<%BANNER%>
HIDE
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Derivation of the fauna
 Tampa Bay estuary
 Procedure
 Systematics and ecological...
 Biogeography, reproduction, abundance...
 Appendix A
 Appendix B
 Literature cited
 Biographical sketch














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ErrorText Rotate CW: 0769-0778










POLYCHAETOUS ANNELIDS AND BENTHIC ENVIRONMENTS
IN TAMPA BAY, FLORIDA












By

JOHN LIPPINCOTT TAYLOR


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1971














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


It is with pleasure and gratitude that I give my sin-

cere thanks to the faculty, colleagues, and friends who

assisted me in this study. I am especially indebted to

Dr. Robert M. DeWitt, Zoology Department chairman, and

chairman of my supervisory committee. While I was occupied

in the Tampa Bay area, he attended to many administrative

details associated with my program and conscientiously

guided my progress by letter and phone. Other committee

members, Dr. Frank J. S. Maturo, Jr. and Frank G. Nordlie,

Zoology Department, and Dr. Ernest S. Ford from Botany,

graciously gave help and encouragement during my research

and critically reviewed this dissertation as it arrived in

Gainesville in many installments. Without assistance from

my committee in other innumerable ways it would have been

far more difficult to pursue a doctoral program at the Uni-

versity of Florida while living and working at St. Peters-

burg Beach.

I am also grateful to the National Marine Fisheries

Service for employment during this study. Mr. Carl. H.







Saloman, Fishery Biologist (Research) assisted me in all

phases of field work, and furnished hydrological data from

permanent water sampling stations located throughout Tampa

Bay. Other members of the Laboratory staff were also help-

ful and provided me with pertinent data from related re-

search projects. The tedious and time consuming task of

sorting animals from sediment collections was largely done

by part-time students from the University of South Florida

and St. Petersburg Junior College. These patient people

were: Eric Roth, Orlando Villot, John Jensen, Steve Henry,

Cathy Adams, Bob Ernest, Mike Mullens, Alan Burdett, Tom

Baird, and Mike Marshall.

Drs. Marian H. Pettibone and Meredith L. Jones, Divi-

sion of Marine Worms, U. S. National Museum, Washington, D.C.,

kindly allowed me to use space and reference collections at

the Museum on two occasions, and otherwise helped by deter-

mining the taxonomic position of some of the polychaetes I

was unable to identify. I look forward to working further

at the Museum on Tampa Bay worms that have not yet been ade-

quately described.

My friends and neighbors, Dr. and Mrs. Walter F. Jeffers,

deserve special thanks for editorial help and typing the

dissertation in its final form.


iii







Finally, and with great affection, I wish to thank my

wife, Patricia, for her constancy and untiring help in

typing and data transcription.






















'TA3LE OFi CONTE'cTS



P.. CJ1



...A . ..E. ........... .......... .................. .-.


LIST OF TABLES .........


LIST OF FI.GUR. S ...... ....... ........... x



A STRACT ..... .......... ................. ... ......... ..



CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION .................................... 1


CHAPTER 2

DL,_IV.TIO TEE r.AGC .. ...;... ..,



Currents nd Ci rclti., ........

CF di..me:r t s ..... . ... ..........

C .'ate. rEv rcl ;' Id ITi';. 1:Lenus

.E:nro.ent and S]',bm-.-r*ro:c- Veo-:eracior,

An a... s- TrsL 0 ... .... ......


TA'.,'ia rY ESTUARYV .








S.br.! . . . .
Se-imen- : s ...................


CP.A-TER 5
OSYCSTEATY A.ND COL.CICAL .S.lRV.TIO-S ..


SCAL


UI~nCCILY~D~LYVii'


ro i n ^ ' t < i
,r.O ... .(





e .....

.. ....


lr R I

i s

~. -I I



01


IU

r~



Id


~LI

*rnr,



"~~I

L


................ 53
...,,.... ...... <








PAGE


Family POLYNOIDAE ......................
Family POLYODONTIDAE .......................
Family SIGALIONIDAE .........................


Family PISIONIDAE


67
96
102


........................... 116


Family CHRYSOPETALIDAE ......................
Family AMPHINOMIDAE .........................
Family PHYLLODOCIDAE .....................
Family HESIONIDAE ...........................
Family PILARGIDAE ...........................
Family SYLLIDAE ... .......... ..............
Family NEREIDAE ........... .................
Family NEPHTYIDAE ...........................
Family GLYCERIDAE ...........................
Family GONIADIDAE .............. ............
Family ONUPHIDAE ............................
Family EUNICIDAE ............................
Family LUMBRINERIDAE ........................
Family ARABELLIDAE .........................
Family DORVILLEIDAE .........................
Family LYSARETIDAE ..........................
Family ORBINIIDAE ...........................
Family PARAONIDAE ........................
Family SPIONIDAE ............................
Family MAGELONIDAE ............... ..........
Family POECILOCHAETIDAE .....................
Family TROCHOCHAETIDAE ......................
Family CHAETOPTERIDAE .......................
Family CIRRATULIDAE .........................
Family FLABELLIGERIDAE .....................
Family OPHELIIDAE ..........................


Family
Family
Family
Family
Family
Family
Family
Family
Family
Family


CAPITELLIDAE
ARENICOLIDAE .
MALDANIDAE ...
OWENIIDAE ....
SABELLARIIDAE
PECTINARIIDAE
AMPHARETIDAE
TEREBELLIDAE
SABELLIDAE ...
SERPULIDAE ...


. .................. ........................
. .. ........ ........................
oo.oo.o 00... o.........0 o




........................
. .......................
. .. .. . .. .. . .. ..
. .. .. . .. .. . .. ..
. . . .. .. .. .. . .


8


119
124
130
152
173
189
240
277
292
301
312
336
346
366
381
393
394
417
434
487
491
495
499
523
565
568
581
613
617
637
650
657
663
674
703
723







PAGE


CHAPTER 6
BIOGEOGRA PHY, REPRODUCTION, ABUNDANCE AND
DISTRIBUTION ...............................
Bicg ograph2 v ......... ...............
_R!ieroduction .........................
Abundance and Distribution ............

APP ND X A ...................................... ..

APPENDIX B .....................................

LITERATURE CITED .................................

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............................


..... 729
...... 72?
...... 730
...... 730

...... 749

...... 867

..... 1295


...... 1332


vii







LIST OF TABLES


PAGE


Table 1.












Table 2.







Table 3.





Table 4.

Table 5.


Table 6.


Table 7.


Table 8.

Table 9.


Table 10.


-- Mean and range of sediment grain size,
sorting, and content of calcium carbonate
and organic carbon in six areas of Tampa
Bay Estuary -- 1963 ............ ...........

-- Harmothoe lunulata -- Locality records ....

-- Harmothoe lunulata -- Environmental
factors ....................................

-- Lepidasthenia commensalis -- Locality
records ................ .... .. .........

-- Lepidasthenia commensalis -- Environmental
factors .............. ...... ..............

-- Lepidonotus sublevis -- Locality records ...

-- Lepidonotus sublevis -- Environmental
factors .. ........V...... .... ...............


Lepidonotus variabilis -- Locality
records ......... .... ... ....... .... .......


viii


Mean annual values for nitrite-nitrate
nitrogen, total phosphorus, copper,
carbohydrate,and protein from water
inshore (IS) and offshore (OS) at
three points along the west coast of
Florida. Data from Finucane and
Dragovich (1959) -- Tampa Bay stations
17 and 20; Charlotte Harbor stations
3 and 34; Everglades stations 37 and
56 ................................. ........ 21

Yearly mean and range for hydrological
factors recorded at the surface in six
areas of Tampa Bay Estuary, Florida, in
1963 and 1967 (Finucane and Dragovich,
1966; Taylor and Saloman, 1968; Saloman
and Taylor, 1971) ......................... 51


--







PAGE


Table 11.--


Table 12.--


Table 13.--


Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table



Table

Table


Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table


14.--

15.--

16.--

17.--

18.--

19.--


20.--

21.--


22.--

23.--

24.--

25.--

26.--

27.--

28.--

29.--


Lepidonotus variabilis -- Environmental
factors .................................... 81

Phyllohartmania taylori -- Locality
records .................................. 83

Phyllohartmania taylori -- Environmental
factors ................ .............. ... 84

Polynoid A -- Locality records ............. 87

Polynoid A -- Environmental factors ........ 88

Polynoid B -- Locality records ............. 91

Polynoid B -- Environmental factors ........ 93

Polyodontes lupina -- Locality records ..... 98

Polyodontes lupina -- Environmental
factors ................... ........... ....... 99

Sigalion arenicola -- Locality records .....104

Sigalion arenicola -- Environmental
factors ... .... ...... ... ............ ... .... 105

Sthenelais boa -- Locality records .........107

Sthenelais boa -- Environmental factors ...110

Pholoe sp. Locality records .............112

Pholoe sp, -- Environmental factors ........113

Pisione remota -- Locality records .........117

Pisione remota -- Environmental factors ....118

Paleanotus heteroseta -- Locality records...121

Paleanotus heteroseta -- Environmental
factors ............................ .......123










Table

Table


30.--

31.--


Table 32.--


Table

Table


Table

Table



Table

Table



Table

Table



Table

Table



Table

Table

Table

Table

Table


33.---

34.--


35.--

36.--



37.--

38.--.



39.--

40.--



41.--

42.--



43.--

44.--

45.--

46.---

47.--


PAGE

Euphrosyne triloba -- Locality records .... 125

Pseudeurythoe ambigua -- Locality
records ................................... 127

Pseudeurythoe ambigua -- Environmental
factors ............. ... ................... 129

Eteone heteropoda -- Locality records ..... 133

Eteone hetropoda -- Environmental
factors ................................... 135

Eumida sanguine -- Locality records ...... 137

Eu-mida sanguinea -- Environmental
factors ................................... 138

Paranaites speciosa -- Locality records ... 140

Paranaites speciosa -- Envirornental
factors ................... ..... ........... 141

Phyllodoce arena -- Locality records ..... 144

Phyllodoce arenae -- Environmental
factors .......... .................... 148

Phvllodoce fragilis -- Locality records ... 150

Phyllodoce fraqilis -- Environmental
factors ............. ........... ..... ...... 151

Hesione picta --Locality records ......... 154

Gy- is vittata -- Locality records ........ 156

Gvotis vittata -- Environmental factors.... 159

Parahesicne luteola -- Locality records.... 161

Parahesione luteola -- Environmental
factors ..... ................................ 163








PAGE

Table 48.-- Podarke obscura -- Locality records ....... 165


Table 49.--


Table

Table

Table

Table



Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table



Table

Table



Table

Table


50.""

51.--

52.--

53.--



54.--

55.--

56.--

57.--

58.--

59.--

60.--

61..--



62.--

63.--



64.--

65.--


Table 66.---


Podarke obscura Environmental
factors .................... ............

Gyptis sp. -- Locality records ............

Gyptis sp. -- Environmental factors .......

Ancistrosyllis jonesi -- Locality records..

Ancistrosyllis jonesi -- Environmental
factors ............... ................ ...

Cabira incerta -- Locality records ........

Cabira incerta -- Environmental factors....

Pilarqis pacifica -- Locality records .....

Pilaris pacifica -- Environmental factors.

Sigambra bassi-- Locality records ........

Sicambra bassi -- Environmental factors ...

Sigambra tentaculata -- Locality records ..

Sigambra tentaculata -- Environmental
factors .. ..... ............ .. .... .......

Autolytus cornutus -- Locality records ..

Autolytus cornutus -- Environmental
factors .... .** ........ .................

Branchiosyllis oculata -- :,oality records.

Branchiosvilis ocul.ta Environm7ental
factors ........,......... ...... .... .......

Brania clavata -- Locality records ........


166

169

170

175



176

178

179

.181

.182

184

185

187


188

193



194

196



197

199







PAGE


Table 67.--


Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table


68.--

69.--

70.---

71.--

72.--

73.--

74.--

75.--

76.--

77--

78.--

79.--

80.--

81.--

82.--

83.--

84.--

85.--

86.--


Table 37.--


Brania clavata -- Environmental
factors .............. ...... ...... ... ..

Exoqone dispar -- Locality records ........

Exogone dispar -- Environmental factors ...


200

202

204


Svllis aciculata -- Locality records ...... 207


Svllis

Syllis

Syl is


Syllis


Svllis
Syllis

f S -11is



Syllis


Svllis

Brania


Brania sp.


0
aciculata -- Environmental factors.,

annularis -- Locality records ......

annularis -- Environmental factors..

gracilis -- Locality records .......

gracilis -- Environmental factors...

spongicola -- Locality records .....

varieaata -- Locality records ,,,,,

variegata -- Environmental factors..

vittata -- Locality records ........

vittata -- Environmental factors ...

sp. -- Locality records ............


-- Environmental factors .......


Pionosvllis sp. -- Locality records .......

Pionosyllis sp. -- Environmental factors...

Sphaerosvllis sp. -- Locality records .....

Sohaerosyllis sp. -- Environmental
factors .......... ............... .. .... ..

Syllis sp.A-- Locality records ............


208

210

211

213

214

216

218

219

221

222

224

225

227

228

230


231

233


xii










Table

Table

Table

Table


88.--

89.--

90.--

91.--


Table 92.--


Table

Table


93.--

94.--


Table 95.--


Table 96.--


Table 97.--


Table 98.--


Table 99.--


PAGE

Syllis sp. A -- Environmental factors ...... 234

Syllis sp. B -- Locality records ........... 236

Syllis sp. B -- Environmental factors ...... 237

Ceratonereis irritabilis -- Locality
records .................................... 243

Ceratonereis irritabilis -- Environmental
factors ........................................ 244

Laeonereis culveri -- Locality records ..... 246

Laeonereis culveri -- Environmental
factors ................................... 247

Nereis arenaceodentata -- Locality
records .....q...........*.... .... ......... 251

Nereis arenaceodentata -- Environmental
factors .................................... 253

Nereis pelaqica occidentalis -- Locality
records ............... ..... ....... .. ....... 255

Nereis pelagica occidentalis -- Environ-
mental factors .............. .............. 257

Nereis succinea -- Locality records ........ 259


Table 100.--Nereis succinea -- Environmental factors ... 264

Table 101.--Nicon lackey -- Locality records ......... 266

Table 102.--Nicon lackeyi -- Environmental factors ..... 267

Table 103.--Perinereis floridana -- Locality records ... 269

Table 104.--Perinereis floridana -- Environmental
factors ............. .. ... .............. 270

Table 105.--Platynereis dumerilii -- Locality
records ...............*** ......... ...... ... 272


xiii










Table 106.--Platpnereis dumerilii -- Environmental
factors .......... .........................

Table 107.--Rullierinereis mexicana Locality
records ...................... ... ... ...

Table 108.--A.laombanus verrilli -- Locality records

Table 109.--Aglaophamus verrilli -- Environmental


factors


Table

Table

Table

Table


Table

Table

Table

Tab3.e


110.--Nephtys

111.--Nephtys

112.-Nephtys

113.--Nephtvs
factors

114.--Nephtys

115.--Notlys

116. ---Glvcera

117.--Glycera
factors

118. --Glycera

119.--Glvcera
factors


bucera -- Locality records ........

bucera -- Environmental factors

mnaqellanica -- Locality records ...

maqellanica -- Environmental


picta -- Locality records .........

Dicta -- Environ.entai factors ....

americana -- Locality records ..

americana -- Environmental


dibranchiata -- Locality records

dibranchiata -- Environmental


120.--Glycinde pacifica -- Locality records .....

121.--Glcinde pacifica -- Environmental
factors .............................. ....

122.--Goniadelja sp. -- Locality records ........

123.--Goniadella sp. -- Environmental factors ...

124.---Dioatra currea -- Locality records.......


xiv


PAGE


274


276

279


281

283

284

286


287

289

291

294


297

299


303


307

310

311

314


................................... 300







PAGE

Table 125.--Diopatra cuprea -- Environmental factors ...317

Table 126.--Onuphis eremita oculata -- Locality records.319

Table 127.--Onuphis eremita oculata -- Environmental
factors ....................................320

Table 128.--Onuphis magna -- Locality records ..........322

Table 129.--Onuphis magna -- Environmental factors ....323

Table 130.--Onuphis nebulosa -- Locality records .......325

Table 131.--Onuphis nebulosa -- Environmental factors ..327

Table 132.--Onuphis sp. -- Locality records ............330

Table 133.--Onuphis sp. -- Environmental factors .......333

Table 134.--Eunice rubra -- Locality records ...........338

Table 135.--Marphysa sanguinea -- Locality records .....340

Table 136.--Marphysa sanguinea -- Environmental
factors ...... .... ..... .. .......... .... ..... 342

Table 137.--Nematonereis hebes -- Locality records .....344

Table 138.--Nematonereis hebes -- Environmental
factors .............. ............. ....... 345

Table 139.--Lumbrineris bassi -- Locality records ...... 349

Table 140.--Lumbrineris bassi -- Environmental factors .350

Table 141.--Lumbrineris coccinea -- Locality records ...352

Table 142.--Lumbrineris coccinea -- Environmental
factors ........ ...... .................. .. 353

Table 143.--Lumbrineris erecta -- Locality records .....355

Table 144.--Lumbrineris erecta -- Environmental
factors *.......... ...................356







PAGE


Table 145.--Lumbrineris impatiens -- Locality
records ....... .... ........ ........ ..... 358

Table 146.--Luxibrinerin impatiens -- Environmental
factors ............... ................. 359

Table 147.---Lurmbrineris latreilli -- Locality records.. 361

Table 143.--Lumbrineris latreilli -- Environmental
factors ................. ......... ...... .. 362

Table 149.--Lumbrineris sp. -- Locality records ...... 364

Table 150.--Lunbrineris sp. -- Environmental
factors ........................... ...... 365

Table 151.--Arabella iricolor -- Locality records ..... 368

Table 152.--Arabella iricolor -- Environmental
factors ................................ 369

Table 153.--Drilonereis cylindrica -- Locality records. 371

Table 154.--Drilonereis cylindrica -- Environmental
factors ............................... .. 372

Table 155.--Drilonereis lonqa -- Locality records ..... 374

Table 156.--Drilonereis long -- Environmental
factors ... .. ... ...... ......... .......... 375

Table 157.--Drilonereis maana -- Locality records .... 377

Table 158.--Drilonereis magna -- Environmental
factors ............................... 378

Table 159.--Arabella sp. -- Locality records .......... 380

Table 160.--Dorvillea rudolphi -- Locality records..... 383

Table 161.--Dorvillea rudolphi -- Environmental
factors ............................ ........ 384

Table 162.--Ohrycotrocha puerilis -- Locality records.. 386

Wvi







PAGE


Table 363.--Ophryotrocha puerilis -- Environmental
factors ............ ............ ............ 387

Table 164.--Dorvillea sp. -- Locality records ......... 389

Table 165.--Dorvillea sp. -- Environmental factors .... 390

Table 166.--Naineris setosa -- Locality records ....... 396

Table 167.--Naineris setosa -- Environmental factors .. 397

Table 168.--Orbinia ornata -- Locality records ........ 399

Table 169.--Orbinia ornata -- Environmental factors ... 400

Table 170.--Scoloplos fragilis -- Locality records .... 402

Table 171.--Scoloplos fragilis -- Environmental
factors .................................. 403

Table 172.--Scoloplos robustus -- Locality records .... 405

Table 173.--Scoloplos robustus -- Environmental
factors ........... ........................ 407

Table 174.--Scoloplos rubra -- Locality records ....... 409

Table 175.--Scoloplos rubra -- Environmental factors .. 412

Table 176.--Naineris sp. -- Locality records .......... 415

Table 177.--Naineris sp. -- Environmental factors ..... 416

Table 178.--Aricidea fragilis -- Locality records ..... 419

Table 179.--Aricidea fragilis -- Environmental
factors ... ............. ................... 422

Table 180.--Aricidea talori -- Locality records ...... 424

Table 181.--Aricidea tavlori -- Environmental factors.. 425

Table 182.--Cirrophorus furcatus -- Locality records ...427


xvii







PAGE
Table 183.--Cirrophorus furcatus -- Environmental
factors ................................... 428

Table 184.--Aricidea sp. -- Locality records .......... 430

Table 185.--Aricidea sp. -- Environmental factors ..... 431

Table 186.--Aonides mayaguezensis -- Locality records 437

Table 187.--Aonides mayaguezensis -- Environmental
factors ................................... 438

Table 188.--Apoprionospio pygmaea -- Locality records 440

Table 189.--Apoprionospio pygmaea -- Environmental
factors ................................... 442

Table 190.--Dispio uncinata -- Locality records ....... 444

Table 191.--Dispio uncinata -- Environmental factors .. 445

Table 192.--Paraprionospio pinnata -- Locality records. 447

Table 193.--Paraprionospio pinnata -- Environmental
factors ................................... 451

Table 194.--Polydora socialis -- Locality records ..... 453

Table 195.--Polydora socialis -- Environmental
factors .................... .0............. 456

Table 196.--Polydora websteri -- Locality records ..... 458

Table 197.--Polydora websteri -- Environmental factors. 460

Table 198.--Prionospio cirrobranchiata -- Locality
records ......... .....,..... .. ....... ... 462

Table 199.--Prionospio cirrobranchiata -- Environmental
factors .........o..... ..... ... .. .......... 464

Table 200.--Prionospio heterobranchia texana -- Locality
records ..........o......................... 466

Table 201.--Prionospio heterobranchia texana -- Environ-
mental factors ............................ 468

xviii







PAGE

Table 202.--Scolelepis sguamata -- Locality records ... 470

Table 203.--Scolelepis scuamata -- Environmental
factors ...... .. ........... .............. 472

Table 204.--Spio setosa -- Locality records .......... 474

Table 205.--Spio setosa Environmental factors ...... 475

Table 206.--Siophanes bombyx -- Locality records ..... 477

Table 207.--Spiophanes borbyx -- Environmental factors. 478

Table 208.--Streblospio benedict -- Locality records 480

Table 209.--Streblospio benedicti -- Environmental
factors ........................ .... .. ..... 482

Table 210.-Pseudopolydora sp.-- Locality records ...., 484

Table 211.--PseudoDolydora sp.-- Environmental factors. 486

Table 212.--Magelona pettiboneae -- Locality records .. 488

Table 213.--Magelona pettiboneae -- Envirornmental
factors .................. ........... .. .... 490

Table 214.--Poecilochaetus johnsoni -- Locality
records ..................... .............. 493

Table 215.--Poecilochaetus j2hnsoni -- Environmental
factors ................................... 494

Table 216.-Trochochaeta sp.-- Locality records ....... 497

Table 217.--Trochochaeta sp.-- Environmental
factors .............. ....... ... ... .......... 498

Table 218.---Chaetooterus variocedatus -- Locality
records ........... ...... .................. 501

Table 2.9.--Chaetopterus variopedatus -- Environmental
factors ................ ...... ...... ... 503


xix







PAGE


Table 220.--Spiochaetopterus costarum oculatus --
Locality records .......................... 505

Table 221.--Spiochaetopterus costarum oculatus --
Environmental factors ..................... 510

Table 222.--Mesochaetopterus sp. A -- Locality
records .......... ...0...... .............. 512

Table 223.--Mesochaetopterus sp. A -- Environmental
factors ................. ..... ..... ....... 513

Table 224.--Mesochaetopterus sp. B -- Locality records. 517

Table 225.--Mesochaetopterus sp. B -- Environmental
factors .. o...... .......................... 518

Table 226.--Mesochaetopterus sp. C -- Locality records. 520

Table 227.--Cirratulus grandis -- Locality records .... 527

Table 228.--Cirratulus grandis -- Environmental
factors ....................... ............ 529

Table 229.--Cirriformia filigera -- Locality records .. 531

Table 230.--Cirriformia filigera -- Environmental
factors .................................. 532

Table 231.--Dodecaceria concharum -- Locality records 534

Table 232.--Cirratulus sp. A -- Locality records ...... 536

Table 233.--Cirratulus sp. A -- Environmental factors 537

Table 234.--Cirratulus sp. B -- Locality records ..... 539

Table 235.--Cirratulus sp. B -- Environmental factors 540

Table 236.--Cirratulus sp. C -- Locality records ...... 542

Table 237.--Cirratulus sp. C -- Environmental
factors ..... .............................. 543







PAGE

Table 238.--Cirratulus sp. D -- Locality records ...... 545

Table 239.--Cirratulus sp. D -- Environmental factors.. 546

Table 240.--Cirriformia sp. A -- Locality records .... 548

Table 241.--Cirriformia sp. A -- Environmental
factors ................................ 549

Table 242.--Cirriformia sp. B -- Locality records ..... 551

Table 243.--Cirriformia sp. B -- Environmental factors..552

Table 244.--Tharyx sp. A-- Locality records ........... 554

Table 245.--Tharyx sp. A-- Environmental factors ...... 555

Table 246.--Tharyx sp. B-- Locality records ........... 557

Table 247.--Tharyx sp. B-- Environmental factors ...... 553

Table 248.--Tharvx sp. C-- Locality record. ........... 560

Table 249.--'Thary sp. C-- Environmental factors ...... 562

Table 250.--Pherusa arenosa -- Locality records ....... 566

Table 251.--Pherusa arencsa -- Environmental factors... 567

Table 252.--Ammotrypane aulogaster Locality records.. 570

Table 253.--Amiotrvpane auloaaster -- Environmental
factors ................ .. .. ................ 571

Table 254.--Armandia agilis -- Locality records ....... 573

Table 255.--Armandia agilis -- Environmental factors.,.. 574

Table 256.--Travisia sp. -- Locality records .......... 577

Table 257.--Travisia sp. -- Environmental factors ..... 580

Table 25.--Capitella capitata -- Locality records .... 584







PAGE


Table 259.--Capitella capitata -- Environmental
factors .......... .. ................ 586

Table 260.--Capitellides jonesi -- Locality records ... 588

Table 261.--Canitellides ionesi -- Environmental
factors ......................... ......... 589

Table 262.--Capitomastus aciculatus -- Locality records.591

Table 263.--Caitomastus aciculatus -- Environmental
factors ....................... ..........592

Table 264.--Dasybranchus lumbricoides -- Locality
records ................................... 594

Table 265.--Dasybranchus lumnbricoides -- Environmental
factors .................... ........... 595

Table 266.--Dasybranchus lunulatus -- Locality records. 597

Table 267 --TDasbranchus lunulabus -- Environmental
factors .................................. 598

Table 268.---eteromastus filiformis -- Locality
records ................................... 600

Table 269.--Heteromastus filiformis -- Environmental
factors ....................... ... ....... 603

Table 270.--Notomastus hemipodus Locality records... 605

Table 271.--Notomastus hemipodus -- Environmental
factors .................... .......... ... .. 606

Table 272.--Notomastus latericeus -- Locality records.. 608

Table 273.--T~otomastus latericeus -- Environmental
factors ................................... 609

Table 274.--Scvphonroctus platyproctus -- Locality
records ..................... ..... ........ 611

Table 275.--Scvyhoproctus olatyoroctus -- Environ-
mental factors ... ........... ......... 612


xxii







PAGE

Table 276.--Arenicola cristata -- Locality records .... 615

Table 277.--Arenicola cristata -- Environmental
factors ........................... ......... 616

Table 278.--Branchioasychis americana -- Locality
records ................................... 620

Table 279.--Branchioasychis americana -- Environmental
factors ............. ...................... 622

Table 280.--Clymenella mucosa -- Locality records ..... 624

Table 281.--Clymenella mucosa -- Environmental
factors .... ..... ........ ..... .. ......... 627

Table 282.--Clymenella torquata calida Locality
records ........ *............... .......... 629

Table 283.--Clymenella torquata calida -- Environ-
mental factors .......... ............ 630

Table 284.--Clymenella zonalis -- Locality records .... 632

Table 285.--Clymenella zonalis -- Environmental
factors ....* ......... .. .................. 633

Table 286.--Maldane sarsi -- Locality records ......... 635

Table 287.--Maldane sarsi -- Environmental factors .... 636

Table 288.--Boguea enigmatica -- Locality records ..... 639

Table 289.--Boguea enigmatica Environmental factors. 640

Table 290.--Owenia fusiformis -- Locality records ..... 642

Table 291.--Owenia fusiformis -- Environmental factors. 644

Table 292.--Myriochele sp. -- Locality records ...... 646

Table 293.--Myriochele sp. -- Environmental factors ... 647

Table 294.--Sabellaria floridensis -- Locality
records ..................**......... ..... 652

xxiii







PAGE


Table 295.--Sabellaria floridensis -- Environmental
factors .................................. 653

Table 296.--Sabellaria gracilis -- Locality records ... 655

Table 297.--Sabellaria qracilis -- Environmental
factors .................................. 656

Table 298.--Cistenides gouldii -- Locality records .... 659

Table 299.--Cistenides gouldii -- Environmental
factors ................................... 662

Table 300.--Isolda pulchella --Locality records ....... 665

Table 301.--Isolda pulchella --Environmental factors... 667

Table 302.--Melinna maculata -- Locality records ..... 669

Table 303.--Melinna maculata -- Environmental factors.. 670

Table 304.--Sabellides oculata -- Locality records .... 672

Table 305.--Sabellides oculata -- Environmental
factors ................................... 673

Table 306.--Enoplobranchus sanguineus -- Locality
records ..... ............................. 677

Table 307.--Enoplobranchus sanguineus-- Environmental
factors ....... ........................ .. 678

Table 308.--Loimia medusa -- Locality records ......... 680

Table 309.--Loimia medusa -- Environmental factors .... 681

Table 310.--Loimia viridis -- Locality records ..... .. 6F

Table 311.--Loimia viridih -- Environmental factors ... 6--

Table 312.--Pista cristata -- Locality records ........ 686

Table 313.--Pista cristata -- Environmental factors .. 687


xxiv







PAGE


Table 314.--Pista palmata -- Locality records ......... 689

Table 315.--Pista palnata -- Environmental factors .... 690

Table 316.--Polycirrus eximius -- Locality records .... 692

Table 317.--Polycirrus eximius -- Environmental
factors .................................. 693

Table 318.--Terebella rubra -- Locality records ....... 695

Table 319,--Terebella rubra -- Environmental factors... 696

Table 320.--Thelepus setosus -- Locality records ...... 698

Table 321.--Thelepus setosus -- Environmental factors.. 699

Table 322.--Trichobranchus glacialis -- Iocality
records ................... ... ......... 701

Table 323.--Trichobranchus glacialis -- Environmental
factors .....................,....... 702

Table 324.--Branchioi.nma nigromaculata -- Locality
records ............................ ....... 706

Table 325.--Branchiojmma nigromaculata -- Environmental
factors .................................. 707

Table 326,--Chone duneri -- Locality records .......... 709

Table 327.--Chcne duneri -- Environmental factors ... 710

Table 328.--Fabricia sabella -- Locality records ...... 712

Table 329.--Fabricia sabella -- Environmental
factors .............. ................. 713

Table 330.--I.Mealommar bioculatL tm -- Locality records... 715

Table 331.--Mecgalormrna bioculatum -- Envirornmental
factors ................. ............ ....... 716

Table 332.--geqaloomma lobiferum -- Locality records ... 718


xxV







PAGE


Table 333.--Megalomma lobiferum -- Environmental
factors .................................. 719

Table 334.--Sabella microphthalma -- Locality records.. 721

Table 335.--Sabella microphthalma -- Environmental
factors ............. .................. .... 722

Table 336.--Eupomatus dianthus -- Locality records .... 725

Table 337.--Eupomatus dianthus -- Environmental factors 726

Table 338.--Abundance and distribution of polychaetes
collected in Tampa Bay Estuary, Florida,
at survey stations and other localities
between 1963 and 1969 -- Old Tampa Bay
(OTB),Hillsborough Bay (HB),upper Tampa
Bay (UTB),Boca Ciega Bay (BCB),Terra Ceia
Bay (TCB),lower Tampa Bay (LTB) -- asterisk
indicates new geographic record for Gulf
of Mexico -- very rare (1-10) rare (11-30)
common (31-60) very common (over 60)....... 739


xxvi














LIST OF FIGURES


PAGE


Figure 1.--












Figure 2.--


Figure 3.--


Tampa Bay Estuary showing transect and
lettered stations (solid circles) in the
benthic survey of 1963, and biomass sta-
tions (solid triangles) sampled between
1963 and 1969. Solid lines show county
boundaries, dotted line indicates main
ship channels, and dashed lines delineate
major areas of the Estuary. Small is-
lands and spoil banks are shown in
black .....................................

Diagnostic features of Polynoid A and
Polynoid B ................................

Diagnostic features of Polyodontes sp.
and Pholoe sp. ............ ..... ...........


Figure 4.-- Diagnostic features of Gyptis sp. ......... 172


Figure 5.--



Figure 6.--


Figure 7.--


Figure 8.--


Figure 9.--


Diagnostic features of Brania sp., Piono-
syllis sp., Sphaerosyllis sp., Syllis sp.
A and Syllis sp. B ......................... 239

Diagnostic features of Goniadella sp. and
Onuphis sp. ............ ................... 335

Diagnostic features of Lumbrineris sp.,
Arabella sp., and Dorvillea sp. ........... 392

Diagnostic features of Naineris sp., and
Aricidea sp .... .... ..*........ .......... 433

Diagnostic features of Pseudopolydora sp.,
Trochochaeta sp., and Mesochaetopterus
sp. A ...... ............................. 515


xxvii


32


95


115







PAGE


Figure 10.--Diagnostic features of .Mesochaetopteru.s
sp. B, and Mesochaetopterus sp. C ........ 522

Figure 11.--Diagnostic features of Cirratulus sp. A,
Cirratulus sp. B, Cirratulus sp. C, Cirra-
tulus sp. D, Cirriformia sp. A, Cirrifoirmia
sp. B, Tharyx sp. A, and Tharyx sp. c ..... 564

Figure 12.--Diagnostic features of Travisia sp.,
Clymenella torquata calida, and
.Myriochel e sp. ........ .................... 649


:xxviii







Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Coun-
cil of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of
the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


POLYCHAETOUS ANNELIDS AND BENTHIC ENVIRONMENTS
IN TAMPA BAY, FLORIDA

By

JOHN LIPPINCOTT TAYLOR

August, 1971

Chairman: Dr. Robert M. DeWitt
Major Department: Zoology

This dissertation is a systematic and ecological

account of the polychaete worms found in Tampa Bay,

Florida, between 1963 and 1969. The study was part of

a benthic investigation, sponsored by the National

Marine Fisheries Service, to determine the qualitative

and quantitative distribution of benthic animals that

are important to sport and commercial fisheries.

Bottom samples were collected by dredge at 363 sur-

vey stations and numerous incidental localities. The

polychaetes were separated from sediments on a screen of

0.701 mm. mesh,

A total of 178 species of polychaetes were collected.

They were divided among 130 genera and 40 families. Two

families (PISIONIDAE and TROCHOCHAETIDAE) and 35 species


xxix








are newly reported for the Gulf of Mexico. The more

saline areas of Tampa Bay were found to support the

greatest species diversity as well as the greatest

number of individual worms per dredge sample. Areas

of low diversity and few polychaetes were limited to

Hillsborough Bay where there is high sewage pollution

and Boca Ciega Bay where dredge-fill development is

widespread.

Data on polychaete distribution and abundance show

that Tampa Bay supports a rich and varied polychaete

fauna, and much of the Estuary still remains in a nearly

natural condition.














CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION


This report is a systematic and ecological account of

the polychaete worms collected in Tampa Bay, Florida, be-

tween June 1963 and June, 1969. The study was supported

by the National Marine Fisheries Service as part of an

estuarine survey that extended from the upper reaches of

the Bay to 9.8 km. offshore in the adjacent Gulf of Mexico.

The main purpose of the survey was to determine the qualita-

tive and quantitative distribution of benthic invertebrates

that directly and indirectly support commercial and sport

fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico. Other objectives were (1)

to evaluate the effects of pollution and coastal develop-

ments on estuarine environments, and (2) to compare the

benthos in Tampa Bay to that of other estuaries in the south-

east and elsewhere. Most of the biological and environmental

data were collected at 363 stations sampled in 1963 and 1964.

Additional information came from areas of the Bay that were

sampled for other laboratory projects that included research

on hydrology, sediments, coastal alterations, and polychaete

mariculture.







The direct relationship between benthic biomass and

abundance of ground fishes was first documented by Petersen

and Jensen (1911). Later, observations by Petersen and

others established the idea that similar bottom environ-

ments support similar benthic communities that can be dis-

tinguished by certain characteristic species (Thorson, 1969).

The practical aspects of Petersen's work, and his concept

of bottom communities, stimulated complementary lines of

academic and fishery investigations which now comprise a

large and diversified field of benthic, ecological research

(Mare, 1944; Jones, 1950; Drach, 1960; Wigley, 1961; Day,

1964; Sanders, Hessler, and Hampson, 1965; Carriker, 1967;

Muus, 1967; Peres, 1967; McIntyre and Eleftheriou, 1968;

Sanders, 1968, 1969; Fenchel, 1969; Gibbs, 1969; Hargrave,

1969; Lie, 1969; Makarov and Averin, 1969; McIntyre, 1969;

Rowe, 1969; Sanders and Hessler, 1969; Tietjen, 1969;

Barnard, 1970; Johnson, 1970; Lie and Kisker, 1970; Luksenas,

1970; McIntyre, 1970; Neyman, 1970; Pearson, 1970).

A comparatively recent area of benthic study deals with

the effects of pollution and coastal development on bottom

communities. The benthos is sensitive to environmental change,

and community composition can be drastically altered or elim-

inated depending on the type and degree of modification

(Reish, 1959; McNulty, 1966; Saville, 1966; Bartsch,







Callaway, Wagner, and Woelke, 1967; Olson and Burgess,

1967; Taylor and Saloman, 1968; Bagge, 1969; Copeland,

1970; Golubic, 1970; Sykes and Hall, 1970; Taylor, Hall,

and Saloman, 1970; Taylor, 1970). Polychaetes are domi-

nant forms in most benthic communities, and in disturbed

areas they are often the last metazoans to survive before

bottom conditions become abiotic (Theede, Ponat, Hiroki,

and Schlieper, 1969; Turner and Strachan, 1969).

On the basis of comparative benthic studies, Sanders

(1968) concluded that polychaetes, together with mollusks,

account for about 80 percent of the infauna retained in a

sieve of 0.4-mm. mesh. In Florida, studies of Biscayne Bay

and Alligator Harbor, and my own work along the west coast

also showed that polychaetes were a major component of the

littoral infauna (McNulty, 1966; O'Gower and Wacasey, 1967;

Moore, Davies, Fraser, Gore, and Lopez, 1968; Naqvi, 1968).

Hartman (1951) remarked upon the vast, shallow-water poly-

chaete fauna throughout the Gulf of Mexico, and Rowe (1966)

reported on the abundance of polychaetes in the vicinity of

the Sigsbee Deep from bottom samples collected at 100 fathoms

down to the abyss at 2,000 fathoms.

Study of polychaetes, and other forage organisms, is



1
Data on file at the National Marine Fisheries Service
Biological Laboratory, St. Petersburg Beach, Florida. 33706





4
particularly important in the Gulf of Mexico because Gulf

fisheries are more valuable than those in any other geo-

graphic region of the United States. The annual wholesale

value of the Gulf catch is over 180,000,000 dollars, and

represents more than one-third of the total value of U. S.

marine landings that were worth 504,500,000 dollars in 1969

(Riley, 1970). It is important to note that most of the

sport and commercial species of the Gulf (65 to 90 percent

depending on geographic area) spend all or part of their

lives in estuaries (Rounsefell, 1954; Gunter, 1967; McHugh,

1967; Sykes,1967, 1968; Turner, 1969). In Tampa Bay, for

example, Sykes and Finucane (1966) found juveniles and adults

of 23 species of sport and commercial fishes. The high fish-

ery production that is characteristic of estuaries surround-

ing the Gulf of Mexico ultimately depends on high organic

production at lower trophic levels. There, as planktonic

larvae, and as adults that swim, crawl, or burrow, the ubiq-

uitous polychaetes enter the food webs of fishery species

(Hedgpeth, 1954; Reid, 1954; Smith, 1954; Williams, 1955;

Darnell, 1958; Eldred, Ingle, Woodburn, Hutton, and Jones,

1961; Hall, 1962; Tagatz, 1968; Sastrakusumah, 1970).














CHAPTER 2

DERIVATION OF THE FAUNA


Hartman (1951) recognized that the polychaete fauna

of the Gulf of Mexico consists of (1) a distinct group

associated with the Mississippi drainage system,(2) a

group with West Indian affinities,(3) an assemblage com-

monly collected along the eastern seaboard north to New

England,(4) species known also from the warmer waters of

the eastern Pacific, and (5) a group with world-wide dis-

tribution in low latitudes. Representatives of all these

groups were found in Tampa Bay. Their occurrence may be

explained in terms of historical events in the Gulf Basin

and local environmental conditions that now prevail.


The Gulf Basin

According to Murray (1961) the Gulf Basin developed

as a shallow trough during the Paleozoic era, and was first

flooded by the sea in the Mesozoic about Jurassic time.

This invasion coincides with the time when Yarborough (1967)

and Bullard (1969) believe that a rift, caused by continental





7

The Caribbean has existed since at least mid-Mesozoic

time (Ewing, 1968) and through that sea there have been

several periods of Atlantic-Pacific connection across

Central America. In chronological order, portals existed

in Jurrassic, Cretaceous, mid-Teriary, and Pliocene time

(Eardley, 1951; Lloyd, 1963; Rubinoff, 1968). As a conse-

quence, many amphi-American species now occur on eastern

and western sides of Central America, and there is still

limited transmigration through the Panama Canal (Gilbert

and Starks, 1904; Hildebrand, 1939; Rubinoff, 1968).

From the Caribbean Sea, polychaetes have probably always

had access to the Gulf through the Yucatan Strait. There

is also geological evidence that indicates a past Gulf con-

nection to the western Arctic through the Mississippi em-

bayment during upper Cretaceous time (Rainwater, 1967).

Upland terraces and submerged sills around the periph-

ery of the Gulf of Mexico are evidence of sea level oscil-

lations during the glacial and interglacial periods of the

Pleistocene. During that epoch, former sea stands, with

respect to the present sea level, have been estimated at

plus as much as 81 m. (Cooke, 1945) and minus as much as

158 m. (Uchupi, 1967). An upper limit of plus 9 m. has been

proposed by the recent work of Alt and Brooks (1965). Within





6

drift, separated the Americas from western Europe and Africa.

Progressive deepening of the Basin was apparently due to

the weight of sediments that have accumulated over a shear-

line around the rim since the Triassic period (Eardley, 1951;

Murray, 1961; Rainwater, 1967). Since Tertiary time, the

Gulf of Mexico has probably been a deep sea (Galtsoff, 1954)

and its water level and area have fluctuated periodically

in response to sea level changes and peripheral, tectonic

activity (Rainwater, 1967).

Until the Miocene (25,000,000 years before present)

the Gulf and the Atlantic Ocean were confluent across what

is now peninsular Florida and the south Atlantic coastal

plain (Cooke, 1945; Cheetham, 1963). Subsequent separation

of the two seas by continental uplifting blocked the ingress

of mid-Atlantic water and probably marked the last periodof

cold water in the Gulf (Alt and Brooks, 1965). The expansive

Gulf-Atlantic connection through mid-Tertiary time allowed

interchange of polychaetes and other neritic forms between

the two seas. Hedgpeth (1953) and other authors mention

this connection as a means of explaining the many patterns

of disjunctive distribution between species that now in-

habit the northern Gulf and the western Atlantic north of

Cape Canaveral (Hartman, 1951; Galtsoff, 1954; Humm, 1969).





8

the past 6,000 years or so, Gulf sea level was as much as

5 m. lower than now and rose to the present level about

2,000 years ago (Gorsline, 1967). According to Rusnak

(1967) the present rate of sea level rise in the Gulf is

about 1.3 cm. per year.

The Gulf of Mexico now covers about 1,700,000 sq. km.,

and maximum depth is about 3,700 m. (Uchupi, 1967). The

coastline is about 8,000 km., and in the U. S. alone, the

tidal shoreline is at least 27,200 km. (Hedgpeth, 1953).

Gunter (1967) estimated that polyhaline bays between Corpus

Christi, Texas, and Florida Bay cover about 52,000 sq. km.

Most of that area can be included in 33 estuarine systems

that have an average area of about 1,430 sq. km. Along most

of the Gulf coast, the continental shelf slopes gradually

seaward and covers an additional shallow water area of

about 343,200 sq. km. (Carsey, 1950). Shelf width varies

from about 30 to 260 km., and breaks occur at the Yucatan

Strait where sill depth is about 2,100 m. and at the Florida

Strait where the sill is about 1,000 m. deep (Uchupi, 1967;

Armstrong, 1969; Jacobs and Ewing, 1969; Nowlin, 1971).

According to the coastal classification of Price (1954)

the southwestern Gulf has a segment of orogenic coast in

Mexico, and either alluvial or limestone coasts elsewhere.





9

Coasts of the alluvial type occur from northwestern Florida

to the Rio Grande and along the Mexican coast to Campeche.

The Florida and Yucatan peninsulas are limestone plateaus.


Currents and Circulation

Sea water enters the Gulf of Mexico from the Carib-

bean through the Yucatan Strait at a rate of about 25,000,000

m. /sec. as the Yucatan Current (Leipper, 1968). The cur-

rent extends from the surface down to the top of the sill,

and consists of several tropical components near the surface

and colder water masses below about 600 m. (McLellan and

Nowlin, 1963; Wust, 1964; Gordon, 1967; Nowlin, 1971).

These water masses flow from several areas of the Atlantic

and serve as the principal route for the introduction of

polychaetes to the Gulf from adjacent seas (Sverdrup, John-

son, Fleming, 1942; Thorson, 1961).

Much of the Yucatan Current leaves the Gulf directly

through the Florida Strait as the Florida Current (Parr,

1937). The remainder moves north and penetrates to a dis-

tance of 480 km. or more into the central and northern

Gulf (Drummond and Austin, 1958; Armstrong, 1967). The

northern movements of the Yucatan Current generate a well-

defined loop current in the eastern Gulf, which moves clock-

wise to the east and south before entering the Atlantic as





10

part of the Florida Current. Within the perimeter of this

system, there is a persistent eddy current about 160 km.

northeast of the Yucatan Channel and about the same dis-

tance south of Pensacola, Florida (Drummond and Austin,

1958; Drennan, 1963; Nowlin, Hubertz, and Reid, 1968;

Nowlin, 1971). The inshore currents in the eastern Gulf

consist of one or more eddies that flow between the loop

current and the Florida coast, and variable longshore

currents that are strongly influenced by wind and tide

(Leipper, 1954; Lynch, 1954; Hela, 1956; Drummond and

Austin, 1958).

The offshore currents in the western Gulf also follow

a predominately clockwise direction, but the patterns are

poorly defined, especially in summer (Nowlin and McLellan,

1967; Jacobs and Ewing, 1969; Nowlin, 1971). Drift bottle

data, and other hydrological observations, indicate the

coastal currents in the western Gulf flow from the vicinity

of the Mississippi Delta toward the Mexican coast, es-

pecially between December and July (Leipper, 1954; Green-

man and LeBlanc, 1956; Drennan, 1963; Gaul and Boykin,

1965). At other times, the currents shift toward the east

and become part of the loop current (Drennan, 1963; Arm-

strong, Grady, and Stevenson, 1967).





11


Currents in Gulf estuaries are mostly tidal, and rarely

exceed 0.3 m./sec. except in narrows and offshore passes

where velocity may reach 3 m./sec. (Gorsline, 1967). The

relative strength of ebb and flow can often be deduced

from the observed direction of island or sand spit develop-

ment (Price, 1954).

Sediments

Widespread sedimentation in the Gulf of Mexico started

at the beginning of Laramide orogeny and continued through

the Tertiary and Quaternary to the present time (Rainwater,

1967). The rate of sedimentation is now between two and

300 m. per 1,000 years, which produces an average subsidence

in the Gulf basin of about 0.5 m. per 1,000 years (Shepard,

1953; Ludwick, 1964; Rusnak, 1967).. High sedimentation

rates occur near the mouth of large rivers such as the Mis-

sissippi where over 700,000,000 metric tons of sediment are

deposited each year (Gunter, 1967). Lower rates of about

1 m. per 1,000 years are characteristic of semiarid lagoons,

and sediments in the deep water of the Gulf may accumulate

as slowly as 1 mm. or less per 1,000 years (Rusnak, 1967;

Pyle, 1968). In general, however, Rusnak (1967) stated

that the average rate of sedimentation is about equal to

the rate of sea level rise. In addition to recent alluvial





12

deposits, the Gulf also contains a large amount of modern,

bioclastic sediments that have been distributed by marine

transgressions in the past 17,000 years following the Wis-

consin glaciation (Greeman and LeBlanc, 1956; Curray, 1960;

Taft and Harbaugh, 1964).

From the vicinity of Carmen, on the Mexican coast,

around the northern Gulf and south to Cape Romano and the

northern part of the Ten Thousand Islands in Florida, near-

shore sediments are mostly quartz sand with an admixture

of silt and clay. Within this area, the greatest amount of

silt and clay occurs in sediments of the northern and west-

ern Gulf. Typically, these fine-grained materials are de-

posited nearshore. Farther from shore there is a transi-

tion to more sandy sediments and mixtures of sand and shell.

In the northern Gulf, the zone of fine-grained particles and

quartz sand extends offshore about 80 km. In the eastern

Gulf, however, the same zone has an average width of only

32 km. and is gradually replaced almost entirely by carbon-

ate sediments in the vicinity of Cape Romano, Florida (Gould

and Stewart, 1955; Jordan and Stewart, 1959; Storr, 1964;

Force, 1969). Somewhat south of Cape Romano and on the

Campeche Bank of Mexico, sediments are mainly carbonaceous

and consist of marl or fragments of shell, coral, and coral-

line algae (Taft, 1961; Scholl, 1963; Scholl and Craighead,





13

1967). The zone of inshore, terrigenous deposits corres-

ponds with the region of the Gulf that receives the great-

est volume of river discharge (Gould and Stewart, 1955;

McNulty, 1968).

Regardless of provenance, however, sediments in Gulf

estuaries are similar in a number of respects. These fea-

tures include stratification, sorting, particle size dis-

tribution, organic content, and carbon-nitrogen ratio.

Generally, there is little or no sediment stratification

because of the burrowing and mixing accomplished by poly-

chaetes and other benthic invertebrates. Sediment sorting

improves from bay heads to the Gulf and is directly related

to wave and current energy. Particle size increases toward

the Gulf but local anomalies occur in channels where parti-

cles are usually larger than average, or in deep depressions

where most particles are in the silt and clay range. Organic

content (weight percentage of carbon) may exceed 10 percent

in fine-grained deposits. The average value, however, is

usually between one and two percent, and regional trends

show higher values near bay heads and lower values near the

Gulf. The organic carbon content of estuarine sediments

comes almost entirely from vegetation so that the carbon-

nitrogen ratio is generally high (Lowman, 1951; Lynch, 1954;





14

Price, 1954; Gould and Stewart, 1955; Jordon and Stewart,

1959; Purl and Vernon, 1959; Curry, 1960; Shepard and

Moore, 1960; Goodell and Gorsline, 1961; Stewart and

Gorsline, 1962; Holmes and Evans, 1963; Kofoed and Gors-

line, 1963; Scholl, 1963; Ludwick, 1964; Goldsmith, 1966;

Huang, 1966; Gorsline, 1967; Palacas, 1967; Uchupi, 1967;

Bryant, Ewing, and Jones, 1968).


Climate, Hydrology, and Nutrients

The Gulf coast climate has been described by Hedgpeth

(1953) and meteorological conditions offshore were reviewed

by Leipper (1954). In the western and northwestern Gulf,

Hedgpeth (1953) recognized a temperate semiarid climate

which changes in order to temperate dry, and moist subhumid

climates to the east, and subtropical and tropical, moist,

subhumid climates on the southern half of peninsular Florida.

In comparison with the open Gulf, coastal waters are strong-

ly influenced by ambient weather in terms of a number of

factors that include temperature, salinity, turbidity, and

the concentrations of organic and inorganic nutrients. Tem-

perature more than any other factor is responsible for the

biotic provinces in the Gulf (Hutchins, 1947; Pulley, 1952;

Hedgpeth, 1953; Humm, 1969). On the basis of temperature

and mollusk distribution, Pulley (1952) distinguished six






15
faunal provinces for Gulf coastal waters. Three of these,

south Florida, southwest Florida, and Mexican may also be

considered Caribbean -- while the northeast Gulf, north-

west Gulf, and Texas Transitional may be regarded as

Carolinean (Hedgpeth, 1953). In deeper waters of the Gulf,

Parker (1960) and Rowe (1966) have shown that water tempera-

ture decreases with depth. This phenomenon creates vertical

provinces as well, which range from Caribbean or Carolinean

at the surface to Boreal at 2,000 fathoms and below.

Average winter water temperature in the southern Gulf

is about 23.90 C., and in the north it is about 18.30 C.

(Drummond and Austin, 1958). As a yearly average, tempera-

ture data from coastal recording stations around the Gulf

show a gradual decrease from south to north: Key West,

Florida, and Progresso, Mexico -- 26.50 C.; St. Petersburg,

Florida -- 24.00 C.; Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston,

Texas -- 22.00 C. (U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1965).

It is important to note, however, that these average figures

are computed from temperatures that have a normal, yearly

range of about 150 C. and an extreme range that may exceed

300 C. In a three-year study of estuaries in the Florida

Everglades, Tabb, Dubrow, and Manning (1959) recorded a low,

winter water temperature of 14.40 C. and a summer high of





16

33.6 C. Seasonal, temperature ranges in the northern Gulf

have been reported by Dawson (1955a) as 9.50 to 35.00 C.,

and by Curl (1959) as 14.00 to 30.1 C. "Northers," and

high summer air temperatures, cause even greater differences

in winter-summer water temperatures (00 to 440 C.) on the

Texas coast (Leipper, 1954; Breuer, 1957; Simmons, 1957;

Gunter, 1967). Little or no thermal stratification has been

reported for coastal waters of the Gulf, but tributary springs

and heated industrial waters create local temperature anom-

alies.

Isohalines for surface water in the Yucatan Current

range from about 35.7 to 36 parts per thousand, but lower

and higher values have been recorded from water masses at

greater depths (Drummond and Austin, 1958; Jacobs and Ewing,

1969). In the open Gulf, Williams (1954) reported 30 to 37

parts per thousand as a normal range for surface salinity,

and Curl (1959) arbitrarily selected 35 parts per thousand

as a means of identifying the dividing point between off-

shore water and coastal water. The width of the estuarine

zone varies with season and place, and depends mainly on

the flow of rivers and springs. Average discharge of fresh

water into the Gulf has been estimated at 25,000,000 liters

per second. About three-fourths of this volume comes from







the Mississippi River, and the rest comes mostly from

Florida and the Gulf states east of Corpus Christi, Texas

(Collier and Hedgpeth, 1950; Wilson, 1967). Cruise data

from the M/V Alaska show that the flow of fresh water from

the Mississippi River may reduce surface salinity to 26

parts per thousand at more than 96 km. from land (Drummond

and Austin, 1958). Curl (1959) found a similar, but less

pronounced, dilution in waters of the northeastern Gulf,

and reported a band of coastal water that extended eight to

48 km. from shore depending on the seasonal volume of fresh-

water runoff. In other areas of the Gulf, inshore waters

are often hypersaline rather than brackish. The most ex-

tensive belt of high salinity water lies along the Mexican

and Texas coasts in the Laguna Madre where Simmons (1957)

reported a datum of 113.9 parts per thousand. Abnormally

high salinity has also been reported for south Florida es-

tuaries during periods of drought and high evaporation

(Tabb, Dubrow, and Manning, 1959).

Turbidity in the Gulf is caused by land drainage and

other factors such as wind, water currents, and bottom type

(Breuer, 1962). On the west coast of Florida, clear water

occurs along the Keys but turbid conditions prevail over

the marl bottom in Florida Bay, and in the Ten Thousand





18

Islands where the water is stained by mangrove vegetation

(Tabb, Dubrow, and Manning, 1962). To the north, between

Cape Romano and Cedar Keys, estuarine waters are moderately

clear. Farther north, and west to the Laguna Madre, the

only area of clear, coastal water occurs between Cape San

Blas and Pensacola, Florida (Gunter, 1967). According to

Breuer (1962) turbidity in the Laguna Madre is variable,

but the water is generally clearer than that of the north-

ern Gulf coast. From Tampico, Mexico, to the Campeche Bank,

the coastal water is very clear. Kornicker, Bonet, Cann,

and Hoskin (1959) reported that water in the vicinity of

Alacran Reef was sufficiently clear to see the bottom at

27 m.

Nutrient concentrations in the Gulf are almost entirely

related to coastal runoff as the mineral-rich layers of the

Yucatan Current are mostly directed toward the Florida Strait

(Rounsefell, 1954; Drunmmond and Austin, 1958; Corcoran

and Alexander, 1963). Therefore, most of the euphotic zone

in the open Gulf has low concentrations of phosphorus, nitro-

gen, and other growth-promoting elements. A few, exceptional

areas of high productivity in the Gulf of Mexico have been

reported by Bogdanov, Sokolov, and Khromov (1968). Surface

waters of many warm seas lack the nutrients necessary for





19

high, plankton production, and primary productivity in such

areas usually varies between 0.05 and 0.38 g.C/m.2/day

(Ryther, 1963; Beers, Steven, and Lewis, 1968). Primary

production in the Gulf probably lies within that range. Near-

shore, however, nutrient concentrations and primary produc-

tion are higher. High, estuarine production results from

mineral and organic enrichment through land drainage, intra-

estuarine nutrient cycling, tidal action, high solar insola-

tion, and the presence of a broad, shallow littoral zone that

supports a variety of photosynthetic taxa (Schelske and Odum,

1962; Duke and Rice, 1967). Work in Gulf estuaries by Odum

(1957),Odum and Hoskin (1958),Pomeroy (1960),and others has

2
shown that gross primary production2 is on the order of 5 to

34 g.02/m.2/day or roughly 2.5 to 17 g.C/m.2/day. Values

at the lower end of this range are probably the result of

low light transmission in areas of high turbidity (Odum and

Hoskin, 1958; Ragotzkie, 1959; Gunter, 1967). Added to

endogenous estuarine production, there is also an enormous

area of mangrove and marsh vegetation which contributes de-

tritus and soluble organic compounds to estuarine food webs

(Darnell, 1967; Odum and de la Cruz, 1967; Stephens, 1966;



2
Net primary production is between 40 and 75 percent of
gross primary production (Nielsen, 1963; Ryther, 1963).





20

Zieman, 1968; Heald, 1969; Taylor, 1969). Gulf enrich-

ment by fresh-water drainage was first demonstrated by

Riley (1937) in a study of phosphate-phosphorus near the

mouth of the Mississippi River. His data for the delta

area and coast between central Louisiana and Mobile Bay

showed a maximum phosphate concentration of 16 mg./m.3

Offshore, the highest measurement was eight and the average

value was 3.8 mg./m.3. In the western Gulf, Simmons (1957)

observed the same pattern of estuarine enrichment in brack-

ish bays of the Texas coast. The most thorough study of

estuarine nutrification has been done in the eastern Gulf

in connection with work on red tides. A selection of sta-

tion data presented by Finucane and Dragovich (1959) illus-

trates the gradual decline of organic and inorganic nutrients

in an inshore-offshore direction (table 1). The concentra-

tion of phosphorus nearshore in Tampa Bay and Charlotte

Harbor is abnormally high due to the distribution of commer-

cial phosphate deposits in nearby areas (McNeil, 1950;

Dragovich, Kelly and Goodell, 1968).












Table l.--Mean annual values for nitrite-nitrate nitrogen,
total phosphorus, copper, carbohydrate, and
protein from water inshore (IS) and offshore
(OS) at three points along the west coast of
Florida. Data from Finucane and Dragovich
(1959) -- Tampa Bay stations 17 and 20; Char-


lotte Harbor stations
stations 37 and 56


3 and 34; Everglades


Stations

Tampa Bay Charlotte Everglades
Factor Harbor

IS OS IS OS IS OS

NO2-NO3 1.1 0.8 2.5 0.5 1.8 0.5

ug.at./l.

Total Phosphorus 9.6 0.4 19.4 0.3 2.9 0.7

ug.at./l.

Cu 0.15 0.08 0.14 0.11 0.15 0.12

ug.at./l.

Carbohydrate, 3.0 0.9 3.2 1.4 2.6 1.6
Arabinose
equivalents

mg./l.

Protein, 1.2 0.2 4.2 0.4 4.2 0.3
Tyrosine
equivalents

mg./I.








Emergent and Submergent Vegetation

Emergent vegetation along the Gulf coast between south-

ern Florida and Yucatan consists of four main associations

in biotopes that are variously influenced by exposure, drain-

age, coastal formation, and climate. The sand-strand asso-

ciation and those plants that occur on saline flats are found

recurrently along the entire coastline of the Gulf of Mexico.

Mangroves are confined by temperature to the southern Gulf

where they dominate the coast from Tampa Bay south and along

the Yucatan Peninsula. The black mangrove, Avicennia nitida

Jacq., has a more extensive range than either the red,

Rhizophora mangle L., or white mangrove, Laguncularia

racemosa (L.). It occurs in small stands as far north as

the Chandeleur Islands in Louisiana and along the Mexican

coast to the vicinity of the Rio Grande. North of the well-

developed mangrove forests, the predominant coastal vegeta-

tion consists of one or more species of Spartina or the black

rush, Juncus roemerianus Scheele (Price, 1954; Thorne, 1954;

Moul and Brown, 1957).

Submerged vegetation includes seven species of sea

grasses and many kinds of algae. Among the sea grasses,

two are commonly found in water of low salinity -- horned

pondweed, Zanichellia palustris L., and widgeon grass, Ruppia





23

maritima L. The other five occur mostly in normal or hyper-

saline habitats: turtle grass, Thalassia testudinum Konig;

manatee grass, Syringodium filiforme Kutzing; shoal weed,

Diplanthera wrightii (Ascherson); Halophila baillonis Ascher-

son; and Halophila engelmanii Ascherson (Thorne, 1954; Humm,

1956). Turtle grass is the most widespread sea grass in the

Gulf, but on the basis of scattered collection records it

seems likely that all or most of the other species are also

distributed throughout the Gulf wherever light and bottom con-

ditions are favorable (Humm, 1956; Kornicker, Bonet, Cann,

and Hoskin, 1959; Phillips, 1960; Breuer, 1962; Tabb,

Dubrow, and Manning, 1962; Gunter, 1967). Near Tortugas,

Florida, Thorne (1954) commented on a collection of H.

engelmanii from an estimated depth of 91 m., and stated

that he knew of no sea grass collections from deeper than

100 m.

A rich algal flora is associated with sea grasses (Humm,

1964) and a large number of species attach to limestone out-

crops, beach rock, serpuloid reefs, old coral heads, coastal

vegetation, and a variety of man-made structures. Further-

more, a few species are adapted by a prodigious system of

stems to growth on unconsolidated sediments. Recent work

on the taxonomy, ecology, and biogeography of the Gulf algae





24

includes reports by Taylor (1960), Humm and Taylor (1961),

Taylor (1965), Dawes (1967), and Humm (1969).


Animal Assemblages

Hedgpeth (1954) and others summarized available informa-

tion on animal communities in the Gulf, and presented species

lists, ecological data, and biogeographic. annotations for

many invertebrate and vertebrate groups. The major bottom

communities that he recognized were: oyster bottom, shrimp

ground, coral bottom, sponge bar, serpuloid reef, jetty, and

sand beach. Drawing from an earlier paper by Ladd (1951)

Hedgpeth also listed nine marine environments based on

salinity and mollusk distribution. These were: bay head,

inter-reef (oyster), reef (oyster), polyhaline bay, passes,

open Gulf nearshore and offshore, beach, and hypersaline

lagoon. Information on the deep water fauna of the Gulf

was limited at that time to reports from cruises of the

Blake and Albatross between 1877 and 1883.

Later reports on invertebrate assemblages in the

northern Gulf described as many as 11 environmental facies

for estuarine waters and eight for the continental shelf

and slope (Parker, 1960; Phleger, 1960). The dominant

fishes and macroinvertebrate assemblages in estuarine sys-

tems from Texas to western Florida were studied by a number





25

of authors including Reid (1955a, 1955b); Wurtz and Roback

(1955); Breuer (1957, 1962); Simmons (1957); Darnell

(1958); Arnold, Wheeler, and Baxter (1960); Gunter (1962,

1967); Hoese and Jones (1963); and Perret (1966). For

the eastern Gulf, principal studies include papers by Reid

(1954); Springer and Woodburn (1960); Springer and McErlean

(1962); Scholl (1963); Sykes and Finucane (1966); Gunter

and Hall (1965); and Tabb, Dubrow, and Manning (1962). By

including Biscayne Bay, Florida, as an area adjacent to the

Gulf, mention may also be made of the series of benthic in-

vestigations by McNulty and colleagues that date back to

the 1950s (McNulty, 1966) and the studies on intertidal

communities by O'Gower and Wacasey (1967) and Moore, Davies,

Fraser, Gore, and Lopez (1968).

Recent information on the offshore fauna is available

in several additional references. The most extensive col-

lections came from exploratory fishing cruises conducted by

the National Marine Fisheries Service (Bullis and Thompson,

1965). Intensive regional studies have been made by Hilde-

brand (1954, 1955) and Rowe (1966) in the western Gulf, and

by Storr (1964) and Joyce (1968) in the eastern sector.

The first written reports on Tampa Bay and its marine

life came from observations by the early Spanish explorers,







Navaez and DeSoto, in the early 1500s (Galtsoff, 1954).

Their comments were of a general nature and described the

more common fish and shellfish eaten by Indians (Shipp, 1881).

In addition to the littoral, polychaete aggregations

reported by Hartman (1951) other papers include (1) species

from the Mexican coast,Rioja (1946, 1961), -- (2) species

annotated by Behre (1950) from Louisiana, (3) those in the

museum report compiled by Dawson (1955b) for coastal Missis-

sippi, (4) species in Menzel's (1956) checklist for north

Florida, (5) worms found by Carpenter (1956) in Alligator

Harbor, Florida, from nine habitats, (6) annelids collected

by Taylor (1961) in 10 habitats, (7) those commonly found in

Biscayne Bay, Florida, on level bottom and intertidal bottoms

that are either vegetated or unvegetated (McNulty, 1966;

O'Gower and Wacasey, 1967; Moore, Davies, Fraser, Gore,

and Lopez, 1968), -- (8) worms that are found in and on

coral in the south Florida reef patches (Ebbs, 1966) and

(9) polychaetes found in sponges (Pearse, 1934).

Elsewhere on the Florida coasts, polychaetes have been

studied by Ehlers (1887); Ashworth (1910); Treadwell (1911,

1914, 1917, 1921, 1929); Hoagland (1919); Monro (1933) Hart-

man (1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942a, 1942b, 1944a, 1944b,

1947a, 1947b, 1949, 1950, 1952, 1954, 1956, 1957, 1958,




27

1959a, 1959b, 1965, 1968, 1969); Stephenson and Stephenson

(1950, 1952); Voss and Voss (1955); Pettibone (1956, 1961,

1963a, 1963b, 1965, 1966); Renaud (1956); Jones (1961,

1963); McNulty (1961); Paine (1961, 1963); Tabb and

Manning (1961); McNulty, Work, and Moore (1962); Mangum

(1962, 1964); Tabb, Dubrow, and Manning (1962); Wells (1962);

Robertson (1963); Ebbs (1964); Ebbs and Staiger (1965);

Fitzsimons (1965); Wells (1965); Bush (1966); Multer and

Milliman (1967); Joyce (1968); Kirtley (1968); Mangum,

Santos, and Rhodes (1968); Naqvi (1968); Heald (1969); and

McNulty and Lopez (1969).

One of the earliest, if not the first, collection of

polychaetes in Tampa Bay was made by Eisenberg in 1856

(Wells, 1962). His collection contained a large number of

Arenicola cristata that are now housed at the Museum of

Comparative Zoology. Later records are limited to work by

Pettibone (1957); Dragovich and Kelly (1964); Simon (1965);

Taylor (1966, 1968); Kelly and Dragovich (1967); and Taylor

and Saloman (1968). Only six species and some ecological

observations were noted in these papers,


Human Influence

Plant and animal communities in the Gulf are probably

as productive as those in any other area of the world. Be-

fore the recent impact of civilization, mortality from





28

environmental change was limited to natural phenomena such

as hurricanes, severe cold fronts, red tide, and "Jubilees"

(oxygen depletion -- Gunter, 1967).

Along much of the Gulf coast, the estuarine environment

has been modified by man. These changes are caused by do-

mestic and industrial wastes, biocides, siltation, radio-

active wastes, crude oil and chemical spills, exotic species,

and human predation; as well as many types of coastal con-

struction for water diversion, storm protection, navigation,

beach reclamation, and land fills (U. S. Public Health Serv-

ice, 1954; Biglane and LaFleur, 1967; Cronin, 1967; Butler,

1969; Holt, 1969; Hopkins, 1969; Copeland, 1970). Most

of these modifications occurred after 1940 when many coastal

areas began to develop at an unprecedented rate. The magni-

tude and significance of human influence on Gulf estuaries

is presently undergoing review by the National Marine Fisher-

ies Service and cooperating Gulf states. The project is en-

titled, "Gulf of Mexico Estuarine Inventory." This monumen-

tal study shows the extent of coastal development around the

Gulf and describes the present condition of nearshore waters,

sediments, and biota.

On the basis of data from this inventory, Sykes (1967)

estimated that four percent, or about 218,000 ha., of Gulf







estuaries, are already seriously polluted or entirely

eliminated as area for useful biological production. His

figures show that most of the damage has occurred in Florida

where some 158,000 ha. were polluted, or filled for residen-

tial and industrial sites. As a specific example of estuarine

destruction he cited Boca Ciega Bay (Tampa Bay Estuary) where

land fills have covered nearly 20 percent of the original

water area. Within the same Estuary, there are also areas

that receive a large volume of domestic and industrial waste,

and other areas that are relatively undisturbed.

The presence of natural and modified environments in

Tampa Bay provided an opportunity to report additional in-

formation on the diversity, abundance, and distribution of

Gulf polychaetes; and to compare the polychaete fauna of

natural, undisturbed areas with those that have been altered

in various ways by man. The use of polychaetes as indica-

tors of environmental change has great relevance in the

Tampa Bay area where the economy is based on retirement

living, tourism, recreation and water resources.














CHAPTER 3

TAMPA BAY ESTUARY


In Miocene and Pliocene time Tampa Bay and southern

Florida were under the sea. The headlands that now mark

the Estuary were no more than submerged features of the

Florida Plateau (Cooke, 1945; Alt and Brooks, 1965). The

modern relief of Tampa Bay did not take shape until Pleisto-

cene time when great fluctuations of sea level caused re-

current periods of erosion and sedimentation. According

to Gorsline (1967) the last major period of erosion on the

Florida Plateau occurred about 17,000 years ago when the

Gulf was 100 m. lower than now. Thereafter, rising water

brought the Gulf to its present height about 2,000 years

ago, and the level has changed little since that time.


Location and Configuration

Tampa Bay is located midway along the west coast of

Florida between north latitude 27031'4" and 28 02'3", and
o o
west longitude 81 23'2" and 82 50'0" (figure 1). The shore-

line is approximately 320 km. and surface area is about 905





31

sq. km. The main axis of the Estuary lies northeast-south-

west and extends nearly 63 km. Maximum width is 40 km.

near the mouth of the Estuary between the narrows in upper

Boca Ciega Bay and Sarasota Pass (Olson and Morrill, 1955).

On the basis of hydrology and geography, the Estuary

can be divided into six areas. Tampa Bay extends from the

Gulf, between Mullet and Anna Maria Keys, landward to Inter-

bay Peninsula. It is divided by a hypothetical line between

Pinellas Point and Piney Point into upper and lower Tampa

Bay. A third area, Boca Ciega Bay, lies north of Tampa Bay

entrance, and a fourth, Terra Ceia Bay,is on the opposite

side. A fifth area, Old Tampa Bay, is located on the west

side of Interbay Peninsula, and the sixth area, Hillsborough

Bay, lies on the east side of the Peninsula (figure 1). In

terms of surface area, the upper and lower parts of Tampa

Bay comprise about 57 percent of the Estuary, Boca Ciega

Bay eight percent, Terra Ceia Bay three percent, Old Tampa

Bay 22 percent, and Hillsborough Bay 10 percent.

Passes to the Gulf run between a series of barrier is-

lands located along the seaward side of the Estuary. From

Anna Maria Key north, the main passes are Passage Key Inlet,

Southwest Channel, Egmont Channel, Bunces Pass, Pass-a-Grille

Channel, Blind Pass, and Johns Pass. The islands are built










and shaped by tidal action, and by waves and longshore

currents. Coastal currents north of Tampa Bay entrance

have a net, southerly flow, and south of the entrance in-

shore currents have a predominantly northward drift. In

passes, currents run slightly faster at ebb than at flood

tide (Goodell and Gorsline, 1961).

Average depth of the Estuary is about 3.3 m. and prac-

tically all water deeper than 5 m. is in upper and lower

Tampa Bay. The deepest water (12 m.) is just south of

Mullet Key in Egmont Channel. Dredged, ship channels from

the Gulf to ports in Tampa Bay, Old Tampa Bay, and Hills-

borough Bay have a controlling depth of about 9 m. By

area, average depths in the Estuary are as follows: lower

and upper Tampa Bay, 4.3 m.; Boca Ciega Bay, 1.5 m.; Terra

Ceia Bay, 1.5 m.; Old Tampa Bay, 2.7 m.; Hillsborough Bay,

3.1 m. Topographic zones in the Estuary include shallow

tidal flats with an average depth of 1.2 m., slopes that

drop from the flats to about 5.4 m., and natural depressions

and channels that are 6 m. or deeper. Total volume of the
/
Estuary at mean, low water (MLW) is about 0.687 cubic miles

(Olson and Morrill, 1955; Goodell and Gorsline, 1961 ; U. S.

Coast and Geodetic Survey Navigation Charts 586 and 587).

Offshore, the continental shelf is 192 km. wide. Depth





Foldout too large
for digitization

May be added at a
later date










increases by 0.8 m. per mile (1.6 km.) to the 63 m. con-

tour, and 3 m. per mile from there to the 180 m. mark.

At the outer limit of the shelf, there is a sharp dip,

and the angle of the continental slope is about 390 between

a depth of 1,800 and 2,700 m. (Gould and Stewart, 1955).


Climate and Tributary Waters

The Estuary and surrounding upland has an humid, sub-

tropical climate. Average air temperature in St. Peters-

burg during 1963 was 22 C.and mean temperature of the

coldest and warmest months was 12 and 28 C. (U. S. Dept.

of Commerce, Climatological Data, Florida, 1963). Rainfall

is about 127 cm. per year, and records show that annual pre-

cipitation varies between 72.5 and 192.5 cm. (U. S. Dept. of

Commerce, Climatological Data, Florida, 1967). The rainfall

is seasonal, and more than half usually falls between June

and October (Dragovich and May, 1962). Much of the rain

comes from localized electrical storms so that precipitation

is not evenly distributed over the entire watershed. For

example, in 1963, St. Petersburg and Bradenton received about

153 cm. of rain but only 109 cm. fell on Tampa. Evapora-

tion usually equals or exceeds precipitation. In 1963, it

was recorded as 170.13 cm. at a gauging station near Tampa

(U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Climatological Data, Florida, 1964).




35

Prevailing winds over the Estuary are easterly at an average

speed of 3.7 m./sec., there are only 40 to 80 days of cloud

cover each year, and the sun usually shines more than six

hours per day (Trewartha, 1943; Hutton, Eldred, Woodburn,

and Ingle, 1956). In 1963, wind direction and cloud cover

were normal, but wind velocity was considerably higher than

average (5.9 m./sec.) -- (U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Climato-

logical Data, Florida, 1963).

The watershed drained by the Estuary covers an area

of about 5,600 sq. km. and contains a number of rivers,

streams, and springs.3 The rivers all flow into the east-

ern side of the Estuary and are named Hillsborough, Palm,

Alafia, Little Manatee, and Manatee (Ferguson, Linghan,

Love, and Vernon, 1947). Many of the charted creeks and

bayous are entirely tidal and have no fresh water source.

Gauge records show that fresh water flow into the Estuary

is 1,567.5 cubic feet per second (cfs) or 44,260 liters per

second, and the total flow from all natural sources is

probably close to 2,000 cfs (56,600 liters per second).

Using 56,600 liters per second as an approximate figure,

the daily fresh water flow into the Estuary is about 4.9

billion liters per day. Total fresh water input from all



3
Data on file U. S. Geological Survey, Tampa, Florida,
33602.





36

sources should include domestic and industrial sewage which

has a volume of 347,000,000 liters per day. By areas, sew-

age volume figures in million of liters per day are as

follows: lower and upper Tampa Bay, 88; Boca Ciega Bay,

85; Terra Ceia Bay, negligible; Old Tampa Bay, 10; and

Hillsborough Bay 164. Thus the grand total of fresh water

entering the Estuary is about five billion liters per day

with sewage volume amounting to more than six percent of

that figure.

Coastal Development

In the tri-county region surrounding Tampa Bay there

is a resident population of over 1,120,000 people. The

largest number of people live in Pinellas County (527,920)

which is the most densely populated county in Florida. The

population of Hillsborough County is 505,755, and that of

Manatee County is 86,500. Centers of population are the

cities of St. Petersburg, Clearwater, Tampa, Palmetto, and

Bradenton. Automobile travel around and between these cities

is facilitated by a causeway and two bridges over Old Tampa

Bay, a bridge over upper Hillsborough Bay, several bridges

and causeways between the mainland and the barrier islands

across Boca Ciega Bay, and the Sunshine Skyway near the

mouth of the Estuary that connects St. Petersburg and Terra

Ceia.





37

Regional commerce includes fisheries, agriculture, food

processing, wholesale and retail merchandising, tobacco,

electronics and other light industry, chemical production

and heavy industry, shipping, air and rail transport, public

utilities, and building construction. Tourism, however, is

the most important component of the economy in the Tampa

Bay area. Figures from the Florida Development Commission

show that 3,000,000 tourists visit the Bay each year. They

stay for an average vacation of 15 days and have a per capital

expenditure of 274 dollars. Thus, the total yearly value of

tourism is 822,000,000 dollars. The main tourist attraction

is Tampa Bay Estuary and the recreation it provides (Kidd,

1963).

Development in Boca Ciega Bay is largely for homesites

and tourist accommodations. Pollutants include sewage and

a large volume of silt and clay that was deposited during

dredge-fill projects. Land fills and construction of the

Pinellas County Bayway have eliminated most coastal vegeta-

tion and drastically changed current patterns. The only

remaining natural shoreline is around islands east and

west of Tierra Verde and at Fort DeSoto Park (Mullet Key)

where vegetation consists of mangroves, a variety of strand

species, and cord grass.





38

In lower and upper Tampa Bay, there is practically no

natural shore in Pinellas County, and the shore in Manatee

County is being rapidly developed for homesites, tourism,

industry, and shipping. At present, the volume of sewage

and degree of coastal development is far greater in Pinellas

County. The Manatee side of the Bay has some extensive

stands of mangrove, but construction at Apollo Beach and

Piney Point make their future uncertain. Egmont Key, at

the mouth of Tampa Bay, is relatively undisturbed and has

only a small boat pilot community and a U. S. Coast Guard

facility to maintain Egmont Light.

In Old Tampa Bay, about two-thirds of the coast is un-

developed and supports a mixed growth of mangrove, cord

grass, and black rush. Tidal flow in upper Old Tampa Bay

is interrupted by Courtney Campbell Parkway. Sewage is the

principal pollutant there, and the major portion of resi-

dential and industrial development is in Hillsborough County

between the eastern end of W. Howard Frankland bridge and

the phosphate docks at Port Tampa.

The entire perimeter of Hillsborough Bay is developed

and partially filled. McDill Air Force Base covers the

southern end of Interbay Peninsula, and from there to the

Alafia River there is a solid front of housing, dock facil-

ities, and heavy industry. Large sewage outfalls enter the







Bay at McDill (secondary treatment) and at Hooker Point

(primary treatment).

Terra Ceia Bay has some waterfront homesites and

marinas, and is polluted to a small degree from sewage

carried by the Manatee River. Most of the shoreline is

covered with mangroves and an interesting admixture of

tropical species.

Hydrology

From a hydrological standpoint, Tampa Bay Estuary is

one of the best known embayments in the world. Its water

chemistry has been studied periodically since 1946, mainly

in connection with investigations of the Florida red tide

organism, Gymnodinium breve (Williams, 1954). In their

literature survey of the Estuary, Olson and Morrill (1955)

summarized existing information on water temperature, salin-

ity, water transparency, currents, and tides. The National

Marine Fisheries Service increased the scope and frequency

of water sampling in 1957, and in 1966, the laboratory at

St. Petersburg Beach established 30 permanent hydrographic

stations. At a station at the laboratory dock on Boca Ciega

Bay water is sampled twice each day, and water at the other

stations is sampled on a monthly schedule. Also, daily water

temperature and salinity measurements are recorded at the

U. S. Coast Guard Station on Egmont Key. Factors recorded

Sb





40

by the Fisheries Service include water temperature, salinity,

pH, total phosphorus, Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved oxygen,

water turbidity and transparency, chlorophyll pigments, as-

tacin and non-astacin carotenoids, planktonic primary pro-

duction, and ultraviolet absorption (Saloman and Taylor,

1968). The mean and range of these factors for 1963 and

the most recent year of record (1967) have been summarized

(table 2).

Temperature

The mean, annual temperature of Tampa Bay is about

250 C. Normally, water temperature reaches 200 C.by April,

and 300 C.in July. It drops to 20 C.or below in November,

and falls to between 10 and 150 C.during winter months.

Temperature fluctuations are usually gradual, but pro-

nounced diel changes have been observed in shallow water.

For example, following a cold front in February, 1966, I

recorded a datum of 4.80 C.near shore at Mullet Key where
0
the normal temperature for that month is about 15 C. At

other times, rapid temperature depression in the Estuary

has caused extensive fish mortality (Rinckey and Saloman,

1964). The highest temperature recorded in the Estuary

(36.90C.) was reported from a tidal flat in Boca Ciega Bay

in July (Phillips, 1960). In 1963, average water tempera-

ture in the six major areas of Tampa Bay Estuary was 27.9 C.
ture in the six major areas of Tampa Bay Estuary was 27.9 C.







and the observed extremes were 11.7 and 36.80 C.

Over broad areas marked by degrees of latitude, water

temperature is probably the most important ecological

factor that limits the distribution of marine animals.

Temperature acts through its influences on metabolic

processes and generally restricts the range of littoral

species to one or another biogeographic zone or province

(Hedgpeth, 1953, 1957; Moore, 1958). On the basis of

mollusk distribution, Pulley (1952) erected the Southwest

Florida Province which includes Tampa Bay Estuary and runs

from Cape Romano to Anclote Key. For this zone he reported

a mean, maximum summer temperature of 320 C. and a mean, mini-

mum winter temperature of 160 C. Following the thesis of

Hutchins (1947) and others, he attributed the great species

diversity within that area to the fact that the average tem-

perature regime permits reproduction and survival of species

from both the Carolinian and West Indian Provinces.

Salinity

The salinity of Tampa Bay Estuary is between the con-

centration of fresh water (0.5 parts per thousand or less)

and that of sea water (33 to 37 parts per thousand). There

are no hypersaline areas in the Estuary, but in Hillsborough

Bay there is an extensive deposit of gypsum (hydrated calcium





42

sulphate) adjacent to spoil deposited from the phosphate

industry near the Alafia River.

At the entrance of the Estuary, salinity is usually

greater than 30 parts per thousand, and may reach 36 parts

per thousand or higher. The salinity gradient from lower

Tampa Bay to the head of the Estuary is about 10 to 12

parts per thousand. Dams limit brackish-water to the mouth

of the Hillsborough and Alafia Rivers, but in other tribu-

taries, salt-water extends well upstream. Vertical salin-

ity gradients in the Estuary are uncommon. The greatest

observed difference in salt content between surface and

bottom water (1.4 to 20.5 parts per thousand) was recorded

at the east end of Cross Bayou Canal in Old Tampa Bay on

January 13, 1963 (Finucane and Dragovich, 1966).

Diel and seasonal salinity changes in the Estuary are

small. Hillsborough Bay is the only area where rainfall

strongly influences salinity. There, drainage from the

Hillsborough and Alafia Rivers between June and October

may reduce salinity 6 to 7 parts per thousand (Saloman and

Taylor, 1968). At sampling stations visited in 1963, salin-

ity records were between 0.1 and 36.4 parts per thousand.

Next to temperature, salinity is probably the most

important hydrological factor limiting the distribution of

species in Tampa Bay. For most marine and fresh-water








species, intermediate salinities impose a physiological

barrier to estuarine migrations. Consequently, the middle

and upper reaches of brackish estuaries are inhabited by

euryhaline species and holeuryhaline forms (Pearse and

Gunter, 1957; Kinne, 1964).

Many polychaetes are well adapted to severe salinity

changes. Some of the nereids, for example, survive water

conditions that range from hypersaline to fresh through

their ability to regulate water and ions against a consider-

able concentration gradient (Oglesby, 1968). Other worms

have a limited ability to regulate or adjust in response

to salinity changes, and some avoid temporary osmotic stress

by retreating into burrows or tubes.

Hydrogen Ion Concentration

In most estuarine and marine habitats, pH is 7.0 or

greater due to high concentrations of bicarbonate, carbon-

ate, and borate ions (Nicol, 1960; Reid, 1961; Skirrow,

1965). Average pH for all areas of Tampa Bay in 1963 was

7.8 and the extreme values recorded that year were 5.6 and

4
8.5 units. Unpublished data from diel studies between

1962 and 1963 show that changes in pH are seldom more than



4
Data on file National Marine Fisheries Service Bio-
logical Laboratory, St. Petersburg Beach, Florida, 33706.







1.5 unit over a 24-hour period. In tidal creeks, and sedi-

ments beneath mangroves, Goodell and Gorsline (1961) re-

ported 6.8 as the observed, minimum pH. Humic acids and

highly organic sediments are responsible for low pH values

in such areas. In general, pH values in the Estuary are

7.0 or less in tributary waters, and 7.1 or above elsewhere.

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

4
On the basis of daylight and diel records, DO of

surface water in the Estuary seldom drops below 4 ml./l.

The average concentration in 1963 was 4.8 ml./l., which

represents oxygen saturation or super-saturation at ob-

served ranges of temperature and salinity. High and low

DO values for 1963 were 9.0 and 1.1 ml./l., respectively.

Values near 9 ml./l. usually coincided with periods of high

photosynthetic activity and low values were invariably re-

corded in early morning hours. DO values below 2 ml./l.

are limiting to many marine animals, especially when an

oxygen deficiency persists for protracted periods (Emery

and Stevenson, 1957; Moore, 1958).

At the bottom of the Estuary, DO is more variable and

there are records of anoxic conditions over soft sediments

in Boca Ciega and Hillsborough Bays (Dragovich, Kelly, and

Finucane, 1966; Saloman, Finucane, and Kelly, 1964). More







recent data (Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,

1969) show that in summer months there is little or no oxy-

gen at the bottom over large sections of Hillsborough Bay

covered by sewage sludge. Low DO in Boca Ciega Bay is

limited to bayfill access canals where soft, organically

rich deposits are as much as 4 m. thick (Taylor and Saloman,

1968).

In their study of the main tributaries of the Estuary,

Dragovich, Kelly, and Goodell (1968), found that DO values

of less than 50 percent saturation occurred in one-fifth

of their samples. As in Hillsborough and Boca Ciega Bays,

low DO in the Hillsborough, Alafia, and Manatee Rivers is

due to biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) caused by organic

pollution.

Nitrogen and Phosphorus

A data summary for nitrogen and phosphorus in Tampa

Bay, prepared by Taylor and Saloman (1968), shows a history

of progressive nutrient enrichment since 1952. Large amounts

of both nutrients reach the Estuary from land drainage and

sewage. Additional phosphorus enters the Bay from mining

operations in extensive phosphatic deposits north and east

of the Estuary. Dragovich, Kelly, and Goodell (1968) cal-

culated that river discharge adds at least 600,000 kg. of

phosphorus to the Estuary each year. According to the





46

U. S. Geological Survey (1969) approximately 45,000 kg. of

orthophosphate pass each day from Tampa Bay into the Gulf

of Mexico. As sewage volume in the Bay increases, the

ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus will probably rise because

the effluent from sewage receiving secondary treatment has

a nitrogen-phosphorus ratio of about.,three to one (Garber,

1959).

The fertilizing effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on

algae have been more noticeable in Hillsborough Bay than

in other areas of the Estuary. There, excessive growth

of attached algae and phytoplankton has had undesirable

consequences (Dragovich, Kelly, and Kelly, 1965; Federal

Water Pollution Control Administration, 1969). During hours

of low light intensity, these plants deplete DO and cause

widespread fish-kills. Furthermore, the seasonal demise

and decomposition of the algae is the primary cause of an

objectionable odor along shore.

Primary Productivity

The study of primary production in Tampa Bay was started

by Pomeroy (1960). His work was limited to Boca Ciega Bay

where he found that phytoplankton, benthic algae, and sea

grasses all contributed about equally to production at

depths of 2 m. or less. In deeper water, however, he showed

that the abundance of sea grasses and benthic algae declines,







and phytoplankton become the only important producers. As

an average, he reported gross primary production of the

plant community at about 5 g.02/m.2/day. That figure is

roughly equal to 5 g. of organic matter per day (Odum and

Hoskin, 1958) or about 2.5 g.C/m.2/day (Yentsch, 1963; May,

1966). Thus, each of the three types of producers (sea

grasses, benthic algae, and phytoplankton) contributed

about 0.6 g.C/m.2/day.

In 1962, productivity studies were added to the National

Marine Fisheries Service program, and regular sampling be-

gan in representative areas of Tampa Bay. Plant pigments,

and the light-dark bottle method were used and results were

nearly equal (May, 1966). No attempt was made to measure

production by benthic algae or sea grasses. In the years

1962 and 1963, the average production by phytoplankton for

the entire Estuary was 1.2 g.C./m. /day, and since that

time the average figure has not changed appreciably (May,

1966; McNulty, 1969).

By season, productivity in the Estuary follows a

fairly uniform pattern. Lowest production occurs in winter,

intermediate levels are observed in spring and fall, and

peak production is in July, August, and September (McNulty,

1968).





48

From the standpoint of areas, the nutrient-rich waters

of Hillsborough Bay have the highest production, followed

in descending order by Old Tampa Bay, upper Tampa Bay, Boca

Ciega Bay, Terra Ceia Bay, and lower Tampa Bay. Offshore

in the Gulf of Mexico primary production drops to an aver-

age value of less than 0.01 g.C/m.2/day and the amount of

chlorophyll is about one-fourth the average concentration

in the Estuary (Dragovich and Johnson, 1966).

In comparison with other estuaries where productivity

has been studied, primary production in Tampa Bay is high,

and the amount of chlorophyll A present is nearly twice

the average found in temperate coastal waters (Nielsen,

1963; Ryther, 1963; Yentsch, 1963; McNulty, 1969; Strick-

land, 1965).

Water Clarity
5
A Hach turbidity meter, photometer, and Secchi disc

have been used to measure water clarity in Tampa Bay Es-

tuary (Dragovich, Kelly, and Finucane, 1966; Saloman and

Taylor, 1968; Saloman and Taylor, 1971). The Secchi disc

was used only at the laboratory dock in Boca Ciega Bay,

and the other instruments were used throughout the Estuary.




5
References to trade names in this publication do not
imply endorsement of commercial products.





49

Average values, based on readings from the turbidity meter

and photometer, show that the greatest amount of turbidity

occurs in Hillsborough Bay. A number of factors contri-

bute to the relatively high turbidity observed in that

area. A natural cause is the great quantity of humic acids

that enter the Bay from river flow. Human activities that

cause turbidity in Hillsborough Bay include shell dredging,

ship traffic, and the introduction of large amounts of sew-

age and industrial wastes.

Turbidity in Florida waters cannot legally exceed 50

Jackson Turbidity Units (JTU) above background level (Sup-

plement 52 to chapter 28.5 of the Rules of the Florida Air

and Water Pollution Control Commission). Average back-

ground for all areas of the Estuary is about 7 JTU (table

2). In terms of visibility, a Secchi disc disappears from

view at 110 to 120 cm. when turbidity is 7 JTU. This amount

of turbidity probably reduces planktonic primary production

to some extent and limits benthic algae and sea grasses to

a depth of about 2 m. or less (Phillips, 1960),, At a per-

missible turbidity level of 50 to 60 JTU, visibility would

decrease to between 20 and 25 cm., and most primary pro-

duction would be eliminated (Ragotzkie, 1959).

In some naturally turbid estuaries, low primary pro-

duction is replaced by allochthonous organic detritus from





50

coastal vegetation (Odum and de la Cruz, 1967). In the same

way, suspended and dissolved organic material from sewage

may be a potential food source for estuarine organisms.

Unfortunately, effluents from most coastal development con-

tain a mixture of industrial and domestic wastes. As a re-

sult, there are great quantitative and qualitative differences

between natural nutrients and those that originate directly

or indirectly from the discharge of sewage. The importance

of such differences, and the possibility of toxic compounds

in sewage, determines whether or not sewage pollution may be

beneficial or detrimental to a stable and productive estuarine

ecosystem (Rounsefell, 1963; Copeland and Wohlschlag, 1968).

In Hillsborough Bay, there is evidence from biological

and hydrological studies that the effects of pollution have

been mostly undesirable (Sykes and Finucane, 1966? Taylor

and Saloman, 1968; Taylor, Hall, and Saloman, 1970; Federal

Water Pollution Control Administration, 1969).

Ultraviolet Absorption (UV)

An estimate can be obtained of the organic content of

water from measurement of UV absorption at 220 mu. As a

rule, absorbency increases from the open sea toward shore.

Relatively high values near land are accentuated after pe-

riods of high land drainage and near sources of organic pol-

lution (Armstrong and Boalch, 1961; Sournia, 1965).














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57

Study of UV absorbency in Tampa Bay Estuary was started

by the National Marine Fisheries Service in 1963 with the

idea that a rise in UV absorbency might directly correlate

with plankton blooms -- especially outbreaks of the Florida

red tide organism, Gymnodinium breve (McNulty, 1969). On

several occasions, blooms have been recorded at times of

high UV absorbency, but not always. As one might expect,

average values of UV absorbency are highest in the nutrient-

rich areas of the Estuary (table 2). This concordance is

noted only as a point of interest for the relationship be-

tween UV absorbency and faunal abundance is unknown.

Tides and Currents

Tides in Tampa Bay Estuary have been classified as mixed-

semidiurnal; i.e., there are usually two high and two low

tides each day, but the levels of successive high and low

water periods are seldom equal. Tidal range is normally

less than 1 m., unless influenced by strong winds. Winds

from the southwest tend to elevate tides and hold water in

the Estuary while northeast winds have the opposite effect.

Hurricane tides of 3 m. above normal have been recorded

(Marmer, 1954; Olson and Morrill, 1955).

Currents in the Estuary are mainly generated by tidal

action and have an average velocity of about 0.3 m./sec.





59


analysis of sediments in Tampa Bay on the basis of 400 bot-

tom samples. An additional 773 sediment samples were col-

lected and analyzed during the benthic survey by the National

Marine Fisheries Service in 1963 (Taylor and Saloman, 1969).

Authors of the first study concluded that the limestone

basin of the Estuary dates from Miocene time and has since

been filled by Quartenary sediments to a depth of between

12 and 30 m. They found that the sediments are predominant-

ly quartz sand with an admixture of biogenic particles and

small amounts of silts and clays. Sediment pH was usually

above 7.0, and they attributed sediment homogeneity in the

upper 8 cm. to the activity of burrowing invertebrates. The

mean grain size in their samples was between -0.5 and 6.0

phi (0). In general, mean grain sizeand the weight percent-

age of shell increased from tidal flats to slopes and chan-

nels, and from the head of the Estuary to the Gulf. They

reported the average weight percentage of organic carbon

as 1.39 and found a direct relationship between high carbon

content and poor sediment sorting.

The main benefits from the second study were the acqui-

sition of sediment data for each survey station, and de-

lineation of fine sediment deposits in parts of Old Tampa

Bay, Hillsborough Bay, upper Tampa Bay, and Boca Ciega Bay.

From these data features of grain size, sorting, and weight








Flow rates of up to 1.3 m./sec. have been measured in the

narrows between Old Tampa Bay and upper Tampa Bay, at the

end of bridge abutments, and in passes leading to the Gulf.

There is very sluggish water movement in Hillsborough Bay,

and evidence of a large eddy east of St. Petersburg (Olson

and Morrill, 1955; Taylor and Saloman, 1969).


Submerged Vegetation

Aerial observations, photographs, and planimeter mea-

surements show that 8,500 ha. or nearly 10 percent of

Tampa Bay Estuary contains sea grasses and attached algae.

Most of these plants grow in shallow water and there are

marked seasonal changes in their growth and biomass (Taylor

and Saloman, 1966, 1970; Humm, 1969). Five species of sea

grass and more than 200 species of attached algae have been

reported for Tampa Bay (Phillips, 1960; Dawes, 1967). The

grasses are: Thalassia testudinum, turtle grass; Diplanthera

wrightii, shoal grass; Syringodium filiforme, manatee grass;

Halophila engelmanni; and Ruppia maritima, widgeon grass.

Apart from their contribution to primary production

(Ryther, 1963) these plants create a unique estuarine habitat

(Stephens, 1966).

Sediments

Goodell and Gorsline (1961) made the first comprehensive







percentage of calcium carbonate and organic carbon have

been summarized for major areas of the Estuary (table 3).

The means and ranges of these four factors show that each

area can be regarded as a separate sedimentary basin. In

other words, irrespective of overall sediment trends, each

area has a very great variety of depositional environments

available to the infauna of the Estuary. Sediment type

alone, therefore, cannot be a limiting factor for poly-

chaetes in any major region of Tampa Bay Estuary.





































































co








0














CHAPTER 4

PROCEDURE


Field sampling at transect and special-lettered stations

began in June, 1963, and continued until December of the

same year. Additional areas were sampled between 1963 and

1969 to supplement survey data and to assess environmental

conditions in connection with dredge-fill development appli-

cations (Taylor and Saloman, 1968) -- see figure 1.

Transect stations were located along 20 compass lines

that crossed the long axis of the Estuary at intervals of

two to 6 km., and extended from the headwaters to about 9.8

km. offshore. Stations were 1 km. or less apart depending

on bottom type and water depth. Special stations that did

not coincide with the transect pattern were established to

sample unusual habitats such as tributaries, oyster reefs,

spoil islands, shoals, and isolated patches of submerged

vegetation.

Most of the sampling was done from an outboard motor-

boat. Some shore stations were reached by truck, and stations








in parts of the Bay and Gulf were sampled from the R/V

Kingfish -- a 12.9m., diesel-powered vessel. Navigation

charts (587, 586, and 1257), shoreline features, compass,

clock, tachometer, and buoys were used to run transect

lines and establish stations. Seaward distances of off-

shore transects were determined by radar. A line of sta-

tions was laid out by following a compass bearing at con-

stant speed, and releasing plastic buoys at specific inter-

vals.

At stations deeper than 1 m., the infauna and sediment

were sampled with a bucket dredge, and epibenthic forms were

collected in a rigid-frame net. The dredge was 30 cm. wide

and dug to a depth of 5 cm. It had a capacity of 15 liters,

filled after a haul of 100 cm., and sampled a bottom area
2
of about 3,000 cm. .The net had an opening of 90 cm. by

26 cm. and was hung with netting of 3-mm. mesh (Taylor,

1965). One dredge sample and a two-minute net haul were

taken at each station. In shallow water, the net haul was

made by hand, and a shovel was used to supplement or re-

place the bucket dredge. In terms of surface area sampled,

three shovels of sediment were considered roughly equiva-

lent to a dredge sample.

All dredge and shovel samples were washed in a sieve





64

(Tyler 12-in. stainless-steel screen with 0.701-mm. mesh)

and fixed in 20 percent sea-water formalin. Rose Bengal

dye was added to the formalin to facilitate separation of

organisms from coarse sediment particles and debris.

At each station, about 300 cc. of sediment were col-

lected for analysis. These samples were stored in sealed,

plastic cups and forwarded to the Sediment Laboratory at

Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida. Analyses

were performed under the direction of Dr. H. Grant Goodell.

Textural analysis was done by wet sieving on a screen of

62-u. mesh. The coarse fraction retained by the screen

was oven-dried and further separated by grain-size classes

on nested sieves attached to a mechanical shaker. Sediments

that passed the 62-u. screen (silts and clays) were mea-

sured electronically in a Coulter counter. From grain-

size data, computer programs produced statistical informa-

tion for mean grain size, standard deviation (sorting),

skewness, and kurtosis (Folk, 1964). A pulverized fraction

of each sample was used to determine the weight percentage

of calcium carbonate by the EDTA method of Turekian (1956).

Weight percentages of organic carbon and organic nitrogen

were determined with Coleman analytical equipment. Station

data for sediments, water temperature, pH, salinity, depth,

and bottom vegetation were reported by Taylor and Saloman





65

(1969). Measurements of dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus,

Kjeldahl nitrogen, light penetration, ultraviolet absorp-

tion, and primary productivity are available for all areas

of the Estuary from continuing investigations by the National

Marine Fisheries Service. These measurements are performed

by standard procedures (Saloman and Taylor, 1968).

In the laboratory, biological collections were rinsed

in fresh water, sorted into major groups (class or order),

and preserved in 70 percent isopropanol. The polychaetes

were subsequently sorted to family level, and in most

instances to species. Preserved representatives of all

polychaetes collected within Tampa Bay were deposited in

collections of the National Marine Fisheries Service at

St. Petersburg Beach, Florida, and the U. S. National

Museum, Washington, D. C. Major works that were especially

useful for taxonomic determinations include Ehlers (1887),

Fauvel (1923, 1927),Hartman (1945, 1951, 1968, 1969), Petti-

bone (1963a),and Day (1967). Polychaete terminology was

taken from the usage of Day (1967) and nomenclature was

based on publications by Hartman, or authoritative revisions

in more recent reports. All determinations have not been

verified, and errors that may be present are the responsi-

bility of the author.














CHAPTER 5

SYSTEMATICS AND ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS


In this section, the 40 families of polychaete worms

found in Tampa Bay have been arranged phylogenetically,

and wherever necessary taxonomic keys have been devised

to distinguish species. The species in respective families

are listed alphabetically with undetermined individuals at

the end. For each species, locality records and the mean

and range of environmental factors have been tabulated.

Literature cited from this section includes only those

references that contain the original species description

or a more recent report that presents figures and a de-

scription of diagnostic features. For unidentified poly-

chaetes, a brief description and drawings were prepared as

an aid to recognition.

The most useful publication for identification of

polychaete families was the illustrated key prepared by

Day (1967). It contains all the families reported for the

Gulf of Mexico, and most of those known from the eastern

Pacific, Caribbean, and western Atlantic. Part I of







Pettibone's work on New England polychaetes (1963a) and

her keys in the manual compiled by Smith (1964) were also
6
helpful. Wass constructed a useful key and check-list

for the polychaetes of Virginia that contains many species

found in the Tampa Bay area, and reports by Carpenter (1951)

and Taylor (1961) contain keys for polychaetes north of

Tampa Bay at Alligator Harbor and Seahorse Key. Keys to

species in several publications by Hartman (1945, 1951,

1968, 1969) were indispensable. Her catalogues of poly-

chaetes of the world (1959a, 1959b, 1965) and her guide to

polychaete literature were also essential references.

Family POLYNOIDAE Malmgren, 1867

Polynoids are predaceous polychaetes that have world-

wide distribution from the tropics to high latitudes. They

are errant forms that commonly occur in coarse sediments

and crevices. Some are commensals, and a few are adapted

to life in fine sediments of silt and clay.

Eight species were found in Tampa Bay. One of these

(Polynoid B) was collected in all areas of the Estuary, and

two were found at widely separated stations in Old Tampa

Bay and Boca Ciega Bay (Polynoid A and Phyllohartmania

taylori). The other five species are apparently limited



6
Marvin Wass, Virginia Institute of Marine Science,
Gloucester Point, Virginia, 23062.





68

to areas of the Estuary where average salinity is greater

than 25 parts per thousand as none were found north of

transect-10. Among these five, Lepidasthenia commensalis

and Harmothoe lunulata were the only ones found in upper

Tampa Bay, while the other three, Lepidonotus sublevis, L.

variabilis, and Harmothoe aculeata were collected only in

the high salinity waters of Boca Ciega Bay and lower Tampa

Bay.

Key to POLYNOIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Lateral antennae arise below median antenna ......... 2

Lateral antennae arise on anterior margin of
prostomium at same level as median antenna .......... 5

2 Neurosetae with undivided tips ...................... 3

- Neurosetae with bidentate tips ...................... 4

3 Neurosetae finely serrate; notosetae smooth
and delicate; ciliated lamella at ventral
base of parapodia after setiger
two .......................... Phyllohartmania taylori

- Neurosetae coarsely serrate; notosetae
stout; parapodial lamella absent........... Polynoid B

4 Neurosetae delicate, faintly bidentate .... Polynoid A

- Neurosetae stout; elytra with
large tubecles...................... Harmothoe aculeata

- Neurosetae stout; elytra smooth .... Harmothoe lunulata

5 More than 12 pairs of elytra..Lepidasthenia commensalis

- Twelve pairs of elytra ............................. 6







6 Neurosetae with bidentate tips.... Lepidonotus sublevis

- Neurosetae with undivided tips.. Lepidonotus variabilis


Harmothoe aculeata Andrews, 1891
(Described and illustrated by Ebbs, 1966)

Specimens were found only in incidental samples in

southern Boca Ciega Bay and lower Tampa Bay, near Mullet

Key. All of the worms were large and appeared mature, but

none contained ripe gametes.

This species has been reported from shelly sediments

and solid substrata along the Atlantic coast from North

Carolina to the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico.







Harmothoe lunulata (delle Chiaje, 1841)
(Described and illustrated by Day, 1967)

Specimens were collected at 38 localities. Thirty-

six were survey stations and additional records came from

a turtle grass flat inside Johns Pass, and in lower Tampa

Bay near Mullet Key. No specimens were collected in low

salinity areas of the Estuary north of transect-10. Al-

though one-half the locality records came from upper Tampa

Bay, the greatest number of individuals per dredge haul

were taken at station 16-14 in lower Tampa Bay (table 4).

Average sediment type at survey stations was poorly

sorted sand that contained a high percentage of shell frag-

ments (table 5). Vegetation was recorded at 50 percent of

the survey stations, and at the two incidental localities

as well.

Plants at survey stations included algae, turtle grass,

shoal grass, and manatee grass.

Individuals with mature gametes were collected in

September and October.

H. lunulata is known as a commensal or an inhabitant

of coarse sediments along the western coasts of Europe and

Africa, and central and southern regions of the east and

west coasts of the United States. H. lunulata has never

before been reported in the Gulf of Mexico.






Table 4.--Harmothoe lunulata--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

10-1-A 1 12-6 1
11-2 2 12-9 1
11-4 1 12-10 2
11-5 1 12-14 2
11-6 1 12-15 3
11-15 1 13-4 2
11-16 2 13-5 2
11-20 3 13-8 1
12-1 1 13-10 1

Boca Ciega Bay

D-18 1 15-5 1
D-23 1 15-14 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-5 1

Lower Tampa Bay

14-12 1 16-14 4
14-16 1 16-24 2
14-17 1 17-2 2
15-22 2 17-3 1
15-26 1 17-7 1
15-31 2 17-11 1
16-9-B 1





72
Table 5.--Harmothoe lunulata--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor
Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3(wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


I


Mean
23.0

29.2

8.1

1.5

sand


3.7

92.4

2.9

1.1

23.5

1.0

0.1


2.1


1.3

0.3

9.4


3.3


1.6


3.5

2.1

31.9


1.7 to 9.0


0.6 to 3.4


0.1 -2.5 to


2.2


1.3 0.8 to 2.0


Range
14.0 to 31.0

23.3 to 34.9

7.2 to 8.9

/1 to 4.0

shelly sand tc
silty sand

0.1 to 41.5

43.7 to 99.9

0.0 to 13.4

0.0 to 8.8

1.2 to 85.2

0.1 to 8.5

0.0 to 0.3


0.5 to 3.4


Number
observations
36

36

36

36

35


35

35

35

35

35

32

32


35


35

35

35


35


35


27


0.5

0.0

-0.4







Lepidasthenia commensalis (Webster, 1879a)

Specimens were collected at six survey stations and

an incidental locality near Mullet Key in lower Tampa Bay.

No worms were collected north of transect-10, and no more

than one individual was taken in any one sample (table 6).

Average sediment type was poorly sorted sand (table

7). The bottom at four stations was vegetated with algae,

and turtle grass or shoal grass.

No gravid specimens were collected, but one juvenile

worm was taken in a December sample.

L. commensalis is known from the eastern coast of

the United States and the Gulf of Mexico where it is fre-

quently associated with tube worms, gastropods, hermit

crabs, and other suitable consorts.






Table 6.--Lepidasthenia commensalis--Locality records
and number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel,
N-net)


Hillsborough Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

10-17 1

Upper Tampa Bay

11-6 1

Boca Ciega Bay

D-25 1 PB-4 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-1 1

Lower Tampa Bay

17-2 1






Table 7.--Lepidasthenia commensalis--Mean and range of
observed environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3(wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Range

15.5 to 30.8

21.8 to 34.5

7.7 to 8.4

L1 to 11.0


Mean

23.9

29.3

8.1

1.5

sand

2.0

94.3

2.5

1.1

14.1

0.6

0.1


2.7


1.4

0.5

5.6


3.1


1.7


7.5

95.6

3.5

2.6

39.8

1.1

0.1


1.9 to 4.5


0.6 to

-0.4 to

0.0 to


2.3

2.1

20.1


2.8 to 3.5


0.9 to 3.2


0.3 -0.1 to


0.9


1.3 0.9 to 1.7


Number
observations

6

6

6

6

5

5

5

5

5

5

4

4


5


5

5

5


4


4


4


0.0 to

90.1 to

1.4 to

0.3 to

2.9 to

0.3 to

0.0 to







Lepidonotus sublevis Verrill, 1873
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1942a)

This species was collected at six survey stations and

four other localities. Two of the incidental collections

came from Boca Ciega Bay, one from Old Tampa Bay, and one

from lower Tampa Bay. The locality in Old Tampa Bay was

near the southwest end of Gandy Bridge where salinity is

usually about 25 parts per thousand. Most records came

from Boca Ciega Bay as did the dredge haul containing the

greatest number of individuals (table 8).

Sediment at the only station where the worm was

dredged (BC-N) was poorly sorted sand that contained a

high percentage of large shell particles and little organic

carbon (table 9).

No vegetation was noted at that station.

Specimens with mature gametes were collected in De-

cember, and a juvenile worm was taken in November.

L. sublevis occurs in shelly sediments and lives as a

commensal along the New England coast, south to Florida and

the Gulf of Mexico.






Table 8.--Lepidonotus sublevis--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D. S N

BC-A 1 PB-4 4
BC-M-1 1 14-3 1
BC-N 7


Lower Tampa Bay

16-18 1





78
Table 9.--Lepidonotus sublevis--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3(wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

17.5

32.2

8.3

2.0

sand

14.7

83.5

1.5

0.3

38.2

0.2

0.1


Range


1.4


Number
observations

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1


1


1.9

-0.3

0.9


2.7


0.7


1.5


0.2


--







Lepidonotus variabilis Webster, 1879
(Described and illustrated by Ebbs, 1966)

Collections came from nine survey stations, and one

incidental sample in lower Tampa Bay near Mullet Key.

Four of the collections at survey stations came from lower

Tampa Bay, and the other five were from Boca Ciega Bay.

No specimens were taken north of transect-14 (table 10).

Sediment data from the two dredge collections indicate

that the worm lives on poorly sorted sand that contains a

high percentage of coarse shell fragments (table 11).

Benthic algae, but no sea grass, were noted at one

of the dredge stations.

Specimens with mature gametes were collected in April,

July, and October.

L. variabilis lives in sediments containing shell or

gravel, or as a commensal over a geographic range that ex-

tends from North Carolina south to the Caribbean and Gulf

of Mexico.





80
Table 10.--Lepidonotus variabilis--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-N 2 PB-4 4
D-25 4 16-2 3
PB-1 1

Lower Tampa Bay

14-5 1 15-25 1
14-13 1 17-2 1







Table l1.--Lepidonotus variabilis--Mean and range of
observed environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor
Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3(wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Range
18.1 to 24.0

30.7 to 32.6

8.0 to 8.3


Mean
21.1

31.7

8.1

3.0

sand

4.6

93.3

1.4

0.7

47.8

1.5

0.0


1.6


1.6

0.3

2.5


2.7


0.9


-1.1


1.3 to 1.9


1.5 to

0.1 to

0.4 to


1.6

0.5

4.6


2.6 to 2.8


0.9 to 1.0


-1,3 to -1.0


1.4 1.2 to 1.5


Number
observations
2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2


2


sand

3.2 to 6.0

93.1 to 93.6

0.3 to 2.5

0.2 to 1.2

43.3 to 52.0

0.3 to 2.8







Phyllohartmania taylori Pettibone, 1961

A single specimen was collected by dredge in Old

Tampa Bay, and another by net in Boca Ciega Bay. The

Old Tampa Bay record was near the southwest end of

Courtney Campbell Parkway (table 12).

Sediment data indicate that this worm lives in poor-

ly sorted sand that has an appreciable admixture of silt

and clay, and a few large shell fragments (table 13).

No bottom vegetation was noted at the dredge station.

The specimen collected from Boca Ciega Bay in May

was a juvenile. No worm with mature gametes was observed.

Originally described from Seahorse Key, Florida, this

report is only the second locality record for P. taylori.






Table 12.--Phyllohartmania taylori--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

4-7 1


Boca Ciega Bay

D-25 1







Table 13.--Phyllohartmania taylori--Mean and range of
observed environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3(wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Range


2.0

0.8

3.7


3.1


1.7


-1.0


1.4


Mean

28.6

24.3

7.9

1.5

sand

1.2

87.6

5.2

6.0

1.3

0.6

0.1


3.0


Number
observations

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1


--







Polynoid A

The body has 23 setigerous segments and evidence of

12 pairs of elytra. Dimensions of the largest specimen

were 5 mm. long by 3 mm. wide including the width of para-

podia. Lateral antennae are small and inserted ventral to

the median antenna (broken on all specimens). Palps are

large and about the same width as the base of the median

antenna. Dorsal, tentacular cirri are longer than ventral

ones. Anterior eyes are beneath the prostomial lobes, and

the posterior pair is in line with bases of the tentacular

cirri and a median, anterior prolongation of the first seg-

ment. The anterior margin of the first segment and bases

of parapodia are darkly pigmented.

Dorsal, parapodial cirri are one and one-half times

longer than the pre-setal, neuropodial lobes (figure 2,A).

Ventral cirri are about the same length as the post-setal

lobes. Notosetae are fine, and taper to capillary tips

(figure 2,B). The dorsal edge in the region of curvature

has a very fine, serrate margin. Neurosetae are somewhat

stouter and end in finely bidentate tips (figure 2,C).

Serrations on the dorsal margin are fine and widely spaced.

This undetermined polynoid was collected at eight

stations in Old Tampa Bay, and a single station in Boca





86

Ciega Bay (table 14).

Sediment was poorly sorted sand at all dredge stations,

except one, where the bottom was silty mud. The sandy sedi-

ment had an average silt-clay content of over 10 percent

and about one percent organic carbon (table 15).

No bottom vegetation was observed at dredge stations.

Specimens with mature gametes were collected in July

and August.






Table 14.--Polynoid A--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

3-12 1 4-17-A 1
4-3 1 4-19 2
4-12 1 5-8 1
4-16 2 5-10 1

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-N 1





88
Table 15.--Polynoid A--Mean and range of observed environ-
mental factors from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69


Factor
Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt.%)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3(wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


I


Mean
28.6

25.3

8.1

1.5

sand


2.1

87.5

5.7

4.7

8.3

1.0

0.4


3.0


1.4

0.7

14.1


3.3


1.7


2.5

1.5

61.8


2.7 to 3.7


0.7 to 2.1


-0.4 -2.5 to


1.2 0.2 to


1.6


2.1


Range
17.5 to 31.0

23.7 to 32.1

7.9 to 8.3

3.0 to 7.0

sand to silty
mud

0.0 to 14.7

33.7 to 99.8

0.1 to 35.9

0.1 to 30.2

1.2 to 38.2

0.2 to 1.4

0.1 to 1.1


1.4 to 6.0


Number
observations
9

9

7

9

9


9

9

9

9

9

4

4


4


9

9

9


9


9


9


0.6 to

-0.3 to

-1.3 to








Polynoid B

The body has 27 setigerous segments, and 15 pairs of

elytra. The largest specimen was 7 mm. long and 4 mm.

wide, including parapodia. Lateral antennae are ventral

to the median antenna, and have an inflated base that

narrows to form a slender tip. The median antenna, palps,

and tentacular cirri are all about the same length, but

palps are twice as wide as the other processes. Anterior

eyes are crescent-like, and the posterior ones are smaller,

round, and set close to the segmental margin (figure 2,D).

Elytra are nearly round, and have a small number of

widely spaced tubercles along the outer margin (figure 2,E).

Dorsal, parapodial cirri are papillated and somewhat

longer than the pre-setal lobes of neuropodia. Ventral

cirri are smooth and short (figure 2,F).

Notosetae are smooth and have rounded tips (figure 2,

G). Neurosetae are the same thickness as notosetae, but

the outer one-third of the shaft has serrate edges. The

tip is entire and curved slightly upward (figure 2,H, I).

On the basis of locality records, this worm is the

most common and widely distributed polynoid in Tampa Bay.

It was found in all six areas at a total of 54 stations.

Areas of greatest abundance were Boca Ciega Bay, upper







Tampa Bay, and Old Tampa Bay. The largest number of indi-

viduals in a single dredge haul were recorded at station

11-6 in upper Tampa Bay (table 16).

At that station the sediment was poorly sorted, fine

sand with very little shell and about four percent silt

and clay. Average sediment type was poorly sorted, silty

sand with about 10 percent shell (table 17).

Five of the 54 stations were vegetated with algae and

two had shoal grass as well.

Individuals with mature gametes were collected in June,

August, and November.






Table 16.--Polynoid B--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

A 1 4-2 1
B 12 4-5 1
1-3 2 4-6 7
1-4 40 4-7 15
1-5 1 4-8 1
3-3 1 4-11 2
3-4 4 4-12 5
3-5 2 4-13 8
3-6 3 4-14 5
3-7 3 4-15 6
3-10 1 4-16 4 1
3-11 1 4-17-A 1


Hillsborough Bay

10-17 1


Upper Tampa Bay

10-8 1 11-14 2
11-6 16 11-17 3
11-7 2 11-18 5
11-8 12 1 11-20 3 1
11-11 2 11-21 1
11-12 1 12-14 1
11-13 1






Table 16.--Polynoid B--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)--
(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-A 5 15-4 1
BC-H 3 15-5 2
BC-I 1 15-6 2
D-1 1 15-8 1
D-22 1 15-13 1
PB-5 1 15-14 4
14-2 4

Terra Ceia Bay

E-3 2 E-5 4

Lower Tampa Bay

16-23 1





93
Table 17.--Polynoid B--Mean and range of observed environ-
mental factors from survey station, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69


Factor
Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3(wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean
26.9

26.8

7.9

1.5

silty
sand

0.9

77.4

12.4

9.4

10.9

0.6

0.3


3.7


1.7

0.7

7.4


3.1


1.4


2.7

2.1

37.7


1.7 to 4.0


0.4 to 2.2


-0.2 -2.5 to 2.4


1.32 0.5 to 2.9


Range
14.5 to 31.5

21.2 to 34.6

7.0 to 8.5

/1 to 4.0

sand to clayey
silt

0.0 to 9.7

4.6 to 99.4

0.2 to 52.5

0.1 to 47.0

0.9 to 66.0

0.1 to 3.8

0.0 to 8.0


1.9 to 7.3


Number
observations
55

55

43

55

55


55

55

55

55

55

33

33


55


55

55

55


55


55


0.7

-0.9

-0.9







Figure 2. -- Diagnostic features of Polynoid A and
Polvnoid B


Polynoid A: (A) Parapodium from median section (B)

Notoseta from same parapodium (C)

Neuroseta from same parapodium

Polynoid B: (D) Prostomium (E) Elytrum from median

section (F) Parapodium from same seg-

ment (G) Notoseta from same segment (H)

Neuroseta from same segment (I) Tip of

neuroseta, rotated and enlarged.







FIGURE 2





B A
C

/ 0.10MM

0.02MM

D 0.02MM






0.20MM








E F



O.IOMM



0.10MM







G H




0.05MM 0.05MM 0.02MM







Family POLYODONTIDAE Pflugfelder, 1834

Polyodontids comprise a small, rare group of large

polychaetes that construct tubes in unconsolidated sedi-

ments. Little is known concerning their diet, but con-

sidering their large jaws and teeth, they probably eat a

variety of organisms that pass within their reach. This

predominantly tropical family has its greatest representa-

tion in the Caribbean and low latitudes of Atlantic and

Pacific oceans. Two species were collected in Tampa Bay.

Key to POLYODONTIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Shaft of dorsal, pseudopenicillate neurosetae
enlarged in the middle; bristles on dorsal and
ventral neurosetae sparse and short.... Polyodontes sp.

- Shaft of dorsal, pseudopenicillate neurosetae
without median enlargement; bristles on
dorsal and ventral neurosetae conspicuous
and numerous ...................... Polyodontes lupina


Polyodontes lupina (Stimpson, 1856)
(Described and illustrated by Taylor, 1961)

This species was collected at one station in Old Tampa

Bay and one in lower Tampa Bay (table 18).

Sediment at both stations was sand with very little

silt and clay, and a small percentage of large shell parti-

cles (table 19).

No specimens contained mature gametes and no juveniles

were collected.





97


Previous records for P. lupina have come from muddy

bottom along the south Atlantic coast and the Gulf of

Mexico.






p






Table 18.--Polyodontes lupina--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

5-7 1

Lower Tampa Bay

16-27 1





99
Table 19.--Polyodontes lupina--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt.%)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3(Wt. %)

Organic carbon (wto %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Range

21.0 to 31.0

24.6 to 30.3

8.0 to 8.1

1.0 to 2.0


Mean

25.9

27.4

8.0

1.5

sand

0.9

98.5

1.1

0.4

10.2

0.2

0.1


2.2


1.1

0.3

7.4


2.8


1.5


1.8

99.1

2.1

0.6

11.2


2.1 to 2.3


0.9 to 1.3


6.0 to


8.7


2.1 to 3.4


1.0 to 2.0


-0.94 -1.1 to -0.8


1.5 1.4 to 1.6


I


Number
observations

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

i

1


2


2

2

2


2


2


2


0.6 to

95.5 to

0.1 to

0.2 to

9.2 to

--





100


Polyodontes sp.

The only specimen collected was incomplete, and came

from an incidental sample in Boca Ciega Bay at Bunces Pass.

The anterior fragment was only 3 mm. wide including para-

podia, and an entire worm would probably measure less than

30 mm. long. If the worm was mature, then this species

is quite small for a polyodontid.

Each jaw has eight, small teeth, and a single, large

median tooth. Behind the teeth, the proboscis has a long,

median upper and lower papilla with seven smaller papillae

on each side. The anterior pair of eyes is elevated on

short stalks and the smaller posterior pair is situated on

the mid-line of the prostomium.

Elytra have a clear margin and dark pigmentation in

the center, especially over the dorsum.

Parapods are short and blunt with the post-setal lobe

slightly longer than the pre-setal one. Dorsal and ventral

cirri are about the same length, but the dorsal one is

stouter (figure 3,A). Notosetae were not observed. If

present, they are presumably fine, spinous capillaries.

Ventral neurosetae are long and have an asymmetrical en-

largement in the shaft near the tip (figure 3,D). The

median, aristate setae have a terminal, spinous appendage





101

that tapers to a fine tip (figure 3,C). Dorsal neurosetae

are similar to ventral ones except they are shorter and

the median enlargement is symmetrical (figure 3,B).





102


Family SIGALIONIDAE Malmgren, 1867

The Sigalionids are burrowing or crawling predators

that live in unconsolidated sediments over a wide range of

latitude in all seas. Three species were found in Tampa

Bay. Locality data indicate that two (Sthenelais boa and

Sigalion arenicola) are limited by salinity to waters of

greater than 20 parts per thousand, and one (Pholoe sp.)

requires average salinity of at least 25 parts per thousand.

Key to SIGALIONIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Length 3 mm. or less; elytra with unbranched
papillae; no cirriform branchiae ............ Pholoe sp.

- Body large, elytra with a fringe of slender
papillae; cirriform branchiae present .... Sthenelais boa

- Body large, elytra with pinnately branched
papillae; cirriform branchiae present..Sigalion arenicola


Sigalion arenicola Verrill, 1879
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

S. arenicola was collected in one incidental sample

near Gandy Bridge in Old Tampa Bay, at two survey stations

in upper Tampa Bay, at a single station in Boca Ciega Bay,

and at 22 stations in lower Tampa Bay. The most individuals

per dredge haul (23) came from station 15-28 in lower Tampa

Bay (table 20).

All specimens were collected from poorly sorted, medium

sand or shelly sand with an average silt-clay content of





103

less than two percent. Much of the sand fraction was com-

posed of shell fragments in the coarse sand size category

(table 21).

Of the 25 dredge stations where this species was re-

corded, no bottom vegetation was noted at 15, and algae,

but no sea grass, were found at 10.

No individuals with mature gametes were observed,

however, juveniles were collected in October and November.





104
Table 20.--Sigalion arenicola--Locality records and num-
ber of individuals from survey stations, Tampa
Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel,
N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

13-8 1 13-10 6

Boca Ciega Bay

16-5 2

Lower Tampa Bay

14-11 1 16-13 6
14-12 3 16-14 8
14-14 3 16-15 16
14-15 2 16-16 8
15-21 2 16-17 5
15-22 8 16-24 1
15-23 5 17-2 2
15-25 20 17-3 3
15-26 9 17-4 9
15-27 4 17-8 1
15-28 23 18-3 3




105


Table 21.--Sigalion arenicola--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor
Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3(wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


I


Mean
22.6

32.2

8.0

2.1

sand


4.2

94.4

1.1

0.3

38.8

0.8

0.04


1.6


1.3

0.2

4.6


2.9


1.3


3.0


2.0

0.8

11.9


5.9


0.6 to 3.2


0.4 -1.'3 to 1.7


1.1 0.8 to 1.6


Range
16.0 to 25.0

27.0 to 34.5

7.7 to 8.3

/1 to 3.9

shelly sand to
sand

0.5 to 20.8

77.4 to 99.2

0.2 to 7.2

0.1 to 1.9

6.5 to 85.2

0.03 to 5.0

0.00 to 0.19


Number
observations
25

24

25

25

25


25

25

25

25

25

25

25


25


25

25

25


25


25


22


0.6 to


0.8 to

-0.6 to

-0.03 to


1.7 to





106


Sthenelais boa (Johnston, 1833)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

Specimens were collected in all six areas of the

Estuary at a total of 104 survey stations and in five

incidental samples. As many as 40 individuals were col-

lected in a single dredge haul from station BC-N in Bunces

Pass. Salinity below 20 parts per thousand is apparently

no barrier to S. boa as 14 localities were recorded north

of Courtney Campbell Parkway in Old Tampa Bay (table 22).

Sediment data show that this species occupies a

variety of bottom types which range from clayey silt to

shelly sand. Average sediment type was poorly sorted sand

with a moderate amount of coarse shell and less than 10

percent silt and clay (table 23).

About 25 percent of the dredge and shovel stations

were vegetated with algae, and shoal grass, turtle grass,

or manatee grass were recorded at a few.

Gravid specimens were collected in May and juveniles

were noted in July, August, September, October, November,

and December.




107


Table 22.--Sthenelais boa--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

1-3 2 4-7, 1 4
1-4 2 4-9 4
1-5 3 4-12 3
3-3 1 4-13 3 7
3-4 12 43 4-14 2 2
3-5 1 4-15 2 3
3-6 2 4 4-16 11
3-7 1 5 4-17-A 3
3-8 2 4-18-A 1
3-10 1 4-19 2
3-11 2 1 5-6 3
3-12 5 1 5-8 1
3-13 1 5-11 1
3-16 3 5-12 3
4-3 2 5 6-4-A 2
4-4 9 6-5 1
4-5 1 6-6 4
4-6 1 1

Hillsborough Bay

10-15 1





108


Table 22.--Sthenelais boa--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

10-3 1 11-16 1
10-4 17 11-17 1
10-6 4 11-18 1 9
10-7 8 11-20 7
10-8 9 12-2 1
11-3 7 12-3 4
11-4 19 4 12-4 4
11-5 9 12-7 4
11-6 16 12-8 1
11-7 6 10 12-9 1
11-8 9 17 12-12 1
11-9 12 9 12-14 18 6
11-12 1 13-4 1
11-13 2 2 13-5 5
11-14 6 13-11 1
11-15 1 15

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-A 4 2 14-2 2
BC-E 4 14-3 3
BC-H 1 14-4 3
BC-I 1 15-6 4
BC-M 1 15-12 4
BC-N 40 2 15-13 1
D-11 1 15-14 1
D-25 3 3 15-15 1
PB-1 2 16-1 1
PB-4 1 16-6 2
PB-5 2




109


Table 22.--Sthenelais boa--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Terra Ceia Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

E-1 1 E-5 1
E-4 1 E-8 1

Lower Tampa Bay

14-5 3 16-22 2
14-6 5 16-23 1
14-9 2 17-2 11
14-10 6 17-6 1
14-16 13 17-8 5
16-9-B 1 17-9 2
16-11 2 17-13 8




110


Table 23.--Sthenelais boa-- Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor
Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3(wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


--


Mean
24.6

27.7

8.0

1.3

sand


2.0

88.3

5.7

3.9

10.8

0.9

0.1


2.9


1.3

0.6

12.5


3.2


1.5


3.5

2.4

62.5


1.4 to 9.0


0.5 to 3.4


-0.2 -2.5 to 3.0


1.3 0.2 to 2.9


Range
12.5 to 32.0

21.2 to 35.8

7.3 to 8.9

0.3 to 3.9

shelly sand to
clayey silt

0.0 to 41.5

4.6 to 99.9

0.0 to 52.6

0.0 to 43.8

0.8 to 44.4

0.02 to 8.5

0.0 to 0.2


0.8 to 7.3


Number
observations
98

98

84

98

98


97

97

97

97

97

65

65


97


97

97

96


91


91


77


0.4

-1.7

-1.3





ll


Pholoe sp.

This minute sigalionid is approximately 1.5 mm. long

by 0.5 mm. wide. The 15 setigers are,,covered by nine pairs

of elytra that leave a broad section of the dorsum exposed.

Elytra have an outer fringe of secretary papillae with

visible internal structure (figure 3,H,I). Parapodia have

a prolonged neurosetal lobe and long ventral cirrus (figure

3,E). Notosetae are spinous capillaries and neurosetae are

stout, compound falcigers (figure 3,F,G).

Specimens were collected at one station in upper Tampa

Bay and three stations in lower Tampa Bay (table 24).

Sediment at all stations was poorly sorted sand with

a large percentage of coarse shell. The non-carbonate

fraction was largely coarse silt that contained a high per-

centage of organic carbon (table 25).

Algae were noted at only one station, and no sea grasses

were recorded.

Neither gravid nor juvenile specimens were seen.





112


Table 24.--Pholoe sp.--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

13-8 1

Lower Tampa Bay

16-12 1 16-14 4
16-13 1





113
Table 25.--Pholoe sp.--Mean and range of observed environ-
mental factors from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69


Number
Factor Mean Range observations


Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3(wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


23.4 21.3 to 24.1


32.6

7.9

2.9

sand

4.8

93.9

1.0

0.3

49.1

2.3

0.1


1.3


1.3

0.3

4.6


4.4


1.7


29.4

7.8

2.6



2.1

91.6

0.4

0.1

35.0

0,2

0.01


to 33.9

to 8.2

to 3



to 7.9

to 96.8

to 1.9

to 0.5

to 68.0

to 3.3

to 0.2


0.6 to 1.6


1.2

0.2

2.1


1.5

0.6

8.4


1,7 to 5.9


1.1 to 2.1


-0.3 -0.1 to


0.1


1.1 0.9 to 1.3








Figure 3. -- Diagnostic features of Polyodontes sp. and
Pholoe sp.


Polyodontes sp.:












Pholoe sp.:


(A) Parapodium from,a median sec-

tion (B) Upper neuroseta from

same parapodium (C) Middle neuro-

seta from same parapodium (D)

Ventral neuroseta from same para-

podium

(E) Parapodium from median sec-

tion (F) Notoseta from same para-

podium (G) Neuroseta from same

parapodium (H) Elytrum (I) Margin

of elytrum greatly enlarged.




115


FIGURE 3


B



0.05MM











.0 MM
0.01 MM


C



0.05MM


D



0.05MM










G


0.01MM


0.05MM


0.10MM


E0.



0.02 MM


0.02MM




116


Family PISIONIDAE Southern, 1914

Pisionids are a rare group of small, temperate and

tropical polychaetes. Allhave chitinous jaws, and in

addition, some have a pair of peristomial acicula directed

forward at an oblique angle that may act as accessory jaws.

The jaw apparatus is indicative of a predatory mode of

feeding. A single specimen of one species (Pisione remote)

was found in Tampa Bay.

Pisione remota (Southern, 1914)
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1968)

An anterior fragment was collected at station 17-3 in

lower Tampa Bay (table 26).

Sediment at this station was coarse sand that consisted

of poorly sorted shell particles and fine sand grains. It

contained very little organic carbon (table 27).

No bottom vegetation was noted at the collection site.

The specimen collected was mature, but not gravid.

P. remota was originally described from Ireland, and

is otherwise known only from southern California and west-

ern Mexico in coarse sands.





117

Table 26.--Pisione remota--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa
Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel,
N-net)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

17-3 1





118


Table 27.--Pisione remota--Mean and range of
environmental factors from survey
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3(wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Range


observed
stations,


Number


Mean

24.2

34.0

8.0

2.3

sand

5.6

93.6

0.7

0.1

85.2

0.3

0.02


0.5


1.1

0.8

8.2


2.9


1.7


1.1


0.8


Number
observations

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1





119


Family CHRYSOPETALIDAE Ehlers, 1864

This temperate and tropical family contains only four

genera of small worms that are found associated with plants

and fouling organisms, or among crevices on solid substrata

and coarse shell fragments. Nothing is known about their

feeding habits, but judging from their mobility, they are

probably omnivorous feeders that consume small organisms

and bits of detritus.

The single species recorded was found in all areas of

Tampa Bay except Hillsborough Bay.

Paleanotus heteroseta Hartman, 1945

This species was collected at a total of 47 stations

in five areas of Tampa Bay. The largest collection (132)

came from a dredge haul at station 16-13 in lower Tampa

Bay. No specimens were collected north of transect-6 in

the more brackish waters of Old Tampa Bay (table 28).

Average sediment type at dredge and shovel stations

was poorly sorted sand with about four percent silt and

clay and a fairly high percentage of coarse shell fragments.

The non-carbonate sediment was mainly fine sand with less

than one percent organic carbon (table 29).

Algae were recorded at about one-third of the dredge

and shovel stations, and in addition, shoal grass, manatee





120

grass, and turtle grass were collected at one or more

stations. In general, P. heteroseta was found at water

depths of about 2 m. which is about the lower limit for

growth of sea grasses in most areas of the Estuary.

Neither gravid nor juvenile individuals were

collected.

P. heteroseta has been collected along the Atlantic

seaboard in North Carolina and in the Gulf of Mexico.





121


Table 28.--Paleanotus heteroseta--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

6-1-A 1 6-3 6
6-2 6

Upper Tampa Bay

10-3 3 12-12 1
11-6 1 12-13 1
11-21 1 13-3 37
11-22 2 13-5 3
12-3 3 13-6 2
12-6 1 13-7 1
12-10 3 13-8 30
12-11 4 13-10 34

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-N 6 PB-1 1
D-23 1 15-14 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-8 1





122


Table 28.--Paleanotus heteroseta--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)

Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

14-12 5 16-14 56 3
15-22 1 16-15 75
15-23 33 16-16 4
15-24 8 16-17 3
15-25 51 1 16-27 5
15-26 45 17-2 21
15-27 1 17-3 123
15-28 5 17-4 27
15-30 1 17-5 7
15-32 1 17-7 4
16-12 34 18-3 60 1
16-13 132





123


Table 29.--Paleanotus heteroseta--Mean and range of
observed environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3(wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

22.8

29.6

8.0

2

sand


4.2

91.8

1.8

2.2

33.7

0.8

0.1


1.9


1.4

0.1

5.0


2.9


1.3


2.7

2.1

23.9


1.7 to 5.9


0.6 to 3.2


0.1 -2.5 to 1.7


1.2 0.8 to 2.1


Range

15.0 to 31.8

20.1 to 34.6

7,.6 to 8.3

/1 to 4.0

shelly sand tc
silty sand

0.6 to 21.5

24.5 to 99.2

0.1 to 19.0

0.1 to 13.1

0.6 to 90.1

0.1 to 6.9

0.0 to 0.2


0.4 to 7.1


Number
observations

45

45

43

45

42


42

42

42

42

42

38

38


42


42

42

42


40


40


32


0.7

-1.7

-0.6





124


Family AMPHINOMIDAE

These temperate and tropical worms lack jaws and

feed on sessile animals by sucking out body juices with

their eversible probosces. They inhabit crevices and are

often found crawling on rocks and timbers. Of the two

species collected in Tampa Bay, Pseudeurythoe ambigua was

distributed in all six areas and Euphrosyne triloba was

found at only one station in lower Tampa Bay.

Key to AMPHINOMIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Body linear; prostomium with a single
median antenna................... Pseudeurythoe ambigua

- Body oval; prostomium with a median and
2 lateral antennae.................. Euphrosyne triloba


Euphrosyne triloba Ehlers, 1887

This species was collected in a net haul at station

18-3 near Egmont Key. Salinity in that locality is above

30 parts per thousand and sediments are shelly sand (table 30),

E. triloba was described by Ehlers from collections

at depths of 10 fathoms or more at three localities in the

Gulf of Mexico. To my knowledge it has not been recorded

since his original report.





125
Table 30.--Euphrosyne triloba--Locality records and num-
ber of individuals from survey stations, Tampa
Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-
net)


Lower Tampa Bay n


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

18-3 1





126


Pseudeurythoe ambiqua (Monro, 1933)
(Described and illustrated by Monro, 1937)

Collections of P. ambiqua were made at 56 survey

stations and at two incidental localities (Mobbly Bay and

Mullet Key) for a total of 58 records. It is represented

in all areas of the Estuary, but was taken in greatest

numbers from the brackish waters of Old Tampa Bay. There,

the largest number of individuals per dredge haul (40)

came from station 1-3 (table 31).

Average sediment type at dredge and shovel stations

was sand, but the worm was also found in shelly sand and

very soft bottoms. Average silt and clay content was over

18 percent, shell was 12 percent, and organic carbon was

nearly one percent (table 32).

One-third of the dredge and shovel samples contained

algae, and at one locality sea grasses included turtle

grass, shoal grass, manatee grass, and Halophila.

No individuals were collected with mature gametes but

juveniles were found in June, July, August, September,

October and November.

This species was originally described from the Pacific

side of Panama and was first recorded in the Atlantic at

Beaufort, North Carolina by Hartman (1945). This report is

the first record for P. ambiqua from the Gulf of Mexico.





127


Table 31.--Pseudeurythoe ambigua--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

B-2 36 3-9 1
1-1 1 4-3 1
1-3 40 10 4-4 2
1-4 11 3 4-9 1
1-5 6 4-13 1
3-1-A 1 5-1-A 8
3-4 22 1 6-1-A 1
3-5 37 1 6-1-D 3
3-6 2 6-2 3
3-7 1


Hillsborough Bay

C-3 4 9-8 1
C-9 1 10-22 3
9-4 1


Upper Tampa Bay

10-3 1 11-14 1 3
10-12 1 11-19 1
11-1 2 11-27 5
11-7 4 11-28 2
11-8 1 1 11-28-1 2
11-9 12 13-1-A 6
11-11 4 9 13-1-B 4
11-12 2 3 13-3 1
11-13 2 2





128
Table 31.--Pseudeurythoe ambigua--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-I 1 16-4 2
D-18 5 16-5 1
15-13 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-7 2

Lower Tampa Bay

16-9-B 6 17-7 1
16-10 1 17-8 4
16-20 7 17-9 5
16-27 1 18-3 1
17-3 1




129

Table 32.--Pseudeurythoe ambigua--Mean and range of ob-
served environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3(wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


3.2 -0.8 to 7.2


1.6

0.4

9.0


3.1


1,5


-0.4


0.6

-0.9

-0.6


2.7

3.4

73.5


2.0 to 7.2


0.6 to 2.8


-2.6 to


2,4


1.3 0.4 to 2.7


Mean

27.5

26.5

7.9

1.0

sand


3.6

78.0

9.3

9.0

12.4

0.7

0.1


Range

15.0 to 32.0

16.2 to 34.9

7.0 to 8.5

L1 to 3.1

shelly sand t
clayey silt

0.0 to 46.2

6.4 to 99.6

0.0 to 51.0

0.0 to 65.9

0.6 to 85.2

0.04 to 3.8

0.0 to 0.9


Number
observations

52

52

42

52

:o 52


52

52

52

52

51

35

35


51


51

51

51


52


52


46





130


Family PHYLLODOCIDAE Williams, 1851

The Phyllodocids comprise a large group of errant

predators that have world-wide distribution, and are asso-

ciated with a variety of sediment types as well as crevices

in shells and solid substrata. Day (1967) noted that the

genus Eteone is the only one that contains burrowing forms.

In Tampa Bay, five representatives of the family were

collected. Two species, Eteone heteropoda and Phyllodoce

arenae, were found in all areas of the Estuary; two were

absent only in Hillsborough Bay, Eumida sanguinea and

Phyllodoce fragilis; and Paranaitis speciosa was found

everywhere except Hillsborough Bay and Terra Ceia Bay.

Although three species were unrecorded in some areas, all

five occurred at some stations near both the mouth and head-

waters of the Estuary.

Key to PHYLLODOCIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Two pairs of tentacular cirri ....... Eteone heteropoda

- Four pairs of tentacular cirri ...................... 2

2 Four frontal antennae, and 1 median
antenna .............................. Eumida sanquinea

- Four frontal antennae, and no median antenna........ 3

3 Prostomium ovate; tentacular segments 1
and 2 fused ................... Paranaitis speciosa

- Prostomium cordate; tentacular segments separate .... 4





131


4 Occipital papilla present; dorsum with transverse
bands of dark pigment; dorsal cirri broad and thin;
proboscis distinctly papillate except on dorsal
surface ............................. Phyllodoce arenae

No occipital papilla; dorsum not banded with
pigment; dorsal cirri broad and thick; proboscis
covered with minute papillae ...... Phyllodoce fragilis


Eteone heteropoda Hartman, 1951

Individuals were collected in all areas of the Estuary

at 55 survey stations and incidental localities at Booth

Point, Old Tampa Bay; McKay Bay, Hillsborough Bay; and

Mullet Key, lower Tampa Bay. This species seems best a-

dapted to conditions in Boca Ciega Bay, Terra Ceia Bay, and

the Estuary north of transect-13 as only five collections

came from lower Tampa Bay. The greatest number of indivi-

duals per dredge haul (51) came from station C-2 in Hills-

borough Bay (table 33).

Although the worm was collected in a variety of sedi-

ments, the average bottom type was poorly sorted, fine sand

with about four percent silt and clay, a small amount of

coarse shell, and less than one percent organic carbon

(table 34).

All collections came from shallow water, and vegetation

was recorded at about one-third of the survey stations. Algae

were the most common plants. Turtle grass, shoal grass,

manatee grass, and Halophila were also present at one or




132


more stations.

Gravid specimens were collected in June, July, and

August, while juveniles were found in June, July, August,

November, and December.

E. heteropoda was originally described from the Gulf

of Mexico and is otherwise known from Maine to Florida. It

is one of the few polychaetes previously reported from

Tampa Bay where Simon (1965) made observations on its

predatory behavior.





133


Table 33.--Eteone heteropoda--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

A-3 1 3-11 2
A-6 6 4-2 1
B 3 4-5 1
B-3 2 4-12 1
1-2 2 5-3 3
1-4 7 5-4 1
3-3 6 5-5 3
3-8 2 6-8 4
3-9 1

Hillsborough Bay

C 5 C-8-1 1
C-i 8 8-6 5
C-2 51 8-8 2
C-4 13 8-9 18 6

Upper Tampa Bay

10-0 2 10-14-A 14
10-4 2 11-1 2
10-12 4 11-21 1
10-13 4 13-1-A 2


Boca Ciega Bay

BC-A 2 1 PB-1 7
BC-E 1 PB-4 12 1
BC-N 1 PB-5 2
D-1 1 15-2 4
D-2 3 15-9 1
D-5 1 15-10 1
D-ll 4 1 16-4 1
D-17 1 16-6 4





134


Table 33.--Eteone heteropoda--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)--
(continued)


Terra Ceia Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

E-5 1 E-7 1

Lower Tampa Bay

14-19 6 17-12 1
16-27 1 17-13 1




135


Table 34.--Eteone heteropoda--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3(wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


2.5 -1.9 to 4.1


1.2

0.5

13.5


3.1


1.5


0.5

-1.7

0.4


to 2.7

to 3.6

to 77.3


1.8 to 3.9


0.6 to 3.1


-0.4 -2.5 to 1.8


1.3 0.4 to 2.3


Mean

26.3

26.3

7.9

1.0

sand


2.7

93.0

2,9

1.5

7.5

0.5

0.04


Range

14.5 to 34.1

15.1 to 34.3

6.7 to 8.4

/1 to 2.1

shelly sand to
silty sand

0.0 to 72.9

27.1 to 99.9

0.0 to 26.8

0.0 to 13.1

0.05 to 75.6

0.01 to 1.6

Oc00 to 0.1


Number
observations

52

52

44

52

52


52

52

52

52

52

27

26


52


52

52

52


47


47


45





136


Eumida sanquinea (Oersted, 1843)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

This small worm was collected at 40 survey stations,

and was found in all areas of the Estuary except Hills-

borough Bay. E. sanquinea was especially well represented

in Boca Ciega Bay where 108 specimens were collected in

a single dredge haul from station BC-N (table 35).

Average sediment type at dredge and shovel stations

was very poorly sorted, fine sand with a considerable

quantity of coarse shell, four percent silt and clay, and

one percent organic carbon (table 36).

One-third of the bottom samples contained algae, and

shoal grass, turtle grass, or widgeon grass were recorded

in a few.

Specimens with mature gametes were collected in

November and January, and juveniles were noted in August,

September, and October.

E. sanquinea has a world-wide distribution in tropi-

cal, temperate, and boreal seas.




137


Table 35.--Eumida sanguinea--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

B 1 3-14 1 5
B-1 1 6-1-C 1
2-3 1 6-2 1 1
3-12 1 6-3 1 15

Upper Tampa Bay

10-4 8 12-9 1

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-I 2 PB-5 3 4
BC-M 1 1 14-4 3
BC-N 108 5 15-3 1
D-2 1 1 15-4 1
D-17 1 15-11 1
D-24 1 15-12 5
D-25 1 15-13 1
PB-1 25 15-14 4
PB-4 31 16-2 4

Terra Ceia Bay

E-1 1 E-4 1
E-3 1 E-8 3

Lower Tampa Bay

14-6 3 15-24 1
14-9 1 15-29 1
14-12 1 16-11 2
14-13 1 16-14 2
14-18 1




138


Table 36.--Eumida sanguinea--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor
Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


1.3 0.2 to 2.3


Mean
22.6

30.1

8.1

1.1

sand


4.6

91.0

2.8

1.2

16.4

1.0

0.1


2.2


2.2

0.0

5.3


3.4


1.5


-0.1


Range
14.5 to 31.8

23.8 to 33.5

7.7 to 8.4

/1 to 3.3

sand to silty
sand

0.0 to 14.7

78.1 to 98.8

0.0 to 13.8

0.0 to 8.0

1.3 to 68.0

0.1 to 3.3

0.01 to 0.2


0.6 to 3.1


0.6 to 3.1

-1.7 to 1.6

0.1 to 13.3


2.5 to 6.1


0.7 to 3.4


-1.9 to 3.0


Number
observations
21

21

20

21

19


19

19

19

19

19

11

11


19


19

19

19


16


16


15






139


Paranaitis speciosa (Webster, 1880)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

This species is less common in Tampa Bay than other

phyllodocids, and was found at only two incidental stations

(Bunces Pass and Mullet Key) and 17 survey stations. No

collections were made in Hillsborough or Terra Ceia Bays

(table 37).

Specimens were found mostly in poorly sorted, fine

sand that contained more than five percent silt and clay,

over one percent organic carbon, and numerous, large shell

fragments (table 38).

Vegetation, that consisted of algae, shoal grass, and

turtle grass, was recorded at one station.

No gravid specimens were collected, but one juvenile

was present in a November sample.

P. speciosa occurs from Maine to Florida and has been

recorded in the Gulf of Mexico.





141


Table 38.--Paranaitis speciosa--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)


Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

25.7

29.4

8.1

1.1

sand


1.0

93.7

3.8

1.5

17.0

1.1

0.1


2.7


1.3

1.0

11.9


3.5


1.5


Range

to 31.2

to 34.5

to 8.5

to 4.0

Sto silty


17.C

24.5

7.8

L1

sand
sand

0.C

72.5

0.2

0.0"3

1.2


Number
observations

17

17

13

17

17


17

17

17

17

17


0.1 to 8.5

0.01 to 0.2


1.3 to 4.1


0.7 to

-0.2 to

-0.04 to


2.0

2.2

25.9


2.5 to 9.0


0.5 to 3.2


-0.6 -2.3 to 2.3


1.3 0.6 to 2.9


6.1

99.4

22.1

5.2

66.0


i

)

i

>

!

>




140

Table 37.--Paranaitis speciosa--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

3-8 1 4-17-A 1
3-9 1 4-18-A 1
3-12 2 6-4-A 1

Upper Tampa Bay

11-4 1


Boca Ciega Bay

BC-I 1 15-8 1
BC-M 2 15-12 1
15-6 2 1 16-6 5

Lower Tampa Bay

17-2 1 17-6 1
17-4 2 17-13 3





142


Phyllodoce arenae Webster, 1879
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

P. arenae was the Phyllodocid most commonly collected

in the Estuary. Two incidental collections (northwest end

of the Pinellas County Bayway and near Gandy Bridge) and

collections at 192 survey stations amounted to a total of

194 localities for this species from all areas of Tampa

Bay.

It was found in greatest abundance in Old Tampa Bay,

and upper and lower Tampa Bay. The most individuals per

dredge haul (332) were recorded at station 6-2 (table 39).

Sediment data show that P. arenae was generally found

in sand, but also occurred in shelly sand and in very soft

sediments. Average sediment was poorly sorted, fine sand

with over six percent silt and clay, less than one percent

organic carbon, and a considerable amount of fine shell

(table 40).

Algae were present in 62 or about 35 percent of the

dredge and shovel samples. Other plants noted at some sta-

tions were shoal, turtle, and manatee grass.

Specimens with mature gametes were collected in June,

July, September, and December. Juveniles were noted in

June, July, August, September, October, November, and

December.





143


This species occurs from Maine to New Jersey, and

has not been previously reported from the Gulf of Mexico.




144


Table 39.--Phyllodoce arenae--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

A-6 3 4-12 7 2
B 7 2 4-13 2 26
1-3 3 4-14 1
1-4 2 2 4-15 7 5
1-5 2 1 4-16 16 10
3-2 1 4-17-A 7
3-4 1 1 4-18-A 1
3-5 1 4-19 13 22
3-6 2 5-3 2
3-8 2 5-6 1
3-9 1 5-8 1
3-10 1 5-11 3
3-11 11 1 5-12 11 10
3-12 16 8 5-13 5
4-1 1 6-1-A 3
4-2 2 6-2 332 23
4-6 1 6-3 12 71
4-7 1 2 6-4-A 3 1
4-9 1 6-5 11
4-11 4 6-6 2 3

Hillsborough Bay

C-3 4 10-16 13 4
9-3 2 10-17 4'
9-4 3 5 10-19 5 19
9-6 2 10-20 1
10-15 6 17 10-21 1




145


Table 39.--Phyllodoce arenae--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N


D
10-3
10-4
10-6
10-7
10-8
10-9
10-10
10-11
10-12
10-14-A
11-3
11-4
11-5
11-6
11-8
11-9
11-10
11-12
11-13
11-15
11-16
11-17
11-18
11-19
11-20
11-21
11-22


2 15
46







1


11-23
11-24
11-25
11-26
11-27
11-28
11-28-1
11-28-2
12-1
12-2
12-3
12-4
12-5
12-6
12-7
12-8
12-9
12-10
12-11
12-12
12-14
12-15
13-1-A
13-1-B
13-4
13-5
13-8
13-11


- I- I II- II ~---




146


Table 39.--Phyllodoce arenae--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-A 25 PB-5 2
BC-M 3 14-2 7
BC-N 27 14-3 7
D-2 3 14-4 7
D-11 2 1 15-12 4
D-13 1 15-13 2
D-17 1 2 15-14 1 2
D-22 1 15-17 1
D-24 1 16-1 1
D-25 3 16-6 19 1
PB-1 1 10 16-7 1
PB-4 2 16-8 1 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-l 4 3 E-5 4 1
E-2 6 E-6 6
E-3 6 60 E-7 9 1
E-4 9 1 E-8 3 3




147


Table 39.--Phyllodoce arenae--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N


14-5
14-6
14-7
14-8
14-9
14-10
14-11
14-14
14-16
14-17
14-18
14-19
15-18
15-19
15-20
15-21
15-22
15-23
15-25
15-26
15-27
15-28
15-29
15-30
15-31
15-32
15-33


16-9
16-9-A
16-9-B
16-10
16-11
16-13
16-14
16-15
16-16
16-17
16-19
16-20
16-21
16-22
16-23
16-24
16-27
17-2.
17-4
17-5
17-6
17-7
17-8
17-9
17-12
17-13
17-14


- - -- -- - --




148


Table 40.--Phyllodoce arenae--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida 1963-69

Numbe


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3(wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


2.6 -4.0 to 7.3


1.3

0.5

11.7


3.1


1.4


0.4

-1.6

-0.8


3.0

2.4

62.5


1.4 to 9.0


0.4 to 3.4


0.0 -2.6 to 3.0


1.2 0.2 to 3.1


147


Mean

24.4

28.1

8.0

1.1

sand


2.4

91.9

3.5

2.7

13.9

0.7

0.04


Range

13.0 to 32.7

16.4 to 34.8

7.1 to 8.4

/1 to 4.0

shelly sand t
silty clay

0.0 to 79.7

4.6 to 100

0.0 to 52.6

0.0 to 65.9

0.6 to 68.0

0.02 to 8.5

0.00 to 0.2


Number
observations

177

177

163

177

:o 172


172

172

172

166

166

136

136


171


171

171

170


166


166


147





149


Phyllodoce fragilis Webster, 1879b

Individuals were collected at 44 survey stations,

and were found associated with oysters at incidental sta-

tions in Old Tampa Bay, and upper Tampa Bay. Hillsborough

Bay is the only area of the Estuary where this species was

not collected (table 41).

Average sediment type at dredge and shovel stations

was poorly sorted sand with less than five percent silt

and clay, and a considerable quantity of shell. Organic

carbon content was about one percent (table 42).

Algae were present in more than half of the bottom

samples and several also had shoal grass, turtle grass,

and manatee grass.

A gravid specimen was taken in October, and juveniles

were collected in September, October, and November.

P. fragilis is known from the western Atlantic be-

tween Virginia and Florida, and in the Gulf of Mexico.




150


Table 41.--Phyllodoce fragilis--Locality records and num-
ber of individuals from survey stations, Tampa
Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel,
N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

A-i 5 5-13 1
3-1-A 3 6-1-D 2

Upper Tampa Bay


11-3
11-4


11-28
13-10


Boca Ciega Bay


BC-A 1 25 PB-4 1
BC-M 1 PB-5 1
BC-N 34 10 14-3 1
D-2 1 15-5 1
D-22 9 15-6 20
D-24 1 15-11 1
D-25 1 16-6 2
D-26 107 16-8 60
PB-1 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-6 26

Lower Tampa Bay

14-6 1 16-14 15 34
14-10 1 16-15 1
14-16 1 16-21 4 4
15-23 1 16-27 1
15-25 2 17-5 1
16-10 3 61 17-6 1 7
16-11 1 1 17-7 2
16-12 2 17-8 1
16-13 15 17-10 3 1


I




151


Table 42.--Phyllodoce fragilis--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

22.9

30.5

8.0

1.0

sand'


5.8

90.2

2.9

1.1

18.0

1.0

0.04


2.2


lo6

0.3

10.9


3.4


1.3


0.3


3.8

3.4

73.5


2.1 to 6.1


0.6 to 2.3


-0.9 to 3.0


1.2 0.2 to 2.8


Range

13.0 to 32.0

24.1 to 33.9

7.1 to 8.4

/1 to 3.0

shelly sand t
sandy clay

0.0 to 34.5

58.0 to 99.4

0.3 to 12.2

0.1 to 7.2

0.9 to 68.0

0.1 to 3.3

0.00 to 0.19


0.6 to 3.6


Number
observations

22

22

21

22

.o 21


21

21

21

21

21

18

18


21


21

21

21


21


21


17


0.6

-1.3

-0.7





152


Family HESIONIDAE Malmqren, 1867

This family has world-wide representation in seas

at all latitudes, and contains very active, errant worms

that are generally regarded as predators (Day, 1967). Al-

though most hesionids are free living, some live associated

with other organisms as commensals.

Five species were collected in Tampa Bay. Two, Hesione

picta and Podarke obscura, were found only in the high

salinity areas of the Estuary seaward of transect-13. The

other three, Gyptis vittata, Gyptis sp., and Parahesione

luteola, are apparently less limited by salinity and were

collected in both upper and lower reaches of the Estuary.

Key to HESIONIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Median antenna absent; 6 to 8 pairs of
tentacular cirri ............. ....................... 2

- Median antenna present; 6 to 8 pairs of
tentacular cirri ........................ .. .......... 3

2 Eight pairs of tentacular cirri ........ Hesione picta

- Six pairs of tentacular cirri...... Parahesione luteola

3 Eight pairs of tentacular cirri.................... 4

- Six pairs of tentacular cirri.......... Podarke obscura

4 Numerous notosetae with spinous margin
and capillary tip........................... Gyptis sp.

- Less than 12 capillary notosetae with
smooth margins ....................... Gyptis vittata




153


Hesione picta Muller, 1858
(Described and illustrated by Ehlers, 1887
as Hesione vittigera)

Specimens were collected in Boca Ciega Bay at one

survey station (D-25) and at several incidental localities

where they were associated with oysters and sponges (table

43).

Neither gravid nor juvenile worms were found

H. picta is known from the tropical, western Atlantic

and the Gulf of Mexico.





154

Table 43.--Hesione picta--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

D-25 1




155


Gyptis vittata Webster and Benedict, 1887
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

Individuals were collected at 138 survey stations, in

all areas of the Estuary, and at four incidental localities

in Old Tampa Bay, Hillsborough Bay, and Boca Ciega Bay. The

worm was most abundant at station 11-9 in upper Tampa Bay

where 28 specimens were collected in a single dredge haul

(table 44).

Average sediment at dredge and shovel stations was poor-

ly sorted, very fine sand. The content of silt and clay was

over 13 percent, organic carbon was one percent, and shell

was under 10 percent (table 45).

The bottom at nearly one-third of these stations was

vegetated with algae and one or more of the following sea

grasses: turtle grass, shoal grass, manatee grass, or

Halophila.

Specimens in breeding condition were collected in July

and September, and juveniles were present in samples taken

during June, July, August, September, October, November,

and December.

G. vittata is known from the New England coast between

Maine and Massachusetts. This is the first report for the

Gulf of Mexico.




156


Table 44.--Gyptis vittata--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

B 2 4-8 1
B-l 1 4-10 1
B-2 2 4-12 3
1-3 7 1 4-13 13 2
1-4 11 4 4-15 2
1-5 12 1 4-16 2
3-1-A 5 1 4-19 2
3-2 1 5-2 4
3-4 3 5-3 1
3-5 2 5-4 1
3-6 2 2 5-6 3
3-7 2 5-7 1
3-10 1 5-9 1
3-11 3 5-12 2
3-12 2 6-1-A 2
3-16 1 6-1-B 2
4-2 2 6-2 15
4-3 1 6-5 11
4-4 2 6-6 1
4-6 2 6-7-A 1
4-7 3

Hillsborough Bay

C-1 1 9-4
C-2 3 10-16 2 4
C-6 1 10-17 3
7-1 1 10-19 3 16
8-8 6 10-22 2





157


Table 44.--Gyptis vittata--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

10-1-A 2 11-16 1
10-2 3 11-17 6 2
10-3 6 11-18 2 1
10-4 2 11-19 3 6
10-6 1 11-20 5
10-7 1 11-21 6
10-8 2 11-22 4 4
10-9 2 11-23 2 1
11-2 2 11-24 2
11-3 1 11-26 1
11-4 4 11-27 6
11-5 1 11-28 4
11-6 5 11-28-1 21
11-7 2 11-28-2 3
11-8 3 2 12-7 1
11-9 28 1 12-14 5
11-11 1 12-15 10
11-12 7 4 12-16 1
11-13 3 13-1-A 7
11-14 1 13-1-B 4
11-15 4 6 13-11 2


Boca Ciega Bay

BC-A 1 PB-4 1
BC-C 2 14-2 1
BC-G 1 15-1 4
BC-I 1 15-3 4
BC-N 2 15-5 3
D-2 13 15-6 2
D-3 4 15-12 1
D-5 1 16-1 1
D-9 2 16-2 4
D-10 2 16-3 1
D-11 7 16-4 1
D-12 1 16-5 3
D-19-A 1 1 16-8 2
D-21 1
D-23 2




158


Table 44.--Gyptis vittata--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Terra Ceia Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

E-l 1 E-4 1
E-2 3 E-6 4
E-3 2

Lower Tampa Bay

15-18 1 16-26 2
15-31 16 16-27 4
16-9-B 1 17-6 1
16-10 1 17-7 1
16-11 1 17-8 1
16-25 1 17-11 1




159


Table 45.--Gyptis vittata--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


3.1 -4.0 to 7.3


1.5

0.5

10.5


3.2


1.4


0.4 to 3.5

-1.4 to 3.4

-1.3 to 73.5


1.4 to 9.0


0.4 to 2.8


-0.2 -2.6 to 3.0


1.4 0.2 to 2.9


116


Mean

26.5

26.9

8.0

1

sand


2.8

82.6

7.8

5.9

9.9

1.0

0.1


Range

13.0 to 33.8

18.5 to 34.4

7.0 to 8.5

L1.0 to 4.0

shelly sand
clayey mud

0.0 to 79.7

0.9 to 99.9

0.0 to 56.5

0.0 to 65.9

0.7 to 58.4

0.01 to 8.5

0.00 to 0.6


Number
observations

128

128

112

128

to 126


126

126

126

126

125

76

76


125


125

125

125


125


125


116





160


Parahesione luteola (Webster, 1880)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1956)

Collections came from 58 survey stations, and all

but the three localities in Boca Ciega Bay were north of

transect-12. P. luteola is obviously well adapted to

brackish conditions and is one of the few polychaetes in

the Estuary that was commonly found throughout Hills-

borough Bay (table 46).

Average sediment at dredge and shovel stations was

poorly sorted, coarse silt with an average silt-clay con-

tent of more than 30 percent. Large shell fragments were

present at most stations, and organic carbon was slightly

less than one percent (table 47).

Only 14 percent of the bottom samples contained vege-

tation. The plants recorded were: algae, and shoal,

turtle, and manatee grass.

Both gravid and juvenile worms were collected in

August and September.




161


Table 46.--Parahesione luteola--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

1-3 1 3-15 1
1-5 2 4-3 1
3-1-A 11 4-6 1
3-4 1 4-7 3
3-5 2 4-13 5
3-7 2

Hillsborough Bay

C 42 9-3 6 11
C-2 3 29 9-4 4 13
C-3 23 9-6 13
7-1 32 3 9-7 3
8-2 1 15 9-8 7
8-3 1 9-9 9
8-4 3 10-15 2 6
8-5 2 10-16 11 15
8-7 1 12 10-17 4 1
8-8 10 37 10-21 1
8-9 1 10-22 2
9-2 4 10-23 1

Upper Tampa Bay

10-11 1 137 11-18 4 1
11-7 7 11-19 2
11-8 1 11-21 3
11-9 7 11-22 6 3
11-11 11 11-23 5 13
11-12 14 1 11-24 3
11-13 5 11-25 19
11-14 18 11-26 9
11-15 3 1 11-27 1
11-17 8 2 11-28 20




162


Table 46.--Parahesione luteola--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

D-19-A 1 PB-4 1
D-20 1




163


Table 47.--Parahesione luteola--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

29.1

23.5

7.8

1.2

silty
sand

1.5

66.4

17.5

14.7

12.0

0.8

0.1


4.1


1.8

0.4

5.3


3.1


1.5


Range

25.8 to 31.4

16.6 to 31.8

7.0 to 8.3

L1 to 4.0

shelly sand t
silty clay

0.0 to 41.5

4.6 to 99.9

0.1 to 53o0

0.0 to 50.3

0.7 to 42.0

0.1 to 2.3

0.00 to 0.2


0.9 to 7.3


0.5 to

0.8 to

-1.2 to


Number
observations

42

42

35

42

:o 41


3.5

1.6

28.9


1.7 to 4.1


0.6 to 2.5


-0.2 -2.6 to 1.7


1.4 0.4 to 3.1





164


Podarke obscure Verrill, 1873
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

This species was found only at localities seaward of

transect-13 where it was taken at 36 survey stations and

in three incidental samples (Johns Pass, Pass-A-Grille Chan-

nel, and lower Tampa Bay near Mullet Key). As many as 14

specimens were collected in a dredge haul in Boca Ciega

Bay at station BC-M (table 48).

Sediments at most localities were poorly sorted, fine

sand with a considerable amount of small shell fragments,

and very little silt, clay, or organic carbon (table 49).

In many instances the worm was collected from the sea

urchin Lytechinus variegatusand not directly from sediments.

One-half of the dredge and shovel samples contained

algae and a number also had shoal grass, turtle grass,

manatee grass, and Halophila.

No sexually mature specimens were collected, but

juveniles were noted in September, October, November, and

December.

P. obscura is widely distributed in the western At-

lantic between New England and Florida, as well as in the

Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico.




165


Table 48.--Podarke obscura--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-M 14 10 15-11 1 2
BC-N 3 4 15-12 1
D-6 1 15-14 1
PB-4 1 16-4 2 1
14-3 5 16-5 1
14-4 2 16-6 7
15-8 2 16-7 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-5 2 E-8 1
E-7 6

Lower Tampa Bay

14-6 5 16-15 1
14-13 4 16-17 2
14-19 1 16-19 1
15-18 1 16-22 1
15-29 1 17-5 10
15-31 1 17-6 2
15-32 1 17-7 1
16-9-A 1 1 17-9 3
16-13 1 18-3 5
16-14 2




166


Table 49.--Podarke obscura--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (QC.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (.0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Rang


Mean

21.8

31.6

8.1

1.0

sand


3.2

92.5

3.4

0.9

18.5

0.5

0.04


2.4


1.3

0.3

7.3


3.1


1.2


1.3 to 4.1


0.7 to

-0.5 to

-0.04 to


eZ

27.2

34.3

8.4

3.0

silty


14.7

99.1

22.1

5.2

66.1

3.3

0.2


2.3

1.6

22.2


2.1 to 6.1


0.6 to 3.1


0.2 -1.8 to 2.5


1.1 0.2 to 1.9


14.5 to

29.3 to

7.7 to

/1 to

sand to
sand

0.1 to

72.5 to

0.5 to

0.1 to

1.9 to

0.04 to

0.00 to


Number
observations

20

20

19

20

19


19

19

19

19

19

18

18


19





167


Gyptis sp.

This undetermined hesionid is a small worm about

1 mm. wide, including parapodia. No entire specimens

were collected, but the estimated length is 6 mm. and

there are probably about 40 setigerous segments.

The prostomium resembles Gyptis vittata (figure 4,A)

except that some of the dorsal, tentacular cirri are quite

long. The longest extends back to setiger eight.

Notosetae are numerous and have a spinous margin

(figure 4,B). Dorsal, parapodial cirri are quite long

and are attached on the body wall (figure 4,C). Ventral

cirri were not observed, but a distal node on the ligule

indicates the probable point of origin. Neurosetae have

a striated shaft and long, falcate appendage with fine

teeth on one margin (figure 4,D,E,F).

Specimens were collected at 18 survey stations, in

all areas of the Estuary except lower Tampa Bay (table 50).

Sediment data indicate that this species, like Para-

hesione luteola, is most commonly found in silty sand

(table 51).

The bottom at 16 percent of the dredge or shovel sta-

tions was vegetated with algae as well as one or more of





168

all five sea grasses found in the Estuary.

Gravid specimens were collected in September, but

no juveniles were seen.




169


Table 50.--Gyptis sp.--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

1-3 1 3-10 1
1-4 1 4-15 1
1-5 1 6-1-C 1

Hillsborough Bay

8-5 1 1 10-17 3
10-16 1

Upper Tampa Bay

11-13 3 11-19 3
11-14 2 11-22 2
11-15 3 11-24 1
11-17 21

Boca Ciega Bay

16-4 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-6 2




170

Table 51.--Gyptis sp.--Mean and range of observed environ-
mental factors from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature ("C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation
carbonate fraction (0)


Range

13.0 to 31.5

22.3 to 33.4

7.0 to 8.4

/1 to 4.0

shelly sand t
silty clay

0.0 to 41.5


Mean

28.2

25.3

7.8

2.0

silty
sand

3.5

63.7

17.0

15.9

14.8

0.7

0.06


4.1


1.9

0.5

6.4


3.1


1.4


Number
observations

18

18

17

18

-o 17


to 98.9

to 51.0

to 53.0

to 36.9

to 2.0

0 to 0.24


0.9 to 7.4


0.8

-0.7

-0.9


3.5

2.1

37.5


1.7 to 4.1


0.6 to 2.2


-0.2 -2.5 to


2.4


1.2 0.4 to 1.7


6.4

0.4

0.5

1.2

0.1

0.0







Figure 4. --


Gyptis sp.:


Diagnostic features of Gyptis sp.


(A) Prostomium in dorsal view (B)

Notoseta from a median parapod (C)

Median parapod (D) Proximal appendage

of neuroseta from median parapod (E)

Appendages of same neuroseta showing

articulation and spinous margin on

distal member (F) Same neuroseta show-

ing falcate tip on distal member.




172


FIGURE 4


SA
0.50MM


0.10MM


0.02 MM


SD




0.01MM


F




0.02 MM


0.01MM





173


Family PILARGIDAE, Saint-Joseph, 1899

The pilargids are mostly temperate and tropical worms

with world-wide distribution. They are errant, crawling

or burrowing predators that may also feed on dead organic

matter.

The family is represented in Tampa Bay by five species.

Aside from Pilargis pacifica, which was found only in Boca

Ciega Bay, the pilargids occur in most areas of the Es-

tuary from the head waters to the Gulf on bottoms of sand

or silty sand.

Key to PILARGIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Without large, acicular notosetae.... Pilargis pacifica

- With large, hook shaped, acicular noto-
setae on most segments .............................. 2

2 Parapodia small, parapodial cirri short; no
median antenna; lateral antennae and tenta-
cular cirri short ...................... Cabira incerta

- Parapodia with distinct lobes and cirri;
median antenna present; median and lateral
antennae, and tentacular cirri short or long ........ 3

3 Antennae and tentacular cirri
short............................. Ancistrosyllis jonesi

- Antennae and tentacular cirri long .................. 4

4 Hooked notosetae appear after setiger 10.Sigambra bassi

- Hooked notosetae appear on
setiger 4 ........................ Sigambra tentaculata





174


Ancistrosyllis jonesi Pettibone, 1966

This species was collected at 10 stations, and at two

incidental localities. One was near Pinellas County Bay-

way in Boca Ciega Bay, and the other was nearshore at

Mullet Key in lower Tampa Bay. Terra Ceia Bay was the

only area of the Estuary where no specimens were found

(table 52).

Average sediment type at survey stations was silty

sand with over 20 percent coarse shell, and silt and clay.

These sediments, however, had less than one percent organic

carbon (table 53).

Vegetation was noted at only one of the survey sta-

tions where algae and shoal grass were recorded.

No specimens contained ripe gametes, but one juvenile

worm was collected in October.

This species was described from Chesapeake Bay where

it was dredged in mud at seven fathoms. It has not been

previously collected in the Gulf of Mexico or from any

other locality.




175

Table 52.--Ancistrosyllis jonesi--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel,
N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals


D S N D S N

B-2 1


Hillsborough Bay

10-16 1


Upper Tampa Bay

11-20 1 11-25 1
11-24 6


Boca Ciega Bay

BC-A 1 15-5 2
BC-H 1 15-6 1


Lower Tampa Bay

17-4 1




176


Table 53.--Ancistrosyllis jonesi--Mean and range of ob-
served environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)


Mean

24.7

29.3

8.1

1.1

silty
sand

1.2


Range

17.0 to 32.0

24.6 to 34.0

7.9 to 8.3

L1 to 3.0

sand to claye
silt

0.04 to 2.8


Number
observations

9

9

9

9

!y 9


9


Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


77.2 11.2 to 95.6


12.3

9.3

25.1

0.3

0.01


1.2

0.5

1.1

0.1

0.00


3.5 1.3 to


1.9

0.8

3.7


2.8


0.8


1.3

-0.6

-0.3


44.4

43.8

65.5

0.6

0.07


7.1


2.6

1.2

6.6


2.3 to 3.6


0.5 to 1.9


-0.3 -2.0 to 1.7


1.6 0.8 to 2.9




177


Cabira incerta Webster, 1879
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1966)

C. incerta was collected at 12 survey stations in all

areas of the Estuary except Hillsborough Bay (table 54).

The only sediment type recorded for this species was

poorly sorted, fine sand. Average content of silt and

clay was under five percent, organic carbon was less than

one percent, and shell fragments comprised about 13 percent

of the sediment (table 55).

Vegetation was recorded at one-half of the stations.

Of these, 50 percent contained algae and some had turtle,

shoal, and manatee grass as well.

Neither sexually mature nor juvenile worms were col-

lected.

The only unquestionable record for C. incerta is from

Chesapeake Bay where it was collected in mud at seven

fathoms. This record is the first for the Gulf of Mexico

and the only other one for the species.




178

Table 54.--Cabira incerta--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa
Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel,
N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

4-6 1 4-12 3

Upper Tampa Bay

10-1-A 1 13-1-A 2
11-16 1

Boca Ciega Bay

PB-1 1 14-4 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-6 1


Lower Tampa Bay

15-25 1 16-26 3
16-25 1 17-15 3




179


Table 55.--Cabira incerta--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature ("C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

23.9

28.5

8.1

1

sand

2.3

93.1

3.2

1.5

12.7

0.4

0.04


2.5


1.3

0.5

8.5


2.8


1.1


1.3 to 3.2


0.9

-1.4

0.3


2.7

1.5

21.2


1.9 to 3.7


0.6 to 2.0


-0.2 -1.8 to 2.4


1.3 0.8 to 2.0


Range

to 31.0

to 33.5

to 8.3

to 3.0



to 10.5

to 99.9

to 11.7

to 4.9

to 58.4

to 1.4

0 to 0.2


13.0

23.3

7.7

L1

sand

0.0

72.8

0.0

0.0

1.2

0.1

0.0


Number
observations

12

12

11

12

12

12

12

12

12

12

8

8


12


12

12

12


11


11


9





180


Pilargis pacifica Zachs, 1933

A single specimen was found at station 16-4 in Boca

Ciega Bay (table 56).

The sediment was very poorly sorted, fine sand with

a large percentage of large particles. The percentage of

silt and clay was less than six, and organic carbon was

less than one percent (table 57).

Vegetation at the collection site consisted of algae

and all local sea grasses except widgeon grass.

Neither gravid nor juvenile specimens were collected.

Prior to this report, P. pacifica was known only from

the coast of Japan.




181


Table 56.--Pilargis pacifica--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

16-4 1




182


Table 57.--Pilargis pacifica--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Range


Mean

23.0

33.4

8.4

0.3

sand

13.4

80.5

5.3

0.8

7.4

0.3

0.01


2.1


2.3

-0.5

1.5


3.3


0.6


-1.3


1.1


Number
observations

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1





183


Siqambra bassi (Hartman, 1945)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1966)

Specimens were collected at 13 localities in all

areas of the Estuary except Terra Ceia and Hillsborough

Bays (table 58).

Sediments from bottom samples were mostly poorly

sorted, fine sand that contained about seven percent

silt and clay, nearly one percent organic carbon, and

more than 13 percent shell (table 59).

Four of the 13 stations were vegetated. All had

algae, and present at some were turtle grass, shoal

grass, and manatee grass.

Neither gravid individuals nor juveniles were col-

lected.

S. bassi has been recorded from east and west coasts

of the United States and the Gulf of Mexico.




184


Table 58.--Sigambra bassi--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

1-4 3 4-12 1
1-5 1 4-14 1

Upper Tampa Bay

11-24 1 13-1-A 5

Boca Ciega Bay

D-3 1 15-9 2
D-11 1 16-3 1

Lower Tampa Bay

15-33 1 18-4 1
16-13 1




185


Table 59.--Sigambra bassi--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (OC.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

26.6

29.7

7.9

1.0

sand


2.2

91.2

4.1

2.6

13.4

0.7

0.04


2.6


1.5

0.4

6.3


3.0


1.4


2.4

1.7

14.8


1.8 to 6.0


0.6 to 2.2


-0.4 -2.5 to 0.8


1.3 0.9 to 1.81


Range

21.3 to 31.5

24.4 to 34.2

7.1 to 8.3

L/ to 3.0

sand to silty
sand

0.0 to 7.4

81.0 to 99.4

0.04 to 16.6

0.0 to 13.7

1.3 to 49.9

0.1 to 3.3

0.00 to 0.2


1.6 to 4.3


Number
observations

13

13

13

13

13


13

13

13

13

13

7

7


13


13

13

13


12


12


11


0.6 to

-1.2 to

-0.3 to




186


Sigambra tentaculata (Treadwell, 1941)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1966)

With the exception of Terra Ceia Bay, collections

were made throughout the Estuary at 41 stations. The

greatest numbers of the worms were recorded along tran-

sect-ll in upper Tampa Bay. As many as 37 individuals were

collected at station 11-9 (table 60).

The sediments along much of transect-11 are quite soft,

and as an average, sediment type at all dredge and shovel

stations was silty sand with over 30 percent silt and clay,

and a large proportion of fine and coarse shell particles.

Organic carbon, however, was only 0.5% (table 61).

Bottom vegetation was recorded at only four stations.

Algae were present at all of these, and noted at some were

shoal grass, turtle grass or manatee grass.

A gravid specimen was collected in September, and

juveniles were found in September and December.

S. tentaculata has been reported from the Gulf, the

east coast of North and South America, and the coast of

southern California.




187


Table 60.--Sigambra tentaculata--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

3-4 6 4-8 1
3-5 3 4-13 2
4-4 1 5-1-A 1
4-7 3


Hillsborough Bay

10-16 2 10-19 1
10-17 6


Upper Tampa Bay

11-6 2 11-18 1
11-7 1 11-19 7
11-8 8 3 11-20 4 2
11-9 37 1 11-22 5 3
11-11 4 11-23 2 1
11-12 10 11-24 2
11-13 3 11-25 2
11-14 6 1 11-26 1
11-15 6 1 12-14 4
11-16 2 1 13-1-B 1
11-17 11


Boca Ciega Bay

D-11 1 15-6 1
D-23 1 15-8 1
14-1-A 1 15-14 3
14-4 3 16-6 1


Lower Tampa Bay

17-2 1 17-9 2




188


Table 61.--Sigambra tentaculata--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Number
Factor Mean Range observations


Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


27.5 18.2 to 31.0


27.2

7.6

2

silty
sand

2.2

67.0

17.1

13.5

18.3

0.5

0.04


4.0


1.9

0.4

4.2


2.9


1.3


23.8 to

7.4 to

L1 to

sand to
silt

0.0 to

0.9 to

0.9 to

0.3 to

0.9 to

0.1 to

0.00 to


0.9 to


0.7 to

-0.7 to

-1.3 to


1.4 to


34.6

8.2

4.0

clayey


41.5

98.4

53.1

50.3

66.0

2.3

0.2


7.3


5.5

2.1

20.1


4.1


0.5 to 3.2


-0.03 -2.3 to 2.4


1.4 0.4 to 2.9




189


Family SYLLIDAE Grube, 1850

The syllids comprise a large group of small, thread-

like worms that inhabit all seas from the tropics to the

poles. Some are found in sediments and others nestle

among sessile bottom animals or graze on benthic vegeta-

tion. They probably feed on the cell fluids of plants

and smaller invertebrates.

Sixteen species were collected in Tampa Bay. Exogone

dispar was the only species found in all areas of the

Estuary. Seven others were collected only near the mouth

of the Estuary or at least no further north than Interbay

Peninsula (Branchiosyllis oculatus, Odontosyllis enopla,

Syllis annularis, Syllis spongicola, Syllis variegata,

Pionosyllis sp., and Syllis sp. A). The others were found

in both brackish and high salinity areas of the Estuary

(Autolytus cornutus, Brania clavata, Syllis aciculata,

Syllis qracilis, Syllis vittata, Brania sp., Sphaerosyllis

sp., and Syllis sp. B).

Many were collected largely or entirely by net so that

sediment data is meagre or absent for some species.

Key to SYLLIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Ventral, parapodial cirri absent.... Autolytus cornutus

- Ventral, parapodial cirri present ................... 2





190


2 Palps joined at the base; 2 pairs of tentacular
cirri; dorsal cirri faintly segmented or smooth...... 3

Palps joined through one-half or more of their
length; 1 or 2 pairs of tentacular cirri; dorsal
cirri smooth ........................................ 4

Palps not joined, 2 pairs of tentacular cirri;
dorsal cirri distinctly segmented ................... 7

3 Teeth on ventral rim of pharynx; large occipital
flap on peristomium .............. Odontosyllis enopla

Single anterior tooth on dorsal rim of pharynx;
peristomial flap absent .............. Pionosyllis sp.

4 One pair of tentacular cirri ....................... 5

Two pairs of tentacular cirri ....................... 6

5 Dorsal cirri cylindical................ Exogone dispar

-Dorsal cirri flask shaped; parapodia have
basal capsules with rod-like
inclusions .......................... Sphaerosyllis sp.

6 Compound setae all similar with distinct
spinous margin and entire tip .............. Brania sp.

Compound setae have a distal appendage of 2
types (1) short and spinous with entire tip
(2) short to long with spinous margin and
bidentate tip .......................... Brania clavata

7 No compound setae; simple, acicular setae
have Y-shaped tip ................... Syllis spongicola

No simple setae; compound, falcate setae of 2
kinds (1) short, ventral ones with a distal
appendage bearing a rounded basal tooth and
large, smooth, strongly curved, terminal tooth'
(2) longer dorsal ones with a distal appendage
bearing a spinous margin and small, curved,
terminal tooth ....................... Syllis annularis

- Simple and compound setae present ................... 8





191


8 Simple setae have an entire tip; compound setae
have a distal appendage bearing a single, smooth,
strongly curved tooth ......... Branchiosyllis oculatus

Some or all compound setae have a spinous
margin ............................................ .. 9

9 Median and posterior segments have simple Y-
shaped, acicular, setae as well as compound
falcigers and setae with various degrees of
fusion between proximal and distal
appendages ............................ Syllis gracilis

Simple, acicular, Y-shaped setae absent ............ 10

10 Posterior, compound setae have a short, distal
appendage with no spinous margin and a
bidentate tip ........................... Syllis sp. A

SPosterior compound setae all have a spinous
margin *......................... ................... 11

11 Compound setae all similar ........................ 12

- Compound setae have short or long, distal
appendage .................. .. ............ .......... 13

12 Distal appendage of compound setae
bidentate ............................ Syllis varieqata

SDistal appendage of compound setae
entire ............ ............. ....... Syllis vittata

13 Longer distal appendage of compound setae
about 3 times the length of shorter appendage;
both have a bidentate tip.............. Syllis aciculata

- Longer distal appendage of compound setae about
7 times the length of shorter appendage; short
appendage ends in a bidentate tip; long
appendage ends in a capillary tip......... Syllis sp. B


Autolytus cornutus Agassiz, 1863
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

Specimens were collected at 13 survey stations and




192


at incidental localities near Piney Point (upper Tampa

Bay) and in Bunces Pass (Boca Ciega Bay). Survey stations

were in Old Tampa Bay, Boca Ciega Bay and lower Tampa Bay

(table 62).

The only sediment data came from collections in Boca

Ciega Bay. They show a bottom type of fine, poorly sorted

sand, with about nine percent silt and clay, less than one

percent organic carbon, and a small percentage of coarse

shell fragments (table 63).

The bottom at both stations was vegetated with algae

and turtle grass.

Neither gravid nor juvenile specimens were collected.

A. cornutus has been found in growths of attached

plants and animals along the Atlantic seaboard from the

Arctic south to Chesapeake Bay. This report is the first

for the species in the Gulf of Mexico.




193


Table 62.--Autolytus cornutus--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

6-2 1 6-3 2


Boca Ciega Bay

BC-M 5 PB-1 2
BC-N 3 PB-4 1
D-2 2 3 14-3 1
D-18 1 15-12 1
D-25 4 15-14 2


Lower Tampa Bay

14-16 1





194


Table 63.--Autolytus cornutus--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor
Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3(wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean
26.3

34.0

8.2

0.3

sand

5.3

86.1

6.9

1.7

12.6

0.7

0.03


2.9


1.8

0.3

3.6


2.9


1.7


1.9

0.6

4.6


2.7 to 3.1


1.4 to 2.1


-0.2 -0.4 to 0.1


1.2 1.0 to 1.4


Range
25.5 to 27.0

33.2 to 34.9







7.1 to 3.4

81.0 to 91.2

0.3 to 13.4

1.4 to 2.1

7.3 to 18.0






2.5 to 3.4


Number
observations
2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1


2


1.8 to

-0.01 to

2.6 to





195


Branchiosyllis oculata Ehlers, 1887
(Described and illustrated by Rioja, 1959)

One specimen was collected from a sponge in Boca

Ciega Bay, and others were found in lower Tampa Bay at a

single survey station (table 64).

Sediment data came from the dredge station in lower

Tampa Bay. The bottom was composed of poorly sorted,

medium sand with some large pieces of shell. There was

practically no silt, clay, or organic carbon in the sample

(table 65).

Algae, but no sea grasses, were recorded at the dredge

station.

Neither gravid nor juvenile specimens were collected.

This syllid was originally described from a collection

off Key West, Florida, and has since been reported from

calcareous algae in the western Gulf near Veracruz, Mexico

(Rioja, 1959). It is apparently restricted to the Gulf

and Caribbean.





196


Table 64.--Branchiosyllis oculata--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

16-4 24

Lower Tampa Bay

15-28 1




197


Table 65.--Branchiosyllis oculata--Mean and range of ob-
served environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation
carbonate fraction (0)


Range


Mean

24.0

31.1

8.1

1.1

sand

2.8

96.6

0.4

0.2

35.8

0.1

0.04


1.4


1.2

0.2

5.3


2.7


1.0


-0.8


1.3


Number
observations

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1





198


Brania clavata (Claparede, 1863)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

A total of nine survey records and one incidental col-

lection (Old Tampa Bay) came from all areas of the Estuary

except Terra Ceia Bay (table 66). Both the Hillsborough

and Old Tampa Bay stations were in water that generally

has a salinity greater than 20 parts per thousand, and it

seems likely that more brackish waters act as a barrier to

the distribution of this species.

Sediment data from eight stations indicate that B.

clavata generally occurs on poorly sorted, medium sand

that contains less than six percent silt and clay, but has

a high content of organic carbon and a moderate amount of

coarse shell fragments (table 67).

One-third of the dredge and shovel stations contained

algae and one or more of the five sea grasses that occur in

the Estuary.

No gravid and no young specimens were collected.

This worm is known from high and low latitudes in the

eastern and western Atlantic, the Caribbean, and the Pacific

coast of Mexico. As far as I know, this is the first re-

port of B. clavata for the Gulf of Mexico.




199


Table 66.--Brania clavata--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

6-1-C 21 6-3 321


Hillsborough Bay

10-18 2

Upper Tampa Bay

10-4 2

Boca Ciega Bay

15-12 1 4 16-4 1

Lower Tampa Bay

15-28 1 17-6 1
16-13 20




200


Table 67.--Brania clavata--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Range

22.1 to 31.6

22.1 to 33.9

7.8 to 8.4

/1 to 3.0

shelly sand t
silty sand

0.3 to 44.5


Mean

27.1

28.5

8.0

1.1

sand


9.4

85.0

4.3

1.3

26.5

1.1

0.1


to

to

to

to

to

to


1.9 -1.0 to


1.5

0.2

3.7


3.3


1.3


-0.3


1.2

-0.5

-1.5


Number
observations

9

9

9

9

:o 8


96.6

22.1

5.2

56.9

3.3

S0.2


4.1


2.8

1.6

13.7


2.5 to 5.5


0.6 to 2.1


-1.3 to


0.6


1.2 0.9 to 1.6


72.5

0.4

0.0

1.5

0.1

0."01





201


Exogone dispar (Webster, 1879)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

Individuals were collected in all areas of the Estuary

at a total of 87 survey stations (table 68).

Sediment data show that it was generally found on

poorly sorted, fine sand, but also inhabited coarser and

much finer sediments. At most dredge and shovel stations,

silt and clay was less than five percent, organic carbon

approached one percent, and large shell fragments were un-

common (table 69).

Twenty-nine, or about 38 percent of the bottom samples

contained vegetation. Algae were present and sea grasses

included all those found in the Estuary with the exception

of widgeon grass.

Specimens with mature gametes were found in May, July,

August, September, October, and November.

This worm has been recorded in the Gulf of Mexico and

at many localities in the Atlantic and Pacific from boreal

waters to the tropics.




202


Table 68.--Exogone dispar--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa
Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel,
N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

B-l 1 4 6-3 9 21
B-2 24 6-4-A 1
6-1-A 2 6-5 6
6-2 325 13

Hillsborough Bay

7-3 1


Upper Tampa Bay

10-3 3 12-12 213
10-4 480 6 12-13 1
11-4 1 2 12-14 7
11-5 1 12-15 3
12-2 6 2 13-3 33
12-7 1 13-5 40
12-9 4 13-6 1
12-10 59 13-8 274
12-11 356

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-A 16 PB-4 382
BC-M 12 PB-5 4 3
BC-N 193 1 14-3 1
D-3 5 3 15-3 1
D-15 1 15-13 2
D-17 1 15-14 3 6
D-18 44 15-15 1
D-19-A 1 16-1 2
D-22 2 1 16-4 1
D-25 8 11 16-6 204
PB-1 7




203


Table 68.--Exogone dispar--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa
Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel,
N-net)-(continued)


Terra Ceia Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

E-5 1 6 E-8 195 5

Lower Tampa Bay

14-5 5 1 16-14 21 3
14-6 1 16-15 170
14-10 4 16-16 34
14-11 4 16-17 20
14-12 12 16-19 9
14-15 10 16-20 2
15-18 2 16-21 3
15-22 60 16-22 1 2
15-23 126 16-24 31
15-24 39 16-27 17
15-25 22 17-2 206
15-26 42 1 17-3 1
15-28 1 17-4 32
15-29 7 17-5 25
15-30 15 17-6 187 4
15-32 3 17-7 23
16-10 1 17-8 8
16-11 1 17-9 1
16-12 6 18-3 5 1
16-13 350




204


Table 69.--Exogone dispar--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (OC.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

23.0

29.5

8.0

1.3

sand


4.0

92.0

2.4

1.5

24.1

0.8

0.04


2.1


1.4

0.22

6.41


3.0


1.4


3.0

1.9

25.7


1.2 to 9.0


0.6 to 3.4


0.1 -2.5 to 3.0


1.2 0.2 to 2.4


Range

14.0 to 32.0

17.6 to 35.1

7.3 to 8.4

/i to 3.9

shelly sand t
sandy clay

0.0 to 28.8

24.5 to 99.2

0.0 to 13.4

0.0 to 65.9

0.7 to 85.2

0.1 to 8.4

0.00 to 0.7


1.1 to 7.1


Number
observations

76

75

75

76

0o 72


72

72

72

72

72

60

60


72


72

72

72


69


69


59


0.7 to

-1.1 to

0,8 to





205


Odontosyllis enopla Verrill, 1900
(Described and illustrated by
Galloway and Welch, 1911)

0. enopla was collected only in an incidental col-

lection in Bunces Pass, Boca Ciega Bay. Salinity in the

pass is always above 30 parts per thousand. No sediment

data are available for the collection locality.

Hartman (1951) reported this worm in the Gulf of

Mexico, and other records indicate that the range of 0.

enopla extends from Bermuda to the Caribbean.





206


Svllis aciculata (Treadwell, 1945)
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1968)

Collections were made at 21 survey stations and one

incidental locality in Bunces Pass, Boca Ciega Bay. The

survey stations included all areas of the Estuary except

Old Tampa Bay (table 70).

The worm was found in sediments of poorly sorted,

medium sand that had little silt and clay, but more than

one percent organic carbon. The sand contained a moderate

amount of coarse shell and some larger bits of shell de-

bris (table 71).

The bottom was vegetated at nearly three-fourths of

the dredge and shovel stations. Algae were recorded, as

were shoal, manatee, and turtle grass.

No individuals with ripe gametes and no juveniles

were found.

S. aciculata is otherwise known only from central

and southern California.




207


Table 70.--Syllis aciculata--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Hillsborough Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

8-6 6

Upper Tampa Bay

12-9 1


Boca Ciega Bay

BC-M-1 1 16-5 11
D-23 1 16-6 4
16-1 2 16-7 1
16-3 23

Terra Ceia Bay

E-6 2 E-8 1

Lower Tampa Bay

14-10 11 16-28 1
14-13 17 17-3 1
15-23 2 17-6 1
15-31 33 17-8 1
16-25 6 17-15 10




208


Table 71.--Syllis aciculata--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (OC.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


1.9 -1.9 to


1.4

0.4

7.1


3.0


1.4


0.5


0.9

-0.6

-0.4


3.0


2.0

1.0

21.2


1.9 to 4.9


0.6 to 3.4


1.0 to 2.4


1.1 0.7 to 1.5


Mean

22.0

30.9

8.1

1.0

sand


7.8

89.2

2.4

0.6

23.8

1.1

0.04


Range

13.0 to 29.5

18.6 to 34.2

7,6 to 8.3

/1 to 3.0

shelly sand
sand

0.3 to 72.9

27.1 to 98.3

0.0 to 7.2

0.0 to 1.9

2.7 to 85.2

0.1 to 6.9

0.00 to 0.2


Number
observations

18

18

18

18

to 18


18

18

18

18

18

17

17


18


18

18

18


18


18


17





209


Syllis annularis Verrill, 1900

Specimens were collected at 10 survey stations in

Boca Ciega and lower Tampa Bay, and at one incidental

station near Mullet Key in lower Tampa Bay (table 72).

The five stations for which there are sediment data

indicate that S. annularis occurred only in poorly sorted,

fine sand where there is little silt and clay, and more

than one percent organic carbon. Shell fragments comprise

over 30 percent of sand and granule fractions (table 73).

Three of five dredge and shovel samples contained algae,

and shoal grass or turtle grass.

One juvenile worm was collected in October, but no

gravid individuals were seen.

Aside from the original locality in Bermuda, I know

of no other records for S. annularis.




210


Table 72.--Syllis annularis--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-M 6 62 16-1 1
BC-N 8 1 16-2 1 30
D-25 1 16-4 2
15-11 1 16-8 2
15-16 6

Lower Tampa Bay

14-9 1




211


Table 73.--Syllis annularis--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Number
Factor Mean Range observations


Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


20.5 17.5 to 26.0


32.6

8.1

1.2

sand

7.4

88.7

3.1

0.8

24.0

1.3

0.1


2.2


1.5

0.0

5.4


4.3


1.3


33.0

7.8

L1



0.1

83.5

1.0

0.0

4.5

0.2

0.02


to 35.1

to 8.4

to 2.1

--m

to 14.7

to 95.2

to 8.0

to 1.9

to 38.2

to 4.8

to 0.2


1.4 to 3.1


1.1

-1.1

1.0


1.9

1.6

13.3


2.7 to 8.7


0.7 to 2.2


0.8 -1.7 to 2.3


0.8 0.2 to 1.4





212


Syllis gracilis Grube, 1840
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

Specimens were collected at one survey and one inci-

dental locality in Old Tampa Bay and upper Tampa Bay, one

station in Terra Ceia Bay, and at three stations in lower

Tampa Bay (table 74).

Sediment data are available for two dredge stations

in lower Tampa Bay. There, sediments were extremely

poorly sorted, medium sand that was composed of more than

40 percent shell (table 75).

No vegetation was noted at the dredge stations.

Neither juvenile nor gravid specimens were observed.

S. gracilis has a world-wide distribution in temper-

ate and tropical seas, where it is generally associated

with sessile, bottom growth and coarse sediment particles.

It has been previously reported from the Gulf of Mexico.




213


Table 74.--Syllis gracilis--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

4-19 1


Upper Tampa Bay

12-13 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-I 1


Lower Tampa Bay

16-14 3 17-6 1 2
17-2 3




214


Table 75.--Syllis gracilis--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Range

22.1 to 29.1

33.1 to 34.5

7.8 to 8.2

2.0 to 4.0


Mean

25.6

33.8

8.0

3.0

sand

3.9

93.0

2.4

0.7

40.7

0.4

0.03


1.8


5.1

0.3

3.9


3.0


2.0


-0.1


6.1

94.9

2.7



41.7

0.5


1.7 to 1.9


1.7 to

0.1 to

3.2 to


8.5

0.5

4.8


2.5 to 3.5


0.8 to 3.2


0.9


Number
observations

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2


2


2

2

2


2


2


1


1.7 to

91.2 to

2.1 to



39.8 to

0.3 to





215


Syllis spongicola Grube, 1855
(Described and illustrated by Day, 1967)

This species was collected only by net at a total

of five stations in all areas of the Estuary except Old

Tampa Bay and Hillsborough Bay (table 76). Over 2,000

specimens were found in shell fragments taken by net at

station 18-3.

No young, and no gravid specimens were collected.

S. spongicola has a world-wide distribution in tem-

perate and tropical waters, and is known from the Gulf of

Mexico.




216


Table 76.--Syllis spongicola--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

12-13 2 13-8 4

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-N 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-l 1

Lower Tampa Bay

18-3 2000+





217


Syllis variegata Grube, 1860
(Described and illustrated by Fauvel, 1923)

Collections were limited to upper Tampa Bay, Boca

Ciega Bay, and lower Tampa Bay at a total of 14 stations.

No specimens were taken north of transect-ll, and pre-

sumably the 20 to 25 parts per thousand isohaline is

limiting to this species (table 77).

Sediments at dredge and shovel localities were all

poorly sorted, medium sand, with little silt and clay,

less than one percent organic carbon, and some large shell

fragments (table 78).

Algae were present at three of these stations, and

manatee grass was found at two.

No gravid, and no juvenile worms were noted.

S. variegata is a cosmopolitan species that is asso-

ciated with coarse sediments and attached organisms in

temperate and tropical seas. It has not been previously

reported in the Gulf of Mexico.




218


Table 77.--Syllis varieata--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

11-28 1 13-10 1
12-15 1

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-M 3 15-2 1
BC-N 38 2 15-15 1
D-26 4 16-7 2
PB-4 1


Lower Tampa Bay

15-29 5 16-17 34 2
16-15 4 17-2 2




219


Table 78.--Syllis variegata--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Number
Factor Mean Range observations


Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


22.6 14.0 to 27.0


30.9

8.1

1.0

sand

3.4

93.4

2.6

0.6

19.4

0.5

0.01


2.0


1.3

0.3

7.9.


3.0


1.6


24.9

7.8

L1


to 34.0

to 8.3

to 2.1


m--

0.3 to 14.7

83.5 to 98.5

0.3 to 10.5

0.2 to 2.2

2.7 to 43.7

0.1 to 1.2

0.00 to 0.04


1.4 to 2.6


0.8

-0.3

0.9


1.9

1.1

17.9


2.5 to 3.6


0.7 to 2.7


-0.1 -1.9 to 1.5


1.0 0.2 to 1.8





220


Syllis vittata Grube, 1840
(Described and illustrated by Day, 1967)

All specimens were collected by shovel at six sta-

tions. Hillsborough Bay and lower Tampa Bay were the

only areas where none were taken (table 79).

Water depth at all localities was less than 1 m.,

and the average bottom type was poorly sorted, fine sand

with one percent organic carbon, and a small amount of

silt, clay, and shell (table 80).

Three of the six stations were vegetated with algae,

and turtle grass, manatee grass, or shoal grass.

Neither gravid nor juvenile worms were found.

This syllid is commonly found along the western

coast of Europe and Africa. It has not been previously

recorded for the Gulf of Mexico.




221


Table 79.--Syllis vittata--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

6-1-D 35

Upper Tampa Bay

11-28 27

Boca Ciega Bay

D-19-A 2 16-8 3
D-26 6

Terra Ceia Bay

E-6 5




222


Table 80.--Syllis vittata--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

24.6

28.9

8.1

0.3

sand

2.2

92.2

4.4

1.1

7.3

1.0

0.03


2.4


1.4

0.9

13.2


2.8


1.1


0 Range

13.0 to 27.0

24.1 to 32.5

7.9 to 8.3


0.0 to

85.4 to

0.3 to

0.5 to

0.9 to

0.2 to

0.01 to


7.0

98.8

10.5

2.2

16.2

2.6

0.07


1.9 to 2.8


0.8

-0.2

3.1


2.0

2.2

30.1


2.1 to 3.5


0.7 to 1.6


0.2 -0.9 to


1.1 0.9 to


1.1


1.3


Number
observations

6

6

6

6

5

5

5

5

5

5

3

7 3


5


5

5

5



5
5


5


5




223


Brania sp.

In this species, the simple, acicular setae have a

blunt tooth at the tip (figure 5,A). Compound setae all

have the same shape -- the proximal shaft bears a short,

terminal appendage with an entire tip, and has a distinct-

ly serrate margin (figure 5,B).

One specimen was collected at the mouth of Hills-

borough Bay, and other collections came from upper Tampa

Bay and lower Tampa Bay (table 81).

All collections were taken by dredge or shovel, and

average sediment type was poorly sorted, medium sand that

was about one-fourth shell and contained very little silt

and clay. Less than one percent organic carbon was pres-

ent (table 82).

A bottom growth of algae and turtle grass was record-

ed at three stations.

Neither juveniles nor specimens with mature gametes

were collected.




224


Table 81.--Brania sp.--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Hillsborough Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

10-19 3

Upper Tampa Bay

10-1-A 6 10-4 2
10-3 24 11-1 9

Lower Tampa Bay

17-6 1 18-4 2
17-7 1




225


Table 82.--Brania sp.--Mean and range of observed environ-
mental factors from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt, %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

27.4

27.0

7.9

2.6

sand


5.3

92.7

1.4

0.5

24.4

0.6

0.03


1.9


1.4

-0.7

7.4


2.9


1.4


2.3

0.5

26.4


2.5 to 3.8


0.8 to 2.3


-0.6 -1.8 to 0.6


1.4 0.9 to 1.7


Range

19.6 to 31.5

22.7 to 34.2

7.7 to 8.2

1i to 2.3

shelly sand
to sand

0.1 to 21.5

78.5 to 99.9

0.0 to 3.8

0.0 to 1.5

0.9 to 49.9

0.1 to 1.2

0.01 to 0.2


0.8 to 2.4


Number
observations

8

8

7

8

8


8

8

8

8

8

4

4


8


8

8

8


8


8


6


0.5 to

-1.4 to

-0.2 to





226


Pionosyllis sp.

This unidentified worm has simple setae with an

entire tip (figure 5,C) and three types of compound

setae (figure 5,D,E,F). The shortest ones have a stout

proximal shaft, and a very short falcate appendage that

bears three teeth. Setae of intermediate length have a

spinous margin at the end of the proximal appendage

followed by a falcate appendage with spinous margin and

bidentate tip. The third type has a long, capillary,

terminal appendage with faint striations along one mar-

gin.

Specimens were collected by dredge on two occasions

in Boca Ciega Bay at station BC-N (table 83).

Sediment there was poorly sorted, medium sand with

very little silt, clay, and organic carbon. Shell frag-

ments in the sand and granule size range comprised about

one-third of the sediment (table 84).

No bottom vegetation was recorded.

Both specimens appeared mature, but neither contained

mature gametes.




227


Table 83.--Pionosyllis sp.--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-N 2




228


Table 84.--Pionosyllis sp.--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

16.3

31.7

8.1

2.3

sand

9.5

89.7

1.0

0.1

32.0

0.2

0.03


1.5


1.3

-1.0

0.6


0.8

-1.7

0.3


to 1.9

to -0.3

to 0.9


2.7


0.7


1.5


0.2


1

3









8





2


Range

5.0 to 17.5

1.3 to 32.2

7.9 to 8.3





4.2 to 14.7

3.5 to 95.9

0.6 to 1.5

0.0 to 0.3

5.9 to 38.2






1.4 to 1.5


Number
observations

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1
1


2


2

2

2




229


Sphaerosyllis sp.

This species has features that are intermediate be-

tween Sphaerosyllis hystrix and S. californiensis (Hart-

man, 1968). Parapodial capsules are present as in S.

hystrix, but the setae more closely resemble those of S.

californiensis (figure 5,G,H,I,J).

Collections were made only in Old Tampa Bay and

lower Tampa Bay at a total of eight localities (table 85).

Average sediment was poorly sorted, medium sand with

less than one percent organic carbon and a small proportion

of silt and clay. Shell, in the sand and granule size

range made up a large percentage of the sediment (table

86).

No bottom vegetation was found.

No specimens were in reproductive conditions and no

young were seen.




230


Table 85.--Sphaerosyllis sp.--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

6-3 1


Lower Tampa Bay

16-12 12 17-3 3
16-13 3 17-4 5
16-15 1 17-6 3
17-2 1




231


Table 86.--Sphaerosyllis sp.--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Number
Factor Mean Range observations


Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


25.0 24.0 to 31.6


32.4

8.0

2.3

sand

3.8

94.1

1.6

0.5

55.7

0.8

0.1


1.4


1.4

0.5

5.1


3.5


1.7


0.5


24.2

7.8

1.9



1.7

91.2

0.7

0.1

39.8

0.2

0.0


34.5

8.2

4.0



5.6

96.3

2.7

0.7

85.2

3.3

0.2


0.5 to 1.9


1.1

0.2

3.2


1.7

0.8

8.2


2.5 to 5.5


0.6 to 3.2


-0.1 to 1.7


0.9 0.8 to 0.9




232


Syllis sp. A

In posterior segments this species has simple,

acicular setae with a blunt tip. There are three types

of compound hooks -- each in a different body region.

Anteriorly, the distal appendage of hooked setae has a

smooth margin and a minutely bidentate tip. In median

hooks, the terminal joint has a more distinct bidentate

tip and a spinous margin. Posterior segments have hooks

with a stout, proximal shaft and a short, distal append-

age that has a smooth margin and two large, terminal

teeth (figure 5,K,L,M,N,).

Collections came from 33 localities between upper

Tampa Bay and lower Tampa Bay. None were found in either

Old Tampa or Hillsborough Bays (table,87).

Average sediment was poorly sorted, medium sand with

little silt, clay, or organic carbon. Shell particles

comprised a large percentage of the sand size class

(table 88).

About one-half of the bottom samples contained algae.

Shoal grass, Halophila, manatee grass, and turtle grass

were present in some.

Neither gravid nor young worms were found.




233


Table 87.--Syllis sp. A--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

12-11 1 13-8 8
13-3 2 13-9 1
13-4 1 13-10 3

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-N 1 16-5 4
16-4 30 16-8 13

Terra Ceia Bay

E-8 10

Lower Tampa Bay

14-11 4 16-13 220
14-12 34 16-14 1
14-14 2 16-16 30
14-15 1 16-24 66
15-22 30 17-2 205
15-23 76 17-3 15
15-24 14 17-4 15
15-25 32 17-5 4
15-26 6 17-6 1
15-27 1 17-7 6
16-12 48 18-3 25




234


Table 88.--Syllis sp. A--Mean and range of observed environ-
mental factors from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)


Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

21.5

31.7

8.0

2.0


Range

15.0 to 25.0

27.5 to 34.5

7.8 to 8.7

L1 to 4.0


sand shelly sand
to sand

5.2 0.3 to 21.4

92.9 77.4 to 99.2

1.5 0.2 to 7.2

0.4 0.1 to 1.9

36.6 6.5 to 85.2

0.8 0.1 to 5.0

0.03 0.00 to 0.2


1.8


1.4

0.1

4.1


2.8


1.3


0.4


Number
observations

31

30

31

31


0.4 to 3.0


0.8 to

-0.5 to

-0.03 to


2.3

0.8

11.9


1.7 to 5.9


0.6 to 3.2


-1.3 to 1.7


1.1 0.2 to 2.1





235


Syllis sp. B

This worm has three types of setae, all of which

are represented in median and posterior segments. Simple,

acicular setae have a notch near the bifid tip which is

formed by two, low teeth (figure 5,0). The compound hooks

are all similar and consist of a basal shaft, and terminal

appendage that has an entire tip and strongly serrate mar-

gin (figure 5,P). The third type consist of very long,

compound capillary setae. The distal appendage has fine

serrations along the margin (figure 5,Q).

Specimens were collected at 48 localities in all areas

of the Estuary except Hillsborough and Terra Ceia Bays

(table 89).

Average bottom type in these areas was poorly sorted,

fine sand with about two percent silt and clay, and one

percent organic carbon. Sediment composition was about

one-fifth shell in the sand and granule size range (table

90).

One-half of the bottom samples contained algae and

some also had shoal grass, manatee grass, and turtle

grass.

No young, and no sexually mature individuals were

collected.





236


Table 89.--Syllis sp. B--Locality records and numbers of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-Shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

6-2 2 6-3 6 2

Upper Tampa Bay

10-3 28 1 12-14 1
10-4 2 13-1-A 255
10-7 1 13-1-B 10
12-1 51 13-3 27
12-8 14 13-10 22

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-N 10 PB-4 3 1
D-2 12 15-3 1
D-3 1 15-15 1
D-6 2 16-1 4
D-23 7 16-2 8
D-25 5 16-6 2

Lower Tampa Bay

14-8 4 16-15 14
14-15 24 16-16 42
15-21 25 16-17 14
15-27 44 16-21 1
15-28 18 16-24 16
15-30 70 16-25 12
15-32 4 16-28 8
15-33 32 17-5 3
16-9 2 17-6 2
16-9-A 4 17-8 4
16-9-B 17 17-9 2
16-13 75 18-3 3




237


Table 90.--Syllis sp. B--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

24.2

30.6

8.0

1.0

sand


3.5

92.0

1.9

0.6

18.5

1.0

0.1


2.1


1.3

0.1

8.1


3.1


1.2


0.6 to

-1.4 to

-0.2 to


2.3

1.9

29.7


1.4 to 8.7


0.6 to 2.8


0.5 -1.8 to 6.6


1.2 0.3 to 2.3


Number
Range observations

15.5 to 32.0 51

21.8 to 35.1 50

7.7 to 8.4 50

/1 to 3.0 51

shelly sand 49
to sand

0.0 to 21.5 49

77.4 to 99.2 49

0.0 to 11.8 49

0.0 to 2.8 49

1.6 to 75.1 49

0.01 to 6.9 40

0.00 to 1.2 40


0.4 to 3.4






Figure 5. -- Diagnostic features of Brania sp., Pionosyll
sp., Sphaerosyllis sp., Syllis sp. A, and
Syllis sp. B


Brania sp.:



Pionosyllis sp.:








Sphaerosyllis sp.:








Syllis sp. A:








Syllis sp. B:


(A) Simple, acicular spine (B)

Compound hook

(C) Simple, acicular spine (D)

Short, compound hook (E) Long,

compound hook (F) Compound,

capillary seta

(G) Simple, acicular spine (H)

Simple, acicular hook (I) Short,

spinous compound hook (J) Short,

compound hook

(K) Simple, acicular spine (L)

Anterior, compound hook (M) Median,

compound hook (N) Posterior, com-

pound hook

(0) Simple, acicular spine (P)

Compound hook (Q) Compound,

spiniger.




239


FIGURE 5






A B C D E F

0.01MM
-- 0.01MM
0.01MM
0.01MM






.0.0M MM




0.02MM
0.01MM O.0IMM
0.01MM








K L M N

0.02MM

0.02MM
0.02MM 0.02MM.MM








0 P Q



0.OIMM 0.01MM


0.01MM





240


Family NEREIDAE Johnston, 1865

The nereids are a large group of predominantly om-

nivorous worms that are well represented in all seas.

Some crawl actively among sessile organisms and bottom

debris, while others construct burrows, build tubes, or

live commensally and perhaps parasitically. The family

is well represented in Tampa Bay where 10 species were

recorded.

The rarely collected, Rullierinereis mexicana, was

found only in Boca Ciega Bay. Ceratonereis irritabilis,

was collected in Boca Ciega and lower Tampa Bays;

Namalycastis abiuma, was taken in Boca Ciega and Old

Tampa Bays; and Nicon lackeyi was found in Hillsborough

and upper Tampa Bays. The remaining six species were

found in at least three areas of the Estuary, and prob-

ably live throughout the entire Tampa Bay system (Laeonereis

culveri, Nereis arenaceodentata, Nereis pelagica occidentalis,

Nereis succinea, Perinereis floridana, and Platynereis

dumerilii).

Key to NEREIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Chitinous paragnaths absent on both basal and
maxillary, pharyngeal ring............................ 2

Chitinous paragnaths present on some area of
pharynx--conical or bar-like ........................ 5

2 Pharynx bears fleshy papillae ...... Laeonereis culveri




241

Pharynx smooth ...................................... 3

3 Parapodia of median segments bear a large dorsal
and small ventral cirrus, and a single, setal
lobe .............................. Namalycastis abiuma

-Parapodia of median segments bear distinct
notopodial and neuropodial lobes in addition
to dorsal and ventral cirri ......................... 4

4 Dorsal, parapodial cirri consist of a long,
basal cirrophore and short, distal appendage;
ventral, heterogomph falcigers have a smooth
margin .................................. Nicon lackeyi

Dorsal, parapodial cirri unsegmented;
notosetae all homogomph spinigers; dorsal
neurosetae, homogomph spinigers and
heterogomph falcigers; ventral neurosetae,
heterogomph spinigers and
falcigers ..................... Rullierinereis mexicana

5 Some or all pharyngeal paragnaths bar-like ......... 6

-All paragnaths conical ............................. 7

6 All paragnaths bar-like ..........Platynereis dumerilii

-Pharyngeal bars on region VI
only ............................. Perinereis floridana

7 Basal region of pharynx smooth, maxillary
region bears conical
paragnaths ................... Ceratonereis irritabilis

Conical paragnaths on both basal and
maxillary pharyngeal regions ......................... 8

8 Pharyngeal areas V through VIII have con-
tinuous rows of paragnaths ......Nereis arenaceodentata

Basal region of pharynx has continuous rows
of paragnaths on regions VII and VIII only .......... 9

9 Posterior parapodia have greatly enlarged,
dorsal, notopodial lobe ................ Nereis succinea




242


- Posterior parapodia have a triangular, dorsal,
notopodial lobe that extends no further than
the notopodial, acicular
lobe ..................... Nereis pelagica occidentalis

Ceratonereis irritabilis (Webster, 1879)
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1945)

Individuals were collected at only two stations in

Boca Ciega Bay, and three in lower Tampa Bay. Such a

distribution indicates that this species is restricted

to areas of the Estuary where average salinity is at least

30 parts per thousand (table 91).

Sediment at dredge stations was poorly sorted, fine

sand. About one-third of the sand fraction was composed

of shell debris, and although organic carbon was greater

than one percent, the silt-clay content was under four

percent (table 92).

Algae were present at one station, and no vegetation

was recorded from the other.

A gravid specimen was collected in June and swarming

spawners were netted in April.

C. irritabilis is known from North Carolina and

Virginia on the south Atlantic coast, but has not been

previously reported in the Gulf of Mexico.




243


Table 91.--Ceratonereis irritabilis--Locality records
and number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

15-5 1 15-11 1

Lower Tampa Bay

15-30 1 16-15 2
16-13 1




244


Table 92.--Ceratonereis irritabilis--Mean and range of
observed environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

24.3

32.4

8.0

2.0

sand

2.7

93.7

3.0

0.6

34.4

1.3

0.1


2.0


1.4

0.2

4.2


3.4


1.2


24.0

29.8

7.8

1.0



0.6

E9.1

0.3

0.1

13.5

0.5


Range

to 25.0

to 33.9

to 8.2

to 3.0


4.4

96.3

8.9

1.5

57.4

3.3


1.3 to 3.4


1.2

-0.4

3.2


1.5

0.7

5.3


2.7 to 5.5


0.5 to 2.1


0.2 -0.1 to 0.7


1.4 0.9 to 2.5


Number
observations

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

3

3


4


4

4

4


4


4


4





245


Laeonereis culveri (Webster, 1879)
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1945)

This species was found in all areas of the Estuary

at 34 survey stations and 10 incidental localities. The

largest number in a single collection (303) were taken

from a shovel station (A-5) in upper Old Tampa Bay (table

93). L. culveri can apparently withstand water of oceanic

salinity as well as water that is practically fresh.

Average bottom type at dredge and shovel stations

was poorly sorted, fine sand with about 10 percent silt

and clay, nearly one percent organic carbon, and a small

percentage of shell in both the granule and sand size clas-

ses (table 94).

One-third of the bottom samples contained algae, as

well as sea grasses that included shoal grass, turtle

grass, and manatee grass.

Gravid specimens were found in July, September, and

November, and juveniles were noted in February, July,

August, and September.

L. culveri has been recorded in the Gulf of Mexico

and is otherwise known in the western Atlantic in shallow

water between Brazil and North Carolina.

r,




246


Table 93.--Laeonereis culveri--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

A-1 24 4-2 12
A-3 1 4-4 1
A-5 303 5-1-A 1
A-6 54 6-1-A 1
B-3 59 6-1-D 6
4-1 2 6-8 1

Hillsborough Bay

C-i 10 8-10 2
C-2 1 9-1 117
C-4 3 10-15 5 1
C-8-2 1 10-16 2
C-9 1 10-23 2
8-9 6

Upper Tampa Bay

D-28 1 10-14-A 1 123
10-13 5 11-26 1

Boca Ciega Bay

D-1 2 15-2 45
PB-1 58 15-3 4
14-1-A 9

Terra Ceia Bay

E-6 9

Lower Tampa Bay

16-26 1




247


Table 94.--Laeonereis culveri--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


1.6


Range

13.0 to 34.1

3.7 to 34.8

7~l to 8.3

/1 to 2.0

shelly sand
sandy clay

0.0 to 46.2


Mean

28.3

23.7

7.8

0.5

sand


2.7

87.5

4.9

4.8

6.7

0.8

0.1


2.9


1.4

0.5

11.1


3.1


Number
observations

36

36

29

36

to 36


to 99.9

to 37.5

to 65.9

to 32.3

to 2.2

to 0.2


0.8 to 7.1


0.5

-1.3

-1.3


2,7

2.3

43.4


1.9 to 3.8


0.7 to 2.5


-0.6 -2.5 to 1.8


1.6 0.4 to 3.1


_


24.5

0.0

0.0

0.5

0.2

0.01





248


Namalycastis abiuma (Muller, in Grube, 1871)
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1959)

This species was not collected at survey stations,

but was taken in the high, intertidal zone from mangrove

peat and debris in Old Tampa Bay (Mobbly Bay) and lower

Boca Ciega Bay (eastern side of Tierra Verde Island).

N. abiuma has been recorded from the Gulf, and

according to Hartman (1959) it probably inhabits warm

seas throughout the world.





249


Nereis arenaceodentata Moore, 1903
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

Collections were made in Old Tampa Bay, upper Tampa

Bay, Boca Ciega Bay, Terra Ceia Bay, and lower Tampa Bay

at 71 survey stations. Six incidental collections came

from Boca Ciega and lower Tampa Bays. Most collections

were made in Boca Ciega Bay, where at one station (D-2)

342 specimens were found in a single dredge haul (table

95).

Average sediment type at dredge and shovel stations

was poorly sorted, fine sand composed of about 10 percent

shell, and containing little silt and clay, and less than

one percent organic carbon (table 96).

More than one-half of these stations were vegetated

with a variety of algae, and some contained a mixture of

sea grasses as well.

Specimens with mature gametes were collected in

February, March, April, May, September, and November.

Juveniles were found in May, October, and November.

N. arenaceodentata has world-wide distribution in

warm and temperate waters where it is generally associated

with coarse sediments and sessile bottom organisms. This





250


species has been recorded in the Gulf of Mexico, and in

Tampa Bay, it has been implicated in shell blister forma-

tion in the quahog clam, Mercenaria campechiensis.




251


Table 95.--Nereis arenaceodentata--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel,
N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

5-7 2

Upper Tampa Bay

D 1 12-7 4
10-2 1 13-1-A 12
12-1 3 13-1-B 3

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-C 4 PB-4 166 178 7
BC-G 9 PB-5 6
BC-I 1 14-4 3
BC-M 23 10 15-1 9
BC-N 14 15-2 15
D-1 6 5 15-4 2
D-2 342 2 15-6 1
D-3 66 15-11 15 5
D-5 10 15-12 12 13
D-6 3 15-13 10 1
D-9 24 15-14 1
D-11 1 15-15 209 7
D-12 6 15-16 3
D-13 1 3 15-17 10
D-17 2 2 16-1 9
D-18 2 16-3 39
D-23 1 16-4 115
D-24 9 16-5 78
D-25 7 16-7 72
PB-I 1 16-8 23 2


Terra Ceia Bay

E-4 1 E-6 3




252


Table 95.--Nereis arenaceodentata--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel,
N-net)-(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

14-5 7 16-9-A 18
14-6 4 16-9-B 23
14-9 4 16-16 1
14-16 3 16-24 1
14-20 1 16-25 30
15-18 39 1 16-26 12
15-19 1 16-28 1
15-20 1 17-8 4
15-21 1 17-12 1
15-33 1 17-14 4
16-9 5 1 17-15 19




253


Table 96.--Nereis arenaceodentata--Mean and range of
observed environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

22.8

31.5

8.1

0.7

sand


3.2

92.7

3.3

0.8

10.1

0.7

0.04


2.5


1.3

0.1

9.1


2.9


2.0


2.5

1.9

35.0


1.9 to 3.9


0.5 to 3.9


0.2 -2.5 to 2.5


1.2 0.1 to 2.9


Range

13.0 to 31.0

22.4 to 35.1

7.7 to 8.5

/1 to 2.3

shelly sand t
silty sand

0.0 to 21.4

72.5 to 99.5

0.0 to 22.8

0.0 to 5.2

0.9 to 50.5

0.0 to 6.9

0.00 to 0.19


0.5 to 4.1


Number
observations

72

72

70

72

0o 70


70

70

70

69

70

55

55


70


70

70

69


64


64


58


0.6

-1.7

-0.4





254


Nereis pelagica occidentalis Hartman, 1945

This nereid was not found in Hillsborough or Terra

Ceia Bays, but occurred in all other areas of the Es-

tuary at a total of 69 survey and 13 incidental stations.

As with N. arenaceodentata, the population center appeared

to be Boca Ciega Bay. The worm was especially abundant

in Bunces Pass (BC-N) where 123 individuals were collected

in one dredge haul (table 97).

Sediment analyses showed that the worm was found

mostly in poorly sorted, fine sand that contained less

than 10 percent shell, about four percent silt and clay,

and less than one percent organic carbon (table 98).

One-half of the dredge and shovel stations contained

algae and some had shoal grass, turtle grass, and manatee

grass.

Epitokes were found in April, May, July, August,

September, October, and November, while juveniles were

collected in February, May, July, August, September,

October, November, and December.

N. 2. occidentalis has been collected along the

south Atlantic seaboard from North Carolina to the Gulf

of Mexico.




255


Table 97.--Nereis pelagica occidentalis--Locality records
and number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

3-17 1 6-4-A 1
5-1-A 1 6-7-A 1


Upper Tampa Bay

D 1 1 10-6 1
10-1-A 13 11-1 2
10-2 2 11-3 5 2
10-3 43 12-1 2
10-4 1 13-1-A 1
10-5 1 13-2 1


Boca Ciega Bay

BC-A 8 6 D-26 10
BC-C 46 PB-1 25
BC-G 2 PB-4 47 2 71
BC-I 3 2 PB-5 184
BC-M 13 82 14-4 5
BC-N 123 22 15-1 20
D-2 23 66 15-3 11 8 1
D-3 46 15-4 1
D-4 1 15-6 10
D-6 1 15-11 6
D-8 1 15-12 1
D-12 2 15-14 1
D-17 1 12 15-17 1
D-18 64 16-1 28 1
D-19-A 2 3 16-2 6
D-22 2 18 16-5 1
D-23 1 4 16-6 1 1
D-25 36 22 16-8 7 2




256


Table 97.--Nereis pelagica occidentalis--Locality records
and number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

14-5 3 1 16-9-A 8
14-6 3 3 16-9-B 78
14-17 1 1 16-10 12 82
15-18 1 16-11 10 7
15-20 26 16-25 2
15-21 5 17-8 1
15-28 1 17-12 3
15-32 4 18-3 3
16-9 1 4




257


Table 98.--Nereis pelagica occidentalis--Mean and range
of observed environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

23.4

31.0

8.1

0.8

sand


3.1

92.4

3.0

1.1

10.6

0.8

0.03


2.4


1.3

0.0

9.7


3.2


1.3


2.5

1.7

41.2


1.9 to 8.4


0.6 to 2.8


0.4 -2.5 to 3.0


1.2 0.6 to 2.8


Range

15.0 to 33.2

22.4 to 35.1

7.1 to 8.5

/1 to 3.0

shelly sand
silty sand

0.0 to 21.4

69.9 to 99.9

0.0 to 15.8

0.0 to 14.3

1.1 to 38.2

0.01 to 6.9

0.00 to 0.2


0.8 to 4.3


Number
observations

59

59

58

59

to 57


57

57

57

56

57

39

39


57


57

57

56


51


51


44


0.5

-1.7

-0.2




258


Nereis succinea (Frey and Leuckart, 1847)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

One of the truly ubiquitous species in Tampa Bay, N.

succinea was collected in all areas at 233 survey stations

and 19 incidental localities. Large collections of over

30 specimens per dredge haul were taken in all areas of

the Estuary except lower Tampa Bay, and there it was not

unusual to capture more than five at a station (table 99).

Average sediment at dredge and shovel stations was

poorly sorted, fine sand that contained 10 percent shell,

over five percent silt and clay, and less than one per-

cent organic carbon. Nearly four percent of the shell was

in the granule size range (table 100).

Forty-four percent of the bottom samples contained

vegetation that consisted of algae, and one or more species

of all the sea grasses found in the Estuary.

Epitokes were collected in February, April, June, July,

August, September, October, November, and December. Juve-

niles were recorded in April, May, June, July, August, Sep-

tember, October, November, and December.

N. succinea has been collected on the California coast

and on both sides of the Atlantic in temperate and tropical

waters. It is well known in the Gulf of Mexico.




259

Table 99.--Nereis succinea--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N


A
A-i
A-3
A-5
B
B-1
B-2
B-3
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
3-1-A
3-2
3-8
3-10
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-14
3-15
3-16
3-17
4-1
4-2


10
2


5
3
5


1
11
18
23

14
5


147


3
1
16
2


4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-16
4-18-A
4-19
5-1-A
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-11
5-12
6-1-A
6-1-C
6-1-D
6-2
6-3
6-4-A
6-5
6-8


3
1

1
2
2

4
14
1
2
1
1
8
6
25
2 1
5
1




260


Table 99.--Nereis succinea--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Hillsborough Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

C 33 8-8 42
C-2 71 71 8-9 27 21
C-3 96 212 9-2 37
C-4 23 9-3 40 141
C-5 4 3 9-4 27 18
C-6 2 9-7 4
C-7 2 9-8 5
C-8-1 4 9-9 1 11
C-8-2 3 10-15 24 59
C-9 8 10-16 9 23
7-1 1 10-18 44
7-3 1 10-19 1 13
8-2 47 10-20 1
8-3 2 10-22 74 340
8-6 142 10-23 5 68
8-7 7




261


Table 99.--Nereis succinea--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N


D
10-0
10-1-A
10-3
10-4
10-5
10-6
10-7
10-9
10-10
10-11
10-12
10-13
10-14-A
11-3
11-4
11-5
11-6
11-15
11-16
11-20
11-21
11-22
11-23
11-24
11-25
11-26
11-27


11-28
11-28-1
11-28-2
12-1
12-2
12-3
12-4
12-5
12-6
12-7
12-8
12-9
12-10
12-11
12-12
12-14
12-15
12-16
13-1-A
13-4
13-5
13-6
13-7
13-8
13-9
13-10
13-12
13-13


12
297
43
1




262


Table 99.--Nereis succinea--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-A 15 28 PB-4 10
BC-E 8 PB-5 39
BC-G 1 14-2 9 5
BC-I 28 10 14-3 26
BC-M 2 6 14-4 21 5
BC-N 268 39 15-1 6
D-1 1 15-4 6
D-2 1 15-5 1
D-8 2 15-6 3
D-11 1 15-8 2 1
D-15 6 15-11 9
D-17 4 15-12 1 1
D-18 24 15-14 2
D-22 14 16-1 1
D-25 1 16-6 1 6
D-26 1 16-8 4
PB-1 1 12

Terra Ceia Bay

E-1 74 387 E-5 5
E-2 44 E-6 36 88
E-3 23 151 E-7 72 1
E-4 1 5 E-8 4




263


Table 99.--Nereis succinea--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

14-5 1 3 16-11 13 5
14-6 4 16-14 2
14-8 4 16-15 1
14-9 6 16-17 14
14-10 16 16-19 1 2
14-11 3 16-20 1 40
14-12 2 16-21 3 11
14-13 5 16-22 2
14-15 4 16-26 8
14-16 5 3 16-27 8 2
14-17 3 17-2 7 5
14-19 3 17-5 28
14-20 1 17-6 3 36
15-21 4 1 17-7 1 7
15-22 6 17-8 9
15-23 1 6 17-9 3 8
15-25 1 17-11 1
15-26 1 3 17-12 1
15-27 3 17-13 1
15-31 5 17-15 4
16-9 1 18-4 1
16-10 16 44




264


Table 100.--Nereis succinea--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (OC.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

25.6

26.1

7.9

1.0

sand


3.7

90.2

3.3

2.3

12.0

0.8

0.1


2.5


1.3

0.6

11.8


3.1


1.5


3.8

3.6

76.3


1.4 to 9.0


0.4 to 3.4


-0.3 -2.6 to 3.0


1.3 0.02 to 3.1


158


Range

12.8 to 34.1

1.2 to 35.1

7.1 to 8.5

/1 to 4.0

shelly sand t
sandy clay

0.0 to 79.7

8.6 to 100

0.0 to 53.1

0.0 to 65.9

0.6 to 95.0

0.03 to 8.5

0.00 to 0.2


-4.0 to 7.6


Number
observations

185

184

165

185

:o 180


179

179

179

178

178

115

115


178


178

178

177


175


175


158


0.5

-1.7

-1.5





265


Nicon lackeyi Hartman, 1958

Individuals were collected by net at two stations

in Hillsborough Bay, and by net and shovel at two sta-

tions in upper Tampa Bay (table 101).

The only available sediment data came from station

11-2 where the bottom was moderately sorted, fine sand

that contained about two percent organic carbon (table

102).

No vegetation was noted at this station.

One gravid individual was collected in September,

and a juvenile was takenin August.

This unusual worm was previously known only from a

warm, mineral spring that enters the Myakka River near

U. S. Highway 41 in Sarasota County, Florida. This

report is the first record for the Gulf of Mexico.




266


Table 101.--Nicon lackeyi--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa
Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel,
N-net)


Hillsborough Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

C-3 1 9-9 2

Upper Tampa Bay

11-1 25 11-2 1




267


Table 102--Nicon lackeyi--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

28.5

24.2

7.9

0.3

sand

0.1

99.3

0.4

0.3

1.3

1.6

0.3


Ranqe


Number
observations

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1


2.5


0.8

0.5

12.7


8.1


2.5





268


Perinereis floridana (Ehlers, 1868)
(Described by Hartman, 1951)

Collections came from two survey stations in Old

Tampa Bay and one in Boca Ciega Bay. Incidental col-

lections were limited to two localities in Boca Ciega

Bay and a single one in lower Tampa Bay (table 103).

Although sediment data is meagre, it is probably

representative for the species as all collections came

from oyster reefs or areas nearby (table 104).

Algae and shoal grass were recorded at one station.

A sexually mature specimen was collected in August,

but no juveniles were found.

P. floridana is apparently associated with shell and

other bottom debris, and has been collected only in the

eastern Gulf of Mexico from the Florida keys north to

Seahorse Key, Florida.




269


Table 103.--Perinereis floridana--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

A-1 17 6-1-D 1

Boca Ciega Bay

16-8 1




270


Table 104.--Perinereis floridana--Mean and range of ob-
served environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature ("C.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

29.0

25.0

7.6

0.3

sand


17.2

78.4

2.6

1.8

9.5

0.7

0.1


1.7


2.3

1.0

14.7


3.2


1.9


to 3.8

to 2.2

to 30.1


2.9 to 3.6


1.6 to 2.3


-0.8 -0.9 to -0.7


2.1 1.3 to 2.8


Range

28.0 to 30.0

24.1 to 25.9

7.1 to 8.0



shelly sand
to sand

0.0 to 34.5

58.0 to 98.8

0.3 to 5.0

0.9 to 2.6

0.9 to 18.1






0.6 to 2.8


Number
observations

2

2

2

2

2


2

2

2

2

2

1

1


2


2

2

2


2


2


2


0.8

-0.1

-0.7





271


Platynereis dumerilii (Audouin and Milne-Edwards, 1833)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

This nereid is commonly associated with bottom vege-

tation and was found in all areas of the Estuary at a

total of 48 survey stations, and three incidental locali-

ties in Boca Ciega Bay and upper Tampa Bay (table 105).

The 12 dredge and shovel samples all contained more

than 80 percent sand that was mostly fine and poorly

sorted. Few large shell particles were present and the

percentages of silt, clay and organic carbon were low

(table 106).

Eight of the bottom samples contained algae and some

also had shoal, turtle, manatee, and widgeon grass.

Gravid specimens were collected in May, June, Sep-

tember, and November. Juveniles were found in May, July,

August, September, October, November, and December.

P. dumerilii has been reported from the Gulf of

Mexico, and from warm and temperate seas in many other

areas throughout the world.




272


Table 105.--Platynereis dumerilii--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

1-2 1 5-2 1
2-2 4 6-1-A 1
2-3 4 6-1-C 4
3-13 1 6-3 1
4-1 1 6-4-A 5

Hillsborough Bay

8-4 2 10-19 1


Upper Tampa Bay

10-1-A 1 1 10-10 2
10-2 1 12-11 1
10-4 1 13-2 6

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-M 1 2 16-1 12
BC-N 1 16-2 10
D-25 3 42 16-4 1
PB-4 5 30 16-5 1
14-4 2 16-6 1
15-14 1 16-8 1
15-16 2 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-8 2




273


Table 105.--Platynereis dumerilii--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

14-5 5 16-10 1
14-9 2 16-26 1
14-17 1 17-1 2
14-18 1 17-2 5
15-18 1 17-12 1
15-20 1 17-13 1
15-29 1 17-15 1
16-9 1 18-3 1




274


Table 106.--Platynereis dumerilii--Mean and range of ob-
served environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

23.5

30.8

8.1

0.6

sand

2.4

94.2

2.4

0.8

11.5

0.7

0.1


2.5


1.2

0.5

8.8


3.0


1.6


1.4 to 3.0


0.5

-1.4

0.9


1.9

1.6

19.0


1.9 to 4.2


0.7 to 3.2


0.3 -1.8 to 2.3


0.9 0.2 to 1.4


17.4

24.1

7.7

/1



0.0

83.5

0.0

0.0

1.2

0.2

0.0


Range

to 31.0

to 34.5

to 8.4

to 4.0



to 14.7

to 99.9

to 6.9

to 2.5

to 39.8

to 2.0

2 to 0.3


Number
observations

12

12

11

12

11

11

11

11

11

11

9

9


11


11

11

11


10


10


10





275


Rullierinereis mexicana (Treadwell, 1942)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, in press)

Two specimens were collected by net at station D-25

in Boca Ciega Bay, and over 50 were taken at an incidental

station nearby (table 107).

No data on sediment type or bottom vegetation are

available.

The worms were swarming at the surface when col-

lected on the evening of April 4, 1968. Both epitokous

males and females were present in the mating swarm.

R. mexicana is otherwise known only from the Pacific

Ocean.




276


Table 107.--Rullierinereis mexicana--Locality records
and number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

D-25 2





277


Family NEPHTYIDAE Grube, 1850

The nephtyids have been regarded as both predatory

and omnivorous feeders that actively burrow in predomi-

nantly sandy sediments throughout the world.

Four species were found in Tampa Bay. Two of these,

Aglaophamus verrilli and Nephtys picta were collected in

all six areas of the Estuary, while Nephtys bucera was

taken in Boca Ciega Bay and lower Tampa Bay. Nephtys

magellanica was taken only in Boca Ciega Bay.

Key to NEPHTYIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Parapodial branchiae curved inward toward
the body ......................... Aglaophamus verrilli

Parapodial branchiae curved outward away
from the body .................. ........ ............ 2

2 Eyes present; branchial filament short, about
twice the length of the branchial
cirrus ............................ Nephtys magellanica

- Eyes absent; tentacular cirri arise from center
of the tentacular segment; short lobe present
above the branchial cirrus ............. Nephtys bucera

- Eyes absent; tentacular cirri arise from the
anterior half of the tentacular segment; short
lobe present below the branchial cirrus...Nephtys picta

Aglaophamus verrilli (McIntosh, 1885)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

Specimens were collected at 83 survey stations in

all six areas of the Estuary, and one incidental locality





278


on an extensive sand bar south of Gandy Bridge in Old

Tampa Bay (table 108). Large collections of over 20

individuals per dredge haul were made in Old Tampa Bay,

and upper and lower Tampa Bay. The greatest number (135)

came from station 11-5 in upper Tampa Bay.

Although average sediment type proved to be poorly

sorted, fine sand, specimens were also found in areas of

silty sand and silty mud. The sand size category was

about 12 percent shell, average content of silt and clay

was five percent, and organic carbon was less than one

percent. No specimens were captured by shovel, six were

taken by net, and the remainder came from dredge hauls in

water generally deeper than Im. (table 109).

Twenty-five of the dredge samples contained vegetation

that included algae, and shoal and turtle grass.

No specimens with mature gametes were noted, but juve-

niles were collected in June through December.

This species has been reported from the central and

eastern Pacific, and along the Atlantic coast from Mary-

land to Georgia and the Gulf of Mexico.




279


Table 108.--Aglaophamus verrilli--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

1-2 1 4-12 1
3-3 1 4-14 3
3-8 3 4-16 18
3-9 10 4-17-A 8
3-10 3 4-18-A 3
3-11 30 5-5 2
3-12 13 5-10 1
4-11 1 6-6 1

Hillsborough Bay

10-15 10 10-19 1
10-17 5

Upper Tampa Bay

10-4 2 11-27 1
10-6 9 12-2 4
10-7 54 12-3 2
10-8 20 12-4 21
10-9 36 12-5 1
10-10 1 12-7 1
11-4 55 5 12-12 1
11-5 135 12-14 49
11-6 18 12-16 3
11-7 1 13-7 2
11-9 1 13-10 1
11-16 1 13-12 1
11-17 1




280


Table 108.--Aglaophamus verrilli--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-A 2 14-3 7
BC-A-1 1 15-6 2
BC-E 5 15-11 3
D-22 1 15-13 2
PB-1 1 15-14 3
PB-5 2 16-6 16

Terra Ceia Bay

E-4 1 E-5 11

Lower Tampa Bay

14-6 2 16-22 3
14-7 1 16-23 3
14-8 3 17-2 2
14-9 5 17-5 46
14-10 28 17-6 21
14-13 15 17-7 25
14-14 1 17-8 42
14-17 3 17-9 4
15-22 1 17-10 6
16-10 32 17-12 4
16-11 5 17-15 1
16-20 5 18-4 7
16-21 5




281


Table 109.--Aglaophamus verrilli--Mean and range of ob-
served environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%0)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

24.2

28.0

8.0

1.5

sand


1.6

93.2

3.3

1.7

12.2

0.7

0.03


2.6


1.2

0.6

14.2


3.0


1.4


2.7

3.6

96.3


1.4 to 9.0


0.5 to 3.2


-0.1 -2.5 to 3.0


1.3 0.3 to 3.1


Range

13.0 to 33.8

20.5 to 34.6

7.0 to 8.9

/I to 4.0

sand to
silty mud

0.0 to 12.6

31.9 to 100

0.0 to 45.3

0.0 to 22.0

0.7 to 58.4

0.1 to 8.5

0.00 to 0.2


1.6 to 5.9


Number
observations

84

84

77

84

84


84

84

84

84

84

64

64


84


84

84

84


81


81


70


0.4

-1.4

-0.9





282


Nephtys bucera Ehlers, 1868
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

A single specimen was taken by dredge at station

BC-N in Boca Ciega Bay and others were dug by shovel

near Mullet Key in lower Tampa Bay (table 110).

Unfortunately, sediment data for the dredge station

are not available. Other environmental factors, however,

are presented (table 111).

None of the specimens were gravid, and no juveniles

were collected.

N. bucera is known from the Atlantic seaboard between

Canada and North Carolina, and in the Gulf of Mexico.




283

Table 10.--Nephtys bucera--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-N 1




284


Table lll.--Nephtys bucera--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

29.4

34.0

8.0

2.3


Range


Number
observations

1

1

1

1





285


Nephtys magellanica Augener, 1912
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1968)

A single specimen, in poor condition, was collected

at station BC-N in Boca Ciega Bay (table 112).

The sediment there was over 95 percent moderately

sorted sand, of which better than 25 percent was shell

(table 113).

No vegetation was recorded at the collection site.

Neither gravid nor juvenile specimens were collected.

N. magellanica, as far as I know, has been collected

previously only in the eastern Pacific and in the Gulf of

Mexico at Seahorse Key, Florida.




286


Table 112.--Nephtys magellanica--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-N 1




287


Table 113.--Nephtys magellanica--Mear' and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

15.0

31.3

7.9

2.3

sand

4.2

95.8

0.6

0.0

25.9


Range


Number
observations

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1


1.5


0.8

-1.7

0.3




288


Nephtys picta Ehlers, 1868
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

N. picta was collected at 38 survey stations in all

six areas of the Estuary (table 114). The area of great-

est abundance was Old Tampa Bay where 10 or more indivi-

duals were collected in a dredge haul at two locations.

Average sediment type at dredge and shovel stations

was poorly sorted, fine sand that contained little shell,

less than five percent silt and clay, and less than one

percent organic carbon. No specimens were found in soft

sediments (table 115).

Nine of the bottom samples contained vegetation. A

mixture of algae was present, and shoal grass occurred at

two.

A gravid specimen was collected in October and a

juvenile was found in June.

This worm is common on the Atlantic coast from

Massachusetts to South Carolina. It had been collected

in the Gulf of Mexico prior to this survey.




289


Table 114.--Nephtys picta--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa
Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel,
N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

B 2 4-9 2
1-4 3 4-12 8
3-3 1 4-14 13
3-8 6 4-15 3
3-9 6 4-16 2
3-11 10 4-17-A 9
3-12 5 4-18-A 1
3-16 1 4-19 4
4-7 1 5-2 1
4-8 3 5-3 1

Hillsborough Bay

C-2 1 10-22 1

Upper Tampa Bay

10-4 4 12-6 1
11-5 1 12-9 1
11-6 4 12-14 1
11-20 1

Boca Ciega Bay

14-2 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-1 1




290


Table 114.--Nephtys picta--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa
Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, 3-shovel,
N-net)-(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

14-14 1 17-6 2
16-15 1 17-7 1
16-22 1 18-3 2
16-27 1




291


Table 115.--Nephtys picta--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Range

15.5 to 31.5

18.5 to 33.8

7.1 to 8.3

/1 to 3.0

shelly sand
to sand


Moan

27.0

25.6

8.0

1.5

sand


1.4

94.5

2.3

1.9

8.0

0.7

0.1


2.6


1.3

1.0

12.3


3.3


1.6


Number
observations

36

36

30

36

36


20.8

99.3

9.1

6.3

57.4

2.2

0.2


0.9 to 3.4


0.7

-0.3


-0.03 to


2.0

2.2

41.2


1.9 to 9.0


0.6 to 3.4


-0.5 -2.5 to


1.3 0.8 to


2.2


2.3


I


0.0

77.4

0.3

0.2

0.8

0.1

0.0




292


Family GLYCERIDAE Grube, 1850

Worms of this family burrow in sand or softer sedi-

ments, and their diet includes polychaetes and other small,

soft bodied, invertebrates as well as detritus. They have

world-wide distribution in seas at all latitudes.

Two species were found in Tampa Bay. Glycera

americana was found throughout the Estuary, but the less

common, Glycera dibranchiata, was collected only in lower

Tampa Bay.

Key to GLYCERIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Retractile, branched branchiae arise on the
dorso-lateral body wall near the bases of
parapodia ........................... Glycera americana

- Non-retractile branchiae arise as a pair of
simple lamellae above and below setigerous
lobes of parapodia ............... Glycera dibranchiata

Glycera americana Leidy, 1855
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

Specimens were collected at 129 survey stations in

all six areas of the Estuary and at incidental localities

in Old Tampa Bay (4) Boca Ciega Bay (2) and lower Tampa

Bay (1). The major center of abundance was Old Tampa Bay

where 10 or more individuals were collected in a single

dredge haul at 34 stations. The greatest number in a

single collection (122) came from station 4-15 (table 116).




293


Sediment data from dredge and shovel stations show

that the worm was most commonly found in poorly sorted,

fine sand, but many also occurred in extremely fine sedi-

ments. As an average, shell comprised about 10 percent of

the sand size particles, and was also present in larger

particle classes. The silt and clay content was over five

percent, and organic carbon was under one percent (table

117).

About one-third of the dredge and shovel stations were

vegetated with algae, and also present at some were manatee,

shoal, turtle, and widgeon grass.

A gravid specimen was collected in October, and juve-

niles were noted in February, June, July, August, October,

November, and December.

G. americana is a temperate or tropical species that

has been recorded from the central and eastern Pacific,

the western Atlantic, and the Gulf of Mexico.




294


Table 116.--Glycera americana-Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N


A
A-i
A-2
A-5
A-6
B
B-1
B-2
B-3
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
3-1-A
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-10
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-14
3-15
3-16
3-17
4-1


1 1


4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-16
4-17-A
4-18-A
4-19
5-1-A
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-11
5-13
6-1-A
6-1-B
6-1-C
6-1-D
6-2
6-3
6-4-A
6-7-A


25

1
23
43
23
19
26
8
14
29
25
13
122
14
17
5
5
3
13
13
17
17
4
1
1
1
1




3
6
1


--




295


Table 116.--Glycera americana-Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Hillsborough Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

C-3 12 9-4 3
C-7 2 10-15 1
9-3 7 10-22 6

Upper Tampa Bay

10-3 4 12-3 2
10-4 1 12-11 2
10-12 2 13-1-A 3
10-14-A 1 13-4 1
11-6 2 13-12 4

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-A 1 D-25 3 3
BC-E 1 PB-1 26
BC-G 1 PB-4 6 10
BC-H 8 PB-5 7
BC-I 1 1 14-3 10
BC-M 1 14-4 12
BC-N 29 15-4 1
D-7 1 15-14 1
D-11 3 8 16-6 2
D-23 1


Terra Ceia Bay

E-1 1 E-4 1
E-2 1 E-5 1
E-3 1 2 E-6 1




296


Table 116.--Glycera americana-Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

14-5 9 16-14 18
14-6 9 16-16 1
15-26 1 16-25 1
15-28 1 17-2 7
16-9-A 1 17-3 13 1
16-9-B 1 17-6 1
16-10 1 17-8 3
16-12 1 18-3 3




297


Table 117.--Glycera americana--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.) ,

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

26.5

27.1

7.9

1.0

sand


2.7

90.4

4.0

2.8

9.9

0.8

0.1


2.6


1.3

0.8

12.7


3.2


1.6


-0.4


1.3 0.2 to 3.1


116


Range

13.0 to 33.8

16.4 to 35.1

7.0 to 8.5

L1 to 4.0

shelly sand
to silt

0.0 to 79.7

5.5 to 99.8

0.0 to 89.4

0.0 to 65.9

0.6 to 95.0

0.01 to 6.9

0.00 to 0.2


-4.4 to 7.1


0.5 to 3.8

-1.7 to 3.6

-0.7 to 76.3


1.9 to 7.1


0.3 to 3.2


-2.6 to 2.5


Number
observations

139

139

113

139

137


137

137

137

137

137

72

72


137


137

137

136


124


124


116




298


Glycera dibranchiata Ehlers, 1868
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

A single specimen was collected at one station

(15-21) in lower Tampa Bay (table 118).

The sediment at this station was nearly all poorly

sorted, medium sand with a few large shell particles.

The percentages of silt and clay, and organic carbon,

were less than one (table 119).

No vegetation was recorded from the dredge sample.

The specimen was mature, but not gravid.

G. dibranchiata is a temperate or tropical species

that is well known from east and west coasts of North

America, and the Gulf of Mexico.




299


Table 118.--Glycera dibranchiata--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

15-21 1




300


Table 119.--Glycera dibranchiata--Mean and range of ob-
served environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Range


1.7


0.7


-0.1


1.3


Mean

23.2

31.2

7.7

1.0

sand

2.7

97.0

0.2

0.1

7.2

0.03

0.02


2.0


1.0

-0.5

6.9


Number
observations

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1





301


Family GONIADIDAE Kinberg, 1866

As in the closely related Glyceridae, the Goniadids

are active, burrowing polychaetes that probably subsist

mainly on detritus, worms, and other small, benthic ani-

mals.

Two species, Glycinde pacifica and Goniadella sp.

were collected in Tampa Bay. The former was found common-

ly in all areas of the Estuary, and Goniadella sp. was

collected at a few stations in all areas except Hills-

borough Bay.

Key to GONIADIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Setae entirely compound ............. Glycinde pacifica

- Setae simple and compound; simple setae
are stout hooks ........................ Goniadella sp.

Glycinde pacifica Monro, 1928

This species was collected throughout the Estuary at

a total of 185 survey stations and incidental localities

in Boca Ciega Bay, upper Tampa Bay, and Old Tampa Bay.

Dredge hauls containing 10 or more specimens were taken

several times in all areas of the Bay, and as many as 54

per haul came from station C-2 in Hillsborough Bay (table

120).

Although average sediment type was poorly sorted,

fine sand, the worm was collected at 14 stations that had




302


a high percentage of silt and clay, and at five where the

bottom was shelly sand. As an average, the silt-clay

content of sediments was nearly 12 percent and organic

carbon was less than one percent. Shell constituted about

nine percent of the sand size particle class, and about

two percent was in the granule category (table 121).

One-third of the dredge and shovel stations contained

algae, and in addition, some had turtle, shoal, and mana-

tee grass.

Juvenile specimens were collected in May, July, August,

September, and November, but no adults with mature gametes

were noted.

G. pacifica was originally described from the Pana-

manian,coast near Taboga. As far as I know this report is

the first for the Gulf of Mexico.




303

Table 120.--Glycinde pacifica--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals


D S N D S N


A
A-2
A-6
B
B-2
B-3
1-3
1-4
1-5
2-5
3-1-A
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-15
3-16
4-1
4-2
4-3


4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-16
4-17-A
4-19
5-1-A
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
6-1-A
6-1-B
6-1-D
6-2
6-4-A
6-5




304


Table 120.--Glycinde pacifica--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Hillsborough Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

C 3 9-6 1
C-2 54 1 9-9 1
C-3 3 10-15 6 21
8-2 1 10-16 6 1
8-8 6 10-17 7 1
9-1 2 10-22 6 2
9-3 31 4 10-23 1
9-4 16 8

Upper Tampa Bay

D 1 11-18 1 5
10-4 52 11-19 11 11
10-5 2 11-20 1 26
10-7 1 11-21 1 34
10-8 7 11-22 10 25
10-9 3 11-23 1 1
10-11 1 11-24 2 1
10-12 10 11-25 3 4
10-13 2 11-26 6 2
10-14-A 8 11-27 15 2
11-4 4 11-28 1
11-6 3 11-28-1 7
11-7 1 2 12-1 1
11-8 2 12 12-14 11 3
11-9 12 9 12-16 10
11-11 1 2 13-1-A 1
11-12 2 2 13-2 6
11-13 1 1 13-5 1
11-14 1 13-8 3
11-15 5 1 13-12 4
11-16 1 7 13-13 1




305


Table 120.--Glycinde pacifica--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-A 37 PB-5 12
BC-C 1 14-1-A 1
BC-E 4 1 14-2 21
BC-H 4 14-3 11
BC-I 7 14-4 43
BC-M 11 15-2 1
BC-N 4 15-4 4
D-1 5 15-5 3
D-2 7 15-6 13
D-9 3 15-8 13
D-11 1 15-11 12 3
D-12 1 15-12 17
D-17 2 1 15-13 10
D-21 1 15-14 12 2
D-22 2 15-15 2 2
D-23 1 15-16 1
D-24 6 15-17 21
D-25 3 16-6 26
PB-1 14 7 16-7 6
PB-4 30 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-1 18 10 E-5 6 1
E-2 8 E-6 18
E-3 28 5 E-7 39
E-4 15




306


Table 120.--Glycinde pacifica--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

14-5 26 1 16-9-A 1
14-6 8 16-11 1
14-7 1 16-19 1
14-8 1 16-21 1
14-12 5 16-22 1
14-17 1 16-23 1
14-18 33 16-24 1
14-19 12 16-25 1
15-18 10 16-27 4
15-19 3 17-10 4
15-20 3 17-12 8
15-21 9 17-13 1
15-31 10 17-14 4
15-32 3 18-3 8




307


Table 121.--Glycinde pacifica--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)


Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

25.5

27.2

8.0

1.1

sand


2.2

86.3

6.8

5.0

9.2


0.7


0.04 0.00 to 0.2


3.0


1.4

0.6

11.5


3.0


1.4


-4.0 to


0.2

-2.2

-1.3


7.3


3.5

3.6

76.3


1.7 to 9.0


0.4 to 3.1


-0.2 -2.6 to


3.0


1.3 0.2 to 3.1


Range

12.8 to 33.8

16.4 to 35.1

7.0 to 9.0

/L to 4.0

shelly sand t
clayey silt

0.0 to 79.7

4.6 to 99.9

0.0 to 50.8

0.0 to 65.9

0.5 to 66.0

0.03 to 8.5


Number
observations

188

188

158

188

-o 184


184

184

184

183

183


123

123


183


183

183

182


176


175


163


163





308


Goniadella sp.

This small goniadid is about 1.5 mm. wide (including

parapodia) and about 10 mm. long. The long, conical

prostomium has eight segments and four, terminal antennae

(figure 6,A). No eyes were observed, The pharynx on some

specimens was partially extended and contained rows of

papillae (figure 6,B). The chevrons commonly found in

this genus were not observed.

Parapodia of the first segment are simple, cirrus-

like lobes without setae. By the middle of the body, they

contain setae, dorsal and ventral cirri, and a long, median

ligule (figure 6,C). Above the dorsal cirrus, there are

two simple, stout hooks (figure 6,D). The compound setae

consist of a few spinigers and falcigers (figure 6,E,F).

Specimens were collected at 25 stations, in all areas

of the Estuary except Hillsborough Bay. Twenty of these

stations, however, were in lower Tampa Bay. Apparently

this species is limited to water that has an average salin-

ity of over 20 parts per thousand, and it is most commonly

found where salinity is at least 30 parts per thousand

(table 122).

No collections were made in soft sediments. Average





309


bottom type was poorly sorted, medium sand that was about

one-half shell. Very few large shell particles were pres-

ent and percentages of silt, clay, and organic carbon were

low (table 123).

Only three of the dredge and shovel samples contained

vegetation. Algae were present, but no sea grasses.

No specimens with mature gametes were collected, and

juveniles were noted only in October and November.





310


Table 122.--Goniadella sp.--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

6-2 6 6-3 3

Upper Tampa Bay

13-3 4

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-N 9


Terra Ceia Bay

E-8 1

Lower Tampa Bay

15-21 4 16-13 81
15-22 17 16-14 57
15-23 39 16-15 134
15-24 7 16-16 16
15-25 59 16-17 11
15-26 33 17-2 27
15-27 4 17-3 101
15-29 2 17-4 55
15-31 30 17-5 4
16-12 10 17-6 1




311


Table 123.--Goniadella sp.--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

24.3

31.8

8.0

2.3

sand


5.0

93.7

1.0

0.3

46.8

0.6

0.04


1.4


1.4

0.1

3.4


2.9


1.2


1.7

0.8

8.2


1.9 to 5.9


0.6 to 3.2


0.3 -1.7 to 1.7


1.0 0.8 to 1.5


Range

15.0 to 31.8

24.2 to 34.5

7.7 to 8.2

L1 to 4.0

shelly sand
to sand

0.5 to 21.4

77.8 to 99.2

0.0 to 2.7

0.0 to 0.7

7.2 to 85.2

0.03 to 3.3

0.00 to 0.2


0.4 to 1.9


Number
observations

24

24

24

24

24


20

20

20

20

20

19

19


20


20

20

20


20


20


17


1.0

-0.5

0.1




312


Family ONUPHIDAE Kinberg, 1865

Worms of this family are tubicolous omnivores that

subsist on planktonic food and small benthic organisms.

They have world-wide distribution in tropical, temperate,

and boreal seas.

Five species were found in Tampa Bay. Diopatra cuprea

and Onuphis sp. were collected throughout the Estuary.

Onuphis magna and Onuphis nebulosa were found in upper

and lower Tampa Bay, and Onuphis eremita oculata was found

only in lower Tampa Bay.

Key to ONUPHIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Branchial filaments arranged in
a spiral .............................. Diopatra cuprea

- Branchial filaments simple or pectinate ............. 2

2 Branchiae present from the first
setiger ..................... Onuphis eremita oculata

- Branchiae appear after the first setiger ............ 3

3 Branchiae pectinate with as many as 12
filaments; size large ................... Onuphis magna

Branchiae with 4 or fewer filaments;
size small ................................. ... ...... 4

4 Ventral cirri slender through 8 segments;
tube covered with shell fragments .....Onuphis nebulosa

Ventral cirri slender through 6 segments;
tube covered mostly with sand grains Onuphis sp.




313


Diopatra cuprea (Bosc, 1802)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

Individuals were collected in all areas of the Estuary

at 160 survey stations and at incidental localities in

Boca Ciega Bay (4) upper Tampa Bay (1) Old Tampa Bay (3)

and Hillsborough Bay (1). The largest number of specimens

per dredge haul (93) were taken at station 10-22 in Hills-

borough Bay (table 124).

Average sediment type at dredge and shovel stations

was poorly sorted, fine sand. Shell comprised about nine

percent of the sand size fraction, and a small percentage

of large shell fragments was also recorded. Organic carbon

was less than one percent and silt and clay amounted to

about six percent (table 125).

Over 50 percent of the bottom samples were vegetated

with algae, and one or more of the five sea grasses found

in the Estuary.

A single juvenile specimen was collected in May. No

specimens with mature gametes were observed.

D. cuprea has a world-wide range in temperate and

tropical waters, and is well known throughout the Gulf of

Mexico.




314


Table 124.--Diopatra cuprea--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

A 2 3-13 4
B 15 3-14 4
B-1 2 10 3-15 2
B-2 23 3-16 3
1-1 9 4-1 1
1-2 4 4-2 6
1-3 3 1 4-3 1
1-4 2 4-5 6
1-5 3 4-6 4
2-1 7 4-7 1
2-2 1 4-8 1
2-3 13 5-1-A 1 1
2-5 5 5-3 1
3-2 6 5-4 3
3-3 9 6-1-A 2
3-8 1 6-1-C 4
3-10 1 6-4-A 2 10
3-11 1 6-6 10
3-12 1 6-7-A 18

Hillsborough Bay

C-1 1 8-9 5
C-2 25 9-3 3 10
C-3 1 1 9-4 22
C-5 10 10-15 11 10
C-6 31 10 10-16 6
C-7 3 10-17 10
C-8 2 10-19 8 10
C-8-1 1 10-20 8
C-8-2 1 10-22 93 5
7-3 1 10-23 38 10




315


Table 124.--Diopatra cuprea--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

10-1-A 12 11-27 10
10-4 1 11-28 1
10-5 5 11-28-1 26
10-7 1 12-1 3
10-10 3 12-16 10
10-11 12 13-1-A 10
10-12 6 13-2 10
10-13 14 13-10 10
10-14-A 21 18 13-11 1 10
11-25 10 13-12 10
11-26 10 13-13 10

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-A 9 10 PB-1 4 2
BC-A-1 10 PB-4 25 4 4
BC-C 10 PB-5 9 10
BC-E 7 1 14-1-A 8
BC-G 5 14-2 20 10
BC-H 2 14-3 2
BC-I 1 1 14-4 2 10
BC-M 10 1 4 15-1 2 2
BC-N 27 1 15-3 3 4 10
D-1 1 15-4 13 10
D-2 3 1 15-8 10
D-5 1 15-10 2
D-6 5 15-11 4 6
D-9 1 15-13 1 4
D-10 1 15-14 1 1
D-11 1 13 15-15 4 1
D-13 10 15-16 4 1
D-14 1 15-17 13
D-15 1 16-1 3
D-17 1 16-2 1 10
D-19-A 1 10 16-3 1
D-21 10 16-4 1
D-22 2 10 16-5 2
D-23 12 10 16-7 1
D-25 25 1 16-8 1




316


Table 124.--Diopatra cuprea--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Terra Ceia Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

E-1 7 10 E-7 27
E-2 14 E-8 3
E-6 3 1

Lower Tampa Bay

14-5 10 16-10 8 10
14-7 1 16-11 2
14-10 1 16-21 10
14-11 1 16-25 2
14-12 1 16-26 25
14-13 1 16-27 1
15-19 10 17-6 1
15-20 12 17-7 2
15-31 3 17-8 1
15-32 1 17-9 2
16-9 1 10 17-10 10
16-9-A 1 17-13 1
16-9-B 2




317


Table 125.--Diopatra cuprea--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

25.5

27.1

7.9

0.8

sand


2.4

91.3

3.7

2.4

8.6

0.8

0.04


Range

12.8 to 33.2

0.7 to 35.1

7.0 to 8.5

/1 to 3.3

shelly sand
clayey silt

0.0 to 79.6

11.2 to 100

0.0 to 44.4

0.0 to 65.9

0.6 to 95.0

0.02 to 6.9

0.r00 to 0.2


2.6 -4.0 to


1.3

0.5

10.8


3.1


1.4


0.5

-1.7

-1.3


7.1


2.8

2.1

43.4


1.4 to 8.7


0.4 to 2.8


-0.2 -2.6 to


3.0


0.2 to 3.1


Number
observations

147

147

126

147

to 144


144

144

144

144

143

86

86


143


143

143

142


134


134


122


1.3


122




318


Onuphis eremita oculata Hartman, 1951

Specimens were commonly collected outside the Estuary

along barrier island beaches, but only at a single station

(17-10) within the Estuary (table 126). This species is

apparently well adapted to wave action and turbulence, and

requires water of high salinity.

The worm was found in poorly sorted, fine sand that

contained a moderate amount of shell, and only traces of

silt, clay, and organic carbon (table 127).

There was no bottom vegetation at the collection site

in lower Tampa Bay.

Neither gravid nor juvenile specimens were collected.

O. e. oculata has been reported only from the Gulf of

Mexico.




319

Table 126.--Onuphis eremita oculata--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel,
N-net)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

17-10 1




320


Table 127.--Onuphis eremita oculata--Mean and range of
observed environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (OC.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Range


2.4


1.0

-1.3

14.5


2.4


0.6


Mean

19.0

30.8

8.0

1.0

sand

3.6

95.8

0.5

0.1

10.0

0.1

0.01


Number
observations

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1




321


Onuphis magna (Andrews, 1891)
(Described and illustrated by Treadwell, 1921)

Specimens were taken at 18 survey stations between

transect-12 (upper Tampa Bay) and the Gulf. Three inci-

dental collections were made in Boca Ciega Bay and one in

lower Tampa Bay (table 128).

Sediment at dredge and shovel stations was poorly

sorted, medium sand with a moderate amount of shell in

sand and granule particle size classes. The percentage

of silt and clay was under two, and organic carbon was

less than one percent (table 129).

Algae were present at eight of 19 dredge and shovel

stations, and generally occurred with manatee, turtle, or

shoal grass.

Neither gravid nor juvenile specimens were collected.

0. magna has been recorded along the Atlantic sea-

board from North Carolina to the Caribbean and the Gulf

of Mexico. It has also been found in tropical waters of

the eastern Pacific.




322


Table 128.--Onuphis magna--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

12-9 1

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-C 11 15-16 2
BC-N 4 16-6 1
D-25 1

Lower Tampa Bay

D-27 1 15-29 1
14-11 1 15-33 1
15-20 1 16-9-A 1
15-21 1 16-9-B 2
15-23 1 17-1 1
15-26 1 17-2 1




323


Table 129.--Onuphis magna--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

23.1

31.9

8.0

1.4

sand

3.4

95.7

1.1

0.3

18.8

0.7

0.03


2.0


1.2

0.1

8.1


3.4


1.6


0.5


1.9

1.1

22.2


1.9 to 7.1


0.6 to 3.4


-0.56 to 2.5


1.0 0.2 to 1.4


Range

16.2 to 29.4

27.1 to 35.1

7.7 to 8.3

L1 to 4.0



0.0 to 14.2

83.5 to 99.8

0.0 to 4.1

0.0 to 0.8

1.9 to 49.5

0.03 to 2.3

0.01 to 0.1


1.2 to 2.8


Number
observations

19

19

17

19

16

16

16

16

16

16

15

15


16


16

16

15


15


15


14


0.5 to

-1.1 to

0.4 to




324


Onuphis nebulosa Moore, 1911
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1968)

Individuals were collected at a total of 89 survey

stations in all areas of the Estuary except Old Tampa and

Hillsborough Bays. One incidental collection was made in

lower Tampa Bay near Mullet Key (table 130). Dredge hauls

containing more than 100 worms were taken in upper and

lower Tampa Bay, and the greatest number in any one col-

lection (420) were taken at station 12-12.

Sediment data show that this species is generally

found in poorly sorted, fine sand that contains a consider-

able amount of shell in the sand and granule size classes.

Silt and clay content was less than three percent, and

organic carbon was under one percent (table 131).

One-half of the dredge and shovel samples contained

algae, and in addition, some had manatee, turtle, or shoal

grass.

Neither gravid nor juvenile specimens were collected.

0. nebulosa has been reported in the Gulf of Mexico

and in the eastern Pacific from central California to

Panama.




325


Table 130.--Onuphis nebulosa--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

11-15 1 12-13 1
11-16 13 2 12-14 47
11-17 1 12-15 328
11-20 1 12-16 10
12-2 1 13-3 5
12-3 182 1 13-4 134
12-6 2 1 13-5 240
12-7 12 1 13-6 111
12-8 43 1 13-7 140
12-9 58 13-8 309
12-10 49 13-9 15
12-11 43 13-10 59
12-12 420 1 13-13 1

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-A 12 PB-5 23
BC-A-1 20 15-3 1 5
BC-E 1 15-6 2
BC-N 70 15-9 1
D-3 3 15-11 2 1
D-23 4 1 15-12 22
D-24 1 15-14 1
D-25 6 16-1 1
PB-1 3 16-6 55 1
PB-4 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-8 716





Table 130.--Onuphis nebulosa--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

14-10 50 16-10 1
14-11 100 16-13 89
14-12 62 16-14 1
14-14 39 16-15 9
14-15 8 16-16 4 1
15-18 20 16-17 6 1
15-19 1 16-18 1
15-20 9 16-22 4
15-21 55 16-25 385 4
15-22 32 16-26 1
15-23 7 16-27 363 1
15-24 61 17-2 931 1
15-25 1 17-3 12
15-26 40 1 17-4 10
15-27 17 1 17-5 53
15-28 64 1 17-6 21
15-29 54 17-7 24
15-30 65 17-8 10
15-31 250 17-11 1
15-32 47 18-3 25
15-33 1 18-4 4
16-9-B 2




327


Table 131.--Onuphis nebulosa--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

21.4

30.6

8.0

1.6

sand


3.6

93.5

2.1

0.7

24.3

0.6

0.03


2.1


1.3

0.1

6.3


2.9


1.3


3.5

1.3

24.4


1.7 to 7.1


0.5 to 3.4


0.3 -2.0 to


2.2


1.2 0.2 to 2.9


Range

12.8 to 29.3

22.3 to 35.1

7.6 to 8.4

/1 to 4.0

shelly sand t
silty sand

0.0 to 41.5

72.5 to 99.9

0.0 to 22.1

0.0 to 7.2

1.2 to 85.2

0.03 to 5.0

0.00 to 0.2


0.4 to 7.6


Number
observations

86

85

86

86

0o 81


81

81

81

81

81

73

73


81


81

81

80


75


75


61


0.5

-1.7

-0.4




328


Onuphis sp.

This species resembles Onuphis nebulosa (figure 6,G)

but constructs a sand-covered, rather than a shell-covered

tube. There are also differences in the arrangement of

branchiae, ventral cirri, and setae.

The first setiger has dorsal and ventral cirri (figure

6,H) and branchiae do not appear until setiger eight (figure

6,K). The ventral cirri are slender on the first six seti-

gers, and are short and rounded thereafter. Hooded hooks

are present on all setigers. On the first, they have an

incomplete joint and tridentate tip (figure 6,1). On the

third setiger the joint is not apparent and the teeth are

blunt and less curved (figure 6,J). By setiger 16 the setal

hooks are stout and bidentate with a greatly reduced termi-

nal tooth (figure 6,L).

This species was collected at a total of 99 survey

stations in all areas of the Estuary and at incidental

localities in Old Tampa Bay (2) upper Tampa Bay (1) Boca

Ciega Bay (3) and lower Tampa Bay (1). The greatest number

in a single dredge haul (424) were collected at station

PB-4 in Boca Ciega Bay (table 132).

Average sediment at dredge and shovel stations was

poorly sorted, fine sand with more than 10 percent shell




329

in sand and coarser particle classes. Silt and clay con-

tent was less than five percent and organic carbon was

nearly one percent (table 133).

Slightly more than one-third of these stations con-

tained algae and one or more of the five sea grasses found

in the Estuary.

Young specimens were observed adhering to the interior

of adult's tubes in August and November.





Table 132.--Onuphis sp.--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

2-1 1 6-1-C 31
4-19 5 6-1-D 4
5-3 1 6-2 22
5-6 1 6-3 5 1
5-8 1 6-4-A 1
5-13 3 6-7-A 19
6-1-A 1

Hillsborough Bay

9-4 1 10-19 3
10-16 8

Upper Tampa Bay

10-0 1 11-3 10 10
10-1-A 213 11-4 6 10
10-3 25 11-5 1
10-4 106 1 11-28-1 168
10-6 1 11-28-2 3
10-12 36 12-1 104
10-13 58 13-1-A 1
10-14-A 16 51 13-1-B 150
11-1 88 13-3 35
11-2 17




331


Table 132.--Onuphis sp.--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-A 4 D-25 86 2
BC-A-1 1 PB-1 7 34
BC-C 26 PB-4 424 3
BC-E 1 PB-5 52
BC-G 8 14-2 1
BC-I 1 14-3 20 1
BC-M 31 4 14-4 15
BC-N 100 15-2 129
D-1 1 1 15-3 29
D-2 93 15-4 4
D-3 60 15-8 5
D-6 201 15-15 25
D-7 1 15-16 25
D-9 2 15-17 1 1
D-11 76 16-1 17 1
D-15 4 16-2 13
D-17 16 16-4 1 6
D-19-A 1 16-7 49
D-23 248 16-8 35


Terra Ceia Bay

E-l 10 E-5 4
E-2 10 E-6 1
E-4 35 E-7 1





Table 132.--Onuphis sp.--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

D-27 1 17-1 5
14-5 106 17-2 4 2
14-6 9 17-3 1
16-9 10 17-4 6
16-9-A 194 17-5 17
16-20 1 17-6 23
16-21 2 17-7 22
16-23 8 17-8 17
16-25 113 17-9 1
16-26 4 17-14 3




333


Table 133.--Onuphis sp.--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

24.0

29.2

8.1

0.9

sand


2.4

93.4

2.7

1.4

12.5

0.9

0.1


2.5


1.2

0.3

11.9


3.2


1.3


2.7

2.4

61.8


1.4 to 9.0


0.4 to 3.2


-0.01 -2.5 to


2.5


1.2 0.2 to 2.6


Range

13.0 to 33.2

18.5 to 35.1

7.6 to 8.5

1/ to 4.0

shelly sand t
sandy clay

0.0 to 21.5

24.5 to 99.9

0.0 to 22.7

0.0 to 65.9

0.6 to 85.2

0.01 to 8.5

0.00 to 0.3


0.4 to 7.1


Number
observations

104

104

100

104

;o 103


103

103

103

103

102

72

72


102


102

102

101


95


94


80


0.5

-1.7

-0.6






Figure 6. -- Diagnostic features of Goniadella sp. and
Onuphis sp.


Goniadella sp.:














Onuphis sp.:


(A) Head and first parapodial segment;

(B) Pharyngeal papilla; (C) Parapod

from median section; (D) Hooked seta

from body wall adjacent to dorsal cirru

(E) Compound spiniger from median

parapod (F) Compound falciger from

median parapod

(G) Anterior end; (H) First setigerous

segment; (I) Hooded hook from first

segment (J) Hooded hook from third

segment (K) Eighth parapod (L) Setae

from sixteenth segment.














/ \

k \


A


0 05 MM


FIGURE 6


0.02
0.02MM


c-

C 02
0.02 MM


G
0.2 MM


0 025

0 025MM


0.1 MM


0 025MM


S 01MM


335


D
001MM


E

0.01MM


F

0 01 MM


0.025 MM




336


Family EUNICIDAE Savigny, 1818

A predominantly tropical family, the eunicids are

active omnivores that are generally associated with shell

and coral bottoms.

Three species were collected in Tampa Bay. Marphysa

sanguinea was found in all areas of the Estuary, while the

other two, Eunice rubra and Nematonereis hebes, were taken

only in Boca Ciega Bay and lower Tampa Bay.

Key to EUNICIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Branchiae present .............. ....................... 2

Branchiae absent ................... Nematonereis hebes

2 Tentacular cirri present ................. Eunice rubra

Tentacular cirri absent ............ Marphysa sanquinea

Eunice rubra Grube, 1856
(Described and illustrated by Treadwell, 1921)

Specimens were collected at two stations in Boca Ciega

Bay, and at five in lower Tampa Bay. All were taken by

net (table 134).

No data are available for sediments or vegetation at

these localities.

A gravid specimen was collected in January and juve-

niles were found in October.




337


E. rubra has been recorded in the Gulf of Mexico

and Caribbean as well as along the south Atlantic and

Pacific coasts.




338


Table 134.--Eunice rubra--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

D-25 1 16-8 1

Lower Tampa Bay

14-13 1 17-5 1
16-14 1 18-3 2
16-20 1




339


Marphysa sanguinea (Montagu, 1815)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

This was the only eunicid found throughout the Es-

tuary. Collections came from a total of 39 survey sta-

tions, and incidental localities in Old Tampa Bay (3)

Hillsborough Bay (1) Boca Ciega Bay (8) and lower Tampa

Bay (1). The largest collections were made by shovel in

shallow water on grass flats or shelly bottom (table 135).

Sediments at dredge and shovel stations were poorly

sorted, fine sand. Shell accounted for more than 13 per-

cent of the sediment in sand and granule particle size

categories. Silt and clay content was less than five

percent and organic carbon was slightly more than one per-

cent (table 136).

About two-thirds of the bottom samples contained

algae as well as shoal, turtle, or manatee grass.

No specimens with mature gametes were collected,

however, juveniles were found in May, July, August, Sep-

tember, October, November, and December.

M. sanguinea has been reported in the Gulf of Mexico

and may be regarded as a cosmopolitan species that occurs

in temperate and tropical seas.




340


Table 135.--Marphysa sanguinea--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

A-i 7 3-15 3
A-3 13 4-1 1
A-6 1 6-1-D 3
2-4 1 6-2 1
3-1-A 37

Hillsborough Bay

C 8 C-2 2
C-l 1


Upper Tampa Bay

13-1-A 3

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-C 10 PB-5 1
BC-M 1 15-3 2
D-2 10 15-5 1
D-3 10 15-8 1
D-6 1 16-2 9 2
D-22 1 16-3 5 6
D-23 3 16-5 1
D-25 3 16-8 8 1
PB-1 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-1 2 E-6 2
E-4 1




341


Table 135.--Marphysa sanquinea--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

15-25 1 16-9-B 3
15-26 1 17-2 2
15-31 1 18-3 1




342


Table 136.--Marphysa sanguinea--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


0.1 -1.7 to 2.3


1.3 0.4 to 2.8


Mean

25.0

28.8

8.0

0.8

sand


4.1

91.5

3.1

1.2

13.5

1.1

0.1


2.4


1.4

0.5

10.9


3.3


1.5


Range

13.0 to 32.7

18.3 to 34.5

6.7 to 8.4

L1 to 4.0

shelly sand
silty sand

0.0 to 34.5

58.0 to 99.4

0.0 to 11.9

0.0 to 9.1

0.7 to 66.0

0.1 to 6.9

0.00 to 0.2


0.6 to 3.4


0.6 to 3.8

-1.2 to 3.4

-0.7 to 73.5


1.9 to 8.7


0.6 to 3.2


Number
observations

33

33

28

33

to 33


33

33

33

33

33

22

22


33


33

33

33


33


33


31





343


Nematonereis hebes Verrill, 1900
(Described and illustrated by Treadwell, 1921)

This minute and rarely collected worm was found at

one station in Boca Ciega Bay, and at seven in lower

Tampa Bay. Collections that contained 10 or more speci-

mens per dredge haul were made along transect-15 and 16

(table 137).

The worm was found only in sand or shelly sand which

was mostly of medium size and poorly sorted. Silt and clay

content was very low, but organic carbon was greater than

one percent. A moderate amount of granular shell was pres-

ent, and a large percentage of the sand size particle class

was composed of shell (table 138).

Of the two stations where vegetation was recorded, one

had algae and the other had algae, shoal grass, and turtle

grass.

Neither gravid nor juvenile specimens were collected.

N. hebes was originally described from Bermuda, which

was the only known locality prior to collections recorded

here for Tampa Bay.




344


Table 137.--Nematonereis hebes--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

D-25 3

Lower Tampa Bay

15-23 4 17-5 1
15-25 13 17-8 2
16-13 12 18-3 2
16-14 10 2




345


Table 138.--Nematonereis hebes--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)


Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

22.5

33.0

8.1

2.4

sand


8.4

89.9


9.3

0.3

38.8

1.1

0.1


1.4


1.6

-0.01

2.0


3.4


1.2


1.3 to

-0.6 to

-0.03 to


Number
observations

8

8

8

8

8


8

8


2.0

0.02

4.2


2.4 to 5.9


0.6 to 2.1


0.2 -1.3 to


0.9


1.0 0.9 to 1.3


Range

17.4 to 25

31.5 to 33.9

7.9 to 8.4

L1 to 3.0

shelly sand
to sand

4.2 to 20.8

77.4 to 93.5

0.3 to 2.4

0.1 to 0.9

13.2 to 68.0

0.1 to 3.3

0.01 to 0.2


0.6 to 2.1




346


Family LUMBRINERIDAE Malmgren, 1867

The lumbrinerids are burrowing worms that are common-

ly found in unconsolidated sediments of all seas. Day (1967)

considered the group as carnivorous scavengers and pre-

dators.

Six species were found in Tampa Bay. None were col-

lected in Hillsborough Bay, and only one, Lumbrineris

latreilli, was found in Old Tampa Bay, where it was collect-

ed no farther north than transect-6. Lumbrineris coccinea

was collected as far into the Estuary as upper Tampa Bay,

and the other four, Lumbrineris bassi, Lumbrineris erecta,

Lumbrineris impatiens, and Lumbrineris sp. were found only

in more saline waters seaward of transect-13.

Key to LUMBRINERIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Compound, hooded hooks present in anterior
parapodia ...................... ..................... 2

- Compound, hooded hooks absent in anterior
parapodia ......................................... 3

2 Prostomium conical; compound, hooded hooks
have a long distal appendage .,... Lumbrineris latreilli

- Prostomium rounded; compound, hooded hooks
have a short, distal appendage .... Lumbrineris coccinea

3 Simple, hooded hooks present before setiger 10........ 4

- Simple, hooded hooks present after setiger 10 ........ 5




347


4 Simple, hooded hooks present by setigcr 5;
terminal teeth small, forming a crest above a
single, large, blunt, basal tooth; anterior,
median, and posterior hooks
similar ......................... Lumbrineris impatiens

-Simple, hooded hooks present before setiger 5;
terminal teeth directed laterally, not forming
a crest; hooks of median and posterior setigers
short and stout with the lower 3 teeth greatly
enlarged .............................. Lumbrineris sp.

5 Simple, hooded hooks present from about setiger
16, basal tooth large ............... Lumbrineris bassi

-Simple, hooded hooks present from about setiger
30, all terminal teeth small and
similar ............................ Lumbrineris erecta

Lumbrineris bassi Hartman, 1944a

Specimens were collected at a total of seven survey

stations in Boca Ciega Bay and lower Tampa Bay, and at two

incidental stations in Boca Ciega Bay, and one in lower

Tampa Bay (table 139).

Sediments at survey stations were entirely sand that

was fine and poorly sorted. Average shell content was over

12 percent, silt and clay was under five percent, but organic

carbon was nearly two percent (table 140).

Vegetation occurred at over 50 percent of the dredge

and shovel stations. Four had algae, together with shoal

grass, manatee grass, or turtle grass.

No gravid or juvenile specimens were collected.




348


L. bassi has been recorded in the Gulf and is other-

wise known only from southern California.




349


Table 139.--Lumbrineris bassi--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

D-6 2 D-25 2
D-23 28


Lower Tampa Bay

14-13 1 16-22 1
16-10 1 16-24 1




350


Table 140.--Lumbrineris bassi--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Number
Factor Mean Range observations


Water temperature (CC.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


24.0 18.1 to 27.8


32.3

8.1

1.0

sand

2.1

94.3

2.8

0.8

12.9

1.7

0.04


2.7


1.2

0.3

10.0


2.8


1.4


30.8 to 34.0

7.8 to 8.3

/i to 3.0

n--

0.1 to 5.2

89.9 to 99.2

0.2 to 4.3

0.1 to 1.3

3.6 to 43.3

0.1 to 6.9

0.00 to 0.2


2.3 to 3.4


0.8 to

-0.4 to

2.4 to


1.8

1.5

14.0


1.9 to 4.4


1.1 to 1.9


0.1 -0.7 to 1.0


1.2 0.8 to 1.7




351


Lumbrineris coccinea (Renier, 1804)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

A total of eight collections were made at survey

stations in all areas of the Estuary between upper Tampa

Bay and lower Tampa Bay (table 141).

At the five, dredge stations, sediments were poorly

sorted, medium sand with shell comprising about 24 per-

cent of the sand and granule particle classes. Silt and

clay were only two percent and organic carbon was less

than one percent (table 142).

Algae were present in two bottom samples, but no sea

grass was noted.

No juveniles, and no individuals with mature gametes

were collected.

L. coccinea has been recorded in the Gulf of Mexico

as well as in temperate and tropical waters in the eastern

and western Atlantic and Pacific.




352


Table 141.--Lumbrineris coccinea--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

11-4 1 12-13 2


Boca Ciega Bay

BC-N 2 D-17 2

Terra Ceia Bay

E-4 2

Lower Tampa Bay

15-25 1 17-2 1
16-27 24




353


Table 142.--Lumbrineris coccinea--Mean and range of ob-
served environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Number
Factor Mean Range observations


Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


20.4 14.5 to 25.2


32.1

8.1

1.7

sand

5.0

93.1

1.6

0.4

24.1

0.2

0.02


1.9


1.4

0.03

4.2


2.6


1.0


30.3 to

8.0 to

/1 to



0.8 to

83.5 to

0.3 to

0.1 to

6.1 to

0.2 to

0.02 to


1.3 to


0.9 to

-0.3 to

0.4 to


34.8

8.3

3.0



14.7

98.9

3.7

0.7

52.3

0.4

0.04


2.8


1.9

0.3

9.0


2.1 to 3.1


0.7 to 1.5


-0.5 -1.7 to


1.5


1.0 0.2 to 1.4





354


Lumbrineris erecta (Moore, 1904)
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1968)

A total of 29 collections were made at survey sta-

tions in Boca Ciega Bay and lower Tampa Bay, and one

incidental collection came from lower Tampa Bay (table

143).

Average sediment type at dredge and shovel stations

was poorly sorted, fine sand. Shell amounted to over 20

percent of the sand and granule size particles, silt and

clay were under three percent and organic carbon was less

than one percent (table 144).

Algae were recorded in one-third of the bottom

samples, and many also had shoal grass, manatee grass,

or turtle grass.

A gravid specimen was collected in November, and

juvenile worms were found in May, October, and November.

L. erecta has never before been reported from the

Gulf of Mexico, and was previously known only from south-

ern California.




355


Table 143.--Lumbrineris erecta--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-N 1 15-15 1
D-25 1 16-3 2
15-10 2 16-6 1
15-14 2

Lower Tampa Bay

14-9 3 17-1 2
14-10 2 17-2 5
14-13 1 17-5 3
15-22 1 17-6 9
16-10 9 17-7 3
16-11 2 17-8 26
16-13 1 17-9 6
16-15 1 17-10 15
16-20 6 17-12 5
16-22 1 18-3 1
16-23 5 18-4 2




356


Table 144.--Lumbrineris erecta--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

22.6

32.8

8.0

1.7

sand


4.0

92.9

2.3

0.6

20.4

0.6

0.03


2.3


1.3

0.1

7.6


2.9


1.3


0.2 to

-1.3 to

-0.03 to


Number
observations

29

29

29

29

29


2.0

1.1

19o0


1.4 to 6.1


0.5 to 3.2


0.3 -1.7 to 3.0


1.0 0.1 to 1.5


Range

18.0 to 27.5

29.9 to 35.1

7.8 to 8.3

/1 to 4.0

shelly sand
to sand

0.0 to 20.8

77.4 to 99.8

0.2 to 6.6

0.0 to 2.5

1.4 to 57.4

0.1 to 3.2

0.00 to 0.2


0.9 to 3.4




357


Lumbrineris impatiens (Claparede, 1868)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

Specimens were collected at a single survey station

in Boca Ciega Bay, and at an incidental locality in lower

Tampa Bay near Mullet Key (table 145).

Sediment at the station in Boca Ciega Bay was shelly

sand that contained no silt, and no clay. Particles in

the granule size class accounted for over 29 percent of

the sediment. Data for organic carbon and nitrogen are

not available (table 146).

No vegetation was recorded at the survey station.

No gravid, and no juvenile specimens were collected.

This worm has been recorded in the Gulf of Mexico and

is well known as a cosmopolitan species.




358


Table 145.--Lumbrineris impatiens--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

15-7 3




359


Table 146.--Lumbrineris impatiens--Mean and range of ob-
served environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Number
Factor Mean Range observations

Water temperature (OC.) 29.3 1

Salinity (%) --

pH --

Depth (m.) 0.3 -- 1

Sediment type Shelly -- 1
sand

Granules (wt. %) 29.4 -- 1

Sands (wt. %) 70.6 -- 1

Silts (wt. %) 0.0 -- 1

Clay (wt. %) 0.0 -- 1

CaCO3 (wt. %) 16.1 -- 1

Organic carbon (wt. %) -- --

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0) 0.1 1

Standard deviation,
total sample (0) 1.7 1

Skewness, total sample 0.1 1

Kurtosis, total sample -1.0 1

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0) 2.7 1

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0) 0.9 1

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0) 0.3 1

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0) 0.8 1




360


Lumbrineris latreilli (Audouin and Milne-Edwards, 1833)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

More widely distributed than any other lumbrinerid

found in Tampa Bay, this species was collected in Old

Tampa Bay, upper Tampa Bay, Terra Ceia Bay, and lower

Tampa Bay at a total of 11 survey stations (table 147).

Sediments at dredge stations were mostly poorly sort-

ed, medium sand with less than two percent silt and clay,

and nearly two percent organic carbon. About one-fourth

of the sediment was composed of shell (table 148).

Algae were the only plants noted at the four stations

where vegetation was recorded.

A juvenile worm was collected in October, but no

gravid specimens were observed.

L. latreilli is a cosmopolitan species, and has been

recorded from the Gulf of Mexico.




361


Table 147.--Lumbrineris latreilli--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

6-2 1


Upper Tampa Bay

11-4 1


Terra Ceia Bay

E-5 4

Lower Tampa Bay

14-15 2 17-5 3
15-22 1 17-7 3
15-26 1 17-8 1
17-2 3 18-3 10




362


Table 148.--Lumbrineris latreilli--Mean and range of
observed environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature ('C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

23.0

30.8

8.1

2.0

sand


5.6

92.7

1.3

0.5

25.5

1.8

0.04


1.8


1.4

0.2

6.1


3.3


1.1


2.0

1.7

25.7


2.2 to 9.0


0.6 to 1.9


0.2 -1.7 to 1.6


1.2 0.9 to 1.6


Range

14.5 to 31.8

23.8 to 33.8

7.8 to 8.2

1.0 to 3.0

shelly sand
to sand

0.2 to 20.8

77.4 to 99.1

0.0 to 2.4

0.0 to 1.5

2.8 to 49.8

0.1 to 8.5

0.01 to 0.2


0.9 to 2.6


Number
observations

10

9

10

10

10


10

10

10

10

10

9

9


10


0.7 to

-0.6 to

-0.03 to




363


Lumbrineris sp.

This small lumbrinerid has simple, hooded hooks that

begin on the first parapods and continue on all segments

that follow. In anterior setigers, the hooks have a

straight shaft, long hood, and small teeth (figure 7,A).

In median and posterior setigers, the hooks are short and

stout, the hood covers a shorter portion of the shaft, the

portion of the shaft bearing teeth is reflexed, and the

three basal teeth are greatly enlarged (figure 7,B).

Specimens were collected at a total of 17 survey

stations in Boca Ciega and lower Tampa Bays (table 149).

Average sediment type was poorly sorted, fine sand

that contained little silt and clay, and less than one

percent organic carbon. Shell content was about 13 per-

cent (table 150).

Vegetation occurred at five stations, and consisted

of algae and either manatee or turtle grass.

Neither gravid nor juvenile specimens were collected.




364


Table 149.--Lumbrineris sp.--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa
Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel,
N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-E 1 16-6 2
PB-5 3 16-7 1
15-6 1

Lower Tampa Bay

16-10 2 17-7 4
16-20 7 17-8 112
16-21 33 17-9 26
16-22 29 17-10 28
16-23 30 17-13 1
17-6 23 18-4 2




365


Table 150.--Lumbrineris sp.--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Number
Factor Mean Range observations


Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


22.2 15.5 to 30.0


32.5

8.1

1.3

sand

2.4

94.5

2.2

0.6

13.3

0.3

0.02


2.6


1.2

0.0

9.4


2.7


1.1


30.1 to 34.3

7.8 to 8.5

/1 to 2.3



0.0 to 8.9

87.8 to 99.8

0.1 to 5.7

0.0 to 1.3

2.3 to 49.9

0.1 to 1.0

0.00 to 0.1


1.7 to 3.2


0.5

-1.4

0.6


2.0

1.0

24.4


1.4 to 4.4


0.5 to 2.2


-0.1 -2.0 to 1.0


1.2 0.7 to 2.9





366


Family ARABELLIDAE Hartman, 1944

The arabellids are carnivorous worms that have world-

wide distribution. Most forms burrow, but some spend part

or all of their life as parasites in other polychaetes.

Five species were found in Tampa Bay. None were found

in Hillsborough Bay, although Arabella iricolor and

Drilonereis magna were collected in water of similar salin-

ity in Old Tampa Bay. These two species were also found in

upper Tampa Bay and all seaward areas of the Estuary.

Drilonereis cylindrica was collected as far into the Es-

tuary as upper Tampa Bay. Drilonereis longa was collected

only in Boca Ciega Bay, and an undetermined arabellid,

Arabella sp., was found only in lower Tampa Bay.

Key to ARABELLIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Parapodia have no hooded or simple, acicular
setae ............................... Arabella iricolor

- Parapodia have hooded, acicular setae .... Arabella sp.

- Parapodia have simple, acicular setae ............... 2

2 First maxillary plates smooth at the
base ............................... Drilonereis magna

- First maxillary plates bear teeth at the base ....... 3

3 Maxillary plates symmetrical; maxillary supports
long and slender; parapodial lobes short and
rounded ...................... Drilonereis cylindrica




367


- Maxillary plates II, III, and IV asymmetrical;
maxillary support enlarged anteriorly; parapodia
bear enlarged presetal and postsetal lobes on
posterior segments ................... Drilonereis longa

Arabella iricolor (Montagu, 1804)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

Specimens were collected in all areas of the Estuary,

except Hillsborough Bay, at 19 survey stations, and at a

total of five incidental localities in Old Tampa Bay and

Boca Ciega Bay (table 151).

Sediment data from dredge and shovel stations show

that the worm generally inhabits poorly sorted, medium sand

that contains less than five percent silt and clay, and about

one percent organic carbon. Average shell content of the

sediment was about 25 percent (table 152).

The bottom at seven of these stations was vegetated

with algae and one or more species of sea grasses that in-

cluded shoal grass, turtle grass, manatee grass and

widgeon grass.

No gravid specimens were seen, but juveniles were

collected in May, July, August, September, October, and

November.

A. iricolor is a cosmopolitan species in temperate and

tropical waters, and is well known in the Gulf of Mexico.




368


Table 151.--Arabella iricolor--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

B-2 2 6-2 1
6-1-C 1 6-3 1

Upper Tampa Bay

10-3 2 11-28-1 4

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-M 1 1 15-12 1
BC-N 5 15-16 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-6 1

Lower Tampa Bay

14-11 1 17-2 5
15-22 3 17-5 4
16-13 2 17-8 1
16-14 2 17-11 1




369


Table 152.--Arabella iricolor--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

25.1

30.0

8.0

1.6

sand


4.4

91.0

3.4

1.1

25.8

1.0

0.1


2.0


1.5

0.3

6.0


3.1


1.4


2.3

1.6

21.2


1.9 to 5.9


0.7 to 2.1


-0.3 -1.8 to


2.3


1.2 0.6 to 1.6


Range

13.0 to 32.0

22.7 to 35.1

7.8 to 8.4

L1 to 4.0

shelly sand
silty sand

0.0 to 21.5

72.5 to 98.2

0.0 to 22.1

0.0 to 5.2

1.1 to 94.8

0.2 to 3.3

0.01 to 0.2


0.6 to 4.1


Number
observations

19

19

17

19

to 17


17

17

17

17

17

14

14


16


16

17

15


16


16


14


0.9

-1.1

-0.2





370


Drilonereis cylindrica Hartman, 1951

Individuals were found in upper Tampa Bay and all

seaward areas of the Estuary at 13 survey stations, and

at one incidental locality in Boca Ciega Bay and another

in lower Tampa Bay (table 153).

Average sediment at dredge and shovel stations was

poorly sorted, fine sand that contained about 15 percent

shell, less than five percent silt and clay, and one per-

cent organic carbon (table 154).

Algae were recorded in more than 60 percent of the

bottom samples, and were accompanied by one or more of the

following sea grasses -- shoal grass, turtle grass, manatee

grass, and Halophila.

No specimens with mature gametes were noted, but

juveniles were collected in September, October, November,

and December.

D. cylindrica has been reported from North Carolina

and the Gulf of Mexico.




371


Table 153.--Drilonereis cylindrica--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

10-1-A 1 12-6 1

Boca Ciega Bay

D-6 2 15-3 4
D-1 1 16-4 1
PB-1 1 16-8 3

Terra Ceia Bay

E-2 1 E-5 1

Lower Tampa Bay

15-22 2 16-13 1
15-25 1




372


Table 154.--Drilonereis cylindrica--Mean and range of
observed environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature ('C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


R


Mean

22.3

30.7

8.1

1.0

sand

3.2

93.1

3.1

0.6

15.2

1.0

0.04


2.3


1.3

0.3

9.4


3.1


1.2


tange

to 31.0

to 34.0

to 8.4

to 3.0


14.5

23.3

7.7

Li



0.0

80.5

0.0

0.0

1.2

0.1

0.01


1.3 to 3.0


0.5

-1.4

0.4


2.3

1.6

23.9


2.2 to 5.5


0.4 to 2.9


-0.1 -1.8 to


1.4


1.3 0.4 to 2.6


Number
observations

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

13

9

9


13


13

13

13


13


13


13


to 13.4

to 99.9

to 11.8

to 2.4

to 52.3

to 3.3

to 0.4




373


Drilonereis longa Webster, 1879
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

Collections were made only in Boca Ciega Bay at two

survey stations (table 155).

Sediments at both were poorly sorted, fine sand.

They contained about 10 percent shell, less than five

percent silt and clay, and less than one percent organic

carbon (table 156).

Bottom vegetation was recorded at one station, and

consisted of a mixture of algae and turtle grass.

Neither gravid nor juvenile specimens were collected.

This species occurs along the Atlantic coast between

New England and the Caribbean, and has been reported for

the Pacific between central California and Mexico. There

is no previous record for D. lonqa in the Gulf of Mexico.




374

Table 155.--Drilonereis longa--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

D-2 2 D-17 1




375


Table 156.--Drilonereis longa--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


25.2

33.2


L/ to


Mean

26.1

34.0

8.2

0.5

sand

4.4

92.6

2.0

1.0

9.9

0.4

0.03


2.6


1.5

-0.2

6.8


2.8


1.5


Range

to 27.0

to 34.8


0.7



7.1

93.9

3.7

1.4

12.6


2.5 to 2.8


1.2

-0.6

4.6


1.8

0.1

9.0


2.5 to 3.1


1.4 to 1.5


-0.04 -0.2 to 0.1


1.2 0.9 to 1.4


Number
observations

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1


2


2

2

2


2


2


2


1.7

91.2

0.3

0.7

7.3





376


Drilonereis magna Webster and Benedict, 1887
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

A total of 14 collections at survey stations came

from all areas of the Estuary except Hillsborough Bay. In

addition, specimens were found at one incidental locality

in Boca Ciega Bay and at another in lower Tampa Bay (table

157).

Sediments at dredge and shovel stations all contained

more than 90 percent sand, which was mostly fine and poorly

sorted. Average shell content was over 15 percent, silt

and clay content was under two percent, and organic carbon

was less than one percent (table 158).

Bottom vegetation was recorded at one-half of these

stations. Algae were present together with shoal, turtle,

or manatee grass.

No gravid specimens were collected, however, a juvenile

worm was found in September.

D. magna has been reported from the northeastern

Pacific, the southeastern Atlantic, and the western At-

lantic between Canada and Florida. It has also been re-

corded in the Gulf of Mexico.




377


Table 157.--Drilonereis magna--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

6-7-A 1

Upper Tampa Bay

11-28-1 1 13-1-A 2
12-1 3 13-1-B 1

Boca Ciega Bay

D-2 2 PB-4 1
D-6 1 14-3 2
D-15 1


Terra Ceia Bay

E-2 2 E-6 2

Lower Tampa Bay

15-25 2 17-3 2




378


Table 158.--Drilonereis magna--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (OC.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

23.5

29.8

8.1

0.8

sand

2.6

95.6

1.1

0.5

15.5

0.2

0.01


2.2


1.2

0.1

10.7


2.6


1.1


0.6

-1.2

0.4


to 1.8

to 1.6

to 21.2


1.9 to 3.4


0.4 to 1.9


0.1 -1.3 to 1.1


1.1 0.6 to 1.7


Number
Range observations

13.0 to 33.2 13

24.4 to 34.0 13

7.9 to 8.3 13

/1 to 3.0 13

-- 13

0.0 to 7.1 13

91.2 to 99.2 13

0.1 to 3.0 13

0.0 to 1.4 13

1.7 to 85.2 12

0.1 to 0.3 9

0.00 to 0.03 9


0.5 to 2.8





379


Arabella sp.

In the single specimen collected, the prostomium

was missing so that the presence or absence of eyes

could not be determined. Setae are all of the hooded,

acicular type (figure 7,C). Maxillary supports, maxillae,

and mandibles have been illustrated (figure 7,D,E,).

This species is probably quite closely related to A.

mutans which has been reported from North Carolina and

other localities in the Atlantic and Pacific (Day, 1967).

This undetermined arabellid was collected at a single

station in lower Tampa Bay (table 159).




380

Table 159.--Arabella sp.--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

18-3 1




381


Family DORVILLEIDAE Chamberlin, 1919

As a group, the dorvilleids are distributed in seas

at all latitudes throughout the world. They are small

carnivores that inhabit a variety of bottom types where

they crawl or burrow.

Three species were collected in Tampa Bay. Dorvillea

rudolphi was found in all areas of the Estuary, while

Ophryotrocha puerilis and Dorvillea sp. were collected

only in areas of reduced salinity.

Key to DORVILLEIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Antennae and palps minute; head and body segments
bear rings of cilia ............. Ophryotrocha puerilis

Antennae and palps long and smooth ....... Dorvillea sp.

Antennae and palps long; antennae segmented
and palps smooth ................... Dorvillea rudolphi

Dorvillea rudolphi (delle Chiaje, 1828)
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1945)

Specimens were collected at a total of 32 survey

stations in all areas of the Estuary and at six other inci-

dental localities in Old Tampa Bay, upper Tampa Bay, Boca

Ciega Bay, and lower Tampa Bay (table 160).

Most collections were made in poorly sorted, fine

sand, but some worms were also taken in extremely soft sedi-

ments that contained a high percentage of silt and clay.

Shell in the granule and sand particle size classes





382


comprised about 25 percent of the sediment. Average silt

and clay content was nearly 10 percent, and organic carbon

was one percent (table 161). Algae were present at 10 of

the 25 dredge and shovel stations, together with shoal

grass or turtle grass.

Individuals with mature gametes were collected in

August and September, and a juvenile was found in August.

D. rudolphi has been recorded on both sides of the

Atlantic in temperate and tropical waters. It has also

been collected in the Gulf of Mexico and the eastern

Pacific.




383


Table 160.--Dorvillea rudolphi--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

3-1-A 2 6-1-A 1
4-19 1 6-2 2

Hillsborough Bay

C-7 1 10-18 11

Upper Tampa Bay

11-8 1 11-20 1
11-18 2 11-28-1 5
11-19 1 13-1-A 1

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-G 1 15-1 1
BC-M 1 15-3 6
BC-N 8 15-4 2
D-2 5 1 15-12 1
D-18 4 16-1 1
PB-4 1 16-2 6
PB-5 2

Terra Ceia Bay

E-1 1 E-3 1
E-2 1

Lower Tampa Bay

16-14 1 17-3 4
17-2 1 18-3 6




384


Table 161.--Dorvillea rudolphi--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

24.2

29.6

8.1

1.2

sand


7.9

82.4

4.6

5.3

25.1

1.0

0.04


Range

14.6 to 31.8

18.3 to 34.9

7.5 to 8.4

/1 to 4.0

shelly sand t
silty clay

0.0 to 45.2


14.6 to

0.0 to

0.0 to

0.7 to

0.1 to

0.00 to


2.3 -1.0 to


1.6

0.2

7.5


3.3


1.5


0.6 to

-1.7 to

-0.6 to


Number
observations

25

25

24

25

0o 25


99.4

35.2

65.9

95.0

4.8

0.2


7.2


2.7

3.4

73.5


2.3 to 8.7


0.4 to 3.2


-0.1 -2.6 to 2.1


1.2 0.2 to 2.3





385


Ophyrotrocha puerilis Claparede and Metschnikov, 1869
(Described and illustrated by Day, 1967)

This minute worm was collected at only one station

in upper Tampa Bay (table 162).

Sediment there was poorly sorted, medium sand that

contained little shell, less than one percent organic

carbon, and over 12 percent silt and clay (table 163).

No vegetation was recorded.

The single specimen collected was mature, but was not

in reproductive condition.

0. puerilis is a cosmopolitan species found in the

littoral zone of temperate and tropical seas. It has not

been previously reported from the Gulf of Mexico.




386


Table 162.--Ophryotrocha puerilis--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

11-28 1




387


Table 163.--Ophryotrocha puerilis--Mean and range of
observed environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Range


Mean

27.0

24.9

7.9

0.3

sand

1.8

85.5

10.5

2.2

3.3

0.2

0.01


1.9


1.8

1.1

5.6


2.5


1.2


0.6


1.0


Number
observations

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1





388


Dorvillea sp.

This undetermined dorvilleid is less than 5 mm. long

and about 0.5 mm. wide. No eyes were noted. Both the

palps and antennae are smooth. The simple setae have a

faintly spinous margin and taper to a fine tip (figure

7,F). Compound setae have a very short, distal appendage

that bears two, terminal teeth (figure 7,G).

Specimens were collected at one station in Old Tampa

Bay and one in Hillsborough Bay (table 164).

Sediments at both stations were moderately sorted,

medium sand. Data are not available for the content of

organic carbon, but it was probably quite low as the silt

and clay content was less than one percent (table 165).

No vegetation was noted at either station.

Both specimens appeared mature, but no gametes were

observed.




389


Table 164.--Dorvillea sp.--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

6-2 1

Hillsborough Bay

8-9 1




390


Table 165.--Dorvillea sp.--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

30.9

21.3

7.6

1.3

sand

3.1

96.7

0.03

0.02

16.3






2.0


0.9

-0.4

10.7


3.0


1.8


-0.7 -1.7 to -0.2


1.3 1.1 to 1.5


Range

30.0 to 31.8

18.8 to 23.8

7.3 to 7.8

L1 to 2.0



0.0 to 6.4

93.6 to 99.9

0.0 to 0.07

0.0 to 0.05

0.6 to 32.0






1.4 to 2.5


0.5 to 1.3

-0.5 to -0.3

0.1 to 21.3


3.0 to 3.1


1.7 to 2.0


Number
observations

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2







Figure 7. -- Diagnostic features of Lumbrineris sp.,
Arabella sp., and Dorvillea sp.


Lumbrineris sp.:






Arabella sp.:






Dorvillea sp.:


(A) Simple, hooked seta from the

third setiger (B) Simple, hooked

seta from the tenth setiger

(C) Parapod and hooded, acicular

setae (D) Maxillary supports and

maxillae (E) Mandibles

(F) Simple seta from a median

parapod (G) Compound, hooked seta

from a median parapod.






392


FIGURE 7







A B


0.01MM



0.01 MM









CD
0.02 MM

0.05MM




0.05MM










SF G

0.01MM


0.01MM




393


Family LYSARETIDAE Kinberg, 1865

Members of this small family are found in temperate

and tropical waters throughout the world. Some have been

reported as commensals or parasites in crustaceans, and

others are carnivores that excavate burrows in sandy

sediments.

A single species, Lysarete brasiliensis, was collect-

ed in Tampa Bay.

Lysarete brasiliensis Kinberg, 1865
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1951)

This species was collected only at two incidental

localities. A small specimen was taken by net near

station D-25 in lower Boca Ciega Bay, and a much larger

one was collected from the conveyor of an hydraulic clam

dredge along transect-14.

The individual collected in Boca Ciega Bay in April

was a juvenile.





394


Family ORBINIIDAE Hartman, 1942

The orbiniids are burrowing or crawling polychaetes

that subsist on detritus and a variety of interstitial

organisms. The family is well represented in all seas.

Six species were collected in Tampa Bay. Two of these,

Scoloplos robustus and Scoloplos rubra, were collected in

all areas of the Estuary. Orbinia ornata and Scoloplos

fragilis were found in Old Tampa Bay, and upper and lower

Tampa Bay, while Naineris sp. was taken only at stations

seaward of Interbay Peninsula in upper Tampa Bay, Boca

Ciega Bay, and Terra Ceia Bay. Naineris setosa had the

most restricted distribution, and was collected solely in

Boca Ciega Bay.

Key to ORBINIIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Prostomium short, anterior margin rounded ......... 2

- Prostomium long and conical ......................... 3

2 Branchiae appear on setiger eight; acicular setae
present in anterior neuropodia .......... Naineris sp.

- Branchiae appear on setiger 4 to 6, acicular
setae not present ..................... Naineris setosa

3 Acicular setae present in neuropodia of
anterior segments ............................... .... 4

- Acicular setae absent ............................... 5

4 Papillae present on ventrum of some
anterior segments........................ Orbinia ornata




395


- Ventrum smooth .................... .. Scoloplos rubra

5 Subpodal papillae present on branchial
segments ........................... Scoloplos fragilis

Subpodal lamella present on branchial
segments ........................... Scoloplos robustus

Naineris setosa (Verrill, 1900)
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1951)

Specimens were collected only in Boca Ciega Bay at

two survey stations and four incidental localities (table

166).

Sediments at survey stations were poorly sorted sand.

Average content of silt and clay was nearly six percent and

organic carbon was almost two percent. Coarse, moderately

sorted shell, with a few larger fragments, comprised about

16 percent of the sediment (table 167).

Algae were recorded at all survey stations, and the

sea grasses found included shoal grass and turtle grass.

Turtle grass was also recorded at all incidental localities.

N. setosa is apparently restricted to sea grass beds in

areas where salinity is 30 parts per thousand, or higher.

Neither gravid nor juvenile specimens were collected

N. setosa is known only from the tropical, eastern

Atlantic, the Caribbean, and the Gulf of Mexico.




396


Table 166.--Naineris setosa--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

D-25 1 16-2 2





397


Table 167.--Naineris setosa--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Number
Factor Mean Range observations


Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


21.8 17.4 to 25.0


32.8

8.2

0.3

sand

3.1

91.3

4.6

1.0

16.3

1.6

0.1


2.8


1.4

0.2

5.0


31.5

8.0


to 34.0

to 8.4


0.6 to 7.5

88.9 to 94.8

2.1 to 8.0

0.3 to 1.9

9.6 to 23.4

0.1 to 4.5

0.01 to 0.2


1.9 to 3.4


1.0

-0.4

1.2


1.8

0.6

11.6


4.74 2.5 to 8.7


1.5


0.8


1.1 to 2.2


0.5 to 1.1


0.7 0.4 to 0.9





398


Orbinia ornata (Verrill, 1873)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

Collections were made at four survey stations from

Old Tampa Bay to lower Tampa Bay, and at one incidental

locality (Port Tampa) in Old Tampa Bay (table 168).

Average sediment type at dredge and shovel stations

was poorly sorted, fine sand that contained about five

percent silt and clay, nearly 19 percent shell, and less

than one percent organic carbon (table 169).

One-half of the bottom samples contained vegetation.

Algae were noted at all, and some also had shoal, manatee

or widgeon grass.

Neither juveniles nor gravid specimens were collected.

O. ornata occurs in the Gulf of Mexico and on the

eastern and western North American coasts in temperate and

tropical waters.




399


Table 168.--Orbinia ornata--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa
Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-
net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

6-1-C 1

Upper Tampa Bay

11-16 1

Lower Tampa Bay

D-27 1 15-18 1




400


Table 169.--Orbinia ornata--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


24.9

24.1

7.8,

L1


Range

to 30.0

to 32.6

to 8.2

to 8.0


Mean

27.3

28.0

8.0

1.0

sand

3.2

91.4

3.5

1.9

18.6

0.6

0.1


2.5 2.3 to 2.8


1.4

0.2

5.9


0.9

-0.6

0.3


2.7

1.6

13.7


2.7 2.1 to 3.1


1.0 0.6 to 1.9


0.4 -0.4 to 1.0


1.3 0.9 to 2.0


Number
observations

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4


4


0.3 to 10.5

72.8 to 99.4

0.0 to 11.8

0.0 to 4.9

1.5 to 58.4

0.1 to 2.0

0100 to 0.2





401


Scoloplos fragilis (Verrill, 1873)
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1951)

Specimens were collected at one survey station in

upper Tampa Bay, and at two incidental localities (table

170). The incidental collections came from a sandy shoal

south of Gandy Bridge in Old Tampa Bay, and a sandy beach

on a small shoal near transect-18 in lower Tampa Bay.

On the basis of analyses from a single station,

sediments were composed almost entirely of poorly sorted,

fine, siliceous sand (table 171).

The only plants recorded were algae.

Neither gravid nor juvenile specimens were collected.

S. fragilis has been recorded in the Gulf of Mexico

and on the Atlantic seaboard from Canada to southern

Florida.




402

Table 170.--Scoloplos fragilis--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

D 8




403


Table 171.--Scoloplos fragilis--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature ("C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Range


Mean

16.0

27.9

8.3

0.3

sand

5.5

94.5

0.0.

0.0

1.7

0.1

0.00


2.4


1.6

-1.6

10.6


2.5


0.6


1.8


1.0


Number
observations

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1





404


Scoloplos robustus (Verrill, 1873)
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1963a)

This species was found in all areas of the Estuary

at a total of 101 survey stations, and 10 incidental locali-

ties in all areas except Terra Ceia Bay (table 172). I ex-

pect that unidentifiable anterior fragments from an addi-

tional 36 survey stations, which have not been included,

should actually be referred to this species.

Sediment data show that the worm inhabited firm to

soft bottom, but was found mostly in poorly sorted, fine

sand. Average silt and clay content was under five percent,

shell was less than 10 percent, and organic carbon was

nearly one percent (table 173).

Algae were present at about one-half of the dredge

and shovel stations, together with one or more of the five

sea grasses found in the Estuary.

No gravid specimens were collected, but juvenile worms

were found in February, June, July, August, September, Octo-

ber, November, and December.

S. robustus has been collected in the Gulf of Mexico

and is otherwise known from the Atlantic coast between

Canada and North Carolina.





405


Table 172.--Scoloplos robustus--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

A-2 3 5-3 2
A-5 5 5-4 3
A-6 4 5-7 3
B-1 9 6-1-A 1
B-2 12 6-1-C 1
3-12 3 6-1-D 5
3-13 12 6-2 1
3-14 1 6-4-A 4
4-5 1 6-5 1
4-19 2 6-7-A 7
5-2 2 1 6-8 2

Hillsborough Bay

C-1 41 9-1 30
C-4 11 10-15 1
8-9 6 1 10-23 6

Upper Tampa Bay

10-1-A 1 10-13 3
10-2 1 10-14-A 7
10-6 1 11-1 3
10-8 1 11-28 1
10-11 1 11-28-1 2




406


Table 172.--Scoloplos robustus--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-A 2 15-2 .42
BC-E 3 15-3 1
BC-G 2 15-6 5
BC-M 27 1 15-8 2
BC-N 2 15-11 7
D-2 6 15-12 20
D-3 1 15-13 15
D-6 49 15-15 4
D-23 6 15-16 1
D-24 2 15-17 4
D-25 1 1 16-1 8
PB-1 12 16-3 1
PB-4 22 16-4 2
PB-5 1 16-6 6
14-1-A 2 16-8 3
14-4 26

Terra Ceia Bay

E-1 1 E-6 1
E-5 16 E-8 1

Lower Tampa Bay

D-27 2 16-14 1
14-6 18 16-20 7
14-7 7 16-21 19
14-8 9 16-22 23
14-9 14 16-23 42
14-16 5 16-24 3
14-17 3 17-2 3
14-19 12 17-8 22
15-18 5 17-9 7
15-32 10 17-10 12
15-33 2 17-12 21
16-9-A 1 17-13 14
16-10 2 17-14 11
16-13 12 18-4 2




407


Table 173.--Scoloplos robustus--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


-0.1 -2.5 to 2.5


1.3 0.2 to 3.1


Mean

25.3

28.4

8.0

0.9

sand


2.2

94.0

2.4

1.5

8.8

0.7

0.04


2.6


1.2

0.3

12o6


3.0


1.4


Range

13.0 to 34.1

15.6 to 35.1

7.1 to 8.4

L1 to 4,0

shelly sand t
sandy clay

0.0 to 20.8

24.5 to 99.9

0.0 to 22.1

0.0 to 65.9

0.5 to 68.0

0.01 to 6.9

0.00 to 0.2


0.6 to 7.1


0.5 to 2.7

-1.4 to 2.2

-0.6 to 43.9


1.4 to 6.1


0.5 to 3.2


Number
observations

101

101

91

101

;o 101


101

101

101

101

101

68

68


100


100

100

99


99


99


92




408


Scoloplos rubra (Webster, 1879)
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1951)

The most common orbiniid found in the Estuary, S.

rubra was collected in all six areas at a total of 156

survey stations and seven incidental localities (table

174).
p

Specimens were found in a variety of firm to soft

sediment types, but the majority were collected in poorly

sorted, fine sand. Although higher at some stations,

average silt and clay content was usually less than five

percent. Average shell content was over 10 percent, and or-

ganic carbon was nearly one percent (table 175).

Forty percent of the dredge and shovel collections

contained algae together with one or more of the five sea

grasses found in the Estuary.

No gravid specimens were collected, but juveniles

were found from June through October.

S. rubra has been recorded from the Gulf of Mexico

and the southwestern Atlantic between Virginia and the

Caribbean.





409


Table 174.--Scoloplos rubra--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

B 6 4-7 6
B-2 15 4-8 7
1-2 2 4-9 10
1-3 3 1 4-10 3
1-4 25 4-11 2
1-5 18 4-12 6
2-1 1 4-13 1
2-2 2 4-14 1
2-3 3 4-15 1
2-4 5 4-16 1
2-5 3 4-17-A 1
3-1-A 1 4-20 1
3-2 2 5-1-B 1
3-3 3 5-2 9
3-8 2 5-3 35
3-9 4 5-4 10
3-10 1 5-5 5
3-12 6 5-6 1
3-14 2 5-13 1
3-15 3 6-1-A 2
3-16 17 6-1-B 5
4-2 1 6-1-C 1
4-5 4 6-1-D 1
4-6 9 6-7-A 12

Hillsborough Bay

C-2 1 10-19 10
C-3 5 10-20 1
9-3 2 10-22 27 10
10-15 43 1 10-23 4
10-16 28




410


Table 174.--Scoloplos rubra--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

10-4 4 11-28 1
10-8 1 11-28-1 7
10-9 1 11-28-2 1
10-10 1 12-1 1
10-11 1 12-11 1
10-12 7 12-14 2
10-13 2 12-15 2
11-2 1 13-1-A 4
11-16 1 13-1-B 1
11-25 62 13-8 2
11-26 32 13-12 1
11-27 13

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-A 3 14-4 6
BC-G 2 15-1 1
BC-M 22 10 15-2 2
BC-N 1 15-3 2
D-2 4 15-6 1
D-3 2 15-9 1
D-6 2 15-11 4
D-9 1 15-12 5
D-11 17 15-13 9
D-12 5 15-14 1
D-19-A 1 15-17 1
D-23 12 16-3 1
D-25 1 16-4 3
PB-1 26 16-5 1
PB-4 2 16-8 2
14-1-A 4

Terra Ceia Bay

E-1 6 E-4 6
E-2 6 E-6 3
E-3 3 E-7 8




411


Table 174.--Scoloplos rubra--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

14-5 2 16-14 101 1
14-6 10 16-15 15
14-9 2 16-16 6
14-10 4 16-17 1
14-13 1 16-19 1
14-14 4 16-21 5
14-16 1 16-22 6
14-18 3 16-23 6
15-22 1 16-24 1
15-23 18 16-27 1
15-25 17 17-3 17
15-26 9 17-4 7
15-27 1 17-6 5
15-31 2 17-7 3
15-32 5 17-8 5
15-33 1 17-10 5
16-9 1 17-12 2
16-10 2 17-13 1
16-12 9 17-15 3
16-13 9




412


Table 175.--Scoloplos rubra--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (OC.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


--


2.5 -4.0 to


1.3

0.6

11.5


3.1


1.4


0.6 to

-1.6 to

-0.8 to


7.1


3.0

3.6

76.3


1.7 to 8.1


0.4 to 2.7


-0.2 -2.5 to 2,4


1.3 0.2 to 3.1


144


Mean

25.6

28.0

8.0

1.0

sand


2.7

92.2

2.9

1.8

11.3

0.8

0.1


Range

13.0 to 33.8

16.4 to 34.8

7.0 to 8.4

/l to 3.0

shelly sand t
sandy clay

0.0 to 99.7

8.0 to 100

0.0 to 22.8

0.0 to 65.9

0.6 to 85.2

0.1 to 6.9

0.00 to 0.3


Number
observations

161

161

160

161

0o 142


160

160

160

160

159

108

108


159


159

159

159


156


156


144





413


Naineris sp.

This undetermined orbiniid resembles Naineris setosa.

It is smaller, however (about 1 mm. wide by 20 mm. long)

and has acicular setae on thoracic segments. Behind the

short, rounded prostomium, there are several parapods with

long, dorsal and ventral cirri (figure 8,A). Branchiae be-

gin on setiger eight and at first are shorter than the

dorsal cirrus (figure 8,B). By setiger 18, the branchiae

are at least twice the length of dorsal cirri and are pres-

ent on all except a few posterior segments (figure 8,C).

On anterior segments, notopodia have long spinigers (figure

8,D) and neuropodia have shorter spinigers, geniculate

setae (figure 8,E) and acicular setae (figure 8,F). In

median and posterior segments there are only spinigers.

Specimens were collected at a total of six survey sta-

tions in upper Tampa Bay, Boca Ciega Bay, and Terra Ceia

Bay (table 176).

Average sediment at shovel stations was poorly sorted,

fine sand. It contained about 12 percent shell, slightly

more than five percent silt and clay, and nearly one per-

cent organic carbon (table 177).

Plants found at three stations included algae, shoal

grass, turtle grass, and manatee grass.




414


Juvenile worms were collected in September, October,

and December, but no gravid specimens were found.





415


Table 176.--Naineris sp.--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

11-28-1 7

Boca Ciega Bay

D-18 1 PB-1 1
D-26 30 16-8 15

Terra Ceia Bay

E-6 58




416


Table 177.--Naineris sp.--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature ('C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Range

13.0 to 25.5

24.4 to 34.9

8.0 to 8.2


Mean

21.7

30.6

8.1

0.3

sand

2.9

90.4

5.0

0.9

11.5

0.9

0.05


2.7


1.6

0.3

9.0


2.9


1.3


7.0

98.2

13.4

2.1

18.0

2.6

0.07


2.3 to 3.4


0.9 to

-0.2 to

2.6 to


2.0

1.0

21.2


2.3 to 3.5


0.7 to 2.1


0.2 -0.6 to 1.1


1.1 0.9 to 1.4


Number
observations

5

5

5

5

4

4

4

4

4

3

4

4


3


3

3

3


4


4


4


0.4 to

81.0 to

0.1 to

0.0 to

3.8 to

0.2 to

0.02 to





417


Family PARAONIDAE Cerruti, 1909

These small worms occur in all seas where they burrow

in surface sediments, and ingest sand grains and detritus.

Four species were found in Tampa Bay. Aricidea

fragilis and Aricidea sp. were found in all areas of the

Estuary, and Aricidea taylori was absent only from Hills-

borough Bay. Cirrophorus furcatus is apparently more sensi-

tive to low salinity than the other three species as speci-

mens were taken only in upper Tampa Bay, Boca Ciega Bay,

and lower Tampa Bay.

Key to PARAONIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Less than 20 pairs of branchiae .......... Aricidea sp.

More than 20 pairs of branchiae 2

2 More than 40 pairs of branchiae ..... Aricidea fragilis

Less than 40 pairs of branchiae ..................... 3

3 Abdominal setigers bear capillary and
furcate setae ................... Cirrophorus furcatus

- Abdominal setigers bear capillary setae
and bidentate hooks with a short arista
that arises between the 2 terminal
teeth ....... ........o............. Aricidea taylori





418


Aricidea fragilis Webster, 1879
(Described and illustrated by Pettibone, 1965)

The most common paraonid in Tampa Bay, A. fragilis

was found at a total of 79 survey stations in all areas of

the Estuary, and at an additional five incidental localities

in Old Tampa Bay, Boca Ciega Bay, and lower Tampa Bay

(table 178).

Specimens were taken from a variety of sediment types,

but the average was poorly sorted, fine sand that contained

over 10 percent shell, nearly six percent silt and clay,

and about one percent organic carbon (table 179).

One-half of the dredge and shovel samples contained

algae and one or more species of sea grasses that included

shoal grass, manatee grass, turtle grass, and Halophila.

No gravid specimens were noted, but juveniles were

collected in July through November.

A. fragilis has been recorded in the Gulf of Mexico

and as far north as Virginia along the Atlantic seaboard.





419


Table 178.--Aricidea fragilis--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

3-1-A 1 6-1-D 1
5-4 2 6-7-A 18

Hillsborough Bay

9-2 1

Upper Tampa Bay

D 1 10-13 2
D-28 1 12-1 2
10-0 1 13-1-A 3




420


Table 178.--Aricidea fragilis--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-A 6 14-1-A 1
BC-C 2 14-2 1
BC-G 2 15-1 2
BC-H 1 15-2 5
BC-I 2 15-3 8
BC-M 4 1 15-4 7
D-1 10 15-5 3
D-2 40 15-6 4
D-3 15 15-8 6
D-5 3 15-9 1
D-6 33 15-10 1
D-9 45 15-11 1
D-10 13 15-12 3
D-11 6 20 15-13 4
D-13 2 15-14 2
D-17 6 15-16 1
D-18 10 16-1 30
D-19-A 4 16-2 1
D-22 1 16-3 14
D-23 19 16-4 7
D-25 17 16-5 5
PB-1 5 29 16-7 1
PB-4 8 16-8 16
PB-5 8

Terra Ceia Bay

E-2 1 E-6 7





421
Table 178.--Aricidea fragilis--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

14-16 1 16-23 1
14-18 1 16-25 4
15-18 1 17-2 3
15-33 5 17-6 1
16-9 3 17-8 23
16-11 3 17-9 33
16-19 1 17-10 4
16-20 9 17-14 1
16-21 5 17-15 14
16-22 2




422

Table 179.--Aricidea fragilis--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

23.9

31.3

8.1

0.7

sand


2.3

91.5

4.4

1.5

10.7

0.8

0.04


2.7


1.3

0.3

9.7


2.9


1.3


0.6

-1.6

-0.8


Number
observations

87

87

82

87

:o 86


3.0

2.2

73.5


1.4 to 8.7


0.4 to 3.2


0.2 -2.5 to


1.2 0.4 to


3.0


2.9


Range

13.0 to 33.8

18.4 to 34.9

7.5 to 8.5

/i to 4.0

shelly sand t
silty clay

0.0 to 28.8

11.2 to 99.6

0.0 to 44.4

0.0 to 43.8

0.9 to 66.0

0.1 to 6.9

0.00 to 0.2


1.1 to 7.1





423


Aricidea taylori Pettibone, 1965

Except for Hillsborough Bay, this species was found

throughout the Estuary at a total of 11 survey stations,

and one incidental location near Oldsmar in Old Tampa Bay

(table 180).

The only sediment type recorded was sand which was

mostly fine and poorly sorted. Even though the silt and

clay content was less than five percent, organic carbon

was over one percent. Shell content was about 16 percent

and most of it was in the sand size category (table 181).

About one-third of the dredge and shovel samples con-

tained algae, and sea grasses that included shoal, turtle,

and manatee grass.

No gravid specimens were noted and no juveniles were

collected.

A. taylori has been collected in the Gulf of Mexico,

and was previously known only from Seahorse Key, Florida.




424


Table 180.--Aricidea taylori--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

B-2 2 6-7-A 1
6-1-D 7

Upper Tampa Bay

11-2 6

Boca Ciega Bay

15-15 4

Terra Ceia Bay

E-2 6

Lower Tampa Bay

16-13 3 17-2 2
16-14 5 17-15 1
16-22 1





425

Table 181.--Aricidea taylori--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

25.1

29.5

8.1

1.2

sand

1.8

94.9

2.3

1.1

16.1

1.4

0.1


2.4


1.2

0.7

10.9


3.8


1.7


1.6

2.2

30.1


1,9 to 8.1


0.4 to 3.2


0.2 -1.8 to 2.4


1.1 0.6 to 1.5


Range

14.5 to 33.2

24.1 to 34.5

7.9 to 8.3

L1 to 4.0



0.0 to 7.9

90.7 to 99.3

0.4 to 6.6

0.1 to 3.7

0.9 to 68.0

0.2 to 3.3

0.01 to 0.3


0.6 to 3.4


Number
observations

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

11

8

8


11


11

11

11


11


11


10


0.8 to

-0.6 to

2.1 to





426


Cirrophorus furcatus (Hartman, 1957)
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1969)

Aside from a single collection along transect-12 in

upper Tampa Bay, all specimens were found in more saline

waters along transects 15, 16, and 17 (table 182).

All collections were made by dredge at an average

depth of over 2 m. Sediments at these stations were

mostly medium sand that was poorly sorted. The shell

content was high, average amount of silt and clay was

nearly five percent, and organic carbon was one percent

(table 183).

Algae were present at only one dredge station, and

no sea grass was noted.

Neither juveniles nor gravid adults were collected.

C. furcatus has never before been recorded in the

Gulf of Mexico. Previous reports were limited to speci-

mens collected along the coast of southern California.





427


Table 182.--Cirrophorus furcatus--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

12-8 1

Boca Ciega Bay

15-12 1 15-17 1

Lower Tampa Bay

15-22 2 16-15 1
16-13 4 17-2 1
16-14 7





428


Table 183.--Cirrophorus furcatus--Mean and range of
observed environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

23.4

32.4

8.1

2.2

sand


2.9

92.4

3.8

0.9

34.2

1.0

0.1


2.0


1.4

0.3

5.4


3.6


1.6


4.1


2.0

0.7

17.3


2.2 to 5.9


0.6 to 3.2


0.2 -1.8 to 1.8


1.2 0.9 to 1.6


Range

16.0 to 26.8

27.1 to 34.5

7.9 to 8.3

/1 to 4.0

sand to
silty sand

0.1 to 7.9

72.5 to 99.2

0.4 to 22.1

0.1 to 5.2

2.3 to 68.0

0.2 to 3.3

0.02 to 0.2


Number
observations

8

8

8

8

8


8

8

8

8

8

8

8


0.6 to


0.7 to

-0.1 to

-0.04 to






429


Aricidea sp.

This problematic species can be immediately recognized

by its small number of branchiae, and distinctly, bifurcate

antenna (figure 8,G). On branchial segments the notopodial

lobe is about one-half as long as the branchial filament

(figure 8,H). Sharply curved hooks with entire tip and

arista occur in abdominal segments -- all other setae are

capillary (figure 8,I).

Specimens were collected at a total of 38 survey sta-

tions in all areas of the Estuary, and at one incidental

locality near Port Tampa in Old Tampa Bay (table 184).

They were generally found in poorly sorted, fine sand

that contained an average of six percent shell, about five

percent silt and clay, and over one percent organic carbon

(table 185).

Sixty-five percent of the dredge and shovel samples

contained algae. Shoal grass, turtle grass, manatee grass,

and Halophila were also recorded.

Gravid specimens were not noted and no juvenile worms

were collected.





430


Table 184.--Aricidea sp.--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

A 3 5-3 1
B-1 218 6-1-A 12
B-2 3 2 6-1-B 6
2-3 1 6-1-D 9
3-14 1 6-2 12

Hillsborough Bay

C-1 13 10-15 1
C-2 2

Upper Tampa Bay

10-0 2 10-13 1
10-11 1 11-28-1 1
10-12 6 13-1-B 27

Boca Ciega Bay

D-23 2 16-5 13
16-1 6 16-6 3
16-2 1 16-7 2
16-3 6 16-8 2
16-4 56

Terra Ceia Bay

E-2 25 E-6 8

Lower Tampa Bay

14-5 1 16-22 12
16-9-B 1 16-23 6
16-20 3 16-27 2
16-21 16 17-9 1





431


Table 185.--Aricidea sp.--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Rang


Mean

26.5

27.5

8.0

0.7

sand


1.8

92.8

2.7

2.6

6.0

1.1

0.1


2.7


1.2

0.6

13.1


3.2


1.4


1.4 to 7.1


0.7 to

-1.3 to

-0.6 to


2.7

2.6

43.8


1,4 to 8.7


0.4 to 2.8


-0.3 -2.2 to 1.4


1.4 0.5 to 3.1


e

32.0

34.3

8.4

1.7

sandy


13.4

99.9

9.6

65.9

32.0

4.8

0.2


13.0 to

18.3 to

7,7 to

/1 to

sand to
clay

0.0 to

24.5 to

0.0 to

0.0 to

0.6 to

0.1 to

0.01 to


Number
observations

38

38

36

38

38


38

38

38

38

37

26

26


37


37

37

37


38


38


35







Figure 8. -- Diagnostic features of Naineris sp., and
Aricidea sp.


Naineris sp.:










Aricidea sp.:


(A) Second setiger (B) Eighth setiger

(C) Eighteenth setiger (D) Median section

of spiniger showing arrangement of spines

(E) Geniculate neuroseta (F) Acicular

neuroseta

(G) Head and anterior segments showing

antenna and branchiae (H) Branchial

segment (I) Hooked seta from abdominal

segment.






433


FIGURE 8


B


0.10MM



















0.02 MM


0.10MM


0.02 MM


H


0.01MM


0.05MM


0.10 MM










D0

0.01 MM


0.20MM





434


Family SPIONIDAE Grube, 1850

The spionids occur commonly in estuarine and neritic

waters throughout the world, where they produce membranous

dwelling tubes in sediment, shell, or rock. They are de-

posit feeders, and obtain food by means of long, ciliated

tentacles that sweep through the water and across the bottom.

Thirteen species were collected in Tampa Bay. Aonides

mayaguezensis is apparently confined to waters of high

salinity, and was found only in lower Tampa Bay near Eg-

mont Key. Somewhat more tolerant of brackish conditions,

Dispio uncinata was collected as far into the Estuary as

upper Tampa Bay. Six species were found in all areas of

the Estuary (Paraprionospio pinnata, Prionospio cirro-

branchiata, Scolelepis squamata, Polydora socialis, Poly-

dora websteri, and Streblospio benedicti). Of the remaining

five species, four were found everywhere except Hills-

borough Bay (Apoprionospio pygmaea, Prionospio hetero-

branchia texana, Spio setosa, and Spiophanes bombyx).

Pseudopolydora sp. was collected in all areas except Terra

Ceia Bay.

Key to SPIONIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Fifth setiger bears large, acicular setae ........... 2

- Acicular setae absent ............................... 4

2 Hooded hooks commence on setiger 7 .................. 3





435


- Hooded hooks commence on setiger 8.. Pseudopolydora sp.

3 Hooded hooks constricted near middle of
the shaft ........................... Polydora websteri

-Shaft of hooded hooks not constricted
near middle ......................... Polydora socialist

4 Prostomium bears lateral projections;
branchiae absent .................... Spiophanes bombyx

-Prostomium smoothly rounded or pointed;
branchiae present .................................. 5

5 Second setiger bears a raised, dorsal
membrane with median notch; 1 pair of
branchiae; 1 pair of palps ...... Streblospio benedicti

-Dorsal membrane absent on second setiger;
branchiae more numerous ............................. 6

6 Branchiae partially fused to notopodial
lamellae ............................................. 7

Branchiae not fused to notopodial lamellae .......... 8

7 Notopodia of anterior segments divided
dorsally into numerous cirriform
processes ............................. Dispio uncinata

Notopodia not divided; prostomium acutely
pointed; 4 eyes arranged in a line..Scolelepis squamata

Notopodia not divided; prostomium broadly
rounded; 4 eyes arranged in a
rectangle ................................ Spio setosa

8 Branchiae all smooth and cirriform ................. 9

Some or all branchiae pinnate .................... 10

9 Prostomium broad and rounded anteriorly;
eyes indistinct or absent; no occipital
tentacle ................... Prionospio cirrobranchiata





436


-Prostomium narrow anteriorly; 4 eyes
in front of short, occipital
tentacle ........................ Aonides mayaguezensis

10 Branchiae 3 pairs, all
pinnate ........................ Paraprionospio pinnata

- Branchiae 5 pairs, first, fourth,
and fifth pinnate .... Prionospio heterobranchia texana

- Branchiae4 pairs, fourth
pinnate Apoprionospio pyqmaea

Aonides mayaguezensis Foster, 1969

Eight specimens were collected from a single station

(18-3) in lower Tampa Bay (table 186).

Sediment there was very poorly sorted, shelly sand

that contained more than 13 percent shell. Over 20 percent

of the sample consisted of particles in the granule size

category. Silt, clay, and organic carbon percentages were

quite low (table 187).

No vegetation was found at the collection site.

Neither gravid nor juvenile specimens were collected.

A. mayaguezensis was previously known only from the

type locality near Mayaguez, Puerto Rico.





437

Table 186.--Aonides mayaquezensis--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

18-3 8




438


Table 187.--Aonides mayaguezensis--Mean and range of
observed environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

25.0

33.8

8.2

3.0

shelly
sand
20.8

77.4

1.6

0.2

13.2

0.1

0.02


Ranqe


Number
observations

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1


0.9


2.0

0.1

-0.03


2o7


1.1


0.9


0.9





439


Apoprionospio pygmaea (Hartman, 1961)
(Described by Foster, 1969 and
illustrated by Hartman, 1969)

Specimens were collected at a total of 94 survey

stations in all areas of the Estuary except Hillsborough

Bay. In addition, individuals were found at two incident-

al localities in Boca Ciega Bay (table 188).

Sediments at dredge and shovel stations were mostly

poorly sorted, fine sand that contained few large particles

and less than 10 percent shell in all size categories. The

average content of silt and clay was less than four percent,

and organic carbon was under one percent (table 189).

Algae were present in bottom samples from 32 stations,

and also found in one or more of these samples were shoal

grass, turtle grass, and manatee grass.

No gravid specimens were noted, but juveniles were

collected in August, September, and November.

A. pygmaea was previously known only from southern

California.





440


Table 188.--Apoprionospio pygmaea--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

3-8 2 5-3 2
3-9 1 5-4 3
3-10 3 5-5 3
3-12 1 5-6 10
3-13 1 5-7 6
4-5 3 5-8 1
4-10 3 5-11 6
4-16 2 5-13 2
4-19 10 6-4-A 15
5-2 1 6-6 1

Upper Tampa Bay

D 4 11-4 14
10-5 4 11-6 1
10-6 11 11-21 1
10-7 1 12-5 14
10-8 1 12-7 2
10-9 6 12-15 2
10-10 1 13-12 8
10-12 4 13-13 1
10-14-A 1





441


Table 188.--Apoprionospio pygmaea--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-E 13 15-1 2
BC-M 1 15-3 1
BC-N 1 15-4 3
D-1 5 15-5 1
D-2 16 15-6 2
D-3 2 15-8 2
D-9 4 15-9 10
D-11 1 15-10 1
D-13 2 15-11 13 1
D-17 26 1 15-12 5
D-19-A 1 15-13 14 1
D-24 2 15-17 8
D-25 1 16-1 1
PB-4 1 16-6 37
PB-5 5 16-7 14
14-2 2

Terra Ceia Bay

E-4 24 E-5 9

Lower Tampa Bay

14-5 11 16-22 30
14-8 7 16-23 11
14-16 2 17-3 5
14-17 2 17-6 1
14-18 12 17-7 1
15-18 3 17-8 11
15-19 9 17-9 30
15-20 4 17-10 58
16-11 2 17-12 2
16-19 4 17-13 1
16-20 17 17-14 9
16-21 10 18-4 6





442


Table 189.--Apoprionospio pygmaea--Mean and range of
observed environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


-0.2 -2.5 to 3.0


1.3 0.3 to 2.9


Mean

24.9

29.0

8.1

1.0

sand


1.8

94.2

2.4

0.8

8.4

0.8

0.04


2.5


1.1

0.6

15.7


3.0


1.4


Range

12.8 to 33.8

19.2 to 34.8

7.7 to 8.4

/I to 2.7

shelly sand t
silty sand

0.0 to 28.8

27.9 to 100

0.0 to 22.1

0.0 to 5.2

0.6 to 85.2

0.01 to 8.5

0.00 to 0.2


0.5 to 4.1


0.4 to 3.0

-1.7 to 3.6

-0.8 to 76.3


1.4 to 9.0


0.5 to 2.7


Number
observations

91

91

83

91

:o 89


89

89

89

88

89

66

66


89


89

89

89


88


88


78





443


Dispio uncinata Hartman, 1951

Specimens were collected at only one survey station

in upper Tampa Bay, and at one in Boca Ciega Bay (table

190).

In both localities the sediment was poorly sorted,

fine sand. Shell content was less than 10 percent and

there were few large shell fragments. Even though the

percentage of silt and clay was less than four, organic

carbon content was over two percent (table 191).

Algae were found in bottom samples from both stations,

but no sea grasses were noted.

The specimen taken in Boca Ciega Bay in September was

a juvenile. Off St. Petersburg Beach, juveniles were also

collected in May. No gravid specimens were recorded.

D. uncinata has been collected in the Gulf of Mexico

and is otherwise known from the waters of New England.





444


Table 190.--Dispio uncinata--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

10-10 1

Boca Ciega Bay

15-4 1





445

Table 191.--Dispio uncinata--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Range

25.0 to 29.9

20.5 to 33.1

7.9 to 8.2


Mean

27.5

26.8

8.1

0.7

sand

4.8

91.8

2.8

0.5

8.1

2.5

0.01


2.4


1.6

-1.1

6.6


2.8


1.2


9.7

100

5.7

1.0

15.1


2.3 to 2.5


0.6

-1.4

3.1


2.5

-0.8

10.2


2.7 to 2.8


1.1 to 1.3


-0.9 -1.1 to -0.8


1.2


Number
observations

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1


2


0.0

83.7

0.0

0.0

1.0





446


Paraprionospio pinnata (Ehlers, 1901)
(Described and illustrated by Foster, 1969)

Well represented in all areas of the Estuary, P.

pinnata was collected at a total of 197 survey stations,

and at two incidental localities in Old Tampa Bay as well

as one in Boca Ciega Bay. The area of least abundance was

lower Tampa Bay. The worm was especially abundant at sta-

tion 14-2 where 357 individuals were collected in a single

dredge haul (table 192).

Although the worm was found mostly in sand, it oc-

curred in a range of sediment types from shelly sand to

silty clay. Average sediment at dredge and shovel stations

was poorly sorted, very fine sand. The content of organic

carbon was nearly one percent and the percentage of silt and

clay was over 15 percent. Large shell fragments were pres-

ent at only a few stations, and the average shell content

of sediments was under 10 percent (table 193).

Twenty-eight percent of the bottom samples contained

algae and sea grasses were present in many. Halophila

was the only sea grass not recorded.

Gravid specimens were collected in August, and juve-

niles were taken in June through November.

P. pinnata has been collected in temperate and tropi-

cal waters of the Atlantic and in the eastern Pacific. It

has also been recorded from the Gulf of Mexico.





447


Table 192.--Paraprionospio pinnata--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N


B
B-l
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-10
3-11
3-12
3-13
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9


55

11
40
36
23
1
2
1
3
17
6
49
27
28
38
52
44
7
56
116
1
11
9
26
62
70
116
37
48


12
241
53






163
85
59
58
4


4-10
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-16
4-17-A
4-18-A
4-19
4-20
5-1-A
5-1-B
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-9
5-11
5-12
5-13
6-1-A
6-1-C
6-2
6-4-A
6-5
6-6


11
42
83
139
75
80
75
75
3
9


_





448


Table 192.--Paraprionospio pinnata--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Hillsborough Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

C-2 51 3 9-2 14
C-3 4 56 9-3 64 1
C-4 3 9-4 31 9
C-5 1 2 9-5 1
C-6 1 9-6 26
7-1 2 9-7 3 8
7-3 1 9-8 3
8-1 24 10-15 29 10
8-2 11 18 10-16 20
8-3 5 5 10-17 41 3
8-4 1 10-19 49 10
8-5 1 10-20 5 102
8-7 2 10-21 56
8-8 2 10-22 49 12
8-9 3

Upper Tampa Bay

10-6 1 11-18 112 22
10-8 5 11-19 87 19
10-9 4 11-20 27 18
10-12 4 11-21 9 18
10-14-B 4 11-22 69 18
11-4 9 2 11-23 80 8
11-6 23 11-24 105 17
11-7 34 36 11-25 161 43
11-8 46 100+ 11-26 186 8
11-9 116 11-27 173 13
11-10 2 11-28 8
11-11 9 8 11-28-2 2
11-12 74 17 12-11 1
11-13 36 7 12-14 15
11-14 198 20 12-16 2
11-15 352 26 13-12 18
11-16 84 25 13-13 2
11-17 28 23






449


Table 192.--Paraprionospio pinnata--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-A 55 5 PB-1 110 1 50
BC-A-1 1 PB-4 10 1
BC-C 3 PB-5 17
BC-E 1 14-2 357 6
BC-H 9 14-3 37
BC-I 32 14-4 188
BC-M 66 15-1 42 2
BC-N 1 15-3 2
D-1 31 15-4 50
D-2 27 15-5 289 3
D-3 2 15-6 18
D-5 28 15-8 135 3
D-6 3 15-9 10
D-9 26 15-11 291 1
D-10 43 1 15-12 96 1
D-11 3 15-13 221 1
D-13 18 15 15-14 49 12
D-15 2 32 15-15 8 7
D-17 15 5 15-17 78 1
D-19-B 115 16-1 1
D-20 57 12 16-5 4
D-21 19 10 16-6 28
D-22 75 16-7 79 2
D-24 2 16-8 1
D-25 1 1


Terra Ceia Bay

E-l 27 6 E-5 4 1
E-2 4 E-7 63
E-3 218 42 E-8 1
E-4 33





450


Table 192.--Paraprionospio pinnata--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

14-8 43 16-20 20
14-19 1 16-21 6
14-20 1 16-22 19
15-18 39 17-2 1
15-29 1 17-8 1
15-32 2 17-9 5
16-10 1 17-13 45
16-11 2 17-14 32
16-16 1





451


Table 193.--Paraprionospio pinnata--Mean and range of
observed environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

25.9

27.1

7.2

1.2

sand


1.7

84.6

7.9

5.8

9.7


0.8

0.1


Range

12.8 to 33.8

15.6 to 34.8

7.0 to 8.5

/I to 4.0

shelly sand
silty clay

0.0 to 79.7

3.5 to 99.9

0.0 to 56.5

0.0 to 65.9

0.6 to 66.0

0.01 to 8.5

0.00 to 0.2


3.2 -4.0 to


1.4

0.6

10.9


3.1


1.5


-0.2


0.4

-1.7

-1.3


8.0


3.5

3.6

76.3


1.4 to 9.0


0.4 to 3.2


-2.6 to


3.0


1.3 0.2 to 3.1


109

110


185


185

185

185


176


176


169


169


Number
observations

188

187

166

188

to 185


185

185

185

185

185





452


Polydora socialis (Schmarda, 1861)
(Described and illustrated by Blake, 1971)

Found in all areas of the Estuary, P. socialis was

collected at a total of 139 survey stations and at 12

incidental localities. Areas of least abundance were Old

Tampa and Hillsborough Bays (table 194).

Average sediment type at dredge and shovel stations

was poorly sorted, fine sand that contained over 15 per-

cent shell. The content of silt and clay was about six

percent and organic carbon was under one percent (table

195).

Algae, shoal grass, turtle grass, or manatee grass,

were present in 58 of the bottom samples.

A gravid specimen was collected in September, and

juvenile worms were found in August through December.

P. socialis has been reported from the Gulf of Mexico

and is otherwise known along the Atlantic seaboard of North

America and in the eastern Pacific.





453


Table 194.--Polydora socialis--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

A-1 65 5-3 1
A-3 6 5-12 1
B-2 1 6-1-A 3
3-10 2 6-1-B 1
3-16 1 6-2 3
4-11 1 6-3 1
4-12 1 6-4-A 2
4-16 1 6-5 1
5-2 3 6-7-A 1

Hillsborough Bay

C-3 1 8-10 1
C-8-2 1 10-18 1

Upper Tampa Bay

D 1 12-9 1
10-1-A 3 12-10 1
10-2 1 12-12 2
10-3 1 12-13 5
10-12 1 12-14 6 4
10-13 1 12-15 2
11-3 2 12-16 2 1
11-5 2 13-1-A 93
11-16 1 1 13-3 8
11-28 26 13-5 3 1
12-2 1 13-6 1
12-3 1 13-8 1
12-6 3 13-10 10
12-7 5 13-13 3
12-8 1





454


Table 194.--Polydora socialis--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-A 1 14-3 1
BC-A-1 2 14-4 11 1
BC-C 1 5 15-1 8
BC-G 1 15-2 3
BC-H 1 15-3 1
BC-M 1 1 11 15-4 5
BC-N 64 6 15-5 3
D-2 7 1 15-6 4 3
D-3 3 15-8 2
D-11 5 15-9 6
D-12 .6 15-10 3
D-13 9 15-11 12 14
D-17 4 3 15-12 14
D-18 19 15-13 18 2
D-19-A 1 15-14 7
D-22 8 15-15 2 1
D-23 8 15-16 5
D-24 4 16-1 17
D-25 3 2 16-2 22 6
D-26 31 16-4 1
PB-1 1 16-5 11
PB-4 8 6 16-6 18 5
PB-5 1 2 16-7 9
14-1-A 1 16-8 51 4
14-2 3 2

Terra Ceia Bay

E-1 5 E-5 1
E-2 5 E-6 4 8
E-3 2 E-7 1
E-4 3





455
Table 194.--Polydora socialis--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

14-17 1 14 16-16 1
15-18 1 16-17 1 2
15-20 7 16-19 1
15-21 1 16-20 1 4
15-23 1 16-21 2
15-24 5 16-22 1
15-25 1 16-25 47
15-26 9 1 16-26 1
15-29 19 16-27 14
15-30 2 17-2 56 2
15-31 21 17-5 2 11
15-32 1 17-6 7 9
16-9-B 4 17-7 4 3
16-11 2 17-8 4
16-13 15 17-9 2
16-15 6 3 17-10 1





456
Table 195.--Polydora socialis--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

23.7

29.7

8.0

1.1

sand


3.3

91.1

3.5

2.1

15.5

0.6

0.04


2.5


1.3

0.3

9.6


3.0


1.3


7.1


3.8

2.6

43.8


1.4 to 8.7


0.4 to 3.4


0.1 -2.3 to


3.0


1.3 0.2 to 2.9


100


Range

12.8 to 33.2

3.7 to 35.1

7.1 to 8.4

L1 to 4.0

shelly sand t
silty clay

0.0 to 44.5

11.2 to 99.9

0.0 to 44.4

0.0 to 65.9

0.6 to 75.1

0.01 to 6.9

0.00 to 0.2


Number
observations

125

125

119

125

.o 120


120

120

120

119

120

92

92


120


120

120

119


117


117


100


-1.0 to


0.>5 to

-1.6 to

-1.5 to






457


Polydora websteri Hartman, 1943
(Described and illustrated by Blake, 1971)

Specimens were collected at a total of 73 survey

stations in all areas of the Estuary, and at three inci-

dental localities in Old Tampa Bay and lower Tampa Bay

(table 196).

Average sediment type where the worm occurred was

poorly sorted, fine sand. The silt-clay fraction was

nearly eight percent, and organic carbon was one percent.

A few large shell fragments were present in most samples,

and average shell content was nearly 11 percent (table 197).

Twenty-three of the bottom samples contained algae

and one or more species of the five sea grasses found in

the Estuary.

A gravid specimen was collected in August, and newly

born young were found attached to dwelling tubes of adults

in May, July, August, September, and November.

P. websteri has been collected in the Gulf of Mexico

and is well known as a shell borer along the coasts of

eastern and western North America, and the Hawaiian

Islands.





458


Table 196.--Polydora websteri--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

A-3 1 5-2 1
B-1 8 14 5-4 1
B-2 1 3 6-1-A 2
3-1-A 19 6-1-C 17
3-7 1 6-1-D 40
3-17 1 6-2 1
4-1 1 6-3 1 4
5-1-B 1 6-4-A 2

Hillsborough Bay

C 35 8-10 1
C-1 5 9-1 23
C-2 43 16 9-3 76 112
C-3 45 36 9-4 5 18
C-4 50 9-8 3
C-5 1 1 9-9 5 48
C-6 13 10-15 10
7-1 8 1 10-16 1
7-3 6 24 10-18 5
8-2 1 10-19 1
8-6 68 10-20 1
8-8 5 63 10-22 5 73
8-9 596 89 10-23 4 21

Upper Tampa Bay

10-1-A 2 11-28-1 273
11-22 1 11-28-2 2
11-28 4 12-14 1





459
Table 196.--Polydora websteri--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)--
(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-I 1 15-4 17
BC-M 14 15-6 2
BC-N 1 1 15-8 1
D-2 1 15-11 1
D-9 7 15-14 2
D-18 1 15-15 3
D-25 9 16-2 1
PB-1 1 3 16-4 1
PB-4 783 16-5 18
PB-5 1 3 16-7 2
15-1 3

Terra Ceia Bay

E-1 1

Lower Tampa Bay

14-5 1 16-10 3
15-27 1





460
Table 197.--Polydora websteri--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (OC.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

28.3

24.4

7.9

0.8

sand


4.2

90.3

6.1

1.8

10.6

1.0

0.06


Range

15.5 to 33.8

15.6 to 34.9

6.7 to 8.5

L1 to 2.3

shelly sand t
silty sand

0.0 to 72.9


27.1

0.0

0.0

0.5

0.1

0.01


to

to

to

to

to

to


Number
observations

54

54

47

54

:o 51


99.9

13.4

11.1

75.6

4.8

0.2


2.6 -1.9 to 4.2


1.4

0.7

11.3


3.2


1.6


Or5

-0.8

-1.5


2.7

3.4

73o5


2.3 to 8.7


0.5 to 2.5


-0.5 -2.6 to 2.2


1.4 0.2 to 2.9





461


Prionospio cirrobranchiata Day, 1961
(Described and illustrated by Day, 1967)

Collections of this species came from a total of 69

survey stations in all areas of the Estuary except lower

Tampa Bay. P. cirrobranchiata was recorded in that area

only from an incidental collection made near Mullet Key

(table 198).

Average sediment type at dredge and shovel stations

was poorly sorted, very fine sand that bordered on the

silty sand category. Silt and clay content was over 18

percent and organic carbon was about one percent. The

shell content was over 12 percent, and some large fragments

were present (table 199).

Algae were found in about 10 percent of the bottom

samples, together with one or more sea grasses that included

manatee, shoal, and turtle grass.

No gravid individuals were collected, but one juvenile

was found in August.

Previously unrecorded from the Gulf of Mexico, P.

cirrobranchiata is known from the coast of North Carolina

and Africa.





462


Table 198.--Prionospio cirrobranchiata--Locality records
and number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

A 1 4-16 1
B 1 4-18-B 1
1-3 2 2 5-1-B 8 1
1-4 13 1 5-3 3
1-5 1 5-4 2
3-1-A 2 5-6 2
4-2 3 5-8 1
4-6 1 5-9 1
4-7 2 5-11 1
4-8 1 5-12 13
4-11 1 5-13 1
4-13 7 6-4-A 1
4-14 3 6-5 24
4-15 5 6-6 14

Hillsborough Bay

C-3 3 10-17 15
10-16 5 5 10-19 9 8

Upper Tampa Bay

10-4 16 11-14 13
10-6 2 11-15 43
11-2 1 11-16 8
11-4 13 11-17 6
11-5 3 11-18 7 1
11-6 12 11-19 5 1
11-7 3 11-20 16
11-8 8 11-22 17 10
11-9 42 11-24 1
11-11 3 11-26 1
11-12 7 11-28 1
11-13 2





463


Table 198.--Prionospio cirrobranchiata--Locality records
and number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-N 1 15-6 1
D-ll 1 15-8 5
D-25 1 15-11 1
15-1 6 15-12 1
15-3 2 15-17 1
15-4 4 16-6 10
15-5 9

Terra Ceia Bay

E-3 3





464
Table 199.--Prionospio cirrobranchiata--Mean and range of
observed environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)


Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

28.8

26.0

8.0

1.6

sand


1.8

78.9

10.4

7.7

12.3

0.9

0.1


3.4


1.5

0.7

11.9


3.2


1.5


Number
observations

64

64

59

64

:o 63


63

63

63


3.5

3.4

73.5


1.7 to 9.0


0.5 to 2.2


-0.3 -2.5 to


2.4


1.5 0.4 to 2.9


Range

17.5 to 33.8

21.0 to 34.3

7.0 to 8.3

L1 to 4.0

shelly sand t
clayey silt

0.0 to 41.5

4.6 to 100

0.0 to 52.6

0.0 to 50.3

0.6 to 66.0

0.1 to 8.5

0.00 to 0.3


0.9 to 7.3


0.4 to

-0.8 to

-0.9 to





465


Prionospio heterobranchia texana Hartman, 1951

Except for Hillsborough Bay, specimens were collected

in all areas of the Estuary. Fifty-six, or about 78 per-

cent, of the 71 survey stations where the worm was found

were located in Boca Ciega Bay and lower Tampa Bay. All

six of the incidental collections were also located in

those two areas (table 200).

Poorly sorted, fine sand was the bottom type where

specimens were generally found, but several collections

came from softer sediments that contained large amounts of

silt and clay. The average amount of silt and clay was

about seven percent, and organic carbon was nearly one per-

cent. Most of the shell in sediment samples was in the

sand size class (table 201).

In the 28 bottom samples that contained vegetation,

algae were consistently present, and some contained one or

more of the five sea grasses found in the Estuary.

A gravid specimen was collected in November, and

juvenile worms were found in September and October.

Prionospio h. texana is known only from the Gulf of

Mexico.





466


Table 200.--Prionospio heterobranchia texana--Locality
records and number of individuals from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-
dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

B-2 8 6-1-C 20
5-2 4 6-4-A 7
5-4 4 6-7-A 4
6-1-A 2 6-8 3
6-1-B 2

Upper Tampa Bay

11-3 1 13-8 1
11-20 1 13-13 1
11-22 1

Boca Ciega Bay

D-2 1 15-2 5
D-3 2 1 15-3 3
D-5 10 15-4 1
D-7 1 15-10 2
D-10 1 15-12 1
D-11 1 8 15-15 5 13
D-17 2 15-16 21
D-18 1 15-17 6
D-19-A 4 16-1 45
D-23 24 16-2 15
D-25 6 16-3 78
D-26 1 16-4 62
PB-1 140 16-5 164
PB-4 2 17 16-6 9
14-4 1 16-7 34
15-1 1 16-8 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-6 2 E-8 1





467


Table 200.--Prionospio heterobranchia texana--Locality
records and number of individuals from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-
dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

14-6 4 16-20 1
15-18 18 1 16-21 3
15-23 1 16-22 3
15-24 4 16-25 1
15-29 22 17-2 12
15-31 1 17-4 5
16-10 2 17-5 3
16-13 23 17-6 10
16-14 5 17-7 2
16-15 6 18-3 43
16-16 13 18-4 1
16-17 7




468


Table 201.--Prionospio heterobranchia texana--Mean and
range of observed environmental factors from
survey stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (CC.)


Mean

25.1


Range

12.8 to 34.1


Number
observations

66


Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


31.4 24.1 to 34.9


8.1

1.0

sand

2.4

92.3

4,7

2.1

16.3

0.9

0.1


2.6


1.3

0.3

8.4


3.1


1.4


7.8 to

Li to

sand to

0.0 to

5.5 to

0.1 to

0.0 to

0.7 to

0.1 to

0.00 to


0.6 to


0.5 to

-1.0 to

-0.6 to


8.3

4.0

silt

13.4

99.8

89.4

65.9

68.0

6.9

1.2


8.8


2.7

2.6

43.8


lo9 to 8.7


0.6 to 5.2


0.1 -1.9 to 1.8


1.2 0.7 to 2.6






469


Scolelepis squamata (Muller, 1806)
(Described and illustrated by Day, 1967)

Specimens were collected at a total of 43 survey

stations in all areas of the Estuary, and at three inci-

dental localities in Old Tampa Bay, Boca Ciega Bay, and

lower Tampa Bay (table 202).

Except for one station in silty sand, all collections

came from medium to very fine sand. Average shell content

of the sediments was about 11 percent, the silt and clay

fraction was less than three percent, and organic carbon

was under five percent (table 203).

Twenty-two of the bottom samples contained algae and

some also had shoal grass, manatee grass, or turtle grass.

A gravid specimen was collected in December and a

juvenile was found in October.

S. squamata has been collected in the Gulf of Mexico

and is known also from temperate and tropical waters of

the Atlantic and eastern Pacific.





470


Table 202.--Scolelepis squamata--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

4-20 17 6-4-A 1
6-1-D 1 6-8 2

Hillsborough Bay

9-1 2

Upper Tampa Bay

D-28 1 11-28-1 1
10-0 129 11-28-2 1
10-6 1 12-16 1
10-12 2 13-1-A 11
11-1 1 13-12 2
11-28 1 13-13 8

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-M 1 15-10 239'
D-2 1 15-11 9
15-2 2 15-12 2
15-7 10 16-6 1
15-8 1 16-7 15
15-9 2

Terra Ceia Bay

E-2 1 E-5 1
E-4 2 E-6 2





471


Table 202.--Scolelepis squamata--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

14-17 1 15-26 1
14-19 2 16-15 1
14-20 5 16-28 3
15-18 1 17-2 2
15-19 6 18-4 1
15-20 4





472
Table 203.--Scolelepis squamata--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wto %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

24.2

28.6

8.1

0.7

sand


2.5

95.2

1.8

0.5

11.1

0.4

0.03


2.4


1.1

0.2

13.0


2.9


1.4


2.0

2.2

35.7


1.8 to 3.9


0.4 to 3.2


0.2 -2.2 to 2.1


1.3 0.6 to 1.9


Range

12.8 to 34.1

17.3 to 34.5

7.7 to 8.3

/1 to 4.0

shelly sand t
silty sand

0.0 to 29.4

70.6 to 99.9

0.0 to 22.1

0.0 to 5.2

0.5 to 66.0

0.1 to 1.4

0.00 to 0.2


0.1 to 4.1


Number
observations

41

41

39

42

0o 40


40

40

40

40

39

32

32


39


39

39

39


40


40


38


0.5 to

-1.2 to

-1.0 to





473


Spio setosa Verrill, 1873
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1945)

Hillsborough Bay was the only area of the Estuary not

represented among the 43 survey stations where this worm

was collected. Incidental collections came from two lo-

calities in Boca Ciega Bay and one in Old Tampa Bay (table

204).

Sand was the only sediment type in which the worm was

found. Average shell content was about 19 percent, but

few large fragments were present. Most bottom samples had

very little silt and clay, and less than one percent organic

carbon (table 205).

Algae, and manatee and turtle grass were the plants

found in 12 of the 40 dredge and shovel samples.

A juvenile specimen was collected in July, but no

gravid worms were noted.

S. setosa occurs along the eastern coast of the

United States, but has not been previously reported for

the Gulf of Mexico.





474


Table 204.--Spio setosa--Locality records and number of
individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

4-16 1 5-12 1
5-5 1 5-13 5
5-7 14 6-1-B 1
5-8 2 1 6-3 2
5-9 6 6-5 25
5-11 4 6-6 6 1

Upper Tampa Bay

10-2 4 12-10 1
10-3 2 13-11 1 1
11-3 2

Boca Ciega Bay

D-22 1 16-6 6
D-25 1 16-7 3

Terra Ceia Bay

E-8 2

Lower Tampa Bay

14-7 1 16-21 1
15-18 53 17-2 5
15-20 1 17-3 13
15-21 1 17-4 39
15-28 1 17-6 6 1
15-29 1 17-7 6
15-31 1 17-8 13
16-13 8 17-9 2
16-15 12 1 17-10 13
16-16 61 18-4 1
16-17 11





475


Table 205.--Spio setosa--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

25.6

29.5

8.0

1.5

sand

1.8

96.4

1.3

0.6

19.3

0.5

0.04


2.2


1.1

0.5

17.8


3.0


1.4


2.0

3.6

76.3


1.4 to 8.4


0.6 to 3.2


-0.1 -1.8 to


1.7


1.2 0.4 to 2.1


Range

15.0 to 33.8

22.4 to 34.6

7.7 to 8.3

L1 to 4.0



0.0 to 8.9

87.8 to 100

0.0 to 8.6

0.0 to 3.6

0.7 to 85.2

0.02 to 3.3

0.01 to 0.2


0.5 to 3.3


Number
observations

40

40

40

40

37

37

37

37

37

37

28

28


37


37

37

37


37


37


30


0.4 to

-1.3 to

3.2 to





476


Spiophanes bombyx (Claparede, 1870)
(Described and illustrated by Day, 1967)

Specimens were collected at a total of 21 survey

stations in all areas of the Estuary except Hillsborough

Bay. Two incidental collections were recorded from Boca

Ciega Bay and one from lower Tampa Bay. More than one-

half of the station records for S. bombyx were from Boca

Ciega Bay alone (table 206).

All specimens were collected in sand. As an average,

the sand was fine and poorly sorted, and contained nearly

13 percent shell. The amount of silt and clay was under

five percent, and organic carbon was nearly one percent

(table 207).

Algae were recorded in one-third of the dredge and

shovel samples, and at some, shoal grass, turtle grass,

or manatee grass were also noted.

Neither juvenile nor gravid specimens were collected.

This species has a world-wide distribution in temper-

ate and tropical waters, and has been collected in the

Gulf of Mexico.





477
Table 206.--Spiophanes bombyx--Locality records and num-
ber of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

3-11 1 6-7-A 1
4-19 1


Upper Tampa Bay

11-5 1 12-5 1


Boca Ciega Bay

D-11 1 15-6 1
D-22 1 15-8 1
D-23 3 16-1 4
D-25 1 1 16-6 6
PB-1 2 1 16-7 1
PB-5 1


Terra Ceia Bay

E-5 3


Lower Tampa Bay

16-20 1 16-27 4
16-22 3 17-2 1





478
Table 207.--Spiophanes bombyx--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

24.6

30.5

8.1

1.1

sand

1.0

94.5

3.3

0.8

12.9

0.9

0.04


2.7


1.2

0.5

10.0


2.9


1.5


to 1.9

to 1.9

to 38.8


1.9 to 3.7


0.5 to 3.2


-0.4 -2.5 to 1.3


1.3 0.7 to 2.9


Range

14.5 to 33.2

21.5 to 34.5

7.6 to 8.3

/1 to 4.0



0.0 to 5.2

88.9 to 99.2

0.2 to 8.6

0.1 to 2.3

1.2 to 66.0

0.1 to 6.9

0.01 to 0.2


1.9 to 3.4


Number
observations

22

22

22

22

22

22

22

22

22

22

14

14


22


22

22

22


19


19


19


0.6

-0.6

0.6





479


Streblospio benedict Webster, 1879
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1969)

This minute spionid was recorded from one incidental

locality in lower Tampa Bay (silt, in a suspended, sedi-

ment collector located in Bishop Harbor) and one in Hills-

borough Bay. Otherwise, S. benedicti was found at a

total of 74 survey stations in all areas of the Estuary,

except lower Tampa Bay. Areas of greatest abundance were

Hillsborough and Boca Ciega Bays. Dredge hauls containing

more than 200 specimens were taken at several stations, and

one collection of 1,044 worms was recorded at station 8-9

in Hillsborough Bay (table 208).

Sediment data show that the average bottom type occu-

pied by S. benedicti was poorly sorted, fine sand with

nearly 12 percent shell. At more than 15 percent, the silt

and clay fraction was nearly large enough to classify the

bottom type as silty sand (table 209).

Algae were present in 18 of 65 dredge and shovel

samples, and at some of these there were also shoal, manatee

or turtle grass.

Neither gravid nor juvenile specimens were seen.

S. benedicti has been collected in the Gulf of Mexico

and is also known to occur on Atlantic and Pacific coasts

of the United States.





480


Table 208.--Streblospio benedicti--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

A-3 25 5-1-B 13
B 1 5-2 7
3-17 1


Hillsborough Bay

C 2 8-7 10
C-1 6 8-8 3 1
C-2 139 1 8-9 1044 10
C-3 14 107 8-10 36
C-4 23 9-2 10
C-5 10 9-3 50 10
C-6 8 23 9-4 10 10
C-9 1 9-7 1 10
7-1 968 10 9-8 10
7-2 12 9-9 42 10
7-3 302 1 10-19 10
8-2 6 10 10-22 8 10
8-3 2 10 10-23 1
8-4 10


Upper Tampa Bay

11-28 2





481


Table 208.--Streblospio benedicti--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-A 20 2 PB-4 6 6
BC-H 9 PB-5 1
BC-I 1 15-1 41
D-1 26 15-2 1
D-2 17 15-3 1
D-3 1 15-4 163
D-5 10 15-5 84
D-7 1 15-6 9
D-9 6 15-8 56
D-10 13 15-9 2
D-13 9 6 15-10 2
D-14 3 1 15-11 59 12
D-17 2 1 15-12 55
D-19-A 1 15-13 51
D-19-B 71 15-15 4
D-20 250 1 15-17 2
D-21 254 102 16-1 2
D-22 185 16-2 1
D-24 3 16-5 6
PB-1 3 16-8 8

Terra Ceia Bay

E-2 2





482
Table 209.--Streblospio benedicti--Mean and range of ob-
served environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Number
Factor Mean Range observations


Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


26.7 14.5 to 32.0


27.2

8.0

0.8

sand


2.1

81.7

10.8

4.8

11.6

0.8

0.05


2.8


1.5

0.3

8.0


3.1


1.5


15.6

6.7

L1

shell
silty

0.0

5.0

0.1

0.0

0.6

0.1

0.01


to 34.8

to 8.5

to 2.0

y sand to
clay

to 46.2

to 99.9

to 89.4

to 46.5

to 69.0

to 4.8

to 0.2


-0.8 to 7.8


0.5

-1.6

-1.1


2.6

2.2

25.5


1.8 to 8.7


0.4 to 2.5


-0.2 -2.6 to 1.4


1.4 0.4 to 2.9





483


Pseudopolydora sp.

This undetermined spionid is about 5 mm. long by 0.3

mm. wide, and looks very much like Polydora citrona (see

Hartman, 1969). Characteristic setae have been illustrated

(figure 9,A,B).

Sepcimens were collected at a total of 60 survey sta-

tions throughout the Estuary, except for Terra Ceia Bay.

Hillsborough Bay was the only area where an incidental

collection was made. This worm was extremely plentiful at

station 11-17 in upper Tampa Bay, where 1,098 specimens

were collected in a single dredge haul (table 210).

Average bottom type was very fine, poorly sorted sand

that contained some large shell fragments, and about 13

percent shell altogether. The percentage of silt and clay

was nearly enough to designate sediment type as silty sand,

rather than sand. The weight percentage of organic carbon

was under one (table 211).

Only eight of 58 bottom samples contained vegetation.

Algae were present, and also found in some were shoal or

turtle grass.

No gravid specimens were noted, but juveniles were

collected in August, September, and December.





484
Table 210.--Pseudopolydora sp.--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

B-2 4 4-10 1
1-4 94 4-12 35
3-4 5 4-13 399
3-5 1 4-14 16 2
3-7 3 4-15 488
3-9 1 4-16 18
3-17 4 4-18-A 1
4-2 5 4-19 4
4-3 6 5-1-B 27
4-4 21 5-2 34
4-6 74 5-3 4
4-7 64 6-2 18
4-8 23 6-7-A 4
4-9 2

Hillsborough Bay

9-3 1 10-17 72
10-16 7

Upper Tampa Bay

11-7 1 11-15 167
11-8 4 11-16 1
11-9 215 11-17 1098
11-11 4 11-22 4
11-12 11 11-25 2
11-13 1 11-27 1
11-14 1 12-14 7






485


Table 210.--Pseudopolydora sp.--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-
(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

D-9 1 15-5 7
D-19-B 3 15-8 4
D-20 1 15-9 1
D-22 4 15-11 7
D-25 1 15-17 2
15-3 2 16-5 4
15-4 10


Lower Tampa Bay

14-5 1 17-4 8
16-15 1





486
Table 211.--Pseudopolydora sp.--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

28.2

25.6

8.0

1.6

sand


1.9

79.1

11.1

8.6

12.9

0.7

0.06


3.5


1.6

0.6

7.8


3l1


1.5


0.6 to

-0.8 to

-1.3 to


Number
observations

58

58

47

58

0o 57


3.5

2.2

41.2


lo7 to 4ol


0.5 to 2.3


-0.3 -2.5 to 2.4


1.4 0.7 to 2.7


Range

15.5 to 33.2

18.3 to 34.4

7.1 to 8.3

L1 to 4.0

shelly sand t
silty clay

0.0 to 41.5

5.0 to 99.4

0.0 to 51.0

0.0 to 47.0

0.7 to 66.0

0.1 to 2.3

0.00 to 0.2


0.9 to 7.2





487


Family MAGELONIDAE Cunningham and Ramage, 1888

The magelonids constitute a small family of sediment

dwellers that are found in temperate and tropical seas

throughout the world. They are deposit feeders, and secure

food by means of adhesive filaments on their long palps.

A single species, Magelona pettiboneae, was found in

Tampa Bay. A larger species, Magelona riojai, occurs out-

side the Estuary, along St. Petersburg Beach and other

island beaches.
Magelona pettiboneae Jones, 1963

Specimens were collected at a total of 71 survey sta-

tions throughout the Estuary, and at four incidental local-

ities in upper and lower Tampa Bay as well as Boca Ciega

Bay (table 212).

M. pettiboneae was found mostly in sediments of poorly

sorted, fine sand that had some large shell fragments and

an average shell content of less than 10 percent. Average

silt and clay content was less than four percent, but

organic carbon was nearly one percent (table 213).

Algae, and one or more of all the sea grasses found in

the Estuary were noted in 42 of the 76 bottom samples.

No gravid specimens were seen, but juvenile worms were

collected in June through December.

M. pettiboneae has been collected only in the eastern

Gulf of Mexico.





488


Table 212.--Magelona pettiboneae--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

B-2 9 5-4 5
3-2 2 5-5 1
4-5 3 6-1-C 3
4-10 1 6-1-D 20
5-1-A 1 6-7-A 4

Hillsborough Bay

10-15 1

Upper Tampa Bay

D-28 24 11-28 26
10-1-A 2 11-28-1 37
10-3 2 11-28-2 2
10-4 1 12-1 7
10-12 10 12-3 1
10-13 3 13-1-A 11
10-14-A 3 4 13-1-B 16
11-1 5 13-2 1
11-2 2 13-13 1





489


Table 212.--Magelona pettiboneae--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-C 1 15-6 2
BC-N 2 15-9 1
D-2 9 15-10 1
D-5 1 15-15 1
D-11 13 47 15-16 1
D-19-A 8 16-1 6
D-19-B 1 16-2 3
D-23 2 16-3 8
D-25 12 16-4 16
PB-1 1 16-5 1
PB-4 1 8 16-6 1
14-1-A 1 16-7 1
15-2 51 16-8 1
15-3 5

Terra Ceia Bay

E-6 44

Lower Tampa Bay

15-23 1 16-25 5
16-9-A 21 16-26 1
16-9-B 19 17-2 6
16-10 1 17-6 10
16-13 3 17-7 15
16-20 1 17-8 7
16-21 1 17-9 3





490
Table 213.--Magelona pettiboneae--Mean and range of ob-
served environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

25.8

29.3

8.0

0.7

sand


2.5

93.3

2.5

0.9

9.4

0.9

0.05


Range

12.8 to 33.8

18.5 to 35.1

7.4 to 8.4

L1 to 4.0

shelly sand t
clayey sand

0.0 to 79.7


20.2

0.0

0.0

0.6

0.1

0.00


to

to

to

to

to

to


Number
observations

76

76

69

76

:o 75


99.9

15.8

14.3

49.5

6.9

0.3


2.4 -4.0 to 4.3


1.2

0.4

11.9


3.1


1.4


-0.1


0.5

-1.4

-0.2


2.8

3.6

76.3


1.4 to 8.7


0.5 to 3.2


-2.1 to 2.5


1.2 0.0 to 3.1





491


Family POECILOCHAETIDAE Hannerz, 1956

This small family contains less than a dozen species,

which are sparingly distributed and rarely collected in

temperate and tropical waters. Poecilochaetids inhabit

tubes of sand and silt, and feed on bottom deposits and

suspended detritus by means of long, grooved palps.

A single species, Poecilochaetus johnsoni, was

collected in Tampa Bay.


Poecilochaetus johnsoni Hartman, 1939
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1969)

Individuals were collected in all areas of the Estuary

at a total of 26 survey stations and at two incidental

localities in Boca Ciega Bay and lower Tampa Bay. At sta-

tion 6-2, 24 specimens were collected in a single dredge

haul (table 214).

P. johnsoni was found only in sand. As an average, the

sand was fine and poorly sorted and contained about 15 per-

cent shell. Silt and clay content never exceeded 10 percent,

and organic carbon was less than one percent (table 215).

Slightly more than one-third of the bottom samples

contained algae, and one had turtle grass as well.

A gravid specimen was collected in October, but no

juvenile worms were found.





492

P. johnsoni was described from collections in southern

California, and is otherwise known from the Gulf of Mexico

and North Carolina.





493


Table 214.--Poecilochaetus johnsoni--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

4-19 4 6-2 24
5-3 2 6-3 10

Hillsborough Bay

10-15 1

Upper Tampa Bay

10-9 1 10 11-16 5
10-12 2 12-1 1
10-13 1 13-1-A 1
11-3 1 13-4 6
11-5 1

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-N 1 15-1 12
D-2 2 15-8 1
D-24 1 15-9 1
PB-1 2 15-13 1

Lower Tampa Bay

14-5 1 16-14 2
15-29 1 17-2 2





494
Table 215.--Poecilochaetus johnsoni--Mean and range of ob-
served environmental factors from survey sta-
tions, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


18.5

18.5

7.6

L1


Range

to 31.8

to 34.5

to 8.3

to 4.0


Mean

27.1

28.1

8.0

1.2

sand

2.3

95.3

1.6

0.6

14.9

0.6

0.04


2.3


1.1

0.2

12.6


3.3


1.6


0.5 to

-1.3 to

0.1 to


1.9

1.9

41.2


1.8 to 8.4


0.6 to 3.2


-0.7 -2.5 to 0.5


1.5 1.0 to 3.1


Number
observations

23

23

20

23

21

21

21

21

21

21

11

11


21


21

21

21


20


20


16


0.0 to 7.9

88.4 to 99.8

0.0 to 6.1

0.0 to 2.6

0.6 to 68.0

0.1 to 3.3

0.00 to 0.2


0.6 to 3.1





495


Family TROCHOCHAETIDAE Pettibone, 1963

This family contains one genus and about six species

of worms that are rarely collected. In the United States,

one species has been recorded from the California coast,

and two occur in the New England region. The trocho-

chaetids build tubes and use their long, grooved palps to

gather food from bottom deposits and to capture particulate

matter in the water column.

A single, undetermined species was collected in Tampa

Bay.

Trochochaeta sp.

An anterior fragment was collected that measured 2

mm. wide by 20 mm. long. The palps were missing. The

anterior region consists of five setigers -- the fifth

bearing a series of stout, acicular setae (figure 9,C).

Branchial segments begin with the sixth setiger and con-

tinued throughout the length of the fragment examined.

The branchiae are single filaments that bear cilia on the

inner margin (figure 9,D). Aside from the acicular setae

mentioned, simple capillary setae were the only other type

noted.

The single specimen collected in Boca Ciega Bay was

dredged from Bunces Pass (table 216).





496


There, water depth was over 2 m., and bottom type was

poorly sorted, medium sand. The content of shell and

granule size particles was high, and percentages of fine

particles and organic carbon were quite low(table 217).

No vegetation was recorded at the collection site.

The specimen was not gravid, but on the basis of its

size, I assume it was an adult.






497


Table 216.--Trochochaeta sp.--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-N 1





498
Table 217.--Trochochaeta sp.--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Range


1.4


1.9

-0.3

0.9


2.7


0.7


1.5


0.2


Mean

17.5

32.2

8.3

2.3

sand

14.7

83.5

1.5

0.3

38.2

0.2

0.03


Number
observations

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1






499


Family CHAETOPTERIDAE Malmgren, 1867

Worms of this family live in membranous tubes in tem-

perate and tropical waters throughout the world. They feed

on suspended organic material that is trapped on a mucus

membrane and transferred to the mouth.

Five species were found in Tampa Bay. The most common

was Spiochaetopterus costarum oculatus. It was found in

all areas of Tampa Bay from saline waters near Egmont Key

into nearly fresh, tidal waters of tributary streams.

Chaetopterus variopedatus was collected only from upper and

lower Tampa Bay and Boca Ciega Bay. Three, undetermined

mesochaetopterids were collected in Boca Ciega Bay and lower

Tampa Bay.

Key to CHAETOPTERIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Dwelling tube u-shaped; palps shorter than
anterior body region ........ Chaetopterus variopedatus

- Dwelling tube straight; palps longer than
anterior body region ................................ 2

2 Dwelling tube membranous, ringed, and
transparent; setiger 4 bears a single,
stout, acicular
seta .............. Spiochaetopterus costarum oculatus

- Dwelling tube covered with sand grains;
setiger 4 bears a group of stout,
acicular, setae ................. ...... ...... ........ 3

3 Dwelling tube rust-colored; palps unbanded;
eyes absent .................... Mesochaetopterus sp. A





500


- Dwelling tube covered with uncolored sand grains;
palps unbanded; eyes present.... Mesochaetopterus sp. B

Dwelling tube brown; palps banded with brown
pigment; diffuse eye spots present at base
of palps ...................... Mesochaetopterus sp. C

Chaetopterus variopedatus (Renier, 1804)
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1969)

The 75 survey stations where C. variopedatus was col-

lected were equally distributed between upper and lower

Tampa Bay and Boca Ciega Bay. Specimens were also col-

lected at an incidental locality on tidal flats adjacent

to the Sunshine Skyway in lower Tampa Bay (table 218).

The worm was found mostly in sandy sediment, but a

few collections came from shelly or silty sand. Average

bottom type was poorly sorted, fine sand with nearly 20

percent shell, less than five percent silt and clay, and

under one percent organic carbon (table 219).

Nineteen of 48 bottom samples contained algae, and at

one of these, turtle grass was also present.

Gravid specimens were collected in June, July, and

August, but no young were found.

C. variopedatus has been collected in the Gulf of

Mexico and at many localities throughout the world in tem-

perate and tropical waters. Vast beds of this worm have been

observed in the Gulf a few miles off the Florida west coast.






501


Table 218.--Chaetopterus variopedatus--Locality records
and number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

10-4 1 12-14 7 1
11-5 1 12-15 1 10
11-6 2 12-16 1
11-8 1 13-1-A 1
11-16 2 1 13-3 1
11-20 3 1 13-5 1
11-21 1 13-6 11
12-7 1 13-7 20
12-8 1 13-8 1
12-9 1 13-9 1
12-10 1 13-10 1
12-12 1 13-12 2 1
12-13 1

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-A 1 15-1 1
BC-E 1 15-3 1
BC-I 3 15-4 1 1
BC-N 1 15-5 1 1
D-2 1 15-6 1 1
D-8 1 15-8 5 1
D-16 1 15-10 1
D-19-B 1 1 15-11 2 1
D-22 1 1 15-12 1 1
D-24 1 15-13 4 1
14-2 1 15-14 14 1
14-3 1 1 16-1 1
14-4 1 1 16-6 1





502


Table 218.--Chaetopterus variopedatus--Locality records
and number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

14-9 1 16-12 1
14-10 1 1 16-14 1
14-11 12 1 16-15 1
14-13 21 1 16-16 1
14-15 7 16-17 1
15-18 1 16-18 1
15-21 1 16-20 1
15-23 1 16-21 1 1
15-26 1 16-22 1 1
15-27 1 17-2 2 1
16-10 1 1 17-5 1
16-11 1 17-6 1





503
Table 219.--Chaetopterus variopedatus--Mean and range of
observed environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

21.4

30.0

8.1

1.6

sand


3.0

92.1

3.6

1.3

19.5

0.5

0.03


2.5


1.4

0.3

7.4


2.6


1.4


0.0


0.7 to

-1.2 to

-0.04 to


2.7

2.1

24.


1.7 to 4.9


0.5 to 3.4


-2.5 to 2.2


1.3 0.2 to 2.9


Range

13.0 to 30.8

24.3 to 34.6

7.7 to 8.5

/1 to 4.0

shelly sand t
silty sand

0.1 to 21.4

72.5 to 99.1

0.1 to 22.1

0.1 to 8.8

1.2 to 66.0

0.03 to 5.0

0.00 to 0.2


0.4 to 4.1


Number
observations

48

47

46

48

:o 48


48

48

48

48

48

46

46


48


48

48

S 48


48


48


38





504


Spiochaetopterus costarum oculatus (Webster, 1879)
(Described by Gitay, 1969)

Except for Nereis succinea, this worm was found more

widely distributed in the Estuary than any other poly-

chaete. It was collected in all areas at a total of 219

survey stations, and seven incidental localities (table

220).

Average bottom type at dredge and shovel stations

was poorly sorted, fine sand. Shell was present in the

amount of nearly 12 percent and consisted of some large

particles. The percentage of silt and clay was over 16,

and nearly one percent organic carbon was present (table

221).

About 30 percent of the bottom samples contained algae,

and one or more species of all sea grasses found in the

Estuary aside from Halophila.

No juvenile worms were observed, and tubes were not

opened to determine the reproductive condition of adults.

This species has been collected in the Gulf of Mexico

and is otherwise known from the northwestern Atlantic.





505


Table 220.--Spiochaetopterus costarum oculatus--Locality
records and number of individuals from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-
dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N


A
A-2
A-6
B
B-1
B-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
2-3
2-5
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-14
3-15
3-16
4-2
4-4


8


6
3
3
1
2
1
11
2
4
10
6
50
4
103
309
1


4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-16
4-17-A
4-19
5-1-B
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-11
6-1-A
6-1-B
6-1-C
6-2
6-4-A
6-6
6-7-A


12
10
13
4
8
30
8
41
46
42
128
3
2
12
7
8
4
3
1



3
5


---I-' --




506


Table 220.--Spiochaetopterus costarum oculatus--Locality
records and number of individuals from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-
dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Hillsborough Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

C-l 2 8-8 1
C-2 1 8-9 1 1
C-5 1 10 9-3 150
C-6 1 10 9-4 60 1
C-8 1 9-6 1
C-9 1 10-15 1 1
7-1 4 10-16 4 1
7-2 1 10-17 10 1
7-3 2 10-19 9 1
8-1 1 10-20 7
8-2 4 1 10-21 1
8-3 8 10-22 23





507


Table 220.--Spiochaetopterus costarum oculatus--Locality
records and number of individuals from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-
dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N


10-1-A
10-3
10-4
10-6
10-7
10-8
10-9
10-14-A
11-2
11-3
11-4
11-5
11-6
11-7
11-8
11-9
11-10
11-11
11-12
11-13
11-14
11-15
11-16
11-17
11-18


11-19
11-20
11-21
11-22
11-23
11-24
11-25
11-26
11-27
11-28
11-28-1
12-1
12-3
12-4
12-6
12-7
12-9
12-13
12-14
12-15
12-16
13-1-A
13-5
13-11
13-12


5
23
54
39
3
1

5
1
8
10
3
117

18


13
12
61
17
6
6
45
29
30




5




259
3
1

3

10


- -- -e





508

Table 220.--Spiochaetopterus costarum oculatus--Locality
records and number of individuals from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-
dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-A 17 D-25 2
BC-E 1 PB-1 2
BC-G 1 14-1-A 10
BC-H 1 14-2 10 1
BC-M 2 1 14-3 3
BC-M-1 1 14-4 4 1
BC-N 3 15-1 3
D-1 1 15-3 3 1
D-2 1 15-4 3 1
D-3 1 15-5 4 1
D-4 1 15-6 1
D-5 1 15-7 1
D-6 39 15-8 2 1
D-7 1 15-9 2
D-8 1 1 15-10 1
D-10 1 1 15-11 22 1
D-11 2 13 15-12 6 1
D-13 5 1 15-13 1 1
D-14 4 15-14 1 1
D-16 1 15-15 1 1
D-17 4 15-16 1 1
D-19-B 10 15-17 11 1
D-20 1 10 16-1 2
D-21 3 10 16-6 24
D-22 2 10 16-7 12
D-23 8

Terra Ceia Bay

E-2 1 E-5 1
E-3 19 E-7 17 10
E-4 5 E-6 1





509


Table 220.--Spiochaetopterus costarum oculatus--Locality
records and number of individuals from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-
dredge, S-shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

14-5 2 1 16-13 5
14-6 1 16-16 1
14-10 3 16-17 1
14-11 1 16-20 19 1
14-13 2 16-21 37 1
14-15 1 16-22 37 1
14-18 12 16-23 2
15-18 1 16-25 2
15-19 1 16-26 5
15-20 1 16-27 5 1
15-22 2 17-2 4
15-23 2 17-5 3 1
15-24 1 17-6 17
15-26 1 17-7 8
15-31 1 17-8 2
15-32 1 17-9 3
16-10 3 18-3 1
16-11 4





510
Table 221.--Spiochaetopterus costarum oculatus--Mean and
range of observed environmental factors from
survey stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (OC.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


2.9 -4.0 to 7.3


1.4

0.6

10.3


3.1


1.4


0.5 to 3.5

-1.4 to 3.6

-1.3 to 76.3


1.4 to 9.0


0.4 to 3.2


-0.1 -2.6 to 3.0


1.3


0.2 to 3.1


Mean

26.1

27.0

8.0

1.2

sand


2.5

85.3

7.1

4.9

11.5

0.8

0.05


Range

13.0 to 33.8

0.7 to 35.0

7.0 to 8.5

LI to 4.0
shelly sand t
clayey silt

0.0 to 79.7

4.6 to 99.9

0.0 to 56.5

0.0 to 65.9

0.6 to 69.0

0.04 to 8.5

0.00 to 0.3


Number
observations

199

198

174

200

:o 196


196

196

196

196

195

130

130


195


195

195

195


194


194


181


181






511


Mesochaetopterus sp. A

This species constructs a long, straight, fibrous,

dwelling tube that is covered with rust-colored sand

grains where it is exposed above the sediment surface.

Only anterior worm fragments were collected. The largest

was about 35 mm. long by 3 mm. wide. It had palps that

were about 30 mm. long. An anterior portion, setae from

setigers one, three, and four, and an uncinus have been

illustrated (figure 9,E,F,G,H,I).

Specimens were collected at four survey stations in

Boca Ciega Bay and at one in lower Tampa Bay (table 222).

Sediment at these five sites was sand that, as an

average, was fine and poorly sorted. Shell content was

nearly 18 percent, and the percentages of silt, clay, and

organic carbon were low (table 223).

Algae, shoal grass, and turtle grass were found at

two of the collection sites.

Neither gravid nor juvenile specimens were seen.

Tubes of this worm wash ashore in great numbers along

St. Petersburg Beach after storms, and I have seen similar

tubes on sand flats around Beaufort, North Carolina.




512


Table 222.--Mesochaetopterus sp. A--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

D-3 1 14-3 1
D-25 1 14-4 1

Lower Tampa Bay

14-12 1







Table 223.--Mesochaetopterus sp.
served environmental
stations, Tampa Bay,


513
A--Mean and range of ob-
factors from survey
Florida, 1963-69


Number
Factor Mean Range observations


Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


19.8 17.4 to 27


30.7

8.2

1.2

sand

4.4

90.7

3.9

1.0

17.9

0.2

0.02


2.4


1.6

0.1

5.3


2.8


1.4


29.1

8.0

L1


0.8 to

81.0 to

0.8 to

0.3 to

3.5 to

0.1 to

0.01 to


33.1

8.4

3.3



7.5

94.8

10.0

2.2

45.5

0.4

0.03


1.4 to 3.1


1.2 to 2.4

-0.4 to 0.9

1.7 to 9.1


2.5 to 3.3


0.7 to 2.7


0.0 -0.5 to


1.2 0.9 to


0.8


1.8







Figure 9. -- Diagnostic features of Pseudopolydora sp.,
Trochochaeta sp., and Mesochaetopterus sp. A


Pseudopolydora sp.:








Trochochaeta sp.:








Mesochaetopterus sp. A:


(A) Brush-top, acicular seta

from the fifth setiger (B)

Acicular hook from the fifth

setiger

(C) Group of acicular setae

from setiger five (D) Setiger

seven showing branchia and

single parapodial lobe

(E) Anterior end (F) Setae

from setiger one (G) Seta

from setiger three (H) Setae

from setigerefour (I) Uncinus

from abdominal region.









FIGURE 9







A B C D






0.01MM
0.01MM 0.05 MM
0.10MM













0.80MM /








H




G






0.025 MM
.025MM 0.05MM





0.05MM



0.05MM i
-0.02M U. Up M M


515


0


0.025MM


U.U05MM


A





516


Mesochaetopterus sp. B

This mesochaetopterid lives in a fragile, membranous

tube covered with sand grains. Only anterior fragments of

worms were collected. The anterior region is about 5 mm.

long by 2 mm. wide, and the tentacles are about 10 mm. long.

Segments of the middle body region are about 3 mm. long.

There is a pair of distinct eye spots near the palp bases.

In some respects this species resembles Mesochaetopterus

minute. The anterior end, setae from setigers one and four,

and an uncinus have been illustrated (figure 10,A,B,C,D,E,F).

Specimens were collected from Bunces Pass in Boca Ciega

Bay (BC-N) and from two survey stations in lower Tampa Bay

(table 224).

All collections were made in sand that was fine and

poorly sorted. Shell content was high, and contained some

large fragments. Silt, clay, and organic carbon percentages

were very low (table 225).

Algae and turtle grass were noted in bottom samples

from one station.

No juvenile worms were collected, and no observations

were made on gamete production.





517


Table 224.--Mesochaetopterus sp. B--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-N 10

Lower Tampa Bay

15-21 3 18-4 1






Table 225.--Mesochaetopterus sp.
served environmental
stations, Tampa Bay,


518
B--Mean and range of ob-
factors from survey
Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (OC.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


23.2

31.2

7.7


Range

to 25.1

to 34.2

to 8.1


Mean

24.2

32.7

7.9

1.0

sand

4.2

93.9

1.3

0.5

28.5

0.07

0.02


2.1


1.5

-0.6

6.7


2.2


1.0


-0.5 -0.7 to -0.4


1.4


1.3 to 1.4


Number


Number
observations

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2


2


2

2

2


2


2


2


2


2.7 to 5.8

90.9 to 97.0

0.2 to 2.4

0.1 to 0.9

7.2 to 49.9

0.03 to 0.1




2.0 to 2.1


1.0 to 1.9

-0.7 to -0.5

6.4 to 6.9


1.9 to 2.6


0.7 to 1.4





519


Mesochaetopterus sp. C

This undetermined species constructs a brown, fibrous

dwelling tube that is sparsely covered with sand grains.

Only a few, anterior segments from two specimens were col-

lected. The peristomium bears a pair of tentacles that are

about 25 mm. long, and banded with light brown pigment.

Black pigment spots are clustered at the palp bases (eyes?).

The anterior end, and setae from setiger four have been

illustrated (figure 10,G,H,I,J).

Specimens were collected at a survey station in Boca

Ciega Bay (BC-N) and at an incidental locality near Mullet

Key in lower Tampa Bay (table 226).

No sediment data are available for either locality.

Neither locality had bottom vegetation.

No gravid sepcimens were collected, and no juveniles

were found.





520

Table 226.--Mesochaetopterus sp. C--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

BC-N 1








Figure 10. -- Diagnostic features of Mesochaetopterus sp. B
and Mesochaetopterus sp. C


Mesochaetopterus sp. B:















Mesochaetopterus sp. C:


(A) Anterior end (B) Dorsal

setae from setiger one (C)

Ventral seta from setiger one

(D) Setae from setiger four

(E) Seta from setiger four

(F) Uncinus from abdominal

region

(G) Anterior end (H) Dorsal

seta from setiger four (I)

Middle seta from setiger four

(J) Ventral setae from setiger

four.





522


FIGURE 10


0.025MM


0.025MM





F0.0





0.01MM


0.05MM


I


H


0.05MM O.05MM


1.60MM


Oi'


E \
/s-


J.MM





0.10MM


D'






523


Family CIRRATULIDAE Carus, 1863

Cirratulids occur in seas throughout the world where

they are generally found in soft sediments. Some, however,

nestle among shells, and others burrow in shell or rock.

These worms have grooved palps or tentacles that are used

to gather food from bottom deposits.

Twelve cirratulids were identified in Tampa Bay. Only

three of these were determined with certainty as the palps,

tentacles, and branchial processes, which are important

taxonomic features, were often missing, especially in

dredged material. Only two species, Cirratulus sp. D and

Tharyx sp. C, were found in all areas of the Estuary. The

next most widely distributed species, Cirratulus grandis,

Cirriformia filigera, Cirriformia sp. A, Cirriformia sp. B,

and Cirratulus sp. A, were found in most areas from upper

Tampa Bay to Tampa Bay entrance. In addition, Cirriformia

sp. A was found in Old Tampa Bay. The remaining five

species were collected only in lower Tampa Bay, or that

area and Boca Ciega Bay as well (Dodecaceria concharum,

Cirratulus sp. B, Cirratulus sp. C, Tharyx sp. A, and

Tharyx sp. B).

Key to CIRRATULIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Peristomium bears a pair of grooved palps .......... 2





524
Palps absent; anterior setigers bear
grooved, tentacular filaments ....................... 4

2 Parapodia contain slender, capillary setae,
as well as stout, acicular, spoon-shaped
setae ......................... Dodecaceria concharum

-Parapodia contain slender, capillary
setae only .......................................... 3

3 Serrate, capillary setae in anterior segments
are replaced by smooth, capillary setae in
median and posterior segments ............ Tharyx sp. A

-All setae are fine, smooth capillaries ... Tharyx sp. B

Anterior neurosetae and all notosetae are
fine, smooth capillaries; median and
posterior neurosetae have a serrate
margin ................................. Tharyx sp. C

4 First branchial filaments arise with first
tentacular filaments ................................ 5

-First branchial filaments arise in front
of the tentacular filaments ....................... 7

5 Capillary setae only ............... Cirratulus grandis

Branchial and tentacular filaments arise
on the third setiger.................. Cirratulus sp. A

-Branchial and tentacular filaments arise
on the first setiger ................................ 6

6 Median and posterior segments have acicular
hooks only in both notopodia and
neuropodia; eyes present ........... Cirratulus sp. B

Acicular hooks in median and posterior
segments accompanied by capillary setae;
eyes present ........................ Cirratulus sp. C

Acicular hooks appear only in neuropodia
of posterior segments; no eyes ....... Cirratulus sp. D






525


7 Acicular setae have entire tips and first
arise about setiger 12 ........... Cirriformia filigera

-Acicular setae have entire tips and
appear on the first setiger ......... Cirriformia sp. A

-Acicular setae appear in notopodia about
setiger 25, and in neuropodia about
setiger 15; some have bifid
tips ................................ Cirriformia sp. B

Cirratulus grandis Verrill, 1873

This species was the largest cirratulid found in the

Eatuary. Specimens measured up to 200 mm. in length. It

was collected at a total of 53 survey stations in all areas

of the Estuary except Old Tampa Bay and Hillsborough Bay.

Incidental collections came from four localities in Boca

Ciega and lower Tampa Bays. Thirty-seven of the survey sta-

tions and three incidental localities were in Boca Ciega Bay

(table 227).

Average sediment type at dredge and shovel stations

was poorly sorted, fine sand. It had less than 10 percent

shell, and only a few fragments in the granule and larger

size classes. Weight percentage of silt and clay was about

five percent and organic carbon was less than one percent

(table 228).

One-half of the bottom samples contained algae and

one or more sea grasses that included all of those found





526


in the Estuary except widgeon grass.

Gravid specimens were collected in March, and juvenile

worms were found in May, August, October, November, and

December.

C. grandis has been collected in the Gulf of Mexico

and along the coast of the eastern United States.





527


Table 227.--Cirratulus grandis--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

D-28 1 13-1-A 1
12-14 2 13-13 1

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-A 4 15-4 1
BC-C 10 15-6 11
BC-E 7 15-8 4
BC-G 4 15-9 1
BC-I 1 15-11 4 1
BC-M 25 3 15-12 16
BC-M-1 16 15-13 7
BC-N 2 1 15-14 5
D-2 2 15-15 134
D-6 10 15-16 61
D-19-A 5 15-17 1
D-23 1 16-1 64
D-25 2 4 16-2 2
PB-4 3 16-3 110
PB-5 1 16-4 127
14-1-A 40 16-5 1
14-2 1 16-6 2
14-3 22 16-8 32
14-4 15

Terra Ceia Bay

E-4 1 E-6 1





528


Table 227.--Cirratulus grandis--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)-(continued)


Lower Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

14-6 16 16-21 2
14-18 24 16-22 2
15-31 2 16-23 1
15-32 1 17-13 9
16-10 4 17-15 142 1





529
Table 228.--Cirratulus grandis--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Number
Factor Mean Range observations


Water temperature (CC.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


22.3 12.8 to 30.8


30.7

8.1

0.8

sand


2.5

92.4

3.9

1.2

9.9

0.6


26.3

7.7

L1
sand
sand

0.0

72.5

0.1

0.0

1.2

0.1


0.03 0.00 to


2.7


1.3

0.3

8.0


2.9


1.1


34.8

8.5

2.3

silty


14.7

99.8

22.1

7.2

66.0

6.9

0.2


1.4 to 3.5


0.5 to

-1.2 to

-0.04 to


2.5

1.6

24.4


1.8 to 8.7


0.5 to 2.2


0.3 -2.5 to


2.4


1.1 0.2 to 2.9





530


Cirriformia filigera (delle Chiaje, 1825)
(Described and illustrated by Day, 1967)

Large, complete specimens were collected from oyster

clumps at three incidental localities in Boca Ciega Bay.

Others came from 14 survey stations in all areas of the

Estuary between upper and lower Tampa Bay (table 229).

Sediment data indicate that C. filigera generally

inhabits sand that is fine and poorly sorted. Average

shell content was over 20 percent with most of it being

in the sand size categories. The weight percentage of

silt and clay was about five percent, and organic carbon

was under one percent (table 230).

Only two of 10 bottom samples contained algae, and

one or more sea grasses that included shoal, manatee, and

turtle grass.

No gravid specimens were noted, but juveniles were

collected in May, September, October, November, and

December.

This species has been collected in the Gulf of Mexico

and from equatorial and temperate waters around the world.





531


Table 229.--Cirriformia filigera--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

12-13 3

Boca Ciega Bay

BC-N 2 15-1 1 7
D-25 1 1 15-11 1
D-26 18 15-12 1
14-3 10 15-13 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-5 3 E-6 2

Lower Tampa Bay

D-27 2 16-11 1
15-32 1





532


Table 230.--Cirriformia filigera--Mean and range of
observed environmental factors from survey
stations, Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


I


Mean

22.9

31.8

8.0

1.0

sand


4.0

90.8

4.2

0.9

23.6

0.6

0.02


2.6


1.4

-0.2

7.4


3.1


1.2


4.1


2.0

1.0

21.2


2.1 to 6.1


0.7 to 1.8


0.6 -1.8 to 3.0


1.0 0.2 to 1.6


Range

13.0 to 26.8

29.4 to 35.1

7.8 to 8.3

/I to 2.3

sand to silty
sand

0.3 to 14.7

72.4 to 99.4

0.0 to 22.1

0.0 to 5.1

0.9 to 99.6

0.1 to 3.0

0.00 to 0.04


Number
observations

10

10

10

10

9


9

9

9

9

9

7

7


9


1.4 to


0.9 to

-1.1 to

-0.04 to





533


Dodecaceria concharum Oersted, 1943
(Described and illustrated by Hartman, 1969)

Many specimens were extracted from limestone clumps

collected by net in lower Tampa Bay, and one was taken

from a large, live gastropod (Busycon) in Boca Ciega Bay

(table 231).

No specific, environmental data were obtained, and

no information is available on the worm's reproductive

habits.

D. concharum is commonly found in rocky, coastal

waters around the world from temperate latitudes to the

tropics. Hartman (1951) recorded Dodecaceria near

concharum from the Gulf of Mexico.





534


Table 231.--Dodecaceria concharum--Locality records and
number of individuals from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-
shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

D-25 1

Lower Tampa Bay

18-3 25






535


Cirratulus sp. A

This cirratulid has a rounded prostomium and no eyes.

Ventrally, around the mouth and over the first few setigers,

there are spots of dark pigment. Branchial and tentacular

filaments begin on setiger three. Bifid, acicular neuro-

setae begin on the ninth setiger (figure 11,A) and bifid,

acicular notosetae begin on setiger seven (figure 11,B).

The acicular setae occur in pairs. Capillary setae are

present dorsally and ventrally on all setigers.

Specimens were collected at 12 survey stations in

lower Tampa Bay and at one in upper Tampa Bay (table 232).

Sediments at all bottom stations were either sand or

shelly sand that contained very little silt and clay, but

nearly one percent organic carbon. Shell content was high,

and consisted mainly of sand and granule size particles

(table 233).

Vegetation was noted in only two bottom samples.

Algae were present, but no sea grasses were recorded.

Neither gravid nor juvenile individuals were seen.





536
Table 232.--Cirratulus sp. A--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Upper Tampa Bay

Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

13-3 44

Lower Tampa Bay

15-29 4 16-16 3
15-31 2 16-17 1
16-12 8 16-20 1
16-13 2 17-2 43
16-14 108 17-3 75
16-15 17 17-4 13





537
Table 233.--Cirratulus sp. A--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Number
Factor Mean Range observations


Water temperature (OC.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


23.9 21.2 to 24.9


32.6

8.0

2.4

sand


5.4

93.2

1.2

0.3

54.0

0.8

0.06


1.3


1.3

0.4

4.4


3.3


1.4


30.4 to 34.5

7.7 to 8.2

L1 to 4.0

shelly sand
to sand

0.5 to 21.4

77.8 to 99.2

0.2 to 2.7

0.1 to 0.8

20.7 to 85.2

0.1 to 3.3

0.01 to 0.2


0.4 to 1.9


1.0

0.1

0.8


1.6

0.8

8.2


2.2 to 5.9


0.6 to 3.2


0.5 -0.1 to


1.7


1.0 0.8 to 1.3





538


Cirratulus sp. B

The prostomium is pointed and bears a pair of dis-

tinct eyes. Branchial and tentacular filaments appear

on the first setiger. Acicular setae are bifid and appear

ventrally on the first setiger (figure 11,C). They first

arise dorsally in median notopodia and persist in neuro-

podia through posterior setigers. There are as many as

12 acicular setae per fascicle. Capillary setae are pres-

ent dorsally and ventrally through about 20 setigers.

Those in dorsal fascicles are quite long.

Specimens were collected at three survey stations and

one incidental locality in Boca Ciega Bay, and at 12 survey

stations in lower Tampa Bay (table 234).

Sediments at these stations were shelly sand or sand.

The content of silt and clay was less than five percent

and organic carbon was under one percent. As an average,

sediment sorting was very poor (table 235).

One-third of the bottom samples contained algae and

either turtle or manatee grass.

Neither juveniles nor worms in reproductive condition

were collected.






539


Table 234.--Cirratulus sp. B--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

PB-4 1 16-7 1
16-6 6

Lower Tampa Bay

16-11 3 16-25 1
16-13 3 17-2 8
16-19 5 17-6 3
16-21 11 17-8 1
16-22 1 17-9 3
16-23 2 18-3 1





540

Table 235.--Cirratulus sp. B--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (CC.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

22.8

32.9

8.0

1.7

sand


6.0

91.3

2.1

0.5

19.0

0.7

0.04


2.1


3.5

0.01

7.1


3.0


1.3


to 3.0

to 0.8

to 17.9


1.4 to 6.1


0.6 to 3.2


0.4 -0.6 to 3.0


1.0 0.7 to 1.3


Range

19.2 to 25.2

30.5 to 34.5

7.8 to 8.2

L1 to 4.0

shelly sand
to sand

0.3 to 28.7

68.8 to 98.3

1.0 to 4.7

0.2 to 1.2

2.7 to 44.4

0.0 to 3.3

0.01 to 0.2


0.9 to 3.1


Number
observations

15

15

15

15

15


15

15

15

15

15

15

15


15


15

15

15


15


15


12


0.8

-0.8

-0.8





541


Cirratulus sp. C

The prostomium bears a pair of eyes, and the peri-

stomium is modified dorsally in the shape of an elongated

cephalic plate. Branchial and tentacular filaments begin

on the first setiger. Neuropodial, acicular setae appear

on setiger one (figure 11,D) and continue on all segments.

Dorsally, acicular setae first appear about setiger 25

(figure 11,E). Capillary notosetae of anterior segments

have a spinous margin (figure 11,F). The pygidium has

the characteristic shape illustrated (figure 11,G).

Specimens were collected at a survey station and

incidental locality in Boca Ciega Bay, and at two survey

stations in lower Tampa Bay (table 236).

Sediments at collecting stations were poorly sorted,

fine sand that contained over 15 percent shell, less than

five percent silt and clay, and less than one percent

organic carbon (table 237).

Algae were recorded at one station.

No data on the worm's reproductive habits are avail-


able.





542


Table 236.--Cirratulus sp. C--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Boca Ciega Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

16-6 1

Lower Tampa Bay

17-8 2 17-10 1





543

Table 237.--Cirratulus sp. C--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type

Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


p


Mean

20.8

32.5

8.1

1.3

sand

4.6

93.2

1.6

0.5

15.6

0.5

0.01


2.3


1.5

-0.6

7.8


2.7


0.9


-0.6


1.0

-1.3

4.2


2.0

0.1

14.5


2.4 to 3.1


0.6 to 1.3


0.8


Range

9.0 to 24.2

0.8 to 34.3

8(0 to 8.2

1.0 to 1.7



1.3 to 8.9

7.8 to 96.1

0.5 to 2.4

0.1 to 0.9

0.0 to 19.8

0.1 to 1.0




2.1 to 2.4


1

3









8





1


Number
observations

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3


3


3

3

3


3


3


1





544


Cirratulus sp. D

This species has no eyes. Branchial and tentacular

filaments begin on the first setiger. Except for about

the last 25 segments, only capillary setae are present in

notopodia and neuropodia. In these posterior segments,

bifid, acicular setae accompany capillary ones (figure 11,

H). The last few segments contain only acicular setae.

This undetermined cirratulid was found in all areas

of the Estuary at 15 survey stations (table 238).

Sediment type was predominantly sand, but specimens

were also collected in shelly sand and soft sediments.

The average sediment type was poorly sorted, fine sand

that contained a large amount of shell and over 12 percent

silt and clay. The organic carbon content was nearly one

percent (table 239).

Most collections came from depths below 2 m., and

no vegetation was noted in bottom samples.

No specimens provided information on the worm's

reproductive habits.





545


Table 238.--Cirratulus sp. D--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

6-2 1

Hillsborough Bay

10-16 4 1 10-17 4

Upper Tampa Bay

10-4 17 11-15 42
11-12 1 11-16 46 3

Boca Ciega Bay

15-4 1

Terra Ceia Bay

E-l 2

Lower Tampa Bay

15-26 1 17-2 2
16-13 5 17-4 4
16-16 2 17-5 1





546

Table 239.--Cirratulus sp. D--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%,)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)

Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


Mean

27.2

28.7

8.0

2.5

sand


6.6

80.5

7.4

4.9

37.5

0.8

0.05


2.4


1.8

0.1

2.6


3.3


1.5


1.0

-0.8

-0.4


Number
observations

14

14

14

14

:o 14


3.5

0.7

6.3


2.4 to 5.5


0.6 to 3.2


0.2 -1.7


1.7


0.8 to 2.7


Range

22.6 to 31.8

22.3 to 34.5

7.6 to 8.2

L1 to 4.0

shelly sand t
silty clay

0.4 to 41.5

12.4 to 99.2

0.0 to 40.2

0.0 to 40.0

15.1 to 65.5

0.1 to 3.3

0.00 to 0.2


0.9 to 7.1


1.4






547


Cirriformia sp. A

This species is characterized by the presence of a

very deep ventral groove, and straight, acicular spines

in neuropodia of all setigers (figure 11,I).

Specimens were collected at one survey station in

each of the following areas: Old Tampa Bay, upper Tampa

Bay, Boca Ciega Bay, and lower Tampa Bay. Additional, in-

cidental collections were made at two stations in Boca

Ciega Bay and lower Tampa Bay near Mullet Key (table 240).

Sediments at dredge stations were all shelly sand or

sand. Average bottom type was poorly sorted, fine sand

that contained over 23 percent shell, about five percent

silt and clay, and an exceptionally high amount of organic

carbon. Much of the shell was in the granule or coarser

size category (table 241).

Vegetation was recorded at one station, and consisted

of algae and turtle grass.

Neither gravid nor juvenile specimens were collected.





548


Table 240.--Cirriformia sp. A--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations, Tampa Bay,
Florida, 1963-69 (D-dredge, S-shovel, N-net)


Old Tampa Bay


Stations Individuals Stations Individuals

D S N D S N

6-2 1

Upper Tampa Bay

11-15 1

Boca Ciega Bay

16-2 2

Lower Tampa Bay

17-14 1





549

Table 241.--Cirriformia sp. A--Mean and range of observed
environmental factors from survey stations,
Tampa Bay, Florida, 1963-69


Factor

Water temperature (*C.)

Salinity (%.)

pH

Depth (m.)

Sediment type


Granules (wt. %)


Mean

26.2

26.1

8.1

2.0

sand


16.0


Range

18.0 to 31.8

23.8 to 29.9

7.8 to 8.3

L1 to 3.0

shelly sand
to sand

0.02 to 41.5


Number
observations

3

3

3

3

3


3


Sands (wt. %)

Silts (wt. %)

Clay (wt. %)

CaCO3 (wt. %)

Organic carbon (wt. %)

Organic nitrogen (wt. %)

Mean grain size,
total sample (0)

Standard deviation,
total sample (0)

Skewness, total sample

Kurtosis, total sample

Mean grain size,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
noncarbonate fraction (0)

Mean grain size,
carbonate fraction (0)

Standard deviation,
carbonate fraction (0)


78.8 43.7 to 99.2


3.2

1.9

23.4

2.7

0.2


1.7


1.8

0.6

11.3


3.4


1.8


0.0 to

0.0 to

1.8 to

1.1 to

0.1 to


9.2

5.6

36.5

4.3

0.2


0.9 to 2.7


0.6 to

-0.5 to

-0.4 to


3.5

1.9

34,2


3.0 to 4.1


1.7 to 2.0


-0.1 -1.7 to


1.0


1.3 1.1 to 1.5





550


Cirriformia sp. B

This cirratulid has lateral lobes on the prostomium.

Ventrally, acicular hooks arise about setiger 15 and con-

tinue to the end of the body. Dorsally, acicular hooks

arise about setiger 25 (figure 11, J). Simple, capillary

setae are present in notopodia and neuropodia of all seg-

ments.

This species was found at two survey stations in

upper Tampa Bay and at one in lower Tampa Bay (table 242).

Average sediment type at dredge and shovel stations

was poorly sorted, fine sand. The percentage of shell

was over 23, silt and clay were virtually absent, and or-

ganic carbon was less than one percent (table 243).

Algae were recorded at one station and were the only

plants noted.

No gravid worms were seen and no juveniles were

collected.





551


Table 242.--Cirriformia sp. B--Locality records and number
of individuals from survey stations,
Polychaetous annelids and benthic environments in Tampa Bay, Florida
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PDF VIEWER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098397/00001
 Material Information
Title: Polychaetous annelids and benthic environments in Tampa Bay, Florida
Physical Description: 2 v. (1332 leaves) : illus., map, ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Taylor, John Lippincott, 1932-
Publication Date: 1971
Copyright Date: 1971
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Polychaeta   ( lcsh )
Marine animals -- Florida -- Tampa Bay   ( lcsh )
Zoology thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Zoology -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis - University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 1295-1331.
General Note: Manuscript copy.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000565850
oclc - 13587053
notis - ACZ2271
System ID: UF00098397:00001

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    List of Tables
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
    List of Figures
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
    Abstract
        Page xxix
        Page xxx
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Derivation of the fauna
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
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        Page 29
    Tampa Bay estuary
        Page 30
        Page 31
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        Page 32a
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    Procedure
        Page 62
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    Systematics and ecological observations
        Page 66
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    Biogeography, reproduction, abundance and distribution
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    Appendix A
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    Appendix B
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    Literature cited
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    Biographical sketch
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Full Text










POLYCHAETOUS ANNELIDS AND BENTHIC ENVIRONMENTS
IN TAMPA BAY, FLORIDA












By

JOHN LIPPINCOTT TAYLOR












A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1971
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


It is with pleasure and gratitude that I give my sin-

cere thanks to the faculty, colleagues, and friends who

assisted me in this study. I am especially indebted to

Dr. Robert M. DeWitt, Zoology Department chairman, and

chairman of my supervisory committee. While I was occupied

in the Tampa Bay area, he attended to many administrative

details associated with my program and conscientiously

guided my progress by letter and phone. Other committee

members, Dr. Frank J. S. Maturo, Jr. and Frank G. Nordlie,

Zoology Department, and Dr. Ernest S. Ford from Botany,

graciously gave help and encouragement during my research

and critically reviewed this dissertation as it arrived in

Gainesville in many installments. Without assistance from

my committee in other innumerable ways it would have been

far more difficult to pursue a doctoral program at the Uni-

versity of Florida while living and working at St. Peters-

burg Beach.

I am also grateful to the National Marine Fisheries

Service for employment during this study. Mr. Carl. H.









Saloman, Fishery Biologist (Research) assisted me in all

phases of field work, and furnished hydrological data from

permanent water sampling stations located throughout Tampa

Bay. Other members of the Laboratory staff were also help-

ful and provided me with pertinent data from related re-

search projects. The tedious and time consuming task of

sorting animals from sediment collections was largely done

by part-time students from the University of South Florida

and St. Petersburg Junior College. These patient people

were: Eric Roth, Orlando Villot, John Jensen, Steve Henry,

Cathy Adams, Bob Ernest, Mike Mullens, Alan Burdett, Tom

Baird, and Mike Marshall.

Drs. Marian H. Pettibone and Meredith L. Jones, Divi-

sion of Marine Worms, U. S. National Museum, Washington, D.C.,

kindly allowed me to use space and reference collections at

the Museum on two occasions, and otherwise helped by deter-

mining the taxonomic position of some of the polychaetes I

was unable to identify. I look forward to working further

at the Museum on Tampa Bay worms that have not yet been ade-

quately described.

My friends and neighbors, Dr. and Mrs. Walter F. Jeffers,

deserve special thanks for editorial help and typing the

dissertation in its final form.









Finally, and with great affection, I wish to thank my

wife, Patricia, for her constancy and untiring help in

typing and data transcription.


















TABLE OF CON'TEZITS

PAGE

ACKYOWLESDCGHENTS ....................................... il

LIST OF TABLES ........................................ viii

LIST OF FIGURLS ....................................... xx; ii

ABSTRACT .............................................. I
CHAPTER I
IN(TRXOCUCTICO? ............................. ...... 1

C APr'Tr:R 2
Dr;VATIO; TES r .................. ..... .. 5

Cuirr!nts and Cj_ irliti_ .................... 9
ISe 'di e- rs .. ... '...... .. ..... ........ ..
Clim, L i . . . ..e .......... .1

Emer-ent and 3 e-m, -rgent v'e etacio.n .......... 22
Arnim_ A'-s..~e._''o l-.:- ............... .......... 24
H'iman Influ"i!ce ............................. 27

CHAPTZP" 3
Ti '.!PA BAY ESTUARY ........ ............ .......... 33



Lca t o n: C i r ....... ..... ..... ...............
Coas.^tal l l V-elegag ......... ............. .


SediJ et: ................................... 53

CCHAifTPER. 4
PROCEEUREZ ............... ........... ................ 62

CAHiTKER 5
SSTEMATIC E A ECOIUCrL vsErL.TIO' ......... CL










PAGE

Family POLYNOIDAE .......................... 67
Family POLYODONTIDAE ........................ 96
Family SIGALIONIDAE ......................... 102
Family PISIONIDAE ........................... 116
Family CHRYSOPETALIDAE ...................... 119
Family AMPHINOMIDAE ......................... 124
Family PHYLLODOCIDAE ........................ 130
Family HESIONIDAE ........................... 152
Family PILARGIDAE ........................... 173
Family SYLLIDAE ............................. 189
Family NEREIDAE ............................. 240
Family NEPHTYIDAE ........................... 277
Family GLYCERIDAE ........................... 292
Family GONIADIDAE ........................... 301
Family ONUPHIDAE ............................ 312
Family EUNICIDAE ............................ 336
Family LUMBRINERIDAE ....................... 346
Family ARABELLIDAE .......................... 366
Family DORVILLEIDAE ......................... 381
Family LYSARETIDAE .......................... 393
Family ORBINIIDAE ........................... 394
Family PARAONIDAE ........................... 417
Family SPIONIDAE ............................ 434
Family MAGELONIDAE ......................... 487
Family POECILOCHAETIDAE .................... 491
Family TROCHOCHAETIDAE ...................... 495
Family CHAETOPTERIDAE ....................... 499
Family CIRRATULIDAE ......................... 523
Family FLABELLIGERIDAE ...................... 565
Family OPHELIIDAE .......................... 568
Family CAPITELLIDAE ......................... 581
Family ARENICOLIDAE ......................... 613
Family MALDANIDAE .......................... 617
Family OWENIIDAE ............................ 637
Family SABELLARIIDAE ........................ 650
Family PECTINARIIDAE ....................... 657
Family AMPHARETIDAE ......................... 663
Family TEREBELLIDAE ......................... 674
Family SABELLIDAE ........................... 703
Family SERPULIDAE ........................... 723









PAGE

CHAPTER 6
BIOGEOGRAPHY, REPRODUCTION, ABIUNDA.NCE AND
DISTRIBUTION ..................................... 729
BiogeoRLrq_ yap .............................. 72S
Reproduction ................................ 730
Abundance and Distribution .................. 730

APPENDIX A .......................................... 749

APPENDIX B ............................................ 867

LITERATURE CITED ............ ..........................1295

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ....................................1332


vii









LIST OF TABLES


PAGE


Mean annual values for nitrite-nitrate
nitrogen, total phosphorus, copper,
carbohydrate,and protein from water
inshore (IS) and offshore (OS) at
three points along the west coast of
Florida. Data from Finucane and
Dragovich (1959) -- Tampa Bay stations
17 and 20; Charlotte Harbor stations
3 and 34; Everglades stations 37 and
56 ........................................ 21


Table 2. -- Yearly mean and range for hydrological
factors recorded at the surface in six
areas of Tampa Bay Estuary, Florida, in
1963 and 1967 (Finucane and Dragovich,
1966; Taylor and Saloman, 1968; Saloman
and Taylor, 1971) .......................... 51

Table 3. -- Mean and range of sediment grain size,
sorting, and content of calcium carbonate
and organic carbon in six areas of Tampa
Bay Estuary -- 1963 ........................ 61

Table 4. -- Harmothoe lunulata -- Locality records ..... 71

Table 5. -- Harmothoe lunulata -- Environmental
factors .................................... 72


Table 6. --


Lepidasthenia commensalis -- Locality
records ................................... 74


Table 7. -- Lepidasthenia commensalis -- Environmental
factors .................................... 75

Table 8. -- Lepidonotus sublevis -- Locality records ... 77

Table 9. -- Lepidonotus sublevis -- Environmental
factors ................................... 78


Table 10.--


Lepidonotus variabilis -- Locality
records ...................................


viii


Table 1. --









PAGE


Table 11.-- Lepidonotus variabilis -- Environmental
factors .................................... 81

Table 12.-- Phyllohartmania taylori -- Locality
records .................................... 83

Table 13.-- Phyllohartmania taylori -- Environmental
factors .................................... 84

Table 14.-- Polynoid A -- Locality records ............. 87

Table 15.-- Polvnoid A -- Environmental factors ........ 88

Table 16.-- Polynoid B -- Locality records ............. 91

Table 17.-- Polvnoid B -- Environmental factors ........ 93

Table 18.-- Polyodontes lupina -- Locality records ..... 98

Table 19.-- Polyodontes lupina -- Environmental
factors .................................... 99

Table 20.-- Sigalion arenicola -- Locality records .....104

Table 21.-- Sigalion arenicola -- Environmental
factors ....................................105

Table 22.-- Sthenelais boa -- Locality records .........107

Table 23.-- Sthenelais boa -- Environmental factors ....110

Table 24.-- Pholoe sp. -- Locality records .............112

Table 25.-- Pholoe sp. -- Environmental factors ........113

Table 26.-- Pisione remote -- Locality records .........117

Table 27.-- Pisione remote -- Environmental factors ....118

Table 28.-- Paleanotus heteroseta -- Locality records...121

Table 29.-- Paleanotus heteroseta -- Environmental
factors ....................................123









PAGE

Table 30.-- Euphrosyne triloba Locality records .... 125

Table 31.-- Pseudeurythoe ambigua -- Locality
records .................................. 127

Table 32.-- Pseudeurythoe arbigua -- Environmental
factors ................................... 129

Table 33.-- Eteone heteropoda -- Locality records ..... 133

Table 34.-- Eteone heteropoda -- Environmental
factors .................................. 135

Table 35.-- Eumida sanguine -- Locality records ...... 137

Table 36.-- Eumida sanuinea -- Environmental
factors ................................... 138

Table 37.-- Paranaites speciosa -- Locality records ... 140

Table 38.-- Paranaites speciosa -- Environmental
factors ................................... 141

Table 39.-- Phyllodoce arena -- Locality records ..... 144

Table 40.-- Phyllodoce arenae -- Environmental
factors .................................. 148

Table 41.-- Phvllodoce fragilis -- Locality records ... 150

Table 42.-- Phyllodoce fragilis -- Environmental
factors ................................ 151

Table 43.-- Hesione picta -- Locality records ......... 154

Table 44.-- Gptis vittata -- Locality records ........ 156

Table 45.--- gtis vittata -- Environmental factors.... 159

Table 46.--- Parahesione luteola -- Locality records.... 161

Table 47.-- Parahesione luteola -- Environmental
factors .................. ................ 163










PAGE

Table 48.-- Podarke obscure -- Locality records ....... 165

Table 49.-- Podarke obscura Environmental
factors ................................... 166

Table 50.-- Gyptis sp. -- Locality records ............ 169

Table 51.-- Gyptis sp. -- Environmental factors ....... 170

Table 52.-- Ancistrosyllis jonesi -- Locality records.. 175

Table 53.-- Ancistrosyllis jonesi -- Environmental
factors .................................. 176

Table 54.-- Cabira incerta -- Locality records ........ 178

Table 55.-- Cabira incerta -- Environmental factors.... 179

Table 56.-- Pilarqis pacifica -- Locality records ......181

Table 57.-- Pilaris pacifica -- Environmental factors..18?

Table 58.-- Sigambra bassi -- Locality records ........ 184

Table 59.-- Siambra bassi -- Environmental factors ... 185

Table 60.-- Sigambra tentaculata -- Locality records .. 187

Table 61.-- Sigambra tentaculata -- Environmental
factors ................................... 188

Table 62.-- Autolytus cornutus -- Locality records .... 193

Table 63.-- Autolytus cornutus -- Environmental
factors ................................... 194

Table 64.-- Branchiosyllis oculata -- Locality records. 196

Table 65.-- Branchiosvliis oculata -- Environmental
factors .................................. 197

Table 66.-- Brania clavata -- Locality records ........ 199









PAGE


Table 67.-- Brania clavata -- Environmental
factors ................................... 200

Table 68.-- Exoone dispar -- Locality records ........ 202

Table 69.-- Exogone dispar -- Environmental factors.... 204

Table 70.-- Syllis aciculata -- Locality records ...... 207
0
Table 71.-- Syllis aciculata -- Environmental factors.. 208

Table 72.-- Syllis annularis -- Locality records ...... 210

Table 73.-- Syllis annularis -- Environmental factors.. 211

Table 74.-- Syllis racilis -- Locality records ....... 213

Table 75.-- Syllis gracilis -- Environmental factors... 214

Table 76.-- Syllis spongicola -- Locality records ..... 216

Table 77.-- Syllis variegata -- Locality records ...... 218

Table 78.-- Syllis variegata -- Environmental factors.. 219

Table 79.-- Syllis vittata -- Locality records ........ 221

Table 80.-- Syllis vittata -- Environmental factors ... 222

Table 81.-- Brania sp. -- Locality records ............ 224

Table 82.-- Brania sp. -- Environmental factors ....... 225

Table 83.-- Pionosyllis sp. -- Locality records ....... 227

Table 84.-- Pionosyllis sp. -- Environmental factors... 228

Table 85.-- Shaerosyllis sp. -- Locality records ..... 230

Table 86.-- Sphaerosylli sp. -- Environmental
factors ................................... 231

Table 87.-- Syllis sp.A-- Locality records ............ 233


xii









PAGE

Table 88.-- Syllis sp. A -- Environmental factors ...... 234

Table 89.-- Syllis sp. B -- Locality records ........... 236

Table 90.-- Syllis sp. B -- Environmental factors ...... 237

Table 91.-- Ceratonereis irritabilis -- Locality
records .................................... 243

Table 92.-- Ceratonereis irritabilis -- Environmental
factors .................................... 244

Table 93.-- Laeonereis culveri -- Locality records ..... 246

Table 94.-- Laeonereis culveri -- Environmental
factors .................................... 247

Table 95.-- Nereis arenaceodentata -- Locality
records .................................... 251

Table 96.-- Nereis arenaceodentata -- Environmental
factors .................................... 253

Table 97.-- Nereis pelaqica occidentalis -- Locality
records .................................... 255

Table 98.-- Nereis pelaqica occidentalis -- Environ-
mental factors ............................. 257

Table 99.-- Nereis succinea -- Locality records ........ 259

Table 100.--Nereis succinea -- Environmental factors ... 264

Table 101.--Nicon lackeyi -- Locality records .......... 266

Table 102.--Nicon lake -- Environmental factors ..... 267

Table 103.--Perinereis floridana -- Locality records ... 269

Table 104.--Perinereis floridana -- Environmental
factors ................................... 270

Table 105.--Platynereis dumerilii -- Locality
records ................................... 272


xiii









PAGE


Table 106.--Platynereis dumerilii -- Environmental
factors .................................. 274

Table 107.--Rullierinereis mexicana Locality
records ................................... 276

Table 108.--Aglaophamus verrilli -- Locality records .. 279

Table 109.--Alaophamus verrilli Environmental
factors .................................. 281

Table 110.--Nephtys bucera -- Locality records ........ 283

Table lll.--Nephtys bucera -- Environmental factors ... 284

Table 112.--Nephtys agellanica -- Locality records ... 286

Table 113.--Eephtvs maellanica -- Environmental
factors .................................. 287

Table 114.--Nephts picta -- Locality records ......... 289

Table 115.--Nephtys nicta -- Environmental factors .... 291

Table 116.--Glycera americana -- Locality records ..... 294

Table 117.--Glycera americana -- Environmental
factors .................................. 297

Table 118.--Glycera dibranchiata -- Locality records .. 299

Table 119.--Glycera dibranchiata -- Environmental
factors ................................... 300

Table 120.--lycinde acifica -- Locality records ..... 303

Table 121.--Glycinde pacifica -- Environmental
factors .................................. 307

Table 122.--Goniadella sp. -- Locality records ........ 310

Table 123.--Goniadella sp. -- Environmental factors ... 311

Table 124.--Diopatra cuRrea -- Locality records ....... 314









PAGE

Table 125.--Diopatra cuprea -- Environmental factors ...317

Table 126.--Onuphis eremita oculata -- Locality records.319

Table 127.--0nuphis eremita oculata -- Environmental
factors ....................................320

Table 128.--Onuphis magna -- Locality records ..........322

Table 129.--Onuhis magna -- Environmental factors .....323

Table 130.--Onuphis nebulosa -- Locality records .......325

Table 131.--Onuphis nebulosa -- Environmental factors ..327

Table 132.--Onuphis sp. -- Locality records ............330

Table 133.--Onuphis sp. -- Environmental factors .......333

Table 134.--Eunice rubra Locality records ...........338

Table 135.--Marphysa sanguinea -- Locality records .....340

Table 136.--Marphysa sanguinea -- Environmental
factors ....................................342

Table 137.--Nematonereis hebes -- Locality records .....344

Table 138.--Nematonereis hebes -- Environmental
factors ....................................345

Table 139.--Lumbrineris bassi -- Locality records ......349

Table 140.--Lumbrineris bassi -- Environmental factors .350

Table 141.--Lumbrineris coccinea -- Locality records ...352

Table 142.--Lumbrineris coccinea -- Environmental
factors ....................................353

Table 143.--Lumbrineris erecta -- Locality records .....355

Table 144.--Lumbrineris erecta -- Environmental
factors ................................... 356









PAGE


Table 145.--Lumbrineris impatiens -- Locality
records ............. ...................... 358

Table 146.--Lumbrineris impatiens -- Environmental
factors ................................... 359

Table 147.--Lumbrineris latreilli -- Locality records.. 361

Table 148.--Lumbrineris latreilli -- Environmental
factors ................................... 362

Table 149.--Lumbrineris sp. -- Locality records ...... 364

Table 150.--Lumbrineris sp. -- Environmental
factors .................................. 365

Table 151.--Arabella iricolor Locality records ..... 368

Table 152.--Arabella iricolor -- Environmental
factors ................................... 369

Table 153.--Drilonereis cylindrica -- Locality records. 371

Table 154.--Drilonereis cylindrica -- Environmental
factors .................................. 372

Table 155.--Drilonereis long -- Locality records ..... 374

Table 156.--Drilonereis long -- Environmental
factors .................................. 375

Table 157.--Drilonereis manna -- Locality records ..... 377

Table 158.--Drilonereis magna -- Environmental
factors ................................... 378

Table 159.--Arabella sp. -- Locality records .......... 380

Table 160.--Dorvillea rudolphi -- Locality records..... 383

Table 161.--Dorvillea rudolphi -- Environmental
factors .................................. 384

Table 162.--ophryotrocha puerilis -- Locality records.. 386

xvi










PAGE


Table 163.--Ophryotrocha puerilis -- Environmental
factors .................................. 387

Table 164.--Dorvillea sp. -- Locality records ......... 389

Table 165.--Dorvillea sp. -- Environmental factors .... 390

Table 166.--Naineris setosa -- Locality records ....... 396

Table 167.--Naineris setosa -- Environmental factors .. 397

Table 168.--Orbinia ornata -- Locality records ........ 399

Table 169.--Orbinia ornata -- Environmental factors ... 400

Table 170.--Scoloplos fragilis -- Locality records .... 402

Table 171.--Scoloplos fragilis -- Environmental
factors .................................. 403

Table 172.--Scoloplos robustus -- Locality records .... 405

Table 173.--Scoloplos robustus -- Environmental
factors .................................. 407

Table 174.--Scoloplos rubra -- Locality records ....... 409

Table 175.--Scoloplos rubra -- Environmental factors .. 412

Table 176.--Naineris sp. -- Locality records .......... 415

Table 177.--Naineris sp. -- Environmental factors ..... 416

Table 178.--Aricidea fragilis -- Locality records .... 419

Table 179.--Aricidea fragilis -- Environmental
factors .................................. 422

Table 180.--Aricidea tavlori -- Locality records ...... 424

Table 181.--Aricidea tavlori -- Environmental factors.. 425

Table 182.--Cirzophorus furcatus -- Locality records ...427


xvii









PAGE
Table 183.--Cirrophorus furcatus -- Environmental
factors ................................... 428

Table 184.--Aricidea sp. -- Locality records ......... 430

Table 185.--Aricidea sp. -- Environmental factors ..... 431

Table 186.--Aonides mayaguezensis -- Locality records 437

Table 187.--Aonides mayaquezensis -- Environmental
factors ................................... 438

Table 188.--Apoprionospio ygmaea -- Locality records 440

Table 189.--Apoprionospio pygmaea -- Environmental
factors .................................. 442

Table 190.--Dispio uncinata -- Locality records ....... 444

Table 191.--Dispio uncinata -- Environmental factors .. 445

Table 192.--Paraprionospio nnata -- Locality records. 447

Table 193.--Paraprionospio pinnata -- Environmental
factors ................................... 451

Table 194.--Polydora socialist -- Locality records ..... 453

Table 195.--Polvdora socialis -- Environmental
factors ................................... 456

Table 196.--Polydora websteri -- Locality records ..... 458

Table 197.--Polydora websteri -- Environmental factors. 460

Table 198.--Prionospio cirrobranchiata -- Locality
records ................................... 462

Table 199.--Prionospio cirrobranchiata -- Environmental
factors ................................... 464

Table 200.--Prionospio heterobranchia texana -- Locality
records ................................... 466

Table 201.--Prionospio heterobranchia texana -- Environ-
mental factors ........................... 468


xviii









PAGE

Table 202.--Scolelepis sguamata -- Locality records ... 470

Table 203.--Scolelepis squamata -- Environmental
factors ................................... 472

Table 204.--Spio setosa -- Locality records ........... 474

Table 205.--Spio setosa Environmental factors ...... 475

Table 206.--Spiophanes bombyx -- Locality records ..... 477

Table 207.--Spiophanes bombyx -- Environmental factors. 478

Table 208.--Streblospio benedicti -- Locality records 480

Table 209.--Streblospio benedicti -- Environmental
factors .................................. 482

Table 210.--Pseudopolydora sp.-- Locality records .... 484

Table 211.--Pseudopolvdora sp.-- Environmental factors. 486

Table 212.--Magelona pettiboneae -- Locality records .. 488

Table 213.--Magelona ettiboneae -- Environmental
factors................................... 490

Table 214.--Poecilochaetus johnsoni -- Locality
records ................................... 493

Table 215.--Poecilochaetus johnsoni -- Environmental
factors .................................... 494

Table 216.--Trochochaeta sp.-- Locality records ....... 497

Table 217.--Trochochaeta sp.-- Environmental
factors ................................... 498

Table 218.--Chaetopterus varionedatus -- Locality
records .................................. 501

Table 219.--Chaetopterus variopedatus -- Environmental
factors ................................... 503









PAGE


Table 220.--Spiochaetopterus costarum oculatus --
Locality records .......................... 505

Table 221.--Spiochaetopterus costarum oculatus --
Environmental factors ..................... 510

Table 222.--Mesochaetopterus sp. A -- Locality
records ................................... 512

Table 223.--Mesochaetopterus sp. A -- Environmental
factors .................................. 513

Table 224.--Mesochaetopterus sp. B -- Locality records. 517

Table 225.--Mesochaetopterus sp. B -- Environmental
factors .................................. 518

Table 226.--Mesochaetopterus sp. C -- Locality records. 520

Table 227.--Cirratulus grandis -- Locality records .... 527

Table 228.--Cirratulus grandis -- Environmental
factors .................................. 529

Table 229.--Cirriformia filigera -- Locality records .. 531

Table 230.--Cirriformia filigera -- Environmental
factors ................................... 532

Table 231.--Dodecaceria concharum -- Locality records 534

Table 232.--Cirratulus sp. A -- Locality records ...... 536

Table 233.--Cirratulus sp. A -- Environmental factors 537

Table 234.--Cirratulus sp. B -- Locality records ...... 539

Table 235.--Cirratulus sp. B -- Environmental factors 540

Table 236.--Cirratulus sp. C -- Locality records ...... 542

Table 237.--Cirratulus sp. C -- Environmental
factors ................................. 543









PAGE

Table 238.--Cirratulus sp. D -- Locality records ...... 545

Table 239.--Cirratulus sp. D -- Environmental factors.. 546

Table 240.--Cirriformia sp. A -- Locality records ..... 548

Table 241.--Cirriformia sp. A -- Environmental
factors .................................. 549

Table 242.--Cirriformia sp. B -- Locality records ..... 551

Table 243.--Cirriformia sp. B -- Environmental factors..552

Table 244.--Tharyx sp. A-- Locality records ........... 554

Table 245.--Tharyx sp. A-- Environmental factors ...... 555

Table 246.--Tharyx sp. B-- Locality records ........... 557

Table 247.--Tharyx sp. B-- Environmental factors ...... 558

Table 248.--Thary sp. C-- Locality recorRs ........... 560

Table 249.--Tharyx sp. C-- Environmental factors ...... 562

Table 250.--Pherusa arenosa -- Locality records ....... 566

Table 251.--Pherusa arenosa -- Environmental factors... 567

Table 252.--Ammotrypane auloqaster Locality records.. 570

Table 253.--Ammotrypane auloqaster -- Environmental
factors .................................. 571

Table 254.--Armandia ailis -- Locality records ....... 573

Table 255.--Armandia ailis -- Environmental factors,.. 574

Table 256.--Travisia sp. -- Locality records .......... 577

Table 257.--Travisia sp. -- Environmental factors .... 530

Table 258.--Capitella capitata -- Locality records .... 584









PAGE


Table 259.--Capitella capitata -- Environmental
factors ................................... 586

Table 260.--Capitellides jonesi -- Locality records ... 588

Table 261.--Capitellides jonesi -- Environmental
factors .................................. 589

Table 262.--Capitomastus aciculatus -- Locality records.591

Table 263.--Capitomastus aciculatus -- Environmental
factors .....................................592

Table 264.--Dasybranchus lumbricoides -- Locality
records ................................ 594

Table 265.--Dasybranchus lumbricoides -- Environmental
factors ................................... 595

Table 266.--Dasybranchus lunulatus -- Locality records. 597

Table 267.--TPaybranchns lunulatus -- Environmental
factors ................................... 598

Table 268.--Heteromastus filiformis -- Locality
records .................................... 600

Table 269.--Heteromastus filiformis -- Environmental
factors .................................. 603

Table 270.--Notomastus hemipodus -- Locality records... 605

Table 271.--Notomastus hemipodus -- Environmental
factors ................................. 606

Table 272.--Notomastus latericeus -- Locality records.. 608

Table 273.--Notomastus latericeus -- Envirorr.ental
factors .............. ..................... 609

Table 274.--ScvDhoproctus platyproctus -- Locality
records ..................... ............. 611

Table 275.--Scyphorogtus platypoctus -- Environ-
mental factors ........................... 612


xxii









PAGE

Table 276.--Arenicola cristata -- Locality records .... 615

Table 277.--Arenicola cristata -- Environmental
factors ................................... 616

Table 278.--Branchioasychis americana -- Locality
records .................................. 620

Table 279.--Branchioasvchis americana -- Environmental
factors ................................... 622

Table 280.--Clymenella mucosa -- Locality records ..... 624

Table 281.--Clymenella mucosa -- Environmental
factors .................................. 627

Table 282.--Clymenella torquata calida -- Locality
records ................................... 629

Table 283.--Clymenella torquata calida -- Environ-
mental factors ............................. 630

Table 284.--Clymenella zonalis -- Locality records .... 632

Table 285.--Clymenella zonalis -- Environmental
factors .................................. 633

Table 286.--Maldane sarsi -- Locality records ......... 635

Table 287.--Maldane sarsi -- Environmental factors .... 636

Table 288.--Boguea enigmatica -- Locality records ..... 639

Table 289.--Boquea enigmatica -- Environmental factors. 640

Table 290.--Owenia fusiformis -- Locality records ..... 642

Table 291.--Owenia fusiformis -- Environmental factors. 644

Table 292.--Myriochele sp. -- Locality records ........ 646

Table 293.--Myriochele sp. -- Environmental factors ... 647

Table 294.--Sabellaria floridensis -- Locality
records ........................... ...... 652

xxiii









PAGE


Table 295.--Sabellaria floridensis -- Environmental
factors .................................. 653

Table 296.--Sabellaria gracilis -- Locality records ... 655

Table 297.--Sabellaria gracilis -- Environmental
factors ................................... 656

Table 298.--Cistenides gouldii -- Locality records .... 659

Table 299.--Cistenides gouldii -- Environmental
factors ................................... 662

Table 300.--Isolda pulchella --Locality records ....... 665

Table 301.--Isolda pulchella --Environmental factors... 667

Table 302.--Melinna maculata -- Locality records ...... 669

Table 303.--Melinna maculata -- Environmental factors.. 670

Table 304.--Sabellides oculata -- Locality records .... 672

Table 305.--Sabellides culata -- Environmental
factors ................................... 673

Table 306.--Enoplobranchus sanquineus -- Locality
records ................................... 677

Table 307.--Enoplobranchus sanguineus-- Environmental
factors ................................... 678

Table 308.--Loimia medusa -- Locality records ........ 680

Table 309.--Loimia medusa -- Environmental factors .... 681

Table 310.--Loimia viridis -- Locality records ....... 66;

Table 311.--Loimia viridi: -- Environmental factors ... 6&-

Table 312.--Pista cristata -- Locality records ........ 686

Table 313.--Pista cristata -- Environmental factors .. 687


xxiv









PAGE

Table 314.--Pista palmata -- Locality records ......... 689

Table 315.--Pista palmata -- Environmental factors .... 690

Table 316.--Polycirrus eximius -- Locality records .... 692

Table 317.--Polycirrus eximius -- Environmental
factors .................................. 693

Table 318.--Terebella rubra -- Locality records ....... 695

Table 319.--Terebella rubra -- Environmental factors... 696

Table 320.--Thelepus setosus -- Locality records ...... 698

Table 321.--Thelepus setosus -- Environmental factors.. 699

Table 322.--Trichobranchus glacialis -- Locality
records .................................. 701

Table 323.--Trichobranchus glacialis Environmental
factors .................................. 702

Table 324.--Branchiomma nigromaculata -- Locality
records .................................. 706

Table 325.--Branchiomma niqromaculata -- Environmental
factors ................................... 707

Table 326.--Chone duneri -- Locality records .......... 709

Table 327.--Chone duneri -- Environmental factors ..... 710

Table 328.--Fabricia sabella -- Locality records ...... 712

Table 329.--Fabricia sabella -- Environmiental
factors ................................... 713

Table 330.--Meqgalomma bioculatdtm -- Locality records... 715

Table 331.--Neqaloman bioculatum -- Environmental
factors .................................. 716

Table 332.--Megalonmma lobiferu m -- Locality records ... 718


xxV









PAGE


Table 333.--Megalomma lobiferum -- Environmental
factors .................................. 719

Table 334.--Sabella microphthalma -- Locality records.. 721

Table 335.--Sabella microphthalma -- Environmental
factors .................................. 722

Table 336.--Eupomatus dianthus -- Locality records .... 725

Table 337.--Eupomatus dianthus -- Environmental factors 726

Table 338.--Abundance and distribution of polychaetes
collected in Tampa Bay Estuary, Florida,
at survey stations and other localities
between 1963 and 1969 -- Old Tampa Bay
(OTB),Hillsborough Bay (HB),upper Tampa
Bay (UTB),Boca Ciega Bay (BCB),Terra Ceia
Bay (TCB),lower Tampa Bay (LTB) -- asterisk
indicates new geographic record for Gulf
of Mexico -- very rare (1-10) rare (11-30)
common (31-60) very common (over 60)........ 739


xxvi
















LIST OF FIGURES


PAGE

Figure 1.-- Tampa Bay Estuary showing transect and
lettered stations (solid circles) in the
benthic survey of 1963, and biomass sta-
tions (solid triangles) sampled between
1963 and 1969. Solid lines show county
boundaries, dotted line indicates main
ship channels, and dashed lines delineate
major areas of the Estuary. Small is-
lands and spoil banks are shown in
black .................................... 32

Figure 2.-- Diagnostic features of Polynoid A and
Polvnoid B ................................ 95


Figure 3.--


Diagnostic features of Polyodontes sp.
and Pholoe sp. ............................


115


Figure 4.-- Diagnostic features of Gyptis sp. ......... 172


Figure 5.--



Figure 6.--


Figure 7.--


Figure 8.--


Figure 9.--


Diagnostic features of Brania sp., Piono-
syllis sp., Sphaerosyllis sp., Syllis sp.
A and Syllis sp. B ......................... 239

Diagnostic features of Goniadella sp. and
Onuphis sp. ............................... 335

Diagnostic features of Lumbrineris sp.,
Arabella sp., and Dorvillea sp. ........... 392

Diagnostic features of Naineris sp., and
Aricidea sp. .............................. 433

Diagnostic features of Pseudopolydora sp.,
Trochochaeta sp., and Mesochaetopterus
sp. A .................................... 515


xxvii










PAGE


Figure 10.--Diagnostic features of .Mesochaetopterus
sp. B, and Mesochaetopterus sp. C ......... 522

Figure 11.--Diagnostic features of Cirratulus sp. A,
Cirratulus sp. B, Cirratulus sp. C, Cirra-
tulus sp. D, Cirriformia sp. A, Cirriformia
sp. B, Tharyx sp. A, and Tharyx sp. c ..... 564

Figure 12.--Diagnostic features of Travisia sp.,
Clymenella torquata calida, and
Myriochele sp. ............................ 649


xxviii









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Coun-
cil of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of
the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


POLYCHAETOUS ANNELIDS AND BENTHIC ENVIRONMENTS
IN TAMPA BAY, FLORIDA

By

JOHN LIPPINCOTT TAYLOR

August, 1971

Chairman: Dr. Robert M. DeWitt
Major Department: Zoology

This dissertation is a systematic and ecological

account of the polychaete worms found in Tampa Bay,

Florida, between 1963 and 1969. The study was part of

a benthic investigation, sponsored by the National

Marine Fisheries Service, to determine the qualitative

and quantitative distribution of benthic animals that

are important to sport and commercial fisheries.

Bottom samples were collected by dredge at 363 sur-

vey stations and numerous incidental localities. The

polychaetes were separated from sediments on a screen of

0.701 mm. mesh.

A total of 178 species of polychaetes were collected.

They were divided among 130 genera and 40 families. Two

families (PISIONIDAE and TROCHOCHAETIDAE) and 35 species


xxix










are newly reported for the Gulf of Mexico. The more

saline areas of Tampa Bay were found to support the

greatest species diversity as well as the greatest

number of individual worms per dredge sample. Areas

of low diversity and few polychaetes were limited to

Hillsborough Bay where there is high sewage pollution

and Boca Ciega Bay where dredge-fill development is

widespread.

Data on polychaete distribution and abundance show

that Tampa Bay supports a rich and varied polychaete

fauna, and much of the Estuary still remains in a nearly

natural condition.


xxx
















CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION


This report is a systematic and ecological account of

the polychaete worms collected in Tampa Bay, Florida, be-

tween June 1963 and June, 1969. The study was supported

by the National Marine Fisheries Service as part of an

estuarine survey that extended from the upper reaches of

the Bay to 9.8 km. offshore in the adjacent Gulf of Mexico.

The main purpose of the survey was to determine the qualita-

tive and quantitative distribution of benthic invertebrates

that directly and indirectly support commercial and sport

fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico. Other objectives were (1)

to evaluate the effects of pollution and coastal develop-

ments on estuarine environments, and (2) to compare the

benthos in Tampa Bay to that of other estuaries in the south-

east and elsewhere. Most of the biological and environmental

data were collected at 363 stations sampled in 1963 and 1964.

Additional information came from areas of the Bay that were

sampled for other laboratory projects that included research

on hydrology, sediments, coastal alterations, and polychaete

mariculture.









The direct relationship between benthic biomass and

abundance of ground fishes was first documented by Petersen

and Jensen (1911). Later, observations by Petersen and

others established the idea that similar bottom environ-

ments support similar benthic communities that can be dis-

tinguished by certain characteristic species (Thorson, 1969).

The practical aspects of Petersen's work, and his concept

of bottom communities, stimulated complementary lines of

academic and fishery investigations which now comprise a

large and diversified field of benthic, ecological research

(Mare, 1944; Jones, 1950; Drach, 1960; Wigley, 1961; Day,

1964; Sanders, Hessler, and Hampson, 1965; Carriker, 1967;

Muus, 1967; Peres, 1967; McIntyre and Eleftheriou, 1968;

Sanders, 1968, 1969; Fenchel, 1969; Gibbs, 1969; Hargrave,

1969; Lie, 1969; Makarov and Averin, 1969; McIntyre, 1969;

Rowe, 1969; Sanders and Hessler, 1969; Tietjen, 1969;

Barnard, 1970; Johnson, 1970; Lie and Kisker, 1970; Luksenas,

1970; McIntyre, 1970; Neyman, 1970; Pearson, 1970).

A comparatively recent area of benthic study deals with

the effects of pollution and coastal development on bottom

communities. The benthos is sensitive to environmental change,

and community composition can be drastically altered or elim-

inated depending on the type and degree of modification

(Reish, 1959; McNulty, 1966; Saville, 1966; Bartsch,









Callaway, Wagner, and Woelke, 1967; Olson and Burgess,

1967; Taylor and Saloman, 1968; Bagge, 1969; Copeland,

1970; Golubic, 1970; Sykes and Hall, 1970; Taylor, Hall,

and Saloman, 1970; Taylor, 1970). Polychaetes are domi-

nant forms in most benthic communities, and in disturbed

areas they are often the last metazoans to survive before

bottom conditions become abiotic (Theede, Ponat, Hiroki,

and Schlieper, 1969; Turner and Strachan, 1969).

On the basis of comparative benthic studies, Sanders

(1968) concluded that polychaetes, together with mollusks,

account for about 80 percent of the infauna retained in a

sieve of 0.4-mm. mesh. In Florida, studies of Biscayne Bay

and Alligator Harbor, and my own work along the west coast1

also showed that polychaetes were a major component of the

littoral infauna (McNulty, 1966; O'Gower and Wacasey, 1967;

Moore, Davies, Fraser, Gore, and Lopez, 1968; Naqvi, 1968).

Hartman (1951) remarked upon the vast, shallow-water poly-

chaete fauna throughout the Gulf of Mexico, and Rowe (1966)

reported on the abundance of polychaetes in the vicinity of

the Sigsbee Deep from bottom samples collected at 100 fathoms

down to the abyss at 2,000 fathoms.

Study of polychaetes, and other forage organisms, is



1
Data on file at the National Marine Fisheries Service
Biological Laboratory, St. Petersburg Beach, Florida. 33706







4

particularly important in the Gulf of Mexico because Gulf

fisheries are more valuable than those in any other geo-

graphic region of the United States. The annual wholesale

value of the Gulf catch is over 180,000,000 dollars, and

represents more than one-third of the total value of U. S.

marine landings that were worth 504,500,000 dollars in 1969

(Riley, 1970). It is important to note that most of the

sport and commercial species of the Gulf (65 to 90 percent

depending on geographic area) spend all or part of their

lives in estuaries (Rounsefell, 1954; Gunter, 1967; McHugh,

1967; Sykes,1967, 1968; Turner, 1969). In Tampa Bay, for

example, Sykes and Finucane (1966) found juveniles and adults

of 23 species of sport and commercial fishes. The high fish-

ery production that is characteristic of estuaries surround-

ing the Gulf of Mexico ultimately depends on high organic

production at lower trophic levels. There, as planktonic

larvae, and as adults that swim, crawl, or burrow, the ubiq-

uitous polychaetes enter the food webs of fishery species

(Hedgpeth, 1954; Reid, 1954; Smith, 19547 Williams, 1955;

Darnell, 1958; Eldred, Ingle, Woodburn, Hutton, and Jones,

1961; Hall, 1962; Tagatz, 1968; Sastrakusumah, 1970).















CHAPTER 2

DERIVATION OF THE FAUNA


Hartman (1951) recognized that the polychaete fauna

of the Gulf of Mexico consists of (1) a distinct group

associated with the Mississippi drainage system,(2) a

group with Iest Indian affinities,(3) an assemblage com-

monly collected along the eastern seaboard north to New

England,(4) species known also from the warmer waters of

the eastern Pacific, and (5) a group with world-wide dis-

tribution in low latitudes. Representatives of all these

groups were found in Tampa Bay. Their occurrence may be

explained in terms of historical events in the Gulf Basin

and local environmental conditions that now prevail.


The Gulf Basin

According to Murray (1961) the Gulf Basin developed

as a shallow trough during the Paleozoic era, and was first

flooded by the sea in the Mesozoic about Jurassic time.

This invasion coincides with the time when Yarborough (1967)

and Bullard (1969) believe that a rift, caused by continental







6

drift, separated the Americas from western Europe and Africa.

Progressive deepening of the Basin was apparently due to

the weight of sediments that have accumulated over a shear-

line around the rim since the Triassic period (Eardley, 1951;

Murray, 1961; Rainwater, 1967). Since Tertiary time, the

Gulf of Mexico has probably been a deep sea (Galtsoff, 1954)

and its water level and area have fluctuated periodically

in response to sea level changes and peripheral, tectonic

activity (Rainwater, 1967).

Until the Miocene (25,000,000 years before present)

the Gulf and the Atlantic Ocean were confluent across what

is now peninsular Florida and the south Atlantic coastal

plain (Cooke, 1945; Cheetham, 1963). Subsequent separation

of the two seas by continental uplifting blocked the ingress

of mid-Atlantic water and probably marked the last periodof

cold water in the Gulf (Alt and Brooks, 1965). The expansive

Gulf-Atlantic connection through mid-Tertiary time allowed

interchange of polychaetes and other neritic forms between

the two seas. Hedgpeth (1953) and other authors mention

this connection as a means of explaining the many patterns

of disjunctive distribution between species that n6w in-

habit the northern Gulf and the western Atlantic north of

Cape Canaveral (Hartman, 1951; Galtsoff, 1954; Humm, 1969).







7

The Caribbean.has existed since at least mid-Mesozoic

time (Ewing, 1968) and through that sea there have been

several periods of Atlantic-Pacific connection across

Central America. In chronological order, portals existed

in Jurrassic, Cretaceous, mid-Teriary, and Pliocene time

(Eardley, 1951; Lloyd, 1963; Rubinoff, 1968). As a conse-

quence, many amphi-American species now occur on eastern

and western sides of Central America, and there is still

limited transmigration through the Panama Canal (Gilbert

and Starks, 1904; Hildebrand, 1939; Rubinoff, 1968).

From the Caribbean Sea, polychaetes have probably always

had access to the Gulf through the Yucatan Strait. There

is also geological evidence that indicates a past Gulf con-

nection to the western Arctic through the Mississippi em-

bayment during upper Cretaceous time (Rainwater, 1967).

Upland terraces and submerged sills around the periph-

ery of the Gulf of Mexico are evidence of sea level oscil-

lations during the glacial and interglacial periods of the

Pleistocene. During that epoch, former sea stands, with

respect to the present sea level, have been estimated at

plus as much as 81 m. (Cooke, 1945) and minus as much as

158 m. (Uchupi, 1967). An upper limit of plus 9 m. has been

proposed by the recent work of Alt and Brooks (1965). Within







8

the past 6,000 years or so, Gulf sea level was as much as

5 m. lower than now and rose to the present level about

2,000 years ago (Gorsline, 1967). According to Rusnak

(1967) the present rate of sea level rise in the Gulf is

about 1.3 cm. per year.

The Gulf of Mexico now covers about 1,700,000 sq. km.,

and maximum depth is about 3,700 m. (Uchupi, 1967). The

coastline is about 8,000 km., and in the U. S. alone, the

tidal shoreline is at least 27,200 km. (Hedgpeth, 1953).

Gunter (1967) estimated that polyhaline bays between Corpus

Christi, Texas, and Florida Bay cover about 52,000 sq. km.

Most of that area can be included in 33 estuarine systems

that have an average area of about 1,430 sq. km. Along most

of the Gulf coast, the continental shelf slopes gradually

seaward and covers an additional shallow water area of

about 343,200 sq. km. (Carsey, 1950). Shelf width varies

from about 30 to 260 km., and breaks occur at the Yucatan

Strait where sill depth is about 2,100 m. and at the Florida

Strait where the sill is about 1,000 m. deep (Uchupi, 1967;

Armstrong, 1969; Jacobs and Ewing, 1969; Nowlin, 1971).

According to the coastal classification of Price (1954)

the southwestern Gulf has a segment of orogenic coast in

Mexico, and either alluvial or limestone coasts elsewhere.







9

Coasts of the alluvial type occur from northwestern Florida

to the Rio Grande and along the Mexican coast to Campeche.

The Florida and Yucatan peninsulas are limestone plateaus.


Currents and Circulation

Sea water enters the Gulf of Mexico from the Carib-

bean through the Yucatan Strait at a rate of about 25,000,000

m.3/sec. as the Yucatan Current (Leipper, 1968). The cur-

rent extends from the surface down to the top of the sill,

and consists of several tropical components near the surface

and colder water masses below about 600 m. (McLellan and

Nowlin, 1963; Wust, 1964; Gordon, 1967; Nowlin, 1971).

These water masses flow from several areas of the Atlantic

and serve as the principal route for the introduction of

polychaetes to the Gulf from adjacent seas (Sverdrup, John-

son, Fleming, 1942; Thorson, 1961).

Much of the Yucatan Current leaves the Gulf directly

through the Florida Strait as the Florida Current (Parr,

1937). The remainder moves north and penetrates to a dis-

tance of 480 km. or more into the central and northern

Gulf (Drummond and Austin, 1958; Armstrong, 1967). The

northern movements of the Yucatan Current generate a well-

defined loop current in the eastern Gulf, which moves clock-

wise to the east and south before entering the Atlantic as







10

part of the Florida Current. Within the perimeter of this

system, there is a persistent eddy current about 160 km.

northeast of the Yucatan Channel and about the same dis-

tance south of Pensacola, Florida (Drummond and Austin,

1958; Drennan, 1963; Nowlin, Hubertz, and Reid, 1968;

Nowlin, 1971). The inshore currents in the eastern Gulf

consist of one or more eddies that flow between the loop

current and the Florida coast, and variable longshore

currents that are strongly influenced by wind and tide

(Leipper, 1954; Lynch, 1954; Hela, 1956; Drummond and

Austin, 1958).

The offshore currents in the western Gulf also follow

a predominately clockwise direction, but the patterns are

poorly defined, especially in summer (Nowlin and McLellan,

1967; Jacobs and Ewing, 1969; Nowlin, 1971). Drift bottle

data, and other hydrological observations, indicate the

coastal currents in the western Gulf flow from the vicinity

of the Mississippi Delta toward the Mexican coast, es-

pecially between December and July (Leipper, 1954; Green-

man and LeBlanc, 1956; Drennan, 1963; Gaul and Boykin,

1965). At other times, the currents shift toward the east

and become part of the loop current (Drennan, 1963; Arm-

strong, Grady, and Stevenson, 1967).







11

Currents in Gulf estuaries are mostly tidal, and rarely

exceed 0.3 m./sec. except in narrows and offshore passes

where velocity may reach 3 m./sec. (Gorsline, 1967). The

relative strength of ebb and flow can often be deduced

from the observed direction of island or sand spit develop-

ment (Price, 1954).

Sediments

Widespread sedimentation in the Gulf of Mexico started

at the beginning of Laramide orogeny and continued through

the Tertiary and Quaternary to the present time (Rainwater,

1967). The rate of sedimentation is now between two and

300 m. per 1,000 years, which produces an average subsidence

in the Gulf basin of about 0.5 m. per 1,000 years (Shepard,

1953; Ludwick, 1964; Rusnak, 1967)., High sedimentation

rates occur near the mouth of large rivers such as the Mis-

sissippi where over 700,000,000 metric tons of sediment are

deposited each year (Gunter, 1967). Lower rates of about

1 m. per 1,000 years are characteristic of semiarid lagoons,

and sediments in the deep water of the Gulf may accumulate

as slowly as 1 mm. or less per 1,000 years (Rusnak, 1967;

Pyle, 1968). In general, however, Rusnak (1967) stated

that the average rate of sedimentation is about equal to

the rate of sea level rise. In addition to recent alluvial







12

deposits, the Gulf also contains a large amount of modern,

bioclastic sediments that have been distributed by marine

transgressions in the past 17,000 years following the Wis-

consin glaciation (Greeman and LeBlanc, 1956; Curray, 1960;

Taft and Harbaugh, 1964).

From the vicinity of Carmen, on the Mexican coast,

around the northern Gulf and south to Cape Romano and the

northern part of the Ten Thousand Islands in Florida, near-

shore sediments are mostly quartz sand with an admixture

of silt and clay. Within this area, the greatest amount of

silt and clay occurs in sediments of the northern and west-

ern Gulf. Typically, these fine-grained materials are de-

posited nearshore. Farther from shore there is a transi-

tion to more sandy sediments and mixtures of sand and shell.

In the northern Gulf, the zone of fine-grained particles and

quartz sand extends offshore about 80 km. In the eastern

Gulf, however, the same zone has an average width of only

32 km. and is gradually replaced almost entirely by carbon-

ate sediments in the vicinity of Cape Romano, Florida (Gould

and Stewart, 1955; Jordan and Stewart, 1959; Storr, 1964;

Force, 1969). Somewhat south of Cape Romano and on the

Campeche Bank of Mexico, sediments are mainly carbonaceous

and consist of marl or fragments of shell, coral, and coral-

line algae (Taft, 1961; Scholl, 1963; Scholl and Craighead,







13

1967). The zone of inshore, terrigenous deposits corres-

ponds with the region of the Gulf that receives the great-

est volume of river discharge (Gould and Stewart, 1955;

McNulty, 1968).

Regardless of provenance, however, sediments in Gulf

estuaries are similar in a number of respects. These fea-

tures include stratification, sorting, particle size dis-

tribution, organic content, and carbon-nitrogen ratio.

Generally, there is little or no sediment stratification

because of the burrowing and mixing accomplished by poly-

chaetes and other benthic invertebrates. Sediment sorting

improves from bay heads to the Gulf and is directly related

to wave and current energy. Particle size increases toward

the Gulf but local anomalies occur in channels where parti-

cles are usually larger than average, or in deep depressions

where most particles are in the silt and clay range. Organic

content (weight percentage of carbon) may exceed 10 percent

in fine-grained deposits. The average value, however, is

usually between one and two percent, and regional trends

show higher values near bay heads and lower values near the

Gulf. The organic carbon content of estuarine sediments

comes almost entirely from vegetation so that the carbon-

nitrogen ratio is generally high (Lowman, 19511 Lynch, 1954;







14

Price, 1954; Gould and Stewart, 1955; Jordon and Stewart,

1959; Puri and Vernon, 1959; Curry, 1960; Shepard and

Moore, 1960; Goodell and Gorsline, 1961; Stewart and

Gorsline, 1962; Holmes and Evans, 1963; Kofoed and Gors-

line, 1963; Scholl, 1963; Ludwick, 1964; Goldsmith, 1966;

Huang, 1966; Gorsline, 1967; Palacas, 1967; Uchupi, 1967;

Bryant, Ewing, and Jones, 1968).


Climate, Hydrology, and Nutrients

The Gulf coast climate has been described by Hedgpeth

(1953) and meteorological conditions offshore were reviewed

by Leipper (1954). In the western and northwestern Gulf,

Hedgpeth (1953) recognized a temperate semiarid climate

which changes in order to temperate dry, and moist subhumid

climates to the east, and subtropical and tropical, moist,

subhumid climates on the southern half of peninsular Florida.

In comparison with the open Gulf, coastal waters are strong-

ly influenced by ambient weather in terms of a number of

factors that include temperature, salinity, turbidity, and

the concentrations of organic and inorganic nutrients. Tem-

perature more than any other factor is responsible for the

biotic provinces in the Gulf (Hutchins, 1947; Pulley, 1952;

Hedgpeth, 1953; Humm, 1969). On the basis of temperature

and mollusk distribution, Pulley (1952) distinguished six







15

faunal provinces for Gulf coastal waters. Three of these,

south Florida, southwest Florida, and Mexican may also be

considered Caribbean -- while the northeast Gulf, north-

west Gulf, and Texas Transitional may be regarded as

Carolinean (Hedgpeth, 1953). In deeper waters of the Gulf,

Parker (1960) and Rowe (1966) have shown that water tempera-

ture decreases with depth. This phenomenon creates vertical

provinces as well, which range from Caribbean or Carolinean

at the surface to Boreal at 2,000 fathoms and below.

Average winter water temperature in the southern Gulf

is about 23.90 C., and in the north it is about 18.30 C.

(Drummond and Austin, 1958). As a yearly average, tempera-

ture data from coastal recording stations around the Gulf

show a gradual decrease from south to north: Key West,

Florida, and Progresso, Mexico -- 26.50 C.; St. Petersburg,

Florida -- 24.00 C.1 Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston,

Texas -- 22.00 C. (U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1965).

It is important to note, however, that these average figures

are computed from temperatures that have a normal, yearly

range of about 150 C. and an extreme range that may exceed

300 C. In a three-year study of estuaries in the Florida

Everglades, Tabb, Dubrow, and Manning (1959) recorded a low,

winter water temperature of 14.40 C. and a summer high of







16

33.60 C. Seasonal, temperature ranges in the northern Gulf

have been reported by Dawson (1955a) as 9.50 to 35.00 C.,

and by Curl (1959) as 14.00 to 30.1 C. "Northers," and

high summer air temperatures, cause even greater differences

in winter-summer water temperatures (00 to 440 C.) on the

Texas coast (Leipper, 1954; Breuer, 1957; Simmons, 1957;

Gunter, 1967). Little or no thermal stratification has been

reported for coastal waters of the Gulf, but tributary springs

and heated industrial waters create local temperature anom-

alies.

Isohalines for surface water in the Yucatan Current

range from about 35.7 to 36 parts per thousand, but lower

and higher values have been recorded from water masses at

greater depths (Drummond and Austin, 1958; Jacobs and Ewing,

1969). In the open Gulf, Williams (1954) reported 30 to 37

parts per thousand as a normal range for surface salinity,

and Curl (1959) arbitrarily selected 35 parts per thousand

as a means of identifying the dividing point between off-

shore water and coastal water. The width of the estuarine

zone varies with season and place, and depends mainly on

the flow of rivers and springs. Average discharge of fresh

water into the Gulf has been estimated at 25,000,000 liters

per second. About three-fourths of this volume comes from









the Mississippi River, and the rest comes mostly from

Florida and the Gulf states east of Corpus Christi, Texas

(Collier and Hedgpeth, 1950; Wilson, 1967). Cruise data

from the M/V Alaska show that the flow of fresh water from

the Mississippi River may reduce surface salinity to 26

parts per thousand at more than 96 km. from land (Drummond

and Austin, 1958). Curl (1959) found a similar, but less

pronounced, dilution in waters of the northeastern Gulf,

and reported a band of coastal water that extended eight to

48 km. from shore depending on the seasonal volume of fresh-

water runoff. In other areas of the Gulf, inshore waters

are often hypersaline rather than brackish. The most ex-

tensive belt of high salinity water lies along the Mexican

and Texas coasts in the Laguna Madre where Simmons (1957)

reported a datum of 113.9 parts per thousand. Abnormally

high salinity has also been reported for south Florida es-

tuaries during periods of drought and high evaporation

(Tabb, Dubrow, and Manning, 1959).

Turbidity in the Gulf is caused by land drainage and

other factors such as wind, water currents, and bottom type

(Breuer, 1962). On the west coast of Florida, clear water

occurs along the Keys but turbid conditions prevail over

the marl bottom in Florida Bay, and in the Ten Thousand







18

Islands where the water is stained by mangrove vegetation

(Tabb, Dubrow, and Manning, 1962). To the north, between

Cape Romano and Cedar Keys, estuarine waters are moderately

clear. Farther north, and west to the Laguna Madre, the

only area of clear, coastal water occurs between Cape San

Blas and Pensacola, Florida (Gunter, 1967). According to

Breuer (1962) turbidity in the Laguna Madre is variable,

but the water is generally clearer than that of the north-

ern Gulf coast. From Tampico, Mexico, to the Campeche Bank,

the coastal water is very clear. Kornicker, Bonet, Cann,

and Hoskin (1959) reported that water in the vicinity of

Alacran Reef was sufficiently clear to see the bottom at

27 m.

Nutrient concentrations in the Gulf are almost entirely

related to coastal runoff as the mineral-rich layers of the

Yucatan Current are mostly directed toward the Florida Strait

(Rounsefell, 1954; Drummond and Austin, 1958; Corcoran

and Alexander, 1963). Therefore, most of the euphotic zone

in the open Gulf has low concentrations of phosphorus, nitro-

gen, and other growth-promoting elements. A few, exceptional

areas of high productivity in the Gulf of Mexico have been

reported by Bogdanov, Sokolov, and Khromov (1968). Surface

waters of many warm seas lack the nutrients necessary for







19

high, plankton production, and primary productivity in such

areas usually varies between 0.05 and 0.38 g.C/m.2/day

(Ryther, 1963; Beers, Steven, and Lewis, 1968). Primary

production in the Gulf probably lies within that range. Near-

shore, however, nutrient concentrations and primary produc-

tion are higher. High, estuarine production results from

mineral and organic enrichment through land drainage, intra-

estuarine nutrient cycling, tidal action, high solar insola-

tion, and the presence of a broad, shallow littoral zone that

supports a variety of photosynthetic taxa (Schelske and Odum,

1962; Duke and Rice, 1967). Work in Gulf estuaries by Odum

(1957),Odum and Hoskin (1958),Pomeroy (1960),and others has

shown that gross primary production2 is on the order of 5 to

34 g.02/m.2/day or roughly 2.5 to 17 g.C/m.2/day. Values

at the lower end of this range are probably the result of

low light transmission in areas of high turbidity (Odum and

Hoskin, 1958; Ragotzkie, 1959; Gunter, 1967). Added to

endogenous estuarine production, there is also an enormous

area of mangrove and marsh vegetation which contributes de-

tritus and soluble organic compounds to estuarine food webs

(Darnell, 1967; Odum and de la Cruz, 1967; Stephens, 1966;



2
Net primary production is between 40 and 75 percent of
gross primary production (Nielsen, 1963; Ryther, 1963).







20

Zieman, 1968; Heald, 1969; Taylor, 1969). Gulf enrich-

ment by fresh-water drainage was first demonstrated by

Riley (1937) in a study of phosphate-phosphorus near the

mouth of the Mississippi River. His data for the delta

area and coast between central Louisiana and Mobile Bay

showed a maximum phosphate concentration of 16 mg./m.3

Offshore, the highest measurement was eight and the average

value was 3.8 mg./m.3. In the western Gulf, Simmons (1957)

observed the same pattern of estuarine enrichment in brack-

ish bays of the Texas coast. The most thorough study of

estuarine nutrification has been done in the eastern Gulf

in connection with work on red tides. A selection of sta-

tion data presented by Finucane and Dragovich (1959) illus-

trates the gradual decline of organic and inorganic nutrients

in an inshore-offshore direction (table 1). The concentra-

tion of phosphorus nearshore in Tampa Bay and Charlotte

Harbor is abnormally high due to the distribution of commer-

cial phosphate deposits in nearby areas (McNeil, 1950;

Dragovich, Kelly and Goodell, 1968).













Table l.--Mean annual values for nitrite-nitrate nitrogen,
total phosphorus, copper, carbohydrate, and
protein from water inshore (IS) and offshore
(OS) at three points along the west coast of
Florida. Data from Finucane and Dragovich
(1959) -- Tampa Bay stations 17 and 20; Char-
lotte Harbor stations 3 and 34; Everglades
stations 37 and 56


Stations

Tampa Bay Charlotte Everglades
Factor Harbor

IS OS IS OS IS OS

N02-NO3 1.1 0.8 2.5 0.5 1.8 0.5

ug.at./l.

Total Phosphorus 9.6 0.4 19.4 0.3 2.9 0.7

ug.at./1.
Cu 0.15 0.08 0.14 0.11 0.15 0.12

ug.at./l.

Carbohydrate, 3.0 0.9 3.2 1.4 2.6 1.6
Arabinose
equivalents

mg./l.

Protein, 1.2 0.2 4.2 0.4 4.2 0.3
Tyrosine
equivalents

mg./l.









Emergent and Submergent Vegetation

Emergent vegetation along the Gulf coast between south-

ern Florida and Yucatan consists of four main associations

in biotopes that are variously influenced by exposure, drain-

age, coastal formation, and climate. The sand-strand asso-

ciation and those plants that occur on saline flats are found

recurrently along the entire coastline of the Gulf of Mexico.

Mangroves are confined by temperature to the southern Gulf

where they dominate the coast from Tampa Bay south and along

the Yucatan Peninsula. The black mangrove, Avicennia nitida

Jacq., has a more extensive range than either the red,

Rhizophora mangle L., or white mangrove, Laguncularia

racemosa (L.). It occurs in small stands as far north as

the Chandeleur Islands in Louisiana and along the Mexican

coast to the vicinity of the Rio Grande. North of the well-

developed mangrove forests, the predominant coastal vegeta-

tion consists of one or more species of Spartina or the black

rush, Juncus roemerianus Scheele (Price, 1954; Thorne, 1954;

Moul and Brown, 1957).

Submerged vegetation includes seven species of sea

grasses and many kinds of algae. Among the sea grasses,

two are commonly found in water of low salinity -- horned

pondweed, Zanichellia palustris L., and widgeon grass, Ruppia







23

maritima L. The other five occur mostly in normal or hyper-

saline habitats: turtle grass, Thalassia testudinum Konig;

manatee grass, Syrinqodium filiforme Kutzing; shoal weed,

Diplanthera wrightii (Ascherson); Halophila baillonis Ascher-

son; and Halophila engelmanii Ascherson (Thorne, 1954; Humm,

1956). Turtle grass is the most widespread sea grass in the

Gulf, but on the basis of scattered collection records it

seems likely that all or most of the other species are also

distributed throughout the Gulf wherever light and bottom con-

ditions are favorable (Humm, 1956; Kornicker, Bonet, Cann,

and Hoskin, 1959; Phillips, 1960; Breuer, 1962; Tabb,

Dubrow, and Manning, 1962; Gunter, 1967). Near Tortugas,

Florida, Thorne (1954) commented on a collection of H.

engelmanii from an estimated depth of 91 m., and stated

that he knew of no sea grass collections from deeper than

100 m.

A rich algal flora is associated with sea grasses (Humm,

1964) and a large number of species attach to limestone out-

crops, beach rock, serpuloid reefs, old coral heads, coastal

vegetation, and a variety of man-made structures. Further-

more, a few species are adapted by a prodigious system of

stems to growth on unconsolidated sediments. Recent work

on the taxonomy, ecology, and biogeography of the Gulf algae







24

includes reports by Taylor (1960), Humm and Taylor (1961),

Taylor (1965), Dawes (1967), and Humm (1969).


Animal Assemblages

Hedgpeth (1954) and others summarized available informa-

tion on animal communities in the Gulf, and presented species

lists, ecological data, and biogeographic annotations for

many invertebrate and vertebrate groups. The major bottom

communities that he recognized were: oyster bottom, shrimp

ground, coral bottom, sponge bar, serpuloid reef, jetty, and

sand beach. Drawing from an earlier paper by Ladd (1951)

Hedgpeth also listed nine marine environments based on

salinity and mollusk distribution. These were: bay head,

inter-reef (oyster), reef (oyster), polyhaline bay, passes,

open Gulf nearshore and offshore, beach, and hypersaline

lagoon. Information on the deep water fauna of the Gulf

was limited at that time to reports from cruises of the

Blake and Albatross between 1877 and 1883.

Later reports on invertebrate assemblages in the

northern Gulf described as many as 11 environmental faces

for estuarine waters and eight for the continental shelf

and slope (Parker, 1960; Phleger, 1960). The dominant

fishes and macroinvertebrate assemblages in estuarine sys-

tems from Texas to western Florida were studied by a number







25

of authors including Reid (1955a, 1955b); Wurtz and Roback

(1955); Breuer (1957, 1962); Simmons (1957); Darnell

(1958); Arnold, Wheeler, and Baxter (1960); Gunter (1962,

1967); Hoese and Jones (1963); and Perret (1966). For

the eastern Gulf, principal studies include papers by Reid

(1954); Springer and Woodburn (1960); Springer and McErlean

(1962); Scholl (1963); Sykes and Finucane (1966); Gunter

and Hall (1965); and Tabb, Dubrow, and Manning (1962). By

including Biscayne Bay, Florida, as an area adjacent to the

Gulf, mention may also be made of the series of benthic in-

vestigations by McNulty and colleagues that date back to

the 1950s (McNulty, 1966) and the studies on intertidal

communities by O'Gower and Wacasey (1967) and Moore, Davies,

Fraser, Gore, and Lopez (1968).

Recent information on the offshore fauna is available

in several additional references. The most extensive col-

lections came from exploratory fishing cruises conducted by

the National Marine Fisheries Service (Bullis and Thompson,

1965). Intensive regional studies have been made by Hilde-

brand (1954, 1955) and Rowe (1966) in the western Gulf, and

by Storr (1964) and Joyce (1968) in the eastern sector.

The first written reports on Tampa Bay and its marine

life came from observations by the early Spanish explorers,









Navaez and DeSoto, in the early 1500s (Galtsoff, 1954).

Their comments were of a general nature and described the

more common fish and shellfish eaten by Indians (Shipp, 1881).

In addition to the littoral, polychaete aggregations

reported by Hartman (1951) other papers include (1) species

from the Mexican coast,Rioja (1946, 1961), -- (2) species

annotated by Behre (1950) from Louisiana, (3) those in the

museum report compiled by Dawson (1955b) for coastal Missis-

sippi, (4) species in Menzel's (1956) checklist for north

Florida, (5) worms found by Carpenter (1956) in Alligator

Harbor, Florida, from nine habitats, (6) annelids collected

by Taylor (1961) in 10 habitats, (7) those commonly found in

Biscayne Bay, Florida, on level bottom and intertidal bottoms

that are either vegetated or unvegetated (McNulty, 1966;

O'Gower and Wacasey, 1967; Moore, Davies, Fraser, Gore,

and Lopez, 1968), -- (8) worms that are found in and on

coral in the south Florida reef patches (Ebbs, 1966) and

(9) polychaetes found in sponges (Pearse, 1934).

Elsewhere on the Florida coasts, polychaetes have been

studied by Ehlers (1887); Ashworth (1910); Treadwell (1911,

1914, 1917, 1921, 1929); Hoagland (1919); Monro (1933) Hart-

man (1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942a, 1942b, 1944a, 1944b,

1947a, 1947b, 1949, 1950, 1952, 1954, 1956, 1957, 1958,






27

1959a, 1959b, 1965, 1968, 1969); Stephenson and Stephenson

(1950, 1952); Voss and Voss (1955); Pettibone (1956, 1961,

1963a, 1963b, 1965, 1966); Renaud (1956); Jones (1961,

1963); McNulty (1961); Paine (1961, 1963); Tabb and

Manning (1961); McNulty, Work, and Moore (1962); Mangum

(1962, 1964); Tabb, Dubrow, and Manning (1962); Wells (1962):

Robertson (1963); Ebbs (1964); Ebbs and Staiger (1965);

Fitzsimons (1965); Wells (1965); Bush (1966); Multer and

Milliman (1967); Joyce (1968); Kirtley (1968); Mangum,

Santos, and Rhodes (1968); Naqvi (1968); Heald (1969); and

McNulty and Lopez (1969).

One of the earliest, if not the first, collection of

polychaetes in Tampa Bay was made by Eisenberg in 1856

(Wells, 1962). His collection contained a large number of

Arenicola cristata that are now housed at the Museum of

Comparative Zoology. Later records are limited to work by

Pettibone (1957); Dragovich and Kelly (1964); Simon (1965);

Taylor (1966, 1968); Kelly and Dragovich (1967); and Taylor

and Saloman (1968). Only six species and some ecological

observations were noted in these papers.


Human Influence

Plant and animal communities in the Gulf are probably

as productive as those in any other area of the world. Be-

fore the recent impact of civilization, mortality from







28

environmental change was limited to natural phenomena such

as hurricanes, severe cold fronts, red tide, and "Jubilees"

(oxygen depletion -- Gunter, 1967).

Along much of the Gulf coast, the estuarine environment

has been modified by man. These changes are caused by do-

mestic and industrial wastes, biocides, siltation, radio-

active wastes, crude oil and chemical spills, exotic species,

and human predation; as well as many types of coastal con-

struction for water diversion, storm protection, navigation,

beach reclamation, and land fills (U. S. Public Health Serv-

ice, 1954; Biglane and LaFleur, 1967; Cronin, 1967; Butler,

1969; Holt, 1969; Hopkins, 1969; Copeland, 1970). Most

of these modifications occurred after 1940 when many coastal

areas began to develop at an unprecedented rate. The magni-

tude and significance of human influence on Gulf estuaries

is presently undergoing review by the National Marine Fisher-

ies Service and cooperating Gulf states. The project is en-

titled, "Gulf of Mexico Estuarine Inventory." This monumen-

tal study shows the extent of coastal development around the

Gulf and describes the present condition of nearshore waters,

sediments, and biota.

On the basis of data from this inventory, Sykes (1967)

estimated that four percent, or about 218,000 ha., of Gulf









estuaries, are already seriously polluted or entirely

eliminated as area for useful biological production. His

figures show that most of the damage has occurred in Florida

where some 158,000 ha. were polluted, or filled for residen-

tial and industrial sites. As a specific example of estuarine

destruction he cited Boca Ciega Bay (Tampa Bay Estuary) where

land fills have covered nearly 20 percent of the original

water area. Within the same Estuary, there are also areas

that receive a large volume of domestic and industrial waste,

and other areas that are relatively undisturbed.

The presence of natural and modified environments in

Tampa Bay provided an opportunity to report additional in-

formation on the diversity, abundance, and distribution of

Gulf polychaetes; and to compare the polychaete fauna of

natural, undisturbed areas with those that have been altered

in various ways by man. The use of polychaetes as indica-

tors of environmental change has great relevance in the

Tampa Bay area where the economy is based on retirement

living, tourism, recreation and water resources.
















CHAPTER 3

TAMPA BAY ESTUARY


In Miocene and Pliocene time Tampa Bay and southern

Florida were under the sea. The headlands that now mark

the Estuary were no more than submerged features of the

Florida Plateau (Cooke, 1945; Alt and Brooks, 1965). The

modern relief of Tampa Bay did not take shape until Pleisto-

cene time when great fluctuations of sea level caused re-

current periods of erosion and sedimentation. According

to Gorsline (1967) the last major period of erosion on the

Florida Plateau occurred about 17,000 years ago when the

Gulf was 100 m. lower than now. Thereafter, rising water

brought the Gulf to its present height about 2,000 years

ago, and the level has changed little since that time.


Location and Configuration

Tampa Bay is located midway along the west coast of

Florida between north latitude 27031'4" and 28002'3", and

west longitude 81 23'2" and 82 50'0" (figure 1). The shore-

line is approximately 320 km. and surface area is about 905







31

sq. km. The main axis of the Estuary lies northeast-south-

west and extends nearly 63 km. Maximum width is 40 km.

near the mouth of the Estuary between the narrows in upper

Boca Ciega Bay and Sarasota Pass (Olson and Morrill, 1955).

On the basis of hydrology and geography, the Estuary

can be divided into six areas. Tampa Bay extends from the

Gulf, between Mullet and Anna Maria Keys, landward to Inter-

bay Peninsula. It is divided by a hypothetical line between

Pinellas Point and Piney Point into upper and lower Tampa

Bay. A third area, Boca Ciega Bay, lies north of Tampa Bay

entrance, and a fourth, Terra Ceia Bay,is on the opposite

side. A fifth area, Old Tampa Bay, is located on the west

side of Interbay Peninsula, and the sixth area, Hillsborough

Bay, lies on the east side of the Peninsula (figure 1). In

terms of surface area, the upper and lower parts of Tampa

Bay comprise about 57 percent of the Estuary, Boca Ciega

Bay eight percent, Terra Ceia Bay three percent, Old Tampa

Bay 22 percent, and Hillsborough Bay 10 percent.

Passes to the Gulf run between a series of barrier is-

lands located along the seaward side of the Estuary. From

Anna Maria Key north, the main passes are Passage Key Inlet,

Southwest Channel, Egmont Channel, Bunces Pass, Pass-a-Grille

Channel, Blind Pass, and Johns Pass. The islands are built





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and shaped by tidal action, and by waves and longshore

currents. Coastal currents north of Tampa Bay entrance

have a net, southerly flow, and south of the entrance in-

shore currents have a predominantly northward drift. In

passes, currents run slightly faster at ebb than at flood

tide (Goodell and Gorsline, 1961).

Average depth of the Estuary is about 3.3 m. and prac-

tically all water deeper than 5 m. is in upper and lower

Tampa Bay. The deepest water (12 m.) is just south of

Mullet Key in Egmont Channel. Dredged, ship channels from

the Gulf to ports in Tampa Bay, Old Tampa Bay, and Hills-

borough Bay have a controlling depth of about 9 m. By

area, average depths in the Estuary are as follows: lower

and upper Tampa Bay, 4.3 m.; Boca Ciega Bay, 1.5 m.; Terra

Ceia Bay, 1.5 m.; Old Tampa Bay, 2.7 m.; Hillsborough Bay,

3.1 m. Topographic zones in the Estuary include shallow

tidal flats with an average depth of 1.2 m., slopes that

drop from the flats to about 5.4 m., and natural depressions

and channels that are 6 m. or deeper. Total volume of the
/
Estuary at mean, low water (MLW) is about 0.687 cubic miles

(Olson and Morrill, 1955; Goodell and Gorsline, 1961 ; U. S.

Coast and Geodetic Survey Navigation Charts 586 and 587).

Offshore, the continental shelf is 192 km. wide. Depth







34

increases by 0.8 m. per mile (1.6 km.) to the 63 m. con-

tour, and 3 m. per mile from there to the 180 m. mark.

At the outer limit of the shelf, there is a sharp dip,

and the angle of the continental slope is about 390 between

a depth of 1,800 and 2,700 m. (Gould and Stewart, 1955).


Climate and Tributary Waters

The Estuary and surrounding upland has an humid, sub-

tropical climate. Average air temperature in St. Peters-

burg during 1963 was 220 C.and mean temperature of the

coldest and warmest months was 12 and 280 C. (U. S. Dept.

of Commerce, Climatological Data, Florida, 1963). Rainfall

is about 127 cm. per year, and records show that annual pre-

cipitation varies between 72.5 and 192.5 cm. (U. S. Dept. of

Commerce, Climatological Data, Florida, 1967). The rainfall

is seasonal, and more than half usually falls between June

and October (Dragovich and May, 1962). Much of the rain

comes from localized electrical storms so that precipitation

is not evenly distributed over the entire watershed. For

example, in 1963, St. Petersburg and Bradenton received about

153 cm. of rain but only 109 cm. fell on Tampa. Evapora-

tion usually equals or exceeds precipitation. In 1963, it

was recorded as 170.13 cm. at a gauging station near Tampa

(U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Climatological Data, Florida, 1964).







35

Prevailing winds over the Estuary are easterly at an average

speed of 3.7 m./sec., there are only 40 to 80 days of cloud

cover each year, and the sun usually shines more than six

hours per day (Trewartha, 1943; Hutton, Eldred, Woodburn,

and Ingle, 1956). In 1963, wind direction and cloud cover

were normal, but wind velocity was considerably higher than

average (5.9 m./sec.) -- (U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Climato-

logical Data, Florida, 1963).

The watershed drained by the Estuary covers an area

of about 5,600 sq. km. and contains a number of rivers,

streams, and springs.3 The rivers all flow into the east-

ern side of the Estuary and are named Hillsborough, Palm,

Alafia, Little Manatee, and Manatee (Ferguson, Linghan,

Love, and Vernon, 1947). Many of the charted creeks and

bayous are entirely tidal and have no fresh water source.

Gauge records show that fresh water flow into the Estuary

is 1,567.5 cubic feet per second (cfs) or 44,260 liters per

second, and the total flow from all natural sources is

probably close to 2,000 cfs (56,600 liters per second).

Using 56,600 liters per second as an approximate figure,

the daily fresh water flow into the Estuary is about 4.9

billion liters per day. Total fresh water input from all



3
Data on file U. S. Geological Survey, Tampa, Florida,
33602.







36

sources should include domestic and industrial sewage which

has a volume of 347,000,000 liters per day. By areas, sew-

age volume figures in million of liters per day are as

follows: lower and upper Tampa Bay, 88; Boca Ciega Bay,

85; Terra Ceia Bay, negligible; Old Tampa Bay, 10; and

Hillsborough Bay 164. Thus the grand total of fresh water

entering the Estuary is about five billion liters per day

with sewage volume amounting to more than six percent of

that figure.

Coastal Development

In the tri-county region surrounding Tampa Bay there

is a resident population of over 1,120,000 people. The

largest number of people live in Pinellas County (527,920)

which is the most densely populated county in Florida. The

population of Hillsborough County is 505,755, and that of

Manatee County is 86,500. Centers of population are the

cities of St. Petersburg, Clearwater, Tampa, Palmetto, and

Bradenton. Automobile travel around and between these cities

is facilitated by a causeway and two bridges over Old Tampa

Bay, a bridge over upper Hillsborough Bay, several bridges

and causeways between the mainland and the barrier islands

across Boca Ciega Bay, and the Sunshine Skyway near the

mouth of the Estuary that connects St. Petersburg and Terra

Ceia.







37

Regional commerce includes fisheries, agriculture, food

processing, wholesale and retail merchandising, tobacco,

electronics and other light industry, chemical production

and heavy industry, shipping, air and rail transport, public

utilities, and building construction. Tourism, however, is

the most important component of the economy in the Tampa

Bay area. Figures from the Florida Development Commission

show that 3,000,000 tourists visit the Bay each year. They

stay for an average vacation of 15 days and have a per capital

expenditure of 274 dollars. Thus, the total yearly value of

tourism is 822,000,000 dollars. The main tourist attraction

is Tampa Bay Estuary and the recreation it provides (Kidd,

1963).

Development in Boca Ciega Bay is largely for homesites

and tourist accommodations. Pollutants include sewage and

a large volume of silt and clay that was deposited during

dredge-fill projects. Land fills and construction of the

Pinellas County Bayway have eliminated most coastal vegeta-

tion and drastically changed current patterns. The only

remaining natural shoreline is around islands east and

west of Tierra Verde and at Fort DeSoto Park (Mullet Key)

where vegetation consists of mangroves, a variety of strand

species, and cord grass.







38

In lower and upper Tampa Bay, there is practically no

natural shore in Pinellas County, and the shore in Manatee

County is being rapidly developed for homesites, tourism,

industry, and shipping. At present, the volume of sewage

and degree of coastal development is far greater in Pinellas

County. The Manatee side of the Bay has some extensive

stands of mangrove, but construction at Apollo Beach and

Piney Point make their future uncertain. Egmont Key, at

the mouth of Tampa Bay, is relatively undisturbed and has

only a small boat pilot community and a U. S. Coast Guard

facility to maintain Egmont Light.

In Old Tampa Bay, about two-thirds of the coast is un-

developed and supports a mixed growth of mangrove, cord

grass, and black rush. Tidal flow in upper Old Tampa Bay

is interrupted by Courtney Campbell Parkway. Sewage is the

principal pollutant there, and the major portion of resi-

dential and industrial development is in Hillsborough County

between the eastern end of W. Howard Frankland bridge and

the phosphate docks at Port Tampa.

The entire perimeter of Hillsborough Bay is developed

and partially filled. McDill Air Force Base covers the

southern end of Interbay Peninsula, and from there to the

Alafia River there is a solid front of housing, dock facil-

ities, and heavy industry. Large sewage outfalls enter the







39

Bay at McDill (secondary treatment) and at Hooker Point

(primary treatment).

Terra Ceia Bay has some waterfront homesites and

marinas, and is polluted to a small degree from sewage

carried by the Manatee River. Most of the shoreline is

covered with mangroves and an interesting admixture of

tropical species.

Hydrology

From a hydrological standpoint, Tampa Bay Estuary is

one of the best known embayments in the world. Its water

chemistry has been studied periodically since 1946, mainly

in connection with investigations of the Florida red tide

organism, Gymnodinium breve (Williams, 1954). In their

literature survey of the Estuary, Olson and Morrill (1955)

summarized existing information on water temperature, salin-

ity, water transparency, currents, and tides. The National

Marine Fisheries Service increased the scope and frequency

of water sampling in 1957, and in 1966, the laboratory at

St. Petersburg Beach established 30 permanent hydrographic

stations. At a station at the laboratory dock on Boca Ciega

Bay water is sampled twice each day, and water at the other

stations is sampled on a monthly schedule. Also, daily water

temperature and salinity measurements are recorded at the

U. S. Coast Guard Station on Egmont Key. Factors recorded







40

by the Fisheries Service include water temperature, salinity,

pH, total phosphorus, Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved oxygen,

water turbidity and transparency, chlorophyll pigments, as-

tacin and non-astacin carotenoids, planktonic primary pro-

duction, and ultraviolet absorption (Saloman and Taylor,

1968). The mean and range of these factors for 1963 and

the most recent year of record (1967) have been summarized

(table 2).

Temperature

The mean, annual temperature of Tampa Bay is about

250 C. Normally, water temperature reaches 200 C.by April,

and 300 C.in July. It drops to 200 C.or below in November,

and falls to between 10 and 150 C.during winter months.

Temperature fluctuations are usually gradual, but pro-

nounced diel changes have been observed in shallow water.

For example, following a cold front in February, 1966, I

recorded a datum of 4.80 C.near shore at Mullet Key where

the normal temperature for that month is about 150 C. At

other times, rapid temperature depression in the Estuary

has caused extensive fish mortality (Rinckey and Saloman,

1964). The highest temperature recorded in the Estuary

(36.900C was reported from a tidal flat in Boca Ciega Bay

in July (Phillips, 1960). In 1963, average water tempera-

ture in the six major areas of Tampa Bay Estuary was 27.9C.









and the observed extremes were 11.7 and 36.80 C.

Over broad areas marked by degrees of latitude, water

temperature is probably the most important ecological

factor that limits the distribution of marine animals.

Temperature acts through its influences on metabolic

processes and generally restricts the range of littoral

species to one or another biogeographic zone or province

(Hedgpeth, 1953, 1957; Moore, 1958). On the basis of

mollusk distribution, Pulley (1952) erected the Southwest

Florida Province which includes Tampa Bay Estuary and runs

from Cape Romano to Anclote Key. For this zone he reported

a mean, maximum summer temperature of 320 C. and a mean, mini-

mum winter temperature of 160 C. Following the thesis of

Hutchins (1947) and others, he attributed the great species

diversity within that area to the fact that the average tem-

perature regime permits reproduction and survival of species

from both the Carolinian and West Indian Provinces.

Salinity

The salinity of Tampa Bay Estuary is between the con-

centration of fresh water (0.5 parts per thousand or less)

and that of sea water (33 to 37 parts per thousand). There

are no hypersaline areas in the Estuary, but in Hillsborough

Bay there is an extensive deposit of gypsum (hydrated calcium







42

sulphate) adjacent to spoil deposited from the phosphate

industry near the Alafia River.

At the entrance of the Estuary, salinity is usually

greater than 30 parts per thousand, and may reach 36 parts

per thousand or higher. The salinity gradient from lower

Tampa Bay to the head of the Estuary is about 10 to 12

parts per thousand. Dams limit brackish-water to the mouth

of the Hillsborough and Alafia Rivers, but in other tribu-

taries, salt-water extends well upstream. Vertical salin-

ity gradients in the Estuary are uncommon. The greatest

observed difference in salt content between surface and

bottom water (1.4 to 20.5 parts per thousand) was recorded

at the east end of Cross Bayou Canal in Old Tampa Bay on

January 13, 1963 (Finucane and Dragovich, 1966).

Diel and seasonal salinity changes in the Estuary are

small. Hillsborough Bay is the only area where rainfall

strongly influences salinity. There, drainage from the

Hillsborough and Alafia Rivers between June and October

may reduce salinity 6 to 7 parts per thousand (Saloman and

Taylor, 1968). At sampling stations visited in 1963, salin-

ity records were between 0.1 and 36.4 parts per thousand.

Next to temperature, salinity is probably the most

important hydrological factor limiting the distribution of

species in Tampa Bay. For most marine and fresh-water










species, intermediate salinities impose a physiological

barrier to estuarine migrations. Consequently, the middle

and upper reaches of brackish estuaries are inhabited by

euryhaline species and holeuryhaline forms (Pearse and

Gunter, 1957; Kinne, 1964).

Many polychaetes are well adapted to severe salinity

changes. Some of the nereids, for example, survive water

conditions that range from hypersaline to fresh through

their ability to regulate water and ions against a consider-

able concentration gradient (Oglesby, 1968). Other worms

have a limited ability to regulate or adjust in response

to salinity changes, and some avoid temporary osmotic stress

by retreating into burrows or tubes.

Hydrogen Ion Concentration

In most estuarine and marine habitats, pH is 7.0 or

greater due to high concentrations of bicarbonate, carbon-

ate, and borate ions (Nicol, 1960; Reid, 1961; Skirrow,

1965). Average pH for all areas of Tampa Bay in 1963 was

7.8 and the extreme values recorded that year were 5.6 and
4
8.5 units. Unpublished data from diel studies between

1962 and 1963 show that changes in pH are seldom more than



4
Data on file National Marine Fisheries Service Bio-
logical Laboratory, St. Petersburg Beach, Florida, 33706.







44

1.5 unit over a 24-hour period. In tidal creeks, and sedi-

ments beneath mangroves, Goodell and Gorsline (1961) re-

ported 6.8 as the observed, minimum pH. Humic acids and

highly organic sediments are responsible for low pH values

in such areas. In general, pH values in the Estuary are

7.0 or less in tributary waters, and 7.1 or above elsewhere.

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

On the basis of daylight and diel4 records, DO of

surface water in the Estuary seldom drops below 4 ml./l.

The average concentration in 1963 was 4.8 ml./l., which

represents oxygen saturation or super-saturation at ob-

served ranges of temperature and salinity. High and low

DO values for 1963 were 9.0 and 1.1 ml./l., respectively.

Values near 9 ml./l. usually coincided with periods of high

photosynthetic activity and low values were invariably re-

corded in early morning hours. DO values below 2 ml./l.

are limiting to many marine animals, especially when an

oxygen deficiency persists for protracted periods (Emery

and Stevenson, 1957; Moore, 1958).

At the bottom of the Estuary, DO is more variable and

there are records of anoxic conditions over soft sediments

in Boca Ciega and Hillsborough Bays (Dragovich, Kelly, and

Finucane, 1966; Saloman, Finucane, and Kelly, 1964). More







45

recent data (Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,

1969) show that in summer months there is little or no oxy-

gen at the bottom over large sections of Hillsborough Bay

covered by sewage sludge. Low DO in Boca Ciega Bay is

limited to bayfill access canals where soft, organically

rich deposits are as much as 4 m. thick (Taylor and Saloman,

1968).

In their study of the main tributaries of the Estuary,

Dragovich, Kelly, and Goodell (1968), found that DO values

of less than 50 percent saturation occurred in one-fifth

of their samples. As in Hillsborough and Boca Ciega Bays,

low DO in the Hillsborough, Alafia, and Manatee Rivers is

due to biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) caused by organic

pollution.

Nitrogen and Phosphorus

A data summary for nitrogen and phosphorus in Tampa

Bay, prepared by Taylor and Saloman (1968), shows a history

of progressive nutrient enrichment since 1952. Large amounts

of both nutrients reach the Estuary from land drainage and

sewage. Additional phosphorus enters the Bay from mining

operations in extensive phosphatic deposits north and east

of the Estuary. Dragovich, Kelly, and Goodell (1968) cal-

culated that river discharge adds at least 600,000 kg. of

phosphorus to the Estuary each year. According to the







46

U. S. Geological Survey (1969) approximately 45,000 kg. of

orthophosDhate pass each day from Tampa Bay into the Gulf

of Mexico. As sewaae volume in the Bay increases, the

ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus will probably rise because

the effluent from sewage receiving secondary treatment has

a nitrogen-phosphorus ratio of aboutthree to one (Garber,

1959).

The fertilizing effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on

algae have been more noticeable in Hillsborough Bay than

in other areas of the Estuary. There, excessive growth

of attached algae and phytoplankton has had undesirable

consequences (Dragovich, Kelly, and Kelly, 1965; Federal

Water Pollution Control Administration, 1969). During hours

of low light intensity, these plants deplete DO and cause

widespread fish-kills. Furthermore, the seasonal demise

and decomposition of the algae is the primary cause of an

objectionable odor along shore.

Primary Productivity

The study of primary production in Tampa Bay was started

by Pomeroy (1960). His work was limited to Boca Ciega Bay

where he found that phytoplankton, benthic algae, and sea

grasses all contributed about equally to production at

depths of 2 m. or less. In deeper water, however, he showed

that the abundance of sea grasses and benthic algae declines,







47

and phytoplankton become the only important producers. As

an average, he reported gross primary production of the

plant community at about 5 g.02/m.2/day. That figure is

roughly equal to 5 g. of organic matter per day (Odum and

Hoskin, 1958) or about 2.5 g.C/m.2/day (Yentsch, 1963; May,

1966). Thus, each of the three types of producers (sea

grasses, benthic algae, and phytoplankton) contributed

about 0.6 g.C/m.2/day.

In 1962, productivity studies were added to the National

Marine Fisheries Service program, and regular sampling be-

gan in representative areas of Tampa Bay. Plant pigments,

and the light-dark bottle method were used and results were

nearly equal (May, 1966). No attempt was made to measure

production by benthic algae or sea grasses. In the years

1962 and 1963, the average production by phytoplankton for

the entire Estuary was 1.2 g.C./m.2/day, and since that

time the average figure has not changed appreciably (May,

1966; McNulty, 1969).

By season, productivity in the Estuary follows a

fairly uniform pattern. Lowest production occurs in winter,

intermediate levels are observed in spring and fall, and

peak production is in July, August, and September (McNulty,

1968).







48

From the standpoint of areas, the nutrient-rich waters

of Hillsborough Bay have the highest production, followed

in descending order by Old Tampa Bay, upper Tampa Bay, Boca

Ciega Bay, Terra Ceia Bay, and lower Tampa Bay. Offshore

in the Gulf of Mexico primary production drops to an aver-

age value of less than 0.01 g.C/m.2/day and the amount of

chlorophyll is about one-fourth the average concentration

in the Estuary (Dragovich and Johnson, 1966).

In comparison with other estuaries where productivity

has been studied, primary production in Tampa Bay is high,

and the amount of chlorophyll A present is nearly twice

the average found in temperate coastal waters (Nielsen,

1963; Ryther, 1963; Yentsch, 1963; McNulty, 1969; Strick-

land, 1965).

Water Clarity
5
A Hach turbidity meter, photometer, and Secchi disc

have been used to measure water clarity in Tampa Bay Es-

tuary (Dragovich, Kelly, and Finucane, 1966; Saloman and

Taylor, 1968; Saloman and Taylor, 1971). The Secchi disc

was used only at the laboratory dock in Boca Ciega Bay,

and the other instruments were used throughout the Estuary.




5
References to trade names in this publication do not
imply endorsement of commercial products.







49

Average values, based on readings from the turbidity meter

and photometer, show that the greatest amount of turbidity

occurs in Hillsborough Bay. A number of factors contri-

bute to the relatively high turbidity observed in that

area. A natural cause is the great quantity of humic acids

that enter the Bay from river flow. Human activities that

cause turbidity in Hillsborough Bay include shell dredging,

ship traffic, and the introduction of large amounts of sew-

age and industrial wastes.

Turbidity in Florida waters cannot legally exceed 50

Jackson Turbidity Units (JTU) above background level (Sup-

plement 52 to chapter 28.5 of the Rules of the Florida Air

and Water Pollution Control Commission). Average back-

ground for all areas of the Estuary is about 7 JTU (table

2). In terms of visibility, a Secchi disc disappears from

view at 110 to 120 cm. when turbidity is 7 JTU. This amount

of turbidity probably reduces planktonic primary production

to some extent and limits benthic algae and sea grasses to

a depth of about 2 m. or less (Phillips, 1960). At a per-

missible turbidity level of 50 to 60 JTU, visibility would

decrease to between 20 and 25 cm., and most primary pro-

duction would be eliminated (Ragotzkie, 1959).

In some naturally turbid estuaries, low primary pro-

duction is replaced by allochthonous organic detritus from







50

coastal vegetation (Odum and de la Cruz, 1967). In the same

way, suspended and dissolved organic material from sewage

may be a potential food source for estuarine organisms.

Unfortunately, effluents from most coastal development con-

tain a mixture of industrial and domestic wastes. As a re-

sult, there are great quantitative and qualitative differences

between natural nutrients and those that originate directly

or indirectly from the discharge of sewage. The importance

of such differences, and the possibility of toxic compounds

in sewage, determines whether or not sewage pollution may be

beneficial or detrimental to a stable and productive estuarine

ecosystem (Rounsefell, 1963; Copeland and Wohlschlag, 1968).

In Hillsborough Bay, there is evidence from biological

and hydrological studies that the effects of pollution have

been mostly undesirable (Sykes and Finucane, 1966: Taylor

and Saloman, 1968; Taylor, Hall, and Saloman, 1970; Federal

Water Pollution Control Administration, 1969).

Ultraviolet Absorption (UV)

An estimate can be obtained of the organic content of

water from measurement of UV absorption at 220 mu. As a

rule, absorbency increases from the open sea toward shore.

Relatively high values near land are accentuated after pe-

riods of high land drainage and near sources of organic pol-

lution (Armstrong and Boalch, 1961; Sournia, 1965).




Table 2.--Yearly mean and range for hydrological actors recoraeu au une surricu J.n p.aj
areas of Tampa Bay Estuary, Florida, in 1963 and 1967 (Finucane and Dragovich,
1966; Taylor and Saloman, 1968; Saloman and Taylor, 1971)

1963 1967

Area and Factor Mean Range Mean Range
High Low High Low

Old Tampa Bay

Temperature (OC) 23.4 36.8 12.5 23.6 30.6 15.0
Salinity (%o) 19.9 28.3 0.1 26.3 30.6 18.3
pH 7.8 8.5 5.6 7.9 8.4 7.4
Dissolved Oxygen (ml./l.) 4.2 6.2 1.7 4.2 5.9 2.3
Turbidity (JTU) -- -- -- 7.6 53.0 0.1
Transparency (% Transmission) 42.5 87.5 5.1 -- --

Kjeldahl Nitrogen (ug.at./l.) 43.2 74.1 24.3 49.4 108.0 24.3

Total Phosphorus (ug.at./l.) 22.6 32.5 5.6 24.4 38.4 14.9

Chlorophyll A (mg./m.3) 8.6 19.9 1.7 -- --
B (mg./m.3) 4.7 13.4 0.5
C (mg./m.3) 5.0 12.0 1.1
Primary Production (g.Cm.2/day) 0.18 0.43 0.03 1.20 3.91 0.14

Ultraviolet Absorption (220 mu.) 0.285 0.362 0.209 0.262 0.326 0.196




Table 2.--Yearly mean andsrange for hydrological factors recorded at the surface in six
areas of Tampa Bay Estuary, Florida, in 1963 and 1967 (Finucane and Dragovich,
1966; Taylor and Saloman, 1968; Saloman and Taylor, 1971)

1963 1967

Area and Factor Mean Range Mean Range
High Low High Low

Hillsborough Bay

Temperature (C) 24.1 31.8 14.3 24.8 32.5 16.5

Salinity (%o) 18.7 25.6 2.3 23.9 28.8 13.7

pH 7.7 8.4 7.0 7.9 8.7 7.2

Dissolved Oxygen (ml.l/.) 5.2 8.6 2.5 4.6 10.1 1.5

Turbidity (JTU) -- -- -- 10.1 29.0 2.2

Transparency (% Transmission) 35.8 66.3 10.5 -- -- -

Kjeldahl Nitrogen (ug.at./l.) 53.0 77.4 6.1 67.3 224.6 34.3

Total Phosphorus (ug.at./l.) 26.6 42.7 6.9 25.2 35.2 16.1

Chlorophyll A (mg./m.3) 19.8 35.4 4.7 -- -- --
B (mg./m.3) 9.8 20.0 2.0
C (mg./m.3) 12.8 38.0 3.6
Primary Production (g.C/m.2/day) 0.38 0.66 0.09 1.56 5.91 0.07

Ultraviolet Absorption (220 mu.) 0.339 0.463 0.196 0.294 0.461 0.196




areas of Tampa Bay Estuary, Florida, in 1963 and 1967 (Finucane and Dragovich,
1966; Taylor and Saloman, 1968; Saloman and Taylor, 1971)

1963 1967
Area and Factor Mean Range Mean Range
High Low High Low

Upper Tampa Bay

Temperature (OC) 24.0 31.6 14.6 23.7 30.5 15.2
Salinity (%o) 25.6 29.2 20.0 27.3 33.7 17.7

pH 7.8 8.3 7.0 8.0 8.5 7.5

Dissolved Oxygen (ml./l.) 4.9 6.6 2.4 4.0 8.5 1.1

Turbidity (JTU) -- -- 5.1 24.5 0.6

Transparency (% Transmission) 49.3 93.6 10.7 -- -- -

Kjeldahl Nitrogen (ug.at./l.) 39.8 64.3 27.7 46.9 90.8 22.3

Total Phosphorus (ug.at./l.) 24.1 35.0 6.4 24.4 43.4 12.9

Chlorophyll A (mg./m. ) 8.5 29.6 2.2 -- -- --
B (mg./m.3) 4.9 33.4 0.0
C (mg./m.3) 5.2 17.4 0.0
Primary Production (g.C/m.2/day) 0.19 0.67 0.04 1.18 4.78 0.34

Ultraviolet Absorption (220 mu.) 0.261 0.515 0.142 0.237 0.357 0.144




areas of Tampa Bay Estuary, Florida, in 1963 and 1967 (Finucane and Dragovich,
1966; Taylor and Saloman, 1968; Saloman and Taylor, 1971)
1963 1967
Area and Factor Mean Range Mean Range
High Low High Low
Boca Ciega Bay


Temperature (OC)

Salinity (%o)

pH

Dissolved Oxygen (ml./l.)

Secchi Disc (cm.)

Turbidity (JTU)

Transparency (% Transmission)

Kjeldahl Nitrogen (ug.at./l.)

Total Phosphorus (ug.at./l.)

Chlorophyll A (mg./m.3)
B (mg./m.3)
C (mg./m.3)
Primary Production (g.C/m.2/day)

Ultraviolet Absorption (220 mu.)


23.6

31.9

8.0

4.9

118.0



48.0

31.6

9.4

6.8
2.8
2.8

0.34
0.195


33.7

35.1

8.3

7.6

173.0



88.9

39.4

18.1

28.2
14.9
10.4

0.8


11.7

26.1

7.3

3.0

84.0



4.8

25.7

3.1

1.5
0.0
0.0

0.1


0.282 0.091


23.1

33.2

8.1

3.8

127.0

8.0



52.0

14.6

5.1
6.5
3.8

0.3


30.9

37.0

8.3

5.8

188.0

22.5



110.8

24.9

12.6
15.9
12.0

0.8


14.1

26.4

7.7

1.7

84.0

1.4



15.0

3.8

1.2
0.8
0.0

0.1




areas of Tampa Bay Estuary, Florida, in 1963 and 1967 (Finucane and Dragovich,
1966; Taylor and Saloman, 1968; Saloman and Taylor, 1971)
1963 1967
Area and Factor Mean Range Mean Range
High Low High Low


Terra Ceia Bay

Temperature (oC)

Salinity (%o)


pH
Dissolved Oxygen (ml./l.)

Turbidity (JTU)

Transparency (% Transmission)

Kjeldahl Nitrogen (ug.at./l.)

Total Phosphorus (ug.at./l.)

Chlorophyll A (mg./m.3)
B (mg./m.3)
C (mg./m. )
Primary Production (g.C/m.2/day)
Ultraviolet Absorption (220 mu.)


24.6

28.2

7.9

4.7



50.2

39.6

17.6

6.5
3.4
3.9

0.14
0.221


33.8

32.7

8.2

6.2



84.7

56.4

20.0

15.7
5.5
8.9

0.38


14.0

9.6

7.3

3.1



15.3

30.6

14.3

2.7
1.2
0.2

0.07


23.1

29.5

7.8

3.6

5.5



41.8

:20.2


30.0

36.3

8.1

5.3

19.0



72.6

28.7


14.4

16.7

7.3

2.1

0.7



20.7

9.1


0.315 0.175 0.182 0.257 0.123




areas of Tampa Bay Estuary, Florida, in 1963 and 1967 (Finucane and Dragovich,
1966; Taylor and Saloman, 1968; Saloman and Taylor, 1971)

1963 1967

Area and Factor Mean Range Mean Range
High Low High Low

Lower Tampa Bay

Temperature (C) 23.8 31.6 11.9 22.9 30.4 12.3

Salinity (%o) 29.5 35.0 23.9 31.9 36.9 23.6

pH 7.9 8.8 7.0 8.0 8.4 7.6

Dissolved Oxygen (ml./l.) 5.0 9.0 1.1 3.8 6.2 1.9

Turbidity (JTU) -- -- -- 7.5 45.0 0.6

Transparency (% Transmission) 54.6 77.6 23.7 -- -- -

Kjeldahl Nitrogen (ug.at./l.) 30.8 57.0 19.3 42.3 108.6 10.7

Total Phosphorus (ug.at./l.) 15.6 28.5 4.0 19.9 31.5 3.8

Chlorophyll A (mg./m.3) 3.9 9.3 1.57 -- -- --
B (mg./m.3) 2.3 8.1 0.27
C (mg./m.3) 2.9 4.3 0.26
Primary Production (g.C/m.2/day) 0.08 0.19 0.03 0.66 1.97 0.12

Ultraviolet Absorption (220 mu.) 0.184 0.322 0.094 0.133 0.167 0.098






57

Study of UV absorbency in Tampa Bay Estuary was started

by the National Marine Fisheries Service in 1963 with the

idea that a rise in UV absorbency might directly correlate

with plankton blooms -- especially outbreaks of the Florida

red tide organism, Gymnodinium breve (McNulty, 1969). On

several occasions, blooms have been recorded at times of

high UV absorbency, but not always. As one might expect,

average values of UV absorbency are highest in the nutrient-

rich areas of the Estuary (table 2). This concordance is

noted only as a point of interest for the relationship be-

tween UV absorbency and faunal abundance is unknown.

Tides and Currents

Tides in Tampa Bay Estuary have been classified as mixed-

semidiurnal; i.e., there are usually two high and two low

tides each day, but the levels of successive high and low

water periods are seldom equal. Tidal range is normally

less than 1 m., unless influenced by strong winds. Winds

from the southwest tend to elevate tides and hold water in

the Estuary while northeast winds have the opposite effect.

Hurricane tides of 3 m. above normal have been recorded

(Marmer, 1954; Olson and Morrill, 1955).

Currents in the Estuary are mainly generated by tidal

action and have an average velocity of about 0.3 m./sec.









Flow rates of up to 1.3 m./sec. have been measured in the

narrows between Old Tampa Bay and upper Tampa Bay, at the

end of bridge abutments, and in passes leading to the Gulf.

There is very sluggish water movement in Hillsborough Bay,

and evidence of a large eddy east of St. Petersburg (Olson

and Morrill, 1955; Taylor and Saloman, 1969).


Submerged Vegetation

Aerial observations, photographs, and planimeter mea-

surements show that 8,500 ha. or nearly 10 percent of

Tampa Bay Estuary contains sea grasses and attached algae.

Most of these plants grow in shallow water and there are

marked seasonal changes in their growth and biomass (Taylor

and Saloman, 1966, 1970; Humm, 1969). Five species of sea

grass and more than 200 species of attached algae have been

reported for Tampa Bay (Phillips, 1960; Dawes, 1967). The

grasses are: Thalassia testudinum, turtle grass; Diplanthera

wrightii, shoal grass; Syrinqodium filiforme, manatee grass;

Halophila engelmanni; and Ruppia maritima, widgeon grass.

Apart from their contribution to primary production

(Ryther, 1963) these plants create a unique estuarine habitat

(Stephens, 1966).

Sediments

Goodell and Gorsline (1961) made the first comprehensive







59

analysis of sediments in Tampa Bay on the basis of 400 bot-

tom samples. An additional 773 sediment samples were col-

lected and analyzed during the benthic survey by the National

Marine Fisheries Service in 1963 (Taylor and Saloman, 1969).

Authors of the first study concluded that the limestone

basin of the Estuary dates from Miocene time and has since

been filled by Quartenary sediments to a depth of between

12 and 30 m. They found that the sediments are predominant-

ly quartz sand with an admixture of biogenic particles and

small amounts of silts and clays. Sediment pH was usually

above 7.0, and they attributed sediment homogeneity in the

upper 8 cm. to the activity of burrowing invertebrates. The

mean grain size in their samples was between -0.5 and 6.0

phi (0). In general, mean grain size.and the weight percent-

age of shell increased from tidal flats to slopes and chan-

nels, and from the head of the Estuary to the Gulf. They

reported the average weight percentage of organic carbon

as 1.39 and found a direct relationship between high carbon

content and poor sediment sorting.

The main benefits from the second study were the acqui-

sition of sediment data for each survey station, and de-

lineation of fine sediment deposits in parts of Old Tampa

Bay, Hillsborough Bay, upper Tampa Bay, and Boca Ciega Bay.

From these data features of grain size, sorting, and weight






60

percentage of calcium carbonate and organic carbon have

been summarized for major areas of the Estuary (table 3).

The means and ranges of these four factors show that each

area can be regarded as a separate sedimentary basin. In

other words, irrespective of overall sediment trends, each

area has a very great variety of depositional environments

available to the infauna of the Estuary. Sediment type

alone, therefore, cannot be a limiting factor for poly-

chaetes in any major region of Tampa Bay Estuary.








Table 3.--Mean and range of sediment grain size, sorting, and content of calcium
carbonate and organic carbon in six areas of Tampa Bay Estuary -- 1963

Grain Size Standard Deviation Calcium Carbonate Organic Carbon
Phi units (0) Sorting, Phi units (0) (weight %) (weight %)
Mean Range Mean Range Mean Range Mean Range


Old Tampa 2.8 -4.03 to 1.3 0.41 to 3.0 0.68 to 0.43 0.06 to
Bay 7.08 4.37 31.99 2.00

Hillsborough 4.2 -1.90 to 1.8 0.55 to 10.8 0.48 to 1.86 0.20 to
Bay 7.84 3.17 75.56 6.20

Upper & Lower 2.7 -0.96 to 1.3 0.46 to 15.7 0.56 to 1.00 0.09 to
Tampa Bay 7.35 3.54 85.16 8.40

Boca Ciega 3.1 -0.13 to 1.5 0.46 to 16.4 0.90 to 1.44 0.18 to
Bay 7.24 2.53 66.01 9.35

Terra Ceia 2.6 1.74 to 1.1 0.74 to 8.9 3.80 to 0.70 0.28 to
Bay 3.20 1.47 32.27 1.99
















CHAPTER 4

PROCEDURE


Field sampling at transect and special-lettered stations

began in June, 1963, and continued until December of the

same year. Additional areas were sampled between 1963 and

1969 to supplement survey data and to assess environmental

conditions in connection with dredge-fill development appli-

cations (Taylor and Saloman, 1968) -- see figure 1.

Transect stations were located along 20 compass lines

that crossed the long axis of the Estuary at intervals of

two to 6 km., and extended from the headwaters to about 9.8

km. offshore. Stations were 1 km. or less apart depending

on bottom type and water depth. Special stations that did

not coincide with the transect pattern were established to

sample unusual habitats such as tributaries, oyster reefs,

spoil islands, shoals, and isolated patches of submerged

vegetation.

Most of the sampling was done from an outboard motor-

boat. Some shore stations were reached by truck, and stations









in parts of the Bay and Gulf were sampled from the R/V

Kingfish -- a 12.9m., diesel-powered vessel. Navigation

charts (587, 586, and 1257), shoreline features, compass,

clock, tachometer, and buoys were used to run transect

lines and establish stations. Seaward distances of off-

shore transects were determined by radar. A line of sta-

tions was laid out by following a compass bearing at con-

stant speed, and releasing plastic buoys at specific inter-

vals.

At stations deeper than 1 m., the infauna and sediment

were sampled with a bucket dredge, and epibenthic forms were

collected in a rigid-frame net. The dredge was 30 cm. wide

and dug to a depth of 5 cm. It had a capacity of 15 liters,

filled after a haul of 100 cm., and sampled a bottom area

of about 3,000 cm.2. The net had an opening of 90 cm. by

26 cm. and was hung with netting of 3-mm. mesh (Taylor,

1965). One dredge sample and a two-minute net haul were

taken at each station. In shallow water, the net haul was

made by hand, and a shovel was used to supplement or re-

place the bucket dredge. In terms of surface area sampled,

three shovels of sediment were considered roughly equiva-

lent to a dredge sample.

All dredge and shovel samples were washed in a sieve







64

(Tyler 12-in. stainless-steel screen with 0.701-mm. mesh)

and fixed in 20 percent sea-water formalin. Rose Bengal

dye was added to the formalin to facilitate separation of

organisms from coarse sediment particles and debris.

At each station, about 300 cc. of sediment were col-

lected for analysis. These samples were stored in sealed,

plastic cups and forwarded to the Sediment Laboratory at

Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida. Analyses

were performed under the direction of Dr. H. Grant Goodell.

Textural analysis was done by wet sieving on a screen of

62-u. mesh. The coarse fraction retained by the screen

was oven-dried and further separated by grain-size classes

on nested sieves attached to a mechanical shaker. Sediments

that passed the 62-u. screen (silts and clays) were mea-

sured electronically in a Coulter counter. From grain-

size data, computer programs produced statistical informa-

tion for mean grain size, standard deviation (sorting),

skewness, and kurtosis (Folk, 1964). A pulverized fraction

of each sample was used to determine the weight percentage

of calcium carbonate by the EDTA method of Turekian (1956).

Weight percentages of organic carbon and organic nitrogen

were determined with Coleman analytical equipment. Station

data for sediments, water temperature, pH, salinity, depth,

and bottom vegetation were reported by Taylor and Saloman









(1969). Measurements of dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus,

Kjeldahl nitrogen, light penetration, ultraviolet absorp-

tion, and primary productivity are available for all areas

of the Estuary from continuing investigations by the National

Marine Fisheries Service. These measurements are performed

by standard procedures (Saloman and Taylor, 1968).

In the laboratory, biological collections were rinsed

in fresh water, sorted into major groups (class or order),

and preserved in 70 percent isopropanol. The polychaetes

were subsequently sorted to family level, and in most

instances to species. Preserved representatives of all

polychaetes collected within Tampa Bay were deposited in

collections of the National Marine Fisheries Service at

St. Petersburg Beach, Florida, and the U. S. National

Museum, Washington, D. C. Major works that were especially

useful for taxonomic determinations include Ehlers (1887),

Fauvel (1923, 1927),Hartman (1945, 1951, 1968, 1969), Petti-

bone (1963a), and Day (1967). Polychaete terminology was

taken from the usage of Day (1967) and nomenclature was

based on publications by Hartman, or authoritative revisions

in more recent reports. All determinations have not been

verified, and errors that may be present are the responsi-

bility of the author.















CHAPTER 5

SYSTEMATICS AND ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS


In this section, the 40 families of polychaete worms

found in Tampa Bay have been arranged phylogenetically,

and wherever necessary taxonomic keys have been devised

to distinguish species. The species in respective families

are listed alphabetically with undetermined individuals at

the end. For each species, locality records and the mean

and range of environmental factors have been tabulated.

Literature cited from this section includes only those

references that contain the original species description

or a more recent report that presents figures and a de-

scription of diagnostic features. For unidentified poly-

chaetes, a brief description and drawings were prepared as

an aid to recognition.

The most useful publication for identification of

polychaete families was the illustrated key prepared by

Day (1967). It contains all the families reported for the

Gulf of Mexico, and most of those known from the eastern

Pacific, Caribbean, and western Atlantic. Part I of









Pettibone's work on New England polychaetes (1963a) and

her keys in the manual compiled by Smith (1964) were also

helpful. Wass constructed a useful key and check-list

for the polychaetes of Virginia that contains many species

found in the Tampa Bay area, and reports by Carpenter (1951)

and Taylor (1961) contain keys for polychaetes north of

Tampa Bay at Alligator Harbor and Seahorse Key. Keys to

species in several publications by Hartman (1945, 1951,

1968, 1969) were indispensable. Her catalogues of poly-

chaetes of the world (1959a, 1959b, 1965) and her guide to

polychaete literature were also essential references.

Family POLYNOIDAE Malmgren. 1867

Polynoids are predaceous polychaetes that have world-

wide distribution from the tropics to high latitudes. They

are errant forms that commonly occur in coarse sediments

and crevices. Some are commensals, and a few are adapted

to life in fine sediments of silt and clay.

Eight species were found in Tampa Bay. One of these

(Polynoid B) was collected in all areas of the Estuary, and

two were found at widely separated stations in Old Tampa

Bay and Boca Ciega Bay (Polynoid A and Phyllohartmania

taylori). The other five species are apparently limited



6
Marvin Wass, Virginia Institute of Marine Science,
Gloucester Point, Virginia, 23062.







68

to areas of the Estuary where average salinity is greater

than 25 parts per thousand as none were found north of

transect-10. Among these five, Lepidasthenia commensalis

and Harmothoe lunulata were the only ones found in upper

Tampa Bay, while the other three, Lepidonotus sublevis, L.

variabilis, and Harmothoe aculeata were collected only in

the high salinity waters of Boca Ciega Bay and lower Tampa

Bay.

Key to POLYNOIDAE Collected in Tampa Bay

1 Lateral antennae arise below median antenna ......... 2

Lateral antennae arise on anterior margin of
prostomium at same level as median antenna .......... 5

2 Neurosetae with undivided tips ...................... 3

- Neurosetae with bidentate tips ...................... 4

3 Neurosetae finely serrate; notosetae smooth
and delicate; ciliated lamella at ventral
base of parapodia after setiger
two .......................... Phyllohartmania taylori

- Neurosetae coarsely serrate; notosetae
stout; parapodial lamella absent............ Polynoid B

4 Neurosetae delicate, faintly bidentate .... Polynoid A

- Neurosetae stout; elytra with
large tubecles...................... Harmothoe aculeata

- Neurosetae stout; elytra smooth .... Harmothoe lunulata

5 More than 12 pairs of elytra..Lepidasthenia commensalis

- Twelve pairs of elytra .............................. 6






69

6 Neurosetae with bidentate tips.... Lepidonotus sublevis

Neurosetae with undivided tips.. Lepidonotus variabilis


Harmothoe aculeata Andrews, 1891
(Described and illustrated by Ebbs, 1966)

Specimens were found only in incidental samples in

southern Boca Ciega Bay and lower Tampa Bay, near Mullet

Key. All of the worms were large and appeared mature, but

none contained ripe gametes.

This species has been reported from shelly sediments

and solid substrata along the Atlantic coast from North

Carolina to the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico.