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Group Title: relationship between maternal variable scores and infant performance in a Negro experimental stimulation training population
Title: The relationship between maternal variable scores and infant performance in a Negro experimental stimulation training population
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 Material Information
Title: The relationship between maternal variable scores and infant performance in a Negro experimental stimulation training population
Physical Description: ix, 99 leaves. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Herman, Susan Jane, 1939-
Publication Date: 1970
Copyright Date: 1970
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Infants   ( lcsh )
Parent and child   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida, 1970.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 93-98.
General Note: Manuscript copy.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098399
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000874754
notis - AEH2275
oclc - 014388165

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Full Text






THE RELATIONSHIP


SCORES


AND


INFANT


BETWEEN


MATERNAL


PERFORMANCE IN


VARIABLE
A NEGRO


EXPERIMENTAL


STIMULATION


TRAINING


POPULATION


SUSAN


JANE


HERMAN


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR


THE


OF PHILOSOPHY


OF DOCTOR


DEGREE


















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


This research


was


made possible


through the cooperation of


Dr. Ira J.


Gordon,


principal investigator of the Early Child Stimulation


through Parent Education project,


* and his staff,


especially


John


Maurelli, Associate


in Research,


and Peggy Kirkpatrick, Assistant in


Research.


I am indebted to them for their


ideas


and their assistance


in collecting and


organizing
tT'


the data.


Thank s


are also doe


Dr. Emile


Jester for his consultation and assistance.


I would like to thank my Supervisory


Ccnr.' ittee,


particularly


Dr. James L.


Lister for his patience,


and empathic guidance


throughout


the course of

encouragement;,


this study;

and Dr. At


Ira J.


Gordon for his continued help and


:drey Schumacher for her counsel


encouragement,


confidence.


support,


and endurance


of myv


husband,


Joel, made


ny entire endeavor grow from


a possibility to an


actuality.


This study


Eure


was


supported


au. Department of


by Grant


St. 1 ,


cNumber


ucation.


PHS-R


306 from the Children's


and Welfare


for the Early


r,, 1 -.


' -t a


- *


.- - -*.. a -


I) .-, ~. a- z - a- 4 .. -


a
- -a-. - ~


- r - -.


interest.


I


i~Ir rJ f C k4<- .--***























TABLE OF CONTENTS


t' r'-


ACU. OULEDG ClX13T


LIST OF TABLES


ABSTRACT .


S S S S* a 0' t S
. .. . . * . a


CHAPTER


Introduction and


Re Liew


of the Literature


Design


of the Studv


III.


Results


. S 21


Su tamary,


Discussion


APP )3 C#iS


"HoI:
it j U *


Social

Index


\., if Sc 1-, I e


of AL +
Ct r. ^-"


nve rn r?. -


a T ~ T


t a a . . .


' c; ; L


oIrs
>- ".- K:.*
Ox 4- >


Proej

leeklv Rep
., -


Jrtdc


-r -


. . . .. . 71


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Inte- -* --


tor HI


o rC


- i tlon
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Vi s-
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o


(121t


S'
0 >- < 7<)_


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t-Cc w!L '


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-nd S


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Sc?-r1La&)


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1T '


oni i


RTt *'I


n te rns


Cd 1 S


S 1- l p
LIp


45-
. ...* * *V


St 73


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*


- /i *


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SC "'v


S 4 0 5 0 8


* * a * C B g i * 3


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anrd Reco 1 i' on'


E. i"-


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1 -i i


'-) *1 1 -e .I I - 1


r" -


















LIST


OF TA BLUES
Ur 1 "LD u4-.


Table


Page


for Individual


the Bayley


Scales


Groups


Infan


on the Three
t Development


cales


Stepwise Dis
for Maternal


crininant


able


Function


cores


and B


Summary
Scales


Infant


Deve


loprent


-- Total


Group


S. . 22


Means, Standard De
Maternal Variables


viations
-- Total


and F
Group


ests
. .


for
. . .


pwise


for haterna


Dis criminant


ar


Infant Deve


uncti


tables Score


opraen


on An
s and


-- Fema


alysis


cales


S . . . 25


Means,
Materna


Standard


Devi


Variables


actions,


and F


ests


-- Females


epwise


for Mate


rnal


Infant Devel


riable
opment


Function
Scores a
-- Males


ayley


umnmary
cales


S. 28


Means, S
Maternal


standard


Devia


Variables


tionslS


and F


Tests


-- Males


Stepwise


s cr


Maternal


Infant Deve


rmnant
riab1e
opoment


unction


Analys


cores


- High


coring


ummar
cales


S . . 31


Stan


da rd


Devi


ati ons


ests


Maternal


Variables


-- High


cor


. . 33


Stepwis e
for Mate


scri


mina n f
a 4 f ^L*-^tL


* 1riab
aria L- f -^*

unction


Anal


COrsS


cales


Infant


Deve


I nt


-- L


ow-,3


coring


Mce us ,


Stancdarc


iatj


o C)


"IFrs cLS


T ~ *~- 4 ~ ~1 ,-~ r* .- ~. 1 rt t C ,' ft


i


cas,


I a-^ -^'-i rf-.~ *" P-


Discriminan t














Stepwise


SZZio


uLI -Vi


iKaternal


arica


Scores
Total


cr<


infant


Deve


oDment


Correlation


a-
23 L. Ly


-- Total


Group


S39


S tepwis
Scores
Females


and Bavley S
a-. -, d' ;


humw 2rv
ce of
cale of .- ~


.aterma


fant


ariab
-mte^.< t


Devel


S* 41


Correlation


iatrix


-- Female


42


Stepwise


ression


S umma


Maternal


Variab'le


Scores
Males


and B


ayley


Scales


of infant


Deve


opmrent


Sa a . . a a a 44


Correlation Matrix


-- Halel.


. . a a a 45


gre~s


G rio .,









Abstract


of D issertat"


P rs-ented


to the Graduate


Coune


in Partial


u -, -i l _i .
_ is *uw-l..l/- letLt^


of the RIequirements


for the Degree


Doc


at the


tor of Philosophy
University of Florida


THE RELATIONSHIP


BETWEEN


MATE RNAL


VARIABLE


IND INFANT


PEPSFOPJIANCE


IN A NEGRO


EXPERIMENTAL


STIMULATION


TRAINING POPULATION


Susan


Jane


Herman


August,


1970


Chairman:


Dr. James L.


Department:


ster


Counselor


Education


The major


obj active


of this


study


was to investigate


relationship


of maternal


variable


scores


of disadvantaged


Negro


others


to the intellectual


development


of their


two-year-old


infants


enrolled


a stWimLlation


training


program.


scores


of 39 infants


on the three


scales


of the Bayley


Scales


of Infant


Development


sychomotor,


Mental Deveicoment


and Task


Oriented


Behavior


(Cha.eer,


1967)


were


used


as criterion


variables.


The fol-


lowing ma ternal


variables


were


part


of the scales


and measurement


,ins tr-


ments


used


the Early


Child


Stimulation


through


Parent


Education


project


(-or


1969)


assess


growth


and development


of the mother


ane her


scale

sical


ti. on


child:


consisting

Appearance


inv entor


Eom I


See M4ys


the f.ct ore
f- c^ {T i--


and Attitudesf


Siker,


196s)


elf Scale


Autonomy,

toward Te


(Gordon,


1968)


Int erpersonal


a cher-School


a modification


of the


a self-repcrt


Adequacy,


social


Rotter


Phy -

Reac-


(1966)


Internal-Extemral


NMether


s Attitude


S caJ.e


(Berman


1968),


SScale e


SCORS









Interacti.on


Scale


(:Caurelli,


1969)


scored on


observed


frequencies of


growth


p i ociucrng


non-growth producing verbal behavior of the mother.


The results


of s tepwise


discriminant function analyses and step-


wise


multiple regression analyses yielded the following major findings:


High-scoring children differed


significantly


from low-scoring


children in their pattern of maternal


variable


scores


only on


the Mental scale.


The discriminant


variables


were


Mother At-


titude and Social Reaction Inventory.


For all


three Bayley


Scales,


the high-scoring group had a higher Mother Attitude


and a more external Social Reaction Inventory score.

High-scoring females differed significantly from low-scoring


females on the Mutor and Task Oriented Behavior scales.


the Motor


scale,


the only discriminant


variable


was


Positive


Verbal Interaction.


For the Task


Oriented


Behavior scale,


three


of the How


See Nyself


factors


Positive Verbal


Interaction


discriminated significantly.


group showed trends of higher


scores


The high-scoring


on all three scales of


Physical Appearance,


lower


scores


on Teacher-School Attitude,


higher external Social Reaction Inventory


scores


lower Posi-


tive


and Negative Verbal Interaction


scores,


and higher


Mother Attitude scores.


Hi gh-s cor-


males differed significantly from low-scoring


i.lesr in


eir


pattern of maternal


variable


scores


on the


Mental'


-i T- ioJ


scales


most


important discriminants


:









the high-scorers had higher maternal Interpersonal Adequacy


scores,


higher Positive and Negative Verbal Interaction


scores, and higher Mother Attitude scores.

High-scoring males differed from high-scoring females in

their patterns of maternal variable scores on all three


Bayley sea

Adequacy,


les.


Positive Verbal Interaction, Interpersonal


and Mother Attitude were major discriminators for


all three scales,


although all the other maternal variables


also contributed to the discrimination pattern.


Trends indi-


cated higher maternal


variable scores


a more


internal


Social Reaction Inventory score for the males.


Low-scoring males differed from low-scoring


females


in their


patterns of maternal


variable


scores


on the M!ental and Motor


scales.


Low-s coring


males


tended to have mothers who scored


higher on all four of the How


Myself factors,


lov'er on


Positive


Verbal Interaction.


There were fewer dis-


tinctions between low-scoring groups than between b high-scoring

groups.


the total group,


the most important variables for pre-


diction of child performance were


Verbal Interaction


scores.


There


waS


a positive correlation between Positive and Nega-


tive


Verbal Interaction.


Posi tive


Verbal


Interaction and


Mcther Attitude correlated positively with the Mental and


Mnto n r


crcal cs


fC 1 ale


Po sti- 7


-..e .&* 4 r


. .. -... o v


I I f


4


Tark 1l


I









Maternal


variables appeared to be more important for the


as predictors


of performance.


More


of the maternal


variables 7ere involved in the prediction equation for the


male group. Positive Verbal Interaction contributed most

to the prediction, followed by the four measures of the How


See Myself Scale.


For the males,


there


were


sign ficant


Positive and Negative Verbal Interactions and Maternal

Attitude scores.


Suggestions for


future research


we re


made,


based


on the findings


and shortcomings

verbalizations b


of the study.


e tween


More detailed


mother and child were


studies of the kinds of

recommended, as well as


studies of their non-verbal communication.


Refinement of the measurement


of maternal


behaviors


was


suggested.


Investigation into the differing


maternal behaviors toward males and females,


and the role


of maternal


variables


relate to the mother


as a teacher


cor sidered.


rTT ;


as they

















CHAPTER I

Introduction and Review of the Literature



The interest and attention of workers in the field of child


development have increased sharply in exploring the early


years


of the


child's life.


From the work of such early


childhood investigators


Hunt


(1964)


Bloom (1964), and Bayley


(1965 1966),


it has become evi-


dent that the infant develops enduring and consistent learning patterns


which are, in considerable part,


dependent upon the environment.


Consideration of the life experiences of


the child


as he interacts


with his environment enables us to develop a more complete explanation


for his intellectual development.


Intelligence


reflects


the total


organ-


ization of the person


as it is influenced by his


life


experiences.


Gordonr


(1969)


has proposed


a transactional theory


of child development.


yte views


the child


as an open energy system, simultaneously influencing


and influenced by his environment.


The child


is characterized by activ-


organizes


and integrates


activities into more and mole com-


piex behavi ors


as he develops.


Significant others"


(Sullivan,


1953)


are a part of the environment of


the child.


They


interact with and


medi ate


the child


other


contacts


with his environment


(Figure 1).


I


k










The mother


as a sinifgriiicnt person in the life of the


young


child


strong


anar enduring


influences


on the behavior and development of


her child.


It is


from the literature that there are different


sex-linked


rear ng


patterns,


and that


boys


and girls


react differently


to similar


maternal behaviors.


It is


purpose


of the study to investigate the relationships


between maternal


variables and intellectual child performance in Negro


children.


scores


An investigation to determine patterns of maternal


which differentiate between high-scoring


and females will allow for an


ex ansion


variable


low-scoring males


of knowledge of the differential


effects of maternal behavior


on the intellectual development of males


and females.


Differences


between


Negro and white intelli


zence


and achievement


have.


b-en
C- N: A.-


frequently identified by researchers


(Klineberg,


1963;


Kennedy, et al.,


1963;


Deutsch and Brown,


1964).


s amre


time,


the literature


stresses


the influence of the earlv years


of childhood


on cognitive
%-*


devrelopmnt.


There is


a need for


exe:rining


the early


years


of the Negro


chiNd


the nature of his


environment,


and its rela-


tionship


to intellectual development.


Since the


m~ther


is the most


significant


person


in the life


of the


young


child


, investing action


the zole


of maternal


factors


in the early


life of


the Negro


child


should


enable


child


aavelopment


researchers to


exTvanc


their under-


5 4andin 1-


or muther-child-environment


interactions


in the Regro


family.


fl -i ., 1~- I .I ~7 -7 - -I I _- -- L -- -


.p parent


-'-


n i


I ---










Importance of e Earl eriod of ChIl Development
Intellectual Development


as Related to


Investigations of child developreixt have been strongly influenced

by the findings implying the critical nature of early experience for


subsequent development.


Deutsch


(1964)


feels that appropriately organ-


ized


cognitive stimulation during the early


years


can be highly effec-


tive in accelerating the development of intellectual functions.


infants have been found to discriminate sound at


Newborn


days of age


(Kessen, et al.,


1961),


and vocalizations of


children have been condi-


tionad at three months of


(Rheingold,


1961).


Loretan


(1966)


stressed that any of the


early


years


spent in a


poor environment are almost irretrievable.


Lewis


(1963)


stresses


significance of the


first three


years


of life in


future


cognitive


crectic


development of the child.


states


that the process of the


growth of

action of


meaning du


cognitive


- - A- -- - --


ring the second year o

and affective factors.


if life


Affect


a complex inter-

and cognition act


together


as a selective influence upon the child's


perceptions


of his


environment.


Griffiths


(1954,


suggested that


"the


first


year


lays


the groundwork


for mental development in all


aspects.


" It is the


beginning of


imitation,


-urroseful


comr ni cat ve


expression,


listening.


Sigel


(.96.4)


stated


that one of


reasons


why children from


disadvantaged


difficulty in


kindergarren


first


grade is


'o1 T ^ -'


h ave










children's intelligence


(Boger and Ambron,


1969).


a group,


black


children

older, h


score


lower than white children, and


is measured intelligence


decreases


as the black child gets


(Stodoisky and Lesser, 1967


Deutsch and Brovwn,


1964;


Kennedy,


Van de Reit, and White,


1963).


Small differences in intelligence have been shcwn between black and


white infants,


as children grow older,


the difference between black


and white intelligence scores increases


(Dregor and miller ,


1960).


Several investigations


(Rheingold


, 1961; Sayegh and Dennis,


1965;


Caslet,


1965;


White, Castle and Held,


1964)


have demonstrated the feasi-


ability of positively


altering


early


development through


introducing


stimulation programs


for institutionalized infants.


Caldwell


(1967)


found that


gains made by a stimulation group


of infants


were


sustained


into adult life,


while all but one of the control subjects who remained


institutionalized developed classic syndromes of mental retardation.


Other


investigations in the area of intellectual stimulation of


infants


from environmentally


dep rive d


Ci tuations


have also demonstrated


e' s
r '-.- *


for the experimental groups on measures


of intellectual functioning


associ


?ted with increased levels of stimulation


and training


(Klaus and


GrCay,


1969; Kittrell,


1968;


Gordon,


1969).


However,


the nature of the


experiences


which initiate adaptation


to the enviror.menL and


serve


stimnule te


develop ent


is not fully understood.


Therefore,


this


study


will


invest.i


gate


the relationship


between


nastrcal


variable


scores


en vi ronments L


* rible
\' * -tcU v, v-


and performance


of NcEgro


infants on


a standard


- J -I -







5




Relationship of Maternal Variables to Intellectual Development of the
Child


Characteristically,


the mother has been considered


as the key


child-rearing person in the early years.

child development workers is for children


father is absent,


Since one of the concerns of


In growing up in homes where the


we need to examine what specific roles maternal behav-


ior plays in influencing the child's intellectual development during

his early years.


The family is viewed


as a setting in


which


motivation for


learning


owned.


and development


of achievement behaviors


Maternal behavior toward the child is


the early experience of the child.


During


are


ore critical


infancy and ear


initially devel-


variable in

ly childhood


there is


a positive relationship


between


loving


maternalm


behavior and


happy,


calm,


positive


behavior of the child


(Schaefer


Bayley, 1963).


Klatskin, Jackson,


and Wilkin


(1956)


followed up 50 mothers in a three-


year


study


of neternal attitudes.


Thev


found that the manner in which


the mother


related to the child, i.e., mother handling,


was


the major


variable influencing child behavior in


the first


three


years


of life.


Bow lby


(1951),


Spitz


(1965), and Erikson


(1950)


focus attention


on the necessity for


a one-to-one


relationship with a great deal of


actent ion


from


nmoj fl ring


one as the main ingredient of


the mother-child


relati onship.


According*


to Erikson,


the development of the sense of


bssic
1 *- -
J -5 1 C


trust


and autonomy during


the first


two


years


of life is based


* 1 t -


_


* -I









transmitted

the mother.


young


children in- interactions with adults,


The exchange between the mother and child


seem


especially

s to be


linked to the contingencies of the environment which the mother herself

experiences.


Caldwell


(1967)


cites three conditions which she suggests


constitute the optimal learning environment for the young child:


care


in his own home;


a warm and nurturant emotional relation


ship with his mother or substitute;


and (c)


varied


sensory


and cognitive


output.


Moss


and Kagan


(1964)


reported on the


Fels


Research Institute


Longitudinal Study which


followed


36 males and


35 females from birth to


adulthood.


They


found that maternal


treatment


from birth to three years


was generally


a better predictor of


child and adult intellectual


status


based


upon Stanford Binet test,


observations, and interviews than


was maternal


treatment of


child during subsequent periods


of life.


Rupp


(1969)


suggests


that stimulation of


cognitive development


also


implies


that


the parents perceive development


in their children.


Parents


then experience


these


developments as


coming


about in part due


to their own influence.


Perception of change implies


the feeling that


people


and institutions can change and also that one is able to make


a controutLion


to those


changes.


Observations


child

1.7 1 rh


are scarce.

mrn re 1 nr


of family interactions and their effects upon the


iness


' .-^ o r i *


and Shipman


Ui+u


(1965)


tie : r chri dre


investigated the way in

n to see if language was










a relationship between the maternal


cognitive


style


as measured by the


Siegel


test


and child style and performance.


They found "openness of


mother to her child's questions"


and "infrequency of


imperative


state-


ments to the child without rationale" were positive predictors of a

child's achievement.


Dye and Witkin


(1963)


used interviews with the mother in the


home to rate her interaction


as interfering with or fostering develop-


ment of differentiation.


In their view,


the mother "as


a person" was


related to child style.


The mother's self-assurance, self-realization,


general social relationships, and attitudes of dependence and independ-


ence


for the- child correlated highly with the child's differentiation,


defined


as articulation of experience,


analyzing and structuring of


perception and thinking,


a sense


of separate entity,


and structured


specialized defenses in ten-year-old youngsters.

The following three studies report findings from the same


population of indigent families who participated in the program,


Early


Child Stimulation Through Parent Education


(Gordon,


1969).


This was a


program of intellectual stimulation


exercises


taught by mothers to


their children from


ages


three months


to two years of


age.


Bilker (1.970)


found that mothers of


children who


score


lower


on an achievement test for two-year-olds change more in the direction.


of internal


control of reinforcement


as measured by the


I-E Scale of


the Rotter


So cial


Reaction Inventory


(SRI)


than


mc trers


of children


,1 ,


F '


TI-, 1' 4" 1' r r F- Vr .. -+ r- ~* r V T ^ V -\ 4- . r 4 .~ -: --


a 4 rt


h ~ tr


1'--k /* 1 -> -r ^ t r- *


fr~


^









related to internal expectancy changes in that direction.


Gordon


(1969)


reports mothers who were more verbal on the


same


verbalization index


had children who achieved


more


in the training program.


Bradshaw (1968)


found that differences on observed maternal


verbalization and disciplinary patterns do not seem to bear a signi-


ficant relationship


to the infant's ability to perform on a standard-


ized intellectual performance test at


one.


However, increases in


maternal discipline demonstrated


a relationship to higher performance


on the Hand and Eye subtest of the Griffiths

It has been recognized that the dimen


cale of Mental Development.


sion of control-autonomy is


a significant


axis


of exchange


in family


dyads,


especially in mother-


child re ationships


(Baldwin, Klathorn,


and Breese,


1949;


Schaefer,


1959)


Schaefer conceptualized maternal behavior along two


axes,


control-autcnomy and hostility-love.


(1969),


In his study of home tutoring


he found low negative correlations between maternal hostility


and child performance on standardized measures of intellectual

performance.


Data indicate that maternal teaching


styles


reflecting the


mother


s informaticn-processing strategies,


techniques for controlling


her child


s behavior,


and her


attitudes


toward education and the schools


are equal to or better than IQ and social class


as predictors of the


child


based


cognitive


functioning.


on the indcividua!


Use of rationales,


characteristics


p ers or s


especially appeals


and situations,


was


rc 1 a A 4- ir", C' ,nrr P +, ,t Tf / -


h, Ir ,-\^+-T' i4-1lcrrr - r'4 '1 A


Maccc


- -^ L-^ r, Tn sln, ^n^ l -


ru f I -1 -t -










teaching the child, and who provided specific,


understandable, and


useful information to the child were


child's interest and cooperation.

attitudes toward education and scho


mo re


successful in obtaining the


The mother's conveying of positive

ol, and realistic expectations for


the child's behavior were significant predictors of the child'


perfor-


mance on interaction


tasks


(Hess, et al.,


1968).


Nume rous


relationships between variables of the family and


environment have been revealed in current investigations


(Hess, et al.,


1968;


Gordon,


1969); however, much further work remains in the search


for understanding interactions in the deprived family.


The position of the American Negro


leads


to negative self-


perceptions


(Goff


, 1949; Ausubel,


1963; Kvaraceus,


1965).


Coleman


(1966)


emphasized


the imo rtance o f


the Negro's


perceptions of inabil-


ity to control his


own environment.


Studies by Rotter and associates


show


a high


correlation between internal control and school achievement.


Tney


also


reveal


a relationship between internal


control


affiliation


and initiative in improving the conditions of


school


performance


(Battle


and Rotter


1963;


Gore


and Rotter,


1963:


Rztter,


1966).


Freijo,


Gordon,


and Bilker


(1969)


investigated


control


expectancy


in the Early Child


Stimulation


Trh r "iugh
.LU 0


Parent Education


project,


and found


a significant


difference


U E grco


and white mothers.


White mothers had a sig-


nificantly


Lower


( .ore


internal)


score


on the Social Reaction Inventory.


However,


group


of mothers


investigated


by Freijo


were


found


b- ,. een


-. m '- \










summary,


the importance of the mother in the early


life of


her child has been emphasized by the literature.


Studies


suggest


dif-


ferences in perceptions and behavior between white and Negro mothers.


More investigations


are


needed in understanding the relationships be-


tween maternal behavior and child performance in


Negro


families.


This


study


, therefore,


will investigate relationships between maternal


vari-


able


scores


and intellectual development in two-year-old Negro children.


Influence of


Sex Differences on Intelligence


Th rough out


the literature,


sex


has been consistently recognized


as an important variable in the study


of socialization processes.


differences in performance have also been noted.


Becker (1964)


reports


that boys


feel


they get


punished more than other members of the family;


mothers


are seen


as more loving and nurturant


t -1 a


fathers;


and mothers


p ch ole ical


control


than fathers,


especially


with girls.


Bradshaw


(19CS)


reports


a higher frequency of maternal verbalization


with boys and


a higher level of maternal discipline.


Schaefer (1966)


demonstrated that inactive babies are more


affected


by deprivation than active babies.


Moss


(1966)


studied male


female


sleeping g


patterns


among


infants


and found


males


awake and


crying


more


of the tie


than females.


Bayley


and Schaefer


(1964)


hypothesized that the female reaction


to the exVerim ntal


condition


be genetic.


Boys


' intelligence


use more


1










Kagan and


Moss


(1962)


reported on the longitudinal data of the


Fels Research Institute.


They divided childhood into three categories:


birth


to three


years,


three to


years


and six to ten


years.


Protec-


tion of boys during period one was one of the best predictors of child


and adult intellectual achievement.


It appears


that the pattern most


likely to


lead to


involvement in intellectual achievement in the male


is early maternal protection,


followed by encouragement and acceleration


of mastery behaviors.


For girls,


the pattern


was


reverse.


Maternal


hostility toward the daughter during the first three years of life,


together with acceleration during


ages


SIX


to ten,


were associated with


adult


intellectual mastery in the female.


Honzik


(1967)


found that the intelligence of middle-class girls


is related to parental competence and lack of conflict about discipline


and cultural standards.


For optimal mental growth,


the boy appears to


need first a warm,


close relationship with


a mother or caretaker,


fol-


lowed by


a masculine model who not only achieves but who is concerned


about his son's achievement.


This raises the question of the influence


on the child of


a lack of male models in homes where there


is no father


or substitute.


Bing


(1963)


found significant differences for fifth-graders of


both


sexes


between high and low verbal on early verbal stimulation,


number of


stations.


story books in the home,


Tiere


was


and participation in mealtime conver-


a difference between high and low verbal girls on




12




and relate these behavior patterns to infant intellectual performance.


These


families


were


visited once


a month by


a parent educator who


talked to the mother about the baby's progress.


She found that boys


obtained significantly higher


scores


on the Hand and Eye subtest of


the Griffiths Mental Development Scale.


Girls


, however,


scored higher


on the Speech and Hearing subtest.


The mothers


in this supposedly


homogeneous population behaved differently toward boys and girls on


frequency


of verbal interaction and amount of discipline.


The literature indicates that


there


are differences in intel-


lectual performance by


sex


as well


as by


differing


responses


to maternal


behaviors and stimulation training.

tially to maternal behaviors, and mi


Males and females react differen-


others behave differently toward


boys


and girls.


More investigation


is needed to increase our under-


standing of the


ways


in which maternal behaviors affect boys and girls


as well


as the reaction of specialized populations to maternal behavior


and stimulation training.


Therefore,


this study will investigate the


patterns of maternal


variable


scores


of the mothers of males and females


score


high and low on a standardized test of infant


development in


an experimental population of Negro


families.

















CHAPTER II

Design of the Study


sample


of subjects used in this study


were


39 Negro


infants


and their mothers who have participated in the


two-year experimental


cognitive training program of the Early Child Stimulation Through Parent


Education project


(Gordon,


1969).


Mothers and infants


were


identified


at the birth of the child in the J.


Hills Miller Health Center Teaching


Hospital of


the University


of Florida.


The criteria


for selection were:


economic


cede of "indigent"


on the hospital admission form;


single


birth; no breech or Caesarian delivery; no physical complications of


mother or infant; no evidence of


of mother's mental


illness.


mental retardation;


Assignment to experiment l


and no evidence


or control


conditions


ias


random.


first experimental group,


Swere born


between June


1966, and January


31, 1967.


The second


(E2)


and third


were


between


1, 1967, and October


1967.


1 conpcsitiorn


cf thcse groups was


apD r oX- irat e :


80 oer


c nt t


Negro


and 20


cent white.


The sample for this


s~cdy


will be the Negro


subjects


received two years of stimulation training


as part of


either El,


or C3


groups


on whocm


all of th3 datof f mother vari-


nfl C1 1 r 1~' n T, rT


.- -r -j -r


groups


- 1' ^r"c


racia


* -*: t


-hp


41 r 4 *4 I





14




while the C3 materials included more locomotor and physical development


items. There were no significant differences in intellectual performance

between the E2 and C3 groups.




Questions To Be Answered


Do the mothers of children with high


scores


on the Bayley Scales


of Infant Development show a different pattern of maternal variable


scores


than mothers of children with low scores?


Do the mothers of females with high


scores


on the Bayley Scales


of Infant Development show


a different pattern of maternal variable


scores


than mothers of


females


with low


Bayley


scores?


Do the mothers of


males


with high


scores


on the Bayley Scales


of Infant Development show


scores


a different pattern of maternal variable


than mothers of males with low Bayley scores?


Do high-scoring males and high-scoring females differ in their


patterns of maternal


variable scores?


Do low-- corirg


nales


and low-scoring


females


differ in their


patterns of maternal variable


scores


-


- 4. - - -- ~ A I- -- .. -- -


_~~ _I r. 1 -


-2----


,, f,,


1


n-


-1 Tt .


L1-1 *










Procedures


scores


on the Bayley


Scales


of Infant


Development,


Mental


Development


Index


and Psychomotor


Development


Index,


and Schaefer


Task


Oriented


Behavior


Index


(TOB)


were


used


as criterion


variables.


The sample


ras


divided


into


high-scorin


and low-scoring


groups


rank


ordering


scores


using


cent


as the high


group


the bottom


cent


as the low group)


for the total


sam-


ple,


and by


sex.


stepwise


discriminant


function


analysis


was


used


to distinguish


between


the high


scorers


the low


scorers


on the


basis


of maternal


variable


scores.


following


variables


which


were


used


are part


of the scales


measurement


instruments


used


Early


Child


Stimulation


through


Parent


Education


project


(Gordon,


1969)


assess


growth


development


of mother


child.


Myself


(HISM)


The HISM


a modification


mothers


of Gordon's


HISM


(1968)


which


has been


developed


norms


established


on children


grades


three


through


scale


a 40-


item,


five-point,


self-reDort


scale.


Four


of eight


factors


were


used


with


mothers:


Autonomy,


consisting


of nine


items;


In terpers onal


Adequacy,


consziting


of 17


items


Physical


Appearan ce,


eight


items;


and Attitudes


toward


Teacher


School,


items.


modification


of the scale


use with


mothers


consisted


of chang


those


items


which


said


girls


or boys


to women


or men


and those


having


to do with


teacher


to past


tense.










of the Rotter


(1966)


Internal-External Scale.


first step in the


modification of this scale was changing the language to a fourth-


grade vocabulary


level.


A test re-test reliability for this modified


self-report measure was


.78, about


S ame


level


as the original


Rotter version.


Mother's Attitude


(MA)


This attitude scale


was


developed


by Herman


(1968)


, using items appearing on the Parent Educator Weekly


Report


(PEWR)


as indicative of maternal attitude,


and modified


include the PEWR section on missed appointments or delays.


It was


reasoned that a mother who could repeat


exercises,


knew what she was


doing,


watched demonstrations of the parent educator and brooked few


interruptions would be considered


mother who missed appointments


as displaying


reasons


a positive attitude.


other than illness,


seemed to be avoiding the parent educator would be scored


as displaying


a negative


aLt tude,


in addition to behaviors observed during the home


visit.


The items


were


converted into an attitude index with its


parameters


scored


score


to a +1 score.


Es imate of Mother's Expectancy


(EME)


The EME was developed


by McCaullev


concept


(1067


to be saC..rbed,


using Osgood's Semantic-Differential.


a page


was


For each


presented with sixteen adjective


pairs


to be


rated


on a scale from 1


to 7.


The concepts used in this


study


are ideal


Baby


Girl,


Ideal


Baby


Boy, and This Child.


Depending


on tie


sex


of the


child,


a distance


score


following


Osgood,


Suci, and


I_










(1969)


developed a verbal score,


using items from the PEWR.


He divided


the items into two categories based on the premise that


the quality, as


well


as the amount of interaction,


with infant performance.


would yield important relationships


For each visit,


tallies were made of growth


producing and non-growth producing verbal behavior of


maximum positive tallies for each visit is 11.


tallies


the mother.


The maximum negative


is four.


B ayley Scales of Infant Development:


The Bayley Scales


(Bayley,


1969)


are designed to provide a


three-part basis for the


evaluation of a child's developmental status in the first


two and one-


half


years


of life.


The Mental Scale is designed to


assess


sensory-


perceptual acuities,


discrimination,


and the ability to respond to


these;


the early


acquisition of object constancy;


problem solving


ability and early evidence of the ability to form generalizations and


classification.


The Motor Scale is designed to provide a measure of


the degree of control of the body,


coordination of the large muscles,


and finer manipulator skills of the hands and fingers.


The test


was


through 30 months of


standardized on a sample of 1,262 children from two


in the following strata of the United States


population:


sex,


color,


urban-rural residence,


education,


occupation,


geographic


region,


and birth order.


Split-half reliability coeffi-


clients for the Mental Scale range from .81 to


.93,


with


a median value


.88.


Reliability coefficients for the Motor Scale range from .68










on a nine-point scale,


except


test


adequacy,


which


is a five-point


scale:


Object Orientation;


Goal Directedness; 8.


Attention


Span;


Cooperativeness;


Test Adequacy.


Statistics and Design


The statistical method used to analyze the data


multiple discriminant function analysis.


was


The method examine


a stepwise

es the group


membership


of individuals, based on


a set of attributes of those indi-


viduals,


in this


case,


maternal variable


scores.


The stepwise analysis


allows for inspection of variables


as they are added to the discriminant


function equation in the order of highest discrimirator.


The analysis


weights


the different measured variables in such a


as to maximize


the difference between the means of two composites derived from two


criterion groups. This test allows examination of the nature of dif-

ferences found using a matrix of F statistics.


Groups


were


rank-ordered and divided into high-scoring and low-


scoring


individuals,


cent wnc


scored


using


the 50 per cent who scored highest,


lowest.


There


and the


was an analysis done for each


u-ing
Si -n
uc _f1lo


of the three Bayley Scale


scores


as the criterion


variable


(Men t al.


Motor,


Task Oriented Behavior).


Five


groups


were


examined:


total


-- high and low;


females


-- high and low; males


-- high


and low; high males and high females;


low males and low females.


1 i
* relizrarierv


inspection


waS


d one


to see if the


same


individuals


- . '


group,


-


, I _ L J-- -. .. -1


1f


T


group


I










A second


set of discriminant


function


analyses


was


done


in the


manner


des cribed


above


for the El


group


alone


on whom


the additional


measure,


Estimate


of Mother's


Expectancy,


was


available.


In addition,


intercorrelations


of the maternal


variables


was


examined


, using


multiple


correlation


for the total


group,


for total


females


total


males.




20



TABLE


N's for individual groups


on the three


scales


the Bayl ev


Scales


of Infant


Development


El gr up -- including the Estimate of Mother


s Expectancy vari able,
--l1^ -fu ^ --lI lr_4___^-- _, F I --- ^ ^ lll -- ~T .- -*--1- -* H ^ *II j J f *^ ^ J* ^ -.- l _


Bayley Scale


Group


Group


Mental
Aotor


High


Femal


Female


Task


Oriented


Behavior


Mental
Motor


High
"


Males
"


10 Low


Task


Oriented


Behavior


Mental
Motor


13 Total


High


16 Total


Task


ente


Behavior


- 11-*1-1 I.--.-.. ...


El, E2, C3 -- excluding the Estimate of other
** *-*ha- nii~n1 n '-. i i 1 > _l rl ^i-T i;-**- r* -ni .r-i i,-* *im ~ i wi *** I .*.'E s t i ma._. ._ .. ... -i.-.._..i^ ________...-..-.._ -. .. .


n e ctancv


*rrc~vari+Ohle


Bailey Sca


Group


Group


Mental
Motor


19 High


Females


22 Low


Femal


TaskIC


oriented


behavior


Mental
Motor


25 Hieh


Males


28 Low


Task


Oriented Behavior


MEIntal
Motor


31 Total


High


Total Low


Task


ente


Behavior


- - - ~Z=~:" -. - -C~ -- -"~~=~"~~~, 1~- -,- -- -- ---2--1---2 -. .-


variab le


















CHAPTER III

Results


This study


was designed to


investigate


the relationships between


maternal


variables,


child performance,


sex


in Negro


children.


These


children and mothers


were


part of the experimental groups of a


stimul.ation project


using


Piaget


ian-type


exercises


demonstrated to the


mother


a pararofessional


parent educator and taught by the mother


to her child.


relti C n'i pI


between


the various


groups


tested,


using


a stepwise


dis cri-rinant


function


analysis


in order to test whether


there


were


differences


in the pattern of mother variable


scores


be teen


groups.


SQesti cn


One asked:


Do the mothers of children with


high


scores


on the Bayley


Scales of Infant Development show a pattern of maternal


variable


scores


different


from children with low Bayley scores?


An e*
Anl ex m nat'i ^ "V^icn-- /y


of Table


shows that, of the three


scales


the Baviev

pattern.


only the


On that


mental


scale


scale


Mother


show's


Attitude


any significant discriminant

and the Social Reaction


Cn i y. '


two variables


which,


together,


discriminated


t1-. +-- .y r i* 4. 1r E


- -


- ~


- e- L_ j L '_


LnventI or


arCL


-r


4" 1r -. * .:




22



TABLE 2

Stepwise Discriminant Function Analysis Sunimar for Maternal
Variable Scores and Bayley Scales of Infant Development


Total Group :


= 39


= 20


High


= 19


Mental Scale


F Value Number of Vari-
to Enter -ables Included df


Va ri ab le


Attitude
SRI
Physical Appearance
Interpersonal Adequacy
Negative Verbal
Autonomy
Positive Verbal
Teacher-School


.618
.886
.886
.529
.164
.226
.097
.089


.618*
.742*
.782
.191
.742
.456
.226
.053


Motor Scale

F Value Number of Vari-
to Enter ables Included df F


Variable


Attitude
Physical Appe
Autonomy
SRI
Negative Verb
Teacher-Schoo
Positive Verb
Interpersonal


arance


a
1
a


1
1
1 1
2
1 0
Adequacy 0


.736
.418
.742
.887
.000
.060
.236
.000


.736
.598
.348
.278
.022
.083
.776
.504


Tas :


Oriented Behavior Scale


F Value Number of Vari-
Variable to Enter ables Included df F__


Teacher-School
SRI
Negative Verbal
Physical Appearance


.534
.334
.034
.724


, .I'' ,


.534
.945
.643
.403


.





23




TABLE 3


Means, Standard Deviations, and F Tests for


Maternal


Variables


TOTAL GROUP


Mental Scale


Low Group High Group
Variable Mean S.D. Mean S.D. F Value

Autonomy 22.899 5.524 24.000 4.027 0.500
Interpersonal Adequacy 61.950 11.245 60.157 17.661 0.144
Physical Appearance 27.649 4.704 28.578 6.318 0.273-
Teacher-School 22.399 6.500 22.105 3.857 0.029
SRI 9.600 3.050 10.421 3.877 0.543
Positive Verbal 0.592 0.274 0.710 0.171 2.560
Negative Verbal 0.162 0.122 0.203 0.147 0.889
Attitude 0.494 0.267 0.673 0.145 6.618*


Motor Scale

Low Group High Group
Variable Mean S.D. Mean S.D. F Value


Autonomy
Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance
Teacher-School
SRI


Positive Verbal
Negative Verbal
Attitude


.200
.700
.349
.099
.550
.588
.152
.514


.640
.890
.671
.848
.332
.255
.122
.257


.631
.473
.894
.368
.473
.714
.213
.581


.002
.593
.279
.669
.611
.196
.144
.183


.031
.026
.763
.037
.690
.995
.623
.736


Task Oriented Behavior


Scale


Low Group
Variable Mean S.D.


High Group
Mean S.D.


F Value


Autonomy


Interpersonal Adequ
Physical Appearance
Teacher-School
SRI
Positive Verbal


acy


.349
.849
.649
.549
.430
.641


.135
.395
.881
.748
.948
.241


.526
.263
.573
.894
.378
.658


.637
.853
.214
.605
.910
.233


.012
.113
.273
.534
.O040
.044


r


V








means


of each


variable


for the


two groups.


As in Table 2,


the only


variable


which


discriminates


significantly between the two groups is


the Mental scale.


Mother Attitude differentiates between the two


groups at


.05 level of significance.


The 1.9


cases


of the high-


scoring


group


showed the following trends:


higher Physical Appearance


score,


lower Teacher-School Attitude


tion Inventory


orientation, more Positive


es, more external Social Reac-

Verbal Interaction between


mother and child, more Negative Verbal Interaction,


Attitude.


and higher Maternal


The Mental and Task Oriented Behavior scales show, for the


high-scoring group


a higher Autonomy


score


and a lower


Interpersonal


Adequacy


score,


while the Motor


scale


shnws


the opposite


trend for


Autonomy and Interpersonal Adequacy.


Question Two


asks:


Do the mothers of females with high


scores


on the


Bayley


Scales


of Infant Development show a different pattern of


maternal variable


scores


than mothers of females with low Bayley scores?


An examination of Table 4


shows


that no significant relation-


ships were found for the Mental scale.


For the Motor scale,


the only


variable which discriminated


was


Positive


Verbal Interaction,


at the


.05 level of significance.


On the Task Oriented Behavior scale, a


combination of Positive Verbal Interaction,


Teacher-School Attitude,


Interpersonal


Adequacy,


and Autonomy


discriminated at the


.05 level.


Table


s ows


that,


for the Motor and


Task


Oriented Behavior scales,


the Positive


Verbal Interacticn variable


showed


a significant


difference


between


t'wv


Trou.DS


at the


.05 level


of significance.


Trends be-







25



TABLE 4


Stepwise Discriminant Function Analysis Sumaryr
*i~n-1 *mHj- ***.. ... .*** ""f~- ^ i 1- 1 ~-.* iiiii-- iii ii-- -iiuiii *- -*ii nl ~iin iii n \-^ ^ -^ i 11 -ii H -- | -^ ^ i i j ^^ .^ in ii- ii i r


for Maternal


Variable Scores and Bavley Sc
__,_._..... -_-_ _^,__.---- .---- ------


ales of Infant Development


Females:


= 16


High


Mental Scale


F Value
to enter


Variable


Nu.-ber of Vari-


able Included


Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance


Attitude


Positive Verbal


Negative


Verbal


Autonomy
Teacher-School


1.732
2.458
1.697
2.372
3.933
3.326
0.334
0.215


1/14
2/13
3/12
4/11
5/10


1.732


.186


2.101


.349


3.167
3.807
3.070


.449


Motor Scale


F Value
to enter


Variable


Number of Vari-
ables Included


Positive Verbal


Autonomy
Teacher-School
Interpersonal Adequacy
Negative Verbal


Physical
Attitude


Appearance


5.398*
1.748
1.816
0.991
0.664
1.605
1.216
0.538


1/14
2/13
3/12
4/11
5/10
6/9


5.398
3.717
3.239


.675
.208
.219


2.121
1.816


Task Oriented Behavior Scale


- - -b-;-~--- **7t--~ -- ~--- *-- ---- - -- ---


F Value
to enter


Variable


Number of Vari-


abies


Included


Positive


Verbal


Teacher-School
TI t.. 4 r. r.^ r c. I-^- r^ i n i a .*<-\rf^ i /,


7.737
2.650
-i ran y


1/14
2/13
s.\ t .


* .. 9 .V I I


7.737*
5.650*
A. / 1 1




26



TABLE 5


Means Standard


Deviations and F Tests for Maternal Variables


FEMALES


Mental Scale


Variable


Me


Low Group High Group
an S.D. Mean S.D. F Value


Autonomy
Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance
Teacher-School
SRI
Positive Verbal
Negative Verbal
Attitude


.875
.250
.375
.750
.000
.682
.167
.517


.486
.881
.622
.548
.505
.206
.121
.233


.500
.375
.250
.625
.500
.598
.154
.604


.380
.007
.773
.657
.070
.181
.092
.165


.099
.493
.783
.002
.732
.742
.052
.740


Motor Scale


Low Group High Group
Mean S.D. Mean S.D.


Variable


F Value


Autonomy
Interpersonal
Physical Appea
Teacher-School
SRI
Positive Verba
Negative Verba
Attitude


Adequacy


rance


1
li


.575
.375
.875
.250
.500
.738
.189
.579


.199
.908
.482
.770
.276
.142
.124
.205


.000
.250
.750
.125
.000
.542
.132
.541


.869
.489
.590
.128
.672
.192
.763
.207


.580
.143
.191
.195
.853
.398*
.218
.139


Task Oriented Behavior Scale


Low Group


Variable


High Group


______ Mean S.D. Mean S.D. F Value
-.- - -.-. -. .Ima


Autonomy
Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance
Teacher-School
SRI
Positive Verbal
Negative Verbal


.125
.000
.875
.125
.250
.751
.171


.100
.071
.681
.482
.494
.166
.123


.250
.625
.750
.250
.250
.529
.149


.035
.332
.891
.970
.234
.152
.067


.944
.097
.163
.384
.061
.737
.166









Attitude scores, more external Social Reaction Inventory


scores,


lower


Positive Verbal Interaction


scores,


lower Negative


Verbal Interaction


scores, and higher Maternal Attitude


scores.


The Motor and Task


Oriented Behavior scales showed lower autonomy


scores


for the high


group, while the Mental scale showed a higher Autonomy score for the


high group.


The Mental and Task Oriented Behavior scales showed lower


Interpersonal


Adequacy


scores,


while the Motor scale showed higher


Interpersonal Adequacy scores.

Question Three concerned itself with the mother of males on the


Bayley scales, asking:


Do mothers of males with high


scores


on the


Bayley Scales show a different pattern of maternal variable scores


than mothers of males with low


scores;


Table 6 summarizes


the information on the three scales.


On the


Mental scale,


Positive


Verbal Interaction, Mother Attitude,


Teacher-


School Attitude, Social Reaction Inventory, and Negative Verbal Inter-


action


scores


discriminate between the two groups at the


.01 level of


significance.


The addition of Autonomy,


Physical Appearance, and


Interpersonal Adequacy continued to be significant at the


.05 level.


On the Motor scale, Positive


Verbal Interaction,


Teacher-School Atti-


tude,


Negative


Verbal Interact on,


and Mother Attitude discriminate at


the .01 level of


significance.


The addition of Interpersonal Adequacy


and Autonomy


continued to be significant at the


.05 level.


There was


no significant pattern of discrimination for the


Task


Oriented Behavior


fh -





28



TABLE 6


Stepwise Discrimninant Function Analysis Sumimary
-' -- ^ ^ *-~- ^^ ^^ *c" i'iiisfi ^-'i- 1 *- ^^- ^ -irii j ii H llli , ~ ll in -J- q -- -- ^-I B T -- iii~ ^- -i.^ ___ __


Variable


Scores


and Bavlev


for Maternal


Scales of Infant Development


Males:


= 23


= 12


High


Mental Scale
- ,


F Value
to enter


Variable


Number of Vari-


abes Included d


Positive Verbal


Attitude


Teacher-School


Negative Verbal


Autonomy
Physical


Appearance


Interpersonal Adequacy


14.248


.110


0.887
0.834
0.834
0.283
0.204
1.430


1/24
2/20
3/19
4/18
5/17
6/16
7/15
8/14


14.248**
11.074**
7.630**
5.881**
4.564**
3.691*
3.035*
2.911


- ---- ---- -Illl


Motor Scale


F Value
to enter


Variable


Number of Vari-
ables Included


Positive Verbal
Teacher-School


Negative
Attitude


12.434


.228
.381


Verbal


Interpersonal Adequacy


Autonomy


Physical Appearance


1.725
0.546
0.078
0.069
0.014


1/21
2/20
3/19
4/18
5/17
6/16
7/15
8/14


12.434**
6.898**
5.710**
4.877**


.913*


3.097*


.310
.054


:- - - - - - -- ..


Oriented Behavior Scale


.~ - - - ------- -- ---- --
S
-~ -- -- -- -


F Value
to enter


Variable


Number of Vari-
ables Included


Positive Verbal


onal


Teacher-School


Adequacy


2.344
3>082


1/21
2/20
3/19


.564


.344


2.829


.888


- -. -I I -l -r -


Task


Interpers


= 11




29




TABLE 7


Means, Standard Deviations, and F Tests for Maternal Variables


Mental Scale


Low Group
Variable Mean S.D.


High Group
Mean S.D. F Value


Autonomy
Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance
Teacher-School
SRI
Positive Verbal
Negative Verbal
Attitude


.750
.083
.416
.166
.083
.499
.168
.509


.047
.098
.640
.433
.968
.276
.115
.309


.818
.090
.272
.636
.545
.827
.228
.691


.776
.591
.471
.874
.559
.084
.187
.140


0.170
0.113
0.003
1.220
0.155
12.248**
0.871
3.172


Motor Scale


Low Group


High Group


Variable


Mean


S.D.


Mean


S.D.


F Value


Autonomy
Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance
Teacher-School
SRI


Positive Verbal
Negative Verbal
Attitude


.416
.833
.083
.000
.583
.505
.139
.480


.869
.349
.737
.728
.745
.01
.121
.289


.181
.272
.636
.636
.090
.820
.260
.723


.010
.005
.046
.357
.138
.343**
.048
.509*


Task


Oriented Behavior Scale


Low Group High Group
Variable Mean S.D. Mean S.D.


F Value


Autonomy
Interpersonal Adequ
Physical Appearance
Teacher-School
SRI
Positive Verbal


acy


.916
.333
.416
.666
.916
.577


.680
.120
.052
.386
.712
.259


.727
.090
.363
.909
.727
.741


.100
.4056
.087
.806
.797
.252


.123
.840
.590
.344
.019
.344


MALES


-- .....w


__










males and low males at the


.01 level.


For the


Motor


scale,


Mother


Attitude also showed a significant difference at the


following trends were observed between the groups.


.05 level.


For all three


scales,


the high-scoring males had higher


Interpersonal Adequacy scores,


higher


Negative


Verbal


scores,


and Higher Attitude


scores.


The Mental


and Motor


scales


showed lower Autonomy


scores


for the high-scoring


group,


while


the Task Oriented Behavior scale


showed


higher Autonomy


scores.


The Motor and Task Oriented Behavior


scales


showed higher


Physical


Appearance


while the Mental


scores


scale


and lower Teacher-School Attitude


showed lower Physical


Appearance


scores,


scores


higher


Teacher-School Attitude


scores.


The Mental and Task Oriented


Behavior


scales showed more internal Social


Reaction


Inventory


scores


for the high Bayley


scorers,


while


the high-scoring Motor group showed


more external


scores.


Question Four asked:


Do high-scoring males and high-scoring


females differ in their patterns


of maternal


variable


scores?


Table


summarizes


the discriminant


function analysis data.


For the Mental


scale,


Positive


Verbal Interaction,


Interpersonal


Adequacy,


Te'acher-School Attitude, Mother Attitude, Autonomny, Physical


Appearance,


Negative


Verbal Interaction,


Social


Reaction Inventory


scores


(all the


factors


in that order)


provide discrininati on between


the two groups at the


.01 level


of significance.


For the Motor scale,


Positive


Verbal _


Sit? rt i- .4 -
Li.Lsti acl.-LCfl3


inte rpers onal


Adequacy,
A* h-


Physical Appearance,


' .. s" 1 _. -- ..- .- J-


A A 4 *4 ~


I


r>l . 71


*


1A









TABLE


Stepwise Discrininant Function Analysis Summarv for Maternal
Variable Scores and Bayley Scales of Infant Development


High-Scoring:


= 19


Female


Male


= 11


Mental


Scale


F Value
to enter


Variable


Number of Vari-
ables Included df


Positive


Inte
Teac


Verbal
onal Adequacy
school


1/17
2/16
3/15


Attitude
Autonomy
Physical
Negative
SRI


Appearance
Verbal


Motor


Scale


F Value Number of Vari-
Variable to enter ables Included df F


Positive
Interper
Physical
Attitude
Negative
Autonomy
SRI
Teacher-


Verbal
sonal Adequacy
Appearance


Verbal


School


- --- -


Task Orien

F Value


Variable


to enter


ted Behavior Scale


Number
ables


of Vari-
Included


Interpersonal Adequacy
Positive Verbal


Attitude


A - L - I 7 I


L ----- t










Behavior scale shows the following combination of


factors discriminate


at the


.01 level:


Interpersonal Adequacy, Positive Verbal Interaction,


Mother Attitude, Autonomy, Physical


and Teacher-School Attitude.


Appearance


Negative


Social Reaction Inventory,


Verbal Interaction added to the


list continues to discriminate at the


.05 level.


Table 9 shows significant differences between high-scoring males

and high-scoring females for Positive Verbal Interaction, at the .01


level for the Mental and Motor


scales


and Mother Attitude at the


level for the Motor scale.


The Task Oriented Behavior scale shows a


significant difference between the two groups


for the Interpersonal


Adequacy factor at the


.05 level.


following trends


are


indicated


in Table 9 for all three scales for the high-scoring males:


Higher


Autonomy,


higher


Interpersonal Adequacy,


higher Physical Appearance,


higher Teacher-School Attitude


more internal Social Reaction Inventory,


higher Positive


Verbal Interaction,


higher


Negative


Verbal Interaction,


and higher Mother Attitude.

Question Five concerned itself with the low-scoring groups.


asked:


Do low


-scoring


males and low-scoring females differ in their


patterns of maternal


variable scores?


Table 10


summarizes


the discriminant


function analysis for the


Mental and Task Oriented Behavior


scales.


For the Mental scale, Physi-


cal Appearance,

Mother Attitude,


Interpersonal Adeouacy,


Autonomy,n


Positive


Verbal Interaction,


Teacher-School Attitude, and Negative


Verbal


- -





- I


C 1





33



TABLE 9


Means, Standard Deviations, and F Tests for


Maternal


Variables


HIGH-SCORING GROUP


Mental Scale


^^Wl?-er^M^^^ l:^=^^ H^- Wi^ T ___ -. -__.-__-_ 1_^_i^^-_ - - ..-. - &- -*


Females


Males


Variable


Mean


S.D.


Mean


S.D.


F Value


Autonomy


Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance
Teacher-School


Positive Verbal
Negative Verbal
Attitude


22.500
52.375
27.250
20.625
11.500
0.598
0.154
0.604


3.380
18.007
4.773
4.657
4.070
0.180
0.092
0.165


23.818
65.090
29.272
24.363
9.545


.827


0.228
0.691


.775


15.591
7.471
6.874
3.559
0.084
0.187
0.140


0.330


.708


0.448


.029


1.239
13.836*


1.039
1.539


S- p.- ---- - --I i


Motor


Scale


- - -
- - - -
- -~--~-- -~ - - - - -


Females


Males


Variable


Mean


S.D.


Mean


S.D.


F Value


Autonomy
Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance
Teacher-School


Positive Verbal
Negative Verbal


Attitude


21.000
58.250
27.750
20.125
12.000
0.542
1.132
0.541


4.869
15.489
4.590
6.128


.672


0.192
0.763
0.207


24.181
64.272
29.636
22.636
10.090
0.820
0.260
0.723


4.895
16.149


.392
.585
.753


0.101
0.165
0.134


1.965
0.666
0.403
1.268
1.503
16.912
4.084


.438*


Task Oriented Behavior


Scale


Females


Males


Variable


Mean


S.D.


Mean


S.D.


F Value


Autonomy


Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance
Teacher-School


Positive Verbal


20.750
55.500
27.250
18.750
12.125
0.558


4.682
14.628
4.773
5.574


.748


0.197


24.727
68.090
30.363
21.909
9.727
0.741


5.100
10.406
6.087


.806


3.797


.252


3.010
4.836*
1.440


.168
.297
.917





34



TABLE 10


Stepwise Discriminant Function Analysis Sura-nar- for Maternal
Variable Scores and Bayle Scales of Infant Develooment


Low-Scoring:


= 20


Females


Males


= 12


Mental Scale


F Value
to enter


Variable


Number of Vari-
ables Included df F


Physical Appearance
Interpersonal Adequacy
Positive Verbal
Attitude


Autonomy
Teacher-School
Negative Verbal
SRI


.292
.661
.703
.236
.752
.663
.507
.112


1/18
2/17
3/16
4/15
5/14
6/13
7/12
8/11


.292
.674*
.596*
.720*
.316*
.620*
.058*
.457


Notor Scale


F


Variable


Value


to enter


Number of Vari-
ables Included


Positive Verbal
Physical Appearance
Teacher-School
Attitude
Negative Verbal
SRI
Interpersonal Adequacy
Autonomy


4.687
1.953
1.225
1.716
0.985
1.236
0.596
0.120


.687*
.444
.735
/372
.252
.115
.842
.308


Task


Oriented Behavior Scale


F Value
to enter


Variable


Number of Vari-
ables Included


Positive Verbal
Attitude
Teacher-School


1.983
1.719
1.159


I




35




Table 11 shows the significant differences between low-scoring


females and low-scoring males for each variable.


Only the Motor scale


contained any variables which differed significantly between the two


groups.


Physical Appearance and Positive Verbal Interaction differed


at the


.05 level of significance.


The following trends


were


indicated


for the low-scoring males on all three Bayley


scales:


higher Autonomy,


higher


Interpersonal Adequacy, higher Physical Appearance, higher


Teacher-School Attitude, more internal Social Reaction Inventory.


Mental and Task Oriented Behavior Scales showed low males with higher


Negative Verbal Interaction scores,


but the Motor scale showed them


with lower Negative


Verbal Interaction


scores.


The Motor and Task


Oriented Behavior scales showed males higher on Mother Attitude, and


the Mental scale showed males


In summary,


lower on Mother Attitude.


the results indicate that mother variable scores


discriminate better for the males than for the females.


Higher "How


See Myself"


scores


and more internal Social Reaction Inventory orien-


station


(self-report


scores


of maternal


variables)


discriminated between


high and low males, and between high males and females.

tude was higher for all the high performance groups. H


Mother Atti-


higherr Positive


and Negative


Verbal Interaction


(more verbal interaction of both kinds)


discriminated between males and females, both high-scoring and low-

scoring.


Question Six asked:


What relationships exist between the maternal


a~ '~ -) a -. -


I




36




TABLE 11

Means, Standard Deviations, and F Tests for Maternal Variables


LOW-SCORING GROUP


Mental Scale


Females


Males


Variable


Mean


S.D.


Mean


S.D.


F Value


Autonomy
Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance
Teacher-School
SRI


Positive Verbal
Negative Verbal
Attitude


.875
.250
.375
.750
.000
.682
.167
.517


.486
.881
.622
.548
.505
.206
.121
.232


.750
.083
.416
.166
.083
.499
.168
.509


.049
.098
.640
.433
.968
.276
.115
.309


.695
.115
.292
.502
.554
.536
.006
.003


Motor Scale


Females
Mean S.D.


Variable


Males


Mean


S.D.


F Value


Autonomy
Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance
Teacher-School
SRI


Positive Verbal
Negative Verbal
Attitude


.375
.375
.875
.250
.500
.738
.189
.579


.199
.908
.492
.770
.276
.142
.124
.205


.416
.833
.083
.000
.583
.505
.139
.481


.869
.349
.737
.728
.745
.279
.121
.289


.227
.911
.611*
.093
.480
.687*
.806
.708


Task


Oriented


Behavior Scale


Females


Males


Variable


Mean


S.D.


Mean


S.D.


F Value


Autonomy
Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance
Teacher-School
SRI


Positive Verbal
'\-ir'rn 1-4^ 'na l\7c- riT ni


.625
.125
.375
.625
.375
.722


.263
.774
.622
.583
.103
.157
190


.916
.333
.416
.666
.916
.577
-'QQ


.680
.120
.052
.386
.712
.259


.018
.091
.615
.668
.033
.983
flot









The Mental scale for the total group


shows


a multiple correlation


using Mother Attitude and


Negative


Verbal Interaction to be significant


at the


.05 level.


For the Motor scale, Positive Verbal Interaction,


Interpersonal Adequacy and Social Reaction Inventory had a multiple R


significant at the


significant at the


.01 level,


.01 level.


and the increase for each step


Continued significance at the


was


also


.05 level


with significant increase for each step at the


.05 level


was


found,


using


the Autonomy, Mother Attitude, and Negative


Verbal Interaction variables.


For the Task Oriented Behavior scale, none of the multiple R's were


significant.


It appears from this data that maternal


variables can pre-


diet child


performance


for the Mental and Motor scales.


For both these


scales,


the first variable entered and the one contributing most to the


strength of prediction


was


a Verbal Interaction score.


It is interesting


to note,


however,


that


for the Mental scale,


this


was


Negative


Verbal


Interaction,


while for the Motor scale,


this


was


Positive


Verbal Inter-


action.


Table 13 is a correlation matrix showing the relationship of


each


for the


variable


to each other variable used in the regression analysis


total group.


Negative Verbal Interaction correlated with


Teacher-School Attitude significantly


at the


.05 level and with Positive


Verbal Interaction at the


.01 level.


Mother Attitude correlated with


Positive


Verbal Interaction at the


.01 level and with


Negative


Ve rb al


Interaction at the


.01 level.


Both the Mental and the Motor scales


correlated significantly with Positive


Verb tf


t- & U A*


Interaction and with


to J





38




TABLE 12


Stepvise


Regression Summary for IMaternal Variable Scores and


Bailey Scales of Infant Development


TOTAL GROUP


= 39


VMental Scale


Variable Entered


Multiple R


Attitude
Negative
Positive


0.341*


Verbal
Verbal


Physical Appearance
SRI


Teacher-School


Autonomy


0.373* b


0.391
0.395
0.397
0.398
0.399


Motor Scale


Variable Entered


Multiple R


Positive Verbal


Interpersonal Adequacy


Autonomy
Attitude
Negative


0.409** b
0.499** b
0.531** b


0.546*


.558*
.53*


Verbal


Physical Appearance


0.565*
0.566


Teacher-S school


Task Oriented Behavior Scale


Variable Entered


Multiple R


Teacher-School


Positive


0.228
0.279


Verbal


.319


Physical Appearance


Autonomy
Attitude
Negative


0.328


.332


0.333


Verbal


0.334















0


0


0


0 0


00


i










correlations occur between both


the Verbal Interaction


scores,


Mother


Attitude, and the Mental and Motor

For the total female group,


scales

Table


of the Bayley.


the Mental scale, shows a


multiple R significant at the


.05 level with Mother Attitude, Positive


Verbal Interaction,


Interpersonal Adequacy,


Physical Appearance,


Negative


Verbal Interaction.


increases


provided by steps three,


four,


and five


were


significant at the


.05 level.


For the Motor scale,


the multiple R


was significant at


the .05 level,


using the following


variables:


Positive


Verbal Interaction, iMother Attitude, Physical


Appearance,


Negative


Verbal


Interaction.


Increases


at steps


three


and four


were


significant


at the


.05 level.


The Task Oriented Behavior


scale showed significance at


.01 level in step six with the following


variables:


Positive


Verbal Interaction, Mother Attitude,


Teacher-School


Attitude, Autonomy, Physical


Appearance,


and Interpersonal Adequacy.


Increase at


this step


significant at the


.05 level.


For all three


Bayley scales,


the two major contributors


to the multiple prediction


equation were Mother Attitude and Positive


Verbal Interaction.


The correlation


matrix,


Table 15, shows the only significant


intercorrelations


for females


were


between the Mental and Motor scales,


c .05),


and the Task Oriented Behavior and Motor scales


<.05).


There


were


no significant correlations between the maternal variables


for the females.


The regression


sumrmarv


for males


(Table 16)


shows a multiple





41



TABLE 14


Stepwise Regression Sunmmary for


Maternal


Variable


Scores


Bayley Scales of Infant Development


FEMALES


= 16


Mental Scale


Variable Entered


Multiple R


Attitude
Positive


Verbal


Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance


Negative
SRI


Verbal


0.458
0.603
0.754*
0.810*
0.831*
0.835
0.839
0.842


Teacher-School


Autonomy


Motor Scale


Variable


Entered


Multiple R


Positive
Attitude


Verbal


Physical Appearance
Negative Verbal
Interpersonal Adequacy


Autonomy


0.467
0.644*
0.743*
0.763*
0.771
0.774
0.776


Teacher-S school


.782


Task


Oriented


Behavior


Scale


Variable Entered 2ultirle


Positive
Attitude


Verbal


Teacher-School


Autonomy
Physical Appearance
Interpersonal Adequacy


0.367
0.570
0.668
0.774*
0.839*


0.891** a




















00


O O


.2
(0

CJO
>. 4J1 *H










steps


one through five with the following variables:


Positive Verbal


Interaction,


Interpersonal Adequacy, Physical Appearance, Autonomy, and


Mother Attitude.


The variable added at each step


was


significant at


.01 level.


The addition of Social Reaction Inventory and Teacher-


School Attitude produced a multiple R significant at the


.05 level,


each addition significant at the


.05 level.


The Task Oriented Behavior


scale showed multiple R's and significant addition of variables in


steps two,


three, and four.


The following variables


were


significant:


Positive Verbal Interaction, Iother Attitude, Autonomy,


and Social


Reaction Inventory.


It can be noticed that,


for all three Bayley


scales,


the first variable entered and the one contributing the major


portion of


the prediction


was


Positive Verbal Interaction.


The multiple correlation matrix,


Table 17,


shows


significant


intercorrelations for the following variables:


negative verbal inter-


action and teacher-school attitude


(p <- .05); mother attitude,


and both


positive and negative verbal interaction


(p < .01); Mental and Motor


scales and positive verbal interaction


(p < .05)


Motor scale and atti-


tude


< .05).


The Task Oriented Behavior, Mental,


and Motor scales


correlated with each other at the


.01 level.


Again, it can be noted


that there


were


significant intercorrelations of both Positive and


Negative


Verbal Interaction


scores


and Mother Attitude.


regression


technique reported


above


shows


significant rela-


tionships between maternal


variables,


and the possibility of using


-~I -. 4 - -








44



TABLE 16


Stepwise


Regression Summary
Bayley Scales


for Maternal


Variable


Scores


of Infant Development


MALES


= 23


Mental Scale


Variable Entered


>Multiple R


Positive


Verbal


0.515*
0.572*


Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance
Autonomy


Negative


0.701** b
0.742** b
0.819** b
0.829** b


Verb al


Teacher-School


0.838**
0.842**


Attitude


Motor


Scale


Variable Entered


MultiDle R


Positive


Verbal


Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance


0.662** b
0.731** b
0.749** b


Autonomy
Attitude


.758**


0.765** b


Teacher-School


Negative


Verbal


0.767*
0.770*
0.775


Task


Oriented Behavior Scale


arbl E e -
\ari &bie Entered___


Multiple R


Positive Verbal


.389


Attitude
Autonomy


0.519*
0.610*
0.629*
0.639


Teacher-School


incerpers


onal


Adequacy


.643


I__


- h

















'K



* *
00






* S
0 0
OM


Ln li
OO
*










relating to her child on more than a


single


dimension.


Life style is


a whole,


an orientation toward dealing with


the environment, and as


such, it is proper to view it


as a composite of variables.


The data for the El group were analyzed separately, including


the Estimate of Mother's Expectancy variable.


Upon analysis, it was


found that the number of variables related to the number of


cases


too small to yield


reliable results.


Estimate


of Mother's


Expectancy showed no significant increase in discriminant function


level in any of


cases.


The discriminant


function patterns were


essentially the


same


as those reported for


the total groupings.


There-


fore,


the analysis of


these data were not included.


was





47











CHAPTER


S ummna rv


Discuss


and Recormendations
^r^^--k-^-l-u.ia--hBh^- --klhfii-Utl"KtH~j4--- ^*^4*4HJ^t^H^P^^H^---|--^


S urnary


maj or


objective


of this


study


was


to investigate


the rela-


tionship


of maternal


variable


scores


of disadvantaged


Negro


mothers


intellectual


development


of two-year-old


Negro


infants


enrolled


stimulation


training


program.


The literature


implies


that


there


are differential


maternal


b ehavi


ment


ors


terms


of children


of the child's


differs


sex,


response


that


to maternal


te intellectual


behaviors


develop-


stimula-


tion


training.


-Sample for the study


samp


le of subjects


used


in this


study


were


39 Negro


infants


their


mothers


participated


in the


two-year


experimental


cognitive


training


program of


the Early


Child


Stimulation


through


Parent


Education


erir-ent


project


group


(Gordon,


1969).


group


born


Three


groups


between


ware


June,


used


1966,


as a composite


and January,


196?


groups
0T 4""?f


E2 and C3


, born


between


May,


1967


October,


1967.










Therefore,


the C3 group


was


considered equivalent to the other two for


the purposes of this


study.


Procedures


scores


on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Psycho-


motor Development Index, Mental Development Index, and Schaefer'


Task


Oriented Behavior


Index were used


as criterion variables.


The sample


rank-ordered and divided into the 50 per cent highest-scoring and
0r -


50 per cent


lowest-scoring groups,


stepwise discriminant


using each


function


for the total sample and by


analysis


of the three Bayley Scale


was


scores


sex.


conducted for each group,


as the criterion variable.


In addition,


the relationships between maternal


variable


scores


examined,


using


a stepwise


multiple


regressionn


analysis for the total


group


for total females,


and for total males.


The following variables


were


used as measurements to


assess


mother-child interactions and maternal attitudes toward self and envir-


onment.


See Myself Scale


(RISM)


is a modification, for mothers,


cf Gordon s


HISM


(1968),


originally developed for


children.


The scale


a 40-item.


five-noin


Au t on omy,


t, self-report scale,


Interpersonal Adequacy,


Attitudes toward Teacher-School.


consisting of the following

Physical Appearance, and


The Social Reaction Inventory


(SRI),


developed


Bilker


(1968)


as a modification of the Rotter


(1966)


Internal-Externai


Scale,


a self-report inventory designed to


assess


,k 1 V A. -, 2.. i


was


was


factors:


f-











toward the


training project.


Maternal


Verbal Positive Interaction-


Maternal Verbal


Negative


Interaction


(Maurelli, 1969)


yielded a


positive


and a negative verbal interaction score,


derived from


observed


frequen-


cies of growth producing and non-growth producing verbal behavior of

the mother.



Results


In answer to the first question


(Do the mothers of children with


high


scores


on the Bayley


Scales


of Infant Development show a different


pattern of maternal variable


scores


from children with low Bayley scores?)


the only significant discriminant pattern occurred on the Mental scale.

Mother Attitude and the Social Reaction Inventory discriminated signi-


ficantly between the two groups,


a higher Mother Attitude score and


For all three scales,


a more


the high group


external Social Reaction


Inventory


score,


even though on the Motor and Task Oriented scales they


did not provide discriminants.


Question Two asked:


Do the mothers of females with high scores


on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development show


a different pattern of


rmaternal

The Menta


variable

1 scale


scores


than mothers of females with low Bayley scores?


showed no significant relationships.


The only variable


which


disc riminar e


the Motor scale was Positive Verbal Interaction.


For the Task Oriented


Behavior


scale,


three of the How


Myself


factors

The hig


and Positive


h-scoring


Verbal Interaction discriminated significantly.


group showed trends on all three scales of higher










Question Three asked:


Do mothers of


males


rwith high


scores


the Bayley Scales show a different pattern of


than mothers of males with low scores?


maternal


Discriminant


variable


patterns


scores


were


found on the Mental and Motor scales,


Behavior scale.


Positive


but not on the Task Oriented


The first three variables entered on each scale were


Verbal Interaction, Mother Attitude, and Attitude toward


Teacher-School.


all three scales, high-scoring


males


had higher


maternal Interpersonal Adequacy


scores


, higher


Positive


and Negative


Verbal Interaction


scores,


and higher Mother Attitude scores.


In answer to Question Four


high-scoring


males


and high-


scoring females differ in their patterns of maternal


the data indicate that there is


variable scores?),


a discriminant pattern which differen-


tiates between the two groups


for all three


scales.


Positive Verbal


Interaction,


Interpersonal Adequacy, and Mother Attitude


were


maj or


discriminatory


for all three scales, although


the other variables


also contribute to the discrimination pattern.


Trends indicate higher


maternal


variable


scores


a more internal


Social


Reaction Inventory


score


for the males.


Question Five asked:


Do low-scoring males and low-scoring females


differ in their patterns of maternal


variable


scores?


The only scale


which showed


a number of discriminants


was


the Mental scale.


Only


Positive


Verbal Interaction discriminated for the Motor scale.


Low-


scoring


males


tended to have mothers who scored


higher


on all four of










The relationships between the maternal


variables


was


considered


in Question Six.


The Mental and Motor scales for the total group


predicted significantly,


using maternal


variable


scores.


Negative


Verbal Interaction and Mother Attitude were significant predictors for


the Mental scale,


while Positive


Verbal Interaction,


Interpersonal


Adequacy and Social Reaction Inventory scores


were


significant for the


Motor scale.


Positive and Negative


correlated with each other,


Verbal Interaction were positively


and Negative


Verbal Interaction correlated


positively with Teacher-School Attitude.


Positive


Verbal Interaction


and Mother Attitude correlated positively with


the Mental and Motor


scales.


It appears that,


for the total group,


the most important


variables positively related to the Bayley scales


were


Verbal Inter-


action


(Positive and Negative)


and Mother Attitude.


For the females, all three Bayley scales showed


a significant


prediction level,


using the maternal


variable scores.


Verbal Inter-


action, Positive and Negative, and Mother Attitude, were the most


important predictors for all three scales.


The only significant cor-


relations between the variables


three Bayley scales.


were


Although males


positive correlations between the

appear to be influenced more


strongly by maternal behaviors,


verbal interaction is


also


important


to the prediction of female performance.


The maternal


variables appeared to be more important


as predic-


tors for the males.


More of the variables were involved in the predic-











measures


ox the Ho~u


, See Mself


scale were next in level of contribution.


Significant intercorrelations


were


found between Positive and Negative


Verbal Interaction and Maternal Attitude.


Positive Verbal Interaction


correlated with both


the Mental and Motor


scales.


The close relation-


ship between


the verbal


measures


and the Bayley scales


is interesting,


because the


Bayley


not a highly verbal test.


Apparently, maternal


verbal


interaction with her child provides additional stimulus for


intellectual development.




Discussion


Trends in the total


group


toward higher Positive and


Negative


Verbal Interaction


scores


reflect trends in the other high


groups


well


as in the male


groups.


High Mother Attitude


scores


are also


closely


associated with


the high


groups


and with Positive and Negative


Verbal Interaction.


Mothers with higher Mother Attitude


scores


spend more


t ime


on the training tasks with


their children.


Mothers


with


higher


Mother Attitude


scores,


may,


in addition,


spend


more time


wirth


their children overall, and this


result in increased levels of


simulation for the child.


female es


did not show the


same


type
.A.C


of Patterns


as the males.


Fewer


ma teria 1


variable


scores


showed any relationship to group discrim-


irstion


or prediction of Bayley


scores.


In fact,


trends indicated
A


low e r


vari able


scores


for the


hib -scoring


group.


This


gives


TTatr n l





53



appear to benefit more from experimental training than the boys, and


that bo


ys appear to be more affected by maternal variables.


Girls


showed little relationship between


their performance and maternal vari-


ables.


Behaviors of the mother toward her child, especially a more


favorable maternal attitude toward herself,


tual development in males,


relate to higher intellec-


whereas they do not appear to relate in any


consistent way to the development of females.


This supports the Kagan


and Moss


(1962.)


findings of maternal treatment for boys


as the best


predictor of child and adult intellectual achievement, but not for

females.

Why does maternal behavior affect boys and girls differently?


It has been hypothesized by Bayley


(1965)


that there are some genetic


differences which probably determine the differential responses of


boys and girls.


It appears to the author that


some


of the differing


responses and behaviors in the current sample may be explained in the


light of the nature of the sample.

emphasize the value of the male.


Black cultural values do not

They underemphasize his preparation


to take an


active


part in society.


Most of the cultural emphasis


revolves around the female,


as it is the woman who bears


the primary


responsibility for child rearing and for providing stability for the


family.


It might,


therefore, seem that there is a consistent emphasis


on achievement for girls but not for boys.


Therefore,


a mother might










there is more external stimulation


for females,


and less for males.


If this


is true,


then the stimulation provided by the mother for her


male children assumes


females.


greater importance for males


The scarcity of male models


than it does for


for boys also makes it likely


that stimulation and attention from the mother will assume more impor-


tance for the male, since there are generally a greater number of

female models available for the girls.


The results indicate that maternal


variables can predict perfor-


mance for all groups, but that prediction is improved by splitting the


groups by


sex.


When that is done,


the maternal


variables predict more


accurately


for the males.


This emphasizes


the importance of maternal


treatment of males.


Kales seem to be


more


susceptible to how the


mother behaves,


and maternal behavior appears,


in some


way,


to affect


their intellectual performance.

If maternal treatment of males has an effect on the development


of their intellectual behavior,


then what implications does this have


for the development of infant training pro

the evidence thus far accumulated from inf


grams?


It would seem from


training programs


that


intellectual stimulation training has the most effect on girls and


that emp


on this training for females should be continued.


How-


ever


, males do not equally benefit


from training,


and,


therefore, it


wouid


seem


to develop


a different type of program for males.


Since mtere


is such


an important relationship between male intellectual


S si...










The most interrelated variables were mainly the


Verbal Inter-


action measures,


although there


the }Mental and Motor


was


some


scales, and Mother Attitude,


interrelationship of Positive and Negative


Verbal Interaction to the How


School Attitude.


See Myself factors,


especially Teacher-


verbal nature of the school situation


bear


some weight in the high relationship of verbal measures to the Teacher-

School Attitude factor.


Soar (19T0)


found that among teachers there


was


little relation-


ship between positive and negative verbal behavior.


However,


this was


not the


case


with students.


Children who


were


high on positive verbal


interactions were also high on negative verbal interactions.


children whose verbal output


That is,


was high displayed more verbal interaction


of both kinds


than children


whose


verbal interactions


were


low.


It is


interesting to note that


the mothers in this study resemble more closely


the children in the


Soar


study than the


teachers.


Mothers appear to be


hi-gh


on both Positive and Negative


relations between the


Verbal Interaction.


Verbal Interaction measures


were


High intercor-

found for all


groups.


Mother Attitude also


seems


to be closely related to level of


verbal interaction.


Both Positive and Negative Verbal Interaction


were


highly correlated with Maternal Attitude toward training.


may be due tc the nature of the attitude scoring which


uses


This


many verbal


responses


in scoring.


The high jntercorrelaticns between Positive


Negative Verbal










of the division of Verbal Interaction measures.


The determination of


Positive and Negative


is a value


judgment.


Perhaps the effects of


both


types


of interactions have a growth-producing effect on children


in this kind of population.


types


of behaviors which


we determine


as Negative


represent a middle-class


judgment.


Some


types of inter-


actions

are not.


thought to

Therefore


be harmful by middle-class psychologists


it seems


obviously


a logical step to discard the labels


Positive and


Negative,


and to


merge


the two


categories


into one.


Further investigation would then be needed to


the merit of this


action.


The potency


of the maternal


measures


and their relationship to


child performance,


especially for the males,


demonstrates the potency


of the multiple


analysis


technique.


These


were


measures


collected by


paraprofessional parent educators,


.many


of them based on merely obser-


nations in the


Several of


home


recorded by the parent educators on a random basis.


measures


were self-report measures administered during


a visit of the parent educator or when the child


Vwas


brought


to the


center for testing.


Nevertheless,


they show


significant


contribution


to prediction of


Bayley


scores


and to discrimination between high-


scoring and low-scoring males and females.


Obviously adult patterns


of behavior


of their

can any


the moth.-'s life style, influence the


children. N

one attribute


others


' life style


characterize


achievement


patterns


is not a single attribute, nor


her relationships.


Therefore,


4. ,., w-' -'- ,-^ *. 4- A r> rnC


r-hrs-n^ nrhc0r


c f nrt-^n rvr


m i intinlicitv of


ml~rrr


' ^,


!,










Recommendations


As interaction


patterns


are studied,


they


lead


an ever-widening


field


of possibilities


to be explored.


results


of this


research


have


raised


additional


questions,


the following


recommendations


proposed:


kinds


of verbalizations


between


mother


and child


need


to be examined


in more


detail.


Perhaps


specific


kinds


of maternal


verbalizations


account


for the enhancement


of performance


that


been


demonstrated.


Using


additional


observation


techniques,


such


as video


tapes,


non-verbal


communication


of investigation.


between


We do


now


mother


kn ow


and child


much


a fruitful


of the mother's


area


cojmmuni-


cation


with


child


is of


a non-verbal


variety


or its effects


on the


child's


development.


Further


relationship


research


of maternal


should


discipline


be carried


out to investigate


maternal


Myself


Social


Reaction


Inventory


variable


scores.


That


do mothers


use strict


discipline


view


themselves,


conmared


with


mothers


using


less


rigid


methods


of disciplining


their


children?


Further


research


needs


to be undertaken


to understand


more


fully


the differing


maternal


behavior


of mothers


toward


males


males.


neasureinen t


of maternal


variables


has been


done


mainly


are


__










weakens


the strength of


the findings.


Therefore,


we need


to do further


research on


ways


of refining the measurement of maternal behaviors.


Maternal


variable


scores


reflect the life style of


mother.

ment.


They


represent her techniques for dealing with her environ-


We need to investigate how these maternal


variables relate to


the mother


as a teacher.


The mother is the first


teacher


of her child,


and infant stimulation programs stress


the use of the mother in teaching


her child.


Perhaps it is in improving the mother


s view


of herself


and her teaching techniques that we will find an effective method of

early child teaching and stimulation.


































APPENDICES



































APPENDIX A















See Myself


Scale"


would


are bein


asked


are trying
vide a bett


like


explain


to answer


to get
er life


these


information
for your c


this


ques


scale
lions.


that we hop
hild.


tell


This


will


a pa


rt of


eventually


why you
a study.
help us


Let ne emrph


size


that


this


is not a test


to see how


know
you.


or do


They


are no ri


think


about


not know


about


are to learn


or wrong
ourself.


some


how you


answers


thin


see y


These


course


are onl


questions


most


interest


are all


the time.


what


about
There
you


am going


be fore


write


to ask


thin


to think


want


Vou


about


your


self for


to think


you


little


are mos


while
t of


time


think


.. .not


ought


to be


S.. not


your


husband


or friends


,;ant


to be.


-- thi


to be


course


If feel


are most


time.


me f


anyone
answers


irst


other than


promise


neop


and the


ones


ou that
making


these


papers


this study.


are doin


will


not


one will k


this study.


seen
new


by
your


are asking


to put


your


namile s


on the


papers


so that


we can


check them


on any


other sc


ales


we might


gave


in the


future.


-- lets


look


at the


papers.


Look
the other s


at No.


ide


On the


et wad


side


easil


it has


and expl


"Nothing
ode." If


me mad"


feel


that


nothi


ng gets
*o o---


too mad


most


time


would circle


, you


feel


that


most


the time


t mad


easily


and explode,


would


circle


feel


are somewh


ere


in b


between,


would ci rcle


the 2


or 4.


It is


different.


one side


it has


don't


With
don't
feel


circle the
one thin


something


with


that


most


or 4.


on the left


till
thin


finish.


" If


and finish


time


It is


side


vou


them,
stayv


important


some


them


you
with


that


would


thin


see that


mean


most


circle


some


another.


the time


a 1.


finis
these


it i


if
., you
mean
impor-


tant
ques


to think


about


each


answer


statement


so feel


as I


read


will


free


"How


Imuc















HOW I


MYSELF


SCALE


Nothing


gets


me too mad


I get mad easily and explode


I don't stay with things


finish


them


stay


with something till I


finish


very


good


at drawing


345


I'm not much good in drawing-


don't like to work


3 4 5


I like to


work


with others


with others


wish


were


smaller


345


I'm just the right height


(taller)


worry


a lot


don't worry much


wish


could do


sorme-


345


hair


is nice-looking


tning witnh


my hair


People


like me


People


don't like me


I've


lots of


energy


haven't much


energy


I am ignored at parties


am a hit


at parties


I'm just the right weight


wi sh I


:ere


heavier


(lighter)


don't like me


\oQein like


me a lot


ve ry


good


at speaking 1


not much


good


at speaking


before


a group


before


a group


face


is pretty


(good


;wish


were


prettier (good


looking)


looking)


very gcod


i.n music


345


I'm not


much


good in music


et alon g
,e_^ sJ*^L^


well


with


I dcn't


along with teachers


teachers


I don't


like


teachers


345


I like


teachers very much


1 o.n


i-















have


ling


trouble
feeling


did well


control-


in school


can handle


didn't


my feelings


do well


in school


work


want


men


to like


don't


want


men


to like


don't


like


like


look


look


don't


want


other women


want


other women


to like


to like


n very


healthy


sick


a lot


don't


dance


well


m a very


good


dancer


write


like t

use my


well


o wo rk

time


don't


alone


don't


well


don't


write well


like

know


to work


alone


to plan


time


TI not much


things


good


with


with


very gooa
my hands


at making


things


hands


wish


could


some-


skin


is nice-looking


thin


ab out


my skin


Housework isn


inter-


Housework


very


interesting


estin


don't


my housework


a good


at housework


well


cs smarr


as the


smarter


than


most


of the


others


others


like


me a lot


don't


like


S*. *1


mraki


-1


J


.II


l
















don't


read


well


read


very


well


don't


learn


new


things


learn


new


things


easily


easily














School


Grade


Completed


Number


of Children


Trainer


SOCIAL


REACTION


INVENTORY


Instructions


This


a questionnaire


to find


out the


in which


certain


events


our society


affect


different


people.


Each


question


choices,


called


or b.


Please


choose


one of each


pair


(and only


one)


which


more


strongly


believe


to be the


case


as far


as you


concerned.


sure


select


one you


actually


believe


to be


more


true


rather


than


one


think


should


choose


or the


would


like


to be


true.


This


a measure


of personal


belief


obviously


there


are no right


or wrong


answers.


each


question,


after


read


both


remarks


you,


a circle


around


believe


remark


more


strongly;


a circle


around


believe


remark


more


strongly.


After


each


question


tell


me when


you


have


made.


your


choice.


Then


will


read


next


one.


Feel


free


me to read


ary question


over


again.


sure


to print


your


name


other


information


asked


at the


of the


page.


Please


do this


now.


someC


instances


mrav


discover


that


you


believe


both


remarks


1


Name


Usual


are


one


I


. . -" ^ .f ..


r t


f


I













be influenced


your


previous


choices.


REMEMBER,


in each


case,


choose


the remark


which


personally


believe


to be


more true.













I More Strongly


Believe That:


Children
too much.


The trouble


into


with


trouble


most


because


children


their


today


parents


is that


punish


their


them


parents


are


easy


with


them.


Many


of the unhappy
luck.


things


in people's


lives


are partly


People' s


One of
don't


troubles


the biggest


take


enough


result


from


reasons
interest


the mistakes


we have


wars


they


make.


is because


people


government.


There


will


always


wars,


no matter


hard


people


prevent


them.


In the long
world.


run people


respect


they


deserve


in this


It is


without


The idea


the sad


being


that


truth


that


recognized


teachers


an individual


no matter


are unfair


s worth


hard


to students


often
tries


is "hot


passes


air.


Most students


don't


realize


much


their


grades


are influenced


accident


or chance.


Without


the right


breaks,


one


cannot


be a good


and able


leader.


Able


people


fail


to become


leaders


have


taken


advantage


of their


oppor


tunities.


matter


hard


try,


some


people


just


don't


like


you,


People


can't


others


to like


them


t understand


et alon


with others.


a pe


rson


born


with


plays


the biggest


part


in determining


wh at th


re like.


is one0s experiences


in life


whi i ch


determine


what


they're


like.


-


h at













In the


case


such a thing


of the well prepared student there is hardly ever
as an unfair test.


Many
work,


times


test questions tend to


that studying


is really a
aI


so different from class


waste


of time.


Becoming


a success


a matter of hard work; luck has


little


or nothing to do with it.


Getting


a good job depends mainly on being in the right place


at the right time.


average


citizen can have


an influence in government plans.


This world


is run by the


few people in power,


and there is not


much the little guy


can do about it.


When I


make


plans,


I am almost certain that I can


make


them


work


It is not always
things turn out


wise


to be


to plan too far ahead because many
a matter of good or bad luck anyhow.


nThere are certain people who


are just no good.


There is


some


good in everybody.


In my


case,


getting what


I want has little or nothing to do


with luck.


Many


times


we might


just


as well decide what to do by tossing


a coin.


gets


to be


the boss


often depends on who


was


lucky enough


to be in the right olace first.


Getting people


to do the right thing depends upon being able;


luck


has little or nothing


to do with it.


As far as world


affairs


are concerned,


most


of us


are pushed


around by


taking


forces we

an active


can neither


nart


une rs


.n government


tand nor control.

and social affairs the


people


can control


wcrld


events.




69






One should always be willing to admit his mistakes.

It is usually best to cover up one's mistakes.


It is hard to know whether or not a person really


likes you.


How many friends you have depends upon how nice a person you
are.

In the long run the bad things that happen to us are made up
for by the good ones.


Most troubles are the result of lack of know-how,


lack of


knowledge,


being lazy,


or all three.


With enough effort


we can clean up dirty government.


It is difficult for people to have much control over the
things government leaders do in office.


Sometimes


I can't understand how teachers arrive at the


grades they give.

The harder I study the better grades I get.


good leader


expects people to decide for themselves what


they should do.

A good leader makes it clear to everybody what their jobs
are.


Many


times I


feel that I have little influence over the


things that happen to me.

It i impossible for me to believe that chance or luck plays


an important part in my


life.


People are lonely


because


they don't try to be friendly.


There's not much use in trying too hard to please people


if they


There


like you,

too Wuchi


tney


like you.


e'nphasis


on athletics in high school.


_ _












Most


of the time I


can't understand why politicians behave


they do.


In the long run the people


are responsible for bad government


on a national


as well


as a local level.




71








Index of Attitude Toward Parent Educators Project


Attitude Index


= (Positive Tally


(5.0


x No.


- Negative Tally)
of Visits)


There are 5 possible


tallies either positive or negative on the PEWR.


A totally positive another would score 5 positive tallies on every visit


with


a resulting 0 ne


gative


tally.


The calculated index for a totally


positive mother would be +1.00.


On the other hand,


a totally negative


mother would score 5 negative


tallies, with resulting 0 positive


tallies


-- thus her index would be -1.00.


The resulting range of the


index is:


-1.00


attitude index


+1.00


Computation of Tallies:


If item 3A is scored 1


-- tally


1 positive


Otherwise


If item


3A is scored 3


-- tally


1 negative


Otherwise
If item 3A is scored 2 and item 3B is scored 1 or 2


-- tally


1 positive


Otherwise


If item


3A is


scored


with item 3B scored


but item 3F is scored


1 and item


3G is


scored 6


-- tally


1 positive


Otherwise


-- tally


1 negative


Tiis will result in 1 and only


tally


-- either


positive or












If item 3D is scored


-- tally


1 positive


Otherwise


If item 3D

If item 3E


is scored 1 --

is scored 1 or


tally

3 --


t


1 negative

ally 1 positive


Otherwise


If item 3E is scored 2


-- tally


1 negative


If item 7C


is scored 1


-- tally


1 positive


Otherwi


se
If item 7C is scored 3 or more


-- tally


1 negative


Otherwise


If item 7C


If item


is scored


7C is scored


and item 7D


and item 7E


is scored


is scored 3


-- tally


1 positive


Otherwise


-- tally


1 negative













WEEKLY REPORT


Observer


- Parent Educator Hone Visit


Date of Last Visit


Mother


Mother's Number


Date


Time in Minutes


Visit Number


Was this a TEST visit?


yes,


which one?


6 month
12 month


18 month
24 month


CODE:


M (mother)
F (father)


(sibling
and/or


-- brother


sister)


A (aunt)
BS (baby sitter)
0 (other)


Nobody


GM (grandmother)


People in the home:


With whom did you work?


Is this


Other


the person you usually work with in this home?


Is this the person who


cares


for the baby most of the


time?


How many adults were present at least pert of the


room in which you worked
worked)?


time in the


(besides the person with whom you


How many children were present at least


part of


the time in


the room in which you worked


(besi


the baby)?


General Information:


IT -- -


^


41- "* --I J-


*


* 1.


- ~ ~ ,, _- - .^,. - -^^ i '


.k












Other activities


in the room often pulled the baby


attention


away


from the training


There


was


such a great deal of activity in the room


that it made it difficult to present the


exercises


Series Information:

A) How did the mothering one react to your instructions?


Looked at you while


were


talking, and/or asked


questions
Did other things while you


exercise
clothes,


examples


were


of other thin


looked around the room,


showing how to do the
gs: straightened baby's
did housework)


Walked out of the room while you


were


explaining things


to her


Refused to do an


Laughed at


and/or


exercise
scoffed


at instructions


Other


What?


Mothering one


s ability to


repe


at exercises


Could repeat


exercises


the trainer had explained to


Could do part of the


exercise


by herself but needed


trainer


s help


Couldn't repeat


exercises


the trainer had explained to


Ihn at


was


the child's


response


Did not look at or any


to objects used?
v indicate interest in


objects
Glanced at and held objects briefly but did not explore
them


Played with materials when presented,


but lost interest


in them


after


a brief


reaction


Kept up interest in


Didn't want to


give


each item presented
up materials ___


When the


mothering one


goes


over


last


week


s exercises


with


child
Doesn
Knows


she:


't know what she


wnat


s doing


she's doing


When the mothering one


goes


over last week'


exercises with


her child she:


Tri esr


them


on the child


.more


than once if it doesn't












How many interruptions were
the mothering one stop the


there during training that made


exercise


for a time?


None


More


What kinds of interruptions


Mothering one had to


were


care


there?


for another child


An adult wanted something
The phone rang
Visitors came _____
The baby had to be fed
The baby went to sleep
Other _______
None


What other types of activities


e re


presented by the trainer


to the


mothering one?


Songs
Nursery Rhymes
Toy Making _


Rhythm Games


. Other


what?


None


Check if you observed:
1. Homemade toys around the house
2. Mobiles hanging by baby's bed


Mothering one using songs or
Other


None


of the above


games


you showed her


Baby


s Health and Development:


Did the mothering one
1. She said the baby
2. She said the baby


say the baby
was sick
was not sick


was


She did not


whether the baby


was sick or not


If the mothering one said the baby


was


sick,


explain:


Did you think the baby


was


sick?


Explain if you have a different idea than the motherin


one:


sick?











Crawls


(creeps on hands and knees)


Walks alone


Climbs


on low chair


Runs or jumps


Climbs


to a stand on chair


None of the above


How many clear words does


the baby use?


Makes


sounds


but no clear words


Babbles,


but no clear words


1 word


2 or 3 words
4 or 5 words
6 to 9 words


10 to 34 words


to 20 words


More


than 20 words


Social Information:


When


the mothering one is in the room the child:
Watches her


Tries
Goes


to get to her
on as if mothering one wasn't in the room


Tries to get her attention
Other


When the mothering


one comes


near the


child he:


Frowns


Smiles


Watches her


Laughs
Cries _____
9. Other


Vocalizes
Reaches fc


Ignores her
What?


Verbal Information:
A) To what extent do people talk to the baby?
1. No one talks to the baby


The one working with


the baby talks to the baby about


things with whi
The one working
things besides


ch they are working
with uhe baby talks


those with which


they


to the baby


about


are working


People other than the one working with
baby


the b


talk to


ho talks to baby most


:GM : A


:Other:Nobody:


of the


tLxe


(more than


half the time)
How people talk to or about
C' Tlnnkr r4rAr-t17 -intn bic


>r her














Talk sounds rather than


:GC : A :BS


: Other:Nobody:


words (example: coo, goo) : : : :
Talk words rather than : : : : :


than sounds


Their tone of voice
sounds soft and loving
Their tone of voice


* :
* a S


sounds
Use the


cross


baby 's


and angry


name


nickname) when speaking
to him
Repeat sounds the baby


makes


* :
*


in a questioning


wayInterpret
Interpret


the baby says
Listen to the


to others what


* :
* :
* S
*


baby when


the baby talks
In a fe words, -
In a few words,


order or


tell


the bab


to do/not


do things_____.......
Explain and describe
things when talking to


the baby____
How many words


are


there in most of the


sentences


spoken to the


baby


the mothering one?


Give 2 sentences used by mothering one while talking to the baby:


sed Appointments and Delays:
Was the beginning of training


delayed today?


If yes,


why?


Because


the mothering one wanted to:


finish


talking with


feed


the baby


friends or relatives


do housework


dress


the baby


care


for older children


let the baby sleep


_I


IICI


--


__


~_













the mothering


one


leave


a message


for you


on any


of the


trips?


Then


finally


see the moth


ering


said
gave
gave


nothing
a confus


an under


out


miss


appointment


explanation


rstandable


lanation


one















Index


of Positive


Verbal


Interaction


. VI


of positive


indicators


= tally
11.0 x


no. of visits


Items


tallied


if checked


sentence


length


or 3
or 6
or 9


tally
tally
tally


Total
Limits


possible
on index


rallies


PEWR


= 11


Index


of Negative


Verbal


Interaction


Neg.


= tally


negative


indicators


X no.


visits


Items


tallied


negative


if checked


Total
Limits


poss


ib Ie


tallies


PEWR


on index


. VI





80



Estimate of Mother's Excectancy


word


in the box


is the


one we want


your


opinion


about:


*Slow


Fast


*Strong


Weak


*Crying


a .


Laughing


Cold


*Quiet


. a .


Noisy


*Clekan


Dirty


*Smooth


Rough

Foolish


*Wise


*Bad

Brave

Calm


Good

Afraid

Emotional


*Dark


Light


*Dull


Sharp


*Beautiful


Indoors

*Hard


Ugly

Outdoors

Soft



































APPENDIX B












Means and Standard Deviations of Maternal


Scores and


Variable


Bavley Scales of Infant Development for
Total Group


Variable


Mean


standard Deviation


Autonomy


Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance
Teacher-School


Positive


Verbal


Negative Verbal
Attitude


Eav]ev


2Mental Scale


Bavylev Motor Scale


23.435
61.076
28.102
22.256
10.600
0.649
0.182
0.581
86.461
106.128


4.822
14.553
5.495
5.309
3.456
0.234
0.135
0.232
14.883
16.106


avleey


Task Oriented Behavior


Scale


25.282


5.675


-,., -~,, -'~ -"' ~*~"' ~ I --













Means and Standard Deviatiors of Maternal


Variable


Scores and Bayley Scales of Infant Development for
Females


Variable


.ee an


Standard Deviati6n


Autonomy


Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance
Teacher-School


Positive
Negative
Attitude


Verbal
Verbal


Bayley Mental Scale
Bayley Motor Scale


Bayley Task Oriented Behavior
Scale


22.187
56.812
26.312
20.687
10.250
0.640
0.160
0.560
91.375
106.625


3.850
14.761
4.206
4.949
3.890
0.192
0.104
0.200
11.842
10.917


27.812


4.636














Means and Standard Deviations of Maternal Variable
Scores and Bavley Scales of Infant Development for


Males


Variable


Mean


Standard Deviation


Autonomy
Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance
Teacher-School
SRI
Positive Verbal
Negative Verbal


Attitude
Bayley Mental Scale
Bayley Motor Scale
Bayley Task Oriented Behavior
Scale


.304
.043
.347
.347
.826
.656
.197
.596
.043
.782


23.521


.303
.959
.012
.381
.200
.246
.153
.255
.038
.145


5.751











Stepwise Regression Summary -- Standard Error, R Sauared, Increase
guared, and F Ratio for Maternal Variable Scores


in R


TOTAL GROUP


= 39


Mental Scale

Standard R Increase


Variable


Error


Squared R


Squared


F Ratio


Attitude
Negative Verbal
Positive Verbal
Physical Appearance
SRI
Teacher-School
Autonomy


.179
.186
.371
.450
.652
.873
.108


.116
.139
.153
.156
.158
.159
.159


.116
.022
.013
.003
.001
.000
.000


1/37
2/36
3/35
4/34
5/33
4/32
7/31


.870**
.912
.109
.577
.242
.008
.840


Motor Scale


Standard
Variable Error


Increase


Squared R Squared


F Ratio


Positive Verbal
Interpersonal Adequacy
SRI
Autonomy
Attitude
Negative Verbal
Physical Appearance
Teacher-School


.893
.332
.219
.263
.333
.500
.706
.934


.161
.249
.292
.298
.312
.317
.314
.320


.161
.082
.032
.016
.014
.005
.002
.000


1/37
2/36
3/35
4/34
5/33
6/32
7/31
8/30


.446**
.997**
.585**
.613*
.997*
.481*
.083
.771


Task Oriented Behavior Scale

Standard R Increase


Variable


Error


squared


R Squared


F Ratio


Teacher-School
Positive Verbal
SRI


.599
.597
.604
.667
.741
.830


Physical Appearance
Autonomv


Attitude


.052
.078
.101
.107
.110
.111


.523
.026
.023
.005
.002
.001


1/37
2/36
3/35
4/34
5/33
6/32


.041
.528
.324
.025
.818
.668


v


V


>^


I












StepDwise Recression
Sauared,


Su rwarv


Ra


-- Standard Error. R Squared, In
tio for Maternal Variable Scores


crease


in R


FEMALES


= 16


Mental Scale


Standard


increase


Variable


Error


auared


R Souared


F Ratio


Attitude
Positive Verbal


Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance
Negative Verbal


SRI
Teacher-School


Autonomy


.892
.141
.675
.094
.051
.392
.819
.350


.210
.364
.570
.657
.891
.698
.704
.709


.210
.154
.206
.086
.034
.006
.005
.004


1/14
2/13
3/12
4/11
5/10
6/9
7/8
8/7


.731
.727
.317*
.277*
.440*
.478*
.721
.133


]

Standard


Variable


Lrror


R
Souared


Increase
1R Scared


F Ratio


Positive Verbal


Attitude
Physical Appearance
Negative Verbal
Interpersonal Adequacy


Autonomy
SRI
Teacher-School


.991
.967
.159
.237
.513
.914
.414
.954


.218
.415
.553
.582
.594
.600
.603
.612


.218
.197
.137
.029
.012
.005
.003
.008


1/14
2/13
3/12
4/11
5/10
6/9
7/8
8/7


.910
.616
.951*
.836*
.933
.250
.738
.380


Task Oriented


Behavior


Scale


Standard Increase


Error So


:aared


R Scared
Scuz* ***-**


F Ratio


Positive Verbal
Attitude
Teacher-School
Autonomy


4.463
4.089
3.844
3.425
'\ r-' -,


.135
.325
.447
.599
'-7,-\ !


'- f


135
.190
.121
.152
In,..


1/14
2/13
3/12
4/11
ri / I r


.185
.140
.235
.121*
-7C -7+


#-


f-%


Variable











Steowise Repression Sunmary -- Standard Error, R Souared,
Sauare, nd ndF Ratio for :aternal Variable Scor


Increase in R


MALES


= 23


Mental Scale


Standard


Variable


Error


R
Souared


Increase
R Scuared


F Ratio


Positive Verbal
Interpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance
Autonomy
Negative Verbal
Teacher-School
SRI
Attitude


.062
.791
.303
.886
.463
.492
.594
.831


.266
.327
.491
.550
.671
.688
.702
.709


.266
.061
.164
.058
.120
.017
.013
.007


1/21
2/20
3/19
4/18
5/17
6/16
7/15
8/14


.617*
.876*
.128**
.513**
.938**
.900**
.060**
.280**


Scale


Standard R


Variable


Error


Souared


Increase
R Squared


F Ratio


Positive Verbal
Incerpersonal Adequacy
Physical Appearance


Autonomy
Attitude
SRI
Teacher-School
Negative Verbal


.685
.702
.636
.806
.007
.380
.780
.156


.438
.534
.561
.574
.586
.589
.593
.601


.438
.095
.027
.012
.011
.003
.003
.007


1/21
2/20
3/19
4/18
5/17
6/16
7/15
8/14


.392**
.474**
.122**
.077**
.819**
.833*
.126*
.638


- ~ I--- -- .- -~-I


Task


Oriented Behavior Scale


Standard
Variable Error


R
Sauared


Increase
R Squared


F Ratio


Positive Verbal


Attitude


Autonomy
SRI


.421
.516
.901
.943
n')n


.152
.269
.372
.395
,.n o 0


152
.117
.103
.022
fl 1 'n


1/21
2/20
3/19
4/18
- 1-1-


.763
.686*
.763*
.946*
fl I


Motor




































APPENDIX C














Task Oriented
Behavior


Motor



Mental



Mother
Attitude



Negative
Verbal



Positive
Verbal


Social
Reaction
Inventory

Teacher
School

Physical
Appearance


Interpersonal
Adequacy


Autonomy














Task


Oriented


Behavior



Motor



Mental



Mother
Attitude



Negative
Verbal


positive


Verbal


Social
Reaction
Inventory

Teacher
School

Physical
Appearance


Interpers
Adequacy


Autonomy


cnall













Task


Oriented


Behavior



Motor



Mental



Mother
Attitude



Negative
Verbal



Positive
Verbal


social


Reaction
Inventory

Teacher
School

Physical
Appearance


Interpersonal
Adequacy


Autonomy




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