I. Development of man's relationship with animals
Man's relationship with animals goes back to the beginnig of his existence when he learned that certain animals were beyond man's physical capabilities on a one to one basis. On the other hand there were certain animals man could overcome and in doing so provide himself with food. From these encounters man developed attitude that matured to reverence on the one hand and the realization of a livelihood on the other. In over-simplified form this explains the dichotomy of attitude toward animals today. On the one hand you get the collection of exotic species by the upper classes and on the other hand you get people raising animals for the economic benefits.
A. Prelude to the zoo
Since the beginning of man's recorded existence men have shown a reverence for various animals. These animals have played and important part in the religious ceremony. From the ancient civilizations of the world these animals have beem raised eventually passed from the keeprs of the temples to the other members of the upper classes. This eventually
leads to the animal and bird collections og the wealthy landowners of Europe and Asia. The whimsical nature, wealth, and scientific interest of these country gentlemen is largely responsible for the forerunners of our modern zoos and aviaries. In addition to the zoos, the mystique of these collections of the world's exotic fauna gave birth to the traveling circues. Some enterprising individuals undoubtedly saw the economic potential of the mysteries of the world's wildlife, and for a price indulged the commoner.
B. Domestication, a step towards the farm
One of man's first conquests after adopting community life was the dog. Give and take would be a more accurate description of man's early relationship with the dog in a return for helping man keep his camp clean, the dogs got a free meal. Man's relationship with the dog eventually lead to the domestication of goats and sheep. as man slowed down in his nomadic travels the advent of planted crops lured the cow's ancestors into man's control. Similar circumstances have been responsible for most of the world's domesticated animals. As a result of the history of domestication thirty animals have proven their economic importance, among them two insects and nine birds.
II. Architecture for animals
The first shelters provided by the man for animals took the form of caves and other natural enclosures. Fences and simple lean-to's followed as the first man-made animals shelters. The forms that these structures took were probably as many as the sources of materials with which they were built.
The development of root crops in Europe in the late 1700's was a landmark in the development of animal shelters. Root crops allowed farmers to feed cattle through the long winters and provided incentive for the development of tighter animal shelters. This undoubtedly had a strong effect on the development of farm buildings in North America.
1. Dutch barn: among the oldest of the North American barn forms was brought to New York and New Jersey by the Dutch immigrants iof the 17th and 18th centuries. Basically basilica in form with nave and side aisles, this barn evolved from a combination house barn common in several areas of Europe.
a. characteristics: hipped roof, wagon doors on ends with drive-thru, animals stalls in side aisles, loft above, clapboard in exterior walls was usual.
2. English barn (3-bay barn): this barn, as one of its names implies has three basic divisions of space a central drive-thru with a threshing floor on one side and hay and grain storage on the other. Unlike its British precedent, the American interpretation of this barn often had a loft above supported by a huge swing beam that spanned the entire width of the barn.
a. Characteristics: gabled ends, drive-throu perpendicular to ridge line, local materials, animals shelter might take the form of a shed addition.
3. Double-crib barn: this barn is a variation of the 3-bay barn with a runway between two animal cribs on the ground and a threshing floor and sotrage loft above. Access to the animals cribs was often through the exterior sides as well as from the runway.
4. New England Connected barn : the most interesting aspect of this barn type is not the physical arrangement of the barn itself, but its relationship to the rest of the farm buildings. The connection of the out buildings to the farm house allowed access without going
outdoors. The interesting point is that the organic arrangement with the physical connection of all or most of the buildings remained long after the interconnecting passageways disappeared.
5. Pennsylvania barn: the precedent for this barn form is found primarily in the border areas between Germany and Switzerland-as a mater of fact a common nickname is the "Swiss Barn". Due to the similarity of the severe winter climate in the homeland and Pennsylvania, this is one of the tightest, weatherproof types of barn construction to evolve in North Ameriva.
a. Characteristics: usually 2, sometimes three levels, ground level access built up to loft, projection of loft on side opposite entry, animals cribs on lower level opening to an open stockyatd usually on the south side of the barn, sroage and threshing floor on upper levels, gabeled ends, matrials reflect local availability.
6. Quebec barn: this barn type had motive for development similar to that of the New England connected barn the severe winters necessitated sheltered passage from house to out buildings. The French settlers of Quebec looked to the "maison bloc"
of their home country for an economical solution to this problem. This barn takes on a long narrow rectangular plan, unlike the rambling arrangements of the connected barn in New England, with all the out building functions layed out in a linear arrangement with the house. Even after a slackening of the economic strain allowed separation of house and barn, the long narrow form remained with new function moving in where the living quarters once would have been. Tight ceiling above the animals' quarters provided loft storage space as well as maintaining a warmer environment for the animals.
B. Shelters for the animal of the rich.
The preceding descriptions of barns and farm outbuildings are primarily involved with the development of the vernacular architeture of rural North America. At the same time, the genteel were applying the current architectural fads and styles to everything from barns to bird houses. Since the development of European architectural styles is beyond the scope of this report, I'll confine my comments in this section to the generalizations about animals shelters outside the means and interest of the aveerage farmer. Scientific interest has been largely responsible for the collection of birds and animals for other than
agricultural pruposes, but that does not eliminate the whim of the rich as a strong motive for the stocking of aviaries and menageries. THis was most obvious in the declining years of the Roman Empire. Thousands upon thousands of exotic animals were assembled, only to be wantonly destroyed for the pleasure of the citizens. There are of course exceptions to every rule, but the basic concept behind shelters for the animals of the rich has evolved from jewel box, display case, a means to emphasize the exotic nature of the living exhibit, to an environmental systems aimed as holding its wild wards suspended in time as they would be in their true environment. This, ideally, is the concept of the modern zoo.
In conclusion, it is interestin to note that man's scientific endeavors have taken the collected wild beats from Nero's arena to the protection of elaborate, artificial environmental systems while many domesticated animals have gone from the benevolent hand of the country farmer to pens packed like sardine cans protected from their own potential cannibalism by artificual lighting systems. Even considering that a pig or a chicken is meat in the pain either way, the duration mus been a lot easier the old way.