Group Title: Afro-Asian dimension of Brazilian foreign policy, 1956-1968
Title: The Afro-Asian dimension of Brazilian foreign policy, 1956-1968
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Title: The Afro-Asian dimension of Brazilian foreign policy, 1956-1968
Physical Description: xi, 402 . : ; 28cm.
Language: English
Creator: Selcher, Wayne Alan, 1942-
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1970
Copyright Date: 1970
Subject: Foreign relations -- Brazil   ( lcsh )
Politics and government -- Brazil   ( lcsh )
Political Science thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Political Science -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: . 377-401.
General Note: Manuscript copy.
General Note: Vita.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098401
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000125818
oclc - 01578305
notis - AAP1793


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3 1262 08666 460 3

To my wife, Susan

A nation such as ours, which has all the attributes to

become a power, has the essential obligation to study and explore all

the alternatives.

Adolpho Justo Bezerra de Menezes
Subdesenvolvimento e Politica Internacional


Among those Brazilians who helped me in the preparation of

this study, my special appreciation must go to Candido Mendes de

Almeida and Jose'Garrido Torres, who gave freely of their experiences

and knowledge to orient and inform, as well as to Antonio Olinto,

Antonio Houaiss, and Jayme Azevedo Rodrigues, who graciously allowed

me to benefit by their experiences in the diplomatic service. Professors

Jos' Honorio Rodrigues, Cleantho de Paiva Leite, and Manuel Diegues

Junior granted generous use of the libraries of the IBRI and the CIAPCS,

and for this I express my thanks. I am also grateful for suggestions

and criticisms lent by Rudolph Rummel (University of Hawaii), Robert

Keohane (Brookings Institution), Steven Brams (New York University),

Roger Bastide (Sorbonne), and H. Jon Rosenbaum (Wellesley College).

My gratitude is extended as well to the members of my doctoral committee,

especially Dr. Ruth McQuown and Dr. Thomas Page who aided in

correcting the manuscript. Finally a special, unique vote of thanks is

due my wife who gave valuable assistance in collating statistics, typing,

and proofreading, also lending encouragement to bring the research and

writing to a successful conclusion. To the above I owe an intellectual

and personal debt, but all debits accruing from deficiencies and errors

in this undertaking must be attributed to my account alone.



LIST OF TABLES .. .. ....... ... vii

ABSTRACT . . . .. ix

I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . ... 1

BRAZIL . . . . .. 13

The Imperial Prelude . . 14
The Early Republic . 17
Extra-Continental Initiation . . . . 26
Great Power Apprenticeship and the Domestic
Debate over Foreign Policy . . . . 29
The Kubitschek fears . . . . . 39
Politica Externa Independente . . . . 42
The Conservative Reaction . . . . 57
The Diplomacy of Prosperity . . . . 60
Patterns of Growth and Nationalism . . . 64
Continuity and Change . . . . . 76

POLICY, 1956-1968 . 81

Public Opinion and Afro-Asia . . . . 83

The Cul:uralists . 87
Lusotropicology . . . 102
Economic Conflict and Cooperation . . 105
The N'eutralisL Viewpoint . . .. . 108
Interdependence with the West . . . 113
Africa in Military Thought . . . . 117

Afro-Asian Area Study Centers . . . . 120
Delusions of Grandeur or an Efficacious Policy? . 126
The Course of Bilateral Relations: Historical
Overview, 1956--1968 . 130


AFRO-ASIA . . .. . 155

Diplomatic and Consular Representation . . 158
Salience . . . . 169
Emigration and Communications . . . 179
Exports . . . .. 185
Dimensional Summary . . . . . 206
Three Case Studies . . . 210

Japan . . . . 21.2
Israel. . .. . . 220
India . . . . 224


Brazilian Policy on Colonialism in the Postwar
Decade . . .. . 240
Brazil, Portugal, and Portuguese Africa: The
Controversial Triangle . . 246
Tho Consensus on Portuguese Africa . . . 301
Human Rights, Nonintervention, and Trade in
Relations with South Africa: The Attraction of
Opposites? . . ... 304.
Rhodesia . . . .. 313

AFRO-ASIA . ........ .... 316

Brazil and UNCTAD . . . . . 318
Coffee . . . .......... . 332
Cocoa . . . 345


APPENDIX I, Persaonal Inte-views Used in the Preparation
of this Study . . . 370
APPENDIX II. Regional Distribution of Brazilian Diplomatic
and Consular Posts in 1956, 1962, and 1968 374
BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . .. ... . . . 376
BIOGRAPHY . . .................. 402


Table Page

1. Total Personnel Employed by the Brazilian Ministry
of Foreign Relations, 1956-1968 . . . . 65

2. Selected Features of Foreign Ministry Budget
Allocations, 1956-1968 67

3. Total Number of Brazilian Diplomatic and Consular
Posts in Selected Years . .. 69

4. Distribution of Brazilian Diplomatic Personnel in
Embassies and Legations Abroad, by Region,
1956-1968 . . . .. ... . . .. 160

5. Distribution of Brazilian Consular Personnel in
Consulates and Consulates-General Abroad, by
Region, 1956-1968 . 165

6. Brazilian Diplomatic and Consular Personnel Allocated
to Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, 1956-1968. 166

7. Conferrals of the Ordem Nacional do Cruzeiro do Sul,
by Region, 1956-1967 . . . . . 171

8. Bilateral Agreements Concluded by Brazil Since
January 1, 1950, and in Effect on June l, 1968:
Distribution by Region 173

9. Foreign Tourists Entering Brazil, by Region of
Nationality, 1962-1966 . 176

10. National Origin of Asian and Middle Eastern Tourists
Entering Brazil, 1962-1966 178

11. Regional Distribution of International Telephone Traffic
to and from Brazil, January, 1966--June, 1968 . 181

12. Regional Distribution of International Telegraph Traffic
to and from Brazil, July, 1965--June, 1968. . 184




13. Distribution of Brazilian Exports, by Region of
Destination, 1956-1967 . . . . 198

14. Destination of Brazilian Exports to Asia and the
Middle East, 1962-1967 . . . . 200

15. Distribution of Exports of Brazilian Manufactures,
by Region, 1967 . .. 203

16. Brazilian Transactions with Afro-Asia, on Selected
Measures, Expressed as Percentages of Brazil's
Global Transactions . . . . . 208

17. Selected Group Scores on Issues Before UNCTAD I . 323

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the
Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


Wayne Alan Selcher
December, 1970

Chairman: Dr. 0. Ruth McQuown
Co-Chairman: Dr. Thomas Page
Major Department: Political Science

The central problem of the study is the determination of Brazil's

reactions to the emerging states of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East

and its quantification in transaction flow terminology, with an analysis

and evaluation of these relations in comparison to Brazil's older,

strongly established ties to Western Europe, the United States, and

Latin America. This involves a chronological account of relations during

the period, an inquiry into the images which different sectors of national

opinion have held about Afro-Asia and Brazil's role there, and the

application of statistical measures of interaction between nations from

the Dimensionality of Nations Project to ascertain the relative importance

of Afro-Asia in the global range of Brazilian foreign policy through time

and to isolate three of the most salient states (Japan, Israel, and India)

for case studies. Economic relations with Afro-Asia are covered in trade

analysis and studies of interaction in UNCTAD and competition in coffee


and cocoa. Political conflicts with Afro-Asia are explored in policy

differences over anti-colonialism, Portuguese Africa, and South Africa.

Changing policy toward Afro-Asia is explained in terms of

changes in regime, conflicting images of the role of Brazil in the global

system, and cross-pressures arising from Brazil's cross-cutting and

only partially inclusive multiple memberships in five political, economic,

and cultural groups: Latin America, Western Hemisphere, Westerh

Community, Group of 77, and the Luso-Brazilian Community. Overlapping

conflicts and contradictory demands arising from these several member-

ships result in what may appear to be vacillation or incoherence when

judged from a single standard but which is explained by the fact that

Brazil is neither fully committed to any single membership nor highly

polarized by only highly congruent memberships. Brazilian political

and economic interests thus converge with and diverge from those upon

which the Afro-Asian bloc has struck a consensus in much more subtle

ways than the mere grouping of Brazil with Afro-Asia as a "developing, "

"Southern, or "Third World" state would suggest.

Within limits of priority imposed by the relatively low salience

which Afro--Asia has for Brazil, a summary of current Brazilian goals in

these developing regions out:;ide the Western Hemisphere can be drawn

up as follows.

1. Increase in trade relations, involving preferably the

exchange of manufactured products for raw materials to be used in

Brazil's new industries; otherwise the general expansion of all types

of sales to new markets.

2. Defense of national economic interests in competition in

primary commodities, notably coffee, cocoa, sugar, and cotton,

including persuasion for African states associated with the Common

Market to either yield or universalize their tariff preferences there.

3. Encouragement of solidarity among developing countries

to negotiate as a group with the developed states for the reversal of

unfavorable terms of trade and other economic concessions sought by

the Group of 77.

4. Preservation of Portuguese language and culture in Africa

to serve as a facilitator for a future Brazilian presence on that continent,

under the supposition that the Portuguese territories will eventually achieve

independence and that Brazil, while not meddling in Lisbon's internal affairs,

should do everything possible to make this emancipation relatively pain-

less and of a nature to ensure the continuation of Portuguese language

and culture rather than alienation from them on the part of the Africans.

5. Enhancement of national prestige as a leader among

developing states, a rising middle power with a worldwide diplomatic

network, utilizing the projected image of a pacific, multiracial, rapidly

industriaizing tropical civilization.

6. Exchange of technical knowledge in fields such as nuclear

power, tropical medicine, tropical agriculture and cattle raising, civil

aviation, and architecture.



The analysis of relations among developing nations is a field

which has only recently attracted interest, as evidenced by trends of

research in professional journals and dissertations. Students of inter-

national politics have traditionally dwelt on the centers of power, with

relatively little concern for areas other than Europe, the United States,

the Soviet Unior, and China and Japan in Asia. Lesser powers became

subjects of study rirnmarily when the lines of regional tension overlapped

those of major power tension, as in the contemporary Middle East.

Correspondingly these studies, written by authors from the metropolitan

areas enmeshed in the larger conflicts, emphasized the relationships

of the developing states to the major powers rather than their relation-

ships to each other. The focus on power led almost inexorably to an

allocation of research efforts which relegated developing or "non-Western"

states to peripheral status and attention. Even in the well-documented

area of inter-Armerican relations the dominant framework has been erected

by studies inspired by and concentrating on the foreign policy reactions

of Latin American nations to American political and economic intervention,

the World Wars, or Communist subversion rather than interrelationships

among the Latin states. While not denying the importance or relevancy

of such a great power-centered approach (especially to the great

powers), the contention is made here that this methodological bias

has retarded the development of a general theory of international

behavior by in effect restricting most analysis to the sample of a few

powerful states which may not be representative of the universe of


Within the last decade the horizons of international politics,

like those of comparative politics, have expanded to include non-

Western states with a consequent enrichment and growth of the data

base, the size of which has been a limiting factor in formulating valid

generalizations about nation-state behavior through time. This initial

shedding of cultural and academic ethriocentrism was the result of at

least two converging currents of thought. The first was occasioned by

the independence of Afro-Asian states which championed a policy of

nonalignment and sought to forge a Third Force as a vehicle for their

interests vis-a-vis the developed states or the Western powers. Just

as the birth of these states stimulated a lively academic dialogue on

their place within comparative politics under the rubric of political

development, so the international relations specialists expounded

upon the determinants of a neutralist foreign policy, the viability of

the Third Force concept, and the effects which the introduction of

so many change-oriented new actors would work on the international

system. The number of the less-powerful states and the vote-

power they wield in the United Nations made them a force which both

the great powers and international relations analysts found hard to

ignore. 2

The second trend which brought the developing states of

Afro--Asia and Latin America within the purview of general international

relations theory was an intellectual one, the adaptation of the termi-

nology of systems analysis to the study of relations among nations by

such scholars as Kaplan, Deutsch, Boulding, Russett, and Rosecrance.

Conceptualization of the complex network of interactions of all states

as forming a patterned regularity which is the global system almost

inevitably set off inquiries about the existence of subsystems. Since

the global system was said to be Europe-centered, the set of subsystems

included those operating in a more restricted fashion in other political,

economic, or geographic regions. Impetus for this approach to

developing areas was added by attempts at regional integration in the

Central American Common Market, the Latin American Free Trade

As an example of the neutralist nation studies, see, inter alia,
Laurence W'. Martin, ed., Neutralism and Nonalignment: The New
States in World Affairs (New York: Praeger, 1962).

2A useful assessment of the small (weaker) powers, both
developed and developing, in international relations is Ainry Vandenbosch,
"Small States in International Politics and Organization, Journal of
Politics, XXVI (May, 1964), 293-312. A more theoretical treatment with
a model is found in Custavo Lagos, International Stratification and
Underdeveloned Countries (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina,

Association, tha Organization of African Unity, the Arab League, and

others, not to mention the much more successful European Economic

Community against which their progress could be measured. The

subsystem problem became the identification of various types of

regional subsystems through empirical verification of transaction flows

and their intensities, in much the same way as Rummel's Dimensionality

of Nations Project was defining quantitatively the form and content of

the global system by identifying and measuring the. basic dimensions of

the foreign behavior of nations through computer analysis of statistical

data. With the research problem thus stated, the methodological path

was made clear for the meaningful integration of the relations among

developing states into the larger body of international relations theory,

in contrast to their former isolated treatment merely as sui generis sets

of relationships, archetypical of the course of the study of, inter-American


Since the introduction of terms like' "subordinate system, "

"subsystem, and "regional system, along with diverse criteria for

their identification, the analysis of relations among developing states

within the san:e regionn has been furthered and several subordinate systems

delineated in the Middle East, Africa, West Africa, Southern Africa,

Analogously, the concepts of political development have begun
to appear as a bridge to span the persistent chasm between Latin American
political studies and the field of comparative politics as it developed
during the 1960's.

Southern Asia, and Southeast Asia. 4 Curiously, little similar systemic

interest in the Western Hemisphere ihas been forthcoming to date,

perhaps because of the inertia of decades of more traditionally oriented

research. The next step in theory would seem to be in the direction of

examining interactions between regional systems, and literature of this

type is beginning to appear in both systemic and transaction flow

models. 5

It is within this interregional research that the present study

is set, as an investigation of the relations between Brazil, a member

of one regional system, and the states of Afro-Asia, representing other

regional systems. The central problem will be the determination of

The most significant subsystem essays on developing areas
include the following: Leonard Binder, "The Middle-East as a Subordinate
International System, World Politics, X (April, 1958), 408-429; Larry
W. Bowman, "The Subordinate State System of Southern Africa, Inter-
national StudiCs Quarterly, XI, No. 3 (September, 1968), 231-261;
Michael Bracher, "International Relations and Asian Studies: The
Subordinate State System of Southern Asia, World Politics, XV (January,
1963), 213-235; Thomas Hodgkin, "The New West Africa State System, "
University of Toronto Ouarterly, XXXI (October, 1961), 74-82; George
Modelski, internationall Relations and Area Studies: The Case of
Southeast Acia, International Relations, II (April, 1961), 143-155; and
I. William Zartmann's"Africa as a Subordinate State System in International
Relations, International Orqaniza4tion XXI (Summer, 1967), 545-564,
and International Relat'ouns in the New Africa (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-
Hall, 1966).

Sea, for example, Steven J. Brams, "A Note on the Cosmo-
politanism of World Regions, Journal of Peace Research, V (1968),
88-95 and Krl ;;3iser, "The Interaction of Regional Subsystems, World
Politics:;, XXI, No. L (October, 1968), 04-107.

Brazil's reactions to the emerging states of Africa, Asia, and the

Middle East and its quantification in transaction flow terminology,

analyzing and evaluating those relations in comparison with Brazil's

older, strongly established ties to Western Europe, the United States,

and Latin America. Although bilateral relations with certain countries

will be singled out as especially significant, the primary unit of

interaction analysis (Chapter IV) will be the region.

A fundamental preoccupation in regional theory is resolving

the problem of operationally defining "region" as a means to classify

and group nations. As Russett has demonstrated, several criteria have

commonly been employed as differentiating variables: geographical

contiguity, social and cultural similarity, similar foreign political

behavior, institutional membership, and economic interdependence. 6

Because of possible ambiguities arising from this variety of usages and

in view of the difficulty of placing precise boundaries on any region,

however defined, the choice has been made in the present study to

define regions along geographical lines, following the practice of most

subsystem theorists.7 This is feasible because the usefulness here of

a geographic determination of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East lies

0Bruce M. Russett, International Regions and the International
System: A Study in Political Ecology (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1967),
p. 11.

'Supra, n. 4.


not with the precision of boundary delineation or amenability to rigorous

intraregional systemic treatment, but rather in the ability of these

expressions to describe continents which have traditionally received

little attention in Brazilian diplomacy and which, when taken together,

make up nearly the totality of the world's developing nations outside

the Western Hemisphere. "Africa, unless otherwise stated, will denote

only sub-Saharan Africa, including the Republic of South Africa. The

"Middle East" will comprehend not only the Levant but also Turkey,

Iran, and the Maghreb. "Asia" is taken to refer to non-Communist Asia,

including the Philippines, Indonesia, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand;

Brazil neither maintains relations nor has significant dealings with

Peking, Hanoi, Pyongyang, or Ulan Bator.

In addition to these three regions, four more are postulated:

Western Europe, Eastern Europe, the United States, and all other

Western Hemisphere countries. The United States, while not a region

in normal uses of the term, bulks so heavily in Brazilian foreign relations

that it deserves separate treatment. An aggregate of all Western

Hemispheric countries (an alternative grouping) would not adequately

reflect political, economic, or cultural reality for the purposes of this

study, even though a hemispheric political subsystem may be said to

exist, formally embodied in the Organization of American States. By

following a regional methodology, it will be possible to extract higher

level generalizations from the data than those afforded by a conventional


bilateral approach which has characterized the majority of prior studies

of Brazilian foreign policy; i. e., policy vis-a-vis the United States,

Cuba, the Soviet Union, etc. Then, within the global context of

Brazilian relations with the seven postulated regions, the course of

relations with Afro-Asia can be measured and charted through time to

establish the nature, strength, and duration of any trends. These

trends will then be explicated in terms of changes in regime, conflicting

images of the role of Brazil in the global system, and cross-pressures

arising from Brazil's multiple memberships in several political, economic,

and cultural clusters.

The question of the relevancy of such research can be legiti-

mately raised, as it departs from the norm set by most studies of the

foreign policy of Latin American nations, in both method and focus. Why

should time be taken up scrutinizing relations between Brazil and Afro-

Asia ? An initial motivation was the above-mnentioncd scarcity of

substantive studies on relations among developing nations of different

subsystems, perhaps sufficient reason in itself to demand at least one

more case study. Brazil is well suited for such an inquiry because

among all laNtin American states it is in an objectively advantageous

position to carry on significant political, economic, and cultural relations

with Afro-Asia and, to the author's knowledge, has in fact been in the

forefront among the South American nations in this undertaking. Brazil

stands as one of the significant powers among developing nations, as


ranked by size, population, resources, and potential, su the course of

its relations, both cooperative and confliciful, with othei developing

nations outside the Western Hemisphere is of special interest, additionally

so because of the stated importance placed on these relations by several

administrations and also because of its intermittent ambitions of leader--

ship and prestige among developing nations within and outside of Latin


The period from 1956 to 19683 was chosen because, in addition

to corresponding roughly to the span between the end of the Vargas era

and the time field research was carried out, it was during these 12

years that almost all formerly colonized Afro-Asian nations received

their independence while simultaneously Brazil was gradually embarking.

upon a more active diplomatic style, redefining in many ways the

substance and range of its interests.' It was therefore during the period

under examination that the foundations of an Afro-Asian policy were

being set, exposing domestic disagreements, conflicting solidarities,

and shifting priorities which are likely to persist in future relations with

these regions.

Through this dimension of Brazilian foreign policy-some facets

of the country's self-identification as a future powei may be illuminated,

a matter mc-re important than bilateral relations with any single Afro-

Asian state. In a world where the gap between developed and developing

economies is widening, Brazil with its regional diversity maintains

features of both developing and developed economies, marked by a

rising national growth rate and the expansion of insular areas of indus-

trialization surrounded by an unrelenting sea of poverty. The extent to

which the foreign policy decision-makers perceive the nation either as

developed with some areas of backwardness or as underdeveloped with

a few developed zones will heavily condition Brazil's relations not only

with the developing states of Afro-Asia but also with the developed

members of the Western Community. As the question could be phrased,

should Brazil hope to benefit in the long run by retaining its position

among the "Proletariat of the Free World" or should it seek leadership

of a Third Force to demand concessions from the industrialized states?

What set of interests links it to the West? What set of interests favors

greater multilateral cooperation with the Afro-Asian bloc? To what

extent can relations with Afro-Asia be formulated separately from policy

toward Latin America, the United States, and Western Europe (particularly

Portiugal)? What levels of priorities are to be.assigned ? These are a

few of the more weighty normative considerations surrounding the Afro-

Asian dimension of Brazilian foreign policy, making it useful as a contri-

bution to the body of knowledge about how emerging and potentially great

powers elect to make their influence felt on a world scale, achieving

greater international recognition and broadening their range of diplomatic


To delve into sonime of these questions and to assess in loco the

state of Brazilian relations with Afro-Asia, field research was undertaken



in Brazil from January to November, 1968, under a Fulbright-HIays grant

from the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

Written material pertaining to the topic was obtained in the greatest

part at the library of the Foreign Ministry, the Instituto Brasileiro de

Relac6es Internacionais, the Escola Superior de Guerra, the Centro

Latinoamericano de Pesquisas em Ciancias Sociais, and the Riblioteca

Nacional, with use also made of the facilities of the Fundacafo Getulio

Vargas and the Instituto Brasileiro de Bibliografia e Documentagao. To

supplement and interpret statistics, accounts, and other written data,

over thirty nonstandardized personal elite interviews were conducted

with officials or former officials, Brazilian and foreign, with firsthand

experience in the relations between Brazil and the countries of Afro-Asia

in both private and public spheres to ascertain what these officials

considered relevant in the total context of those relations and how they

interpreted the events which they had helped to create or in which they

were involved. Numerous important insights were gained in this way.

Because of petrso-al wishes of the interviewee, several of.these sources

have been k-ept anonymous.

The organization of the dissertation goes from the general to the

specific. Chapter II describes the patterns in Brazilian foreign policy,

emphasiz.,grj the years since 1956, in order to spell out the context in

which relations with Afro-Asia have been formulated and carried out. The

third chapter explorcs the images which different sectors of national

opinion have held about Afro-Asia and Brazil's role there and qlves a

chronological account of relations since 1.956. In the fourth chapter

statistical measures of interactions between nations are employed to

determine the relative importance of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East

in the global range of Brazilian foreign policy and to isolate the most

salient states for case studies. Chapters V and VI cover policy on

international issues which are generally considered most important by

Afro-Asian states, decolonization, human rights, and economic develop-

ment, using as illustrative cases Portuguese Africa and South Africa in

the first two instances and the United Nations Conference on Trade and

Development and competition with Africa in coffee and cocoa in the third.

The concluding chapter theorizes about Afro-Asia as a dimension of

Brazilian foreign policy and sets out the Foreign Ministry's goals in

those regions.



In most treatments of the nations of Latin America, it has been

customary to designate Brazil as a separate quantity, not only because

of its Portuguese language and culture, but also because of its size,

regional diversity, and supposedly more stable and less violent political

process. 1 Brazilians themselves have long been aware of what they

consider important differences between themselves and Spanish America,

dating from the earliest days of Iberian colonization of South America

and the Treaty of Tordesillas by which Pope Alexander VI in .1-194

partitioned the New World between Spain and Portugal. Such a view

emphasizes the unique contributions Brazil can make to international

or inter-American relations, as the "third" or Luso-Brazilian America,

as contrasted with the English and Spanish-speaking portions of the

Americas. 2

For an argument attacking conceptions of Brazilian politics
as inherently more stable than the Latin American norm, see James
Busey's "Brazil's Reputation for Political Stability, Western Political
Quarterly, XVIII, No. 4 (December, 1965), 866-880.

2Nostor dos Santos Lima, A Terceira Am6rica (Rio de Janeiro:
Livraria Freitas Bastos, 1967).

This feeling of uniqueness or perhaps even isolation in the

South American context had great effect on the formulation of Brazilian

foreign policy during the latter days of the Empire and the first years of

the Republic, culminating in the establishment and mutual cultivation of

close ties between Rio de Janeiro and Washington. Seldom marred by

diplomatic frictions of importance, these harmonious relations came to

represent an anomaly in an inter-American system in which the major

feature has been Latin American antagonism toward or distrust of the

United States. Brazil, on the contrary, in the first 60 years of this

century generally adhered closely to American policy and often.acted as

advocate of the American position vis-a-vis the rest of Latin America.

An understanding of the origins and nature of this relationship and the

consequent outlook of the Brazilian elite and especially its effect on

Brazil's pre-1956 image of world politics is essential to later examina-

tion of Brazil's reaction to the emergence of new Afro-Asian nations after


The Imperial Prelude

Although the United States was the first nation to recognize

Brazil's independence from Portugal in 1822, the course of American-

Brazilian relations from that date to the proclamation of the Republic in

1889 was marked largely by mutual indifference as the United States

pursued a basically isolationist policy, while Brazil was principally

engaged in improving relations with Europe (especially France and

Great Britain) and in balance of power maneuvers in the Rio de la Plata

area. Great Britain was the diplomatic and commercial center of

Brazilian attention in the mid-nineteenth century, partly as a legacy of

the colonial period, for one of the oldest alliances in Europe was that

between Great Britain and Portugal. In 1833, Brazil maintained 10

diplomatic missions in Europe and 4 in the Western Hemisphere; in

1859, Europe counted a total of 13 Brazilian legations and 157 consular

officials, but the Americas were assigned only 7 missions and 37 consuls.3

Upper class cultural patterns and social values in the Empire were taken

from European courts, as Brazil attempted to present itself to the world

as a predominantly Caucasian nation despite large admixtures of Negro

and Indian blood.

Within South America, Brazil's action was confined mainly to

delimiting the border with Argentina by legal means, the creation of

Uruguay as a buffer state, and several interventions in the Cisplatine

region to protect Uruguayan independence or to ensure the protection of

Brazilian interests against Rosas and Argentine caudillismo and instability

in general. Brazil also resisted Argentine pretensions of annexing

Paraguay in 1849 and was successful in maintaining Paraguay intact as

another buffer state after the Paraguayan War (1864-1870), despite

Argentine pressure for partition.

3Jose Honorio Rodrigues, Interesse Nacional e Polhtica Externa
(Rio de Janeiro: Civilizacao Brasileira, 1966), p. 17.

Brazilian-American relations in the time of Dom Pedro II

revolved around commercial issues and were mutually satisfactory in

spite of certain frictions arising out of American complaints regarding

treatment of lier citizens or ships in Brazil, as well as American

insistence on free navigation of the Amazon. During the American Civil

War Brazil granted the South belligerency status and allowed both

Confederate and Union ships to enter territorial waters and national

ports. Several cases of conflict ensued between ships of the contending

factions, but the Union maintained diplomatic courtesies and offered

official apologies to the Emperor when a formal complaint was lodged.

Washington's confidence in the impartiality of the Emperor remained at

such a level that President Lincoln, when questioned by European

statesmen on the possibility of a mediator in the conflict, reportedly

replied that the natural choice would be Brazil. The visit of Dom Pedro II

to the Philadelphia Exposition in 1876 and his famous remarks about Bell's

telephone further popularized the image of the congenial, enlightened

South American emperor.

An important problem in relations between Brazil and both

England and the United States (after the Civil War) was Brazil's refusal

to outlaw slavery until 1888. Newspaper articles in both Anglo-Saxon

Alutzio Napole o, Rio Branco e as Relacoes centre o Brasil e os
Estados Unidos (Rio de Janeiro: Minist4rio das Relay6oes Exteriores,
1947), p. 63.

countries kept the issue under discussion and a cause of tension. About

1880 the American Minister Hilliard.; a former slaveowner, was persuaded

by abolitionist Joaquim Nabuco to testify in an open letter to the economic

and social advantages of abolition. Brazilian protests of foreign inter-

ference led to his recall several months later.

By the end of the Empire, then, several principles had come to

determine the general outlines of Brazilian foreign policy. For external

support and a guarantee of independence, Brazil relied on the relation-

ship with Great Britain rather than the Monroe Doctrine and a much

weaker United States. For protection from encroachments on the part of

greater powers, Brazil advocated non-intervention and the peaceful

settlement of international disputes on the basis of juridical procedure,

while at the same time not hesitating to use force where its own vital

national interests were at stake. While negotiating border settlements,

consolidating frontier control, and expanding dominion over disputed

areas through the principle of effective occupation, Brazil sought to

safeguard its internal order and parliamentary regime against threats

emanating from the chaotic instability of the neighboring Spanish

American republics.

Th3 Efarly Republic

Nelson de Sousa Sanmpaio, of the University of Bahia, has

identified three stages of republican Brazil's participation in the

international arena.5 The period of territorial diplomacy (1889-1917)

served to fix the nation's boundaries with neighboring South American

countries while extra-hemispheric concerns were relegated to second

place, despite Brazil's attendance at the Second Hague Conference,

where its polyglot representative Rui Barbosa asserted the rights of

small states in international law. The following phase of extra-

continental initiation and limited participation in world events (1917-

1945) was marked by membership in the League of Nations and participa-

tion in the Second World War. Since 1945, Brazil has been undertaking

what some Brazilians consider a great power apprenticeship in which

an increasingly active foreign policy is used both as an instrument of

economic development and as a means of furthering national independence

and prestige, anticipating the day when Brazil will take on worldwide

interests. Even though continuing problems and changes of regime make

such periodization less than comprehensive, this outline is of use as a

general orientation and will be adopted in the following discussion.

Between the .urn of the century and World War ,f. Brazil was

sufficiently prosperous, adventurous, and domestically peaceful to

secure its international position and improve its iminrg .abroad. The

statesman who would take these prime conditions to lend to Brazilian

Nelson de Sousa Sampaio, "The Foreign Policy of Brazil, "
in Foreign Policies in a World of Change, ed. by cJoseph E. Black and
Kenneth W. Thompson (New York: Harper and Row, 1963), p. 626.

foreign relations a form and content they would retain for decades was

Josd Maria da Silva Paranhos Junior,.the Baron of Rio Branco, who in

his capacity as foreign minister under four presidents (1902-1912) was

able to give to Brazilian foreign policy a continuity and direction

seldom achieved in Latin America. Because of his accomplishments

and organizing powers, Rio Branco has become the "patron saint" of

Brazilian diplomacy, receiving almost obligatory references in present-

day foreign policy statements, which sometimes are described as-

emanating from immutable principles he established, which have

maintained their validity as standards of conduct despite the passage

of time.

The Baron of Rio Branco was born in 1845 as the son of the

Viscount of Rio Branco, the noted diplomat, senator, prime minister,

and foreign minister of Dom Pedro II. After 25 years' experience

in various diplomatic posts in Europe and the United States, he

came into national recognition through his successful handling of

border dispute arbitration cases in the Missoes and Amapa regions,

winning for Brazil the entirety of the territory in contention. Named

Minister of Foreign Relations by President Rodrigues Alves in July,

1902, Rio Branco set about modernizing and streamlining Itamaraty (the

Ministry of Foreign Relations), adding a library, map room, new

furnishings, and recruiting such talented figures as Joaquim Nabuco

and Euclides da Cunha. The staff of the office was enlarged; Rio Branco

found it with only 27 officials whereas in 1859 it had employed

38. 6

With the political advantage of having been absent from Brazil

for nearly throo decades and thus not having made many enemies, Rio

Branco accepted the office of foreign minister from each succeeding

president only on the condition that strictly internal, partisan matters

be kept out of foreign policy. Within Brazil, Rio Branco is best

remembered for the approximately 342, 000 square miles which he added

to the national territory while bilaterally negotiating boundary limits

with all the surrounding republics, basing all his claims solely on

actual and effective possession of the land, in lieu of whatever legal

instruments already existed. 7 The Spanish-speaking countries of South

America, remembering the distant Treaty of Tordesillas which gave

almost all of the continent to Spain, smoldered under the resentment that

somehow they had been cheated by creeping Brazilian imperialism.

From the proclamation of the Republic, ministers in both

Washington and Rio de Janeiro worked toward a common understanding

or at least a tacit partnership, departing from the past record of mutual

Carlos Miguel Delgado de Carvalho, Hist6ria DiplomAtica do
Brasil (So Paulo: Companhia Editira Nacional, 1959), p. 248.

E. Bradford Burns, The Unwritten Alliance: Rio Branco and
Brazilian-American Relations (New York: Columbia University Press,
1966), p. 49. This chapter's outline of the Rio Branco period relies
principally on this valuable study.


indifference. During the 1893 naval mutiny in Rio's harbor, the decisive

American stand against possible pro-monarchy intervention by European

powers with naval vessels in the Bay of Guanabara was sufficient to

assure the victory of the government forces and defeat a return to

monarchy. Since this application of the Monroe Doctrine actually con-

tributed to the preservation of Brazilian sovereignty, it is not surprising

that the federal government in 1894 dedicated a monument in Rio to James

Monroe and confiscated copies of Eduardo Prado's A Ilusa'o Americana,

unfavorable to the United States. Brazil was one of the few Latin

American countries well disposed toward the United States' role in the

Spanish-American War, and the Brazilian Naval Club of Rio sent a

communication to the United States Navy, congratulating it for the sea

victories. The earlier results of President Cleveland's arbitration in

the Missoes question also advanced the favorable opinion of his country

in Brazil.

Despite his own ties to aristocratic Europe, Rio Branco fully

appreciated the growing strength of the United States as well as Brazil's

advantages in fostering more amicable relations, from both political and

commercial points of view. With tacit or explicit American backing

Brazil could hope to be much stronger and more effective in border disputes

and entrance onto the world scene. Favorable commercial arrangements

0Lawrence F. Hill,. Diplomatic Relations Between the United
States and Brazil (Durham: Duke University Publications, 1932), p. 284.


with the greatest market for coffee exports would be facilitated and the

drive for Brazilian supremacy in South America would practically be

guaranteed success. To this end the Baron, also aware of the ongoing

rivalry with Argentina, used all occasions to stress the common interests

and affinities of the Colossus of the North and that of the south. As

the two "outcasts" of the Western Hemisphere, the United States and

Brazil therefore concluded a type of informal alliance, with the United

States encouraging Brazilian aspirations for leadership within Latin

America in order to afford itself a strong ally for American policy there.

The most dramatic step in this entente was the 1905 elevation

to embassy status of the Brazilian legation in Washington, at a time

when the rank of ambassador was reserved for great powers in their

mutual relations and no other South American country maintained an

embassy in the United States. In choosing Joaquim Nabuco for the first

Ambassador to Washington and consequently the tactician of his new

approach, Rio Branco picked an able representative who became very

popular for his speaking ability and genuine admiration for the United

States, the Monroe Doctrine, and Pan-Americanism. In speaking of a

Brazil-United States alliance through the Monroe Doctrine to counteract

what he regarded as the colonially based European-African-Asian group,

Nabuco affirmed, "To me the Monroe Doctrine means.that we detach

outselves politically from Europe as completely, as definitely as the

moon from the earth. The tenor of this statement and the symbolic

transfer of the talented Nabuco from London to Washington signaled a

fundamental and lasting shift in the axis of Brazilian foreign policy

attention, a change in which the Brazilian government received enthu-

siastic cooperation from Theodore Roosevelt and Elihu Root.

Both Nabuco and Rio Branco strongly supported the Monroe

Doctrine because they believed that a large, stable, developing, and

distant Brazil need not fear United States intervention in spite of the

Roosevelt Corollary. In a letter to Graga Aranha, Nabuco wrote, "The

Monroe Doctrine lays down a definite foreign policy for the United

States which is now beginning to take shape, and it lays down a

similar policy for us. Under such conditions, our diplomacy should

receive its principal impetus from Washington. Such a policy would

be better than the largest army or navy. l

Both states benefited from this partnership. Rio Branco

attempted to explain American interventions to Spanish America as

altruistic, with basically pure motives, and explicitly invoked the

Doctrine on several occasions to strengthen his hand against European

powers, notably in the Panther case of 1905 and the Acre controversy

Ronald Hilton, Toacuim Nabuco e a Civilizacago Anglo-
americana (Rio de Janeiro: Institute Brasil-Estados Unidos, 1949),
p. 36.

Carolina Nabuco, The Life of Toaquim Nabuco, translated
and edited by Ronald Hilton (Stanford: Stanford University Press,
1950), p. 307.

with Bolivia in which an Anglo-American company was involved. After

the United States' role in Panamanian independence, Rio Branco stated

that he "heartily" approved of Roosevelt's action, sought to gather

diplomatic recognition in Latin America, and offered early recognition

on the part of Brazil. When Colombia requested aid, he advised a

realistic acceptance of the situation. 11

Inspired by such mutual gains and the possibilities the Monroe

Doctrine held for Brazil in its expanding international activities, Rio

Branco planned to have the Brazilian delegation to the Fourth Inter-

national Conference of American States at Buenos Aires (1910) press for

adoption of the following remarkable resolution:

The long stretch of time since the declaration of the
Monroe Doctrine enables us to recognize in it a permanent
factor for international peace on the American continent.
For that reason Latin America, celebrating the first efforts .
to gain her independence, sends to her great northern sister
the expression of her gratitude for that noble and dis-
interested initiative which has been of such great benefit
to the world. 12

Because of the more characteristic opposition of much less enthusiastic

Spanish American countries who had not felt so strongly the potentially

salutary effects of the Doctrine, this proposal was never presented to

the Conference but remains chiefly as an indicator of Rio Branco's degree

1Burns, The Unwritten Alliance, pp. 86-90.

12Frederic W. Ganzert, "The Baron do Rio Branco, Joaquim
Nabuco, and the Growth of Brazilian--American Friendship, 1900-1910, "
Hispanic American Historical Review, XXII (August, 1942), .433-434.

of cornmitment to the continuation of United States tutelage in Latin

America, especially in light of growing American economic and military


Although Rio Branco achieved some measure of success within

the Western Hemisphere as a result of this new alignment of forces,

Brazil's experiences at the Second Hague Conference warned of future

difficulties inherent in the relationship, which allowed the United

States to give Brazil special privileges and consideration within the

inter-American system or the American sphere of influence, but which

also required it as a superior power to be primarily concerned with its

own interests vis-a-vis Europe. The United States sided with the

established Euiopean powers on most issues and ignored Latin America,

despite Root's many speeches on. behalf of the equality of nations. The

subordinate status granted Brazil in the organization of the International

Court of Justice came as a rude shock to Itamaraty, accustomed to

different treatment in the limited field of inter-American politics. The

cross purposes pursued at the Hague Conference were in accord with

objective differences in the wealth, power, and rank of the two countries,

which could not be eliminated merely by the subsequent official state-

ments in which Etihu Root and Rio Branco glossed over the disagreements.

Sec-etary of State Root left office in 1909, and Nabuco died in

Washington the following year. Rio Branco died in 1912, but the major

trends he initiated continued for decades. The demise of these three

prime movers, however, determined that the alliance and Brazilian

support for the Monroe Doctrine would continue in form but without

fervor. Despite the efforts of Edwin Morgan, United States Ambassador

to Brazil from 1912 to 1933, relations becarhe routine although cordial,

lacking the innovations and eagerness which had characterized the first

decade of the century, in part because of internal preoccupations of

both nations.

Extra-Continental Initiation

World War I worked various effects on Brazil. While German

submarines destroyed some Brazilian shipping, the increased European

demand for foodstuffs during the later war years and the postwar period

brought a measure of good fortune. Brazil declared its neutrality on

August 4, 1914, the same day as did the United States. With German

torpedoing of Brazilian ships, relations with Germany were broken on

April 11, 1917, but Brazil still remained neutral both out of relative

weakness and domestic division of loyalties among the many immigrant

groups. On June 1, 1917, the Brazilian Congress authorized seizure of

German ships in national ports and on October 26 of the same year war

was declared with the sinking of another ship, making Brazil the only

South American nation to go to war with the Central Powers. Actual

participation at that late date, however, was limited to the sending of

patrol ships to the South Atlantic and medical missions to France and

England but gave Brazil a new feeling of involvement on a world scale.

Besides being represented at the Versailles Peace Conference,

Brazil became an active member of the league of Nations and, within

its well-developed legal tradition, furnished several distinguished

jurists to the Permanent Court of International Justice. During its seven

years in the League, Brazil succeeded in being re-elected as a non-

permanent mmniber of the Council, an advantage both for itself and the

other nations of Latin America which found themselves severely handi-

capped in dealing with the established creditor powers of Europe.

Several times the Brazilian delegate served as President of the Council,

where Brazil was determined to speak for the Western Hemisphere in the

absence of the United States.

This relatively euphoric state of affairs was shaken in 1926

when in alliance Brazil, Spain, and Poland announced that they would

vote to admit Germany as a permanent Council member only if they were

allowed permanent membership as well. Since the affirmative votes of

Brazil and Spain as non-permanent Council members were necessary for

German admission, a crisis developed. Despite some benefits which

might have accrued to Latin America as a whole out of the Brazilian

demand, the Spanish American sLates pragmatically supported instead

the creation of three non-permanent Council seats for Latin America

instead of two.

Itamaraty and the nationalistic President Bernardes remained

inflexible to a compromise solution suggested by a special committee

and clung to their impossible pretensions. Brazil vetoed German

membership, but faced with widespread criticism and knowing that

Germany would likely be admitted in spite of Brazilian opposition it

left the League on June 10, 1926. Just as after the unhappy Hague

experience, Brazil retreated to the more comfortable, familiar area of

Western Hemisphere diplomacy in which it felt more efficacious. This

withdrawal increased Brazilian isolation from European and Asiatic

political affairs, convincing many sectors of public opinion of the

futility of extra-hemispheric interests. Brazilian diplomats in addition

were removed from the further experience to be gained in international

organization, continuing their preference for idealistic schemes set in

high-sounding legal phraseology. 13

Brazil's principal activities in the juridical and mediating

fields in the interwar period were the cases of the.Chaco War and the

Mara I{n dispute. In the complex secret diplomacy of the former, Brazil

tacitly supported Bolivia's demand for a port on the Paraguay River but

attempted to keep the war from spreading. The Mara on crisis of 1941

was an unprovoked large-scale Peruvian attack on Ecuador in the

disputed Amazon border region. With very weak defenses Ecuador could

not resist the occupation of a large part of her territory, while Peru

remained belligerent and refused any line of settlement other than the

13Brazilian Institute of International Relations, Brazil and the
United Nations, .Rio de Janeiro, 1957, p. 9. (Mimeographed.)

territory effectively occupied. -After American entry into World War II,

Washington requested Brazil, in the person of her Foreign Minister,

Oswaldo Aranha, to assume responsibility for the negotiations. At the

Rio meeting of American foreign ministers in January, 1942, Ecuador

and Peru were brought together for any solution possible, to preserve

wartime hemispheric unity. 'Since the United States withdrew all

support for Ecuador and Peru held the de facto superiority, Aranha; in

a pitiful show of justice, demanded that Ecuador accept the Peruvian

imposition or receive no more Brazilian or United States aid. Ecuador

was literally forced into legitimizing her territorial losses by Brazil

acting at the behest of the United States.

The initial vacillation of Getilio Vargas in choosing sides in

World War II and his early news censorship in favor of the Axis powers

are well-known. After a period of neutrality, in March, 1941, Brazil

gave permission to the United States to build naval air bases in Bele'm,

Recife, and Natal for use in hemispheric defense, specifically vis-a-vis

North Africa and the South Atlantic. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor,

relations with the Axis powers were severed and, with the sinking of

more Brazilian ships, that country declared war on August 22, 1942,

sending an expeditionary force of over 25, 000 to Italy.

Great Power Apprenticeship and the Domestic
Debate over Foreign Policy

Only after Brazilian participation in World War II did the national

political parties begin to conceive of Brazil as an inseparable part of the

world and show greater concern for international problems outside the

hemisphere, thus bringing into Congress and the public view some of

the foreign policy issues previously reserved exclusively to the
Ministry of Foreign Relations. In the decade immediately following

World War II, under the presidencies of Dutra and Vargas, the topic of

foreign policy played a minor role in domestic politics, but after 1955

greater challenges to the traditional foreign policy were posed by

industrialization and the rise of nationalism. Under Vargas' direction,

Brazilian nationalism, after a late start, had become imbued with

economic and welfare overtones and evolved from a purely intellectual

phenomenon to a government-supported creed with foreign capital as

its principal target. Its most concrete accomplishment was the 1953

establishment of Petrobras as the state monopoly for exploration and

development of petroleum deposits. From 1956 to 1964, nationalism

gained converts and influence in policy-formation, being taken over

by activists of the political left who condemned foreign economic

control'(especially that of the United States) as imperialistic and

proclaimed that greater attention should be given to economic develop-

ment, regulation of foreign investment, government intervention in the

economy, and diversification of trade on a world scale.

14Jose Hon6rio Rodrigues, "The Foundations of Brazil's
Foreign Policy, International Affairs, XXXVIII, No. 2 (July, 1962), 337.

E. Bradford Burns, Nationalism in Brazil (New York:
Frederick A. Praeger, 1.968), pp. 89-92.

Rational, intellectually oriented "developmental nationalism"

was fostered with the official creation in mid-1955 of the Superior

Institute of Brazilian Studies (ISEB), a group of former Vargas advisers

and nationalists of a wide spectrum of political views, functioning as

a graduate-level research council to study problems of development

and modernization. Short courses, lectures, and a year-long graduate

seminar for military and government officials set an intellectual

standard for future theorizing about nationalism and for the first time,

departing from the usual academic legal-historical idealistic approach,

attempted to apply social science to the definition and solution of

Brazilian problems by Brazilians. 16 Publications and studies of ISEB

stimulated a swelling flow of naitionalistic writings as well as severe

criticism from the conservative press for its increasing emphasis on

Marxist terminology, national planning, and socialism. ISEB's policy

recommendations for wide reforms were most strongly opposed when

they threatened the domestic status quo. Although abolished as

subversive by the revolutionary government in 1964, ISEB in its nine

years of life provided the foundation for a high degree of consensus

on foreign policy aims among large sectors of the attentive public,

centering on aspirations for modernization, independence in

Frank Bonilla, "A National Ideology for Development:
Brazil, in Expectant Peoples, ad. by Kalman H. Silvert (New York:
Random House, 1963), pp. 232-264.


international politics, a broadening of relations, and future great-power

status. 17

This tomada de consciPncia, greater popular interest in foreign

policy, the establishment of Petrobra's, and the demands of industrializa-

tion and an expanded internal market during the Kubitschek years moved

Brazilian foreign policy into a transitional phase and marked the decline

of the traditional style which Itamaraty had been following since the

death of Rio Branco, an approach which has been characterized by one

critic as inaction stemming from uncertainty: "All actions have con-

sequences; these are unforeseeable, so we should not act; that is the

general principle which governed our Ministry [of Foreign Relations]

from 1913 to 1956. This traditional, affective style was invoked as

late as 1956 by President Kubitschek when he stated in his annual

message to Congress that Brazil's foreign policy was expressed

principally through the United Nations and the Organization of American

States and reflected primarily Brazil's position, as an "American country,

member of the Western Christian Community, defender of the juridical

equality of states and the peaceful solution of disputes, supporter of

17razil: Modernization, Independence, and Great-Power
Status, in Arthur P. Whitaker and David C. Jordan. Nationalism in
Contemporary Latin America (New York: The Free Press, 1966), pp.

J18ose Hon6rio Rodrigues, "Uma polftica externa, propria
e independent, Politica Externa Independente, No. 1 (May, 1965),

friendly co-existence, and of all active forms of cooperation. "19

Foreign policy had been framed in terms of values supposedly worth

pursuing for their own sake, broad, permanent "principled objectives"

faithfully sought because of a belief in their unconditional validity:

obedience to international law, peace, justice, dignity, equality,

adherence to treaties, and continuous consultation with the United

States on policy questions. 20 All of these guidelines were alleged to

have been distilled from the traditions of the Empire and the practices

of Rio Branco, rooted in the Latin-Christian origins of the Brazilian

people, and sanctified by at least a century of experience. 21

Despite differences in policy recommendations, the critics of

the old orientation agree on at least three serious flaws in the former

conduct of Brazilian diplomacy and question whether the routine appli-

cation of immutable principles derived from a different era can adequately

represent the realities and enlarge the range of options of a rapidly

9Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, Mensagem ao Congresso
National (Rio de Janeiro: Departamento de Imprensa Nacional, 1956),
p. 131. Developmental overtones are much more prevalent in foreign
policy comments toward the end of the Kubitschek administration. See,
for example, Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, Mensagem ao Cngresso
National (Rio de Janeiro: Departa-pento de Imprensd Nacional, 1959),
pp. 54-55.

20The term "principled objectives" is from George Modelski,
A Theory of Foreign Policy (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1962),
p. 96.

21For an anti-revisionist statement of the traditional position
by a diplomat with long experience, see A. Camilo de Oliveira, "Linhas
mestras da political exterior do Brasil, Digesto Ecnomico, No. 143
(September-October, 1958), 113-130.


changing nation in the present international situation. First, the older

diplomatic caste and cultural elite are accused of being unconditional

admirers and imitators of Europe and the United States, without a

critical sense or historical perspective, striving to be as different as

possible from the typical Brazilian. In its cosmopolitanism and search

for a foreign model, this group became so attracted to its European

self-image and so dependent on foreign patterns that it fell into a state

of alienation and failed utterly to represent Brazilian interest, con-

centrating instead on projecting a flattering but false image of Brazil,

"for the English to see, as the Brazilian expression for pretentiousness

so appropriately phrases it. 22 This cultural sentimentality for things

European or American led almost directly to support for colonialism or

a decided lack of fervor in anti-colonialist statements.' 23

Second, Brazilian diplomacy has suffered from a strong legal-

hist6rical bias rather unrelated to the current demands of international

relations and stemming from the fact that in Brazil academic social

studies have been comprised largely of law and history, with very little

evidence of the modern disciplines of political science and international

relations. Apparently, little is being done to remedy this deficiency at

22J. 0. de Meira Penna, Polftica Externa: Sequranca e
Desenvolvimento (Rio de Janeiro: Agir, 1967), pp. 167-172.

I23nfra, Chapter V.

the Rio Branco Institute where -diplonts receive their training. 24

Historian Jose'Honorio notes that from 1889 to 1964, of 62 full and

interim Ministers of Foreign Relations, 48 had earned law degrees; to

this fact he attributes much of the juridical stagnation, unimaginative

conformity, and lack of initiative evident from the days of Rio Branco

to Kubitschek. 25 The type of abstract, legalistic encyclopedism

fostered by this education tended to produce professionals who could

recite the provisions of the Treaty of Westphalia but were unable to

frame a concrete program of Brazilian interests in a given situation.

Finally, the critics decried what they felt was an automatic

pro-Amaricanism exhibited by Itamaraty, disregarding important conflicts

between American and Brazilian interests and resulting from a mis-

interpretation of the original intentions of Rio Branco. On occasion,

according to a former foreign mnnitster, representatives to international

conferences and organizations were merely given instructions to vote

in agreement with the United States delegation. 26 Defenders of the

necessity to support American positions unequivocally argued that the

24An excellent and unique study of the Brazilian diplomatic
corps is H. Jon Rosenbaum, "A Critique of the Brazilian Foreign
Service, The Tournal of Developing Areas, II, No. 3 (April, 1968),

25Rodrigues, Interesse Nacional e Pol(tica Externa, pp. 58-59.

Afonso Arinos de Melo Franco, Planalto (Rio do Janeiro:
Jose Olympio, 1968), p. 53.

alliance with the United States has no alternative because national

security ultimately rests on American deterrent power. For them the

primary dimension of international conflict is East versus West; since

the United States is the only Western nation capable of containing

Communism, other nations of Western culture (including Brazil) must

often sacrifice their narrow national interest for the common good and

support American policy. Since all developing nations are forced'to

depend economically on developed nations to a great extent and given

the fact that the United States is Brazil's best trade partner and source

of aid, the alliance represents the best of all possible dependencies

and an infinitely better arrangement than a doubtful search for new

economic ties and an ephemeral solidarity with Third World nations,

especially in view of Brazilian treaty commitments to Washington

through the inter-American system and the geographical imperative of

its proximity to the United States.

Nationalists countered that international politics is by defini-

tion the clashing of national interests of separate states, in which each

tries to maximize its gains and minimize its losses. 27 The primary

conflict is not between two opposing civilizations or Christianity versus

One of the most logically constructed and informed defenses
of a nationalist or neutralist.foreign policy was written by the founder
of ISEB and published by the Institute: Hilio Jaguaribe, 0 Nacionalismo
na Atualidade Brasileira (Rio de faneiro: Instituto Superior de Estudos
Brasileiros, 1958), Part Two.

atheism, but rather between the developed and the underdeveloped

nations. In its personal struggle with the Soviet Union, the United

States has been admirably successful in converting the defense of the

American way of life into the ideology of the "Free World, thus

identifying the safeguarding of its interests and values with the

preservation of Christianity and Western Civilization. Although Brazil

forms part of this entity, its policy options are neither described nor

exhausted solely by classifying it as Western and Christian, nor by

fatalistically assigning it a permanent position within Washington's

sphere of influence. Since the common interests of Brazil and the

United States are only partially overlapping, not completely congruent,

discretion and autonomy rather than unconditional adherence are

imperative, lest Brazil be transformed into a mere instrument of

American defense policy to the detriment of its own economic interests

as a much less developed, industrializing producer of raw materials,

in need of wider markets and higher, more stable prices.

Pointing to the examples of Yugoslavia, India, and the UAR,

the nationalists warned that faithful allies are all too often taken for

granted while a strategically important nation following a neutralist

foreignpolicy may have a much greater opportunity for favorable

negotiation and achieving international prestige through arbitration.

This type of appeal was particularly successful against the recent back--

ground of scant American concern with Latin American development during

the Eisenhower "banker mentality" years, followed by the marked

upswing in attention subsequent to the disaster of Vice-Presidenit

Nixon's 1958 trip and the 1959 advent of Fidel Castro, or the decided

contrast of Washington's flat refusal of Latin American requests for a

"Latin Marshall Plan" in the 1950's as compared with large sums of

aid granted Yugoslavia in the same period.

The essential change which these professors, journalists,

and diplomats were urging was for the nation to leave the former static

policy of narrow horizons and real or imagined subordination to American

interests and begin a diplomatic offensive in which its international

conduct would be internal events (i. e., development)

rather than imposed by outside interests or pressures. Brazil's time

had come to forge its own destiny, to move from being a pal's grande to

being a grande pais, from being a comparsa to becoming a protagonista

on the international scene, as a continental nation beginning to think

in intercontinental terms. After 195,6 an increasing amount of space

was dedicated in newspapers, magazines, and books to polemics on

foreign policy, which reached their highest intensity from 1960 to 1964,

and whose most optimistic aspirations are symbolized by.the volume

O Brasil entire as Cinco Malores Potncias no Fim deste Seculo

28See also Adolpho fusto Bezerra de Menezes, Subdesenvolvimento
e Politica Internacional (Rio de Janeiro: Edicoes GRD, 1963).

29Pimentel Gomes, 0 Brasil entire as Cinco Maiores Potencias
no Fim d8sto Seculo (Rio de Janeiro: Leitura Edit8ra, 1964).

Brazilians had begun to take seriously the potentialities of future

greatness often ascribed to their nation by foreign observers. 30

The Kubitschek Years

In a speech to students at Rio's Catholic University in 1958,

President Juscelino Kubitschek exemplified the new mood, speaking for

Brazil and of Latin America, when he cautioned, "We wish to align

ourselves with the West, but we do not want to constitute its prole-

tariat. Nevertheless, he was careful to cooperate fully with

American hemispheric policy, avoid'teferences to foreign imperialism,

and justify the features of a more dynamic orientation as logical,

creative extensions of the time-tested traditional lines of conduct to

adapt them to new circumstances. Although Kubitschek did take some

of the first steps toward making foreign policy serve internal growth,

it was only under the aegis of Quadros that the full thrust of the theses

of the developmental nationalists made itself felt. Kubitschek's

programs were more characteristically inid-range, with an innocuous

culturally based, good-will approach which always stopped before

causing the clashes that would inevitably occur as Brazil defended its

30It should be noted that Gomes' predictions are based on
similar observations of a former American Ambassador to Brazil. See:
Adolf A. Borle, Jr. Tides of Crisis (New York: Reynal and Company
1957), pp. 39-42.

3_ evist. Brasileira de Polftica Internacional II, No. 5
(March, 1950), 139.

interests against those of developed states. Rather than engineer a

complete readjustment of foreign relations, he insisted that only slight

modifications were indicated.

The idealization of the Pan American Operation (PAO) was one

of the most imaginative and timely foreign policy initiatives of Kubhitschek.

Two weeks after Vice-Presidcent Nixon received hostile receptions at the

hands of mobs in Caracas and Lima during his 1958 tour of Latin America,

the Brazilian president sent to Eisenhower an expression of continental

solidarity, observing that misunderstandings in American-Latin relations

had become evident, necessitating action to recompose the continental

united front. Shortly thereafter, Kubitschek proposed the PAO as a

completely multilateral developmental effort with the objectives of

reaffirming the principles of continental solidarity, defining under-

development as a problem of common interest and collective responsi-

bility in the Americas, stabilizing the prices of primary products,

increasing available foreign financial and technical assistance, and

reaffirming the role of private enterprise in development. The PAO

was designed and strongly advocated as an adjunct of Western defense

straLegy, to ~'iVi 'ri and stabilize Latin America economically, lessen

the probability of internal subversion, and thus make possible an increase

in Latin contributions to global alliance defense. 32

32Brazilian government aide-memoir reproduced in Revista
Brasileira d. Polftica Internacional, I, No. 4 (December, 1958), 119-123.

This plan was well received among the Spanish American

presidents and by both Eisenhower and John Foster Dulles, appealing as

it did to pragmatic reason and defense requirements rather than to

impulses of American generosity. After inter-governmental discussions

at high level, a Committee of Twenty-One was nominated by the Council

of the Organization of American States to devise means for implementing -

the project. Although Kubitschek's PAO stagnated in committee, under

the pressure of circumstances and the change in American leadership the

kernel of his idea went on to become the Alliance for Progress, under

American sponsorship and more unilateral than originally envisioned.

Nevertheless, those Brazilians interested in foreign affairs received

vicarious satisfaction from the knowledge that this Alliance had first

been framed and presented by Brazil. Through this diplomacy, Brazil

moved into a more prestigious political position in the Americas,

restarted the hemispheric dialogue with Washington, brought about a

long-sought economic reorientation of the previously legally oriented

spirit of Pan-Americanism, and helped Latin American leaders to think

in continental terms.

The effect of development on foreign policy was also apparent

in the pursuit of new export markets, most notably with the commercial

mission which visited the Soviet Union in late 1959 and led to the

completion in that year of an agreement regulating trade, disrupted

since the breaking of relations between Rio de Janeiro and Moscow in

1947. Itamaraty was reorganized to function more efficiently along

commercial lines, collecting data, studying the world economic and

political situation, and anticipating the creation of new diplomatic

missions in Afro-Asia. These activities stemmed from a growing con-

viction that, in the words of Foreign Minister LIfer,

It is our duty not to remain prisoners of a limited circle
which we ourselves have drawn and which impedes us from
expanding our exports and gathering the aid which would
be most useful to Brazil's development. 'Without forgetting
a single problem of a cultural or political nature, this
Ministry will place itself increasingly at the service of
the conquest of new markets for Brazilian exports. 33

Poli'tica Externa Independente

The issue of nationalism played an important role in the

presidential elections of 1960, turning.on the questions of agrarian

reform, foreign capital, and an "independent" foreign policy. Campaigning

on an administrative-reform platform vague enough to draw support from

all sectors of the electorate, JAnio Quadros was elected to the presidency

with 48 percent of the total vote to his chief opponent Marechal Lott's

32 percent. This was the greatest absolute number of votes ever gained

by a presidential candidate in Brazil and the election of the first opposi-

tion candidate since the end of the First Republic. Interest in his foreign

policy plans was immediately voiced, as he had been portrayed by the

Brasil, Ministerio das Relagoes Exteriores, Gestao do
Ministro Lafer na Pasta das Relacoes Exteriores (Rio de Janeiro:
Departamento de Imprensa Nacional, 1961), p. 83.

opposition as too lenient toward American capital, in spite of his

advocacy of a "national interest" policy of independence and broad

relations to end the country's former obscurity. During the campaign

he had visited Cuba at the invitation of the Cuban ambassador to Brazil,

but Lott declined a similar invitation. Several weeks after his election

he undertook a world tour of nearly three months' duration, including in

his itinerary the USSR, the UAR, Yugoslavia, India, and Japan, and

interviewing neutralist leaders such as Nasser, Tito, Nehru, and

Bourguiba. Conspicuously absent was a visit to Washington, although

he had been invited by both Eisenhower and Kennedy. This trip con-

trasted sharply with the route taken by Kubitschek when president-elect:

the United States, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Belgium,

Luxembourg, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Portugal.

During his seven-month term, Quadros, with the close

collaboration of his foreign minister Afonso Arinos and presidential

advisors (many of the "ISEB generation"), shaped a new activist "inter-

national point of view" for Brazil, to gain full advantage of the position

the nation had achieved by virtue of its size, population, and level of

industrialization, as well as to ease a critical balance of payments

and foreign debt problem. In his message to Congress, Quadros made

clear the outlines which his administration would follow, including

1. Fidelity to the inter-American system.
2. Respect for the traditional position of Brazil in the Free

3. Collaboration with the United States for social and
democratic progress in the Americas.
4. Anti-colonialism, anti-racism, and support for self-
determination of peoples.
5. Recognition of and the attribution of the proper
importance to interests and aspirations common to
Brazil and Afro-Asia, such as economic development,
defense of raw material prices, industrialization,
and desires for peace.
6. Establishment and broadening of relations with the
nations of Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Eastern
7. Foreign policy positions fully geared to meet the needs
of internal growth.

Reaffirming his dedication to the Western ideological conviction

of Brazil and continuing cooperation.with Washington, Quadros maintained

on the other hand that Brazil's only defense treaty obligations committed

it to a continental security pact (Treaty of Rio de Janeiro, 1947) which

had implications in the eventuality of aggression against any member of

the GAS, but did not require it to align itself automatically to one side

or another within the global context of the Cold War, nor even to con-

sider itself a part of that conflict.

Not being members of any bloc, not even of the
Neutralist bloc, we preserve our absolute freedom to
make our own decisions in specific cases and in the
light of peaceful suggestions at one with our nature and
history. A group of nations, notably of Asia, is also
careful to remain on the sidelines in any clash of
interests which are invariably those of the great powers

Janio Quadros, Mensagem ao Congresso Nacional (Rio de
Janeiro: Departamento de Impre-nsa Nacional, 1961), pp. 91-101.

and not necessarily those of our country, let alone of
world peace. 35

With this philosophy and its mixed economic and population character-

istics, Brazil would be an autonomous force to lessen world tensions

and mediate superpower disputes.

On another occasion Quadros affirmed, "No less important

today than the traditional bonds tying us to Europe are the interests,

aspirations, and points of contact between Brazil and the peoples of

Africa and Asia. "36 To the conservative elites, this often-reiterated

identification of Brazil as being a "sister nation" with Afro-Asian states

of completely foreign culture and traditions rang of heresy, or at best

a woefully misplaced emphasis resulting from malicious ideological

bias. The "Americanists" feared that this sudden elevation of Afro-Asia

and the Eastern Bloc in diplomatic attention would relegate the relations

with Washington to second place and ally Brazil in the United Nations

with the groups that many of them saw as opponents and detractors of

the West with which they identified completely. Some of the conserva-

tive groups already viewed nationalism as nearly synonymous with

Communism; such plans for disengagement from the Cold War and a

break from the tranquil diplomacy of the past led them to decry the

imminent "neutralization" and "Africanization" of Brazil, and further

35Janio Quadros, "Brazil's New Foreign Policy, Foreign Affairs,
XL (October, 1961), 26.

36Quadros, Mensargem ao Conqresso Nacional, p. 96.

condemn nationalism. Supporters of Quadros' ideas countered with the

example of Canada and Great Britain, much more closely tied to the

United States than Brazil, yet willing to follow what they judge to be

their own interests in Cuba, Vietnam, and China. As time went by, the

clash between these two schools of thought became increasingly acute,

aggravated by the deterioration of the domestic political and economic


To implement Quadros' principles, diplomatic and trade

relations were opened with the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe (Bulgaria,

Hungary, Albania, and Rumania), Ghana, Guinea and several other

previously "taboo" or neutralist nations, while trade missions from

Eastern Europe, Afro-Asia, North Korea, and Communist China were

received and similar missions sent. These ambitious designs engendered

some frustrations in two of Brazil's closest partners. West Germany,

an important customer, protested so vigorously a planned trade agree-

ment with East Germany that the effort was almost abandoned. Washington

was apprehensive not only of Vice-President Gculart's trade mission to

Peking and Brazilian willingness to discuss Communist Chinese member-

ship in the United Nations, bitt also found objectionable Brasilia's

persistent defense-of "non-intervention and self-determination" for Cuba

and its resistance to American-sponsored collective action against

Castro's regime in its attempts to foment insurrections in Latin America.

Quadros' foreign minister has argued that this position, maintained until

the revolution of 1964, resulted from a natural outgrowth of long-

established Brazilian mediation between the United States and Latin

America, coupled with the long-accepted precepts of non-intervention

and self-determination consecrated by OAS treaties. 37

Unsuccessful in its first efforts to re-integrate Cuba into the

Western Hemisphere system in the face of what. it interpreted as the

intransigence of both parties, Brazil under Quadros found itself

pressured by a United States desirous of both isolating the Castro

government through the OAS and recouping prestige lost in the failure

of the Bay of Pigs invasion. Even then Brazil reasoned that an isolation

strategy would most likely be counterproductive and force Havana further

under the influence of Moscow. Quadros also argued against the

breaking of relations on the basis of the right and necessity of all

states to maintain communication with each other, especially in time

of crisis cr disagreement. The best way, then, to protect the hemisphere

from Communist subversion would be through social and economic reform

rather than police action.

In a March visit, Adolf Berle,. Jr., of the State Department

expressed concern over this policy and spoke of American investments

in Brazil. In April, Secretary of the Treasury Dillon discussed Brazilian

foreign relations in the light of financial ties with the United States,

37Arinos, pp. 75-103.


but Quadros indignantly refused to regard his policy as negotiable in

such a manner. American Ambassador Cabot criticized the Cuban

policy on several occasions, stressing Brazil's treaty commitments

with the West. Quadros, sensitive to all apparent impugnation of his

actions, expressed his displeasure at these remarks. The State Depart-

ment assured all parties that the subsequent replacement of Cabot by

Lincoln Gordon was a routine change, but Cabot's denunciations reached

a peak just before he left Brazil in mid-August. Clearly the United

States was disturbed by the new international behavior of its previously

habitually compliant ally, which after 50 years it had begun to take

for granted.

Important segments of the population and press, led most

vocally by journalist-politician Carlos Lacerda, saw in Quadros' attitude

a softness toward Communism and criticized stridently the whole new

foreign policy orientation. When the impetuous Quadros decorated

Ernesto "Che"' Guevara with the high Order of the Southern Cross as he

was returning to Cuba from denouncing the United States at the Punta

del Este Conference where sanctions on Cuba were discussed, the

denunciations yweru, magnified many times. 39 The Grg Cruz da Ordem

Castilho Cabral, Tempos de fanio e Outros Tempos (Rio de
Janeiro: Civiliza9ao Brasileira, 1962), pp. 303--304.

39Arinos contends that the award served principally as a
pretext to communicate to the government of Cuba, at the request of the
Vatican, a Brazilian letter requesting an end to persecution of the
Catholic Church. See Arinos, pp. 102-103.


National do Cruzeiro do Sul was awarded to "manifest our appreciation"

for Gueva-a's "desire to broaden economic and cultural relations with

the Brazilian people. "40 This act not only demonstrated Quadros'

opposition to "archaic" sanctions, but sources at the Presidential

Palace cited it as additional proof that, despite American aid granted

Brazil at Punta del Este through the Alliance for Progress, the independent

foreign policy remained non-negotiable. Soon after the Guevara

incident, Quadros invited Khrushchev to visit Brazil.

In assessing the focal-point role of the Cuban problem in the

growing campaign of public and military opposition to Quadros and to

certain aspects of his independent foreign policy, Arinos writes:

The transition was very brusque, from Juscelino to Janio;
from Lafer to me. There was no preparation, not even
sufficient explanation. The Cuban question, disastrously
dealt with by the inexperienced Kennedy government in the
United States, dominated the national panorama, provoking
a chain of reactions which ran from the religious devotee
and the fearful with good faith to the self-seeking without
it (self-seeking for political or economic motives), all
uniting together in a sort of torrent of panic which shortly
placed the new government under the greatest and most
unfounded suspicions.

Quadros considered himself the embodiment of the popular will

as expressed at the polls; any opposition, compromise, or attempt to

40Manchete (September 2, 1961), p. 12.

41 Jos Leal da Silva, "Por que'renuncio Jinio Quadros, "
Bohemia Libre Puertorriqueifa, Aio 53, No. 50 (September 17, 1961), 66.

42n p. 76.
Arinos, p. 76.

deny him support was a dilution of the desires of the electorate. This

was especially the case with his foreign policy, since he had pledged

this course in the campaign. His lack of tact, preemptory approach,

fitful personality, and the absence of real efforts to reconcile estranged

groups contributed heavily to his downfall. His enigmatic resignation

on August 25, 1961, precipitated in large part by military opposition to

the Cuban policy and particularly the Guevara award, was apparently

intended to elicit a popular reaction returning him to office with greater

powers and prestige.

His successor Joa'o Goulart pursued basically the same inde-

pendent policy lines until his overthrow by the military on March 31,

1964. Goulart, however, was beset by severe domestic political and

economic difficulties such as rampant inflation, suspension of American

aid, declining support, and military as well as public distrust of extreme

leftist and populist infiltration in the government, becoming clearer as

the fateful crisis progressed through 1963 and early 1964. For these

reasons and personal choice, foreign relations was not the great point

of attention that it had become in the administration of his predecessor.

Friction with Washington reached new heights. Failure to

establish responsible, austere fiscal policies resulted in the withdrawal

of American credit and assistance. Brazil continued to oppose all

sanctions against Cuba and maintained relations with Havana until the

1964 coup; this obstinate stance became a test case or point of honor

in the minds of many nationalists determined to remove every last

vestige of subservience to American guidance. In 1962 a profit remit-

tance law was enacted, limiting to 10 percent of its registered invested

capital the amount of profits a foreign company could return to its home-

land yearly. In the last three months of his regime Goulart threatened

a unilateral moratorium on all of Brazil's foreign debts.

Although Latin America was not neglected, the diplomatic

initiatives in Afro-Asia and Eastern Europe were expanded and official

visits exchanged. The most significant arena of diplomacy for Itamaraty,

however, swung to the United Nations, where Brazil often strove to

enlist the support of other developing countries or to act as their spokes-

man in the solution of common problems. In the opening speech of the

general debate of the eighteenth session of the General Assembly

(September 19, 1963), Foreign Minister Araujo Castro set forth the three

fundamental themes of Brazilian foreign policy--the so-called 3D's:

Development, Disarmament, and Decolonization. 43 This triad of

objectives mada possible ample cooperation between Brazil and Afro-

Asia, since they were the general objectives of almost all the neutralist

and former colonial states and formed the core issues of the North-South

international conflict between the developed and developing nations.

Joao Augusto de Araujo Castro, Desarmamento, Desenvolvi-
mento. Descolonizaajo (Rio de Janeiro: Minist4rio das Relago'es
Exteriores, 1963), p. 4.

Public statements defined this more aggressive posture of

Itamaraty, in the words of one foreign minister, as "an internal self-

awareness of the Brazilian community, relating to its own identity, its

interests, and its purposes, as a conscious national grouping which

will not relinquish the command of its own destiny. "44 No longer

would Brazil be content merely to increase exports to all possible

markets; nothing less than a complete revision of the conditions and

structure of international commerce was indicated, to eliminate

unfavorable terms of trade for producers of raw materials and make

commerce a positive force contributing to development. In addition to

the efforts of each developing nation should be added the efforts of the

whole international community to facilitate industrialization and the

mobilization of capital. No less than a form of economic collective

security was being advocated to stave off the economic disasters

facing the Third World.

Disarmament, besides being connected with the customary,

ostensible purpose of reducing tensions and decreasing the probability

of nuclear war, was advanced by Brazil in its mediating capacity as a

neutral member of the Eighteen-Nation Disarmament Commission as a

means to divert huge arms expenses to the work of economic development.

In combating colonialism, Brazil emphasized that it was opposed as well

Revilsta Brosileira de Politica Internacional, VI, No. 2
(June, 1963), 273.

to all forms of neocolonialism--political, economic, or police (military)

--and urged UN action to defeat these more subtle forms of subjugation

to foreign interests which may stand in the way of the autonomous growth

and true independence of its weaker members.

Under Goulart, Brazil also defended the necessity of strength-

ening the United Nations, to reflect more precisely the desires of

mankind and allow implementation of the worthy but unrealized ideals

propounded in its Charter. 45 Such provisions as would have enabled

the specialized agencies to serve as dynamic, successful promoters of

development, disarmament, and decolonization were blocked by the

fact that the Charter represented a victorious great power interpretation

of the results of World War II. The 3D questions had been hindered

from solution by an "invisible veto" of the great powers working to

defeat passage and execution of resolutions prejudicial to their interest.

Laying the blame completely on the supremacy of large, established,

developed states in the world organization, Brazil charged that, "The

effective implementation of the Charter has collided with the effective

Directorate exercised by the Great Powers, and warned of the possible

future immobilisne of the UN resulting from this obstructionism. 46

Of course Brazil did not originate the "3D" issues; what is

significant about this position is that it represents a general summation

Castro, pp. 27-33.

bid p. 28.

and acceptance of the Third World image of international relations by a

nation which scarcely six years earlier had officially subscribed almost

wholly to the image of international conflict on an East-West Cold War

axis. Why did Itamaraty decide to frame its policy in terms of these

slogans and use the United Nations as the principal forum in which to

accomplish its goals ? A statement by the chief Ambassador to the UN

specialized agencies at Geneva is very instructive in this regard.' In

a speech to the National Economic Council, .a presidential advisory

body, Josue de Castro pointed out that in a case such as policies of the

European Economic Community which were contrary to Brazil's interests,

Brazil could hope to accomplish little bilaterally, standing alone against

much stronger forces. However,

If our position should be in defense of our universal
interests, then it will be easy to make ourselves heard.
It is not a dichotomizing, isolating action we should have
in mind, neither for the great powers nor much less for a
dependent power such as Brazil. In that perspective,
Brazil established a tripod which, coincidentally, is also
a trouvaille, having three words beginning with the letter
"d": development, decolonization, and disarmament.
These are the interests of Brazil, which makes them
coincide with those of the majority of humanity, which
is valid. That trilogy constitutes the territory on which
are designed perspectives for aggressive action.

By universalizing these broad goals through the multilateral

semiparliamentary procedure of the United Nations and with the

Josue de Castro, "Contribuigao da ONU e seus organismos
a economic brasileira, Revista do Conselho Nacional de Economia, XII,
No. 4 (November-December, 1963), .570.


cooperation of Afro-Asians, Brazil planned to mobilize the developing

states and present disarmament, development, and decolonization as

of utmost importance to the international community and the only

alternatives to death, hunger, and slavery. In the belief that sufficient

consensus for agreement on these issues existed among the new nations

and in Latin America and with the further conviction that enough pressure

could be exerted on the developed states to extract concessions, the

Ministry of Foreign Relations began to prepare itself for a role of

leadership in restructuring the framework of international politics and

economics. The possibility of effective reforms accomplished through

the Organization of American States was discounted because of American

preponderance in that body and the hemisphere, making the OAS an

unfit body in which to resolve problems in which American interests

were really threatened. Thus in two important cases, the Haitian-

Dominican dispute (1963) and the Panama-United States conflict (1964),

Brazil defended the thesis that any hemispheric problem could be taken

directly to the UN without passing through the OAS.

According to Keohane, several prerequisites reinforce and aid

the exercise of leadership in the General Assembly. These include a

drive to upset the international status quo, a broad interpretation of

national interests, a high evaluation of the importance of the United

Nations for the state's foreign policy, desire for prestige and publicity,

and a foreign policy independent of the great powers. 48 These char-

acteristics were precisely those of Brazil under Goulart, which thus

found itself in an objectively excellent position to use the General

Assembly to achieve its purposes. That Brazil in fact gave high

priority to United Nations diplomacy is shown by the fact that, within

the group of 100 states continuously represented in the UN from 1961-

1966, it ranked seventeenth in total number of diplomats sent abroad

in 1963-1964, but ranked seventh in mean UN delegation size from

the sixteenth to the twentieth sessions (1961-1966). 4 If we make the

assumption that relative allocation and absolute number of diplomats

sent to a post represent an accurate measure of a nation's interest and

activity in that post, we can conclude that Brazil exhibited a higher

interest and activity in the United Nations during these sessions than

would be normal or expected when compared with other states' alloca-

tions on the basis of rank orders. 50

48Robert Owen Keohane, "Political Influence in the General
Assembly, International Conciliation, No. 557 (March, 1966), 17.

49Robert Owen Keohane, "Who Cares About the General
Assembly?" International Organization, XXIII, No. 1 (Winter, 1969),

50By "predicting that the nth state on the diplomatic rank list
[of total diplomats sent abroad] should have as large a UN delegation
as the nth state on the UN delegation list, and so on for all other
states, Keohane finds a nearly normal distribution of difference scores
in which 80 percent of the delegation sizes can be predicted within
-6, and over half to within a margin of 2. 4. Within this configuration,

The Conservative Reaction

These imaginative and grandiose plans, partially illustrated

by Brazilian leadership in preparations for the First United Nations

Conference on Trade and Development, were frustrated in the early

stages by the strong reaction of the revolutionary government of Castello

Branco to what the military considered the Jacobin excesses of the

independent foreign policy of Quadros and Goulart. Immediate moves

were taken after the March 31, 1964, coup to return to old alignments

and allies. A purge of the Foreign Ministry led to the dismissal of

three top diplomats for "subversion" and one for "corruption, while

many proponents of "independence" were demoted to lesser posts.

Relations with Cuba were broken, Castroite subversion condemned,

and Guevara's award retroactively rescinded as part of an all-out effort

to repair the strained relations with Washington. Obsessed by anti-

Communism and a drive for national securiLy, spokesmen of the

Brazil represents a deviant case, with a delegation 10. 6 larger than
predicted and a rank order 10 positions higher than expected. Of the
eleven "oversize" delegations, Brazil ranks. fifth in magnitude of size
difference from the predicted value. This finding is more relevant in
comparative perspective with the distribution of difference scores of
the various continents of the developing areas:
Difference from Expected Delegation Size (Number of States)
Continent Positive Negative Zero
Sub-Saharan Africa (excluding S. Africa) 20 2 1
Latin America (excluding Cuba) 8 10 1
Asia (non-Arab only) 6 9 0
Arab states 0 10 1
Only seven other Latin American states had delegations larger
than predicted, none of them as much as +6. Ibid., pp. 145-147.


Castello Branco government applauded the United States in glowing

terms, as did Foreign Minister and ex-Ambassador to Washington

Juracy Magalhaes in his first speech as head of Itamaraty, referring to

that nation as "the leader of the Free World and the principal guardian

of the fundamental values of our civilization. "

Returning to the East-West image of world politics, Castello

Branco emphasized the need for "interdependence" rather than "inde-

pendence" within the Western democratic system, while at the same

time making distinctions between interests of the West as a whole and

those of a specific Western power.52- According to the policy of the

revolution, the principle of sovereignty was to be based on a common

political-social system and not political or geographical frontiers

(now considered obsolete). 53 The supreme faux pas and most criticized

remark of the post-revolutionary period was made by a newly named

Ambassador to Washington in a speech to the American Chamber of

Commerce in Sao Paulo: "What is good for the United States is good

for Brazil. Nationalists fastened upon this phrase as a synopsis of

Brasil, Ministerio das Relagoes Exteriores, A Politica
Exterior da Revolucao Brasileira (Rio de Janeiro: Sepao de Publicapges
do MRE, 1966), n. p.

52This attitude provoked cartoons changing Dom Pedro I's
famous Grito de Ipiranga cry for independence or death to "Inter-
dependencia ou Morte!" Correto da Manha, May 25, 1955, p. 6.
53 May 23, 1965, p. 1.
Correio da Manha, May 23, 1965, p. 1.

what they considered the entreguista policy of Castello Branco toward

the United States. 54

After sending a contingent of troops to the Dominican Republic

to take part in 1965 OAS peacekeeping operations, with a Brazilian

general as head of the multilateral force, Brazil strongly supported

Washington's idea of a permanent Inter-American Peace Force for

collective security operations. Juracy Magalhaes made an attempt to

drum up additional support in South America, but met with such fierce

opposition in all countries but military-ruled Argentina that the Foreign

Ministry decided instead to try to institutionalize the Inter-American

Defense Board as a Consultative Defense Committee to advise the

Executive Council on defense questions. 55

Plans of being a bridge between Africa and the West or a

leader in the Third World were heard no more. Latin America was again

regarded as the proper and natural ambit for diplomatic action, and at

first few warm references were made to Afro-Asia above normal diplo-

matic courtesies. Neutralism, in the view of Castello Branco,

necessarily implied passivity, indetermination, immature emotionalism,

extortion, and a flight from reality, as well as positions which tended

5Confidential interview with a former cabinet member,
October 22, 1968.

O Giobo, November 4, 1966; p. 9.

to be anti-Western. 56 Full backing was again given Portugal in its

struggles in the UN over Angola, Mozambique, and Guinea. Although

economic cooperation and trade with Afro-Asia were deemed mutually

desirable, perhaps more indicative of political attitudes was Itamaraty's

announced intention to assist the United States in strengthening the OAS

to serve as a regional counterweight to offset "domination of the UN by

the Afro-Asian countries. "157

The Diplomacy of Prosperity

After the March, 1967, inauguration of President Marechal

Arthur da Costa e Silva, another gradual change in orientation could be

detected as Itamaraty came under the direction of Jose de Magalha'es

Pinto, who as Governor of Minas Gerais had defended the ideals of

Quadros' independence policy. 58 In his first major foreign policy

address, proclaiming that "Development is the new name of peace, "

Costa e Silva introduced the slogan ''diplomacy of prosperity. "

We shall therefore give priority to the problems of
development. The diplomatic action of my government
visualizes a: all levels, bilateral and multilateral, the

56Brasil, Ministerio das Relagces Exteriores, Departamento
Cultural e de Informagoes, Textos e Declaracges S6bre Polftica Externa
(de abril de 1964 a abril de 1965) (Rio de Janeiro: Servigo Grafico do
IBGE, 1965), p. 10.

57Corrcio da Manha, May 23, 1965, p. 1.

58Mario Victor, Cinco Anos que.Abalaram o Brasil (de T^nio
Ouadros ac Marechal Castelo Branco) (Rio de Janeiro: Civilizaga'o
Brasileira, 1965), p. 270 and p. 296.

expansion of foreign markets, just and stable prices for
our products, the attraction of capital and technical aid
and, of particular importance, the necessary cooperation
for the nation's rapid nuclearization for peaceful purposes.
By virtue of geographic conditions, coherent with cultural
traditions, and faithful to its Christian formation, Brazil
is integrated into the Western world and adopts democratic
models of development. We are, however, attentive to the
new perspectives of cooperation and commerce resulting
from the dynamics of the international situation itself,
which has evolved from a rigidity of positions characteristic
of the "Cold War" to a situation of relaxation of tensions.
Faced with the slackening of the East-West controversy,
it makes no sense to speak of neutralism nor of automatic
coincidences and opposition. The only thing that can
guide us is the national interest, permanent foundation of
a sovereign foreign policy. 59

That the new administration accepted frameworks other than

the older stereotyped Democracy versus Communism image was further

exemplified by Magalhaes Pinto's statements to the Press Club a year

later, when he affirmed a belief that the splits in the Communist bloc

demonstrate the low importance of. ideology in the scientific-

technological revolution of today. The watershed among nations has

become the degree of development, as shown in the Second UNCTAD

Conference when the Soviet Union and the United States often joined

votes to resist proposals of the developing states. For Brazil, the

Foreign Minister concluded, the greatest threat is not the danger of

Brasil, Ministerio das Relag6es Exteriores, Secretaria Geral
Adjunta para o Planejamento Poli'tico, Documentos de Pollftica Externa
(de 15 de marco a 15 de outubro de 1967) (Rio de Janeiro: Servipo
Gr6fico da Fundagao IBGE, 1967), p. 12.

Communism but rather how to accommodate a probable population of

200 million within 30 years. 60

As part of its more nationalistic stance, the new administration

immediately de-emphasized the viability and necessity of'the Inter-

American Peace Force, taking a cautious, typically Spanish American

view of the matter in reiterating the values of non-intervention and

sovereignty. Great stress was placed on possibilities of full use of

nuclear power for peaceful development, including the right to fabricate

nuclear explosives for non-military purposes, culminating in Brazilian

refusal to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

Projects for a tripling of export value and product diversifica-

tion led to intensified exchange of trade missions, not only with

traditional partners but also with Eastern Europe and Afro-Asia. New

offices were created to foment increased exports to new markets, most

notably the Export Promotion Center of the Bank of Brazil, and the

Associate Secretariat-General for Commercial Promotion of Itamaraty.

The Commission of Commerce with Eastern-Europe, also in the Foreign

Ministry, was reorganized. Manufactures and semi-manufactures are

regarded as the most promising products, given their higher and more

stable prices on the world market, so various tax reduction and finance

incentives have been adopted to encourage entrepreneurs to export their

0ornal ido Comm5rcio. March 26, 1968, p. 1.

latent capacity and eventually produce a larger share cf their output

expressly for sale abroad. This strategy has proven especially

favorable since Brazil has just advanced beyond the import-substitution

phase of its industrialization but does not yet have a large domestic

market. In conjunction with this more customary procedure, Brazil has

continued pressing for reorganization of international commerce to

benefit developing states, through both UNCTAD and GATT.

The Foreign Minister also indicated a security motivation for

this heightened effort to mobilize the nation for a "diplomacy of pros-

perity. Speaking to the Superior War College, a high-level course on

national problems for civilian officials and military officers, he under-

lined the positive correlation between low levels of national income

and political violence as well as the high cost and inadequacy of purely

military solutions to guerrilla warfare problems.

In other words, the distribution of national wealth should,
whenever possible, rise to a higher income level, to avoid
impasse and social rigidity surmountable only by violence.
Only the tranquility coming from possession of a roof over
one's head, employment stability, just wages, and equality
of opportunity can produce the climate of security in which
the rules of democratic order become viable. In the last
analysis, the only secure societies are those whose individual
citizens feel secure. This is the reason for the emphasis that
I have been giving in the Ministry of Foreign Relations to the
problems of development, in obedience to firm directives
drawn from the beginning by the President of the Republic.
(Italics from the original.)

61Brasil, Ministerio das Rela9o'es Exteriores, Secretaria Geral
Adjunta para o Planejamento Politico, Documentos de Polftica Externa
(de 15 de margo a 15 de outubro de 1967), pp. 81-82.

Patterns of Growth and Nationalism

In the 1956 to 1968 period, certain regularities or patterns

stand out in what was otherwise a time of rapid and sometimes seemingly

contradictory transformations in foreign policy, ranging from the slow-

paced legalism of the early Kubitschek administration to hopes for

Third World leadership with Quadros and Goulart, the return to anti-

Communism and solidarity with the West under Castello Branco, and

finally the "diplomacy of prosperity. Perhaps a knowledge of these

recent patterns as well as historical trends will allow a more accurate

gauging of the probable future directions of Brazilian diplomacy.

The first tendency noticeable was an increase in the size,

complexity, and range of activity of the Foreign Ministry, as measured

through time by number of personnel, budget allocations, and number

of diplomatic and consular posts abroad.

The broadening of relations and activity from 1961 to 1964 is

largely responsible for a rapid increase in total personnel during those

years, as indicated by Table 1, page 65. This period stands in marked

contrast to the very slow growth from 1956 to 1959 and even into 1960,

as well as the abrupt cutback occasioned in 1965 by the conservative

military government. With the Costa e Silva regime, the figures again

show a sharp rise, accompanying a more aggressive, vigorous posture

and the opening of several new embassies and legations in Afro-Asia,

along with staff increases in other posts and the creation of new


Total Personnel Employed by the Brazilian Ministry of
Foreign Relations, 1956-1968

Year Office


Diplomatic Career
Posts Consulates




Sources: Compiled from the following mimeographed series
lists of the Foreign Ministry: Lista do Pessoal (1956-1961), Lista de
Enderecos (1962-1968), and Lista do Pessoal no Exterior (1962-1968).
Figures for each year are taken as close to mid-year as possible, given
the intermittent publication of the Listas. Honorary consuls, vice-
consuls,, and special consuls are not included in the statistics on



departments. Clearly the tendency is toward expansion of personnel;

although progressing at various rates in different years, this resulted

in a 1968 total strength over twice that of 1956. 62 If we are correct in

assuming that additional staff was hired to meet an additional workload,

we have a rough measure of the growth of Itamaraty's activity. 63

To compare the importance attributed to or emphasis placed

upon foreign relations at different times, budget figures were compiled

for 1956 through 1968 and are presented in Table 2, page 67. Both the

percentage of executive expenditures and the absolute sums assigned

to Itamaraty yearly have shown a gradual increase, even though this

rising level has behaved in an erratic manner from year to year. The

most rapid increases occurred in 1960 and from 1966 through 1968, at

The number of career diplomats rose much more slowly and
linearly, from 435 in 1956 to 473 in 1962 and 582 in 1968.

Ironically, considering the great public exposure given to
the supposed advances of the 1961 to 1964 independent foreign policy
in making Brazil known to the world, compared to 1960, Brazil in 1962
was represented abroad in more diplomatic posts but by only four more
individuals, while at the same time there was actually a staff decline
of four in the principal consulates. Almost allof the early staff
increases of 1961-1964 were in the Foreign Ministry itself. Only in
1963 and 1964 did the number of personnel stationed or employed abroad
rise appreciably. Did this in part represent the honored practice of
empreguismo (hiring of political supporters) or a real need for additional
personnel? One can only speculate. One factor which decidedly led
to an increase in embassy staff abroad from 1963 to 1965 was the
existence in those three years of "Expansion and Commercial Adver-
tising Services" in from 15 to 22 embassies, mostly in Western Europe
and the Western Hemisphere, with the exceptions of Beirut, Tokyo,
Moscow, and Warsaw.


Selected Features of Foreign Ministry Budget
Allocations; 1956-1968

Diplomatic and
Foreign Ministry Dollar Value of Consular Missions
as Percent of Total Foreign Ministry as Percent of Total
Fiscal Allocations of Allocation Foreign Ministry
year Executive Branch (in millions) Allocations

1956 0.63 6.03 13.6
1957 0.56 8.47 12.6
1958 0.48 5. 11 12.7
1959 0.47 4.56 12.8
1960 1.19 12.04 12.3
1961 0.58 9. 10 11.0
1962 0.88 12.80 17.5
1963 0.62 10.89 18.4
1964 0.51 7. 69 17.1
1965 0.49 9.47 14.3
1966 2.04 42.76 30.4
1967 1.48 37, 11 31.5
1968 1.24 42.04 27.3

Source: Compiled from budget figures given yearly in 1955 to
1967 editions of: Brasil, Dirio Oficial. (Rio de Janeiro: Departamento
de Imprensa Nacional.) Dollar conversion rates were based on the yearly
averages of daily free market exchange rates given in: Banco do Brasil,
Relatorio. Distrito Federal, 1955-1967. The exchange rate for 1968 was
that in effect on June 1, 1968.

The Brazilian fiscal year is coterminous with the calendar

Executive expenditures average 98 percent to 99 percent of
total federal expenditures.
Does not include amounts earmarked as contributions to inter-
national organizations or for participation in international conferences.

which times the greatest allocation of funds to the Foreign Ministry

relative to other ministries is noted.

Attributing levels of relative or absolute budget expenditures

to specific governments is somewhat hazardous, since the 1961, 1964,

and 1957 budgets were prepared by outgoing administrations. In

addition, the only figures available are those for allotments rather than

actual expenditures and year-end budget reductions are common in all

ministries. Two important observations can be made, however. In

terms of dollar value, total federal budget expenditures allocated grew

435 percent from 1956 to 1968, while allocations for the Foreign

Ministry in the same period grow 700 percent, or 1. 6 times as rapidly

as overall federal spending, indicating a greater degree of relative

attention paid to this ministry and consequently, we may assume, to

foreign policy. Second, the percentage of Itamaraty's budget set

aside for use in embassies and consulates abroad, very low and stable

from 1956 to 1961, has now more than doubled since that time. Large

increases are again evident from 1966 through 1968, denoting a greater

growth rate in activity carried on abroad as opposed to within the Home

Office (Secretaria de Estado).

Concomitant with increases in personnel and budget came the

opening of new embassies, legations, and consulates to make possible

the program of increased relations with the rest of the world. Clearly,

as indicated by Table 3, page 69, the greatest expansion in diplomatic


Total Number of Brazilian Diplomatic and
Consular Posts in Selected Years

and Consulates- Other
Year Embassies Legations Legations General Consulatesb

1956 41 12 3 24 141
1962 63 4 12 30 157
1968 65 4 19 37 146

Sources: The following diplomatic lists of the Foreign Ministry:
Lista do Pessoal (July, 1956), Lista do Pessoal no Exterior (April, 1962),
and Lista do Pessoal no Exterior (August, 1963).

aA cumulative embassy or legation is one installed in a country
with which formal relations have been initiated, but to which no permanent
diplomatic personnel have been assigned. Rather, this post is made
subordinate to a permanently staffed Brazilian mission in a neighboring

Includes consulates, special consulates, honorary consulates,
and honorary vice-consulates.

missions and consulates occurred during the first half of the twelve-

year period, most of them being installed between 1960 and 1962.

Almost all of the several additions during 1962-1968 took place between

June, 1966, and June, 1968. To be more precise, the opening of new

representations, far from being a uniform, gradual process, was carried

out largely in two roughly year-long spurts or peaks, 1961 and mid-1967

to mid-1968, accompanied in both cases by public pronouncements of

the undertaking of a dynamic new style of diplomacy. 64

See Appendix II for a more complete regional breakdown of
these posts. Even greater increases of diplomatic representation
abroad, in old and new posts, were originally projected for 1968 but
the plans suffered from a lack of funds, especially those required to
employ more third secretaries. Itamaraty received authorization for
about one hundred more third secretaries than in fact covered by the
funds later received. The personnel regulations authorize the following
number of career diplomats (Decree Number 2, September 21, 1961):
Third Secretaries 190
Second Secretaries 175
First Secretaries 165
Ministers, Second-Class 96
Ministers, First-Class 60
Comparing the authorized figure of 686 with the actual 1968 total of 582,
it can be seen that the foreign service has not yet reached the full
strength prescribed in 1961. See Brasil, Ministerio das Relaqoes
Exteriores, Departamento de Administrcaqo, Divisao de Organizacao,
Servigo Exterior Beasileiro (Rio de Janeiro: Se;ao de Multiplicag do
MRE, n.d.), p. 38. Regarding the level of Brazil's diplomatic activity,
it should be noted that in 1963-1964 Brazil ranked twentieth among 119
nations in number of diplomats sent abroad (300), surpassed among
non-Communist developing nations only by the UAR (550), India (467),
Turkey (392), Indonesia (348), and Argentina (301). In the same
biennium, in number of diplomats received it ranked eleventh with 431,
exceeded only by the UAR (559) and India (530) among developing nations
for which data were available. It shared memberships in intergovernmental

The second miwjor tendency from 1956 to 1968, related to this

increase in diplomatic activity, was the economic development orienta-

tion which has pervaded and dominated policy formulation under all

regimes, as described earlier in this chapter. Even the Castello Branco

government, composed of and backed by strong conservative and anti-

Communist elements, made clear immediately upon assuming power that

Brazil would continue to diversify its trade without ideological distinc-

tions. In actual practice commerce with Eastern Europe and Communist

China was continued and in some cases intensified. It can be expected

that additional trade, aid, and capital may be sought in Eastern Europe

in the future, judging from events during 1968. In September of that

year the Bank of Commerce of Czechoslovakia made available, through

the Brazilian National Bank of Economic Development, over seven

million dollars in credit to be used t6 purchase Czech industrial equip-

ment. At the same time, the Industrial Bituminous Ore Company was

conducting field studies with the Soviet firm Neftechimpromoexport for

equipment financing and technical assistance to exploit large deposits

of bituminous shale in the state of Sao Paulo and to build a huge

organizations with 108 nations, a total surpassed by only four states.
Additionally, in 1963-1964 Brazil held a seat on the UN Security Council,
being the only non-permanent member elected to that post more than
three times in the first two decades of the history of the world organiza-
tion. See Chadwick F. Alger and Steven J. Brams, "Patterns of Repre-
sentation in National Capitals and Intergovernmental Organizations, "
World Politics, XIX, No. 4 (July, 1967), 646-663.

65O.Globo October 12, 1968, p. 7.

industrial complex to produce cement, fertilizers, sulphur, etc. all

under terms specified by an earlier Brazilian-Soviet treaty. 66 Exchanges

of this type find a mutual interest, and Brazilian missions to Eastern

Europe and participation in trade fairs there are becoming more common.

Nor can Communist China be left out of consideration, for it appeared

in late 1968 that the Foreign Ministry was engaged in efforts to

reactivate the lagging trade with that nation, carried on via Hong Kong. 67

A final trend, apparently gaining adherents in most areas of the

politically attentive public, is the demand for an "independent" foreign

policy which is based on Brazilian national interests in each specific

case rather than submissive alignment with or systematic deference to

American wishes. This idea is expressed in many ways, with different

connotations, but usually can be summarized as the desire for "uma

political externa pr6pria"-a flexible foreign policy suited to and tailored

for Brazil alone, appropriate to its internal dynamics and able to take

maximum advantage from rapidly changing international conditions.

The roots of this feeling can be traced to a rising spirit of nationalism

and national pride which manifests itself externally through self-assertion

and claims to an international status befitting an industrializing, resource-

endowed nation covering nearly half a continent and comprising ninety

66 Tornal, October 11, 1968, p. 7.

670 Jornal, September 12, 1968, p. 3.

million individuals, ranking fourth in the world in contiguous territorial

extension and eighth in population.

This widespread attitude in favor of greater Brazilian autonomy

and prestige in world politics was verified by the first comprehensive

national public opinion survey conducted in Brazil, sponsored by the

Institute for International Social Research in late 1960 and early 1961.

Although both the sample public and the interviewed legislators

exhibited very high admiration for the United States and regarded

Brazilian-American relations at that time as at least moderately satis-

factory, strong sentiment favoring cooperation with all countries or all

those which wished advantageous relations with Brazil was present

among the urban sample and the legislators. A majority cf legislators

and those of the urban sample holding opinions opposed following the

orientation of the United States, while 63 percent of the Congressmen

felt that Brazil should be "as neutral as possible" in the Cold War. 68

Observing that large percentages of the legislators (42 percent) and the

urban public (36 percent) favored siding with neither the United States

nor the Soviet Union, while slightly smaller percentages favored siding

with the United States (39 percent and 30 percent, respectively), the

study concludes, "Considering the fact that Brazil is a traditional ally

68loyd A. Free, Scme International Implications of the
Political Psychology of Biazilians (Princeton: Institute for International
Social Research, 1961) pp. 1-16.

of the US, the Brazilians, both Congressmen and general public, exhibit

only weak 'alliance-mindedness' when it comes to functional relation-

ships with America in the cold war context. "69

Unfortunately, later samples to increase the value of this

pioneering survey were not forthcoming and valid comparison or gen-

eralization is made difficult by the near-absence of scientifically

sound political opinion polls and the high proportion of the uninformed

public which registers "no opinion. However, in 1967, a prominent,

analytical magazine conducted an in-depth, extensive series of

interviews with 246 federal senators and deputies (out of a total of

409 deputies and 66 senators in the National Congress). Of those

questioned 149 were of the government-sponsored ARENA party and 97

from the opposition MDB. When asked, "What international policy

would you adopt for Brazil?" the Congressmen responded as follows:

58. 5% Independence in relation to any blocs
13. 41% Strengthening of a bloc without ties to the United
States or Russia
3. 7% Strengthening of such a bloc plus independence
2. 8% Neutrality
4. 9% Neutrality and Independence
5. 7% Unconditional support of American foreign policy
0. 4% Support of the United States plus independence
7. 7% Other answers
2. 9%-- No answer

Clearly an impressive percentage (83. 3 percent) favored an "independent"

or "neutral" position, while over an eighth supported in addition the

Ibid. pp. 18-19. Negligible opinion favored siding with
the Soviet Union.

formation of a "Third Force, over twice as many as advocated

unquestioning obedience to the leadership of Washington. To the

question "Do you see as correct the present American policy toward

underdeveloped countries, especially those of Latin America ?" 64. 6

percent answered "No" and only 19. 1 percent "Yes. ,71

Among the military there appears to be evidence of similar

nationalistic convictions, especially among segments of the linha dura

(hard-line) group and the "young Turk" colonel and lieutenant ranks,

some of whom are partial to a temporary military-rule, "Nasserist"

solution to Brazil's problems and rapid expansion of the country's

economic and political power. Generally referred to as the radicalss, "

the linha dura was active in the 1964 revolution and is staunchly anti-

Communist, but some of its members are reluctant as well to have

Brazil be dominated by any-other nation and consider themselves the

real revolutionary elements working for social and economic change

and defense of national interests, in conjunction with enlightened

intellectuals. This group traces its ideals to the nationalistic tenente

movements and revolts of the 1920's, hut its extent of influence within

the seriously divided body of military opinion is difficult to ascertain.72

Carlos Castello Branco, "Como pensa o Congresso (e como
votaria se pudesse), Realidadet, II, No. 21 (December, 1967), 41.

71 Ibid.

72For an introduction to the thought of this group see the first
two numbers (1968) of the civilian-military journal, Nacfo Armada. See

This ascendant desire for freedom of action is not likely to be

translated into a form of neutralism as professed by various Afro-Asian

states in the first years of independence. 'the term was used by

ideologues to describe the 1961--1964 foreign policy, but government

spokesmen judiciously refused to label the policy as neutralist,

preferring instead to call it "independent, compromised only by

Brazil's interests as opposed to a doctrinaire philosophy seeking a

theoretical, symmetric mid-point in the Cold War. Foreign Minister

San Tiago Dantas defined this independence as "that position which

does not bow to the interests of one bloc or another, which does not

wish to see its international conduct predetermined by an alliance or

predecided by certain political affinities systematically considered

irremediable. ",73

In evaluating the employment of the word neutralism in politics

of the 1961 to 1964 period, it is important to keep in mind that neutralism

very prominently came to symbolize nationalism and independence in

certain developing nations precisely at a time when Brazil, after many

also Mauricio Caminha de Lacerda, "A linha dos duros, Tornal do
Commerrcio, May 19, 1968, Suplemento Dominical, p. 1. The group's
highest-placed and most visible leader, General Alfonso Albuquerque
Lima, was rumored to be among the possible successors of Costa e
Silva in the presidency.
Rcvista Birasileira de Politica Internacional, VII, No. 27
(September, 1964), 432-433.

years of unusually close association with the United States, was

beginning to reappraise the effects of this partnership on its future

economic development and political autonomy. In a sense, both Brazil

and Afro-Asia were opening to the world at the same time and, influ-

enced by the political philosophies of the time and common economic

conditions, rapidly perceived that world politics resembles more of a

multi-sided than a two-sided contest, in which many different values

are at stake and each nation is forced to protect those which it deems

important. In Brazil's case, the previously overwhelming influence of

the United States and especially the American image of international

relations was rejected in part as new international contacts were

established. The extreme closeness of Brazil to the American position

in world affairs until 1961 perhaps made the exploratory efforts seem

to Washington much more of a desertion of the camp than they actually

were in the long run, when interpreted in the light of the proposition

that a nation gathering enough power and influence to enter international

relations in its cvwn right will attempt, in degrees that vary with each

case, to free itself from the hegemony of the senior partner of the


QiadIrcs may have hoped for too much too soon. Although he

could have taken advantage of his popularity and the propitious moment

to build gradually but firmly from the foundations set in the last years

of the Kubitschek government, Quadros, with his taste for the flamboyant

and the dramatic, set out publicly at breakneck speed to alter the

international outlook of Brazil under executive direction, despite the

strong resistance to change exhibited by many diplomats in Itamaraty

itself. Seizing on the Cuban issue at a point when Washington's Latin

American policy was obsessed by fears of Castro-Communism and

opposing Portuguese colonialism in Africa, he managed to touch two

domestically explosive subjects and lose the support of important

conservative elites who had worked for his election, in addition to

antagonizing many military and foreign service officers. His personal

eccentricities and resignation succeeded in discrediting what may

otherwise have been lauded in his foreign policy program. The ensuing

spiraling chaos, demagoguery, and threatening instability of the Goulart

years further cast doubts by association on his brand of independent

foreign policy. As the pendulum swung to one extreme in 1963 and

early 1964, so with the revolution of March 31 it swung heavily in the

opposite direction, as if in compensation. Under Castello Branco and

Juracy MagalhIes, few diplomats spoke up to defend the recent stands

so heavily denounced under the energetic return to the old ways.

Like many other developing nations, Brazil is hampered from

attaining a more powerful, effective foreign policy by various internal

weaknesses. The most serious of these is a low level of industrializa-

tion which engenders economic dependence upon foreign markets and

limits the capabilities and instrumentalities at the disposal of the


foreign policy decision-makers. Changes in regime have made clear

the fact that domestic ideological and political pressures can exert

crucial influence on the foreign policy of a given administration. Quadros'

case demonstrates how idiosyncracies of a single personality can mold

foreign policy, while his overthrow and that of Goulart are illustrations

of the tacit veto used by the military commands to impose parameters

upon foreign policy options. Severe disagreement over ends and means

still marks general discussion of Brazil's role in world affairs, complicated

by the central question ori the attitude to be taken toward the traditional

ally to the north, given the United State's clear predominance in the

Western Hemisphere. Administratively, imperfect interministerial

coordination and occasional broad latitude granted to individual diplomats

have also contributed to preventing the course of foreign policy planning

and execution from being completely coherent, calculated, or linear. 74

Examined superficially, Brazil's recent foreign policy has seemed

to vary from legalistic hesitancy to ideological impulsiveness and to

fluctuate indecisively from pro-Western to neutralist to pro-Western,

The problem of rationalization and coordination of the
activities of all ministries whose operations impinge on foreign affairs
was a key concern of Magalh'es Pinto, wishing to impart a uniform,
coherent orientation to Brazilian positions in functional organizations
and bilateral negotiations, under the central direction of the Foreign
Ministry. Similarly, wide areas of discretion previously accorded
delegates to international organizations constituted a problem attacked
by Itaniaraty in the 196.1-1964 period, along with extensive internal
reorganizations aimed at greater efficiency and bureaucratic rationaliza-

making generalization or a definitive assessment rather risky. The

foregoing continuities of nationalism, diplomatic expansion, trade

diversification, and preoccupation with industrialization which were

common to all governments of the last decade lend credence to the

conclusion, however, that the 1961 to 1964 experimentation in foreign

policy, despite what may be regarded by some as its excesses, hit a

responsive chord in many sectors of the populace and elite groups and

was not merely an exploratory, unproductive aberration, completely

rejected by more level-headed leaders after 1964. Although eclipsed

by the post-revolutionary government, some of the premises of the

Quadros-Goulart years have been generally accepted and were quietly

resurrected by Costa e Silva and Magalhaes Pinto under the guise of

technical and diplomatic questions. Quadros and Goulart, in pushing

the same fundamental points of view, had clothed their programs as

ideological cIrsades, thus startling the conservative groups into

forceful reaction. The same concepts, stripped of ostentation and the

emotional connotations of such expressions as "Third World" or

"neutrality" and applied cautiously and gradually by a government with

the confidence of the military And internal economic and political

support, are likely to be those which will orient Brazil in the future.

The days of passive acceptance of a role dictated by economic relation-

ships with developed countries have passed.


AND POLICY, 1956-1968

Writing in 1955, Ambassador Adolpho Bezerra de Monezes,

surveying the state of Brazilian knowledge about "Darkest Africa, "

concluded that with the rare exceptions of coffee and cocoa planters

or scholars, "Africa, for us, is more remote than the lunar craters. "

Popular ideas about the neighboring continent were reduced to stereo-

types engendered by safari films produced in the metropolitan areas to

which Brazilian attention was directed, while notions about Asia were

extremely sketchy and vague. Almost no diplomatic or commercial

intercourse was carried on with Afro-Asia;' between 1945 and 1955, no

Brazilian head of state, vice-president, minister or influential senator

or deputy visited this region although Brazil received official visits

from t[he President of Lebanon, the Vice-President of India, and the

First Lady of Nationalist China. In the same period, the only Afro-

Asian dignitary awarded a Brazilian honorary decoration was Farouk of

Egypt, not exactly a popular figure in the Th.rd World as it emerged after 1956.2

Adolpho Justo Beozrra de Menezes, 0 Brasil c o Mundo Asio-
africano (Rio de Janeiro: Irm os Pongetti, 1956), p. 50.

2Ibid. pp. 354-355.


Brazil had clearly done nothing to make itself known in Afro-

Asia, much less to elaborate a coherent policy concerning its interests

in that area, yet only five years after the publication of Ambassador

Bezerra de Menezes' book Drazil and the Afro-Asian World, the first to

give attention to the topic, Afro-Asia was rather suddenly a point of

great contention and controversy as a symbol of Quadros' independent

policy and a new front of diplomatic activity. A flurry of discussion

about Afro-Asia ensued among diplomats, businessmen, and professors,

stimulated by world-wide interest in the end of colonialism and the

sudden independence of many new nations. In spite of the relatively

high degree of attention accorded Afro-Asia from 1961 to 1964 by various

elite groups, interest in the area has been quite low in the populace

as a whole, deriving both from the low salience of foreign affairs in

the popular mind and the fact that most Brazilians attentive to events

abroad concentrate on the United States and Europe, tending as well

to acquire from those sources any information or interpretations they

may have about Afro-Asia. Before 1960, the dearth of Portuguese-

language studies on the area was especially a problem, except for pro-

colonialist material from Lisbon. Thus we have the paradox, confirmed

by initial contacts in 1961 and 1962, that Brazilians and Afro-Asians

view each other primarily through European and American eyes or news

dispatches, thus forming of the other party much the same impressions

that a European or an American would have.

Public Ooinion and Afro-Asia

Very few public opinion polls are available to give an accurate

indication of the degree of Brazilian knowledge about or opinions of

Afro-Asia, but several of the more reliable can be cited as illustrative

of opinion in urban areas. One of the most prominent of African

problems in recent years has been the conflict between Nigeria and

Biafra, which was given wide coverage and comment in Brazilian news-

papers and news magazines. On September 7 through 9, 1968, 16

months after the outbreak of the civil war, a public opinion survey was

taken in Rio de Janeiro by the lornal do Brasil and Marplan. To the

question, "Do you know of the existence of a war between Nigeria and

the province of Biafra?" 70 percent of the total sample answered "No, "

although among the upper-income group only 35 percent were unaware

of the war. Among the 30 percent cognizant of the conflict,' 51 percent

had no opinion about which side (if either) was correct in its stand. 3

The same sample was asked, "Do you accept or not the existence of the

Third World; that is, a world formed by neutral and united countries at

the same level of economic development?" Of the total sample, 53

percent affirmed belief in the existence ofa Third World, 30 percent did

not, and 17 percent had no opinion. Among the men, 60 percent replied

affirmatively and 29 percent negatively, showing majority acceptance

normal do Brasil, September 15, 1968, p. 32. Sample size =

of the thesis, although only 39 percent of the males were aware of the

Nigerian--Biafran war, which probably represented one of the concrete

facts about the Third World most likely to be known at that time.

At the time of the 1968 visit of Indira Gandhi to Brazil, in

which the position of India as an independent, neutral power was

emphasized, the same organizations conducted another poll in Rio do

Janeiro in which the following question was asked: "As you know,

Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, visited Brazil. In your opinion,

India has played on the international scene, a role which is .. ?"

To this question, 30 percent of the sample chose the alternative answer

"Independent, 24 percent "Favorable to the United States, 7 percent

"Favorable to the USSR, and 39 percent "No Opinion. Among the

upper-income group, 43 percent answered in favor of independence,

35 percent had no opinion, and 22 percent ascribed to India a role

favorable to either of the two superpowers. 5

In 1963, a sample of 116 social science, law, geography,

and history students at the University of Recife was selected to measure

student acquaintance with newly independent African countries and

ascertain their opinions on possibilities of Brazilian cooperation with


5Jornat do Brasil, September 29, 1968, p. 36. The options were
listed, sample size = 305.

Africa. 6 Sixty-one percent of the group 'Vwa classified as holding a

"quite precarious" knowledge about Africa, having categorized either

Laos or Angola as independent African nations, while only 9 percent

were classed as well informed. Only Algeria, the Congo, Nigeria,

and Ghana were widely recognized, while 23 percent named Angola as

independent. The study concludes that among the students, "There is

very limited knowledge .. about Africa in general and the new

countries of Africa in particular, despite the fact that their curriculum

and majors should have given them greater exposure to foreign affairs

than students of other disciplines. 7

African conceptions of Brazil proved to be equally vague and

erroneous. During a visit to Brazil, Joseph Medupe Johnson, Nigerian

Labor Minister, declared that Brazil was almost completely unknown in

Nigeria before the institution of Quadros' open door to Africa policy.

Raymundo Souza Dantas, the first Ambassador to Ghana, in describing

the state of mutual knowledge between Brazil and Africa, confirmed,

"The ignorance is almost absolute. Another early emissary found

Rene Riboiro, "Opinioes de uma 'elite' estudantil s8bre o
didlogo Nova Africa-Brasil" (paper presented at the Colloquium on
Relations Between the Countries of Latin America and Africa, September
24-30, 1963, sponsored by UNESCO and the Institute Brasileiro da
Educagao, Ciencia, e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro), pp. 1-13.

7Ibid. p. 8. O Globo, July 18, 1961, p. 3.

Payinundo Souza lantas, Africa Dificil (Rio de Janeiro:
EditOra Leitura, 1965), p. 31.

"ignorance or contempt" about 3Brazil on ihe part of West Africans, but

noted a disposition to learn. On a later occasion the African Division

of Itamaraty reported that "Brazil, although considered favorably, is

almost totally unknown in the African countries. "11

It was against this type of adverse, nearly virgin background

that Brazil began expanding relations wiLh Afro-Asia and the domestic

discussion was carried on among concerned sectors of the elites as

part of the over-all polemical, theoretical, and analytical debate con-

cerning various components of the new foreign policy orientation. The

role of Afro-Asia in foreign policy was seldom considered in isolation

or as a problem which could be judged solely on its intrinsic merits.

The central international issue at stake, almost always raised by both

advocates and opponents of increased contacts, was the effects it

would work on Brazil's relationships with the Communist bloc, the

industrialized nations, or traditional allies (especially the United

States and Portugal).

By virtue. of its size, geographical location, historical ante-

cedents, economic potential, and population characteristics, a case

can be made that Brazil has the prerequisites to play a larger role in

Confidential interview with the author, March 15, 1968.

111linisterio das Relag-es Exteriores, Divisao da Africa,
"Intercambio comrrcial Brasil -Africa Subsairica, Revista da
Confederajao Nacional do Comrc.i.o, No. 44/45 (January-February,
1965), 52.

Africa than any other Latin American nation. Of all the regions of the

developing world outside the Western Hemisphere, Africa has stirred

greatest interest and debate in Brazilian discussion of foreign relations,

both in the popular press and among intellectuals. Many statements

made concerning the Third World were in large measure extrapolations

from the literature about Africa, applying these generalities to the

Middle East and Asia as well and assuming a general uniformity of

problems and perspectives. Rather little published material appeared

on the Middle East and Asia specifically, as they are farther from

Brazil both geographically and in terms of actual experience.

Several principal themes emerge from Brazilian writings on

relations with Afro-Asia, each emphasizing a different facet of the

topic but not failing to overlap the rest to some degree as arguments

were marshalled on one side or another. For purposes of exposition

and commentary, six contending approaches to the problem may be

isolated and identified: cultural, Luso-Brazilian, economic, nationalist-

neutralist, the "Western World"-oriented, and the military. These

will each be discussed in turn.

The Culturalists

It was in the study of Afro-Brazilian culture that anthropologists

and ethnologists first documented the extensive influence exerted on

Brazil by the vast numbers of slaves brought from West Africa, the

Congo,. and Angola until the traffic was prohibited in the late 1850's. 12

In the fields of religion, arts, music, folklore, language, literature,

and family life, the Negro in Brazil and especially in the Northeast

and Minas Gerais has imparted to the general culture much which

serves to distinguish it sharply from the traditions of the rest of South

America and also from those oi Portugal. 13 Yoruba and Ewe peoples

brought to Bahia introduced their system of deities and rites, which

are still worshipped and practiced in the cults of candamble, umbanda,

and macumba apparently gaining in popularity throughout Brazil, inter-

weaving with the reverence of Catholic saints to the point of popular

confusion. Yemanja, Ogun, Shang8, Nana Buku, Oya and others

blend with the Christian figures of Santa Barbara, Santo Antonio, and

the Virgin Mary. In music, the famous samba, the maracatu, and the

baiao are of African origin, as are such instruments as the cuica and

reco-reco, particularly in evidence at Carnival time, and the berimbau,

whose twanging notes signal the start of the capoeira fight-dance

imported from Angola.

1For a guide to the rich bibliography on the subject see
Manuel Die'gues Jurnir, "The Negro in Brazil: A Bibliographic Essay,"
African Forum, II, No. 4 (Spring, 1967), 97-109.

A summary of these contributions was published by Itamaraty
for distribution at the 1966 Negro Arts Festival in Dakar. See: Brazil,
Ministry of Foreign Relations, The African Contribution to Brazil (Rio
de Taneiro: Edigraf, 1966), pp. 1-109.

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