• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Members of committee
 Table of Contents
 General background
 Trends in the education of...
 Present status of education for...
 Guiding principles
 Present needs in the education...
 Proposed next steps
 Back Cover






Group Title: Improving education in the southern states
Title: Improving education in the southern states:
CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098498/00001
 Material Information
Title: Improving education in the southern states: Report of the Committee on Negro education
Physical Description: vi, 68 p. : tables, ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Southern States Work-Conference on School Administrative Problems, 1941 ( Conference )
Morphet, Edgar Leroy, 1895-
Publisher: Southern States Work-Conference on School Administrative Problems
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: c1941
 Subjects
Subject: Education -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
African Americans -- Education   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Bulletin no. 6, 1941 series.
General Note: Edgar L. Morphet, executive secretary.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098498
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27033824

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Foreword
        Page iii
    Members of committee
        Page iv
        Page v
    Table of Contents
        Page vi
    General background
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Trends in the education of Negroes
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Present status of education for Negroes
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Guiding principles
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Present needs in the education of Negroes
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Proposed next steps
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Back Cover
        Page 69
        Page 70
Full Text
1m j I
EDUCAION ULLETN NO
M T H E (

#19 STTES1 94|




ST-,kEI# M-COFERECE O

L t"1RAIE RSLM
S HAV













SOUTHERN STATES WORK-CONFEREN
SCHOOL ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLI

Sponsored by

State Departments of Education
and

State Education Associations
of the
Southern States


Participating
States
ALABA MA
ARKANSAS
FLORIDA
GEORGIA
KENTUCKY
LOUISIANA
MISSISSIPPI
NORTH CAROLINA
OKLAHOMA
SOUTH CAROLINA
TENNESSEE
TEXAS
VIRGINIA
WEST VIRGINIA

'Succeeded by Dabney


Chief State
School Officer
A. II. Collins
Ralph B. Jones
Colin English
M. D. Collins
John W. Brooker
John E. Coxe
J. S. Vandiver
Clyde A. Erwin
A L. Cable
James H. Hope
R. O. Duggan
L. A. Wood-
*Sidne:- B. Hall
W. W. Treut

S. Lancaster


Southern States Work-Conference


1941 Bulletins:








b940 Btletin :


No. 1. State and Local Fina.eing of the PBtblc S-9
No. 2. School Transportation
No. 3. School Supply Miianement
No. 4. School Standards
No. 5. Administration of State Curriculum Proiraa
No. 6. Negro Education


Pupil Transportation for the Southern Stiias,,.,IJ
School Plant Operation and Maintenance fi Ji'th
States
Continuity of Service [or Teachers in Saputin. .


Secretary,N
Education ji


LE I


';irlllllllll~ --


- -- ------ --























Report of the Committee on
NEGRO EDUCATION
Ed McCuistion, Chairman











SOUTHERN STATES WORK-CONFERENCE ON
SCHOOL ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS



EDGAR L. MORPHET. Executive Scceirarf
Tallahassee. Florida


dF .Y


IMPr OV ING E ICATI N BULLETIN NO.
SON THE ST

SOUTHIEIIN STATES 194




























CoI-jYyri Ih t 1.41
SOiiTi HER:-: STATES W'O RK-.CON:FERENCE ON
SCHOOL ADMINISTR.ATiVE PROBI.EIMS
.1lIt, r ii ,l i tfiu l t'i-, lii! lt ?b ci r ptpr,erl irl
Intliuj t pi 'rtlif :,ii t in onl by ttlhe ,f''juPi r''.







*1





II









F C11 E WOI\It D


Si-nc tliu e \\'ar r;-ct\Veein tli!e Statei's ,nlld ]partil: a'l rly < ini::e th- elie
Ike thr' C INIl.llr-.C."lll l'eet ltl 11tl,: h I I 1 a, I II, lh, a o r -llI1h Is h ll ,llI S-
of tit 1.d st'inrllzl ilagr rci:ialsti ultit i |l pci jail|, ill,; Sun'tll ialS ieelii %traig-
g'll r \ ialii:intly itli the irlo llin 1.11 [ I',:t'lildllnr, 111 th li* 1fn. ',- Of lit111'1
e tillOii n i ." l relliua. ce'1. e i ti l, tc]:i, a n.:.lll te c lli,.itIatll. I' A l il t lir Ie o ito ;
cit zens n bioth tlie '.hlitei. ndl Ne=roi l r lC '. '. Iti 'ilte 'i f tli. l -t
flint ita gs in ] t'r .ii f IlIItti-I w'.'. s 't blis r l li ll f'. i i. li:. n c'(t v lIite
chiiilen ipri(Ir' tI lhe ,.,it, ht e pirnblm-i of providing sci :'l i l;i-
lits. e'| i:nil eril tIat'li, l i- llit lel iIn the avi:.ra-e tlate in the Nat on
la's noL t be *e,. sati-fitoriy v i: lveil e:::i t iin S. ip" th. [li e r'.e
favored cortimnlu11 in- Tle Piie iili ,l'tii r il (liat ,niutii Al Ne't i:s hi.as
prinescitll far pfrcntel ditifu itic. ','ha.ll i:' it wia lis ii'*:' '.iiy II slairt
froinl the 1 _eginnl i ''n n li l .1n eidtitr -l, I new iiV t ti'-l '. hiel ill-
vil]\ed i .1iivn ,i '.litioniIl *:t, Is. To ;i.? t ial t1 l iiiiit'lei ; l..i_', thfre
l -L l.een 11i,, dlircet Ih(:li fr,.,i t le F1 'll*eral -,i,',itrrjieni i ,ir fri:im nny
L Iout Qili t ,110'0? eXCl|t fi ro l i I e'ti?a 1 l'. iu n.l '.'i .i l i ls. it' liae a l -ila ,l ,:i t -
e. 0tiioli. till lt l i.lln II. l .P t'?r I t thlll ittll tjll, 111.1'l:e.-, lthloung'i
S fa'r ft'r sati factury, prigres hl.is .eer ni.Lm,.ae.

STlis re.'p rt is intinldeil to bring iiti-i .arer fi.ltiNs 5triei? if tihe
i signiti.int trenis ;n.l an .d'-elptne t, in the fie' l d t' eil ,a ii.. n t'f r
Nertoes; t. l dlirett nttrnl t onll l :i ft?'.'' i. the mirn .ior p[rtII lemI s I which
till reiMnai t I b vee "i t i y.n e : w ir.1 no i riia- of' ovii r-
ra('irnink prevent diFt'iultites antil .l: .eI:'loping ia:,re raleti.ate ichu li
S facilities

iThe 'ri ne atiin't l ler:lders if thle Si uth 'treco:n1!i tlhe t'la t that InIueII
jiro.r_'l ss remains to be made and tl:tit anlirl y -iirnilileN priai' iii. s Ca'i?
still iinsBtil.ed. Thlly alMs I:i.tw lt, at iiianiy ut' lit e i-ruil.l:l i< oiine
1 lat el. frIormn eio- iiii lt 1 a o.ii' 1 iftterentials wthili :ire .1*z ali as
Southiernii hi-tory ai.1 l tlt real ci.liitioni- iniust be iolve..l Iv the
emn tire Ipe'ple in lighlt of the tIutil itu ti,,i-

This tai;:en and p lublil-chrl iy tile .S: utlt l;lrn t.':it \\'oril:-C.i il'e'elii'r.e Ln
':llhn'l A.\l(in li'r :i Si-tl lc'? of lthe 1 17 a;uriniL,, S'r"iuth.i-v.i.1 plirtit:i iilalo a ali it] i ai iii!tu pisille tLit. lnep-
'. a Ut i all .id p il.ii.toi ot tih -:.? t r',' ort :.

Ed MlC'iL.iition. (Chairun
('Cinmritt-e on 'Ne-'it EtLliin'-tiin
Eildar L iMrpier. F.r' c'rli.' S. rctarI
Sontlern SlUtt- W,. I.: .,nt'.reice ,n
S,'h:'l .\D i ii ;trativ\e Pr,-,bl,- i


iI


1551U
















,l ,satL *Jarts=*l u, a1| I,,L 1 I Zr l.l.l .IUtLa t l'J .
.1 rkalin'.i Stlt ate':- arrilent Oif Idl l'iti.n, (lIl'unirminB

Al (u n.la
E. IU. MCi;eihee. ni)( rvi.rir of N4ero EIduletion, ltate DeCiartinmet of
Ei:.e tiuil, Niinut.. 'liiery. Vrte Clh iirmii





Flor ida
E 3lc um iti..:. i 'l: nn i r. i t i t "Iii


'au J. 4. '.nr.iy, Jr. Siupervi).r of Ne'Izr' School~. Dade County. Miami
Fi'anl: DI MNil:, A.\s si.tat. Direet..r of lu tri nticion, lIillsborough
Country, 'I';inI.
D. EI. Villimzi.i, Stanite A:en1t for Ne.:ro EdullE..ion, Stane Dep.irtment
:of Eolucatioun. Tallnha.ssoe

Georgy i
3. L ,.riii, I S i l :l r rf Nei > l|, t i..:lu. 't. S tet l4l ,;l rtlt t of
Educ.li ti \t]: r --i ii.i. rr-rii e|
*I I. L. 1LiI1i'sey, Sci.Tretl1y, ;Geor-ia EI lu:ation As-'oiC intion, Walton
Buildiut i A l tl itil

Kentucky
W\. P Kil-:, E,: l2tith- Secretary. KF.blu.ky Educntion Association, i
1422-L. '- Il] y .ur nij llihng, Lo, i. llt .








Louiiiana
J. EE. Willitins. Stnle Sul,"prvirr of N'ero Educa:lion. State Depart-m
luicut of Edn',till. Dai ,.i lile_- .






iNortui Car.linu
*N C.' N i nul l, \iiii...., iiviin -,.[ Nt-r., Edimation. Stute Depart-
III.- t of. E'lu ..tirin ii. I; l: lii1, I'K .a.ii w ..an.

(Al.Iubioma
*E. A. ruy'i St.ate A*:en f.er Nor- S.: t,-,..ls. S late Department ioflll
Ei,, .iLit'iIo. Okltilaa.., Ci7ityi l



*Sen'd alM o As n.l.rnIll.rrt il In.: fIannlng nr d I:i.llnrg Commlttee.

ir












0, ~ ~ ~ ~ gn fo .ttt itU 9 Art Negr o ScoosStte Depuartmet of
Education, Columbia
Angus Fordliam, County Sulferi nten dent, Beaufort C county, Benufort,
0. D. Kelley, Jr., Comity Superintendent, Darlington County, Darlington
IV. B. Wilkerson, County Superintendent, York County, York

Tennesscc
W R. Turner. Director, Division of -Ne-ro Edue-ation. StAtp Depart-
muent of Education. X:tshvillp



Goron Worley, Lirvcor of Negro Educeition, State Dfpartment of
Public Instruction. Austi



Fend Al, Alexonder. 81upervisor of Secondary Edwcation. State Depart-
11101nn. 4if mand--1curt-min


Consultants

Fred MIc nistion, General Edueation Board, 49 West 49th Street,
New York, N. Y.
Howanrd A. Dawtson, Naitioiml Education Association, 1201 Sixteurith
Street, N. W .. Wash il gon, 1). C.














CONTENTS
Ch i7i t cr Page
1 .\ ... .. .. . .... .. ............................... 1
'l i i" Iis 1) 111 1i 1.- r;.. .'* -. ] n 11 I ,i ..1 .. ... . .. ... .......... ..... .... 1
r L . .. .... ... . ... ...
lJ- i, ll. 1 1. o1f 1. 1 1' ll l llll LJ[l]l l, l L .\ .. ?h i s .. ............ .... ............... ...

L T .r.n I. i: u T ol i Iie ii c l I. i ................................................

S l I .. .liti... .. l i i . i... .. . ...... .. ... ... ...... .. ... ..... .... 7
SIi, ,l I ll. i li lt \ i i.......... .nI.'. l t.r. ... ... ..... ....... .. .. ............ 17
1 .. 1 1l l i f .... .r .. ... ............ . ........ .. ... . ........ .................. 1
1 1 '. -1 i1 1 I f .. .. .. .. . ............. .. .. .................... 1 5
l. i|.l h i l ,l h .. ... .. .......... ........... . ............................ ........ .... 1.

Si, i.l I i ilit l .. . ... .... . ..... ........ .. .. .... .. 1....
I' n X . .............. . ..... . ..... ........ .... . ......... ... .... ...... IIL

i. . ..... . . ....... .. ... ..... .. ..... .. ..... ..... 1
I 'i .: l s I 1 .t I l i I i, t it, I S i'ir. N F' 1t .i., .. ...... ........... 17
1.i..l .I .ri ,. .... .... ... .. .. ... ..... ............. ........... 1
I.' .ll .ll. -. li.l[ l ,l I t i,,l l. j: Il l. ,l lh tl t...r. ..'.. . I... ll. ........................ ....... ] 1)
"'L II "'' l. Iwlt II .1 S h , .111, 'J '1 lh l Illh., ....... .. .... .. ......
I'l l .ll .... ............... .... .. .. ......... .............................. "
L'il II [I is 1 L,, l 1 ..... .. ... .. ... ............. ... .... ....... '
h,,,,el f al. h lhI -'- 1 111... ... .. ....... ..... ... ......................
.1, IIlI .L .............. .......... ... ... ... ..... .. .. .... ......... 2I


1 .I I ,. I h ..................................... .................... . ... ... ..... L"
Cl.;. ,.l.l 1'l Il,. lll r.' .... ............ ............ ........... ........ ............. ;
U I? h, 1 ILi ..... .. .... .. ........... 37

V IP . T .N I I I t l A. 1 r 1- -F N i",-[,,n ................................ 41
III, ,,l i'.I .+ 1.',II- ........ ......... ......... .............. ........................ 1
L. lr lliiiln_ : n I I 'll i' lt 'I' I- ...... ... .. ... ........ ...................


V I .,H' ll I i T 1 r I' ........... N .. ..................... .. ... ......................
4' 1lllnlIt l i. ..ll l :11111 t %.I I.. it.,i .1' '. .. ... .... .. .. .. .......
.Ill I I I1, rk .1 1 I I ll .: o f............
1 1. I iI All I .1T .. I. I I l j l .. ..f 1. . ....................

II i .1 Ini i" 11.- r F.\ il H it ,h .11, i l . .. .. .l .. ......... .... ..
I '-r .Ilil l-I 1 i M l'l. l t. l ? i I l .. I... . .. ... . . .. ..
Ill ll i : i i i.il S ii it Ill lit. I 1 1 11 i I .* .L lr I ll l..i i ,. i i .......
I' ,,l n i \'l, .,1l i l .'l l 11 1. 1. .'. ll i,. l tl .. .. . ......... . .. ..........

vl


p


GO I




II




I
li













C'HAPTEI I

GENERAL A.\CKGRO)LND

An 1ll i't q al ite 1lli lrrsrnl lll ; O o lhe *' e 1. 1110-i1ioi i.l .st '. Is and proh-
lellis (t iN'lrocA' lii t.e Aotlit rieqiri s not uiily: i laniwvdli e ai-d
a kl~l :1. i .'ti otf the hl(ro .v li .l tr;.i.I tions of t1 lr, v11111i, li t l.-:r,
l i uiilcr> ll-t iili, f t of the m "Ii e i.o,,n iic l ri Plititnl eunclditiotis
-which iii ; |r,',e\1 ,ihc ill i:':,d thlir D lW th i? St:vt.',S.

11 18GI thel South li l ,llirl.y ont-llthlir-i uf Ll:.- total pop1iintioni
of ti IIlr il I i t illt lI .S_ tlill Olie hloti l o.t'f ilie i,,t.il \tliie
]l'ipull;itliii It pio.muict ilOl e tli'i Oil:. liialt' if tle i.r-'riui ltii rl
w (',i' l r i lit t ulliltly ihh.l III i v.s'r ni l'l t fi tI-.' tlA.t '$1. 1a,1)Ill ii)n,
ihi ie.;i'li .-J.tI'Jl tj or(t lit.: h.i-i li .7I. lhili s of r, ilt i idiiJ, imrle thaniu
tile N ei ]aini l.il d .i l i li, l l li ti, '.- ol iiil .1 \\ li t i : irt,'. it?(l
Ull iiv, ..tl llle nt Of Illor,' thllil .S 'II,( .LiI. ll .I. i l11141 i li ti Ir?11'l.V <,ne-l l:ll f
tlhe ;i..C.. ,-l prl[.litl ty 'nlll v l tiici i (:I til,. ,.itill',,' IOxi.'lllI lig tIhe
vallii.tln of l.iv.,. T l'h? Si.ltli'?rin i:ir..: c';IIh- O'r f tlie var
v.-lth l i l',is uof ai lia'r' pnrt of tile wilte inldie p01j'li.;tii- ,ii 11 01 .M
i.111nit ,,oir r l't lo.i s ot theirii n :,'ult i ll ]t i .il n l I i.'t ries ,
ptilllie Ih iI ilil g,- 1r.11I .cI-, .. lihi_. .-vs, lI, rl 'lIt' 1 i llliple'lr'li- tsl lt( e
,aid seii c t' I'rop-rti its diestroy.' l lin \.v riiiniC.l : i .i l .'t
.nll' CIIJ llll l'r.'* \\e'l'e 'O'ii'?; (Iiil tIL' lil, r ;i i1 i i t'Oielli 'll i' ,., .T ri
1'lrr' dell]]i.l[ l,'hi-. T he m, lide -.+ i .v nstuItet, ,el ,ir:Ili.iz il IL-u l
Ionli .oltII w\ilih plro tl.ll'ns that Ie'elil iiijpos ibihl: .It IoIlutioll.

PROocLEc s DI.PnNl. DrECON .TnU.TION
Durinll the year '.is ir (i tile \V'-r, nu11111 1h1.as )be? written aniil
e1'i'l1 Illi'? I-Irt W S \ b, 'vl l i allio t l'?.0,l1:.1 'lii'tilrl T lri'? Ilr l,? le i:-;i
stn ir ll 11 illli l cti II 'vii iln thl it thlI pi'.-tll1 is .still c" ii :r.1 iii l.P
mniniMs orf gnat Hill my. ThIns rii't It in? not iten[iiii.l to pi'.:e a
liitl 'ry or ri'iiiq I' r'Oi'i-ltriii;tiOil li t. Iv way Of i). Il;:. 'r'iiiill .
to I'L soll' of hile 1111'i.i, .1 iliiiin'-l'A .lil,., .s vi v.i: d htl i th"
c0onlc iitll. cumpiilpj isnol ot |I1'r,.iinl. lhorn in tlie Nnorth : li I'II na, ca f
peIsT lurn in i tIe S. Fill I, i.' e 1'i'i-Lii of sl" iiti .1Cnec i n rli'ttri ,llii: ,
treidls and di? .vlt.pril.?lits in .ill rlila ?s :1 Io LLdI..11I1i1.


























Inw., wliclh wit- fw r rci,-,t through .:,irpet I'ag ,controlled legislatures
sit'.l,..d mrlI rel.y to stir up prejiuLees ami ;iut.agonias FI'edltral tariff i
liws, iltentlioi lly i3 o oth rtIt. Ie, il-,c'ritmiinatel .I'ai I et tlh South
.1il, rtartlded ec.un'olmin i re-covetly freigIlt rate, hailicaiipedi com-
I1ntrv.- \with other ctions of the Clounltry iand lll. Sntee owlier'shli
i'I.'Ia lided (Ilic.k p1roits rIf'Iril' I ':ss of the Coll : o ril .* i 5so,'cial effect
tni the popllatiolli
-ini.1 this eiCon lnmi : NI .l,:si:ltion, t h- ,South hlid i either the abiliity
nor the oripportutiit'. to kI ;'p pace with tili r'-lt ot the nation,
*,,p l e:ulturnll\., ilndtlu tri; lly. elni iecially t^onom uic, lly, socially i
.ir i'idlcnatio,, ally. In roe decade thi, Southiern Stidtes had lci.anged i
froin iiamlliin tlie most IVealthy .,tat's ill the u:ition to the poorest.
A\griIuiltuir,'. inulllstry itLand cou iii ere 1 hadl to be restored; credit
had to: I:i --eue (-d from the North at I-xio'lltanIlt r1ntes; recon-
rStructil.n had to be unidiiln Nigru,:'.s had to be adjusted to their
ne'w ttAthr nid pitill elianis ]hail t'. I' enliiltelied to thei? needs orf
thle peoi.. Th cil; ianges iuin: --lo'.ly. With them caine rural
digriciltur.il tI;'nInIICy aid rbdtljizeditl ilulnistrial tenancy, both usii"i
i hlild labn r

W ith these cor.ilitionts I ir-.,ilnll-, natui ll.:' public schools welrer
very slow to t I'.-Irtel l1 pul4 J iiC cl"aitio:ll was. slowly developed.
Prior to 1861) tlle .SotlltIerni Stiat' It1 notIl plnacd miuch empihas
on publlic edlinc:ition, ,altlhoiull eI'iducation was hi'ld iii iigh cstceiii
by tih leaders. This attitudiJi was diie to the influence of th.
English colncpt :iand pattern of edtcatition s1 a Li'ijily rather thta
.Is" a publiIc .,.-poonIiiilitiy. Public schools eri provided for f








GENERAL, BACIGROUNI)

oII'I'il'lI,'-L4i vo(r whites and were oftem referred to as paulwr
qoliouh. Only in spo;-a.dic instances Nvere Negroes given formal
Obicitiou. Geiierally, their responsibilities Avere such that eda-
ctailmi w;i4 deemed mmecessary. Education of slaves was le.gall-
prohihiieti in most of the Southern States. lu IS65 approximatel.y
95 (.cut of the Xc.grocs in the South were illiterate. Illitera':y
,*va,; Iii-h also among the poorer classes of white people for severul
decades after the Nvar.

MISSION SCHOOLS AND PHILANTHROPIC AGENCIES
aon after the war, inission schools for -Negroes were establish'A
13)- uorthern ehurches, iudividuals or groups of individuals in many
cLutcr.,; in the South. These mission schools could not possibl- serve
all Ilic Negroes throughout the entire South, but they did serve
as for providing the first opportunities for formal education
and have continued in Inally iustalices as either public or privale
;j1"tItIItIOIIS for training. teachers and other workers for public

In tlt(, initiation of public education in the South most of the
,t i Lo, wthorized impartial provision but pre9cribed separate
si_,hools foi- the two races. In their impoverished and dostiftito
?owlition the v ivere unable to provide adequate education for the
wbite children, To this new responsibility as added the burden of
4#aVeiapting, to provide education for Negroes who were miable to
beiir their proportionato part of the cost of education. The thought-
ful white leaders in the South have consistently believed in
edw:"A 1011 "is a Illeans of developiug Negros as useful productive
uitizciis. These leaders recognize that in the final analysis the lvell-
bein-' md pro.-ress of the entire South depended upon the devtlop-
nicni of aii adequate educational prograin for hoth wbites ail-d
Ne-i-ocs, 1,7,conomic well-heing, health and, tu fact, many wther
aqef.t- of life of the two races are so unavoidably ntcrrelatcd that
id2qtiatc eduention for all affords the only of a.qsurIIWtD
uninterrit[oed and satisfactory progrelss,
pcvert v -jL the South, the racial conflict growing olit of
111iiit'Irv reconstruction, and carpet bag goveruinent, constimtional
alld lpgisj"Oiv ts, Uncertain and inadequate V.nancial oupport
aiid sometimes unsound school or-auization and weak admlni_












'l ld *tqu Llit t .iii-- *dUii,:,atiui1iinl oppottlItniile iS Ior b.,li J ;l-d the
FI clid ral gi-"ivo iinient acte.l ii;l1 .i : tLii ly and i'rl ;is.;,teitl\' with
re'?:ar':1 to N'i gro.:s it sIihou.l hata. rieali.'i thali t W-f'isliti\ve enaet-
[l',le t V.., i iiilll lff i:l-ilt tor tr.ilM olIi,7lli ll :irl'_i'-lI'' l,11.' illlo iiC'iL '.eiI S
aint.] tl:it tiiiincial 1AsiSt.1I1 tL '1 u1S; e-l: ary : ;ll'nV I ly. iIll i" r i L I:illl n
Negro:. or tiih r'Ni.sponsililiti.:s otf (iti:nship, but alsoo I ai isi t
in re .ll ill itJtigl the s'uLth.

Ini 1S'l O tIhe Soiiuthern St .iit:', i'Lal .r' u tiri a.'.iiii' r' i from hile
e,:oiiC'lmie i.li: ola ;ti('i H i v. Jijt'jh tih,:i.v ,:l l .':-i ] :.ft b i lie i al r. C Ion-
,lit t l'l]s piTr 1r1quIsitel ",,r Vf icli i l,|1 1 ed 0n'1 the ,i'i '. c l ,',S \' y st late
*o\'? i l lliipl ,, tij-L l t?..I tuit,: ]IIIipr,-il i:. : ,l ] .,, t *" 1m1 l ^ | i | p o'r-
ttinitie? f r all. ll t11 : .s li :i.inri' t ili rii .il c,'"i,, 4 c.i- 1 I .i ll'
e,.i.li i : -jo l] i e oriiin. tij'l is, .l ]stlicti>:,n 31 '1,c.11 th7 ,"hlit,-. '.i'. i I n to
dli.aiy':i r A. t'-I-ife r -! o i' re .oiiisii]l;it.y .I lith'eral it 'in" ii Il the
ii ii] .rif ie- i \ %'1 |1 1 i-p il\lis l T:iI ,h :,.-opil,? h11.1. l ;' ,i lI .' I.:',i .I to 1
their ,i: .ii i .;io. I.l ,'o W i_,1l l t ,] 11 --11' .11111 iW i l ,? s,!' 1'ii 1,1 Vill' e
s., liu,:Il i:irli rt iitlt iL- I. \! i \',A li |l ._' i: i l'u l. Ie '. to .uI h i l:aiis tl i IWjdir id
,a 1 WuL, alh:h'o::ol systei, for all hili! el .

Cornlitionil l er,- r ,I.i:l." f-r l iri-'re, s. l The. Cout-ei.itr ei.c f-ir illu-
1'9111011 ifn l h SuIth u ttnl Julitedl th o '".1J.I..i 1 01 tI '.he ) I ,'l 1
r lcaitin in LI r' d i hiui si iildit e. Iii ';.i n f 'i tii r ent t 'e u.i li-irn
LE :iii rl .11r i.:ii L'o Ir i p i 'l. i i ll' l i:f rl i t i 1ill I, be.'I r i e it .i ll';I l l -,


l tl.t i i i l fli i F'ilrr i t ii r t i;'it 1-iu'urui tliil':ir u i iii.- ur't ;nts i li
plil: iIlh Ir pic f nl l.s ov:cr a p i' d I ( 1m1n1. i I111 11iii" P,.1 s l : ''e ( li'miillit.ld
aill ai a edi.l tlhe .G Utill t l SSr. t.'s i.ll Ol r'v Iii 1i.'011. Ilhe lP btilu ly
F inu l -ti liiil t.'.ld lteo?,isl tii ri s to i.,tal.Jishi |,t liI, < i..ii ? .V iris, and
noinr al sc-ho Is. 'r c SlIt. Fill-il hi -'ld t.l e'. j'lii ii hi.h si iu ls fiir
NW:"'rocs Thu Aln:ne, Fund.l l i:.lledl lo Ii r '.r r in:i ell -ni tijt'liry
Seh'l, l, s Ol r N''-,gro, Ii-' tMi iiui ii] ._, t[ ,lhi:'io', in ,.*ii, ,:, rir',l ,[:>i.',(I.
Siipcrvi iois t:r Ne'gro siehl onl Thi. lii.- r i.id l'iin l lic.lIl( to
ji .r.id, ljCtl. cl llio l Ili isis an-I l pI' r.ii .JSaC smiiall lil.i ri,:s for
Ni'et ro .-i,,liols. Tu i'e T ( ri(u, l Ei..1..:.,tcii' P..' :irl prjl .i i..rd I 1,I l sup-
pol't,'(l the eli il ployl .:ilnnt lOf ;i,0 ,:,W ,trt li:,II ,'.;r_?laL tu K N OpiW F1"yi-
culture; professor lhipt s of ecilui, t.iiin tio inlin I e t.,-.ij: -r traiinii ;
tI Ipervli.ii orf .i-l e- l [o .,I i .ni J I ..*.* I.l. 'i O ed,.i.. liOna I iItJ e Oz %'ig i tS
for N>..gro s,'Ih['LIS .,1il a 'n.1i1,Ov .-., rs :earlh .l of schooliollhuIS,.












construction until suc a time ais the' Sexira]l states ruilld have
opportunity to assumniiel these iLspiolsiijilitie Thi- io',i iIn, .i lso
made gl.ints fur fiiilier e.iunction, je. di,:al ed ,.ic,.ition, s .tools of
education, anld surveys of r' at i,:. schi,.il ,, .ste11s.

DEL\LOPMEN:T (F I' UBL'LIc' E:,UTIrO:

Public edhicationl in the b. Sout sii .e ] '"li hla. e,:prilnjce.,l a
reim alleil I?: (' p.lll llin ill i.1i \\ i ].l.l .1 ,i ar imr ln,*-';I iil.iIt il tl l'nllel e
onil civic ianil Si,.1 l ]xvl,',i un1 n-it. E ,.lin :tiun r Ino l., i i d,.. rIlr, I
a resjiOls liii ty ot' 1 ll ft niiy or o I-'i or tl.: r in.ill, I 111111i ii o
governil elit onlly, litL has I n ll*ptnl 'Is .1 Atlite t'ii.p llsiliill "
n11(] is ijC i'--ii Iii g IV be l .I. l liZe'I .-i .1 I.ltlll l.i li r. Iil s iIhillt','.
Tei'rll fol r s.'rI Iol- I. f i Iti t :c-s Iha%.\ i ,C l lC l illc l.-ii.t.l t11i 1 1 :Ill

U eltll.e i tI:\\' ril li s i,.-' rVli i :I' tt .e Illieli llet l Iil 'c l II >.''i1 lr'i
ri iiri- l iiiontlt h (.' ,ii nl i_,ry itl,:l' lnSlli,': l..i' s lii IJ),?ell r] ll n tI .',i.
C hilih fld io ].liih Ihr.1 o l ir t Ily ,jli r.l, li-,il i :lh i i ..] r :11 1,' ar1e'1 S-lt ,$ :h i'ls


plated (L i i't Snl l il' - l ritis '.l t I .o .ip. I'. fl i\ .dlil j 11' tl i.t 'l'
oiler s[ ties ;a lI I (|i ii s li.i\'i:- lhlJ vict.vl isim i;'.]1 si.-h .il
adm lin istrntols. Schliool u.irnl tiiiz-illio'' n 1.1 and lu ij tit ilo l iha --1. 1.i*cii
plaei d oin inii-rCi singly :soun]r l..ns Thler Lan no mit i.-.
thei tact that the ipeorple it' thie Sottli believe in ,?:leduc latiii :Inl aire
resolved to proul.'il' tIhe Ist in.-ilities poj.sibllle r .ill the childre-ti.

In spite of this proiL.''re hi.i\lt er, inetiher tine SLllcol : for Wl ite.s
f01' tlit i? for Ne q ur' s re rC.ei-r'iV II s uiilich ini.iiin.il -ui)l. i t as.1
those' Il thi: ai'erl'CJ t. tare iI o(l' Pir ,ir(flS. hTie reIii's nll5 Iar1'e lit illis
to ll wi.h.,i hi', sti li'..1 the l .st tiatiani. lT e S, thili rPeldtvely lha
nOl'pr Chiiildren to inlv:ate lulill otil: r c' IIts ols o0 1 f Cth ,lill l.. It h;is
one-thirI i.,f the N ait.il, hA il,.hl Li 1, lcLi tte, n l ,-,une-fi) rth ft'
tllh .e I *elo ,". to Ihe- Nc- j l I:'. A\ tilialil fi'url 1 Il in eil i: iiiltl the
cli lren uf the Sout.. .and in pio i'o dnq]he all other n ,.' lI | ,i il i--,
of government i' only ,l p[proxtii;tely onl -ei'ihtil f ii. t N: iiin'.: i
tax payiln-. ability The etffirt ,f thie So th I t pr.li ile i l? ii liiit.
schools for aill of its chilh lrcn, hIo\'. eer. i.' iindiict Il by the f.icr that
it u..'es the rjpiivl.ntiir of oiit?-sytli of tile N.liojul.- i stich l i .illi':",
for this pUir', e. I either i .-i' irils, the p'.ipl/ of the S,,,u t i th e
miakini ia rii'' rr pfl ,', ia i f]o t oiii. .-., ili. i c t' r i i t/ h,.,. / -
caiionul foctlitics nitt'd d f r ,iii l h,"tr chi i/t i, tlhai : it, p,.-.,oplJt
of other sections of the coi',:try.





















il':-\ elolped 3lr : U Sdq,?L I 1 O il ( Io01111 pri'll les a Q1111.i cOip e l' I ora.UIY
VwiIl those lomd els.-w.lir .: The region is predominantly rural
with ilattnui.la'rit -luicationial problem, commonly assoriated with
s-l:iaLSe pol.,ul;tions, y'.t specialN c.ie hlas lee taken to assure rea-
4sonaIly. eiiiitable selhr-.il tu-ililies for rural ai well as urban children.
Thlrt is -i large ec(ioomiically iliimpoxcrished miniority group in each
statJ,' toh be -ilucateel ill sep-rLat r: school. yet plrovision Lhas been
iia'le' in all states ;nl aireai to tax the irsOniieesS of all to provide
school fa-'ilities fir, botl raccs.

T-.iaxtion fto schools, n a relative b:,sis, has been heavier than
in othii. iareias, y'?r tlhr -Ilpport t w hlte sihorols i, .still coisilerably
belov.' the Natiional a,,rai:- .and in cideral, facilities found in the
No'.7Cro slc'loi*ols t e ?1'.?1 more ilitaid llli.le thl an those in \white schools
I.i.eusc' ith' full. hi.? l.have beenr so linmted a-nd Nepgri schools have
d.'relpedi 1 Ilat:i ,iid.1 Iiimo sl,.)wly th.n those for Xwhites. Most
l-aleers, howevere. riecoilnize tlis situation as tiiicatisfalttory and oneI
which should be remediled.
What is the s..,litiou to tlheiep- robl.lims'' Arl thle problems
lpisievlly hl.al or .', they primai ily ec-rioomlic ail] sociial l Should
thei limite l i'es-ourle, s ot the South be still furrlher taxed or should
Ihl.- r-souure-s ''f the, Nation Ibe expectel1 to aii. In .sssurin.r an
,li',ilnate iedlui tionii l Iopl ...rtinity fo r .il its citizens?"














TRENDS IN THE EDUCATION OF NEGROES

While the present status :1of Negro e.liu:;itio is tinr from satis-
factory in inaiy re.spei.:t.. It I ast t bte r.i'''o ii/.el that immaterial
progress has heeii minle, during' the plpriuxiiiiately 7,5 y.iars since
the War etw n thSe tat Iln 1S-. there \wverE Iru.ti.tally 1no
schools for Negroes inl the Southli nilnl ;ll exi'pt n' very small
minority of Neo i .*es i, er_,I- illiteirit, o tir,ctir'-lly 10. T.ilday all
Southern State.s lia;ie lawn., reltililg idtteinlatn'c alt sI-lioul .'ft all
children if tI.ioli I'a:es IiI thlle peI.:r'entag ut illiteIrai.. among
I Negroes had I ieelli edu,-ed to 10.3 liy Il.ili ;iui1 liIh Il e-l still fur-
ther redurt-ed to :ln estinllmit.:-(l 11 orv 12 liel 'enit 1,y .1940 The
expetllditiiurl of' liuillii. filns tur tie ethilnwtion ill Negroe ii thil
fourteen Soutli-,-rn Slates li tic:-ipatinu'j actively in the Wir'l.:-('mIn-
ferenre hl s iniri' as,.1 dlilrii.- that .'.ill |It eri'od tr- ii Iiu olllii ii t.
more than tifty milliiI, annuiially.

While trends in Ia litmler 't pJhlss 01.r -,dlN.itnan "t'i r Niro'(so
can be tried oii thll: blisis ':f r'lialle information, there are still
manly areas in whiL iniforiiniati, is still siffi'.iently iii,.ljplete
or inadequate that treI'n.ls 'an only I.,e iestiimit'e.l.

POPULATION

The Negro popuiilatil.,n in thle l.liitedi Stat'es thlayv is a ',,roxini.Ite-
ly two and one-.half tine-, as lanr;- as it wnas in 1870. While this
C|hms to jonlstitulte ra ipid iin'reise, tlih white pipulatioln hns
increased even m,:re rapidly, ,.lie pr'tl,' to imoi:iirlation.

Table I below shom.- that fro': 1.71.1 to 1'.100 tihe Negro p,_uliiation
of the Uniteld States ini'reasrel Sd I .er rent .'lii!e Ilhe u\\ite popu-
lation increased 'S.9 per cent. Bet..eein li and. 19:2l thI Negro
population increased 34.6 lpe-r 'cnt \ hil.e thi? white l,-.iplat.ion
increased 62.9 per cent. iD).ta are not yer ;lvainlilble liy rm.es
for 1940.)















N e I. o I: 1h i t e i
l'er (L'it L'ei Cent.
Iii" i-',_s| i(. i' ..fi
ai-1s p 111 I-.aS V
Year Poiiiltion 1:.v DecI-ldes Popul.ition lby Dec'ades
1._7) 4.. 0.11 9.'"2 3J3 5._V,377 24.8
S1880 ii,3 ,793 .31.9 1':.-i172.970 20.2
1590 7.-4S5,676 1.3 ?5 )5,101,25S 27.0
1'00 8,S3:. ; 9I: 1S.1O I.;6.sT 'i 1'i 21.2
1910 !.'27.7,?,3 11 2 t1.361 -147 21.8
110- 10.46-.,13 1 9 9 04. 12u,:37 15.7
1:' 0 11 .'91,14. 1; 6 t1(i S64.-J?7 15F.7

Tr', Ids in ih, S.ro th. W white aiin Negro l'pi iuilati..,u trt.nds in the
oStlllieli. :I,.l bOld::l (l S.tr'it's Oi e f r-.' 11ti0t:I l Illttr'iet ill tils stlluly.
i li i,' .i itl th tiii ll- rif till .' .I ,-i' thre' l ', e Icen ul)li' t' lti
mi rr'ations ,f N,?'i:,,s frim in 'an', of tih .S't : uther,1 .States ti e t
larger e itri'S of tihe N rithi. In Si-'iUie states in tihel SuI.Ltl the pn'o-
p'r ti' n 'of the t(,tal i.ip .l',u atioi, represented I.,> Ne_ 'ro,'.s iha de-
ci:.,is. ).jllS hlderl.iY as t i lt- 's ll i.f tii:s..: ain l othir chliil es..
Table 2 hln:i ,ivIes rih,! ,r,' ,r i:t ,iii'l'rI.e ie Ne.r'o '-ind Iwhite
population ie.s-F ..tiv, .l,' i,, the I6 .oi',7 IIh ,re n ;,1d l .,-,rd.ler S:'tates
i nll iled i ll t ill -Mti.l (S e- st.iar ,s lis. i:l in tilil T The Negro
populationn ill r'-at'd 75..1 rp r-.enit I:..:tween i S70 and 1'000 and
th,: white polpn.htion inCr, i-;- - 1930 t,: N, ::ro pop-ulatiol in, ea..:. 15.,3 per ,-iit alnd tlhe h'itie
p-.,pillitiuon 5'16 t ]er 'ent in 1S711 Ne'-roes 'niititutte a.1 lar-er
per c.enit of the to(lal lpup lati.,n in 1.3 of thle state> o Tlin in 19:30
aS hl ,i i O.i l- the l.,e. Th,: IIf ll_,el' '.if Nl ..'lus., liu h, ver, soIerns
to. have inr,?as ld in ev'?.Y oIr ..-f these states.









TRENDS


TABLE 2

Negr., l'Popuiil ionil ,-]I. 1'er I.'. t N.:.., l',,fP ul., at.. \\t:f it, Total
l'opillatl i in Sixti',? S,'.inthi ,rtli l PBrT..ilMr Statel ill
1 711, l 'i (i .*i m .l I '.;0


it'lrl 1'ifIt it I[I IttII


Stale 18711
A l.liiat, a 47.1, .10


Flori.,li
G eor- in;
Kenit iil;.y
Loui-.i.io n.o
Mar.il .]o ,
Mi'ssisippi
M[iss,:,u ri
N. C'air:liiina
I. klat Iti n ia
S. (' a l I 1,la
Tennh s-:e-
Texas
inL' iia
W. 1Vn _iiia


1 ',1 6"
'* ,';S'i
.4,. 142

.394.2.'1
173.J,1




11. l,,1,s 1 -1
',22,.: :1

:',12.s41
17.'15 I


.'7,2 07
Ji6,.S:iJ
2:i .l. ,7';i.)
1,03 4.1.'
-_' 4,70i
6 1.1, 114
2:.;-15 11 4
'11 7,i 11

6i24. :.;'
5.l ; t 4.1


4' 24,j

G6 il 722
4.:, 4"1i'


TO'TAL 4.47- 2.i'54 7.'.~ SfI14


4 i,;1
,944,S2.4
47.41J.]
4,1.512
1.11i71 1 '.
22 6.ri41
77 ;..j' .;
2 ,.,.;71
1," J 7 14
'l lS ,47
17-' 1 ''s
7 l. :. 1 >
477 i,41 i
.*7,4,'th4
650.11';
1 14.s'1.;
1.42fJ,7 IS.


P'r, L'I:it of
1'. tal ,Ppi1 l a tion
1S70 f 1900 1J);)
47.7 4-.2 35.7
*'.4..2 ....0 3".7
"2 2S {.IJ 25.8
b..5 4:3.7 2.1.4
4Gl ) 4-, 7 :16 3
1] .8 1:.: 8.6
fJ I 17.1 .; '; '
2'J 5 I, l 16 'i
.:37 j.85 1i 2

,. i; ..; '29.0
7.0 7.2
.s.', ;..:4 4 6
:1. .(; :3 S 1 :]
1.11 4 14 7
4 1.*' .:.., 2 .8
4.1 4.. 6.1;
" .- 2. 1.4 .2:.


ClOl. JN.PlFrl 'NT \AND ATTLNDAINT

port sit' thili li-a.t that th,. i'iuloti ,i.,itli:r a i i c' .
pOl'il ll i '1s l I,|iLIht.iii i U l Ll:'I' l, l 2 4ieeii Lii. r i t'i 'ill1. l tiltiltli .-h'IiiVi -
thlat N e'.l o s l. II ll l.-, t ,n.I i i'litle,
w i.'ch Wi ere .it'' li ,r -.l. Ti r. en irolliLin t in Ne.,'io .hliiool iaisi in-
C Rreasc'i,, j lt of all pl p i ,pirl)i th. e li n'i e in Ni-ll ll. il.iiiO.iliini.
In fart liI ;I lililel- i- t ili' ^t,ihe tilt.. p1'''' fl.- i,' *'I N'2- i\'' iiii i'i
InkL 1 1 hhlren
e1]lCJ, ]Pi Jl .' .,iuol IIII. ,o0ii iiH'' Lt'ivcit, livl:,' w ith ii-' i ',i 'l 1.rc, ', ,l
white childit'n in -iCli.il.,

R elinble int.i.iiii.nrt ret l.l t ,.Iiii N ': l' i si. 'oo.l m. ,illhnji, t liltef,' r
1900 is ditfflull t:i u.,taii J It -eels that illn 1 70 thl i' v.'I.r
apjpr.ixiii t,-tly l i,;:70 Negiru pliupils eijrolled in ,hliih ,l, :i tihe
United] State-. By 1S.'5 tlii- inh mllrltlr lhadi illicrt..iea il to ,.'5l6 12 ;1I.I
by 1900 ]i l in.-r i-eai ,.I1 t .f12l3. '0. Thins niiu l,-r lid.l prl.l.ticL illy


OPP'


~-~ -~-~-~


























t ili 'r tfiiiilies. that limited op[portiiity lils I'r-i. i r ti l iI1 t Cr quent
ftilurie to' be lpriio teid aIInd to otller factor-.
There x\Ire ,, very f\ 1 p11upils enrolled in Negro i liib siichols prior
to 1'ili. LBegniiiin, with -14,04,7 Imills enrolled thal year, the num-
ber pr.~itica.Illy ilouliledl eatili iti- de-ai.I- atil 1920' wh11en In .eve more
rapid increase beetini as ,hwn liy Tal.le ;.3 I.elow \viiiih gives data
ti.r hlie sixteen LO 0othern i ,dil border statdt.. Bcrween 19 1"0 and
T19:. hI-- enrillin-i-nt in L'r'ade- niln to twelve again praclieally
d,,tibled-. iii'.,:-asiig' fom 11-17.722 to 20.f.',1l. The enrollment in the
url.mew)iiLtal ;raile inicIreasIed slihrply unttil 1!20, tlen iImor gradual.
'ly until 193') aniil thln-l lIl,'ian to dieclin ,,,lln.'what in keeping
witl tlhe g'nernl ilecline in elemeinitry ecurullulent for all races
throu gliout the i.tiuntr'

The pei tent of the pupils eurulled alic-e !ihe e-iitlh grade (in
thie traditi L-iial four hi- li scIhoo-l grarles' ha.s been ii nreasing, rather
rapidly during_ recent year.. Tliis. io t course, i. aI favorable indi-
ai;itio Still, however. iriir. tlain iiiiie-teiitihs o all Negro pupils
are iiroll'tllid iln gides one lto ,eight nlinl iiii.e thlan eight-tenths in
grades ,tile to six. The per cent iii tlie ulllper foinr gradess has
inl. ia,;s ftrom 4.? in 1930 ,to 8.5' in 1938.










TRENDS


TABLE 3

.Eurollmeut of Ngcro Pupils iu Grades 1-9 arid i i Grades 9-12 in
Sixteen So.uthern .nid [lordlr .LState

1E-n ., rilr,-it lP' r I '--nt ,,f Enrollenlut il :
Yenr l I ,-' GrLn;e 1--12 Trt,il I', 1.--* ;rnI,.. q-12
1920 1,J.34,.-t64
1930 2,141..0'4 107.7-22 2,24.'4.16 9 4.5
1934 2.2:1:3.244 157.1.32 2. 3'J|.2_76 9.' 4 6 6
193i6 2,"14,4A-19 IS ,1 1 2 'J ).,,6:j0 J2.4 7 6
1933 2,1G7,704 '13.51 2.;;i.. 255 111 5 S 5
'Kiiilelgarten [iiil.- included

Cr, lltic EuiollmIrn. jThe *,.il'l en:rollmiient lhs iilicreai'el as
ran idl als thtl s;ov: :ldai'. -itrl ,ell Lient Degiii in 111I 1'.i-'0U ith
9,7 4 pupils ourolled iIIn r.ill..-'e ; d I.nI ell iat':or sc ol', th.: num-
ber iiner' a ed o iS.'.7 iln 1.j.K .i l ti :3,.'7".3 in l :,36., The number
of Nr .-r. Ilupils, b-,tll iI hligi -li h. l s anid i ,lle t- ma."y lie x-l.iiect,?d
to iincr,-ilI, ov sialr'eitly *Iiiiiin'' oliiiL._ '-r.i.s. Tlil National E l]u-
ention Ass:.rmtiiOn'i hlii- -tiiiat-'i tlint tor th.- prji,.-e t lninihu -r
Of N,-._ro stirullde in ,.ll,.-. -. fau ilitit, -_ et-rui\ :ilHit .., th .s- for \ hites
wonull cr- t .f4.000)i.(lill l a Lunilly in addi lion to 1.ijilJiu s; and if the
s;.illl i.c pr. ortion of Nt .-..,, ;a i w11hit .s \ i. l I .r:11 .: Ill2: : a[i. ddllltio al
lief'|.l1,} excIIc ,.litt ,, \1- o I,1 ,1)l l,,'lproi, m atc .;1 :5 ,l(lll,lll1l aniinuai lly.

P r I"',. nil .lt11, ,in hlr

T1li p,-r .:,utt 'i.t lt I i'. l -_' r' ljopilatit loil o l inrolld inl hn-lio! andi
alsii thle Ipcr .elnt of ih.- clh ii.hlli of school :I-ree enroller l iln scho) l
has CioiIS ti,,ral'. i lilt-..I .-'* l .1111iiil r' eight v 'iiil'.. Ill 1 20(I, only 21.5
per ceit of tl,: tl.t,il N -grn- popitl4lioi ,.fl tih si\xteen .'L southern .iind
birtd]r aitr. i a- 'irill.. in schliool. Fly 1Jji). this had itreas:-..l
to 2:3.!9i p l 'tr it

Thel i [ir t' iil uf i th Negri' cli-il.le'Ii .e\ ti tO t'.-V uty years I f
age ePiiolldI ill -hihool inicriae.l mateirially in every one of the
sixiteeiin .oti-ith i ,rn iil hIit-rder st,at.- lb. ti u l l0 111 .ial 19130l In
faet, thier, \i. :i inj;i rl d in re se- (lui n :l f t [ deeh.li:l .
eX(si'pt btt. \ 'i'l 1 ]1'.121) l 1 .1i, iI ..oilli Ciroi lii; ill \llich .tante

* N .ew Pro:l.,i uil in l m :iii:IIrn; N.',r-.i Idll'..till p .',























[.HI, ', i i C'lllhil ','ll |i, I 'IIlr l i',,il .I ,.J 'il v s \liv' l\. l h I lllil -1 WII CII
1., 1 i '. .


"4,'11,I .l l l.eI .; e i eL li: 11 N t.-l, ,i11 1:1' t I il fl ll 7 1I 2 il Ye 'ars of
.\ n ~ixt-ei S.i oll I.in i 1i,1 Iirl-r State-. 1',r. I12r1. ant 1930


N Illlji ',P .'
Al.ll 1 '1II

\I ka Li-.,- 7:1 '.'


l ir i. i 4 -'., 1
I .i ii i- i ii 1i 714


M i--ik -il 1 ;i'l. 77
11-t -10 1. 0 42 11
N i'., r...lin:, I:;,.".-J7
"l' l:1 ],i hl[.. n .-' l'i."
r. i ',,liI:. 14 4.,'i :
T ,imr ..... ;. ,'.l'.
127..1Th
' i l. 11 1 11 1. i.1
W \- '".11., l. 1l's


. I 'I + I I I llI lli l ll l |1 s
,1 1 *il r l~lw I!,ll,,


\ II I ,ll 1 I:




21".11i1
li> :, ; -,






I Sll.l.l'





S1.:;24
17 1.:-7


'1'1 I


71 .' I
211 ,12.5

147.,J4Q;
47.47.'
21 7.5140

2 2'..:''
:'7 !71,
1.,'2. 7 11
1i .- 21 Q
172. 44
14 1 j..
-21.- 1; :


P., r.',nt of Population
7 t, "2i Ycars of Age
A\ttsli'iiu_, School


l'll 1920 1901
1._ ., .-14.; 6i.;
4'i.* 7,4.7 G7.2
4 U 5.;, (1 59.0
432: 511.7 56.7
1 .11 i2.7 1i 7.6
2'.:' 45.4 61.7
8:,: 55.5 64.1
-I.i 5".78 66.1
..: i11.7 67.2
r; u 4.2 65.9
t1S. 61.6 72.0
47 ., 1I4.] 59.7
4.S 5:1.9 64.6
114 4 i4.- 66.1
49, 5I. I 65.2
:i 61.4 72.0
. - ---.. ,i@i:


il lpii ll-r i 1 ll- ;ii,.ll I 111, l1 lI re v isedI
,,li 11.l l ,,1 init( li .I il '.-, til l il l''hI ill g 1 tj lle .


Ilf'. l. k I- -i l l.i I* Il ,.Il ;1 III Il Ii l i. -I t.,- I ;,I : rl (' thi; i N r mi ri .ti e all '
l +ik il.,' ; l| l -| h ., 1 ] l Io I I .1 1r i n l'i 11\';H11 1il, h l In IL I'lI .


























L I V k I t' l N ll ll I ri U 1 L I l~'l Il I" I UL :.V I 1':" tI'.' I 11 ll111 1' .1 L II 1 111 ll
thine, 28.2 lir < c(v t of the h.v it,- tva.'hl,.,. 1I 1 tWu yo 'ars or sh.
of college training

Sulcaricr aind T ,..t;i.tt,, Lr.il/

So iewhat imri \ lii:l tiL'IIreI' .,-.A n\,nilillh- h,:,tl ,',n *,..l.illr i ini
on tea:hliii; lotad. In 1'11.1 iP 'uir hithi \Vir I.t ,inlLNegro)
teachers in the l SOItlhtll SrIt.s W ',- *.u '\trni.-Iv\ li'\. At tlit time
Negro tealitrs r..' iveil upill 1 td ji.LLjJjtLgjLLirls-,l-7i a;\'v:raj. e
annual salary By 1'i)'J. sr i.i fi:r N .r. ta..'-lhe hi1 i reas i
to $4111 .aIrl to .$l',-I fir \lit. t,-,i,.-h s L. 1 40 .i-aries hi 1
increased ill thle liitllel I .il's I,.rliiipLtiil. ill ti- \\',l k-C i11-
fere__jne t' 6 ,I, fa, Net2L o .i 1l.I ll ',,i... \\l t TI--, trend
are sumrmarizedi in Taible I ,el.1.\ :

T.AItLE .
Treirl s il l Av.L'ri\\ ,i .\11ii.i oil flni 'ri oft T.'n..Il 1- il i.,111nlri St.tl'-

=liati, P>'' v,'rn \\'rWhar
Yen White VNe'r, ;ntll Nen', Rlairies
1900 t- 17 "flO5 li ~ .) ,.
1910 .511 175 .1
' 1920 Olll :3111 "2
1930 91111 4111 4- ,. f ..
1940 1,011 .,I; i .,:i. 4
Note: 1Oly t.liii'letPi l stuilt uv r in .llh-dil 1II thle., s inimnari-a
irior to 1940.










NEGRO EDUCATION


A study ,f t-h al.ove taidn indicates that while Negro salaries
lhav'? ilicl'e.itd mate-rill. s lu? I'.11)1, the i.tio blpt\eetn white and
Negr',i salaries has not clan di apnppre.-ia lil. Negro salaries have
avera ( d letwe,'n 50 anit Ci 1).er cent.t ut 'lwhit salaries amd in
1')3"'9-40 were 55.4 p:r c~lt. Th,--lr is. of cour-II:, 'no rIliable way
to I d.-tielrmine tile ratio iln salaii,:s in relationilip) to tra'iiinii and
riAlIitinTcy ot ttlih td-iCrlius. It is obviCiius, however, from a study
of thli" riIlatIiv a ,iii umit; t coll.e,,. tiaiin -: to licih rll tl rei'lcl is
inaie ,ltli i: tI 1hat thi.e sVal a rie, .ut Ne:i:- o1 t,'.he-j r I eprleltJit consider-
aI ly l iior tha,-n :.'.4 1 p1 : ,.-,?it ...t tlth sdl rii.s i' t \i ite ti.-ea liers with
sim ilar ljualiticaii :in..
The-re h a. li',,eii a tivy do'eiul'd trtnl t,. \.]i.' .l e t:arinig up the
situintion Ir-'latitI- t,. tl,: It clliii liquid ,'t N 'ro tean iel. ill most
.Soiuli.rn 'Statc,: Early i, tlheu piesieit .cntuii'y it w.its r;itlier curn-
mnio tor -I Nrio teachi to ihaxe 110. 7il and, in soln. ias C s, l)0 or
muore pupils .\ tev.' ii,.taliNi ot su l hih :puil-teacl'er ratios can
prolal'ily till i' tb .i id ii, miost -.t th i st Ie's, l. .t th,' rivcra e- ULnik -
|.,:r ot, iuiiils prr t>;e't,'l;i [ia d,,ercri. ts:-,.l r uli m alL-.O t C l inl 1 ,17-18
to .' it, 1 :.I.1- Jl. Altlioii. i the. te l-.her 1o.ii fi Nefi'ro teachers
i- still cre:t'i'r thai tiht for vluhtes \';I, h wvns .30.0 in 19::9.-uU, the
diiff ,'re.iii.- h r:i-iil]:, ilei ae:.- ,l in -ei:'i?tit ear 'S;.

LE!:G,-n 'ri S- 'ioc.iL TERM
T'h:- lh:-] t!i of .-l_:hiol tI n lha also t'iu.,led tj lI.i: inm ri:- iarly
st.ulill:'I.,l ,i'luilg reecLit e:-ar Drii*inl the -arly part. ot the ei:n-
tilly tin: ,lii.-ti,,t a. to wi[I e ?tl- :i m:-ui C ,li i ',ttonli Opel"Cati? at
ill a ','_O'-: e.,r c alt:r ,.t .,r. N tiI ',i;'.in s,'li:i, l' tl';r bot!h *.:1,,e ii -p: .'iteld
foi' u illy V u i three al iout I y 1127-2'S tlit- i\ 'taiJ._,.' h-,c, tl of
terin for .\lite s-ols hi.1i increas- d to I 16 danys. By 1939-40 tile
to llr hall illere cil t,. 171 i.n.1.i iI li., -ui:'teel Soiutliedlr al1 l i.odt ,
.tat,',<. l.elw v- l',, iII nfl liii .il' of tile stit.es tile trni for whlite
elc*iitntai'y .,ll., i., ikt;,, stiIl la ',i'oimil tcely n riiou th le.; thl in fi.t'
w h ti, hii-'li --.hoI-. 'T I. t,'iil f'r N6 ..r,' ol. h;,,1 liT,,-rea edi l to
a In ;v.rY'I''- if. 1:,1 dtoi ., I al .ii.ii si.x aill ,*ji-.liilt m oiuthls iII 192.7-2 ,
iIliries..l till fairhl.-r to L 142 .ILo s 11 '..'.-4, and Il, ll3.!i-40 hal
lin' n r:ii.-,: i., 11-i,4 il. or zli-lhtly ni,,i,- thliatn -ii t minlthli. The
avei i .i t'l ll ..'g .t I .'AIll i 'lI rolilnliltlly ix Ill ntolith hl.,w'et er,
in M i.a[ls il iI :nd ,i .; 1 '- th ,ll ] i hj. i no li s in l ll.' ,,il ,. .\rl; ,Is, iS,
L oiiii a;i ,Soilli f'i ',I lii andi ;,li ,' ,_".,,.









TRENDS


S U0I0,L L;I.IILLIist
At tle hete niiiiig iof tl :?ent entry there were te:w Negro
stdliiil _iA iltliijgsusitiJ' oiiisu.trn 11ud I.1i.* iA th10e iitlei1 wNlill

pailetiC l r iiI rural ti.'an y, \were n..ii.lit.if .l ii. n i *: .Lfiih s ul',_ Iii hl_ t,
inI_ a.iiio L L:u ling 1 1.h li.,.,u ld 1.. i t., llW.i A. \lt In:,Uil in Il
111n eil f stt11 ?s a1 \ rl r, l .ir.l ; [ll i ':i 1,ii1ti i .t' liti Ni'l:i'o, u ,!'hiL, k
aire till Iou lilti-l' in ha'llre s .le ti l iiji,:.r very irla.iliii.it- Ilil' ild ii-,
the housi.ing ,:,:,iijltih-,nj- hav.'e l r,,+,:n hii.,riillI ]r pi. ,.,\eil di ,iin rl',enL
y i'ei;r-. 'The v'ileth. d: o ll l":' l |IO, l;l t II li '.L..;' -4i I rl I.i .'. 1 lwrol'lij *.'"3 R-
p.rT Ne.r',T [itlil ili Aliliaiu It $C1. 'i ,7 lll Ji\lur iinl l. tA stiitl ; maI. l
(ii the l' asis ifA inif.rmu tiijii fir 1'ain. .-.:, i .l t,:i l .;t_--lii providiL
b tlli l llent Ce 1I'.Il jeulC l \o i'n ;it -1 ,i,4i0 liCrj' Ull*.ltsi.iri GtiIt the ela ti'
v, .lue il-i N : rgl i. u;li il.lin is i `tle II 'i'. ili.. i,., .'- l .liti'il l tillit pellt fl.
In 11..-: 6 ti.; e average m.'li' N:.l t {i.,I i._luil. iii. s i i the SOLit itilli
St t_, :, 11 ,e" 0,,t of] h;le i e l th,? ,' h iit liii i S,-'. Iln
19u l tite average \ale h.ul iun.i e-d o. 2': per vent tL that
iof the v.liite. biiilli ~i*:. E ', on tlhist balis', boVwe:eri, it \Vwo.ld
i.'l il'e appll.i niaitel t, '-'l $ I27 eli.niu .I1 l).:. ]io l' .i,, N eagro, si:h Il M.I lil-
ji s ihaviing tile -aine pr p iu l t.lii., iii ea:hl -rate ci< theii liildings
.fur whites

}'. E: .'II UI. 1

ini'i nll|ti,ate :- ,,ui ntul- ig er,:-ii' s lukid it illipo" ill? d .' il deteriiiiin('
EAictirately thlie tl',i iii _.:.:ieilnditihils for Negrui. S-liurl'. Even
toi0 y it i iluit pi.,- ible l:to dLt-l:i'rifi tl ;- *?:- :;:X i ='; -,. 1,ilu ,1 s Ill
illxny irPea Iteims., Ji'tt:;Iad l i,?tu'4 ,a,,' hti V ld ir to hi ite
alti Ne i Ag ',* .lhol at': -iif ijiio ly :.literil 11' 1 the ee,.ils in lunili
sumllS. In llINost .,iti's, the l .' r,..l i pir Jl. ituw t _i.iiile\llat
.*iialir t 'xp ox .' d tuie f'.ir Netio ,-.ihi' ls thaln til? .i.0 of thi' .ketiti]
SerVi;.,:, .ii]d Sin upd iil,,s 111.0i l:- :.v:.il li.. O ( lile 1t 'lier n1' .l, s,;'t',.i1
of .lli-'a tiLuns \'..liil .-lie' In-e,.l i.iuiet-in -.', "l 'illie -Lip|)lie, aiiLd
servii':Cs made avarivilhle in the liuii"s ut the rathi' between salaries .
of while ,tl.1 Negro tea:. lp *.'her',a' thle anati..,l vI.lue of ith- sii p-
plies mni.y i:,e .i ,iililia ly les', than the- ailli-ii.ation l hws.

Oni thI liasis of the l.nt iit'oriiitin av nilu l.l- it is Wevilient that
the aipprot,:imirit- i cnt iient expiie iltir. ],er N-ipro iluil in thirtne.,i
Southern Stlat- in lDiiU v.as $1 ,0i By 1910, it had iniicr'as- to
$3.00, by Io20 to $.00, I.:' 1'l10 iu $11.00 a..l byI 1.40 ti -.lilitly
L. inure tlhan .$li9.0i. The iu'iirrent **Npieindtilire? to i ulite ptlills was


















It 1.-. of i, i :- e, il i t III .s ilili? ti LllAll itiL i ~ Slall.liIr; ll Irends

If i\I il- .-- It 1r.1inI it. iiltll I l]llll lll ;I (l 111 I o 111 lO 1001 5
i tlii i:iirriui.iliiiji n nd in Oil ''! r?]l-iiil I',ll .,-:. ,t lit sc IJujl prt 'u-'iin.
It Is. o11'vio :is, li' .:.i.r, tl[l t 11'1riiiliuiiii t i'i il,] iii N 1e: ro M luul
lill I. ot diirt, r .d i .n ri t ~l .Ilr'y i l' ill, I tiho e ill v hitch ,,1 1 o].-J. As
CLilii' Hilii lV i i.iii.', l e s ii,.iisLl'ur .it I I \ii il ,:i .u-whOit s. tliC'y.
l1i,? :ilo tenii'l1 to lihe iiilr .li- til in N er'-r si liiol. Sometimes,
IIlIfli: .i.11:itt-ll tlist' e hi:fi slp l'- I ;a l'- hi.i IJ fritl 11 l. 11, tit I l us'. ill
eiltier m illite l'r Ne ro w.d'lit, F- hrtualet l.,. ,llrif i n' :ie I e'1 1t
; .e l's r. i lit ei ns li N e ll t. 'ti il l ', t litiil :'. (i 1 S!t iii e l. .'id ili tt
I'' iel' it I lI t1 lu '_l in it. i' ii t,111 it l ii -i .-. IE lii :iti'i11 fril
N (e i'rli iis h tl in geiirl il, liui ld ) li '.-I'i i l eSCl thli'? t I :i] l i ril Iliire
j' 'i''titll i, n tllh(ii l i n i l ,li -i', Jil\ tl ip.lil'. 1 iit ilt tilt till hlb i3 iL(r
aloi|n rhis li iH e diiriL'. com'iini ye~aniS.

N. LIU .I M i L \Y

Tfih iresilts itl W tlii-'e 'lii' ql' s i-s, l) i'itlil-', ll i tli' t', i,-Liliin t
lit f.t il.iitley 1 ii imiI'is e .il It is ;1 i 'si.li.I lil.she l fta.t tliitl tlhe i itil t
of illiti ra,..t i' I ii ,'ri N I' l... ii- i:s \Iw u itel irill' rtlii,'' H-l t-
i?\?r, ,it isi C 11- ) I -t' .. ii ti.he N1, 0 .- '111ii 1 t still V tl:t- e l ;I- illileit it(-
111( ll 1 ;iii: li, 'l. r .ntli. r sil .i talill. illi l l1 ri \ I I i o i i i, ..ls 1l.lt l l. i I ii1 v.(
silIi, iijg tlih t it v'-1'' tu-anii ..,.. ri itst fii'' ;i it, cic'1lit. In grelin til,





flro 'll illIt*0 1 I ii' ie l ifil.ii- l, lt ill 1." Ih n i iill i' li ll iel it llvel
| lh :lnl 1,I hIt l '01 l ln h \'.lht u' .irl l l 1., w hi ,.l L ll h_'l \' o u'li ll Irl''t J1
s iti ;i It.1 l l l ic t lijit ji.i s' i lti *ltijil*i ,\i'li l llnil'i' Ot s'iiru trl

il ;i n.II 0 o .v l it i itiI 'it is :it :1 ti_ j.s i 1 0 1f-'LE (Ir


s it lh ':11 thlli, ilifi t. lltl ',1il) I : i il( ro', l S) tiil. ]ilot i)' .S 1IMs
1 'lii 11 I.i, le iin I l lt> '.-P I cc.. -,_i, Ili t. il l i, i;, iiI Illit.e il; i' l' it.,.
h. illlii h l.1s o10 l .i f 'll .,' I -*.1 l ili 11 ,\'V ,ll i i' .' l s.
l'.. ,il lir i lif l'l li:li ii: ,,i 'I' ,'Ih l.-. t i li: lll( I t l., illlii .\ i 1. I'tf l *
i l ln',ll 'i; l l' ili'ri i nl .o L ll ardl .



















SP e'litPelli 4st:it., (11,.1l th? D il11-I rt I. [. ll 1 i 1. IviIIlilI ? l.i lilnw ,
or. b cioIIlstit tilh llail p iv ii -i] plll;' r>- .v lih --. ',,r liir .. ai l ,' ir, r..l
These. e .sev\5ten tefi t1iti.i I.-liilpil' si Ili- '-Il, ip -ii.,11 11 I" i nutil 'l' :i ; il
border staLt-s a;ntl inl:ll lt,::
A bl)iljii t l.."ll w ll( l Si'.ilil ( imii.i
Al kansas I l I, | T, Il INs- .,
DelH'.,iv- Toi.-ioi-. i Te',s
F loril.isi-i \'ire.-i]]iai
T ecri, t'ii n rt i .'i i ri.l i \\'i. i V\ i I i la
K e t :l l y I.>l:l-thl ,ji j I
A ll cr tlhesi slal.te ': I jit )elta'. are [i''.,. 1.10l .1 tai L',r thil stul' y ,t' il
all excfi't Maii, lni.1 ani l M is Piiri il i ;l. l ito:i 1 DI law)'ar, \elre
aoti e pa rt i.i!iits iji theI: W i -'.'.-it-rhj.. I\ f '., ,,tl ir s.tatvs
sI el a- A riniz i ;iu 'irin i mils t'on. 'irli' iCe'iiil t'?Miai n .itt 1110'-' i l ii 1.iIII
]1 i, +A fli.'fill.1 fil,] ],:.a -.a ,jih,.i le+ i~ l E? ".t- il~lt I'll,,l', lJ I',;11I
or au lit ri.:e ',ja tz ;i-,t' .lu,..i

The stat-,s vhlli ] rllm tiiitl:-iij ij riitl; si l.. l- f.i jhti i1l Nli",.t, n.
as a group halipp no to l l i fth lo,.-v.t ,quartil': .it a ility to, support
sche ools. Thui s the stats with i--,it fiiiiii .il :hilirt" h:li.i., p. t.'lntlall'*
the hbc i lest bu' l' ril .t "II.tll l s'ti l.luirt N I 'l Vl-,r .L 1in l if 1..,,i 111 P
ega l lip 'ii]J. > ; ,'i n i L ;' '.c'. 'i. l i.N i 011n tl l.tl l ''- l.,ii, I, -l 1i. : ti : i til,'
(laws ai i s v llt. li ii-ri ith It etitl ] i' riii'J ll t i), liti.tI it I I'. Il iii, l 1 ;I I1 ill'.
rooted ;s the Im j,, -iooeptr ] A ,lier i1,, i. Ht1,il6ti.1 oft ,-:. il,._ ,11 ',. ,lll.
The Supireme Cute l f St.ait,- l,.s ,I. inl, till', ri'.jli
of fihe',? states to inaln itaii 'e'aialfitle s.:l? iltiLuIl li le 11\0 'a.e* ]Ir'jviil'?'
t 1herc ie i ,) i .l i ihiin in th ,..I ill, ti, ,Ii, l ,:,ili]) rt tlniti,' |iv'., ih .l..
For 0o'' s' eQ il -tf .t t I' tlli S'liti .ti lm SI tt', lilt.',C -tr l:'>lia \u ill
lis .prob.ilen trilli wo rilin li-ih ill kic-eu- .wii lit ic, ;iff nl; o.l ll
N e ri oes i.p .'o l. ii e i it i 1" l .' 1I t' r l ..' I i i. tl ',' |- l" il it ie' ft l:'. I w iit
']n o thie r il I'-is n10 r' ,il. lii':n r:')'. t1i i tilt'l. i tn S .' ii ti h l.n li.i'
n1 IlO re 1Lsth e 's. il iln s. h l in'l! r is prh .li l,. thllll 11.1%.' Ii ii ,lat. in










other areas in .sobling the pIrol-hnl nif it prviliing eipl ietllentional
facilities for rurll ani.] urilban children. Negroes. hliw\ever, Lhave
ceL'tnaill (oiititlitin.llnl safeg.i;ardl aiid asslranuesi which apparenltlv
arie not applin-able t the people ut rural ar.reas regardlt'ss tf tlie
limited tacllitieS- V wliici may be available to t im.
As indiiicated in their clizaptor 1e\xoted ti "Tren.'ls" iuhli progress
has been madii: in inIup'_vigii'g the teJnu:ati:,n of Negroe., in mit ateas.
However, s-l.h proigre-s 'a a' .ften Iel -:sl'ow aild at times, tuitiewlhat
i.,st.'. giiig, particulai ly to the leaders of thi- Negro race. Di ing
reei-nt ye'rs, N:gru e ina? e ii i l ireasi i .e fri-quency] reso-rtel to, the
ci.-irts iii ian attempt to assuire iftll lsi.srvniice of tlhei; r colistitutional
rights r1 .l to hia-ten ilnj'r:o'emietit' iln le e tilli lliolitil ..Stitelm R~l cent
Ioiriit ,l..c:isisii halne unitcJ i itiI hIlil] that :.i-llmplianne *.ill F.>ldrcal ani.]
stalt e nsii jl ntionS; rrlte ir:s that e;inivaliniit thlilitici.- m i st I, provii:led
f'i -a reach i -e iti 'i l.l Syst:iii rf c it itlhc. The emits.t, hii Ivv.'r, have
iil(t tI ted hi.'.v these l ine litis, ar:, tii be p i'.'l. I a i..l have left t the
matter of financing tlhtse tfatilti'es i'9 n 1,il.iibem !till ti h,' solveJ
.1- tilh sex:ral states.

Co'nt Dci);i. il';,. In the i-ase of Sjtoat of 1s',icn ri Er.c il. (lai"fc s
.%. Ca -.t i / I uI., N ,.,7 .'7 S. CL. L".:'2, tih, I Unitie State. Suipienie
I l'.,urt held that the I:,0a3 l,,. t Of lhel:[ t ,llt .1l.n f.'e f I .1 N gr el iti.:en
atten' liii' a law sch,-lt:,l in ani.' lier state .i not r':.m', ve the (isi nil-
inritii, within Iiie state '.li',:re a law sc.-liol w .vs- mainta1inel for 'h.v ites
hut not for Necroes. To mniet thi? reqiiiironent ifo.r f -innil facilities
tli' state .'Aiild Ir:'i t-o p:rvi]l a shiotol o la.w fr the Ne-roes
I ithlin tLe borilt:-r ,f thic state.

In tihe ca-e olt .11 il' 1 owr '.i f EdlLai7/1ton f tin .,1riii l,'I ('C unlt ,
(.laridla .), No. 170; :XI F. Supp 245, the United States Cirenfit
Couit .i Appeials. Foruith I'iru:-nit, antholi :',] an injunction re-tmain-
ing thil- 1_-1:'1d ot EI ln,'ati in tr,,an u.lin,, any di-tincti-in slely ,m
lie groiundi of rane. anid iol, iin lixniing the salaries' .:,f white and
Negro teachers.

In .Al, t I ul. i',. SNhool Toar-1 of City of Norfollk ( liriiniia)
et al., No. 412 : 11"2 F. *2ni.1 92, thlie samei Unit.:.l Stati's C'ir.iult Court
oft' Appialsk hl-l that il':- pit.\ it paying Ir\er zahin i- tu Negroes
than to wlite persons fur s'rvir:s of thej sain'? kind and character "is
as clear a discririnai tion iii tln ,'-, roui .l, If raite a-- e(iin.l well be








PRESENT ST'AT US


imagined and falls csqjiri.aly '.'iiltin tlhe inhlbitlitio of bolth thi I.lue
plrue'..ss, andJ uiia] jrISl:CL. ;oii i*.1e ,,.'- I:Ilf Ii FoIrt,?n tlil .\AIlri.ltl .'ll nt."

Thel impli:.i-tions of thlesu- d:..ii,,ns j re plain. The: siih':,l ta.ilitie;
pro:. il~d.'l fI_,r Ni.egro's a, i e:,:.IL.te'. tl o hi ..i: It; il.int, tI t i, l Mh', pJ':)\ i,'Jed
for whitl-' I' t r tll]'i.:i., :in t .tit l' thu : ll rl:-up ci C ,tit : nr m et it
%ill w nliecest .II v for ti.. ,t;rit 111;1it rin i | ,lli d .tiu l t1 .o f -,i: ls
to take onei of tw .'l I.. ]l.l.,- t.-il : ir'i to I I, .er tI:- r.hloicl fan ilities
for i. hits aii,. inet,:-a tih ftailities, fur Ne4roe-., until they are equal ;
or s,?'.condll to rai-'- the t'IC:ilti's for Ngi>,,-s until ithey e'iiq al the
lOi". l (t..f th o-' i iw provi, .le fri v.liit." Suii':e nl eitlcr thle facilities
fr s nr or nevo.s ir' r liite.s aI.- i 1n,- .?inal to tile Nationa:l aver-
a e. the pulil;. '1.elf., e:I;:ll]de thi.. l -.t ,tepl trriin .-:.rinIs Ion-i.:l-
Pir ti,'on. The s.ei-:,i,, [ 3-,1-p i fililly feisil.le .iIly if substantiall tina ni.n l
assitanic, for l-he sch. ,l,'; oL tile S.aithi.:rii '.t tes i pr':vi'.h'l I' the
Fe,.lhral got ,'irii'it. Ti]' foil.ing intuloriantionl i thler-,fore,
pl''? -ntild fol'r thin' ,i r[ :.- of i,', ilii,_ tlil, [i'-nl' ."li l'' i\? .lai st l Of
.-lc'iho' ll ft' nilltil's f1a Ne-'I..O: ill till '.ill iot is ) iutlieri Sr-rtr.c. is .- i
fuii indil:li till 's.lla t '.O.'oliIl. I.'e rti?| ili*.l to Iliiing tie i'l il .litie: iln tli
Negro shLoolc. up to: the pri-,.-nt I-,. of thi. white ..hool.s.

PUPnLt' ENU lI.T,'I-ar., ENP.I.II.M I. ATTEND',NCE

,,.,.., (' :. .v'. A :hi'.:'l i:eni, if propp rly. tai;en iand :ei, t afford.
the Ibai,; for ,.'-:l': tii i -' tt :hil li .-n lhrul.l lIe I'l slh)ool. W il !'out
a scIlio l .:e,11ii tllei '- \'..l i i I Ie o i tril.tl?' \\ of 'l-i.i'.Viii v\.'hethn 'r
ehi l ,il ,.,f ,.*I lr r.1,:, ;i'e a tt'-i il]"L1 -.. ,h ,_l ., il.-.f,. t,-, ii y A ll
Suintli rl'l St ti- l,? \ rie 'lli e it i sc ii .eli' .-i. 1o' Intlh I i1eS, Fl"'... n1
l bi iia ai-de l tlie eli'.sUS re' ljil' iniCiit i c i ly 1 '-eLe ill .
Age limits upon which the sciiool e.-]iSus is bai'd vnry c)nsih.l' rail'
iiiuiigf'l llv ,.iiithln ll S tit?'s. T h'li. llill iiiiii r.ll ',.,l'iiS t'r iln l '.n'' Ill
M :ii 1111l t. Sei' vll ill \'irgin ii,. tlie IIIIust i' oiii oi0 iiiiiiiMn111111 1 i v eilig
six. T'he in .xiriniilinl taij 11i',011) O ,'s,.v ill:i. l inll K]i'?litu :'. .i,i] T .';l'
to t..'enty -o)ine in \Misisiil'li andi North C'ra'lina. The Iln, o-f yj'rs ''
included va' rie friim 'ncrven ill Kntuilky adnl 'T': ';i i. to .le ill
Missi['sippIi aiii North Cairoliina, the :it\: ] re heiig 1:L.2 ear. liisi
Sges "in':. tii S.:1 Iln.e fOfr h,_tl I I iits a;no.l Ne-'r.oe.- iII eaclI ,.i:'l I, i.ir
.state. The tutal s i.hool ce:.Iius re,'r, ls totr I -140) shli. 11 ,''1.;.7.5"0
child.lren in ifte,'in 'outtlhern :n id I..i ler stat",-, (Fl,,ri.ia h:s ni, t hiad
a siuhool celtnsu aind is niot iiinclde.li.c of u[hichi 8,i5J7,J037 nr'e white
I. and 3,LIG.663 are Negro.



















111 llith S tli ;tt,.in.1 'M ,l"] I'1n :1i I sloln er 1 i r. r p m',ii ; f ti ilnt...rt- uni. ittl,'. ,1ll till, ni;ii.\ rl.,I' oui r o1lf h..11.l Ic' fi't i. Oettingi into
thf l ip h I ,.hn, -.,]es.
.111/ l aidTll 'sl li lli.li t 'f 1 i I-il t I ;ItTeIiini1i : e of

N e-'lin 1 ii 1 ai'e Mi -t*hi,,l ,.*liL illy r.lil!i| 0 v rv ihi.'lriiblv with
tliit (if \,.hlit'i ill -1Ji lte ll th l 'u ,i ',1:1 ? Illi tti] tl ;ill u', l u tilull. P1001 1'
h,'a:tli r.fIIJit ij l ;-II, 1 .ll j -' i imii.l, iir of.litiiii. i% 'lt f l't i o dcm -
Irt-i '.l,::-,' ii 1),pi .ig ri'o.-or., I- aitrelil:Ii,'e ralii.i.. ;i iljI st t."aes i're IIot
full :1 I illi :h ? lhi \lll el tle P lill i i.ll. toir :-;i t l tlt'' -hinl.i slow

llirly no-iin.itel th, siliuation ill that t li.. Ta l.L. i,. li 's thali t
-iii ly sii ,ll it't'li a'll,:*,- -.Xi'lti'J in .'ijrr ll; :1.l-i rt. Il? il iin.i rti'ctl- furl
\'..Ilir ., iall ] N ; 'It ,'* in I o--1 ,iili iil i I ,' I 11' II.

TA B LE L;

l):,Ii i t .\\ lu )iI .\tl .ti lle:. irf t.: E nri..llini:lnt t :ir Vh il ii' .]

i iK: -1.1-"
N,.,1,r n Popil- ill En.ch Soilthern il Torllr Sinte. 1l94.l--4

StInI 1al o t l, i WIlIit,:. R;Iti,) for Ne l'r.n s
A I:ili', ii. I *.' ' ......'1
A rl:,] Il l 7''.'*. '.
l l,, iia -2.(i i2.5
I' -- l i g i:174 7 7:.

M ,tir 4il,1. i .I1 .1

M i i i ln fi l 9.74.4
'A [l-i ill I I
Nordll. (." ir lin '.I f

S |r,1: ', 7 1'.'
r7

W .,it Vil ihiihia..

'" ,riT :!H ;]iliilrh .














attuendiie 'f1 tlhe N:e,_gr .-,. a- as 7!T per vent 4f thc Nvegri ,'ri lin:nt.

Enrollmn,' f bi GO a iit I. ,'' . D uii i 1!'.:',i-ii .1 liI.-it .jie-lhir d
(:3. jie2. lr entTlI it .Ill tl N O Jll'r p lj ti l e iii.ll.11i iln el ii'-ii ln i ':radi :-i
(Grade. 1- -6 in ti Stmir li ,r ill thI e li't :ultd.ie T i 1111. i. U
tioi I1 1y Sitt IIil ,,ll A.,i, L .,:-eill : ,,' ]nrl Zri ,',,llj. li t v F:r tt-i, il, :,,
of the Negro pi l il11, I it .1l 11 n ill filhe irst r;tii t rl- 1'11iii .ii, l ;ii-
pri'ntl i l drippliirg ,111ut t :l.rrl bfre .-n ii'letij,' Ljaiit y rade-.
Only 217 illper rl '.t lif t lite elI,mf i taliry ul pil- "\-re in t .he first
grade. 3Io.,re Illt n Ltnnr-hftlihs '81.2 p r .ni. r i .i ill11 tlhe N'.. '. lpuplil'
enrolled ill .cm11- 1I ill t11hle t'illierin S'raite I tlar tl1 i'.) \v.ri' il
grade., l-t6 i inJ l.;ie. iOnly 15 1.-ir '.lut '\rIi .I I .i thle sixth ad,.

T.\l-;ILE 7

Dirribitr ,n ,df XN.,* .'.rI, l. l, r En ,llimonrt l119.;-411


l-'.r I-', lit F irl-t

i" r, .il 1-0i
State i Elei.ent:'ry
Alabama '.
Arkana,,s .;4.I
Florida 23 4
Georgin : i fi
Kenit ui.ky .2-..
Louisiaia 32 ..
Mara niA] '22.4
Mississippi -41 9
Missouri 241 0
North Cian li I .,_"i.'
Oklahtian :1.1 4
South ('nroliiii .-
Tennessee 2 '1
Texas ::2.1
Virginia 27
West Virgini.i 1' "2
Average _'
Tot ia EirllliTn t G rale. 1
t)i.1 .' I IIS


Pr, ? .' :it 4 '" ll?- IP r .'enl. Grades
1-1ii. Llel-ihelnll3 i 7 12' Lk-itIID ilatry
is .-t ral .- 1 -12 i t.f Gljad:- 1 12
s- 9 1 .1
S1.l. 1 1
J.I i
S-i. 1.1.
6S.4 31.6
.,7.7 14 ::

0; 11 -

79.i 21 4
1 .3 :,1.7
S .* 1-1 1
7. g2_ti.l
75 : 2 4 7
77.S 2*2 *'_
j ; : 7
R1 2 1 .
SrlI,.. 1-1' i .;j ,nl> 7-12
1.'L4' 7:'.1 45.,1>.(027


Averanie for
White S.],holo 21.7


--- -- --- ---









2 NEGRO EDUCATION

Only G6-4.2 I| r >.nt ,r the- \hiiti [:,ui il were ii g'ra.let 1.6 and 35.8
pet '.elnt vwere above thie sixthh iraLe. Table 7 \whilh pr,'-ede- gies
the di-iOi ilutiln :if Neigro i:nroliiiint in ,.ach ,f tilh? S:utlh,:rn and
bari..:r SIateis..

Thte lpei e-.nt fii tihe Negt r,.,' 1,1:,,:11 ,l Ip pulatii:l.' elinroll.'-d in eiollege coin-
pu're.S t-'i n l' a.,s v..ably with ihll.' Prr1:-- N iii li r pe"r ,-ent tor '. hites
lor the 'iine re-on- that .ii er.iti t:i r'e-trr t tlih enr.lliment in hi-gh
school ,"'al, -. T he eo.,_,ji,,ni, i.;I- I.,I' is pajrti,:-ulalvr sig. I iti ,ant in
dete, minlni.' pirolba l.e -..il e ;tr.t:n-lan.,:.

I''IN -OLI[ATi [N. r S(' P :LS .\ Ni' 'r :.\ r;-.PCrATIIN

nit'orni tion isi n.t av :iljalle for all S,:utliern Sta.l-te : on:ee.lit
[tI l llisn r .11 :.t ,., ,.,ll,]dt,'l N -'_-1 .,, eL ,_,,_l, \\ [lin' l -iave I L.' n -stablilih.L l.
The ,'. i.l el*r L .liJi,- lii.i,\i ''t.r thi t ilh:-re lI- be'oll a m trki d
tii].1-:" i 1'1* J mo.l t ,ta leA'- i., .le'.?:l: iiio le '..]?llltt*? Noarn s-'hol] C nte!'s

TA\L;LE S

Niu-b.ier ,tI W white a l,1 N.: ro, OIu.-Te,:i.-h.i r S..l.:.,is an.:l the Per C('nt
l aitn. d.l N:-r..',. Pupil, Eir di,.l i, n O1I e-Ten lher Schools,,
1 :::' i. 4 (i


Flor.,a t

.l lii iii lit '
Kiomllll lckv


\AL.i I -I r l
I-is oa aI
N.,rth C.r:,liina
O l):ial, -i ,,
S'uiit C'.ui ,:,lina


Virg'ini.i
1 .',* t 1'lr il' iln i,
* Nlt mail,-lblh:.


N.... o, toni-T,.a eh-r ,:.h,,,,ls

4 -1i; 1..27
1,7 2 ~11 i
ll1 l4',0
.'7.: :;, 2,!
*

207 1i'
2" :2 1.-',
.7l', 11.3'2
12. "" 7
*
247 ').".
1 '12 i.4:1


,11', ; 17,


I'er .eilt ," El-ci,'llnaent in
O "--T,'>.-hi," S. h, ,Is
W\ il.i: Negro
:3 ,' 2q.5
13.0 1.3
1.' 12.5
1.8 ,1 '1

*
25 11.4
2::: 22.4
*
1.7 12.0
4
1.9 10 7
10. 1 .'.7
2.7 3.8
7 -2 ] .."
17.7 1:3.2


.










PRESENT STATUS


during r-o'ier t yv'-irs. Thl'lT re. I.' still Inoic ,ol. :.l*:-I illr Ngrci'o .el].li' i
thalin olie-t I:it 'l r whiit si'il. i1I piIra tic.ally ,.ry stat : in which
there is aI plIl.i.l, iuii;atdly Ngrt '., 1 :,.f hil rii..,.. MI tor., trillingg till, a
mui:'h larn:,r proliop tjnu ,:f tIi- Ne,_ri iii, il. arc enri:ol.'.l in one-
tei-lchiir s,'liiils lihan of tle v. lit' p1illils W\\ il' satikfi.:iroir, ,:vilJe'nce
is iiot a ;iilahle r'airlirh i -wo all.I thlri.-triihir chliool,. if is, well
kin.'. n that a Iirg',, p['ri cli t i.f," N -gi sliv -ools in nliv ira 'i -V i of
the- so-c'all, ic:n)'.liil'atil S.1.h0ol-, ar. ta '. a.n tlihr'..-t:a>.lh_.i chool'..
T nhlo],, ,n p,-i,_ 2"2 ,i,.',-< t ),- it.Uiil,-,_ i' v. iitv midh l N ,.--i i... ..11 _-
tel eli'-r schli Als ill e.i ti Stiall' il')i th, | i,'ltagL e .. f Il' I i.t;il '_iroll-
u .i t iii ol'eii-e l :'h-ln r s:-hlio ,Ni iin 1'..::'l 1--1.1.

hI li [1 1 W i ii.Ni ,, f t t iti: h.'-i '; tli r-. r 1,1.. N i:._ri i" I- l .1r i 'o l innruil
wvithini jl''t t Ii. l t'r r. ; ,i T Ih e n: iihl il a1 i .I) l i'--. nIiir.1'i' oi
N L:"- ri, p uIp ils 11t,11 1- 17.., s lt".- Of tlhe lit'r lih ti i i'', .iel',-,inii f.', thL N .'r- ,,";, liv iii r.tir l
;i rus, T ihe Il Iill i. I ra ll i r,, I ,-l i hl,1011 I to fl I| 'slii uv. hy t. :11 a ; iIIill

TABLL, '.

P-i I'.?nt of V h'lit. aLl N,.:rO -, 'l.m eni'tr;. n,.1 IIand S,>:'l,.,,1 P ipils
Tian.' ,portv-l to S..loo:l--19:.:'"i-41


l- W I, i t
Ell- lirih


Srat,
Alarlall -il

Florisia



Ni f I ai rrln.


NGorg' Cari.


Ti.es Vi- ii;ie


Virginia
West VirN'i-ini


Ill


Li;j.l r hI
4b.1 4" t
:;4.7 2ll. 3
:0n 4.5
'.i :; 2~' 4
15.1 21.7
# .9
2l. .2u ii
"'
r t
4
9 .9
27.5 2 l3 i
25.1 20.'1
111 -554
*
20.2 45.11ti


, N ,:, r ,,
El.uin. 1:'ll.- lI;glll El:- Im .
&; iHiglih i.i ta.ry Sliool & 1lih
4 .1.1 2 1 :
.'_.7 7.5 61 7."
7. c.
.; 1 1 1 ln5 2.4
17.' 1.1 10.:: 10 2
4.5 t 1.7
27 1 "'2 "'..:.; 15.3
4- .. 1 7
*
47.5 11 6
*
:3 2 ij.2 If.': U. 2
-, .7 *
27 5 "2 :3,4.5 1 15
G7. 1, 11.0
27.. 15 0 4"..- 24.


_._____


llJ


* Nut availa le.












1.:"l:''e1: ,!," ,,t NL_ I., pIIpil- i .Iri:,lli.1I in l ighli s,|lh-.l grades. Tabls
9 ,. li,1:h (i'r : ,,.".., *]\. li h ll ,. i' ," I ,*1 ,1 t \. li ile .'*lek- l:u.) 11 :. i111.1 hili I
s.:.hil i~i Jll ,l, i 'I,_ . ,i toll ,i.Id tle p .r :.olt ,i t" N o'flI -lele llenta 11111I
iI..'l, .-. l ho II | I it. ,- I '. t,-. ill t:i d;,l 41 Sliitll?-'rl 'tm att for wI' ilh
iltah ,re .\ il h]>.. 1 1i iL -.t,,t,-s ii',i'iriat iio i .in I 1 1i-):,i, tatiott is
t ill t.i_ r l i, -' '.:l .l het:h_. I .it l I" '.l ,,li tII lI,,, i .-jI Ii I, .I l \[ii -- I .i ii I
litll ,n) t lh,..? l )* l ll t- I I-r',-ellita ,t: ,if thlhii u-.,I-, plipiil, ail ,l 3\ ni-y-
lhn d nld W ,:-t 1Vir i, I la ., -i, If' tl1. ,i,.1.liti,, ii;] [r i-i 'irt titVill
i ,'.i- ,..nlhl Il l r i..l.l ,.i,.,d iiin ll SO.,uthIeri 'l State,. t ill .iliti. inal <.?o- t
, .,i H is : I, li '.',',:.ir ." I.I 1)..l~l-i < j l), HIl(I.(ill[I )e ,-,.; i.

T iL \l [W1 ,. 'l I

I I lllIl' i ll. t.-ilr l I lli 111 .Ill' .1 1 i .-]1 l 1 i I')l''ll ,i(,, li I l,.1illi..
U., 1i 1,:| i[ l.,| I ., ,ilt i it i, il lI, I l i l l -i iir' .' l ,,1i ( hi" ,) ,.'1 ii,]l i" 1 ,i ,
f Nt ':, r : h r-. It it i l il it tl .. i l -. l .i il tline to, rltd rniinc,
lI h, i:.- t h l 1l. I,. ljlill I .'- i,, t, :,l ,:hl ,, ].i i. ( .1l I l ,l.\.. r ,it'I' 1ari tht ll
v lli, l . li- 1 1i'4; ', i h111111 iil l.lo r i I ._ Ip -i i ,'i '| i 1,'l ,Ii li - ll_ lllt e Il
k~ 'ri :l 1 y -r JI. t*- I lih -6%. [)i l t l r lill i :Iij l dIlt*ere :ll '.
inl t 1 11,-.i : 1 1' .I il lNl l ', ta .i 1; l Il,(i'. f il t' I ,., 1 | 1 11- 1 ill i '- illa tiol
n 11 i.ll' ,-li l,' ,'it i Il, lh,- I.i Ol ,? iN- i l i- "I ; t. i iv
I1 11'-' I I'r-' I' l lr'e h '11111 l i ll' i l i ll'- f wlt ln i: r. 'ill) t .irti 1 i, l ;I il e


/'11.11. l i' h i' i lii, l I' si l III 1l'l ill i '11: .
r e-' ill I i', I' 11 1- I :I 1 1 1 1 i tI to


] '\ -t *!,l'. ';.' i l)> in l', ili ii l ,ii i iil, il ,!, I, l.il iir_ 1, rfi'.i iiiill' ,,t
e'. ll?< .l '., it 1I . ilI ,1, I -','t ;I 'a 1 1 Ii l,, I r l ,.- lli Il_" tih ;l.] t i vi '

il, 1 0 l ': 114 i .Gl ,'] r :,.*il ,., thIe o hii.. tr:n,-l,. h M i. ,. 'l lo .-:ell
,ild -fl *2 | .' I .i tir -it tih,. N tf?.p I '. it: ih..ri, i ll i-,.i h- lih.l li d1 :I 'P tlihf i
2 L *, " 4 .,,ll ,, ti j ll iI '," I'l' ,. i 'rn t i:ir'l? h ..-i'.), ,i I),ill-
Si<1 rli y 1 'l iil -itri I,, -lil,.- .- h'lr.'i by T alehl 10.












TAILI.: 10

't-r c \ni \ ..t W hitr ,1 .I N1 n Tr.-,1.-l r I: .l.. ll, ,...-. I IWh, lr l i
I'll.11 'f'\\, YT'\.1 I. 1.- a_'. I,' | l \\'ll-k a dl \W h-, 11.1-1 T1 .'.' .-ii r
L f.- Y ,,airsf (",,lit.' l : \V. 1:. I; S||P..ie [ ,.l.,-- l'l:;'.-4l'J


' ,.I l Il*,r-


AK .ilini.t .[ -

Ge. rtuin Hil.
Kentur,.k'
LoLti-i;. I7S.
Al\ i l\ Ii l 7:1.4
M i sis.!ii 11111 2._-'
Mi sori
North C.': I. 111.1 !)7.1
Oklalhonua .-, '.,

Tn nie--rc .52.1
Tcs.i. .'S

iWest ti ii b ." -
A \e iiir i, tb l l
* N' t a, ,lil7Il1.


,.11 L1.. l 1l,,.'.-, n

; i I no
17 ..



11 .

:;7



I'9 1
47 'I
11 7
44 o
4:;.1 4
......-;'1 0 I


r.i'hlit IV
.l r I .1 Less .' 1"ll-
.1 Y -i "il' I jt'-- Ijil'il'. ii


1. ;


-. -










.'

51.1
-1 1
71 ..
4.-


Su'4tl rita 1i ,.roIf l ,,,; I ..ii


T h -,i l.ri ,.I H. it ,,, r':l_. t,.., hii,' i, thl,. S-,m, th in l';'I'-41 ; .cs
O lly 'L' S i-i i-t lit '' t iI. -,,i:r *,f t1 ir '.i,'l .-',r t-'-.'Iilt'ir ill th l ile alirIl
in 1!:;7-:- N." l. it'- ft.r I., l it hilte n l \'. ,' t.-a: :htr'i iti It,.
S" alltl. thll-r ftllre. .1re ,lhi1 tllh,:. Ili, ,Ll ,'.',.'li ,. W hil' III., trlininilL'
O1 l. 'i.'T 'n l'i'n l r''- l t-n;lg;r Ij.Ii',,. llitdl ( w hllit. te,ia'l.r['. rt ij< k livi,'ii s
frotil -,t t l 11 t the11 l f;il., III;It l Illr te-alt riti ;:. re lt. \' r' Ilt PrIoJ r'l i..l '
tlinn ll ilt l lt'r tll..: ill tii iiiii_ W ,iii, '.\:it 'i.rlt. M!ilo. 'e, r. N ,E'.lI
t, ellcer's, i lln v-.>-r% l, )I:ive ;Ii !;itr,_ r te;h 11in11 I-,I. 1 tli. it il i t i -r'.
Tlise fit t< ;ir -l,1, ;ho 'fI T,d h-, 11 'hii.-ih I',||i) \'-s









NEGRO EDUCATION


TABLE 11
A .*:r;- 'e Annual Tr;Iubli iSalairI:-- ji1l Axeilage TI.-ai:hing Lia.i for
W tlli, a.-ll Ncgr, TeaclI.r.--1.i:'..-40)


A'i. rage Tean.liring Lnad
I NuLnb.lr-..tl Pupills Eu-
I.,lll- I p-r TeachjI.Ir ,


StatN While N .. Whir \V jutn N,.',u
Ala Itb n:i $ ST 1 N, 40_ 31 7 412.
A .- I I"-_ ; ., C',.iS :;7;'>., C4I. 44.::
Flo,.I', 1.147 : .: -S..-1 32.1
G o in ill 41,_8 :";1. -' 3'l.5
K-, ti, i tl:y 17:; :2.4 30.8
L.:ui-iia a 1. '. .: 4 2'7..', 41.3
M Ilf i n t l 1, ;'.i 1.-147 1.7 :',
, l isil'll i S-2 2.:5 :14.0 47.5
iss..l'ri ] ,1 7 1.441 27 4 4..
.orth l a 1roliJ l '911 1 64.3 3. 3'.'2
01-1,ils .I)S '171 2" 1 27.0
S.:,. lh t.'-i r, in1 :.i :;' 1 27.', S.1
Ttines-. e .. 31 7.2
T-,.i 1,1 V; I;67 27 5 34 6
V r: i.i i,i '.111S 6 IS, :;1.2 :16.S
':-.t V ir- llin; 2's 1" 1 2 ,.:'
.-. ''1.' $ 1 1i $ 5a0i ::0.i0i 3..4
* -r ,t '.'i i li i l,] .


1 1. 1.11t .r- .I l llit ril l t r i 11 ,' ll l..t II,: till.,I -,I .- l t tiall ]. i th
l e|r l llllt n. tIi tl ,.,I 1 Jl lil n' ,l*' Ii llal. lnl l'"*i '. th, i Ll ll ,' .1 Vlll ,.,[ i t' ,llr I
thlir 11P.Al I l 11 -..f l Iil ll:*,' 1 11.1' 1r II 1, :.- t li.. *il iiiii '.d 4 y A : ]
t 'r.i ilii .4L 1 tln . t' :,, ., It 1- 'l.llli, .'i ttla l 1,b'.t.J ,r,
thlil . tL : IL, I" thrt l l ilt oI f i" '.t, h ill I l., -_ 't tra ilili l a ll.1
lit l. .\ ," .Slun ,-1 .11 1 ili t *,: I t ,. ,ini ,111 \V,"l; '.. ,:, t i', t lhl 'e
t, t i, l1"t,',ii lib'r. ilm iIill I,'r 1.[ .s, th ,iii I .t* ,.r* tL inllr.'*l rl',.,itlrs


\ lil f l .t l t,"lI. I 11 11 11111' .1 .1 I *,'ll h;. .1 .1 L inirI '. 1 11111t .n iii .

L'r II.I .l :11 1 11, i I .l Il.-. i i ,I I .I ] ;.-1 11i '.' t I r ili\ll rI:.lh a ti .l :v
>hi. It I l h, tI 1 ,ii l .Ii ll :I I I i;il*l I I. i I I ll. t .i rv z: w iti l
tll.1 1 I ,d IV l I- lc.11:hl r If ti : ill- lol l lll 10 '1- I.,ii 1 stil.lllt, to ilav \ or"

I,,1111 ,l ri i il t,.,e ] 'r hIh l l, i i . .- ]',i : i rv..\ ill u1i, l, .
;l ,. m [lii l l .l r -.,I; l i,.". ,,f \',"J.l.i,. lI,. .,.h ...-l v* .,,' l ,I I. ,,, ir | .,'..-.. r\ ;l l1 l1 l] l lyl


a


A w\V 'r;ige AniH. I l .:a iLri":s tfor
T.. i. er Ii.'i .l in C'
l'P ril,:i]lla -









['RESENT STATUS


if Negrio ten-'iherz were tu be pli.l Ith, s'm 'e sn:ll ie'. :Ia white tea''her.
%ithi thI:.- sane :]inount ,ft' ti atinl;.*. Furthl' r ml ulou ts ,.,:ul.d ne.'d b,'
addi.1d t tleI toi .ls; if thlle i ti,.,l, in l.oAll ',l, O l. l"l I '. 111ili: l' tr
brlith group' of leachli '-l bet-Inlin e tIhein aid lil ic.nal N,--Lr,i t'.-a.-lers
wou( ld nii:'', I le ernpli:,. .

Alalii.i 12, l 61 -'. 4 4 i;;. al, n.,i 4T7.
Arlalnla 6;2,.2222 -..t ill I ': l .. -1'l. i "20
Floriil:i 1. 5 56i0 T -;i "l,1-2 ;." 14
Ge-or,'ia 3,4 4 4,G66 Viri nla 12.5.10 )

M II 'i Il1p)i :-; -.. 7 4.-
North C'arolin.i 1. -T.1,'.'' T'i'T L '24..-'1.578

NOITE : lit',rin'ltioll \.. I,It :i\v.lailall. I li. ,r ie lull-:y an1,1 rTelm. < -,':.
III Ala |la;ilj V, -st a'ir ini. an i. ll, 'itl i .nllii't'-. :11r I,.Wv
T il | ilv ,xirillilt_ l ti .

F_: ..; ri or 'I'[ i l.l

T ie' .i\, 'a;.tr.' I leui.Jth i i. 1 -,n f r elhit, ,*li-, n'.iill rty .',i.ioi'' in th,'
u thet St .t,:. \'.,is 1 i ; il.1 in 1'.1. I-41.i v. lule thtlii for "N '_r'-,
hleniv'ie t ir -I, h l, , \' ,- 1i ,l];' v. In i t l, r w l. 1,, tIl. ,t > ,:e for thll,
v. hlite l .'Ie.i intlt rv tcl n .I I in t ,2h1tlv. i' 'Ile tll:n iieight ii'.'ntlisq
an ,l it vi .. ials .nt .,ne .'r *' .-- t r N, .. th' i n l'.r Mhite-,. Th'I'
I ive I-"I' I,',hi -,.'h,-1,.I l -i i '., i .i 174 ln.is f,.r v. inl- :m i, 1i 5 d:. .1yS f.-.i
N e r .. ,'e-. In, .ll i''-t;it>; ,. lt aM -i.i It i L ll. i.ihe, lltr I'-ll. th
of tPlll il r tilu- Nl ii.l -,.h ,nl .'niLup-,ili- IVit.it ,ll li or i[ l.
wil ith l e Ii--ili f ti e il t- h .- . r .'ii. The i 'reptl,'ti st if-
I'.I. cllN i l il li i 1 oi r ilbit.- i 11t~-i1 ll:. II It Ill. thll ll I.,L' e i:' III. 11 ilic -.-
.ijli, hlim eve' I. li lit \.'r *a." hiel, -,h,:,,:,i l iI 1 ,-,r N ,'.r",,- i- ,nly 12 1
(hin s iii li .11l. IInII )1 tl i) .ix' I.ii t i rtl, l ile tlie l r-N'ie fl 'r w oitei
is 1 fl,,l lil ii I, Ill' .1 l t*iti fl:r N fr t' l i 14 ,il t
fitlll Illiitl h ,-- 1 tl -l. 1 I l;it t il" h sllit' h -I ', T. I "..- 'Ihl ,'lt'ital.? \ 1,l IIm
FIJI' \ .r<,i ;il l ri ,,:.:i tl' ,li e eJ.\.ff }i- ill llI' l) .: 1 l, f ,Ir
IvlJitPh ill .\ .l, l ia.1 1 ll,, li l i, :I l i .leor' 11 1 i i .jp ir ,i.\il' tJiu ly il.'.
T'.O lll li'-- 111 .\ 1 .-; ll,: -, I,,ii, -i I li i.i ,ii I] S ,IIIln I "'.il',i il.i. t".'e 11 ii' llh -
ke,;s il M i-i-il'li anIl m,,.', thi' lr It.," \e.-.ks |- s. i, T',. ,I,- TIhe ,l.
i IIcl :l l [trti i i1 ill'| iin.'ll l .ttl I l. ',1 Ili, I v': -l>ti .fl II r I t I rI ; rI 1-
]CKentickl Miai1 lnnl. M i,.- ii.el Ni.,i th i',il,,ni .-i il-. ,h11,ini1. O'ii linl
and West V'irgili 1.










NE'I:O EDUCATION


ILf the tLue '-ru i, '. r,,\il.-..: t',rir Ne, rro:,- -Is tot white-s in nil
.'i,.llltel Sn o 11.1 11, i t i ,-ti li dT tl, i .Il ;i i ri .: i .ri $ll ,7l :t ,I i ) ll .ll id
1ie w l, iWdl I,_w thlre ,uim j l n.,.tr ,,Ai elt' ,. at i,,ii t,, k' il -o.; i l, ]'lOwi ahl,.,ne.

C'UihjM .N'I xi [.NDI%'i, ili

"l'h,: ,.ill'ir:.Int l:.: li.ht0 l I,,_ l e",','. I' r,_ ,_ l] 1,1 I ]'l: 9- fi I ie 'd.n t g'd
T hu, ..rie i.t.nl f;.: .i [ i |e N it hi. illi 19.l.:'9-4 l 1%erai gcil
] l l' ,_;..i:: .' l ''t,, ]' i 11 un ", ,l I I, Ill'l'. r ill t i: l' n,-I|J,'i, I),Lp. x hli ir,- -'111 111
d O eirl,,i ai.).r.:"ihii l .H l:' .1. 'l 'hi iff'.,' ,'n ,~ I l l,r .'.'l ,f
, u "' lih ? ,i- i t ll .i:l .,:, il ,i l.';i'- '.,i Ittii'l -i s IInI 11 ii .s iN 111i "
11 i. t I tII ih I l i ,:l p .v.nll. ll t:. lO Il' ll~ '. l -Ltll.,.1 d I',l' i ll tLL'r't. l,,ll, ilt
s,-l l l.-- lil 1i 11 t, t.,:r ird ,:i v ,ill ,t. ,, l i a' ; r.,t", N ,:gi :u il-
' iji Il l 1.1 \ i .:lil i iil i.lk],'ilihOji l fllI '.l rill',l ll. I'::[ ?. l 1I1 1 1 -'" tor V\llh it

\ .iil. l| l,.r 'l 'ri.i ,.- ,', i ,. \ iil.. A l .-iI i 1 t he iiIre
i t'h I |li,-jl11v ,~l i. 1 I ll Ii r i l ,r .1i"illi- ri, ll :.11 II,,.' w it ,l 10.i r
1 *',:-" 11i A i l l .i1ii'N .ni i fli, ii i .i, i ,ln,, i t t ,, i lln il e- liil ill'r l -,: ill

I , ' ii IM .il 1 1. 1. : i.'tll i ., .l iii.l l ) i0i.t i,,] i ll i. ;'11 In i i'-l l ]ii,
H Ji r iiV OP 111 1 110" iii : ir.il ', . .1. N 11 0i t i 11 1, i lt- t v ,; i l 'i I .MI.I
11,.t11 I '.i-ll L IIIl i : JI --I il l I t: l.. i .'.11 L..l I% '., i' : 11 ll lli.

'li-_ ;ii ), ii111 l ]i l l ll r l ,..! rii ,1-'Il l l.' -II "- In1 ~.~~.1' '. I.ll ,)'.1:1 ill tI .
l I .. '. dt" 011 II I d 1.1 1%0 lr fill-
,.1 i, ,| .i 1, + In t 1 1;1* 1 1I .i .' L ] | 1 l,_l' I it*L l l' lIl'
lillj 1-,di -- ,i I, l l,. iivil- Il I ll ',: le ;| i ,tl ., l'"iii v ' [- t,, 1. l. ;1 Ir, Illl;

.i l l ; ii.i l .'i ll I... ,1iil in l ll- ui In ,11 ]':- 1. 1 l le t .Il i.' 11i1i 1 li, 1
Il fo -,..- t. ,' 1 1 '. 1 .11, : iai. ,I g ,.l -' ia l t, ,: 1 i'. il 1i If 1- I tt I I 11111.

It i' lr I r |1n J I I i lin Il. I .ii 11 I, i ll 1 i. I 1 1 i i l iP r I I .'i.n i
il li.-. 1 1 | .i I.i 1 r I l . it i l ? i l r Jl l ) i | ll i n I .
I I ,lI '_ I I -.I N': 1 '. I t ill r tI I l.: h '.'- ll It i ,' 1' 1 II' l i h '...I
I' i I ,* l I... .. i r I' l, i I l'. llr I,,'i i l, ,i- i,.ll l i . I I I ( i L 'I
ill t l . ; -IvI' d I l i '.*.~: ,.'i i ii I 1 1l tl th ," (1 I I l' i I.0 11111 'T I l

|I -.I L- ]' e, II i... 11, t .I II .i l t' .t I Ilit |* .11
,; it i),.,i l i.' I-i I i. I.' 1 ih r i r I, :. .. 1 0 'i, l i t I' t I' 1 ,

w i li it i I, ll, ri I. 'I
It ..[i- i| I 1 .i. l -'; ii l r ,1 l ,\ it > ,' l t i' ot
i ll i .' i l -, i . .. l '.. lll tl .l I ,i l h ,' -. lh i I . t 'l I il -i n,'
.1,1, Il I .. 1,," .,ii ,,, l' t,, t*il., -., h ,Ii u |ij tl l :; ..v,. r ,- ,| i- ,f | .,_ I l .ini l









PRESENT STATUS


by' th l," .l bh". .bil tr in 1H1 ~"0 tat,'l rIpii ..:tititn fti i., ,ll..ld, lwa .1
tlI I lit? I l .I rir t.- i. ["j d:'I l [l .i tI, l oi i l ,j .a ._,-. 'i li l' l,' 1,l ,_l'~1 1s
r, ith tlti l ii pji i 'l t: rit I',tl i *i.t i, rio ,i .,1. ri ir i .- l ir'iiiIi r ilifil
is k i' Ie ,i,-ut i i : -,: I, ',,r '..w t.-. .i. i ri.l N i'. i. thl 1 u fl l "-e i m i|i-l
'p ra ti'c'all , lt; rl:' I.. tlh lo: C il <,d:1,,,,1 ,,l i-iv :,l.
It H ill. 1 l,,r1, 1 ,l, t I I 1. 1 ,t 1 l:.i 1',: 1 t -I.r th l it 1 it i
0l lis. il. ll p 1i 11 .r -l .f.] fiu l Im, .lv 1:1 t i, ..l ti l I ri i i l r ,:,t 6 l il t,1,
lit' ,,l iw' itewl l ge;l'. i ia 1l.' ii tl e ilre? isi..l _l I ,II 1 w. t, h tl i' ,:,' ttli,,f ., ft'im .l
hI l l, o l.-: ,:h] 1 I :l inl llnii tl-:lli i ilI; .- T rl e ir.lJli il iIJuI jt 1, ;i,.e-
ill/it,: ri iTilll l li tnill i l.il 11 'n,.l ,:,it ii ,. '-:- f~irll'v iilf.-_'iut. il t" .i--e 1 .111
i .ll it.i'1 11 l 'I, :i l ') ni l l il ll 1 '.:. I.- tli' t' ii,. s. :.1 i ti'. ? i l.l
~lan' i .
SCHO-L LiILL,:-'.

P,'h ,,., Ii' ill I I' f,, 1 1 d ',, t1 I, 11* N ; I ll d, .-- ,.,.,.- I 1. 11 1.1 i,., t 1 1 1Sy .
I -o', -, the u'ir' t ,., 1 t1. 1 1 Iilu ..1,:',I t-!e f,,.IIl,.i .: tI eM IIls
,, trlill-i I.. II fil. l-j 'I I" l, i ti,: ,-lle.ist Nl,:i ri iiill iil r I ,t -,fl .. .l -ll"-
I.lla,+ th-eiil- l t; .' llh, .1- i r, r~ li,. It ll ] l ] l :il l' i',, l l i. i ,,iis. [ l il l -
li .n ily N 1 ir.:. f, i', i ii .Llii -- 4',iii-. N il ili, lir, .11 iil -'i 111t 'l

white l ,1 tl., ir il li,-, ll ,, i',-I_ ,t 1 1:, 1 1-* 1 c1 I r lll iid ; h1 il.h

110,t 1v It 1111i 1 I1l, 'I .11.1 l : Ii I i l .rl I:.. ,.,ll ?tily 1 1 I t li l' .i' -,il"
O ct i'~i tl' .. li,' .r i tt 1"11 t t, i irl'l l l .i ll l in i :,_ 1 1 .,lli,' 1', il hi. l111-
lIl;nk;ibl: ',l i'or ,,th,_'i tu.iliri,._ ,riliii.'nil;, r i,.,l .l.n .te ,l ,_-.o ,jii i;tl fur
i lt .it 'lii -.l l' i ,ii. ,1'. .1 .i ..- le ,.ri tio.n ill i :,f n ,l i 'J l. .II l lil, -
lle ]1, i:- 1'? s l., i .i t ,ll. I:I. Iii 'ii 111,i l. i 11. ii tI h ,_ i., ,,if | .. i'. li-t r 'i it l i.i<
f.rO ilr lil'.I l)O. ,0 ii .il. -t l i. ? 1 .. -. A i fr, ? \\'I \ ,1' ,Itlil Il *..-iI fil ii.- ,
i II N I IrI- I. I. -I i u. il II I1.' A i I I t I I ^ Vi IIr l I *' Il I ,Iul'[ r I .1 lit ]
it ll:l ll o|,-, |, .I I I 'u l i i tr 'a I I i I. I i i I ill h o .t'[ I f.... n i |- ,l| I ll t : 1 1

Di d te,.l il tl :ofi the l' -Tl nt sr. I ,. l | i pl i r N .' pup.', il, tl., i',t i,
b,?l \ ('li till! .)'r ] iili l \,litl ,f N f_-,i,,, b l ilh 1i l A,-1 j ,i il] ili,_ 1.- 'l,-, n litl-
in ,n p ,-r p lliil ,':tlle II 1 Nlljit', ,i il.li.f'- ill t li_ -f l e .ii ,ti :,. n ,] ll,
est iiu, lel ,t.I-; t ,.,"f .,,lliti.'nr l li,.i linit, fan,.ii lt i.?, f i.r N :_ i ,-:- ,:n ti :
b: i,, i, If tl ie ,.' ,rj i: ,I I lln t intI-II r e.l j, i'I v. iit pi l il. Ii'.I-r ,n lth.
t .-l 4. ,, l ih ,_.,i.t l lli j t ii ,- ,:,u h l r. t h 'T O Vi' .. t l li l'' 1, j_.I -- tJ-!
wTcc il th,. iii,-nilniinl ill Iilll ilr'* ; illi,.i~. i i.* ,1,l' ,,li. -li.i ~. thl,'
lowe\ st Oiing $111.4-l ilin rka ai-,. the l i ,"-t 2.'i 4 1 i1 l' l,'i'i
(w hlichl. ini,.liIa:.ll;. 11, 1) li: ln, l li, lih.- i i, ic !,'l tdi i-~ T is

1ii ..."










NEGRO EDUCATION


table slows that the ustinirited ,erst of a'.tliitional building needed
for Ne'-ero-, on this niiniurn un hbaii in thli. foult:-n ta:ate, participat-
ing' ill the Wi k-C'juferrn-, would Ibi apiiJrox at-e. $275,'-Il.991.00.

TABLE 12

Vailn. of .S:'I,..I l'ant Per N,".r, i Pupil
Enirrll.i an.l Esthiraied C'st of AJdliti:nal Facilitis


1Vaiu. cof i':'hool
Pilalit P r
N., '-;, Phil
.. 25 5:.
3:1.01
.-,.4::

115,02
::4 I'iO



a 51.71



7l.' 1ii
57. 7
3 "


'.r C'.-it the.: V'alue

is 1t tht- V\ainll.
Pe.r N lit P il.,il]




27.4
-'." '



1., 0

17.4
17.4


4Il.


2:1...
407
'


Estimated Additional
Co't of Ne,'ro Plant
on f BisI fit ValIn [
Per White Pupil
$22 Oh.)..,12



6 :Il' .-4';
2 10,i 0312

24) 1 I': S 6

4 1' .5 5- 11

20.11045,652

:80,12.,54:8
0 1.1, 1.4: ,

12,71.2..7>
*


" Not ,i ., iil'le.

A i.iur l 1 r, 1 r il ici Till; MS ITTir 1 S TU['P.,,r IT- S I 4OOL4

T lII- Iint'.,, l o;illi, ftlti .; ijt plliic ,ll.ir I'I,,. inI tll(h SN iili t \-, e0ill|) a ',l.-
Ir. thi, 1 .-t Ol:' thl,' I]Ht; .Il i. 4 Ii.t I11 : to li,:;l; O.f *.'fl.lrt o:r \.illilli"lPi .
,i Il.h ji,i, 't or' t,_e: .S. IUP,-..It |ul,]i. s i:h-.olk It
is lid i i I.\ o ;I ll ,'' i11 O lj ir l'.il;." l2' '.v .,il :'In lol).il cl lnhl n.s


i ll ii 'l l' u ll i- a . .i',.;r ,1 :i it w :l' -I l lsh l i t toll of thir
l'iilrltrI l, .'11,i li.i-'r S.ta ,t, 1-- 11. a l I, 1g,' Iln lt1 f r 1ri i t i l11u i k than
Il\y iv il in nlilit, to .sU )ii t 1*3*i ,.l'l. Ii general, tie S:utlherin
i'ita in c X,-. i tel iit Nir. th AiI twi,:, ;- gr'.:.,ll t rt .t 1-, w iul he
'Fr..ii N 'rt..ii. .T K. .iiAl N.,riin. I .31. ll', ,li, i'hil,'in imd IiJr..o li n.


Staitr
.\ lal.l*, a

Flonl'ia
Fworn In
K,:ilt uel:y
LtA iit *al -,



Niil h violini n

South CI rol in

TeW,-i-
1Vir-iiniaii
\'rst V ilgiiii,


.,iiii











expected fre-in thliir Ubility using thle 1,I.:rif ,- .ilility .iin] off''ri of
the nation ,-i a whult fur tli, .-ritrini. Fo.ir *::m;;ii', Mi's'ssipii,
a u'-lrl iiin to tiis snm lld hid ,,ily :;2 *-1. insllir tax p'ai.i ii. ability
perr pupil -is tli-e Uiitcl.1 lSttit_, : lver,ice, but x.i erts 1.:1 riilles 1i- imlich
effort t to iiippJ, rt cthliilS f; i- cx'?i tie in tlih- n tinil : 1 i v. I1i-d M is-
S.i.'silpi 'rail -I1 h li. ,n t0i, St it, i lil lity .'iilllA.l 'tl -Ih.ii l<. Ilut
GCth int *:L-'ti: t t:o .1-) \. A\inal;ibl -v. iiln.i C ,- 1 t ii.l.i:iae lhant
the sitnla tioni Ihla. not l.e- i iiisti: mllv il I .ilierer l ,l ii ._ I ll.t Inlt f'.w
yei 1rs.
If ability is 1..i-eil ,iI, t le tilX rev i- i., that uvitil..l I.e IIS'- Ij-1 y tile
m ,,'dl tax C,.telli illtr i .nit if ie-e l, rli.it i. i, pir r- il1, ianil tih ,i-, e i?
for the Unit,,. State is ',ii.'iI.l ',] r: ti 1.il tll i ..1 : t a ir AlIalianIt,
A rl:aiinsl i. ior ia. ?[, :a''hli is lIt-- tlnit .5)0. T Ih iiidex t ." li e tii k, Lui'lsi.lnt ,l hlih,.inia.
Te'll'iies ee, '1 1.~,1 ;n ll.1 V il'; iiilI is l r be nwi :nl .51.1 ,111 . 5. "lr l id il.
ihl. inrih -, f'or Fli.'riIl: .1Iil W \' t \ir'.-iiin ;ar1:. ir .:-nl.: ii .7. anJuld 1.10 0

O ni tlJ I' 1i.-i's if off'rt W itiill i] ,m1fillil.' 1- tlh I,'[ r .i.Vc it ,it I ilij..Ut
that i s .itild I.,t at il.f.ibl. fl',011 .1 ili,.,l.1 tiax .si'mt i, ls vi, v. i I i I s -i i c-iit
for the currnliit -oifst '.ifI tll' pltlil- s-ii:hIls, i.liiiig thi,: iavera-l if the
United. States as 1.1)0. Ala )l)ii.I, KI c -litii l:;, i.-i-si |i))i, N,.,rth C.';",-
limn, L.'>llnhii.ma, oti.h iC':i':liii and TeIxa ha.e an iideU' higher tllain
1.00. A ll it the i thi.r S liilio.'rn Sritfs liti'.? anl iii,..X l.,-t e.ii .7'0
and I 1.00. M o.st i.if tlhis.. Sl:t l < h.iiv' ihi ,'i ,latm'ri.ill i .i'-r,' <.,.l tl,,'ir
effort sinle tlie studio \'.is imadl'.

Educational Load

Theli Soutlie rin S'l tir li- t,\ iuiiln, iiir. hiil..1ren11 it pir'l'l.rtio.l1 i,
adult i:ipulali itl.ull ihliiil tli 'tatt,(,O oif iotherll r i,'i; Th i .So in-i.n
Stat's as a cgi.e- a]',e hli\ ) ,r..n tim r tj s, eitr"n : r,'. ,r f l'age
i f,,r eahl 1,i.IIl aiillii, tr, lliy .i, sixty- titr I* i l'. l ,if a ,t:. T i i li cir e-
spotlndiini rali- in tile Northlie t -t i- 420, ii, th,- Mi'-li:. S.;ilis, 4'- ,
in ilhe N .rlthl ,est, 491... 1i, tie Fat W e-r, :;;.;7. Th aiilult ,.f tirt
ioltli have i 'l p r ;it i11101ir iiii, < litd ell t i-*par alnld 1m .late il pri'o-
portion to tli-ir .iu ii unilerE thlit .1i tile adults of nith, F.ir Wi st
anil -1; pI r er~U t iir '. tlhllio tih. l .lilt- of thl Niirthliist. A lj-tinln.,
A]ka insias. C;,-i:-orgia;, M i si -.i .i)i'pi, N rthl C( i ij lii South i 'i r lih.a, tinl
West Virginia have n-li a;i, j erage (f O 600) or more ?hililrl-in ]ir
1,000o of I:tlult population. The Sottlihrn S.-it-.. .-iiaIlil hi.<', onily
S15.41 per cent o:f the tnxi :ly.iiiu ability of the- UIniti le Sttes. buit









32 NE'jRO EDUCATION

:r\ i, l 6i2 6l6 in.-l .*nil '.! all .,t Ilh a tim ,l; :iih i t' .l i i -ml e.S The
Nl .i ll-a ,b-rnh t-A. t.l s l 1 .i\ : I',1.5 pI.: I .el- t ,It Iti l tl.I I tax ,: yil a iliJity
in ll, Ul i i il i, j St .- ;n'.] o, il;' "1.4t i 'I e'' t -1 i1110 l i ti' 1i, 1'.t clil-
i-lh tt t S -liti,.i'l ?.t.

('it I..l-. l l o,t by l I''., '

It i .i...li'ii *.-i. h ii.it l.e l: .i is r'lll :,I i l ha tli h. I lir "'e iii i .11 11 .1 1' 1.:.l -il-
i.li'. l j. ..i i r',,,,,i. lnl I ,; a lll i t l tll:. S,.,l thil i ,.li.i: i. 1 l i Ni r ._ro p,.I |I1 -
;1i l],.,l. 11 n A. i ,l,ij^ .. A I: I.,;I |,Fi l, ii,.lr .lL :. i ..li .1 i :; 1 j.l T ent:ii .; ee,


l i:I ,I ill .ii, th I 'iru lil>.i i' ti -''. Iit.-i*








uNiri ;ihi 7. I i '.'i lI I,, ,, l l- i. I ." l' r', 1h,; .h i,. lli ll ll]i
h: Ner thal r it
TI .: f'. ll i i 'i l.,i il .ti,,i 'Ti l.I. 1_, i ,'i. l : tlie ,,i,,Lil.,i.r , i ..liilrrh'ii
f -v,:-. I ,. tii l.-**-11 .,. .11 . N." i| .: 1' lt.i'ii': .o iiil. l \., l .ll t- ... s, i..iy ,ot r
I ,,1'-, it I ",i I a,'h i ,i -:: ii* .' i,.h t f h,: S :i lih l ll' .i ol.l [ 'ler -; '11,?.r..


f A D I I E, 1:;

N im' il,.. 4-1 _'hllildr,,i Piv, 1, Ti.il : Y ,r- .:.t Ag- Prr 1,ill)1 AdittlI
.1 .e t, t t .,-1 ..l i1 Y ll' ..,L A t ,

S t .alr \\' Iit .\'':-_'r...
A. I .1il lli 444 4.- 4
-kii i.', -410 :4'4i
Fi, rila .:"_ 317
i.;. ..,i -* :i 4 1 i 4 .5'I
4. 1
L, i" l' i i ,11' ,713 ')

M. i-i-is i i 4'-l; 441
I Irr ii''

I' |: l.'i ] :.i[ix i '
..1111 i .':r ,lilla 4i.. CIliA



N 't No I g* I 1 .1 i I
'1j',.' I 111'i/ i I.'."i. 4i.i ."^ .; i^
f'f ,i- N
'V ii iin,. ::."14 4i,:I
W.\ ,, l iri ri. ,



fr" "'.i'/, ip. 7: a' .i 1 171,-'.
Nuo :n1iil.il.i









PRESENT ST \TUS 33

Pro'bl. oii i E, j eu'l di:,'i-ili'

N ot ,,inly s tih: oblliiti -o. thr < .1 t i ,'1 ,.t ,1.h,,,,l ,l.lH :e.i ])
d ih I :. i e ii l.-_ w lt lil ,i .. tilti ,I,,lII ,W'!l1 jil,- i Ilof 1fiII* 11,, II' Ll
Ml I I' I 11[re \\' I IlI: ..I It I I Il l- I :I rl .- I l 1 I I i I l,:.. J I fI I
.1 i1ili ; II 1 II l- 0Il il i i t i i' : 1'. I. i' p,. 11,: rii l
]is 2l iP:2 ii i, i l ii .,il i' .11'i 4' ji .1 11' ,-. i!, ii Iii 11 l i fii .. ;ir '31 ,i:

1* ll I I f ; I' I I- I III I II - I l1I
il il ll l r i ll ',. 1 i h.i. '..l : -, It IcI I -i ii l i i' 1 .l ll i .. I ll. 'ItI 1 ,t l% -
,.i', lhi 'rt; ;i' I- 11 il- I m ; .jii.r '(I I III. I ',i:'| i oi 1,, 1, .i' a il l eo I,, lplay
hi. n ,i 1./ i Ii f I ,-] i f.1h I. i.lI : i li i l i ii. T ir i, l i nt lltI
,1 ;l .' il 11. i i '1 id i tl lI I iil l l I x I r 1 1 ,l .:

il i ', li. il i i z .-Ii 4 [ I.l l iu l. i' ., i l .' : i ll i 1 t l I Ii.i Iiii 1 l.
\vii I.? ~l;i t .t 1 1 ; I ,d i ] i 1 it N Il. I I I I. 1 t iIir | .



'a lit-, I .Il te o11 t II II a rIII- uI It-, 1.01 Ill 1 111
lit tir -l..' ; i 't I.i i I'.' i ,; j' i-* i ii.V .i I l l i lT. -i 'ii i I i t I ,iS I
; li t,:ll hili -,.h\ i i I 1 .l ,ii- I il | l l l I',-.w-.: ,;,.{ l..r .,| ,,ll,,lill.
i iiu lli, ,il t~ hin ,. ii ',. l ], \ iii ,I,,l i'- ., I l ,? i .I.n L i l,- l, i ,r.'
fii r: i 11.iill. l h l'*l'- i' 'lt i l I ; i l ill I L 0li i l ,,l l l .- i ii11 1 1111:
l C it t ll l '14 H *lll .i l l t l I l r i l ll *''*;- In I ,ii iIrri I 111 .*
i.l *it, l t 11 11. v li ir i | r. i l 1 1 I l i| .:- 11 i i i :- s -I le th **i




Ii rilI i i '.l i,.| ', I i T '. tI li .r II.l :. I I -li ii il iii, i ,, ii lii\_.? t: i l l. I,. I h.'
i '*at ilti ni Ilr 1i a.- r i i I S it:_ I ha tl t v l. t ii--, i tiii.i ,i i ti li f.l
1 i t11 l l" ., ,11, 1 il i, I i l.i l I e l _',i,: .11 10 lh I I I l, I- l i, i I..1

l ,ii ,-iL l ,I I t lhI il'" -, l l i l" ,Inlil li li. i1 i11 I iI t i Il i d W'.t



,1i' l rl lrlP i i k IN Ii n Ilii P e'[ tLI:ili jz. 11 11 111 L .11 1 Ild. lhii 1 li e li. Z'..T
II. 11 *.; [)t:- it.'l.l.


or












CHAPTER IV'

lUIDING. PRINCIPLES

\\W live in a di,:-iuo..ray ;l ] iln. co1iisi.ltr onis'.lv2s flortnll.it to do
so. Whil,.. this demic.iracyl hia its itiiD:.Srfe:ttiois itril inathleiidici.s,
thlerei? are fe\w ii tiles coiwlitrl1y VA.io 1%(iuild .li.11 that A.\ltle'ira. \Witl
nil its varhioul.s Iopiilarion rou.i aps, ,itf...rt the I:.estt approach to a
satisfactory di.'lmorlati wa.y w)t life the '..orld lions pyet kiouWLi.

TII C ( 'l utit t i rtn of tlie l. TIite?-:l rSttes andi its SOeeral ainend-
iIelits a.,ssll f'. to al J'li | ill 'o l'lrn ill this coin tri, or ltitulfi'nlize'l
't. ,I litiizemi ofi this coiultrl tlih rightt, rei 'iu si ilitie.s .inl i ivileg c
1" citi zerll ill a e ti t tr, I i.lljlil?-i- s l lres ti :11 tiio'il iu o("
religion, freedom of the pres-, freedriom otf iipportuiity for edu-
.a lion. a.iinl t'ree. lo i to i:tla, l. tiii il to l- ike nll h _11,. -st li'.illi, .

It is .n li l a,' nl ttr' to statte ilIn sili.lde li yi-n. ,*, thle profoulid
tl'ilthi'l re:" il'lill. ou011' gr'e,it ii.1 sarrel lherit'lts h, ere iiJ A illelr'i.I.
It J, Lo, i>-/, Ill'.\;''il, IIl' l S t' 'i l? . u l;.te tha iildihlineily of
i. ill' deluo, Iu : L2'a -, o ev lMll];iv.lt it 'i,"ti.'i ill '-, O il'_ 'lj', \ ll Ol ll" 11 iledl-..
It i il ot SO t ;:-,; ila t-Very (i;y' life ti .-i 1 ll'e tlJ t culll gu\ ell lllielt
i11(1 Oil' I:'iclitil ;:1111 e(oll,._lile S.~'te lis OC rI'i'liii? s5 tlitit ,1?1ry .' l I'O I p
- nl.d ei:- lh n ,.l i\ i idl al ] erd.ua on l ier.ie Ic.- rrt : l in |lua l ifit-,l .it istI ,,,
t'ail nl ss .1114:1 eit utilityy 1 Of O .I)i:itnii ity it 1 :il fl .':ts it lit'i:f 0I,,"
t.u' li:o li: .'s t:i is so iiivto 'l d iilld, ill ';ct. (,ll-i' elti 'e 'v iliZ.-iZ tioi1
ic sno .oniltx li,:l ili\"o!\',:'s "* o indily iltcer-rtel;itloiill hiiis thalt illI lny
inl quii llitie ;ni in .i ti ,:st ,...; .ipiie'r |ir, :.t n:. i lly irlips iltbl: to elim inmate.
This lI.-t, Ihoe,'-r, slutil1d not iiji-n0 thill 'ie ne 1o close Our .'ycs
to exis tiil,. co. 1liltiol lis, l:,,it thalt frlilrl"ri in If C llltt lill' I t:l ille-ii'e to :;;1
of 1I: tjo lii'?1 tio SI'' t1llit oulr go'V'?l'llrli:i fit l d1tiii i 'i lOlul(lie system' s
,ki. t 'oi il 11101' l' 'lIy ill i:i:ol .i'fl, 'e \virh c i ila" ls.

Within tlih, past eighty years, the Southern St.tes hi:ve lived
tJll'OLIgli le'v;iSt;tltlI '!.ill' :tllh ItS 11111.ippi,' fi teriiiitl i, lIive \\'itiir.ssld
tll- 1tist .:t' O t ijlliins otf acir s of fi-rni l Ind;:l I.iy eri sioll aliti ii-
plr'O ier :i.Ilti\1'tioli, li v-e 5 I??1 t tel oi '-re ts Nilllt Othel 'C 1011re'F -
Cxpjiiitl.-I .lidl dlipleted l \ith iilliiiiiiIII bIjtel -tit to trle ,uotlhl Ldlt] hfl ve

31











II Jtl t..l t l. IIll'.' il ll.l JIt -llilll LJIII UII 'Il L 'llI U llA II ll III.I L 'r L L4 lI;L l
live th1? South l.eeau, of liettier :lpporttuiities il oIIther 'irel?:1. Only
diii ing i:O-nipari-ti vely reei:- it year. lixve tile Southern States
,.'ittiesseld a re I.IIr'e ,:'e in a.i'urieulture, industry, e.lutation, heIIlth,
and, ill fact, illn itinoSt every .spe:rt ,t lile. The South today is i
maIn r t' l,,pec[S ,lios.t ,1 1--ioIleir *.oLIntily. Trends to' Sofle extent
have been rl \ ersel.I. Th:reir .-' ,pl:,.lrltul.itills ill tile Suitll ti.lily
that ia e iul oil .1 t trt;ii;t ie tlo I li i? I 0li1 iii tlii n irl Iut wi liic l are
attraction ,,lIie i .lO iitA l ;i.l ri~;deirts from itlther :ireas thalini ever
befiOl e.
During ,ci.u t of thel eig.lily years, siicih lar.-'e prol'up t.iroi 1-,f
the piipulatini of thie South his been irn such liniteld str;it- eco-
uomiiiii; lly that n c-,instant sn util lt- to iir,:iet tile barn e iie',:e1iti;.. oi
indit .ilua i ndl a V. goV\',rjiimeIIt il living l i;, i,.:'i i in.,v itali,. For man'y,
the stri.ggle for existeice cou.lIl iot hlave Ir,:,.li tlrh clillenge it
w s t; iippos*..l 0 to l. e :anl set [l m,':'t t,.til.er o nuli]l;it Il a inle.il rc
livi ii rIeluired .ll ,of their tiine, .tteitiuj fll id il eie'.y. 'liere '.\eret
sil:li lilmiteld pIubiii fnllils fir c.,u.luatlonl rnnl oithelir *i. l ui ieill
fulreic iolln that It vJ not .il\ iv ys ,.iy ti I1s, thels? l t'iuli'.ld faiill y
and eLit-ibly aiiiCli- all people o',f both races. u_.ieurilly s ienkin
Ne!ro,--s w -ere inl the poc-'est '.co inoll ii c rCt:-jl.liton1 ai]d c ni," triil.iit. .: the
least financially to tlle uhlpprrt if -ioveurlnmi>t. It was, tl-r,-fore,
probably just as intural tlha N.,rocs sIhould.l lhavi rlc.cei.ei,: oi.ilI,
limited fa iliti,'s iln rltutl i as. it jha } '-en thi t r CIpe pl in rural a're.as
tend to re'o ive only lin itel lh:efiit. flAm 1i il more .vfiiiltIy I rLi .i.L
areas whichh tihly help to mal-I;, lpo.silble. Thii coilitiljin l'ieu iot
Llustify te tie inai Uuat tacilitie pr'vid'ld for Negi .ies, lut Jors,
to some extent, e'.:pl.ai tile s**ltil '11iii.
NnO\ that tie Soui th is il itu h I l; better ecl-on l.l liie co i.lition, ,I-
though still c: nisi.era'ljly bellow thl'e :veraIe 0t otlli. sect iioins
of tlie country Ili m ,rdlth ain.d general Jevelopin.rit, r:apidi pr'i-.; re
has been iliade luring recent years in edi':u tin,., be.iltli .1 en.:'r
welfare. An ine'e..ingly l.r'e prolsortioui of tle le.1ilers of lie
South re. clgnize thlit it i thle resiponisiluility of tlie .null i 1,0 t ik-l
ev ery step pri'titable to r:orrect any existflig iiiL'n itaible c:-' litillir.
More antl more e\vitene is Leiig :. llec:ted oiceruninr tl': nee!.
of all groups inl the South aiid more arnd i:more influei: e is bi.:
exerted to see that these needs iare lmet within the abilities nil.l
rcsoureCes of the various Southilerl States.









NEI- 'O ETI'iUC.i' ION


BAiC CO M-IDEri.\1TI-ONS

TrlIr','T .11r ..:ft.nillh I I. ll l 'iti,.1 ions l''i ii-.' tihe ri] tilit m i :,t N e:..-.r:Oes
Ias ii: l it r:il ;ioll ri h. l i.i hl i.. ,:,t ,., liiI A:rii in thI e l SIMu 111 l l \\ i (r
1111! d.'1'I i ill.l l 4riii l |tli' \ l l c, 1 i ll, i I, l. i 111,1 0 r1 1[ ,Il' til l,:s
1. .' li llll, ,ll i h i Iq h i I ,, Iw *,: ,, lIII,, IS'- Il h i lll0 yV i '._ jl .1 I t ai lt.-
ril, ,.t li t **rl ,i ,i4t l,_'l j l,.' l L i l [,et1 tillit *- i+, 1 1h -0,', luti ll, t
nf i iiis li'1r-1 tlsu t',,lI'..'.) in '.

(l T hl p r..,i l,-n ,,ft' N 1 ]',:, ., :t-1 ii ,'_,. i i?. b iut ,,,i' ,' 1,li.is, ,:,t' th .;
Illli j'l"' i|.ll, i ot 1 ', :,\'ii i] 1.. ,l .,iI|,ii .i t11 .1 l ,. i i: t i. l |' : -
-iIt1 11 +: 'Il' .ill : I- .,1 .I 1 ,l,_ ll I'T. t1. lThk l, I'il' le It the. ,
Sl I, trvS .1 il l ] l,.i 11111t .i I t -_ s iS .il th l -*- I, lth l, ,. lil, ; lll,-,i al l ,-\
-| l, l Il l._, ,.,I it .- l i 'l ..tl[ 1 '.'? fl I J t h l lrl l I l lrS.
?N o ,illr b -I ".t th ly i.,l 111 : ll I, n -lL -lt,.,* l t,,i -;-1 i .m lly
Do l" 1, inr'e "I .I i lit i t (li1- llllt'1 stzilt, :ll 111 ll.th ll ."il et' -
1ll1 1 ,. ,?..l .' I ,I li : ,li : .
k2.1 T he pi, blem of ";,:.el,- , l la ,:n l .JiL It ] I, Il is ld',

-t.:r .,Il I' hil i : it: ii :': .iln >- i NI.i" II hi ll i .',l 1:,, l 'i is t l' i-i
Il .i ? ji-i fl I 1 ii l i lnl ./ ti L- :i : i. \ ill .".:, uir -1 I Iir r ,: i,.l c In
;oi. : i i l ; I ll : 1. ,i [b i :'tl l i i'..l i l |. ] -ili l i ll i | i bl i sl \ 1 .11
i ll tn I iil' i l" I--,is :i).ill jo. iii mf"ll n-11, 1 I ',1'ili; : l ,Irr tI .lii,.1

tf i. ,,t' 1 t ld .1, l v,, i ".-,- ,n f.li mi n t:,l n''_h a ;,l



I li- il l OWN S a lnd : ild Iva b h.e iWjlW II I \ l ly\ 1101S Ioll n'.
li .l I '11 ': ., il.l ,i t.,, I_, l,.,ll,_, -.1 l i.il_ 1 ,,s i1t lii-,,
i:' .i;ir,:,l i s t r,.N l1 ',.,1t I,. r1 ,1 1 1,l. i-l.



u 'lll IIilji'; .'! i ll f'A it 1.t1 r n1(1 I l il i n llt .) i r 'I Li rilied sll .ltir -;
,,i ,:al ,,,1 ,:,*"1 rI I p ..u h ,d l t ,-l i li,,d ,tI 111 l| i, e ,. I,., .l;

,ill r.s ,I _l I in l.. ti l.,i l lli ,,l r II li i hi. I i l i 's i -

,'.'itll i.iti I l v ill'.m.i i ..ins \, i; :l, v,-: ill th t 11.1 tii6 l (.4'


(4 ) T Ol u I|l ',.,i i n ,, ; ,liof ; ,i ,ii,--.I .i i 1i l], j ii-,' t il lill s I -,l' ll
,l .S 1,,[ il..1i 1 llit l l I I I lid i irli l .) -' ,'i [i' ; r'e t, III Mr,
the S.,l u t y p,? ,&,' I :1i l l 1 0 : .,. Ii ltl-n ,I t t.,_, I, it k .-ii ri lli'll ''
r,',:e ,-, nl/;, I: thdt ,,'li .i lti iitnlr .t I.- iljow ellt t ,o H lie n1 ,:,l.,
:it iIIIli lill .i, ., g* l, l-..i ; a ilt i. I il ii iIIli nI ;


a

+Ii









GUIDING PRINCIPLES


(5) Eneih tnate ib ol.igat-l, to:, J.rsluri n I-. il'.l iiiu: inimtil m i.1

oi- ,-l l s. t I:lt .ill ,l: lild l,.t' II.' l t 111.. 1. 'i I l I o11' 1 11 1"..1 1.
.) 'I "ll i? i ._[ l0 ) 1 r 1i i N l to ll- i I.-, itl i[It: t 1 I) ? 1','| ij. ti':I % ,''
a tlite l,] 9r 11c." l I' il 'i I ',' '.', !" t\l i'" Oi '.Ci: l)l,:" i',, j' i t t i "ill:' ;
thi it w In i- ,,l>'i it l Inii ll klllliii ill tl li \[.it;, ,t' s>cln,,l t';ir. i l ,lr :s
tthI'rIt la;I I I vI1 112 111111 1 Il 1111 t111 I ti 1c if It !I I it. I 6
i l. I ll i ; n" ill lin -s, lt Ii Ih rll il, t -li. .c li '- I t .IC-l I i I I p llj. iii S
tl'i ll" ,l*0 .l.l -l _,l t 11A I l'rl" It i .':. i l, :". a i 1 I t .- III. I,! I, ll i |1 ri, Ill'i )' -L
lt ,l il ill,? I. l i jlltl: t'. il r. 1 lt l. L: ;l II t'. 1 : 11 ,

t eilr b tter t ii lj I ilt'l l;tI fl lt t.ii ,t .r J t-i.: ii i] i lu .--
2 -n: It, It1j- iillf'- p ; i less Tfor I l tl '- lllli'i. I' tl ;in -l l'or
tle N.it 't t a? -t hlii e.


ini hl :i l l--i r al oi Io r ll Uii t,.., tt,.: --. T Ie ,-[ i T ir 1 1 li:'e
i.a t i.,ii, th e r orp e !II t ]in, .-,_ [id lii,. l,[i ,.it i r.i.llli

ti :, 'l;t, i''l l O .,.liii ,1 ll .I .l t:,-l,-l l l, ,u .il I ,i ,Ii i a ll.l hiii ll
*?'illl )I, ll: 1:ill 11'k-, fool. In ki( ** l .-bl

fol" ill -I 'i t itulZ-l ,of .,rl rt ,?,.., r..:1*rl l of r,:.:.- .Ui ,'


IGENER L Pr. [ ir'. PLE_
In l pl.-,il in, ._ p ,ro,'ri' li_,ii ,-,,ls I0 .l.'[ I',? l lt f -till f'l -thol ia i.
p i'o,\' n' ,'n.t i i ) i l r'lL rii+ Ol ," N ,.-',i ,. 1-11 :Ilj t:,'i %l.,l. mil l -,ti i-

u ioi ) ,',rtain P i'i i 'o l ,.', v. ,i l 111. e, l:i' ,__,iih.,11 .' e: I f t il':
prii.ipnt ll l is -.a il Io :t .r u l II -,ii ii ti.1d Vftij, I l e -t |eps. Ii ,]ot r.:.ll'. i
to be used ill ,:;Ir iil i I ,I i tl I.. l 'ro 'i i1 11'io 11 ll ur I iu.i i I'-,lilv' be
ac:u;ptIedl T he l.ll. nll _',+en i, l pri '- ipl:'I .ir,: tn. ,:.-,t,.l fur Ilnih.l-
,1111.: ill vd lo ilil tr: 0 p1 'o,_,r:*
(1) Protr, 'ssi; c IPoli:c;,s. \,li i, lihi.h lhve r,.i.tt.l ii, "ib-
't lit ia l I 1 1L 'I S 1t.- L I' l l'il I ,.V ii yI :; I sll' r oI lh i n I'_ll r.!, .
bi- Col linil,-. lli ]h ':lit _l0 1.1 ;1 i- 0t .i :1. il'u .\ I. i] J l i "I
; h.ii a ill i il ":i i< I I i I' L.. i:,i ill *, I I i 's Tl'o.,: p o1l) 4l :ieE.,
w h i.'li ]ih a % iI ,. lt, i ll i1i zi-t1 ,:.,. _Ir ill .v |' rii' i ,:, .i ii.-
et l ii:1 lit ?i sIoI l dI I.I -.liIi.ou_ t inI .l I .
(2) Griidui ,l IIii ,r,- i ,r, t ,w t. .\ sol tiot i to mIn,"1 V Cf tl'J io 1',1
l]_is a'nl iot l.?e t.)\p,.-Lteld to 1 :,'t LI or i"lht11 t. E vi.\ o11 lIl r


I~











decisions cannot rei.ull in immediate solutions, particularly
whin basi: questions involving regioo il economic and finan-
cial f;t':.tCl s I ,I- under I'ionriideCration. Tlhe solution, therefore,
sh:oultd b.e conteniltled t s JS sI'riez of step?,. the earrn ing out
of ealh of which will ;s.-re ini-rivenie.-nt over previously
csistiliI sitl itiniiS.

(3) Eqii,'ilrr nt FTriliis Th li pl''rovision of adrleuite and
p:ii.-i .inle t r ta.1.ilities aii ii opportunities fir all roiups should
1.e reio'-. iz" s thl- ultiinate ol..jectiv-, of tih, pi:gram.
Nigroi's, .is well as otlher urotups, are iiititled to the rights.
privile,_tes a91d ol'li-z'tiins that ihlier-e nider hliht Consti-
tution ot tdhil Uiti-l States tor all American citizens.

(4) C'IomI,r. tlrns.i Pr ,n',iii. 'Tlie plroe-S -if edlueition for each
andi nil gr'llps and ilnlivi.lu-ails should heo rdlirected as to
ilt00'lopi theW lhiheit'r e',onomiiiijC. physi-cal, educational 1and
cultural values to ie iii'liviluals involved and to sci.iety
a .1 wh ole. T rh I prit'i-- il Sh11 0 ,111 l (ji r for imllruvelllelit
ill :11l phI.ses anld i :;t- l : : oi'f du',ition (o that one major
iron eialit te ri- iult \\Iill be tie dlevelopliIent of better citizens
;IjiI eitizenshilii for all groulis.
(5) Equviiali't S'.ii. ics. One inmporta nt objective in the pro-
i lilm ot eliiiiiia ii g ii ie.,-l alI tie. Shillild Jie ree,:giized. as
lhit of lipro. iliig eO]i.vilal nt ,.iIlrie-? t'or Cequivalent quali-
fi .tioii t i:; I lrii:~-iII resi,,, sitiil ties iinl erfft IL:itei lregalrd-
les. re :r rs tt r.e o I gras t. Statistil~s show that at
present, vh.n ineai.iired on mii l esliSi l.!e l .avsis, there i e
iiieii;iej s iii s, iiric ol Iolh whilite teachers andn Negro
te,:r,. .I':s hii-h slIhouII l rad,.illy I.' ildjisteid over ,i period
of years.

(6) Inre'-. 'i.l Salrics. Any I.1.il for elmiiniiat! ng inequities in
sa:Il;l.ieI f tia lhirs shliouli be s, d 'vell.peil anh.lid ;i inister-
i-:d thl t it will ioAt r ulllt in lliii deilr'l;asi in sial.Iries for any
onle ,roi p ol teO.l Cliir. The \' vny to -limiinite i (iequities in
inl saluaris of N'g ro tea:he:-lrs is not to reiluPee salaries of
white ti.-:1l, ers but to Ir ',.'id. fti in '.-;n ing all salaries
toward : a mnnr l de-siralle Ir-vel, .it'tl .Nl t .ii time eliminating
graudually a.ny ]uinn:,-iti-es that are iinde..fesibile.












(7) SolarU Schet'iiles. Any, t, iiiiieh y ti, aurrl.;iI sF:alarl sc:h.l itlos
I.rI to i',ullpll ils:ti' ially gli'UPji 't t deiciplrs -ie. isl o tline I'm ir5
ilt tlinil;l g i letit.. ll;lli .- h, tili. n11 ibi.r .of ,,:-.. ill co allege,
aiil on ilexii:rueLce l4-,ti-inoiiiir.l iiy tii llillmi.l of ylearS Of
tph e ll' i is lil itllsia.i.i r iu tli.t it 1 -i,.-> Il t I ilrovi.le' C nil
)prolw l .lil stiiii- ,t'f i]ll:;lli(;ltivi 'l i ol l-.irtilt iif ir tilV s for
grii'vtil. A yst s t eril i- jirii. il; cOu:-iiiilii:i:l ont lie basis ot

,.-:]iic tiilnau l, .,ieiaL l aiin cuitur.l t': tii s, ..ffi iieiicy *'of
v.',,rl k is tle o ly i, r ii lli is tii.lr ilhl,. MAlli "-.'v o,,ilp| ll--
.-atI'nii lionlil i,,. Pi l. i:,r ,,ii. : ,ltt- l, l ,_- ti y [ ", 1,:" : M I ii derj(l (
ji ] tile i. 1-i i.11 'i, ilri t.: tf bit: nil.t. A i iitili .itts illn ;ilarips
t"1' l- ;iii iiiu l i' .- i m lli..l ll'.I e .l .11. ,,1 I n: i ,l. ul i'n c rapiill.l'
hall a it i.l.il'- lul Illt i sa :iel' : ,, lll'i .l'. ,ili' i ,y i 1I I:rv ne.
O 'ily a l i.-r'til a.ji.,11isi i.- t (:ail i i ;ili ii ti:..,i,:l.- l In 'w in
ri: 1 ii'\'if._ I i lltlel da l?,illl lt 1i ,\ til l u lui. i l-t'l il;lliiiii QUij lifi-
n'ati, t i il II;1 r e,.t rtl lle* di t ,.O

(8) Siati. Ji'l.,. hili L. Eau--h -.ati lI.- ;n i-bil-,itioi] to take
,.O,.ry stkel* I1, .0t cal:,l- t., 1 ful'., I i rfr:q to IlII-].'
,1I.1.1 ll1'' il tS ra;.. t ai l:lt f ill. i Ii i l ., 111-1, :L '. n-I illi l ll-t; atil




Thls should 1i i il ttrpret.,.l t,: inr i t lI-it iea- lh stitl., -Ij, nill strive
to ith1 InIp tl i i in os itis i iti tn Sitl tit' i.-1i ii -te lic ef
C, li'\lo.p t hll !ltlt iv- ii lue, 11:.r 1111 1il,' :i llt S,)r t r Is-
silM e ll 1 t. .1l]nil l.mot,:-l it:; ) ,'_i.'.' ii0ll' .,, thai t thIl 1 1J.Ixl i-
1111111L 1 1i> \', ill I, ? e .t'! .: i .' .. \, s,;l,,,:,l ,. 1,flor" expe lilc l.

(9) FA it rd! A lM ,osbilty. T i:.. Fg:l.dir, l I,:. .:-, n i enl iit liIs a
direct Ir.'.-l,,!l`; sl brilty" ;1i l 'lll i-:l limit, tn ;I-'s-rl t1lir ,t:,ttes ill
lprovXi li -I Il r ., lt : ti I:,t'n l ,ic lit i \ cli I:h -; i ui liot beL
prul i ,l I v tli,- I it t,.-i tlh. ifi -.-lt ,to i Ilit I, si.- of .-I v,.'isoll-
alic fitdl i 'l~l? I O :' ,t. T iih .ri tlI irll t l [. 1 .1 11Z I 11h: -.'-0 C -
rih Ittl gI r, tt- 1 l t lh,1: V .*v lth il 11 a 1 y1 ot .l.:,l ctiolls Cf

of b1th rles \"ll\t, i.ie oliun il i llhe So iIlth mone? to otllLc
sectUions Of tnhe :ol llnt V ;1i,1 I,,t.mi ,.. c l,.',Uis L t l 'h .. sofeMiy l .ion .
The Fei.h?rail gt,'lv'eirii ent, lhrt'olr.'. shlltlal be ,i ...-nw iz<-ed









4i.i ,NEGRO EiUl. NATION

as li iu g a rsp.insilility lt.ir Lui 4 lle Lre-- 'urcs of the
itnrl ,:.n t' : i- i lst II 0ri I\i'.1 iiijIy ,.-i.I tL i.t il: l l f ;!ilitlies ireil-
Iy all of its -iti-,n.

(10) f,', t tu:lic' St/.'s. Aiiy tvp1 Iby li.al : r" st.It-e ..,Verin-
.ient si :'r ,We t:Cl -i clr I,', t]i:' Fi '.I-.l'il l hi l'Nir ileit vl, u ti
ar' t.tl.,n I +',l .i ,:,il,., n;_ p r,.,l eh: l i,1 thl.i- il ,1 ..'h,.,tilrl bc
i_'"'iIIs 'I.Tn_']t -,? Z iin.l iln thel i,.llT ',.1 ii,., ,. .1 tillbi l ott y a i.
ili t ,- i ,lOfi ,.n ,:. l" tli r i,- I n[i, i ,. i t.'er a- r c,. -,:.jai i,' l,t r ao

ii 1e ':I '. -1 'i.nly ii r Ijr iw:lt ll .pI lanI IJI .] i.: eratilve tlu] rt
ain. rl i : In l t n.1y.

























lilir;lI ll Ill.\ llllilll lp." k
S' .\I 'VTEl1 V

"-REKNE'I NF-DS 1N THi- EIUCA,1fN
01' NE RF-:FFS

N t *:.' t li .iir : |II e hll )"'fil 1v.. lt lii .-ij -ih l I t *ill oit

It ,i::lI I ,i | I .l ', i llir h i i i i 1 l 1 I i ll 'l,
w i lll .) i ,11- ', l. i i l h~ l -, i"t ].I , 1t I. ,si I tfie
lM r.'li l I, 1'.l. i,.li tlh '. In,.\ f: ; '.I l[,, ',',1, 'l\ hllri iia ll i,, l'. ;1l's i' li i3 -

I', II,- ,ltll, I l, L- ., '1 11 *f ll. I "il. ll il ,i t '-!i ,, I I,? I . j';i'l ;1 ] t: i lM r i' ,
;l!'i-," :nI . i. I ,' iI I. ,.,i1 ,ri l ,' I i 'i.i S, ii. I- \ i I l ,l -






U I1l l Ill-11 ll I II1 % 1i !h .1 11 I 1- I, I il ,., ui I o'. I p 1-
Il lll'l'.I II Ii , i l




t L? r i li rI rI1 .1 ii i;] i : ;.1 i ii [ I .r I.i :l l o d 11t !r ti] i l i.. f ) irt i;i l t ii
t il l l I' I i llIl li r 1*i li l i tI I.I I; li t, 1 1 i t Ii I i i iL'11 :1 1 1 1 i I li ti
















p r.i 'II -I r I I p I t H I "I t i.:- ir -:I'll t'l oI I I r I t 11 ; l r Ij lr.Vli lli '
,. li [l rlI, l ,,' 1 I.-, I ,i..ll I W A N I II I I.ll I I .i ,I' IlP,1 1ri1ii ,'i n it, l.-i




1 hi. h Q ll lli il I li I t,1' 1 1 "- llll |ill r ll l r- l il,' I i. l I ~.IIIh
g n'lin j ,,f it *i, ,, -, h ,', -i, ,,,,l h I .Vl ll l ,,,iil ,li ..I. .H Il iii,,r ,









0?17. ( i' /I, 1111 1 I :15 '1 11 1J . 1 0 -1 1 1. 1 1 i.ll% L*,*,IL ,
p i iill .t lit -l ii.,- ,:.tlil ., l 'il li, ii'' I ,.. th l. I , v r ,

i,' i 0l 7 l-i i li,11 ? ,. l, I jit ii ir, l' .h th .. I I I, h i' i. -i ll



:ll l hi -i i lii i i i ,;i' i [, I 1,,v ,;hll i' l nl il ,1 e l ,? h i lll i .,, "ii i l', i ,, ( ii












to,: Amierienl eo, ru mini-, eulttui.l] and rligiu.- lile sh,,idl be, recog-
nizMl aind aC'ieptedi I'y a.ll.

More AJcquate' Infj.'rmati'On
While' inii:easedl fatis r':aai r.iiiale the :'l1i atiniil status, problems
ani I t'-i s ot all '1 l'i lj- have lee'i Ilie ale :iallalile ~ lh' nll i re-cenit
yeal'rs, tlhtle i- s till i ,?el i ',tor o i.,liiti ll ilit Ii.tii; tiI'jii 11n 1al njy areas.
P ti.,lillci 'i- i ii~ia ,t I'e nbolv-I il n t -r ,is ,t wishes i. leeliuips. It is
lie ., siary to 1la:'c e t* : illie', ,f he',xistln .. i tniA ,tioiada awl to hlave
a1,i\iilablje si enl'i';:lit i rt.i*natll io ll m1 tremils ;1i(] Il.'-iin ild lieas whicl
itn be I s': S .L a tihe Il.si l, fiT ln l pl iiiiii llr ii ?ie l iiIIjlittlLIoi lt to be
.'arrieTd inti. |ir o.,ti,'al ,,l .r[rti,,n. W while -O:ii.-ii :-al.le intorinm nation
ri'(n.''] lnl tlii.' ,l ,:ili ti, ilnll fai'ilitiJ- ill tie \''i'ii:'ul state- .111 in
tile- v\ lli.'jii c.i:illlll irii itim ..S inll ; Ml ttj 'La : i.- [ l'vi l al.- I.' ', it i, -.till nl"cl .5-
..'v\ to 'l. 1 It I ;]li i ., :.. i.itiij'. W\\h t i thle real iibility ,if
thei \,1',l1llS t,.irt Is tip. sIli IJi t i' l au 1 lnltl ] n l i i.tlilo ,ill prograill fur
aill L'ii- W\ t \.hni11I. thle ,-i:-8ct if tle st.it'-. under: i.ok
to ei',iiill.e s. al rii:s fo'r i all pl,:ill's 1vitli a 1 n piri'.il .f t\u,, years.
.i l\ i \. '- I l' t.ii .,*al' -. W iI .l thin' illiii :- li;,t- xi'.:le. llitul'e, if
pr:'n ti,- ,i ,:, ,.lf thb.l .. m ie1,ed, l fr a: i: -,eirte e. il';-iti"ll;i] fa'cili ief s
ft. *a -railips ri:-.iil in s' ii:h tani g il r:ili't n s th ilt e. entire S iO iit
\l il.]l il. l.ij',,i'll l ] -I ia.rk y ild ] ihe niiit ii estl?('l T o ,]:rit
:. tye.'nlt i-,In Ihe lS uth pol l! itsel] H 1,'l j, o l'c ,,i,_n ally 11 its 0o','u "1 l.,.. t
stiip]''" llil fi 'ul. il I? :;telxt il \'ill F ,-lederl'a ,ll ] .l ,I l ier..: il-rs be-
il'urel c:- .it ;ii i il iij| .'..' l -i ]e ll l-_t L., li l. ,- ,.,. Iit j il]itlf it .l

.S t'.,'/i. l II/ I",'' -F,,,. ,i'i .'/ ',. i,,,,

Thi' !i4ll S I..il iiiUn States \\ rl.l-C'inf r(i-t, hilletin :'.i State
anid L. ..ii Fi in' ci .. *S -c. ,'i l ?'.i:t' ,- ,i ri- l.l',i.l_ ritt(niti( in to


mo-t ',,.mih-_e ]1nwri.i-l ha[ huhvol made ilifill 1 1
.l l 1 1 1 11 1i0 rccoi il y e SouTh
e..Vll li- it ] ll i .I l I iii l illlrl, 'IIi iI tiil ', I llli). ll l' oVhl C ll t. O. l.
1 ,-i S ,l ll. ||[ | I. I' i h.lil-l- 1,l:, il i l, l' ',I llit.-Iil l- !,"i ll. [ l,.;'i i lin- ,
1i' l I', lll 't-s I Ir l:,hl \ I l Ii l l 1 1. 1 ,l ii i ( lt li (v ,t ifrs. except itl for
;iilrllii,.r T h, ,n;. i',, IlI i',',' ,'l S iil ,:,,l ^-* l .i ri,. l h II J' il)lil 'or ii pl'pr iov e-
h l lll. Ml,,'.,l -Il ll"' -,', .li '], f'.,il i,, h l,','l .'-,,,lilt' ,1" 1 '11 l e-. irl' l.,le cr ite 'ia
rl f isi.,l \nI \ tl. I' ,1,il iii tth*P i ,II ,S I;il, :111ii L :11 ilmlill ilii ,f S'cihwols.
b' ijl'?i ., ,it *.- \, 11.11 ],.l l Ijj ,.. illl li.i.i ii i li III t il i.'ildarf hs w liile
in r,,.i I -; l',it- 2 il l ,rill ii 1,n i1l 1,,lilii ., I -*t i'r1* ,.I.li** r l 'y ihI ll ei ,









PRESENT NEEDS


for children in rural schools, or for children in Negro schools.
iiil:rovemei nt in tihe systeni-< of st.ae ind local finan. :iw'iI of schoolU ,
Mill, lto ome extent, f.acilitalte tile solution of ii.iny of the lprub-
lems relating to the edu,:ca:tion of Ne.roes

Salarics of Teachers

l oeelnt cOLurt ,lec'i-ous hi e l t' brouiglht ti. the tore qutc..ioi -, rielait-
ing to s lo.-irir-. of Necgro t*,.:li,?r,. 'i'lii-. iMiow h ver, i .ilt ione ;ils e:l
of the major prolileni ol ir,,irv i I,,it- ir .1 al ,iri:s ft'r .ll ti,.iellerz,
Sii e tile it\'eli.Le v ilI al ir r ell tor a lire te,-l hie s in thle S '- ith, is
consiidleriail.ly b.* lov, the tluliail ;iVet I.'-. So i -"t:'ienI' hav ilo al iiady
tal:en ,ctIri s lookii' ic ar'. l l'ein'l ill 01o ilt I :r.a t r'di.ll llg the Snl.lry
di rt'lrre ii.ll i.Illt'lr' e ,.iiteitI. W.I tiii Aii,.' h stlc-p.

Thei exa:t s: lhi,.y di t'l rrirtll .il ill thl, \ dW !onL. ?laltS is lal ,rl .Il l'ti-
eLiit 10 >ictc-i iii'? ij-r:ali-- ,t ii d,",It iifut'oriiiitirn ie',ar'JIin
cn iiiil t lti illeIl lii jil i v' 1 I eI, i ,it Il ic,, ;I I. ii l'e : il" il

Coll.ii ll loca.Il s1 lio.l ..IlI niI ~iis .i ti0\, ii r ts I ljr t i L lll)t-h inl th~
S .ill ,4r:11',. vX .,,it ,.1h. 1. il ti ll i-, ,' '.tiat is i.:l, l lh h xe ,.r.iat Sill.11.
Si,:ll- lnll ,- In owe .d im inii-rritin niidrit lie s l.' y ,ilitfrelitil i, ,o
great thll t tli iii`;1 II.' e-s i- 'i.i io -s I1 .'tri.Olln \t\i]i -It( diet s till
silttiutlO only M ,iv itill Ill .i litr 'uLnilt thle dill',:Ir, ce lhi- lW e i [p',t:-
tifaIlly O01 i.t],llt:ilt lllt! iated.l

I i,., cof ih1 I i l',ili. -iii' .rl i tiii '* to .1t) I. .- ili.'l i', aCl ''i ti' i n)
the lai. tht 111t a 1ii iii 'i .4 -titi: ( lifi iliti lni-h.-v.i fI ji-ld ri l lioiu'
i-.rt il l i ll. lltI'i lillla r .'.'l .f l, .l t i illi'lre tIl, li. I i Ti r iOse Of rlt e'.-
i Yfdl It i ;l -i tfio' lit-, I l'' r a .,. ilr -. s0or .o '11i Ift il ,-
tri l li, 1'1111 i.i, 1 fil I i ai 11 '..l i lls l.i,,i.j JIII i ,i l .'c l.ti ehttir .l-.
0r1 a l ti,,i r ltir,. i to .I,.-A lim .il -l h,,, liiiSt r. i,(:. Il it -l i''i :i1, ';
r'-gur'iinigl tie usI, ,e t4 ., tie t t llls. I r1' I lliil,- -i t''.l t~ ili s .ll I.' 1 ;
i.il Ilii'l i ,I l I .i .ill I l h it It .l liltrir i ', i T:. -III11 1 '-i, l. ri. a Ii s '1
I;serl F'r Ir Ii al.i rt I t .i\ l le t( rial l t.IO 1 11. llliiitji. tr l.tit Un its ;il'
that. I ii il \I I N li h lii ii tl I,, :i. i1 1 llr c. i.,I ,l,] 1 i--It N: -_r O i r t I I ., -i
are lint li 'ri*rt d i t i lhr i,,lriIn .i-,. til.l sitlt.ui thl O II ll .ureail'
imlp 'ovefl. ah'.n .. r. .ill -t;te% \. ijl,.h ha.r t ,t 1i .d. ,, .1rn .
need to fu ac'; e thle ijril.dl.en of t.t:rt.rllll inll tlte: **.xrlii L I' i-l inll
inequalitie' in s.ili'ah is and :.f Ilev'-lo.l '.i l**' I'm t t ic l iii ,
those ineqrualitiep.





















.sit i l.11 .1 ijl -,ier' l .sie t 1ilir iJliiiiii ii tei' lli] 'ilie lii;is been
test.iili.-hi.l i- .'ij ,., i i1 :i,1 sli,:,il1 Ij, i.ear.l Th.n term fur both
v'hlit,? .il N; ',i_.. s \ii still c iisidlerial.,y lss tlhan niiie mil utllt in
j11, i'-l stjt: -?. S nirl_ stilll, S 1 .ureI ov'r. Ji .al e l i:i 1 st ps w1 tvlii.lt have
tLllrl0 t': ri:',-nit i1 fll_ lh'.h,- i ui. tiln Ii I tlllu (1 tle 1113Xl niItti ll e 71
'ur all unit-. AXs p]':inir.l out in, the I.uiletli, :n Stiat. andi Local
1r i i, i. ;! *~f" .i 'ihooll ..a.-l l,.:,.-l jh ,,., ilunit sh.ii, lq.l al0 te%, enouglih
fi nimi:;ial ] l -%i ,i t ,:, [)> ,..,' i, ,:. 1, l .. i t,. %l Iu ,,0 II'uI -,I li,:.i le f':.a iliti s.
tliti iii i:. i ie il .1 I.y tli, stIate. it it delir-s ti. di Qs.j

_.',.,,+ a' l ,l,.I. t.0o i. ',/ 7 i. /i .;. /, ;.._,t (

I11 I iil'.i J'c.is iIl ji1 I ti1.lii*u tii'.tn, of thle N i'gr I I schools are
still ,.'in. inl t'.... ta' le r ,cool-,. V hil:- tIh, ta,'ilitie.s aiffi ded
l.. tli.'. .. I l s iit'lht l.,e ituili t :.ni il.,ly .-i-ehiiite' if sufficient
1 111.,l ,'i T hiil'l,,ll,, l l l';. aI'.. ,l. l 11vi. 1 i-l f t:i i 1 1n isittis i 'tot .' O





hill 2 .iii ,l .l.ii- l iliil s i,., ,ni ,i ,ritn ljil ilih.. li .ft i y t1r '+1iil' Or--
tori,,i i I,..nte.' I ,I -i-. th eb.l,.ii. I,,.. ,orl:e,1 oI t ,-ry enref' lly
t," ,,'i, ifu 111111 t ,- ha ty ,.,,1,i ,liIti,:,]. t Fl ifl< tI ,r Siplp' il, tinh fohe


pi.Ll ,I lit. j 'i.iv. i. ii .t. ** ir .i ll.] .rr .is i.:pliiii',d i.I tlhe 1f xt
l .i l i) *



I III i I l l l, l ,_ .,l ,'ll ilr il l r | Ii|ri ll. t I l,' l II ll i ,ll li, e il tO utilly
.i ,], ,il i i ,i'| til, irlits ,, l lild il,_'s li.,l\'e 1i,'n) 11 il, *"1 .14- .1 ('deq u i '-
]I lil I.i. r 1.- 111i II 1 I l, l'.'ll hll,%r1'111111. 1 0 J iM i l' 111.i ,Y ill th l_ sm111 ller
,.*l i..i.l I T hI ,,1 i ll 1 ri. l. ,[1.l itll-l, 1ij t,, thn' p r.es ilt hialve














to make p IIse.ill r Honst iiItI tio 0n iot ,id:' l ,i tnt,:- s.-i' iol.s tr.r Ne ,u i s. On.
the otlier iin.ll,, a iji nl.iei if spliiiliid n i.,d Ill l iii 's lhia e Itreeni
conIStiLictte adil prp'. rly |11111)ip' l, ;': foli i tile plrul'III i satis-
factorily sIkedI each st.te 'will nil:.1 t'. rec''..lni-e buildiLn nc-ed
as an integral iairt of its system ':t .-tart sclho):'l support Fn'lds
provided Ln .a L I itciliIiL lisi,, will not sOilv'. thI: -rie.l''m. If tlih
educatioiial ne.-ld c-'il Il e intrpli td ti i' tI linle a i ei :l 'or I Iilings
and if a i state cI-ii nrl a vl:e .avai e ilal l il in the? iiilnti ii s 11 .- s .-'ry
to umi'et. .ill il.j"':tiv-ly ,li't.iirtii,:.l i:d o s \.'l .ll-h : ii:.t l.e piro eliily
careIl. for ll troli lI.i; l tuiiiil ni:.' ijor srp: I:. lie tiil:r:'n it ':.llr .
solving tlh i'probleri. lli:, -'','r, this, prii:lleni tics ill .1..tinit ly .i ith
the Lneed fil. Ftedlra l filnl-ui ,is i, ,li'i: it'-.l lsn l r L ue l -allllin it b''
solved nerelyv by iialkin:-- FI.'l'l.al fuInds 4vaillrl o:n a pi'o:-',: rli I- r
matchli;iI lI..s is.

InstructiConal .AiI]s
ln.i-trnctiunal ails hai.. frl',u-'U ntly .b en almiiiy t titailly lil:in4
for both hlit,:e and N.,egro s.oli,',l- in riranl alre.i As S a gelti-al
rule, in the No,.in shoIls rli iiise titiitiiii, il [ills hriv:, b '-ii in.lt, -
quate except ill c''rtaiin sl-,:-ifie I-'-per'ts \\ili(r a prJ',rt.ili if stalt"
support has helpe1.d tip ;.ss ille tihait these n :>.l d 's 1 ili. et AIniig
the need- lthat ari: )porltiCinlrliy' in i'oltl in t .i'C tli.-: t'llwviig:
Tcxiboouks. A nriilmber of state> i. in tie SWntlI noir p ri:'o1.1 text-
books without exp.-nse t tti. ii.livid'.iil .lhihil( ii Thlis pir-rnm
is recolnizei.l -- desihrabl, l- w e\l,_i pr,.ip:.rlvy ,t ili.sl,:':l .n1 1 ;a.l-
minisitered aund is a Idr,:idil 'l hIlp iii rtlnr\inlg inielnllitir that
w otild otherwi seil exit lir.enise ot th- e .c- ii, iii in.ililiy .1 f .! ri
inuli s o"f ehilri' 1i to 'Lii'r:Ii ;si neidel te sllookl,
Librart I lool.s. Libr:ary ',)ol.- i1 i'l v, i:itli h i; l -. n ili- iosl t totnily
lacking. So m st. Il '. ii.d .lii il.ll l ii lii ti ih i lm -
chase of libriry- I.o.il- on a ni.thing basi. Wh\ll:. tlhi< is Istli:'"
than no funds. a iillit iiin' back'iS i f ior f'roli satisf.ictoiry inl that
the coniinunities V.itli tlie' l.ir fll t rill-s aie i l loor-st :,iillitii
to take advantagil of tlih otYer. l'finiti- ecoiuitilt i t ll ie' ne
for liblriry tinli siil, l'lilin lttitry Il' hl I :l i Il.l ilc r(ll. 1 rillr 1 1 ll
the program of state suliorlt .-o a:1s to i\r.: .--.iira:ii;. lint the
".wiltterials will be provil.1 .it le.iast n11 ;1 a niiiiilln i hbasi.













Most states have alreadyy mal.e :,in sidi-ranlle progress inI the held il
of suiJpi-'rvis.ioni for N,'gr.o ~h.oo-I. Throiugh tlhr ti sistanl': of suiCd:
agenciites s tha i Gtener.il Eduiciitii I.on ari'.. the .Jiriiiu' fund. arind
other philaithlropic afiig.:lites, i'ost stat- IiJ'.'s hav estaili 'lhed definite
supe'rviso.ry f aiiltiei:s to assitL ii iil)iproving Ngri' i,'hool.m. Every
Sitlti-rii lta .- lha; hail .i Stat .- A'genit r supetiscor for Nerro
s.dls "::l \ ha., liOc t.li-e l'..p':sibile to le StLt Slupl'rintl'lndent for
genor'Iri o ]i l'~ lt of the piogralm of N-w' ,, e..li'tiN .and for
pliinorii inr-'Vdil-'d imi'prov: emt.--in Thii pro'raml should be coin-
tillir.d alid St r i'r i.'tIir -il. A ,iliVy ti. iltlies li'', il\ e\\ }IS itld J(l.. fle C
or otr, i s ,,pe. x.iso ws paid ini p t t fLrolIn philnithroplic tiunds. These
sup'lrvio'i r. Ila\r \ rl::.l \v.ithl N ? 'grol: te .l i s L ill~ti hla\.ve I.i' l of
mat erirdi l i.lsistill. ti tlo !t;? 'itie il1\.lrl l:. o y stall" il [jrilirin lljn aliout
li*ilo:d iil iro' ?l l ..it '. T liL 'i I1" Ill"L'J'!:I i l o ill i i. i y L tii lf I 11 '.'-
I:v j'r1, f;lor' i t Ei l.l i s li;l 11i'li for lo-wl i lli f ioii iand.i for dl'ev.lop-iig
;' ili.ii:lr i rplro,,_rli thilt Ailrl .-.otirl .-';Iii. ;ile lt,'p ni risull of Npit o
s hIools- in Aill ..,1: 11 t .awl nn I .,,ul s-ho,,:l -n in i si.ktr'ative Liits in
which. thl-iir .i r' ar 'gro swhi.i ooi. l Thins pi Li:'. iin sh uld i.isurli' that



oi lio<,,t l Lo,'ci,'fit ,

i ,'.t'1L .Ua l e.i,. ,itli ,,1 1 I .I i1 '1 i i anp ,l iti i i totdl asi iile (c]l.iritiol
E either i, i t.i:L-i it ,' ithr ii r the 'tlfr. [,ori at:'? t iI i. t,. \'r .utio al
s'.hools ,_r ili.ir t,, it i ,. i.ir r,.er-itly _u,]:..l fr Nar.' ,ro sel .nls ill
11li "y l. i'>t I i l i .i ti I. I o il1.:0 01:i': iliy (*.-:anIii -* ,-n l re'.Ji e tlieh
[ ill l iii dl l tr illii ilh n '.LOc( 'i .li .il 1 1 ills ,[ 'il-l l]l lh'dll'iiin .tI'lill
p rog'.:, ri' i ,'s.::.' \o .. tJ,:i,, itl t '.-hi i i ,. '- ,1, s tn a il,_ e, u it.,l.,l,| d istri-
butli,,i i,1 tilt, .lt,.' .nlil P .ai,.r."dl tiillis II ,C' ES "y i1.1 riovid, ','de'-
,liiitlo V ,o'--.,ti, ill., tIIr illi ,'-" fo r I.,o t i ia i.',. .

CoH.!I, W\'ork

\V hil,_' ,.,ielle <. -,ilc itini f,,r N ,-'i,,,- I,.is h .,n-' i gr,?,itly inllpro',ed
in inot t;it,..s, In.ny or the xi:tiii; 'aiiO tlM ,iare_ tut.,l;, ilia dlquate
:ind tlhi,- ,iirri.t- li.ir, in ril:lil' of tllh instititioiins i.s el-'ltii'rvly too
r i' i.ti 'd it ni ?t th i ?,?ls. It 4ihs 1 ild I, ri'V. !iini:.'!ed tl at fi a ili ie-s
eluliM il,'.nl to thll o.e? Irovidu.. for the- "liites. sholi uild I.be iitl] .ivail- I









PRESENT NEEDS


able to Negroes iln all states. The foll_\ inLi si.gg:lstions see
pertinent :

.nilTergraiiatc W\'uri. As j Lealls .f ii iprovrlig iirndergranlate
v.''Oi k a Sull \', of i::'', ilil Ste tl:," ,h io h.l I'.t il.1 t'Ilil il IIi 0 ill state
in order 1t, i eti.r:ilile tihe \11. -ll: plj i ts iti i-lliegl., pro:'.i:iis. The
State IjO rl-.1 f ('itrt l ,"or orl h r gI ... r illi' li,:ir] Of.,r til.- Li tit tit.ti s
of lligh--r Lea'rreiii -hionlll t;ik. tl- to'I provile for iettelr .articu-
l ltji ll :ll(1 iiteguir tioin :' thie ii l:,*i: iii l i:ite ii.ttilic ns fr N ,.tp'rrs
1 1il1i the O.f1.i ve- f st tit c- p\ id,: 1l lill of e ii.i'_-tii>'

(iri'litile 1iJel P'ifi0 Si.iil .rI I, rl';ii, Lt t E;lth 1tate .!h:il-l 1plan
st-pls in keei' iiij g ;,.1il ti. re'ier: i l C i t I illiIn" lI:. eistalii'li rl ':ii lalite
aiiild I.irot',f.',ijnal i:cui-ii s in th ine bit.'l.. N'e r1" c'- ll,:'.s to' pr:, ide'
i.i lc:ortiiiiities sirijilar lt:, thliiSe a tti ],,d l lt... h lit sti'il.Iits e; t S latl
e ll,?iv i Olliinc- till, :. i. i _iill \ ei ll i, .l- r I:,iiir nl0111 l i li e p-
pro\l .d1 p 'lV1. e ,r 1"raiit l :- "t .i prit:,l--: :']i, il ."celit, l. \. thlin stl,_ M.al,'
to rcipin oili at pinldli c i X-i'entri \. ori iii tlic-se ehi.l -, in \'liih:l they
a 're t.fteriiig CI.rI':'.s ii,.,t n.xv, .iiI.I 1. C t i lt t illt ihiitilltiiols for
Negi',.-'s IIn states \% iir lii's. t I lie II' ge t.ios t i iis i,. I. ..i efl1 ) prAc-
tic-il.ih for lthie so:lntiJoi nit' ] l', l ii4; III lie i del' i si: 1 l.al ii ,1 Ic frl
gl'rdlllfite :riil. p I' ofes i. c. i i l \,: i rl; ell lt '. ell I1e plrov.l\.ie.li Iit s; ite
e.'x )l'-ls'. ait I .ti- ori :e t .-iil)o .r'fil h'li$.

Train ,g of Tec,. rc The ie' oi,:r still in Iiitei;n ofl the Inar- e 1!111it"r -11 N ,t ': I- t .en: 'Iliers \\l o file Ilit:C Le'irt.itl llOt I. I:1' ; l.
Ceeitith:i et.1 nil t ie I ..isis cf e.v lIv' .trii..l r'.i. F ini i fi El"r Ih'?
tiiliiilli o1 te:ie lj-rs lil e l- i':'Ii so liiiited tl. lie i ll ii, il stilett.'
ev-en thus- tea'llei's ,ii. i i i a l t' rit ?l,'i .I t.-ie li-hr" tr-ir illiei C'otll'! ,
Ln,', lihad in -i ]erjluilJle ils riirt iii, P:l't'it i-tifl r :lt elt li,. l i.' lilli h,
given to the pi robi lii of stre.-'.ii 'lr ii1'.i e.,ichoi r li:iiri'nj, 'o'lk for
. eg 1t, l,?il' .ii,'rs ; ill ef ti:l sttlti 1' viill. iliro it, l preg'ress .'ii I lie 11in il
iI inriir ror\ 'iri .Al'y lliase Cfl eltlcOlioil n tlilil s, l i'r l- t .ie tr le t; l it il.iinl
is assured.

Fedrral Filna ic .ial .1slis arit ncc

The Souther r l States \Vcr:'hri e llleu .St' i el Local
Filnaiicutg of Sclholds enills ..itttieI.il.n to. the flt that Fl1'i.hral tunls
for edl.C.itit lle Canlle he I r :,l.le 1 ''Jdiilllle 1 ilti'.itilt 111y *er'Io S (h. llir' l
of Fedel'.il I-:ntrol. Thal r'p:-i)u t alfso lIin:ill;. out ci.learly the fact

















ci il .ssistu i'r 'TIi'.'z?'e lun.s sho il bc rnii.le a.ivji iile on, the ba.:.i
,of )l'ee l Us lou \liui y i, ] 1 ol.i.i,.ti' e 1-.,irnuil. Fe:'.li .il fulil(ls ilgli:l
V ell C11 l iIld : da ',(til.llh (ni 1l ,I I l Li. S ib LO 'iSI.11'e tlli', clllinln litiL01
Of ii l ll. tlific .l exi tiic .ll'.t ,. i l i t' i lli. l i i -lll i es :.lli 10 j ,ije' tl he
pl oi .Al,: il Of 0.-ji" i l:lit. w e, tillv;;itiI .Il ,, -..i'lt| ility, 1,,t u l "y be?-
t\%.11'I i ill a l d Ill i l i.'i i -'-i >;; il ; i .I 'rl i i .t. l 'i i ,.l hil l .,1 L1 t,-, bu t
i j l ,i-[ :t \ ll t,' i ,.l N,',* :'i' s. M ,n '' 'r, the.. jl.l ;l t '.i school .1
[it: ll, 1111 ri 1 no:t by l.lioll. ill--: 1.i eilit 1 05 Wo'. v 'jv.i lel l 1ll t1 0ic
\ lii t. llI li.:i "r t tlIy g. I'Ol ii or i ,.-'i liiit b 'y sl- t ill'. the liiliov'Ce-
i t of ,la ilh it c f'or all ,groups ICari.l I,-ir ,i.s \lii:1hi .11i 1i.elow thl i



(CONTIN IN:; AN.. Pl:;il-:'I T N :I:L-

M .at of i lt'e pril':,. lhl- .1 li -,0 s ,-ld .fIilJo [- l1 I;.1\, -:olitill iui g 1iitl
l._ --ti llL- ,lt I ,l,-S ts :s -: ll .iS illl ,i-..l t. i .iSIl ,",t E I\' ll t li[lg ll
iluii elll it 'il c itIi tt iolll ( li to tlt pruIileI Is 1i y li:; l i .?' eil .t11 ] Loll-!
sithi;it li l ', pro4rli'..s. iii,' e i.li11 1 iIn thiI I iil t' ltili' thei'i 1 w ill still
bI. rphasi ot li,,-:' irouhlelmi liilih will r hiillili to I,? tiui.lieil aid
l,,l'. e.l i lt't.?1 Ii i.l ',ll'<. The' [th le h j ll t ri l w i.lo hI i v:, ileeiiediate
:slii: .ts l .l.s: di tiinitely reilireis iit phases of the *o' tiiitii.i g lon '-
lin; ru'ri irnii.

D,'i Kocric n Eclluclirin
.\A Oine fiticlauiiifril ml reins ut' ilhi ittilita i ir ,, ilii floorni.y, it is es-
s initial thlit piiUbl W oLlic iols r'iii'lii L is cklu-l ;is p'ossiille to the people
llii .h!sr\',!. 'li;s iiii.lli' t1lh:t I. I lili.i tiVi shoiil.l Ile uprJoperly
sil..,guril'.l, .\ct th ;i. : cli t;t should ost'Illil -.i ucih st.ilnuards
;1 .i i'.' ilic ,.i ry to i'\ :ill I,., ;, l u ;l lsils-. IL.o nl ilit i'ti\ e siuiil
110t I iii 'i -'iil,il .ed j lu l ; i.'. 11 t t it .,-ii IW' 'isc d i 1 ll _Xn -cIISe
for 0ti-,'lo ,iic.y liiiinilli ,s l o' ti t .i'iii n. ixli: tiiT iniiiiillitie,,
hii li i .: li,.u ltl bo c>urrc.'?t,,l.
















hnnll i a tLiii.i t lj li o ev ryI l.I r l 'in' '1. 1] p1,'I'll .111'i.1 l.jll l il I 's n;:S
genuine leade-l:r liip and 1 i L ia liloin;tie. i.-v,'l-lic .l',1 pii'r.'oI., he'
should be in po-rition to nssisit intterjally i-,n l.1 1 nia ly ,f lthl
problems M hih aile i i is':u -.v i i this hili ,"l' in. II. Oil thle ,''tiler
hau l, he is not proi-l if., oin lly. tr;ineri l. i; .1.]'p...-iil t tli''n ii IUl;lti:l
selection, an.ii is i ,:liji .l i t Ibe i' llr, --i:l i I-.i.'r .t i\ '. Ihe' is lil.ly t i a t
as a st liil.ill' Llo, l: il tle 1' ': if ia iirI d ililIIl i-rie l iiits. i lolw -
eveL', i t i'1i t .y eCr ciy SiI p I' iIiit .: 'li i e i C[ C I il i iliiil 'l f sl I ITI
progress. Hr miiist b':- sulpipi teil l. a l1;.ra1l a l.1 i.y'lnpnithelicr
bo l'rd of ediin-arici l ;nI. I iavi i elr ns ,:i.lance ':f "i enliibjle, trnindi i
staff. Lo.an 'l''l ch fol rt i;als ; ii:-h ] ill : a i ici:'tlli ili stiudly Of
the pruoble l f rit' i i] \ Ill- iiineiQ ,lit i s iln C.lu,1 a triiail llppl'ir itiityv
as amionlg vanio ius grl'oul \\U itl il ti: niiliaijstr'itiv'e anir ,a. nas
between v'ari:,us adt niiiai .r irative i nits i n th staIi T h iy v laiihIiI.I
he expflirted ti l a ',lr :iaind r1; a .,,a i ia u lic. iat tin. _iy 'i'ib;'n? \liihll
m cc't t11le niI-.is shiv'.n I.'. n C.I:'itti uiana stuii'y l i 1 '.hiih ni' lu: n-
diamentally s' ull '.v heu vi'''et.l in the- light of .;eFeranlly ;'i:riptedl
principles. If tlhis id'nii is to 1.i. ie liz,,'l in a ll ~ ii:ihol ijt uin il itis,
it will .ie ine.essalIry for tlii .*itiz-ans to ;i\Fe miior'- atteilition Io tIhe
problems andi needs if rleir slnh ls iin order' tIoi .isire, tlih- s'electiou
of qualified sehinio officials to I epli,,', st tihemin Mt stqte.s .ill
also need to establish higher tani l'I.ls for sihoJI ,ilni lia ., rtian.
Furtliernmori., landa~ rii; t'for ;m.]iindisitr ti\e r n,1 ,l ,,s rvi a s'.ry as-
sistanits should pla,,e *S- icater eiiilia i-id on profi-'sioilaIl i-iu lific:atio:s
and ability.

The Curriculum

Cuirrviulum revision i.s :ian iv':r contininin. l ,rcess. As e iliziti''ln
changes. tihe '.- ri-.-i ililii of tile, siclhorls sliiiilil elinllage int orili' tihit
the schools liny lie Ipri.'p.liared to iie'-l tile neied w'hih vwill l.bt
faced bly ille hliillreni.
Far too often, hoih \\ hiie anii Ni'ero si'hIIol' i have betn so'pinlmntel1
from tle realities of cv',ry .;ay life. Sovcity thas be',i c;i:nin,
rapidly and the very f.iliiv of llte ?econoinic s \st-11m tans changed










miiterially witliu rece-nt years. pa;rticulJarly is it affects Negro
-iroiips. In the average school, howev-er, these problems have
received entirely too little attention.

The Cerricuila of schoe 1ols sh0ou1ld be deteirminid to a great extent
by tien eronomie and sociologil-al euvirounienti in winch the schools
exist. A.ceptalee of this tact suggests the iilpoltaneii of using
cOunmllllnit y iresiirtes in .-urricu ilrm re-ision. Suchl a prioc-.dire
\vill involved problems of comuiiniity health, recre. ti'nal status. land
use ai]d soil c:.oniserv'atioi,. hoLusii._', food supply, religious life and
iiiiiiJ',rolls other rel~iteld roblel.i,. If ti e currii uluiii of the s-lluol
is to:, be cO:-innunity ce-nterIed,. the work of the -Parent-Teacher
Ass,:,intio, of lii' th ou1ity rniit, and of the various Federal, stnte
1and loi;al agnel,.ics in a 'nilniluity muiist be inltima-tely related tu
the *,-l.irg-..l school program.
.Most 'e-,-jundairy selhoolsl i have beon cldiniiiiiitil I1y tile eolle'iZ
preIpratory cnnelpt. (Ot of eIach i one lhuiiired pupils in thei Unit-'d
lataes e lterii lhi;1 seliool. Liftereli sille-. lltS l il;Mit'. Six of these
ifteln lhiiAh sehiool radnate, enter ,college. At least three of tllie
six hiil"h ,ie-lo0l g'lr lutiled s fail tio *-*:uil lete their Colle'e \v.ork. The
iproportionu of Nei-'O sIt udeints v, ho hae enitere.I highl selhol ai:nd
i:.:iliege.', reislp tiv ly hl-ic b.?cn ci en silnltler tlho ii these a\er-agin i
iiltliciate Thins' f.i:ts point t t tthel ne.i:l tor .1 prc-i tly en ielipd
-iurri iilurn for both i:leiie-nt. ry rni:l li.h sclorlnl pupils w\'itlh inebll
less eiilil.asis on ':olle-e entrance reiimiretrii nt5s.

Schir,,l Sttli:ldirds
SC'.ho'ol sta.indirds i ll most state- upi to the prlc-sent have been
consill-red to< bI: larely apiip-llile to high schools. Elemeiintary
silii'o-ls Iavi' ti-iiledl 1to be relatively iinerleete, I. Thlire is nie-d for
fuii tier 1stII ly of st:tid iilr.i ii fi r t11e dlev elopiii eit of a .'I (ltilato-'
scalei of st.nii.liar's aon.l ob.ie:11ti\ t s v 1lh wl\l ll have appllcation
to nil sch-lol.. Thle iinmaller schoIols sliouhl certainly bIe expected
to meet a;t le..st t ? iiliiiii lin standar.1s. H i,_lier, stand r.l ni lghi
well be est;il.l-liseil for tlhe liarce.r sehlrols, lut tlie ultimate objec-tive
should b' tor nill schools 1t attain all standards which are ret-'og-
ni;',,d as disiral.il,. A ostl.ly ijf staicnlards and lobjieLcti\es by f'nculty
groups anil evali;tion of the sichol pirogramii as related to these
shiouil provid.-e i iasis fir -iienouir.I-_.iiii-g needeOl iinpri\ement.









PRESENT NEEDS


The .acer'rlditiii, of a sclionl or of : .:hool s ysteF should be
determined on a fniitional basis, aiirtictilarly if the thesis that
a school shouh.l he evtalu.teld by ilte ext'Int to which it serves .o0m-
imunity inred is naic.cpt?.1.

Teacher Pro grcs.?
'Teaclers lo not *:omnplet? their prfeparitioni, w\ilr they finish
a position to help to impr*..ve tle iuril'l;cll iili aIs liiee.lei.l and to enter
the type of ei vice which will ibe lijost useful tr. the ehildlreii and
thlie ioniinIm lity, (-e should .LC Clj'. tei.l to I:eep :lruai t of develop-
meit' I-i general, Negro teachers li-'.e, .linri-ig recent years, ftlt
the iweed for broad.leniiig their horizons. ALany o tIh-ni have lbeenl
prev.'ijted.I fr.:.in improv.'inr, their triaiiiilg I y liiIited e.o0iiomic
resori'i.'. As salarlis are' i IIprov.i. inie te.i'l]:-rs should be in
position to take nlv'.nit.,.e o" thi poscilility of' iiiipiovedl tr.;iini'g.
Droirler aind better te.-lhers 'ill imean .1i enrii:heliel 31i] improved
program for nil schools.

EconomicT Probl)ems

The ecolonoine prril.liiis forced by the S.outh 1]I ili (lidoubted'y
Onitinne in soUni rcsp.cts fnr manny years. .s p;,.i!nted out by
the President's Emergency (Conainitte e:
"Thle southern reIiIs re atlfeitel1 by Iooplliil.tioi shifts more
than othlier se.-tioin bIiea.iI'se the greatiIst prritio ,tion, of the
no\ ers orii-in.itf there. In the lii2i's tie stents so0111i of the
Pitomnma' and Ohio rivier.-s rind eiist of tle :M1si-sipii lst al.oit
1,700,iJ00 liersoins thri.ui2h uiii'r.itioiis, about ha l of t vlihin were
between fifteen alid thlrty-lli\ yeCr? of arg. 'IThee perous
inrivedl at the lie iininniii of their pro'ln..-tive life ti reginls
which giot this iin pow.'er ;ilmrnit free of cost. wIhi.r;ras the
South. which hld borne thli eixpenise of their t:.are a iii r(lii.tiiin
up t'o the time wheni they C.onil. start Irod..uiing, suilTLIrel ni
almost complete locs ol its ediii:ationil investeriniii. The orw
coineris to the iSoIh ,.lid iinot i\-v iii'y means Ibailnce 11I.ii liils.
The .cst of renrint g aii schilihng; thie yoi.ung l',ile of iihe
southern rural distric:ts liho mv, '.'d to cities ins .ben estimated
to be approximately .,L'..j)0,0)(li,00(i) niilully."*

S*Rlportl n C, nlinari. Cur,'itirioni' Of lir .Sr',illt Prepared for tle rPlesidel:t
by the Nulionuil Emergency C'uu.:il Page *.ij.


















one-;ix:1l li t he 4 ii.it n'r hliool ii,:ioiile. From II llie standl point Of
etloi t, ti' 1 'e Oiilli j i lil' 1111. 1 O f Its etil U ii;L iil l I.lollar on thL
elni L'ltiori of irs cliilllrfil -11 i ll :in i tlher te-'rior of tie ]natioli.

The rsiileit,' -,if lie Southl, l.i.th iwljite a .di Negro. face the
1 .e' siIy fiC r siitt ii tlL--, i' jlpmli n in r ] ib, Iliiflfl S ; ib work-
Ill .ll- it tlejl' ,.i. ii l 1Oii 1ii0j 1'. 1 'l',f l'e thei FeI i l:r. I hl l'lll llt lias tha
iii.,sc.iliilhl- oal.II ti' ii and! ri-i,:uiibiility ,.,f pr.. itlinig the financial
n.,ist,.- t i. deil lf r the I r'-i i po t of their? sa-hookl of the;
Sou1ih 1 ':.ll as : l thl i 'r' scr--tions :,'f the Natiion. It is axiomatic
aliit this rl:i s :l illity sh-rill I), c' s'lio0i l ii r-] r 'h.. .illn lity f'ir lile ,lrdili;lstr'.itioii 1 .Ml peL'rvisiro
.,'f tlil e eliCh'ol-. r-oitiniiu t be v', sted in the res'pective states and
lI-eat s.oliirI al.] ini.istrativp uuits.



















there ai-' ,I-'s.il pro l,_ns i l t >^r,' y "slV ,:th,:r [hl. c. o dii-
caf.ion. T he |..r:lttic .il r i i li ., t l i e I t .lip t i r .i .i I'. rl, fl ..e
probleins m will d*:1p'nd1 to a gr, : t i':r,..t rip.. 11 li t l.. riI.ir. ;:a,
ncedr, i ln tie i l itirititIl .tid lt". SrT'' t I t rllil'i i I l 1 il ; tih
problems gr 'i oi at i the i'eetis Vll,:IJ \'Vlr .s'on l.iwh t .an '.,, tihe
states nt ull gIjlgh the I'. t it. Jieedi ar:' moi e '.'I ie. ,C',oiri nf, ti i sites.
Thle tollow\:ing te'l, nri: IH'tc:o. oimlenl'd I. t ich Co-liiintt:c I:ir I'e1u-
sideraltioi in t.arl-h I tile S.; lt... Frvi am,,i'gl til ,, p i--ibb. steps
alld an amril.vsi; o t r th,: t s lt tit nu "\itliin thle it a e t .t l.ihi:]' in
each of hlie .state hlioniuli 1..e bli- t: t l:'\'. pra' ti1'';tb['. pr',';IgrI
which will lesult in mihtitrical inipr:n,'..eicirt.

'CNTIN:UIN; SrLID .\x iy AN '.' iLU.'ArIo: OrF rE[b;

The eff ,rts it" tih1 \,-iit.in ,-.',,etciCS nI.l ithivltufqls Aiilr',.teid iii,
or hav nrr |, i,.sihiliti.s :f bhei'i.]g ,trer'.ti.] in .iie ntr. Th nuh. be
better illtegr'atted in .'.lrdert to ji' e aina:iiljinn l sNi[p l to liI: ihi il
program. Better c': p"rl; ti')I ar] d iJletie ratit'in h1 ir I1 hell tl, CsSi)r'C
the support o: rliahbl liea:i.-'islilt of loth rmIre.-.: i.il i ll tlevel.iping
a pann for Irsipr-.vi i'z e.ln'e ti riil op:l rt.us ities iind eliiti ainigi
inequalitie, '2)' it, preeCr', ilt. ani pI r,,, lin n i ti, g i e *rlai. il iiIder-
standing r s i. tiltiitg f' rom i I 'eI it.ll'i i i : I per',ti\ t eI tirts I f SNlllut lhirl
white anird Ne',r leader lr<, ii i, in ,:ctirtl i irr. i_ ,. tii n:il pi.,-
tices tl.hroLiCughii ut lth S ro th :iii] il.iiiinni iii |',rov'.. tis ':o that tlii
spirit oif va'urius cru.it I].ijkiorij s inn lIe 'iin iiitrilI prut 1111o 0 prI..ti:e
without ilnjustic,.:, iini- .lIrstanilII ,- ,r pr-siur,.
Each stai,: sliihuil lia. a m tiiini ie Ifilann foor si id.vin'. anii
evaluatli g tie ,duic'-tic.iano i el. tI t Il.th r.iv .s. Their-. 'hlii.i.l bLe
advisory :.nm tirtre r:lri'ce iting b,',th rili s a i i li lin ol nt.-
standing lay leonhdrrs, represilintati i e. 'rtn Irii: iiIlIttionr ot Higher
Learning, anid from thlir, iul.ili elenienitary iand hlgh si.liuo.ls to nid











State school nuthoriti"e in determinln.t stitulie? which should he made
to .asist iin intr--latitng thliee st dies and in making available the
rei.-TltS. Thelte cr:oniiiltee- should evaluate the relative needs of
edu,.lation for all group and rames and, ,-a-isit in developing a
program a.lieh will a;ulre needed iliprov\.nmeiJi, in proper ielation-
ship to all other lihases at ,-dIlOaiion in the -state. The State Super-
iMllteri.lint ,or Com]mnis'(iolner of Educatlion should be responsillle for
ecoor.1iilatinl and int'-ratn.Itig tlie work. ThIies cnomnittr s can be
a very siginti-i.nt ilnflueince in proimoitiii the ldevelopimenlt and
c3ir" ingl t out iof prograiln 'wh.vh :li ill assist in remiroving iniequ( alities,
v.ill priveint thl' e\c J lopmir ient ot adliti-inal hlirln .als in the future
and vWill a.i'ure iilprovl-menltl ftor all pha:-ses of eJduiitioin.

.\Ssl.tlllNG LTB EnR UNDERi-TANDING'

Pr'::.cedur'es for asiuring better undeilstandling -o.ostitute one of
the linosit pIl)i:.rltiit tepl, tlhat a.n be take''ni in an.', State or local
s.:lho.'l dilliinli itr ti\ unit. TIheri aore a great n iiiny mimlbiers of
both IIRcs w ol' I, not aiJieuately udiiJer-.talll 1 he rol:c l':em involved.
Sne i.t the imeliib'-rs of thlie Nero, rne.e may niot properly appreinite
Slii? ]IltenIlty ot ,l\i ig tlh finian.yial and other pirolilems W'hiceh must
be s sAlvelefre soin of thel ineina.ilities ia'ne be removed. Otn the
uther han.l, some'- of the toieili's of tIh wlitl r:ae.e nay not fully
apl.reciiate tlh l iiffuletiti:. uli.ller liteh the Neuri o lihooils have had
to o eratl:- ini a nuriiller of area'-- tail lai y not hniV'- realized the
Silni-;ifi:a .e or rl.extitl ief thel prro lenris involved. Iii addition to the
,org'ani"tion of ,omnmitte,-s to nmivst in a conitlinhig study and
ievali1:ti in of thie pabIllenii in the ti'ld. the tollo:wing g steps itould
be hielpnti :

ltroip C'iftic i:lr '. i ;ou or a.li.trilt ol et'fences with ionllty
.i d 1 ilv 111 ul llitl.i le t'l S l, si-li' bI oard ii i l.n rs and otier out-
st,,l Iin,'o h:.n' dl>id -. sh.nhl l.,e or, gani/ze:..l nnd c, d ,,Llu ite.l ", under the
gruidlnn.:.: o tii. State De-p:irt rent of Educ:nitiIn. At such ion-
fetr I'-I.*. i ti r .l;l t l,' riiit eilil,'it or Ci'ni'ririisioi:-r ot Edut iatiuln
mighlrt %well prae:id'l and mgiid' lie ,.lisn 'i-'jn hiilh sh.lonldl be planned
t. eoV:r all of thie ;:gnili,-nit prrol.dlemn in.olvi:'d. ThV first series
of siilh '.i ll:renI-ti niry eight well i:be dt.oied to : n ovi'r.iiew of recent
trends aih, l l'd..vclopmnrt iit i Ic lin ? fiel, ito a suniimary of court de-
,irisi,,. ;ind t. a dis ita.'i'n (of ftniidl,,jimr0nial principles., which should









PROPOSED NEXT STEPS


be followed ini de(velopilng tl- iproglnmii. Later conlfrt'ei.'elll.-,s could
well gi,'ve attention to details c-' the prograii pelirhap', .o-iie'ring
some of tile reeoi.'lljnila-iti) ,s ft' the iolmmiite,:-s diisc, u.; ] above.
Thicse groin ip o:'r distliiet c.:'nfriitc,-e i mi:iht properly .:-ither bi." preicedIed
or followed by a tat,'-wil.,? conlf-r,:nc,:, attt.- l,-d by i:oust;iinding edn-
cational leal.r-s rnd ii] chil.hl thie co:minlitte .lesignntld to guide
the slut.ly anil -vallniatiiniii ot lir,.'lilems could partl,:irpate.

Loc,l .VIrrtiags. Iii ad.lition to. pr,'.el'l plaiiie. anmd ;tate-spon-
sored *listri:t and .tati io:i, t',ri:. :i:'.:, e ii.-,:iiar .?til-int Sihor.il be *-*iv\l- to
thle or'gn-iiiaitijil of 0lo .d i,..'tingl ,. Silt.Ii iiiC-Cti mighiiliit v'.ell ii\ :lve
the lea'd:liig o'llicialk .li iti:zen:s :t' tli -i.'.mlty or :it. involv'.d n-.]
might u:ell serve .il a frum for ,1 di1'..1cn- of Neigr:o educi tio-Ill a.' rilatet.. to othii'r ;l'pec-t- of .-di'a.ltion. Too
great em pli.isi's i.ailir t b,:. plaenl-.I C'. tli il )i i tl .-Itli :lf c itilfu
planning fir sui.:i coinMte:ii.::'. L'd:i-r hliil.l I:- v.y cre fully
selected for tli'eir abilityy tho ':- i.il,'- l, ..iioin i- oniistii ti il, ,id to
center attri- ti,:nIi :ii filli'.Idil n tail pli -iipl i's 11 .. i ii:..

Studl Gr-01',s. Iln e?.iil stnt,. thli.r c i ill I,.: deliiiiti- plain for
stiiiulatiiy thLi onra:iii;.'tirioni ot st-ily Ir'i aind fir l.riiiin into
college c20oii r1is V' :riou' pi ''ill.ih- ,,li- i ]n-'te' '.ithi t -he -il uei ti,'ii of
Ne'roe; ,im thi-: '-tati- d' itel a., iii ih,-- S'utIh. Soiue ot tile s. ep which
might bi taken are as to:ll.:w-s:

(1) Seminli-rs niighit well I'ie :'ff':rti'.l in Stnte Unii' .rsi'i.s %ilaid ot her
c-olleges or mini'.e rliiees f f'rouil t(o1 to ,;ix u'- cl:, 1Lriitl i'-1111'nll
te( i u <. S..I l etII illiirs ,ii_.iild a'r ..\'tile fii a Ierii[ip elie .ll.i i. 11 I
frail d: Llis s:'l i.ill o.f all IuI iorP proijlik-?]ll,, l iatii ir. t' ?tilclti.)n l
of Nerri-,-'s in -a:-i.th state. Th':l.-s- sei:iii'rs Th-liliid I-0 opi:n to
silperillitelid 'nt ,t f i.',: ,ol,- ,lnil otheli" C'-ll: tion;l Ii,'u l 'lrs nil .l
$lho~, l.1.e Cuidil-l or i:liirieel l I., alu0l out L io 1 ; h s I, ..had c,.,iisiid-
1rable- r 't-', ei','- hind is ,: ,:' te ,.1 \xt-ii i\e -t u ly .to t li
prob.leeii ,t' N('g'ro ,fli.il-lon]i. it -tifre a'I-ie t .11- rilir ple-r.son
in chain're 'it thii' pl L/rn'im ',ni Ne:r'.,. ediiation ill ithilt ,trte migi;ht
M ill 'is niiftl Ih1 l irajlor rcspolij iit% 1lty' for ithe Ii el Llili'.

(2) In e-a.l c-,ll-eg tlih.r- '.houl.d I "' :it leait i-'nie? Ioiirs 'hi. i ,ls
,a major unit in problem in Negi'i, ciIdu:iati.IIn ind r.ace rclaitiions.
Such a colirsth slioiild probil.ly lie rope'n to jluniol', s.eiior-c, or
graduiatl.-t studons and should] -i.b specific rather thin i, eCiiCral.



















.' *crttl I',',. w,1, I ,f .\ ;,,r L'l.,itionri. \ lllie .12 of tfsi
lircji'l if 'll1' Pi ei,:ilnt '; A.\.lv'iory (. Com ittee on
E]h, itu rit' a W t.!linn' ,,u I').I',g.
I,',i lirlti, i.~ I Ii in. i l'i tt 1',il. in, E. T. Thompson and
,thleis. Duhl:e t ?ii.rsity Pr:es, 19.;. .
Th,. '.,ri-r ,, .,' .1/i, A .... Ili.|, l i N W D. W eatherford,
Doi. in, 1'24.
Th, (''''.r c ,../ j .'. tt,.. ,," n CW W .\l : nriler, C. S.
.Il:.i..,i, 1 i .l E. IN. Emnliree, .l,,i\.sityv of N,.rl.i Caro-
lina I' .. ., 1', :..
T7I ',r E /,,1 LarI. 7] ii.-rai ..1 'i.hl ti. Univ.'rsity of North
C.( rli i "a I'rt-!s ', 1`.37.
w 1' 1,iitcin, t Fll ;n.;/'/ ,'crj,' Elrlil NIiou, Rese:irel
Divi-.i.i. N tlli:,ll. i Eclrilli' on A r.,l,,l ation, WVa. hing-
trn, 1I-11.
MI int ll-' friim til'. Dop,,-irtinelts ut E,.li'C a lin suvch as
t11h. -tiily ul\ ll ti 1' .i, s I .l..j H ealth,, V, in
i'- t. ii 't C .

(2) l'hn .r -Il' l I-l. i b. ii. b:.:. .i' s i .i : ..Ic l.-: s \hi i hi center
titrilliA ii p. nti.illy nii thi stily f I -,ri lIn;l,. s i tliec ti lid of
>ch! i1: lii'ii I i N I .' .- 1 I i i:-AA! 1 t- 11W -ll iit .-i1 il- in if] pro-
glI ihll. It 'h il lih l ? I -'iIl..' it l111 \ I :tli 1 tmitm rs Ilir Units
iI lt*l',' l ll l' ,',,i -.'i : \ 'II IIlir i in l I .r ,: 't'f r,.- u'it illy ,~ ilrillg
Sl in i,"T', Iii1t ;i o ls ,l i lilvr tlie 1:- 1 l ., -]l 'ri[ ',1" ". Tr i sc
tliu h l I, ,i' ;i\ il:li l ,ie f,, i- 1 i [ ,.. r, I ; i|,il, ;Iji l ti elii ,'rs in d
sh'iit l hI ,i,' hi,'t*hit .I I ,iiij,'lu nl itiiit ii,.,lr- I'- 1 J oth rices. These
IlvI' IIIt l l, -I.h 1 l I :- I I i I Ol l ) i 'r : Il ] ,Is t .-i, Ull. d t flC
hi'.t,,i%. .il, i I.l itl ''' ,it' 1 tin Sill in .1. ,. '- il as tl,: iistory of
. i *r *, ;,I l ll i ,'\ ,.hl l| Ill I,'l, lI i,, l il, .\" *r xi .I ,,.

























Syshlnis of Fi ainnr r lii'iuh.l In ; llpplii .I t., e:l.e' In :il .' stri.in :linl "1stps
plaI)dllIII To inii;ke iin'-iL -.1] illilpr''. Lril'ni t'. A.\imin g tfl' Iti il 111, j m p ll ait
steps vdlril r liC,.ln l .I 1 ai m il.n er ol t ti':- to .i'-,-t i I ,ri i','ilini
m orfe "lde(q iilate fliini ,:a ..-' Il ill r dLi r -I] I ii th, inl i lli:i it l '111ii 1 i li I'ssl
are The followiil- i:

(1) The. ei q'.t''nl f fiji.i c sJl iiii l,I i- i.r, i .. 11, I. i c .iri .i, /ii'i ir rail
of CedOi at1i ,a for ll ,d'.,ia s. It is iil ',itii'i,:lit, fur e''xi ipli'c,
fo", 1 l;t te t:,' Jrio '.'irle a|i] i'0i tenli:i,, a at"l i,, onr fir t i;tiipor-
tatioi o r lfo 11 >.1 n ie It ti' r:e'.;ia1 I.lh'. te 1r I''1l ,i Ition ril, ll II et,
fir I) ny 'CIIIbiiiiT i-in i-t. rw. -, 01 r thref 1 -1 t It i' I Itr III ilr 1 .] w ll
boe r'3eaig iirc' 1 Ilat ill flit- t ill ai i ,il '. ;i.iy 'iI, t'.l:l ;al ",S'.L. imI
is ilna leiquat t 'e l.li ,'.iii li ii sh l'.-l 't'e :1il l i ilyl e't bliihUiel
fi S t .el, t of Cl'iaii '': tlhml t It i | -i, 1 li l', I fr ir':I t '11 t riLk nt. I.x-
pells. ItI.Ilis. V IIry fe. st t'," li, '. h- '.' 111,Y. 1].. InIlch
progress t -iow -' l I 'l '.'ii v tfI.- i11',hll ni ,,f t -', ra .inll ill .i .liles,
ill Capital rol tla.i l I ', \ ,sionI s. ItI, f;le[, A I.I\[,l,,in;I --l. to I- tI. .'.
only state ili the iotthi \\lxlih h:ai i,--t[;i 'lliel a i-icom 'ri-lhe si ec
program .ov'rin'l aill p '1'1. s ot e.l ."'ti' ii. lii' nl.,;ina pro-
gram, however, while ri-c r.cilja y s-;atif'.aCt',.I.r fonim the proiint
of view of eont iiprehensi'.'-ene-. i, in ,ir tjilymate I,'ilil Of 1 limited
funds.
(2) The stute shoilN pirxtscril, tcrti t, dilt iiWi, Ifo, in llt it.iian7lril<
which arc rr:qiercd i ,i n ti lot / b, l ui ni t1 lii. I, pajlirI t i" .l Ic in
state finds rand misilht I 'r,!l al.aI pr -crib1 I'l Nsirbl,. uiIlth ost'll
stmdcards which ant lot.1 il itilif nigilt nj / 1 ,tiil0u1 I ,.Iditrl nal
cost -if it desires to do ,so. F ,in ,.\: ;iipl ,,,,' a t -t.i'C C ist ,w p 'rsrriibe
Z a ifinm mlrn term Fo-r nil shiiiAI'. 'l'i.-, i.-,te' i ii-ht nl-o Iro-











vide in their progranin for the support of a desirable longer
term uithlout additional ,cost to the unit. This optional standard
woul.1 give rural areas 1an opportunity tV determine whether
thlie wish t,. go immediately to: the longer term or to take a
few cv.-,irs t ma nk: th. ildjiIuitment. The lo:lger term, however,
would ult invo'l, i any direct cost for thie local school admin-
istrative units, tlherefo:re, tlie ilncer'ti\'e would he for all units
to pioviile a teri which the ,tatt, \':iild assist in supporting.
i ) TI, uinl 'r f Dill' Ihl oul i, tb.il tt'r i iet'd ohjtu'ircly and the
l c', 'iiiron' ,i u 1 ,ii 1`i r it d that s l tit', F, I,ld i nviu local funds
lo. tl ir d I teirti its si/i. TIlie ste :- s iil determining the need
for tmnr.lNs sli:il be asi tolliow'.
(1 I Dl-te:r min thi n, t 't i:iierating tlie :l,,uls iii each ad-
,iSi) tratil-.r iunit foi thle prn-erbl.e.1 terinl whihl co-,,I t
*li l.l hoe i- ,:ul.itrl in t-il'ms ,i f tle inl,:'ed for teachers'
sIl.itrie tllhe i.-1- f. l L''i i till r .ii po 'ttin (iwinill'r i rnot iliec s-
s.,rily- i l pii.,:p rti.lo te 1i:i tl.he neel f.ir ;lari'is ani.l sliould
lie Ia.e.., l.iargL'ly o:,n .l'2tlsit o:if tra sI.pi'l rted propulatiol),
the need lor othiri .:vrr.r]t l|'.ll 'lii'li and tlhe canilculated
i eti, i lor eji:pit;' il l Ntl.iy or' Il lit s5 r\i'l..
S l."''termiii thl i llI-.ld fun .l hi.:h arli e a il Ill? or i sl1ould
lie availallei fr-.,n tli,: ii eS.':i'il.,-1 mi;f rin local tax effort.
2.") Si litra .i.-t lth ti ,1 tlrl f ll s l iav, i.iill] 11-' Il i e tli tal aiLiouY nt
Ir ?ti t? l] ,,r thl .. l ,rgr'at;i iII ..rl'. .r t," i,-teri lljii tle- O ll, olint.
t,- li pr,.i le]l i., tie ,tait&e.

If tlii'- ii:: llr.i i f- lov .w:.i., ino nirs \ill I. reiv'r' erl for paying
ho',v sol.aniles t. N c. inn te'ici is ,r t. :,niy oIlier -',.i ip *.if teach r,, or
,o. ,.,I,',r.ittir s' .nl. Is fio.ir i .hli.t t term Il n ,,.i t, there will. i effect,
I.': a rip n:illy foI failu ..1 t _. meet siini,.la ds.l w'li' l are ii2c',gnized as
Leil blile l' b'.I'll e the malminii trati\' e ui it ill iLnot .-et tlh funds
iiunles thi:.. ii u:]L1 in n -ting tih,- st.n ilnir .. Al.,o-\ c ill, it .lish ld
i..? ]o- r l ni it liio i t r.iII g,, licii h i r' l i m iiil ini i st.iiii iard.s priesiribed
by il' ,ir.: ,. ls thi, i l_ 1 it m v1 II, t vlh1i. ..'.. ti, ;iltilin iilmm ediately the
(]: ui, lil,. t. hillr.1 1llils >iii| i..n, 'e ill til | 1i-in ,-' .
An i ll:iiii;tli : t lie pl.i i oiitliner.dil ,iJI.i Iiut wilich would not
b .i 'r.,t ( ir;inl'I 'or 111ii i', Itat:A., \oil.l I' e if ,i thiill i ti to pl'rovide
t 01: *n t, .' ,-1111 t ,i ;,if ;id i-' l;itly deli ,-d, fi',ithl al;,li ll PM I g l' l, .





























( l 'Ii 'lll .Il i. i1-\ II -r. it l il ,i lj l i ii |l .111 1,1- .ilitli. 1 ;i l t il -' i i lilll ',
.lll 'I lilll l IIlll ih t;lrll ll i'l' ., ti ,. I r ,l ,l, '...' ,i ,I ll i .lll il ,l llthl i ..l j ,_ li',l
Llitii t% r I- 'Ilr\lnm s I.lin thrle iP utll F .iil,'lr r t tflr ilamiies. Ill
tlil 'rfi',]- ill..1 1. -ir,, -Illl, Ij 'r l l .- 1 II I P : I lli 1 I n' i 1kle fil

'rithlii i-Pa'silinl c ]Ii ts..

W hu l ,, ii 1t.u |ii' i, ,,i .u 1l in I .-i ii ir l .... liit. I" 1 ll it:1 ii 1 ti.' Iii iin t

I l ill. lI. .,.i t, I In l -i '. l M lil, "' 111.I1r .,' ,f lti l ll',P 'l i l:I 'lI '"; t I I ll
illl I''.S lli, ll l ll -1t ll.t1 V l t I Il' l \% ll I I. I it i- i ll IF. li, 1 il \i 1
Too ril y.t ;t ii l iI lr iti I 1 tI:- .liii t ,all i ulti -l.'j l ,tl," II i ,1 111] i
ton IiIlrl I rt l 'I Jl(i r "-i t ii l r :l- .i ti i(' t l II' Ii i l,.' iii n[ '.,. 1 1i ii r

t'n i']i<' i .,'Iilrt 11 ia. I' l te--li. l ;il Iu u. iiiii i. 11' ? i ',t u II il' l t lW i- i

f080 1(1 ll =>]1 Pl III% I, .I.1 I I.1 Vlll. 1 1,t ll, Il e te III II tit I rrll.
I]0Lll d "") t01r 'fit l' "I- Olinl? f ',l ,lir l l i ?' 1it I i1i.' i 1'l (I ulhl Ir
w orl s. tI l 're li I PI l ,I 1 '-I t I lli,.- t i i ll 0 1 1 111 i111 1 ii .i' V lill r I'ili'
i) .ila nLt i?s 111 t I ,n i ', llII I"'ll ., 1:,1 1 ,I- i i Vi I d x ll I li I in* I II 'II
t XH ere Il11er ii l i" IIi ,t] v li I il I.p N i .. -'' l l,; li I- 1 l 11i] 1,' l l iP I t ll I-
de .ncy to I ceeli 'i-'r .-I ili ti' lu\ .11.1] t ll i, nl 1' 1. ; : l, ih ;1 ili I.

t ])]' ep fi't i l a" llhr f l l I' *.'l, i, *'- 1 ,t '.h lil '- illh .II ll hti-l

i,.Illst l l)e il ilIl II lllilli'-t l l ill'- L I I'i l I. ll l i ill l'i l I ;]. i ]':1 li I I llri


these standhirds m ighll t v,"ll II M P Itd'l.t- tip-lli,:I l >l, t, li n II I io ls [il-
.::nitilistrative un. trit* Io i Qt ;1,.s, I-r,. in -;:Il,. rIlnit .1 m.o. I d.n ,l plr])' "p rtio'l


i/iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii........../i










NElinO EDL'CA'I ION


l1 t: llilli 1 11i%, 1..1' 1 Vi. I t L: iii ,i: ,t'-.- 1,,1 LhI IltijitI I'il ll t-1i by)


.\ i.llllllll itl rl' I1",\v ll |1'-c II "t;ll' v" Il te lt el '. It Illrlh if
.,:hlrI .l lll, is l ;, l l lilli T. ,l .? .1 < I 1\',,i,] d rl 'lll i i .:' t ,\.,,irl ; illl i ii lilt?
ili'e!r' 1i'e- ill .1ill, li ,'- \\ it I i ,ll'rii.I,?,' Ti'iillilli l ; In tXSlet'l i.;'in '.\i tlt-'it
l ..ri.,1 l IIIl'rit. it Illii InI\ I' I1 II lllll r "I t il]l' iti ,-. A. I.I P I"il '"n
il t l ll l 1 1-V j vl tl l)l N iI i t ,.* .ll. lt l i t Illi l l ll, i,: l I .I LIl ?
Sl'. ll l. III 1 j lrl I lll i l111" Il, ,l .lil]lllllll "1 H ll i. l'4], dl' I I 1 -C 1 ll)e I b lld.
i. o'1 ,l l r -t.i l, Il ,,i -. i O i,,l"1, 1 1: O fl .it.e'!, 1t W i th , i ll ,i]


~;il,i 'ii' "1 n llt ,, :wi ] | i i '1. ,.til.'l i,'f mith hi s;.ijl ll, ,',,hll til lb', (x il -l.

!ti iL, l lIs IIIl ii i], 11n., Ill: t 1 ';li liji .11,11 I', l'ie ik',e l-- l ll 1 r li ''
I[nli It j ll1 Lt., l'l Ir' v I l i'lllf Ih ,ll ] ,i I,- 111.hi t] T 1',!, l i. lll I I 11 1 fl I. Ijleeit l

.; I l i: i t ,,,l.lil' rl ,: .lt I ll '.t I Ii..- l ihtii',? ivr I It-" . 1 ,. ,1 i, D]rti -
i l-t!;illi\' .' I l l it .ii t.,) Ill" ',1 a li b.l tI.1 ii l.. Ilk': \w ill lb 1' iIll lli i.-ti,'il, ll- 1I

"+ Iiiii tlni'l ,.t ;Ii,1 tt. i'-ii'. i",? iiili r. \,. T'.iii,.i ii'i.l i..i i -,il,lj i',.- nt' '.,. hl
I,: .'l ir ',;. h l ., r' .,ll '-e \'.il| I l. ,l ,-l l l ll[l e ll I ',,l .|'| .l., ,ill.|ll r-
I i. lll .v11 ir I 1111i l 1' 111'1 .1 it i r : i;I tli. l 1 iJlllin- i l l, l IbII -in. t :l '
S l i ii r;i I .l I ;il 1 irL1 1 11 i i tl, I 1W1 II i l I l I 11 .il i *Ill, -. r
)11..11.111" 1 i I I I r I .lllI lit I nal-ilit liat le.1 1 1 th in .I I.f l ] v

" lilt i id ,1 I I.i I i ..I 1i i l .i li li t j tii-jli 1 l. 1 111' .- .l l,,'.'\ i .l I l lI
, .li l li. li li ,l -,i l ll. l il ll I i l i h l L I .l i l 1 ll l ll ,'li.
. I I I l. Ih I ..l l i I IiIa l.'J-..I l 1 . t% .) .., li ,,',: \e i" N l.ir I' 1 0 i:' l Olze w ll.L .
.:l.il ... 1 i 1 ,, i t l;, 1 1..l l t.' -t,'1 1 1 I i I I I, 1]j' I I'.\ l .'l i t I t I;'1 ;1
I, i l l.' .I t i 1' l1i t .I li -I e 1 ti I l .il t i - l lii I i l l '
I.-".i h ,l I,' I,' ** i l l tii i ,:i 1, tI 1' it e ii i .
. i.' i II i i '. .'li \. i l l.. .?a'i, l i .t il I r ] ' I I oi l i in ill.L
., ill l i lliiln i .f h i l ll inr ti ,.n ili tI .t h ,. l I tIlli l l I'In
.1 -I. ii.i, I- I l *i :ih l;;i '.011 .ii tll t Il1in '. e liiit;il le tH 1 nliIc I in l

.i i. ii,,lli ,i l 1 i: i i t:: I l I I. I se ( t i -- fi U.ti ;I| t'I .il, -i t I'e o r


i'll ,+ ir I' Ir 'l I I .% i i i
.\ ,~ 1 : 1lli ,I ,] ,,1 N.o l .'i .. -t:t,- SJt IItlila'r l-. I i, tul tili s .11 loine
,.,i ,., i ,,- ,ilil'. .,--,, ,',,I .itii .ly r ."|iitrNl.,i,' $ 1 r ,-ii ,r all neelled















ul ne1tiirauie state SIHll nirus can o-'-srin mTermilltV I i ila:ll-llg LuniL
other faeili:ies needed for the schools in addition to teachers will be
reasonably adequate. These standards should recognize desirability
of and assure the provision of various instructional supplies, inilud-
ing library books, reasonably adequate equipment, transportation
which meets minimum requirements and builling which are reason-
ably adequate even in the poorest administrative units.
Comments under this healing an]d inder the topics immediately
above might well be summarized by stating pointedly that a satis-
factory program of state and local flnancint, of schools will assist
materially in eliminating many of the inequalities which now exist
as between various groups and races. This is one important reason
for plating so much emphasis on that subject in this report. How-
ever, there are other aspects of the problem which will have to be
solved by other approar-hes. The financial approach alone will not
solve all problems.

Improving School Orlgainfioion. Administration and Supervision
Schools very seldom rise far above the level established by the
administrative units in which they are locatred. Defective organ-
ization and poor administration can quickly hianlicap the efforts
of the best teachers. While, in general, the local units for ormin-
ization and administration of schools in the South are more adequate
in size and plan than those in many other sec-tions of the country,
nearly every Southern State has some units which are inadequate.
Study of this problem should be continued with a view to eliminating
all handicaps which arise from small counties, cities, or districts
Special attention should be given to the problem of local ,school
administration. In many states, the office of superintendent, par-
ticularly in rural areas is still entirely too much of a political office.
Colleges and universities should give more attention to school admin-
istration, not only for administrators, but for teachers so that they
may be in position to cooperate more intelligently. The offices of
superintendent, board member, and of trustee should be divorced as
far as possible from politics. Citizens should insist that their schools
be operated on a professional basis. The establishment of higher












,in.ltiliii tii,,,iii 1ir ..i l .iji i .ts i nl-l a l I 11 tli.' rlLJ li.ii. a ] f elh:.tiriis at
n time wh'li.ii i ri i. l'r p lit -. il ,1r. [ic.iis :ire lIrint- li,'lh s ihou l ais ist
rIli;t r'il ll .. I-i'.'v.,: : I I t Ci.: tiII I] a ,li :1~ I v1 -, I tl'' .,rllt il n 11il ,-st Cr-oillI
Fri ,li llih I til iii.* ll it_, ]l illirltirf.'III..-l i. i.il al.I r.cii rii.n t i f t:10 s(1 i i .

>-,.pil..l '-hl I l.-; i.l- h | l'..[ petent it l l a] r-lip ii .i st as
s ".C'll. I' .t IL UII'o' ',ItIe il i, LI t -t tle tl-' l i i I I,'I h li ii :si 11.e dltil rIlher
r'il'lle.l 1aer l', if liaiIii.i.- 4 '. 'illi w hi ti ti,' N -_rio 1' .-liri'h i inll It.:11 a'ezt;'
fJri *'o1 "t rii ,i| il i .11'i t(, I, i:t l'.nlv, l.

T, w, ek Impro, Il ," t. ft
l ,r Lllll I' I tll ,ll l.,ll l 11 I Iil'l : I h , ll rp t'
Altllmsi.L rll cr fiii.laH ] l If l.u ;ir i **..f I'inli inI tli t i ll I i I.rilpa;l e(
tiir'i l...'. \.'ill. tiI'...- itn n11:11 '. 1',tli.'-c t.itts.. lt]i' e: i' st ill III IIul vr."

itInit 't..tiiti.].u ,]- P t'ti', .ill] l' is tin' t h' ,r oit .:ni ,iiyvn.:'ut it' Nieg'c, .
f il i L r iit r .l' 1 . i 'i 1. ,1 i Ill1 -i ,i i i ]i''i t i Il f t ''II l i i' ll sI i if l'1 I ii1

Ir,-c', **,' .i ; '. [, 'i.rl tl Il i, r .- i II, 11 1',,. i t- I I [ 'O .tii i 111
in ,l, .t t I p ,t iWil -.1 tillt l.- i- ''.i. t ii 11 11. ', l.'i .'l tliJ- l itin -

I r 'ti" l i- i i t l i l it l t' i t l lli .l r l i. ll l l: i I.-ll t l i'i I .l i .l II I il 'l i rl_ [l ill

t i l i ti-- if 1 r l i tt ll tl'i ii.anti i I L'.il 1 s l ciij ll I hll1 v ili1' tiN-
a l- i t it>'.t- i n-. '.c re 1 ilrl. '*s-sI .. ll )w I I.. t'i'.-. tI t tt 1i.-,' iti'. fol 'l
[int[r, ,i'. t "riii' .l *( ,,,,l.l lti ..' i thli t 'i -,.s llt :'v i, t,'?.u :h'-t t i ]|iiin


tI ll ul ,It flnLI, 1 t hli ,,ll ..,,I,1 l, .it h _i.iI 1. pill thellil lill
Illn *iit. i tell jst*''rti iii. ti le i t [ i* ii II Il Vt' liel' IlI I iti'ii f lt
'11111t li .' lt : i l l ii1 I:LL Il- II l i, lthil . 11,l l IiNt L-
r .l ,.l II.. l I, it. '.l 'f t'll.:- t :It I h-. I I I '] li t I" II, ... fi, l *i I I L 'ii.it I c'va t a ,



I"+ l 0ill.l JI.ll', -([ i'l.;, l l] 0 131 1 tll f tll .
T]hi ..r f .1.I I f- I.i t i i mn l ..i ,_ w ill t.t I -e v -...;-,il 1 w itbo velo tpd



the r.ll. I hnl .,oi i t ni e:t'rui l' tti iti.:. n 1i tcll l''al l's. ThE
.i'tl'i ti.u l iih hii i0 Mlae? .rl I 11i 1 tI 11 ; 1-s 11 t1il t th111 '.,ll i iitir iitil hrn-
- I ilt I ll lho l l Ii uet tit ,iCril' ,, l thle p l'li-l,- i.il thle, 'i lll i: l itv awill
h ellll I.I Ii t,:, i i llj r : I I % I I h lt l in I I ,I l, f i ly ni. ii] I :- ,iiiII n il I N
litiI,_.. irn -1,11w:,ii.iini and ill tnct I vl l icr,+v C- IhI V I',+"ljVVt. This I










1RRtJI'USLSE) NI'.:XT Slfl:'IS


p. l.'llD i Ji ti.es ill \%w ilj rilt i iI'l .ii it ttni; l:hr tl'aillt If t ile 'ehIlc .
ill: 10 o .ibrCI lilj ItI. futr. e Ill,-. ljiill l In 11 liltilig i, I lcVi.N of 1the
N.t: I 'u I." l lilltll l h. l lile\ '; ', l riill:h I IIj ll l J ,i!!l tII; lir,.i i ''.lli lll lls t
lie I:.-' l..pi:.d ill I er:I ih thli- :ir:; A t'c.v i l:litei -,1I:ooi have
:t i,,I .I'l, l 1'- Jl il dfl t :; ll ll l i ,,t 11 l: t In,I I l. 11 I II- i i t i, l l el i ,. I.,l1 ,
.11( tl e li"0 ir'.e ll, -L feL. n'. lit i.i-' ; lil i i. d Lu'lnl i ,ij .,.[ ill
t ih ,l a \ I l s'hllli:l.,



Tjl' h lrl [ iPio'l lll.iii, b_"..Z1 ,I L il' 11:l o l l i l I,.i ill l
T'I'h pirlj':li-im it t r.iils[,i-it tiii) l." .",,).'.'i:, pupil.- hLia hla.ihly I.,Le.II
tliui11' l i 111l lui ar ast Thlir ;iir ill lliii 1 i' i iS11.l illlOc i. w hl
ihil' hi',il ,i e v,; lkiiig; iii ,:,, li v,. ih i-l, i c, i hii ;an.l ,t' ,'itill'l
:hill.hi i ttl i; il, lllki f.i. t o s,: ,,,l I,",i' e Ii the ,iirul ai,. o ftheln
.-il..lr1 11 io 1 :-an .:il ot .*( lo 'e.01.0 i o 10 1 . n- i fe ilk tai ll '. O fIt'lIl
I ,-iiill iiull lil l : It N .iL tJlulli i- ',. ll. IIc ll i'i.c : i l s ii, ltt*il II,)I
tiirl ;r2I'u.-' t, l m:'tr iii-iits '_s sir'lL- ''1 lslit, i, t .] s i li,.tlh l nat:.: f.,.'-,ilji.h .
i l. .i1~n 'l.ln i ]a t m ll i' I utill. h.; : l ; l'.t l l' t Lii..iirl i] litle i hl- \\i]l ii: 'Ii.-ll
t lis. T liIt h iall 'A thJi- i: l Iht i ',L.'I 11, il ,t lil i i i l .ii l 1i01i
t iillitl "- fi -lt i. B -1 'III.. '.%-tttiilt hll ].t ll i> l i.0r,, t .l ll. ,l t "'iil
'If IliIu S131:11 : C l11-l lll' .i lld t II1 v t ll l pl otI III. Il aii r 1 -...lfi. ii. oill -
tet'r'v. S lli'. y. ;Il l.l I lieI' ,'illl,'l.lrl llAi ve r., liti .1 i ,nd.:.I d ."I ,s
lasi., I 'olr Ca :'.,ll. plai ini g tisii li.'i': ra iu :iid i de.'.'iloping .I1i.-
i.ltila e :Ili.i:.l bll ililli g nil l iiid i tiiii t I i l llI',-" Pr.-

.t hol Alth. nda.nc.

L"illi.llkuij itttllirlauti :'Il '-.ild ]ll'-i" w.%'- ,'lh hrl air_ ha uil nil t'm [lh'!
Lie ir' l -itlnli- ,il it a iit i l.-r ,:it tLat '. Tl ii. T i.. rl': ti l pl i ll i y
i-l ldl'f ii, ,,irtl'liP il~ n'l ,-]ii],]i ,'l'l ot tlin N ,:'llo 'i ,- v. ho 0i. ':'[) olit ,.i
Sci'h ol t'l' i orl l c ,'l i'ell f1i lIr' ill 'rtItall r 'JOL lit iiiii' ii:nttsi
of the Fe'Jei-rli Fa iir Lahur ll' tuJt'l Art ha i- l .'...l g: r lter
em pliJ i s t L J ,t certiict' tor clili.': i I .::,'v -i,.iit,: ae. This pive- thC set.hl s .iil.ndii. op|.r i.ni it- r li;--p i i o ri
touch '.vith v.]ilhren \ ho ch.iill I il -.li':,l. I o,,vs er, I'F ,.le inl
laws a ldII rii ilditiO'ii lu t.i L ., slliil,'iI.eit ,.l i.,V -r':i s. 1ti Iita',-.
whiich \ill .i-In thlit i.hili':i -re not rI iintte to I lD've C'. hool
below c:rltai) rgcs ;itl..l ilhs- riii': it .n oI .-.i r,.i _'ii-ai tue thi 'ir
Icav1iug. T hi ls illn ili-, f'liirth lil'iol'r--, thIil .- lrih o] til.l i i ':Illlis iiill t h '
i-dCl i't iLed in rii y iil'e.is so thei vi h' 'Ilrlillr i 'iii r iii i ls i 'yl ii Li il lh
in school nd -o llitha the;, \ ill g t ] ai;i-t.?IIl iI l t' ln'a lilc' beI lliti: i
instead of merely f,'lin]l ;:',i.dermi(.iC i' gtiiig.


































The matter ot establishing adequate standards, however, cannot
be lett entirely to the local school units because suie of them have
such limited? resources than even the best standards they could afford
to establish would be entirely inadequate. The state, then, must
assiullie the JEadciship in as..uring that adequate standards are estab-
lished for aill children in the state and that suitlicient funds are made
available and adre so d itrlib.ted and administered that these standards
beroine preaticab.le. Standards should not be used, however, merely
as a means of iuspectiug and lchlieking schi'ols. but should be cooper-
alively developed and e::er-uted and should be used by schools and
local school alniiiiistrative units as a ieans of self-appraisal and as a
basis foi planning turtlier progress.

An early step that should be taken thruughoiut the South, there-
fore. is to give mocte attention to the establishment of adequate
standards for all schools soniewhat :al-ong the lines suggested in the
Soutlhrn States Work-Conference lbulleti'n -n School Standards.
This does not simply,, however, that the merce act iof establishing a
requirement is sulTicient. In fact, there is danger that the states
may go too far inl cLetralizing respoisil.ility. Thle major problem
is to determinei. hov. anderuate standards can b,.st be established and









PROPOSED NEXT STEPS

A"I111istered through cooperative effort of state and local school
officials and teachers.

IrAoT1'oVIN STATE SERVICES TIN MHE FIELD OF NEGRO EDUCATION
AUl states, directly or indirectly, have recognized their responisibility
for providing leadership and guidance in the field of Negro education.
Every Southern State provides through its State Department of
education and its Institutions of High-ler Learning material a~s-
sstance in this field. In many cases, these services have either been
made possible or have been greatly enlarged as the result of grants
frm philanthropic agencies and institutions. States should continue
recognize their responsibility in this area and should take every
sep possible to enlarge and improve the services provided.
There has sometimes been a tendency to leave most of the respor-
sbility for _Negro schools to the persons or division assigned to that
work. During coming years, it should be recognized that maximnum
rsults can be attained only through increased cooperation from the
oher divisions and services. Only when all administrative, super-
vsory, teacher training and other agencies of the state direct proper
atention to the field of Ne-ro elucatioii can the rate of progress
beimproved, -Moreover, the teacher training institutions of each
sate ihould give greater attention to the problem of training actual
an potential leaders who will be in position to assist in solving these
poblenis. State teaeliers' associations should also be in position to
cooperate in bringing about needed improvements.

Is'34stance' from Philanthropic Agencies
As pointed out elsewhere in this report, philanthropic agencies
Jesorve much credit for many forward looking steps whih have
beni taken in the field of education for N\e-roes, They have pro-
di~ed grants which have mnade possible the services of state super-
vsors, Joanes teachers and other leaders, an(] also have assisted in
poviding buildings, equipment and, in general, in improving
ilie These philanthropic agencies which are so deeply interested
inthese problems should be given every encouragement to continue
toproviae guidance and assistance even to a greater extent than
during previous years. AMoreover, many benefis can still result










NEGRO EDUCATION


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S NEGRO EDUCATION




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