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Group Title: Its Publications
Title: The British universities after three years of war ..
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098496/00001
 Material Information
Title: The British universities after three years of war ..
Series Title: Its Publications
Physical Description: 9 p. : ; 8vo.
Language: English
Creator: British Information Services
Publisher: British Information Services
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1943
Edition: Rev. Mar., 1943.
Subject: World War, 1939-1945 -- Education and the war   ( lcsh )
Universities and colleges -- Great Britain   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: At head of title: British Information Services; an agency of the British government. Information Division.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098496
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 43636961


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General Registration Procedure.
Medical, Dental and Veterinary Students.
Science and Technical Students.
Students at Teachers' Training Colleges.
Arts and Other Non-Technical Students.
Women Students.




ith coursess fir R.A.F. Candidates.
Pre-Military Courses.
oiurses in Medicine, Statistics; Social Welfare,
for Youth Service.

V .ATIONS. .. .

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i%,.L .L Jl i'JrA J ; JL 5, LB.J .L P L 1i UL II .A Jrq, I .LiJAIII I a l iE
scientific"divisions.* In addition there were several thou sland
students in Theological, Agricultural, and Technical Colleges ro-
viding courses of University standard. Of the full-time student, ,
11.000 were women, and this number had not decreased in the
first three years of the war; the number of men had declined
from about 39,000 to about 25,000. I

II. Conscription (The Draft)
i. General Registration Procedure
The whole process is conducted by the Ministry of Labour and
National Service. The Ministry is responsible for supplying men
and women both to the armed forces and to w\tar industry, and_.
for retaining in theii pre-war occupations those who should re-
main in them. The normal calling-up (draft) procedure for boys irI
is that on the appointed day after reaching' the prescribed
registration age, which i, now seventeen years and eight
months, a youth registers at the local office of the Ministry of
Labour. On reaching his eighteenth birthday, or at most within ||
a few weeks after it, lie will be called to the forces.
As regards the potential student, by the age of 18 or 19 in
peace-time, and with a little forcing by 17'. or 18 now, the
great majority of those who have been preparing for a Uni- |
versity have either been accepted by, or actually entered on
their courses at it, or they have been told they cannot be
accepted. If the boy has begun his University course, or has
been accepted and is about to begin, he states this on his
registration form. He also states whether he is an Arts, Science,
Engineering, Medical, etc., student. The Ministry then confirms
his statement by inquiring from the University. In short, the
normal procedures for selection by and admission to the Uni-
versities are still in operation. It is the University which decides,
chiefly of course on the basis of his school and examination
record, whether a boy shall be admitted.**
*' I Great aritain a technical, or science, medical, dental or veterinary studentii
th the greaitC.r.rAority of cases enrolls directly into the appropriate technical
faculty, witlildit a previous university or college course in arts. Some of the'llp
work done ih the arts courses of colleges and universities in the U.S.A. is, Uil h
EnIgland, done. in the last two years at secondary or 'public' i.e., :rivatei:.. .
schil~ ... The standard of university entrance is, on the whole, iiomewhm
higher in EIgland, and the usual three-year peace-time course forliimo!s ..:
"gree biiia t the student,. other things 'being equal, to abo :ie Wine
standard aj the four-year ciprse in the U.S.A.
**.e B:alLiters of econdary~ imd public schools receive memorandrom the i
.... ( iwnal) Boardi f Edueation, advising them as to the criteria fibtaility
:,iii iiiuii;i; i ii.. 's. .a s .........il. l.. llml- lallAlli.....I -

ii. Medical, Dental and Veterinary Students
Whfen the Ministry of Labour atid N1stional a
confirmation of a student's aceeptanc ya eon
or dental school, or in the case of a 7etQ:Vinary Itd
has Passed thie iirst profe-.Aonal examination, his g
placed in a special file and, subject to a Satisfactory y
,ix months, lie is retaiincd until 'le has completecfi
Unless exempted, he must undertake ptart-time National

iii, Science and Technical Students
A prospective st udent of agriculture includIing forestry
biolo~gy, chemIistry, engineering, geoogy, mathcmatics a
statistics, metiallurgy, naval architecture, or physics must
crct ified1 by ant expert University Bouard as being of' a tandar
likely: to obtain a good degree by: the age of twenty-one. Subjee
to satisfactory reports, he is then retained at the: Universdty
It may be for onuly one year, if he is judged to be of more valor
than in industry or in the armed forces; but in mo,,,t cas b.-
will stay fo -r two years and in mnyi: for three or, in eiiginteerin
and in somes other cases, tip to four or five years. ('ontinuatio
after the first year may be made condlitional upon including
training in radio, the chief scarcity subject at present. Unless
exemipted, he must undertake part-time National Service an(
must also> put in several hours training a week in the UniverJit
Training Qorps, Air Squadron, or th1e "Y" scheme for pre-nava
t raining, with various allkday exercises and three week-; under
canvas during the yeatr.
All regulations in war-time are of' course subject to revisio
whenever necessary, and, as will be described}, the. MiJnisQtry
Labour has, in the technical Committees of the University Join
Recruiting Boardis, suitable machinery to effect any desire*
changes in the subject,, of study.

iv. Students at Teachers' Training Colleges
Students at tiwo-year training colleges recreive full dJefermni(!n
to completed their courses.

v. Arts and Other Non-Technical Students
Until April 20th, 1941, the actual calling-up (draft) age
Great Britain \\as 20. In this period, and in fact until the end
the academic year 1940-41, these students were allowed tip to
six: months de fernient, if recommended by the academic author.
ties, "in order to take all important examination." If, therefore,
a student entered the University by the age of 18 or 18/,he
had an expectation of 2 oir 21/ years attendance too little for
the pre-war requirements for a degere.
To meet this situation, Oxford took the lead in establishing -a
special War-Degree which required a minimum of five teirns*
The Er tib TUniversity yer is sally divided into three tcrm,, Nith vacations
of about on mo snth each at Christmas and at Easetr, and from 118 to 17 mleek,5
in the summer.

vacations ana institute lour terms a year, anu iJeeo*inas in-
creased the length of its terms, at the expense of vacations, so
that seven war-terms will cover :as many months as nine pre-
war. Various courses in both Arts and Science have been
shortened and simplified, with emphasis on practical work.
It is possible that now, with the lowered calling-up age, the
War-Degrees may be suspended. All Universities will, of course,
give the student credit for work done, should he return after
the war.
The calling-up age was lowered successively to 191',, 19, 181/,
and, in October of this year. to 18. Up to December, 1942,
specially suitable young men in the arts and similar divisions
were allowed to attend the University for one year; this year
might be wholly before the calling-up age if they entered the
University at 17 or might fall before and after their 18th
birthday, or they might still enter at 1S. and remain one year.
It has now, however, been decided to grant no more deferments
to arts students. except that those who entered the Universities
in September and October, 1942, and the smaller number who
entered in January. 1943, will be allowed to complete the present
academic year. Men classified in physical grades 3 and 4 will be
governed by the same regulations as apply to women.
Hitherto the arts man. -whose destination was usually a com-
batart unit, had to undertake about twice as much military
training as the science or technical student, since the latter's
destination was war industry or a technical branch of the
fighting services, and his general military training was designed
to be sufficient only to enable him to resist possible invasion.
vi. Women Students
Women in Great Britain now register at 18 under the Regis-
tration for Employment Order. and are liable to be drafted at
19.- Science, technical, medical, dental, pharmacological and
veterinary students are deferrable on the same basis as men.
Women arts students entering the Universities in October, 1943,
may, if they are under IS on October 1, take a three year
course; if under 19, a two-year course, provided that in each case
the course will qualify them for a degree or diploma within theii
stated period. These arrangements are subject to the condition
tiit at universities only admit to these three or two year courses
oiimen who intend to undertake, after leaving, work of national
iportance, e.g., teaching, or approved social service. Those
in nding to become teachers are allowed an additional year of
professional training. Women students taking courses that are
.. m y entered upon at a later ag--dietetics, midwifery,
4. i !
., .. .illlllll ..j ,,,
ii i iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ,iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iii .;11,11111111

pidb.ic health, occupational therapM an
work mna enter upon thern up to 3_

111. The National' Service Machinery f~r
Controlling Students
i. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ j, EahUieriyhs its o University join'
Board, an agency of the, -Ministry of Labour ai
Service, which provides its office,. Each board mon3
representative each of the Army, Navy and- Air F
usiuall.% retired rdllc(n and a chairman nomlinatp-d b
University's governing body.
ii. The Scientific or technical student goes before the appropri
technical sub-conmrittee of the Universityv Johin Recruiti
Board. There is a sub-committee for each of the prin6i
scientific divisions, consisting wholly of members of the. faculty
The sub-commnittee determines his admittance, and periodlical
surveys his progress, to decide whether his reservation (def.
ment ) should be co ntinued. The board as a w hole w ill not usoal
deal with the science or technical student until the end of h
course: then, having before it the expert commiti(,e's asseS
ment of his scientific and technical ability, it will interviewhm
and send to the Central Allocation Comimittee of the Minist
of Labour a recommendation as to how he can best he us
whether in industry or the armed forces.
The University Joint Recruiting Boards also serve_- as fh
machinery whereby the Ministry 61htains, as far as possible, thi
desired proportion of students in each field of study. If, as al
present, more technicians are needed in radio-phy-sic,,, and fewe
in chemistry or biology, the board will try to move stud(e-nt
from one field to the other. It 'will, through its technical co
mittees, raise the standards for acceptance in the less need
subjects, lower it in the scarcity ones, uand explain the relati
neved to the student.
iii. The prospective medical, dental or veterinary student d
not have to go before a University Joint Recruiting Bo, ird.b
merely has to sure admittance to a recognized scheo, in t:
same way as in peace-time. The numbers admitted in the
categories are in general at the pre-war figure.

IV. University Staffs
Before the war 'began, in mid-1938, there Was, instituted
Central Register of members of University faculties, and o
professionally quialifie people in general. Professional stff
in e ach Un diversity filled up cards, which were annotated by local
University committee and then forwarded to the ICentr3
Registry. The information incnlued technical qualifications'!
administrative expe rience, and knowledge of foreign languages,
The Central Registry was used by civil servants, with the assist,
ance of technical advisers from the Universities, to provide,
staffs for the new or expanded Mlinistries which wen, formed at
Ole outbreak of war. The work done through the Centma
Registry was later supplemented by the Committee on Skille

to some
e armed
ttn(- on T(-chnieal

d ts in ea* uiliver'Uy
rs and nimbers of the tMininistrative
Oengable, and others were -advised as to
lndttstrial, irmed forces, or
r-work.As a generarrule, scientific and technical staffis
rved, after individnal examination, above the age of
ve, othei, above tbirt Application for roserva-
tion M made hy the U11 i-versities tlivou,,h the University Grant,,
ComjjjjtteL,, the fqnLliiig committee vAich allocates the arriual
Parliamentary gr:inf to the Universities.* The Committee trams-
mits recorrrnen(ial ions, to the Ministry of Labour. N-C) requests
from Unlver8ities have as yet been refused. Botli categories
Eave und(rtaken agreat many non-academic duties, the first
chielly as industriaFor military advisers, the secoA in service
oil Many civilian committees. Unless specially exempt, men on
univQrsity staffs, like their students and other male civillans,
must serve in the Home Guard if under 51. Unless iervhi- in
the Nuire Guaed, or otherwise specially exempt, incii from 16
to 60 aii(i with certain exceptions women from 20 to 45) rnu6t do
up to 48 hours a month Fireguard or other compulsor v Civil
-rse. The proportion of war-time to pre-war sttidents is
much higher than that of the faculty, so that the reinaining
_gtaffs (arcy a considerable burden. In line with the rei.ognition
of educatidn as a vital national service, men school-teacbers and
members of the administrative staffs of Local Education
Authorities are als(A in general reser'Ved at the age of 3.6.
Special War-Time Courses
1. Statt, Bursaries 41
The rreatest shortage of trained p(rsonuel has been in radio
and rad)-j)hysics and in electrical engineerillr To a less extent
in other brntiches of engineering, in some branches of chemistm
of medicine and of siatistics. Tlie Covernment has instituted
t wo s
anc ystenis of State Pursaries under which th( ontiro mnintmi-
_e and tuition e-xpenses of students, both mem and Nvoinen,
are paid. Students are selected on the basis of their s0iool leav-
ing, or equivalent, exnininations in che.nAs'tr v, physics and
mathematics, and sent t(i universities and colleges at i1w agc of
17 -plus. The two-vear Eu rsarios may load, to i degree, but that
is Only incidental o the. inain obj(,ctive, Aich is to secure biglil'
trained technical pptrsnwiel, Seienie bnraries may also br" given
far advanc(,d work and research. The six-nionths Bursaries nim,
naturally, at a inuch more limited traiiiing. The Dinsaries
Scheme are said to work vevv -well, and as many more. and in
as many subjects, will be provided as the war-effort necessjtateL'
total income of Univeroities in Great Brit-Ain f(,,r 194o-'41 wn-- ir,'437,5o.,
n" pro,ided 1,A IX, ontiors and 2.5. local authorjtie
j"Ieotlry grat, 374), tuition, eNaminations, et(- (including T'nard of
on xmnts for teichers in trajrlii,-) 24, c4br, 10,I).
-If), 6c eomparable, ijgureq wire total inrome X6,072,C)51, rrdow-
donations and su4sciptionq 2,7, Toeal authorities 0_9,, Parlia-
339, tnifion, w',nriiinaticqP, iAc., 3"2.5', other 7-1,

ii, Special Six-months Courses for RA
The Air _Ministrv kas arranged speekal sbix.mon .
In nivrsiiesfor intending- members (it the RAF.
teer at or after the, agu of 17, In addition to t-ecnidll
(he students, follow, a Uniiver,ity coavse either in theta
(politics, economic, philosophiy, morals, modern hitry
Scene rollp. Candidates, in addition of course to a le
to fly, must1 have special leadlcrship qualifications-. The
expenses are paid by the Air Miniitry.

iii. Special Pre-Military Training Courses
The re are secoial short course for student-, v1:Ijshing_, to en
the Artillery, Engineers, Armoured Co rps (Tanks., etc,) l
Signal Comrps; however, these specialized pre-military cour s
are said to be of1 rather disappointing practical Valute, and ma

iv. Special Courses in Mledicine, Statistics, Social Welfare, and
Oriental Languages
There are als special courses in Tropicail 1Medicine and W
Medicine, and a secial course in Statistics for Civil Servants,
Treasury expense, at the London Schoonl of Economic.,. Spec'
thre e months training courses have been instituted Tor soci
workers chosen to, becorne Persoannel Mlanagers and Factor
Welfare Supervisors. They mus b e over 25, are carefully
selected, and full maintenance is proidieId where necessary-,
month at the Unive rsity is followed by a month in the factory
then by a final University month. There are also special course
with full maintenance, in Orvienal lanuaems.

v. Training for Youth Service
The TBoard of Educaion is encouragringo 1niversitieg and othe
approved institutions to se up courses fo r those who are goin
to wourk in yonuth service. These may be full-time cour,es UPt
at year' du1ration,- or part-time. up to two years. The schem
applies to mean whLen available, but at present mostI candidate
will be womenn. The Board makes tuition giants, and whr
bursaries are grantedl by Universities or other institutionsk, tb
Board will make a refund. The Board suges ts that the subject
covered should include: mental and physical charactoristic,, 0
adoilescents soctial and industrial environment; personal ant
social hygiene ; responsible work: with groups of young- people,
At TBrist, 1 Universit such a course, starting in Sep'tember 1942,
has beeon jo intly- designed by hthe departments of Economics an1
Educations. it has lbeen partly baead on an experimental course
for yunth organizers carried ount in C'anada. Tho Un7iversity
staf will be assisted bhy representative osf a number of no~n.
acadenik bodlies. It is hoped that such schemes ma-,Y -rowx into
avery important Cal post-war -Britain.

stidentm are working hard:'i itiii to cijmmin
or three years' work into oneii o, and their
eguarid and Military training duties, they 'have lide
h agricultural and some industrial work' n week-end|
ions--many women students, with their later calling-i11u
Iformally pledging themselves to a large amount of part-..i
*IIational Service. Sports have continued on a reduced scale,
much cultural activities as are not prevented by the black-out
S~proceeded very actively. The following is a description of
L('s College, London. in its war-time home in Bristol:-
They all do weekly night tirewatching duties, both on
University premises and at their billets or hostels. Be-
ween lectures which run at peace-time capacity and
omatimes fuller they drill, practice First Aid, work in
college, service, and public canteens, and organize con-
iuous paper and pigfood salvage, dig-for-victory. mend-
mig-for-the-army, baby-minding, entertainment for the
forces (including Information Please and 'Brain Trust'
hatures), and similar campaigns. The women tie up
closely with the Women's Voluntary Services. Yet look
t the social notice-boards. They were a-flutter with
pyers of bills and posters advertising a college production
f 'Quiet Wedding,' an Easter presentation of the
igessiah' by a King's London-and-Bristol choir, a debate
:hat the faculty of arts must be maintained, being a
contribution to British life and thought influencing a far
-reater number than ever enter the university lecture
boms themselves.' a
i close-up picture is typical of any University in Britain
| Birkbeck College, an evening branch of London Uni-
tthat stayed behind to cater for the thousand teachers,
S servants, typists, industrial workers, chemists, clerks, and
who comprise its student body, was blitzed night after
te winter of 1940-41. In the great fires of May 1941,
ets retrieved 2,000 charred and sodden books.
tonal Union of Students has played a considerable
e time University life. Over 1,500 delegates attended
.t conference in April 1942.

S| tie"s of the United Nations
te given extensive hospitality to stud S
a taf iifs 'b institutions now in Nazi h
cozsuitation with the United Nte ss'
d as nCulher aof scholarships and nts,
thind iversitiall, toenshures thatcadiers

scnemes. tne universities nave onereit micn inrormaJ pers
tuition to serious students with special neeCd i
The University o:f London ran a summer school intei
primarily f'or members of the Canadian forces who wish
spend 7-days' leave as students. Service personnel attend
comprised 175 Canadians, 40 British (including women), 8 I
officers. 5 Royal Netherland's Brigade. 4 Czechs and 1 Amcnail
sailor. Similar courses are being held at Oxford, and Amenif
officers and men are invited to attend at a total cost of $14.50 1
S6.50 respectively. The most eminent lecturers are participle
ing. Cambridge had, by early 19)12, provided over 2.500 lecture
for the forces, especially o:n international affairs. Birmingha
has a week-end course for army officers, and Edinburgh
;course on Scottish Local Government fol Polish officers wI
were lawyers or Civil Servants in peace-time.

..i...... i .nlyi eiaqunLlal organlzauloi
..i.n ..i.. and .oviding syllabuse:
For exam.! le, i t y study under the regu-
.Institute of Char Accouitants, the Law : "
BLndon Chamber of Coni erce, the Institute of
Institute of Transport. Oxford will grant a certifi- il |
lma to those attaining honors stand~i ds in special I
or-o-war examinations to be held next spring,. This is
hably the first time thalbt Oxrd. has given academn irecogni-
Sto adult students without demanding any kind of University

IX. The Universities and Post-War Planning
The pressure of immediate necessities, and the loss of many
members of University staffs to the armed services, Govern-
ment offices, or other branches of National Service, has, of
course, restricted the attention that can be given to post-war
planning. However, important studies are being undertaken
by, amongst others, Nuflield College. Oxford, (of which Mr.
Harold Butler. now British Minister in Washington and head
of the British Information Services in the U.S.A., was the first
Warden), which is the centre for the extensive Social Recon-
struction Survey directed by Mr. G. D. H. Cole. This Survey,
Which receives an official subsidy. uses the facilities of other
ii.rjniversities and colleges in the various regions of the country,
and at present is chiefly considering the location of industry.
S' Nuffield College is also engaged on important Colonial, and
i jointly with other research bodies, International surveys. The
Manchester Economics Research Section, the London School of
Economics, and the Oxford University School of Statistics, are I
actively engaged. The University of London has set up a special
advisory board in Colonial studies, and the various schools of
architecture and town-planning are, of course, working out
plans for physical reconstruction. Oxford University, once again
benefiting by the generosity of Lord Nuffield, has established
a Chair and Institute of Social Medicine. All the British
Universities are now giving increasing attention to post-war


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