
Most southern cities enforce segregation in streetcars and buses.
The practice is to seat Negroes at the rear of the car and whites at
the front. In theory, segregation in transportation means "separate
but equal". In practice, the Negro suffers. Negro accommodations
are usually inferior and insufficient. No matter hov.n many Negroes
ride and how few white persons, all the Negroes must be crowded
into the limited space set aside for them. The rear part of the bag-
gage car is frequently made the coach "for Negroes". Because it is
placed immediately behind the engine it gets most of the smoke
and cinders. The Jim Crow car serves as the Negro's smoker and
dining car. The news vendor and the conductor often occupy two
of the all too few seats for the arrangement of wares or for clerical
work. Although there may be plenty of seats in other coaches,
Negroes, even mothers with children, must stand when there are
no longer any seats available in the restricted quarters.
Witness the vivid contrast in the accommodations in waiting
rooms in stations. The Negro waiting room is usually inferior in
both facilities and sanitary service. A traveler in the South often
sees an elaborate restaurant on the "white side" and a m;serible
stand of hot foods on the "Negro side". Negroes must wait until all
requests on the "white side" have been met before the ticket .igent
gives attention to the "Negro side", in places where one ajenr
serves through a "two-faced" office.
Even the Negro who can afford it must have courage to travel
by Pullman through the South. There have been instances in which
educated, cultured and refined persons have been beaten or thr,:,. n
from the trains, or have suffered other indignities at the hands of
railroad officials who have taken the spirit of Jim Crow l.ia\s int.:
their own hands.

Negroes are excluded from general public parks in all sr,:hcrn
cities except Richmond, where they are restricted in the uLe of
facilities. In Nashville, there are several small Negro park; l:c.tedJ
near the large Negro communities. However, Negroes who are 2S
per cent of the population have only i per cent of the total p.irk arc.i.

In hbrJer states and in some northern cities, Negroes are re-
st'rited ,', specified swimming pools, sections of beaches, tennis
courts and other playground equipment usually situated in one
iccuon of the park, while play facilities for white people are in the
uppusite section.
What about playgrounds and other recreational facilities in your
community? Do Negroes and other minorities have representation
on the policy-making bodies which plan community facilities?
Negroes are generally segregated in theaters in the South where
there is usually a section reserved for them. The practice varies,
ho.vever, in many cities, particularly in border and northern states.
In Washington, D.C., for instance, Negro persons are not admitted
tu the white theaters at all. They are restricted to Negro theaters in
She Negro neighborhoods. An exception is sometimes made when the
Negro person shows by language or dress he is a foreigner. Many
northern cities operate theaters without any form of segregation.
In other cities, managers subtly segregate by selling tickets for
certain sections of the theater to Negroes only. After Negroes are
c.at-d they look about and realize that they have been grouped
There are many health and amusement resorts in northern areas
whichh restrict their patronage to white persons only.

The War Department has announced that, as of September 30,
iu-tq, there were 701,678 Negroes in the Army. Of this number,
.4 ,.68 are on overseas duty. The total number is distributed as

49,483 Infantry
36,302 Coast and Field Artillery
867 Cavalry
133,180 Engineers
73,686 Air Forces
408,160 Other Branches

5,804 Negroes hold commissions


Segregation in the armed forces h., reitcl aroused public concern.
The Army takes the position that, since ii did not create the race
problem, it cannot undertake to change the \ ie\\ o.f di-L citizens who
fill its ranks. With the exception of v.hite dcicer, who are serving
with Negro troops, segregation in the Army is total-that is,
Negroes are assigned, trained, drilled, housed. etc., in ,ep.irate units.
The exception is made in the policy o' of ficer trarninng whichh is
thoroughly interracial. Negro and white e officer canJidate train,
eat and live together with great success in all officers' training
schools, even in Fort Benning, Georgia.
Segregation in the armed forces has far-rcaching result,. Most
Negro troops are designated for ser' ice rather thin combat unlcs.
Promotion of Negro officers beyond the rank of lieutenant are
drastically restricted. There is only one training schooll for Negro
combat pilots-the segregated estabhliehmentt t Tuskegee, Alab.ama.
Equipment, standards, instructors ind stude-nt match anything
the Army has elsewhere. But at the r.te ot training and graduation
this school affords, opportunity is not provided for even a fair per-
centage of Negroes who wish to contribute to [his important arm
of the service, to do so.
Experience indicates that the Armi rc'prcts the existence of Jim
Crow and carefully sidetracks the solution of the problem of segre-
gation which has been transferred frim the Icle desirable, undemo-
cratic practices in civilian life to its o\ n organization.
Should aid and comfort be given our foes by the very pattern of
organization of our armed forces?
"Hitler has stated that he learned; .:oi to tI.-at racial min,:,ritite
from the way the United Sta:.'; t, ii; N groe' II'hd/c the
treatment of minorities under the Fttetlcrr g'.oe' fjar beior.l
anything to be found in this county to,!at, the fprtial t'-uth
on which he based his statement i; prc/L.lr'ne. ti: o:r- encnuri
when they see the segregated patt- in o;f ;:t Ar ,l' and Nat i.
The United States sends 'two airotr a Hac arit a,'; a1
white army, forward to fight in uni ,y Ir de.'niocraci !!
"To the brown- and yellotv-skinnt.! picole;. ... the Pacific an./
Far East, the segregated pattern .;1' our ,ir'i!c! orce.- procla.t:ui
us hypocritical and creates distrust. l i.i couni: r n It i;- !lijcltl
for even our Chinese Ally to be!:,c. :, c dr"' :n'l! ,'ith ithe '
on an equal basis when our whole racial polic ..ho ; atc hi.i-e
by no means relinquished the ol.! rilth of thii'e ;.'preipmacy
[ 20 ]

".In :ncidenrt that happened in the Punjab the first year of the
S,.7- ill/nitrates 1hoi confused some of our Allies are about our
r,'aC,./ attui:.tde The Mohammedan Governor of one of the
In.dian Pr',o:nc- invited the officers of the United Nations
irationl.e! there to an official garden party. Dutch, English and
.1irtcrian accepted the invitation. A short while before the
paFt the h:lte .-lrnerican officers sent word to the Governor
ithi, th:cl Iro~l.! not come if he received the American Negro
ol'ic.:.; The /a, k-.skinned Mohammedan Governor and his
people ne e i.::-ch confused. 'We thought America was a de-
imocr.iac- fightin_ /or democracy,' he said, 'but now we don't
t'no.t :i hatr to think.'"
-/ri Cion jo:n L'p, Ruth Danenhower Wilson, pages 118-119
Necro '" men ,.ere admitted into the WAC from its inception.
Their service ha, been developed on the same plan of segregation
whichh is characteristic of Negro troops in the Army. It was not
until October 1,.44, that the Navy revised its policy and accepted
Necri wvomcn. Nc'gro women have been integrated into the
.A\'VES on j bhis worthy of extension to all branches of the
3rmed forrces.
The .rmy his reversed its attitude toward Negro nurses and has
no.. intecrared them in all the service commands. Although Negro
nurses have not been called in as large numbers as many had hoped,
4-1'i were in Arms\ er' ice as of May i, 1945. Their assignments are
not limited to the South. Negro members of the U.S. Cadet Nurse
Corps ha\e been a-siened to military hospitals in Illinois, Massa-
chusrcrs and Ne'w Jersey. The Navy, likewise, has reversed its policy.
Todrai there are five Negro nurses integrated into the Navy.
Necro service men have suffered hardships because of the lack
of respect for the Army uniform outside the fort. Many of them
spend their leisure hours at the fort because of threats to their
lives hb residcnrt in near-by towns. Segregation in transportation
often nrm.yes it nipossble for them to get to town as white service
men jre admitted first, and if they fill the bus the Negro soldier
must "ait, often for hours, until he can get a place on the bus.
Incidents s hi.h jre rooted in racial prejudice occur, and all these
!ifect not onl.N the morrale of men in uniform but of their families
and friend, on the orme front. As results of incidents at Fort Bragg
rnd in Wilrninct,-On, North Carolina, Undersecretary of War Pat-
terson pointed our in .in NBC broadcast on August 13, 1941:

"There is nothing exclusive about the war that is ilan.'i-:' oni
three continents. Let me remind you that an aierial bomnib ,i;'ra11
no color line."
How would the abolition of segregation in our armed forces square
with our national professions of "liberty and justice for all"?
Jim Crow Joins Up, Ruth Danenhower Wilson
"What the Negro Soldier Thinks", Grant Rc no:ldc. Th, Cri;,;,
December 1944
"The Negro's War", Fortune Magazine, June I-,.",
A Rising Wind, Walter White

Segregation in the armed forces has set the paticrn v. ihilh is tol-
lowed by the American Red Cross in the adminitriii.n ot [he
Blood Bank. At the beginning of the war the Red Cross \,'ould
not accept blood donations from Negroes at all. Pr,'cics :f Ameri-
cans of all races brought forth the official reply ot the R':l t.r,:ss
which stated shift in policy to accepting but scircgaii1ng the blood
of Negroes when it said, in January 1942, "The bli.kl \\ill bc pre-
served separately so that those receiving transflsi.on, rnmi, be '.jlcn
plasma from the blood of their own race." This policy was re-
affirmed by the Director of the American Red Cross in February
Thus, the Army and Navy insist that the Red Cross segregate
the blood of Negroes despite the fact that there is no scientific basis
for such segregation.
Is there a difference in the blood of Negro and white people?
Medical science answers:
"Numerous chemical and seriological investigations lia,'c
yielded no evidence that the blood of one race can be di.'.'n-
guished from that of another. . The transfusion of Negro
blood into white persons and that of white persons into XC.., '.o.
has been repeatedly performed in civil practice witho:at .,: '
evidence of harm or aversion on the part of the recipient .
The segregation of the blood of white persons from the [lrco..
of Negroes in the blood bank is not only unscientific !ni '.. a.
grievous alfront to the largest minority in our country. .
-Journal of the American Medical Association, Jul. 4i. ,

Do you protest the segregation of the blood of Negroes as you
give your blood?

The general pattern of segregation in hospitals requires the isola-
nion of Negro patients from contact with white patients. Many hos-
pitals do not accept or administer to Negro patients. Negroes
seriou5l\ injured in automobile accidents, while passing through
smjll southern towns, have often been refused even emergency
treatment -it hospitals. One of the most tragic examples is that of
Julitte Derricotte, internationally known educator, social leader
and former national YWCA student secretary who died as a result
of refusal of medical care by a white hospital after injuries in an
Lccidenr in Dilton, Georgia.
In both urban centers and rural areas, segregation results in
neglect Of the health of Negro citizens. In rural sections, particu-
larlI in the South, there are towns and even whole counties with-
out Jny facilities for medical care for Negroes.
MNan hospirtls will not permit Negro doctors to treat their pa-
tients there. There are some northern cities which give Negro
doctors -i chance to follow up their Negro cases in hospitals.
Make a list of the facilities which your committee deems a mini-
mum for the health protection and cultural development of people
in a community. Are all these available to Negroes? Do they dis-
criminate against Negroes?
Facts like these reflect the problem of health facilities for Negroes.
in the United States as of 1940:

i hospital for each 107,000
i hospital bed for each i,ooo
I bed asallable to each
ph sician
In Ali.'aippi-r.s hospital beds
'-ir I.oio0,oon. or I for each

In Terca-less than 200 beds
for Sqoooo, oir i for every
4,2 1X'

i hospital for each 19,ooo
i hospital bed for each iio
7 beds available to each
In Mississippi-8,ooo for slight-
ly less than i,ooo,ooo, or i for
each 125
In Texas-28,ooo beds for 4,-
000,000, or I for each 140'


In the South, approximately I. (,o Negroes die from tuberculosis
each year, and there are only 2,000 bils availjblc for their c.ar:.
In 1939, in the rural South, less than i per cent of N.:ero babies
were delivered in hospitals and about So per cent tdeli'Lrcl b% mid-
wives alone.

"Very rigid segregation exists in., taltmg care of the i/ea d:; thiie
are parallel funeral establishments and: ceetecrices it all fi,, t
of the South. In one state the health l de po~hibdi.i Vegrio
morticians from handling white bodiess"
". . There are occasional exceptions to this general t'ia e and
some white undertakers take ,\'C'igo 'lliinlh C;. SoCtn sm.iill ti-
tablishments actually seek it. E\teptiorts icare s,'Ietwl:es i'.aJ/c
for prominent Negroes."
"It was once customary for Neg,'oe; attachiied to ., haic frailic;
to be buried in the same cemeterlies. it1 in ;:oi: instuI.ce
Negro bodies have been remotted. i ears .i/ater:a;i',i'. to eg',eo
-Patterns of Negro Segregation. Charlc S. Johnio-n, p.~: c -7
Even in the North cemeteries are usually segregated.

That the slave was inferior as a human being, ._, a principle
inherent in the institution of slavery. He was jl!i\c.-l Msnie in-
dulgences but could claim nothing as a right 1:, prirle.ie His
paternalistic master determined all phases of his Ift'
In a slave society a rather complete separation oL the N..ru group
was enforced as a matter of routine. Slaves were cl.-el, regnimntedl
in the interest of exploiting their labor and hindering th.-ir sc.'.ip.
As the Underground Railroad and the Abolitionist iAvemrnent nrr_,-w
stronger, the regimentation became increasingly strict. This regi-
mentation almost entirely prevented social cont.,cvs beliteen the
slaves and the whites who had no slaves. The slave's un large plan-
tations were in contact with only their overseer and ,umetnmes th,
master of his family. Even the free Negroes in the South werre
forced into social isolation.
In a slave society, white people did not and could nyut accept the
[ 24]

slaves as their social equals. The slaves had their own religious
acmtiitie, separate i\ing quarters, amusements and recreation.
When they 'ere allowed to attend a religious service in the pres-
ence of ..hite people, they had a segregated place in the church.
It % as fUrblJden by la v to teach the slaves to read. Their travel
%js closely restricted. These were some of the ways in which the
patterns of secregation crew in a slave society.
Since these early beginnings segregation has become a national
rather than a sectional problem. Whatever emphasis has been placed
upon the South in this pamphlet, is based upon the valid recog-
nition th.,t segregation is most prevalent in that section where the
ljarce't number of Negroes yet live.
The Emancipation Proclamation dealt the final blow to slavery as an
institution. In addition to the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth
Amnendmener t the Constitution, Congress passed the Civil Rights
Bill of IS7 v. which explicitly declared that all persons within the
country "ere entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of accom-
modiLions, ads antages. facilities, privileges of inns, public convey-
ances on land and after, theaters and other places of public amuse-
ment; siubijct .nlv to the condition and limitations established by
la.. :,nd .ipplical-le to citizens of every race and color regardless
ot pre'.iou: condrion 1of servitude. The bitterness which remained
after the 'war made the South hostile to the Congress for attempting
in Reconstruction to eliminate social discrimination from public
life. Keep the Negro in his place" soon became a regional slogan
and the doctrine of "white supremacy" was spread.
In SS'.., the Supreme Court declared the Civil Rights Law of
iS-5 unconstitutional because it prohibited social discrimination by
indl iduals. This opened the way for Jim Crow legislation which
the southern states and municipalities rapidly passed. The real
purpose of these laws as to reduce and eliminate, if possible, con-
tacts bet'r .en % hitc and colored persons in the South. They held to
the spirit 'nd pattern of the slave society which the Civil War and
Ema.ncipation destroyed.
Although the Ciil Rights Law of 1875 was declared unconsti-
tutimnal the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments
to the Con'titution. adopted during Reconstruction, could not be
erased from the supreme law of the land. These amendments gave
the Ne.-ro his ba:lc cisil rights, declared him a citizen entitled to
enjoy full citizenship in the United States, assured him "equal

benefit of all laxvs" and provided that "no state shall make or en-
force any law which shall abridge the pnvilcgcs and immunities of
citizens of the United Stares".
"Again the som,.,'er 1 iI hae man i in the moral diler,:im'n of
having to frane h:. Las'.i in terms o! equality and to Jejend
then before t.he Supreme Courtl-nd before hii on r ;tier
conscience, which ii nted :o the .imerican creed- t hie / i:oI-
ing all the time tha' in reality hi; lan ; do not g,:'e eq,,d/,v\ to
Negroes, and h/at he does no: want them to do so. .... .Pote *-
tially the Negro i u;rong. He has, in hii demands upoi. n /i:te
Americans, the fndamental lait o:f he land on /,is :de He
has even the be.'ter coInIseiences o, i:ni 1t Iae coitpal:ro :,iic',w-
selves. He known s i and the white e .-inetican Jnot's a. :oo."
-.-n .,ler:'can Dle,n.ima. Guiannar NM\rdJl,
Volume I. pages 5'.1-*5[

What attitude towtaid Negroes is reflected in the saying. "The
South is yet fighting the Civil War"? What are the causes of the
spread of segregation to all parts of the country? What possibili-
ties for changing Jim Crow laws do you see through the history) of
the development of these present laws? What can you do to inter-
pret them?
"This war is a fight between a slave world and a free world.
Just as the United States in 1862 could not remain half slave
and half free, so in 1942 the world must make itf decisions for
a complete victory one way or the other."
-HenrN A. \\jIlrce
Patterns of Negro Segregation, Charles S. Johnson
The Legal Status of the Negro, Charles S. Mangum
An American Dilemma, Gunnar Myrdal, Volume I. Ch.,ip.ers
28, 29
Study the efforts of church leaders to abolish segregation in
To End This Day of Strife
Negro Churchmen Speak to White Churchmen
Your Community and Its Unity
Issued by the Federal Council of Churches

The MlrJ.il stud\ clearly revealed that segregation and dis-
cruilirI.tn..n hi\e h.iJ material and moral effects on white people,
too In [Loth the South and the North, observers have corroborated
BLoo:er Tl. \\'j:hinton's remark that the white man could not hold
the Nc'ro in the cutter without getting in there himself.
in It 'i,;,cte'r jori i/very may be perpetuated, just so far will
,it p .ctka"'t oln ite minds of southern whites. If we treat the
\'eo 'ny:l ':s!'y. ie ,hall practice fraud and injustice to each
oinr il'e .;hall necscarily live by the standards of conduct we
.rply, to /i, This is the eternal curse of wrong and injustice,
.a ci,,c iu ri ab.des jon the ruler as well as the slaves. The South
:i'/ll be f/ee uo,:l as a grants freedom."
-Chancellor Kirkland
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee
"T1 he Effecti of Sicial Inequality", Chapter 30, in An American
D:il,'l/ma. Gunner Myrdal
Ti/.e B/ac and Iirte of Rejections for Military Service, American
Teacher' .*\s:'ciation Study

The Mvyrdal studi revealed the fact that when Negro and white
people ire kept apart, the wish for separation is as pronounced
amrnng Negr:oes as among white people. The fear of the new and
the ricggle icaint custom are equally difficult for all peoples, re-
gardl'.s of race, and are often used as a justification for segregation.
\\' riu'st lrk deeply ind see that even when Negroes congregate
thcmseles it is a position forced upon them by the attitude of the
white .roup. It is essentially an escape mechanism. To Negroes,
the intnm.lte racial life and opportunities for developing a group
Icjlershlp or to achicie a group culture are subordinate goals to
the .chirnemcnt of respect and equality of opportunity as persons
assuming full responsibility in the economic, social and political
life ot the nation. Inequalities, injustices, indignities forced upon
percuon because of race, creed, color, do not breed "happiness".
.n e\ample of the difference in lines of thought on segregation is
[27 ]

reflected in the reaction of the Governor of Alabaimi ind a g group
of 250 Negro ministers in Alabama, in Augu.iu 1~4, alter the \\ar
Department announced its order banning Cegrcaton in the use ij
certain facilities on Army Posts:
The Governor of Alabama wired the President:
"I protest such an order w/:ic'i.: ol.,;, ',a :a7:c-.:L',,Je pir.'-
tice and belief and aggravated; rilhr ti.an: i:'elp . .
breaks down an essential princif. c o: i rI.c retlaiitoi.'hip'
in the South and grievously i/:antr:caps tiLho'c of :;' i'ri ,ic-
trying to bring about a better rel.tli:u Ci,,p lt., ei: it, ,!,i .
races and an improvement o/ to!, on r, t:l !.ir.
The Birmingham Baptist Minirtcrs C:onference rtool this stand:
"i. We, the Negroes of A!,,i'a,;a. i',,a-e b'een lan -a ,i.ii;,'
citizens, having done ow, p'.a !o'r a,; rr: t .-c ane ;,:. ,
soldiers, as far as we i.*' !'ceen //..all.i: c:. If', realize
that segregation takes aamit /Ij.,i' ti'e 'elr. ,U; con-.
stitutional rights;
"2. Because of segregation. :h/e V 'I /o n,I I c'c,' ~ 'cpi .
of the best institutions a,;' !ecic.-'i., ;,-/,j.!;, lt'ie eli
impairing his preparation' / ,'. t1, ,h i a t',d 4...cc'e; I,
the country;
"3. As Negroes we believe in our democratic form of
government, and we believe that true democracy
should work throughout America for all people, and,
therefore, we emphatically deny the statement made
by anybody, anywhere, at any time, that we aru e .rat, -
fled with the evils of segregation."
-The Southern Frontier, September i j
Why is it that Negro individuals in the South do not speak out
on this question?
What the Negro Wants, edited by Rayford Logan
"Separate but equal" has seemed to many people to ine.in that
discrimination no longer exists. If the majority group i. erc re:ill
interested in equal accommodations and the elimiinition of dis-
crimination against Negroes, would not the reasons for se:rega-
tion collapse?
Charles S. Johnson points out that unless sere2.1.ion iC com-

llicly rnurual .ind \..luntary it results in discrimination and that
there can be no grriup segregation without discrimination, and
discrimnauion i nether democratic nor Christian." (From Chap-
ter V'. "Rctruspeci ani Prospect" in Patterns of Negro Segregation)
iNO I' i., not only i/:- opportune time to liquidate the last
i' el.gl. of ti,,; .uit;cl in. America, but twe must proceed to do
!.o i thie ci/.'cal tfnao,.c already developing are not to explode,
I It/I Ji. .Il)o.'; conc',eq:iences, either in the immediate future or
,!:' ;'i, g I '-i c ro.-t',; ,ri; io ,."
PR j:4c, Uni'c, tme Skin, Carey McWilliams, page 299
What groups in your community are working on this problem?
Ho, can \ouL cooperate?
\\ hat are the next steps which your committee must take?

Read Further:
"'Oc linc L[or Aiti:n", Ch.pter IX, in Brothers Under the Skin,
C.arc\ MNlc\\ilhamrn
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Ba/c;'in No. I (Nasron3l Lrban L.iLc.uI. 1133 Broadwv. New
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