Title: Help thy neighbor: a study of bystander intervention in emergencies
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Title: Help thy neighbor: a study of bystander intervention in emergencies
Physical Description: xii, 159 leaves. : illus. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Williams, Ellen Weiss
Publication Date: 1973
Copyright Date: 1973
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Subject: Assistance in emergencies -- Psychological aspects   ( lcsh )
Psychology thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychology -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Thesis: Thesis -- University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 152-158.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098380
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000577627
oclc - 13997012
notis - ADA5325

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HELP THY NEIGHBOR: A STUDY OF BYSTANDER
INTERVENTION IN EMERGENCIES








By


ELLEN WEISS WILLIAMS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA













To Randy

We finally made it. I'm coming home for good.

Ellen













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The writer wishes to express her gratitude for the guidance

and counsel given her by the members of her supervisory committee:

Dr. Lawrence J. Severy and Dr. Marvin E. Shaw, co-chairmen; Dr.

Franz Epting; Dr. Norman Markel; and Dr. Milan Kolarik. In

addition, the author would like to thank Ms. Sharon Spector and

Mr. William Cone for all the long hours they spent acting as

her confederates.













TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. . .. . . . . . . ... . .. iii

LIST OF TABLES. . . . . . . . . ... . . . vii

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . ... ..... .ix

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . x

CHAPTER
I 'INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . 1

Overview . . . . . . . . ... . .. 3
Bystander Intervention Paradigm. . . . . . 4

The Victim.. . . . . . . . . . 4
The Bystander. . . . . . . . . . 5
The Emergency. . . . . . . . . . 6
The Intervention Process . . . . . . 8

A Theory of Interaction Outcomes . . . . . 9

Analysis of Interaction. .. . . . . 9
Consequences of Interaction (Rewards/Costs). . 10
The Determinants of Rewards and Costs . . .. 10
Formation of the Relationship. . . . . ... 11
Evaluation of the Relationship . . . . .. 11
Power and Dependence . . . . . . .. 13

BIP: A Case for Interaction Outcome Theory. . 15
Literature Review . . . . . . . .. 18

Relationship Among Bystanders .. . .... 18
Situational Determinants of the BIP. .. ... 25
Demographic and Physical Characteristics of the
Victim . . . . . . . . . . 31
Summary . . . . . . . . . . .. 36

Background of the Present Experiment . . ... 37








CHAPTER Page
Bystander/Victim Interaction . . . . .. 37
Attitude Similarity Between Bystander and Victim 40
Bystander/Environmental Interaction . . ... 42
Environmental Familiarity. . ....... .42

The Present Experiment ............. .43

Attitude Similarity. . . . . . . ... 43
Environmental Familiarity. . . . . . .. 43

II METHODOLOGY. .. .. . . . ..... . . . . 46

Subjects . . . . . . . .. . .46
Procedure. . . . . . . . . ... .. 46

Part I: Personality . . . . . ... .48
Part II: Visual Perception. . . . . ... 50
The Emergency. . . . . . . . . ... 51

III RESULTS. . . . . . . . ... ..... .54

Check on Manipulation. . . . . . . ... 54

Attitude Similarity . . . . . ..... 54
Environmental Familiarity. . . . . . .. 55
Major Hypotheses . . . . . . .... .55

Data Analysis for All Subjects . . . .... .57

First Help Latency . . . . . . . .. 59
Mode of Helping Behavior . . . . . .. 62
Differential Mode Latency. . . . . . .. 67
Summary. . . . . . . . . . .. 73
Satisfaction with Response . . ......... 75

Data Analysis for Helping Subjects . . . ... 81

Population . . . . . . . . . 81
First Help Latency . . . . . . . .. 81
Mode of Helping Behavior . . . ... .... 83
Satisfaction with Response . . . . .... .88

Perceived All Subject and Helping Subject Data
Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 88
Sunmary. . . . . . . . .. .. .91
Secondary Hypotheses . . . . . . .... .92









CHAPTER
Secondary Hypothesis 1 .
Secondary Hypothesis 2 .
Secondary Hypothesis 3 .
Secondary Hypothesis 4 .

IV DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION. ..

The Hypotheses . . . .
Support for the Theory . .

Additional Findings. . .
Implications of the Theory

Concluding Comment . . .

APPENDICES. . . . . . . .

APPENDIX
A PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE. ..

B SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL QUESTION


NAIRE


SUBJECTS ONLY. . .. .. .

C VISUAL PERCEPTION QUESTIONNAIRE.

D POST-EXPERIMENTAL QUESTIONNAIRE.

REFERENCES. . .. . . . ...

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . .


. . .

. . .
. . .

. . .

. . .


. .
Findings.

. . .


Page
93
95
97
98

103

103
104

116
118

122

125


HIGH


FAMILIARITY
. . . .

. .. o.

. ..

o. .

. . .













LIST OF TABLES


Page
TABLE

1 PERCENTAGE AND LATENCY OF HELP EXHIBITED BY
BYSTANDERS ACCORDING TO GROUP (MANIPULATION). .... . 58

2 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF FIRST HELP LATENCY (IN SECONDS)
AS A FUNCTION OF FAMILIARITY, ATTITUDE SIMILARITY,
NUMBER (ALONE OR CONFEDERATE) AND SEX OF BYSTANDER. . 60

3 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF BEHAVIORAL ONLY HELP AS A
FUNCTION OF FAMILIARITY, ATTITUDE SIMILARITY,
NUMBER (ALONE OR CONFEDERATE) AND SEX OF BYSTANDER. . 63

4 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF VERBAL ONLY HELP AS A FUNCTION
OF FAMILIARITY, ATTITUDE SIMILARITY, NUMBER (ALONE
OR CONFEDERATE) AND SEX OF BYSTANDER. . . . ... 66

5 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF BEHAVIORAL HELP LATENCY (IN
SECONDS) AS A FUNCTION OF FAMILIARITY, ATTITUDE
SIMILARITY, NUMBER (ALONE OR CONFEDERATE) AND
SEX OF BYSTANDER. . . . . . . . .... . 69

6 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF VERBAL HELP LATENCY (IN SECONDS)
AS A FUNCTION OF FAMILIARITY, ATTITUDE SIMILARITY,
NUMBER (ALONE OR CONFEDERATE) AND SEX OF BYSTANDER. . 72

7 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF SATISFACTION WITH RESPONSE AS
A FUNCTION OF FAMILIARITY, ATTITUDE SIMILARITY, NUMBER
(ALONE OR CONFEDERATE) AND SEX OF BYSTANDER . . 76

8 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF FIRST HELP LATENCY FOR HELPING
SUBJECTS (IN SECONDS) AS A FUNCTION OF ATTITUDE
SIMILARITY, NUMBER (ALONE OR CONFEDERATE), AND
SEX OF BYSTANDER. . . . . . . . . .. 82

9 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF BEHAVIORAL ONLY HELP FOR HELPING
SUBJECTS AS A FUNCTION OF ATTITUDE SIMILARITY, NUMBER
(ALONE OR CONFEDERATE) AND SEX OF BYSTANDER . . .. 84
'.1








TABLE


Page


10 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF VERBAL ONLY HELP FOR HELPING
SUBJECTS AS A FUNCTION OF ATTITUDE SIMILARITY,
NUMBER (ALONE OR CONFEDERATE) AND SEX OF BYSTANDER. . 85

11 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF SATISFACTION WITH RESPONSE
FOR HELPING SUBJECTS AS A FUNCTION OF ATTITUDE
SIMILARITY, NUMBER (ALONE OR CONFEDERATE) AND
SEX OF BYSTANDER. . . . . . . . . ... 89

12 PEARSON r CORRELATION BETWEEN HOMETOWN SIZE AND
BYSTANDER INTERVENTION. . . . . . . . .. 94

13 PEARSON r CORRELATION BETWEEN BYSTANDER DEMOGRAPHIC
VARIABLES AND BYSTANDER INTERVENTION. . .. . .. 96

14 PEARSON r CORRELATION BETWEEN SOCIAL DESIRABILITY SCORES
AND BYSTANDER INTERVENTION. . . . . . . . 99

15 PEARSON r CORRELATION BETWEEN SEX OF BYSTANDER AND
BYSTANDER INTERVENTION. . . . . . . . .. 101

16 PEARSONr CORRELATION BETWEEN BYSTANDER-VICTIM
INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION AND BYSTANDER
INTERVENTION. . . . . .... ....... .102













LIST OF FIGURES


Page
FIGURE

1 The Effect of First Help Latency in Seconds as a
Function of Attitude Similarity and Number
(All Subjects). . . . . . . . .... . 61

2 The Effect of Behavioral Only Help as a Function of
Attitude Similarity and Number (All Subjects) . .. 64

3 The Effect of Verbal Only Help as a Function of
Attitude Similarity and Number (All Subjects) . .. 68

4 The Effect of Behavioral Help Latency as a Function of
Attitude Similarity and Number (All Subjects) . .. 71

5 The Effect of Verbal Help Latency as a Function of
Attitude Similarity and Number (All Subjects) .... . 74

._6 The Effect of Satisfaction with Response as a Function
of Attitude Similarity and Number (All Subjects). . 77

7 The Effect of Satisfaction with Response as a Function
of Familiarity and Sex of Subject (All Subjects). . 79

8 The Effect of Satisfaction with Response as a Function
of Familiarity, Attitude Similarity, and Sex of
Subject (All Subjects) . . ... .. ... . 80

9 The Effect of Behavioral Only Help as a Function of
Attitude Similarity and Sex of Subject (Helping
Subjects) . . . . . . . .... ..... .86-

10 The Effect of Satisfaction with Response as a Function
of Attitude Similarity and Number (Helping Subjects).. 90








Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


HELP THY NEIGHBOR: A STUDY OF BYSTANDER
INTERVENTION IN EMERGENCIES


By

Ellen Weiss Williams

December, 1973
Chairman: Dr. Marvin E. Shaw
Major Department: Psychology

The area of bystander intervention, one of the numerous out-

growths of research in helping behavior, has generated considerable

interest in.the past few years. Initial investigations focused on

developing a conceptual framework of the bystander intervention

paradigm (BIP), the effects of number of bystanders or diffusion

of responsibility, and the effects of social influence processes

on helping. More recently, work has been done on the effects of

ambiguity and geographical location and their effects on the

bystander.

The.present study was designed to incorporate previous research,

as well as to test two new hypotheses, within the framework of

Thibaut and Kelley's theory of interaction outcomes. The purpose

of reevaluating previous experimental BIP results within the

reward/cost framework was not intended to devalue their impli-

cations, but rather to eliminate some of the confusion generated

by conflicting interpretations.







Using this framework, diffusion of responsibility, for example,

became an instance of relationship evaluation; situational ambiguity

was redefined in terms of bystanders' desires for positive outcomes,

and differential helping rates based on geographic location were

reexamined in terms of bystander individual differences in CL.

Based on the notion of reward/cost, it was predicted that;

1. Bystander intervention would occur more frequently and
more rapidly when a bystander perceived himself to be
attitudinally similar rather than dissimilar to the
victim, and

2. Bystander intervention would occur more frequently and
more rapidly when a bystander is familiarized with the
emergency setting prior to the emergency than when he
is not (Environmental Familiarity).

Data were collected on 128 college students at the University

of Florida. In addition to speed and mode of helping, demographic

characteristics and social desirability scores were obtained for

each subject. Comparisons were also made between male and female

bystanders as well as between bystanders who were alone with those

in the presence of two non-reacting confederates.

Results indicate that environmental familiarity and sex of

bystander do not affect bystander intervention. Attitude similarity

and group size, however, were strong determinants of helping. With

regard to all analyses, it was the single bystander who was both

most likely to aid the victim, and the one to do so in the shortest

amount of time. The data also indicate that increased attitude

similarity between the victim and bystander facilitated certain modes

of helping behavior.







An interesting attitude similarity by number interaction occurred

in a number of analyses. It was found that while high similarity

subjects were most efficient when alone, the low similarity bystander

was most likely to intervene when placed with two non-reacting con-

federates. In addition, no significant correlations were obtained

between bystander intervention and social desirability.

One of the major weaknesses of the bystander intervention area

is that, until recently, researchers have been concerned with why

people don't help (i.e., diffusion of responsibility). In contrast,

the present study attempted to focus on variables which might increase

the probability of helping. Further research along the lines of the

present investigation may open.up new avenues for increasing the

likelihood that bystanders will intervene.


xii J:












CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
It was 3:20 in the morning, March 13, 1964. Twenty-eight year
old Catherine (Kitty) Genovese was returning home from her job as

manager of a bar. She parked her car in the parking lot near her

Kew Gardens, New York City apartment where she had lived since her

move from Connecticut one year earlier. Miss Genovese noticed a

man at the far end of the parking lot and becoming somewhat nervous,

headed towards a nearby police call box. She got as far as a street

light before the man grabbed her. Miss Genovese screamed, "Oh my God,

he stabbed me! Please help me! Please help me!" Lights went on as

thirty-eight of Miss Genovese's neighbors came to their windows to

see what was happening. From one of the upper windows in the apart-

ment house a man called down, "Let that girl alone!"

The assailant looked up at him, shrugged and walked down toward

a car parked a short distance away. Miss Genovese struggled to her

feet as lights went out. Moments later, the killer returned to Miss

Genovese, now trying to make her way around the side of the building

to get to her apartment. The assailant stabbed her again. "I'm

dyingl" she shrieked. "I'm dying!"

Windows :.ere opened again and lights went on in many apartments.

The murderer got into his car and drove away as Miss Genovese

staggered to her feet. It was 3:35 A.M.







Once again, the assailant returned. By then Miss Genovese had

crawled to the back of the building where the doors to the apartment

house held out hope of safety. The killer tried the front door, but

found that she wasn't there. At the second door he saw her slumped

on the floor of the stairs. He stabbed her a third time, fatally.

One half hour and thirty-eight witnesses later, Kitty Genovese was

dead.

It was 3:50 by the time the police received their first call

from a man who was a neighbor of Miss Genovese. In two minutes

they were at the scene. The man explained that he had called the

police after much deliberation. He had phoned a friend in Nassau

County for advice and then he had crossed the roof of the building

to the apartment of an elderly woman to get her to make the call.

"I didn't want to get involved," he told the police (New York

Times, March 28, 1964).

The bizarre behavior of these thirty-eight murder witnesses

would be much easier to accept if it were unique. Unfortunately,

however, it Is not. Observe:

Eleanor Bradley was walking on crowded Fifth Avenue
in New York City when she suddenly tripped and broke
her leg. She lay on the sidewalk crying for help while
hundreds of people passed by, but for 40 minutes no one
stopped. (Freedman, Carlsmith and Sears, 1970, p. 413)

Seventeen year old Andrew Mormille was stabbed in the
stomach in a New York subway. His assailants fled,
leaving him bleeding badly. None of the 11 passengers
in the subway car helped him and he bled to death.
(Ibid, p. 414)







An 18 year old switchboard operator was raped and beaten in
her office in the Bronx (New York City). She eluded her
assailant and rushed out into the street, naked and bleeding.
It was during the day and a crowd of 40 people gathered. No
one, however, helped her when the rapist attempted to drag
her back into the building. (Ibid, p. 414)

Why then, didn't these bystanders help? Most explanations offered

have centered around the idea of bystander apathy. Some critics blame

alienation caused by industrialization. Others cite depersonalization

resulting from urbanization. Still others claim we have been dehumanized

by our cold society. While these explanations may satisfy some, they do

little in helping to understand the nature of bystander non-intervention

and are, therefore, of little help to the behavioral researcher. The

question remains, what factors affect bystander intervention?

Overview
All cases of bystander apathy have been subsumed under the general

heading bystander intervention. Despite the differences in circum-

stances surrounding each incident, certain features remain constant.

A breakdown delineation of the components in this paradigm, therefore,

seems appropriate.

In an attempt to understand the nature of bystander apathy, many

researchers have applied existing social psychological theories to the

bystander paradigm. In a second section of this chapter, a brief

introduction to Thibaut and Kelley's interaction outcome theory, a

theory not yet applied to this area, will be reviewed so that one may

better understand its relevance to bystander intervention.

Following this, the bystander intervention paradigm will be

reformulated under Thibaut and Kelley's theoretical framework. The

present author believes that this theory can help account for some of








the conflicting interpretations arrived at by previous research in this

area.

In the fifth section, a comprehensive literature review is

presented, reevaluating prior findings within the interaction-

outcome framework. The research presented falls into three major

areas with reference to bystander intervention; factors affecting

the relationship among bystanders, situational determinants of the

bystander intervention paradigm, and demographic and physical

characteristics of the victim.

The sixth section reviews previous research leading directly to

the present investigation; specifically, bystander/victim interaction,

attitude similarity between the bystander and the victim, bystander/

environmental interaction, and environmental familiarity.

Finally, hypotheses and expectations relevant to the present

experiment are formally stated.

Bystander Intervention Paradigm

Kitty Genovese, Andrew Mormille, Eleanor Bradley, and others all

suffered in seemingly senseless tragedies. Although each incident was

unique, it is possible to extrapolate and examine a number of factors

which were common to all, and have come to be known as the bystander

intervention paradigm (BIP). Each incident involved four basic com-

ponents: there is the victim of the incident, the bystander(s), the

incident itself, generally referred to as the emergency, and the

intervention of help-giving process.

The Victim

The victim is the person injured or harmed. All injury or harm








implies either physical or psychological abuse or discomfort. This

injury can be brought about by some act (eg., falling off of a high

object), condition (e.g., seizure caused by epilepsy), agency (e.g.,

some other person physically harming the victim as in an assault),

or circumstance (e.g., smoke pouring into a room through a vent).

Whether the victim expects and prepares for such an emergency (e.g.,

possesses a fire extinguisher) or not is irrelevant. While ex-

pectation and preparation can minimize the damage caused by the

emergency, it cannot keep it from occurring. In traditional by-

stander intervention studies, however, (Darley and Latane, 1968;

Latane and Darley, 1968) the victim is generally unprepared for the

subsequent emergency.

The victim and the bystander (to be discussed shortly) may or

may not be acquainted prior to the emergency. They may become

acquainted with one another prior to the actual emergency, they may

be well acquainted with one another, or they may be total strangers

to one another, and still be viewed as victim and bystander. It is the

role rather than the relationship that delineates the victim from the

bystander.

The Bystander

The bystander is an individual who is near to but is not part of '

the initial emergency. In the intervention paradigm, he is the person

witnessing the emergency situation. Witnessing refers to being

physically in the vicinity (not necessarily within sight) of the

victim so that he is aware that something unusual is occurring. The








bystander, prior to the emergency, is unaware that such is about to

take place.

The Emergency

One of the most distinctive aspects of an emergency is that it

involves threat or harm. Even if an emergency is handled successfully,

usually it is the victim (not the bystander) who is the better off

after intervention. Therefore, from the bystander's point of view,

there are few rewards for successful action in an emergency. At

worst, an emergency can bring physical harm not only to the original

victim but also to anybody who gets involved in the situation, namely,

the bystander himself. At best, the bystander will receive some rein-

forcement in the form of either financial gain, public recognition

(via the news media), or some intrinsic feeling of having done well.

This notion of possible harm puts pressure on bystanders to ignore

the emergency, to distort their perceptions of it, or to underestimate

their responsibility for getting involved.

A second distinctive feature .of an emergency is that it is an

unusual or rare event. An unusual or rare event is one that has

either never or hardly ever occurred in the life of the bystander

before. In addition to being rare, emergencies differ widely from

one another. That is, even if a bystander had been present during

some prior emergency (an automobile accident) it may bear no rela-

tion to the present one. Each emergency presents a different problem

and each requires a different type of action. Having observed a fire

would not necessarily equip one with the knowledge of how to act

during an epileptic seizure.








A fourth characteristic of an emergency is that it usually is

unforeseen; that is, it occurs suddenly and without warning. Neither

the bystander nor the victim have any prior knowledge that the

emergency might occur. Therefore, the bystander does not have the

opportunity to think through in advance what course of action should

be taken during an emergency. Since the victim becomes incapacitated

during the emergency, the bystander, even if he decides not io ;ct,

must do his thinking in the immediacy of the situation. If there is

more than one bystander present (as there is in many emergency

situations) these bystanders have no opportunity to consult others

not present as to the best course of action or to alert experts who

are especially equipped to deal with emergencies (e.g., police,

firemen, doctor). The bystander to an emergency is oftentimes left

to his own resources.

The fifth and final feature of an emergency is that it requires

immediate action. If the seizure, or fire, or assault is not dealt

with at that moment; the situation may deteriorate, the seizure may

get worse, the fire may spread, the victim may be murdered. The

necessity for instant action prevents any bystander confronted with

it from slowly and carefully weighing the different courses of action.

In summary, an emergency situation is one which involves harm

or threat. It is a distinctively .unusual or rare event which often-

times occurs suddenly and without warning, and requires immediate action.

It is, therefore, natural that most emergencies appear somewhat ambiguous

to the bystander.








The Intervention Process

To intervene means to come between two things or to interfere

some ongoing action. Within the BIP, intervention refers to any

helping action taken by the bystander. The two things a bystander

could come between might be the victim and his assailant, or simply

the victim and his pain. Similarly, a bystander who extinguishes a

fire is interfering with some ongoing action whether a victim is

present or not.

A bystander always has the choice of whether or not to inter-

vene. If the bystander does decide to intervene, he must also decide

what form of assistance to give. Should he rush in directly and try

to help the victim or should he go and call someone better qualified

for that job. Intervention, therefore, requires singling out a

particular course of action from a rather wide choice in a very limited

amount of time. Latane and Darley, two of the earliest researchers in

this area, observed, "...failure to intervene may result from failing

to notice an event, failing to realize that the event is an emergency,

failing to feel personally responsible for dealing with the emergency,

or failing to have sufficient skill to intervene" (1969, p. 248).

In summary, the bystander intervention paradigm involves a victim

and a bystander, both possibly unprepared and unaware of the emergency

that is about to take place. The victim, in what might be interpreted

as an ambiguous situation, is in the process of being physically or

psychologically harmed. The bystander, if he so chooses, intervenes by

personally giving aid or sending for the same.








A Theory of Interaction Outcomes

Many theories have been applied to account for bystander behavior

(e.g., social responsibility, reciprocity, and interdependence theory).

One relevant social psychological theory which has not been applied to

explain the bystander effect is Thibaut and Kelley's reward/cost theory

of interaction outcomes. Thibaut and Kelley (1959) developed the theory

of interaction outcomes to account for the behavior of two or more

individuals in an interaction relationship where each member is depen-

dent on every other member for the achievement of positive outcomes.

Analysis of Interaction

According to Thibaut and Kelley, "...the essence of any inter-

personal relationship is interaction. Two individuals may be said

to have forried a relationship when on repeated occasions they are

observed to interact. By interaction it is meant that they emit

behavior in each other's presence, they create products for each

other. In every case we would identify as an instance of interaction

there is at least the possibility that the actions'of each person

affect the other" (1959, p. 10). In addition, an interaction will be

continued only if all participants in that interaction have been

reinforced as a function of having participated (positive outcomes).

Such reinforcements may take the form of material gain (money,

objects) or psychological gain (more power, status, etc.). For

interaction to continue, not only must participants achieve positive

outcomes, there must also be the maximization of positive outcomes for

each of the participants. That is, each individual tries to achieve

the most reinforcement possible for interacting. Such a goal is

functional both to the individual as well as the group as a whole.








Consequences of Interaction (Rewards/Costs)

Although interaction outcomes can be described in a variety of

ways, Thibaut and Kelley chose the rewards an individual receives and

the costs he incurs, as their measures. Rewards were defined as a

reduction in drive or in need fulfillment usually thought of in terms

of satisfactions and pleasures derived from the interaction. Costs

referred to any factors which made the performance of a behavior

sequence more difficult or impossible. The greater the difficulty

the individual has in exhibiting a particular set of behaviors, the

greater the cost of interaction. They cited anxiety, embarrassment,

physical or mental strain, and competing response tendencies as factors

that increase cost. Therefore, the outcomes or consequences of inter-

action can be stated in terms of rewards received and costs incurred for

each member of the dyad.

The Determinants of Rewards and Costs

Thibaut and Kelley proposed two broad classes of determinants

which together establish the rewards and costs of interaction.

Exogenous determinants referred to factors that are more or less

external to the interaction. Thibaut and Kelley believed that each

individual brings with him into all of his relationships certain

values and abilities which will affect the interaction. They cite

four exogenous determinants which appear to be most significant:

abilities, similarity, propinquity, and complementarity.
The second class of determinants, endogenous determinants, refers

to those factors which are inherent to the relationship itself. For

every response each participant is capable of enacting, there are







other responses which are incompatible (i.e., disturbing, or dis-

tracting) with it. If one member of the dyad enacts behavior al

while the second one enacts an incompatible response b2, the

results will be an increase in costs to produce one or both sets.

In general, whether they take the form of anxiety, embarrassment,

annoyance or increased effort in responding, incompatible response

tendencies increase the cost of behavior and, hence, interaction.

Formation of the Relationship

Obviously, a relationship will never begin unless there is some

initial contact between the dyadic members. In its most simple form,

two people come in contact with one another if they are physically

near one another (proximity). :As in the case of rewards and costs,

there are two broad headings of factors which influence the formation

of a relationship; production of behavior and perception of behavior.

Thibaut and Kelley posited four major factors that affect which

behaviors an individual will produce during the preliminary stages of

interaction. These factors are strangeness, accessibility and cultural

norms, autistic hostility, and autistic friendliness.

In addition to those factors which affect behavior production,

Thibaut and Kelley focused on four factors which affect how behavior

is interpreted. These factors are; availability of cues, the primacy

affect, organization of perception, and states of the observer.

Evaluation of the RelationshiD

Once initial contact has been made between dyadic members, and

they have sampled some outcomes, there will arise a need within them

for some sort of standard by which to evaluate the acceptability of








of interaction outcomes. Thibaut and Kelley postulate two such

standards called the comparison level (CL)*and the comparison level

for alternatives (CLalt). The CL is used by each member to determine

the attractiveness of the relationship while the decision of whether

to remain in the relationship or not is determined by his CLalt

(dependency on relationship). According to Thibaut and Kelley (1959),

"...CL is a standard by which the person evaluates the rewards and

costs of a given relationship in terms of what he feels he 'deserves.'

Relationships, the outcomes of which fall above CL, would be rela-
tively 'satisfying' and attractive to the member; those entailing

outcomes that fall below CL would be relatively 'unsatisfying' and

unattractive" (p. 21). Similarly, they state (1959) that, "...CLalt

can.be defined...as the lowest level of outcomes a person will accept

in the light of available alternative opportunities. It follows...

that as soon as outcomes drop below CLalt the member will leave the

relationship" (p. 21). The major purpose for postulating two standards

is based on the fact that an individual may be forced to remain in what

he considers an unattractive relationship. Therefore, although outcomes

fall below his CL, he will remain in the relationship based on his CLalt'

In addition, because interaction requires that the two participants be

interdependent, a relationship will be formed only if both members

experienced outcomes are above their respective CLalts'

Thibaut and Kelley viewed the CL as a neutral point on a continuous
scale ranging from dissatisfaction to satisfaction. Any time the inter-

action outcomes fall above this neutral point the interaction will be

viewed as attractive. Conversely, when outcomes drop below the neutral








point the interaction will be unsatisfactory. According to Thibaut

and Kelley (1959), the CL is defined, "...as being some modal or

average value of all outcomes known to the person (by virtue of

personal or vicarious experience), each outcome weighted by its

salience (or the degree to which it is instigated for the person at

that moment)" (p. 81). We see, then, that an individual's CL will be

affected (i.e., change) as he experiences new consequences which

changes his hypothetical average value of outcomes. Likewise, the

CL will be affected by situational variables which change the salience

of specific outcomes.

Individual differences and comparison level.--what individual

differences and comparison levels refers to here is the differences

between individuals in power and control and how this affects their CL.

An individual who in the past has.experienced positive outcomes related

to power and control will view presently unattainable goals as within

his reach, and as such will tend to stress its reward aspects.

Conversely, an individual who sees himself as powerless will continue

to view unattainable goals as such and will tend to stress the high

costs involved in its attainment. In addition, the CL will be higher for

the former than the latter individual.

Power and Dependence

The final major area to be dealt with is concerned with power and

dependence in dyadic relationships. It will be remembered that the

CLalt was defined as the minimum level of outcomes an individual will

accept in view of the alternative opportunities that are available to

him. In the same way that evaluation was described in terms of an








individual's CL, so must power and dependence be explained in terms of

his CLalt. "CL, then is crucial in his attraction to the dyad, but CLalt

is crucial in determining his dependency upon or, conversely, his power

within it" (Thibaut and Kelley, 1959, p. 101). Stated differently,

since interaction implies interdependence, it can be assumed that each

dyadic member, in some way, controls the rewards and costs of the other

member. The CLalt is the standard by which an individual can measure

his degree of power or dependency in the present relationship compared

to that of alternative ones. If the individual discovers that his power

in this relationship is minimal compared to his best alternative rela-

tionship, he will probably dissolve the present partnership, assuming

comparable CL's.

Thibaut and Kelley (1959) defined power as, "...A's ability to

affect the quality of outcomes attained by B" (p. 101), and as such

described two types of power; fate control and behavior control.

Fate control.--If A, by altering his own behavior can change B's

outcomes, no matter what B does, A is said to have fate control over B.

For example, A is a professor and B is a student in his class. If

grades are based solely on A's personal evaluation of B, A is said to

have fate control over B.

Behavior control.--If A, by altering his own behavior can make it

desirable for B to alter his behavior, A is said to have behavior

control over B (or vice versa). A and B are husband and wife. If A,

who is usually sloppy, begins to clean up the house, it becomes

desirable for B to stop nagging him to do so. Similarly, if B starts

cooking tasiter meals, she makes it desirable for A to come home for

dinner. Each is therefore said to have behavior control over the other.








Thibaut and Kelley discuss the consequences of power in terms of

both the dyad as a whole and the individual members. They believe

that if a dyad is highly interdependent, the members will wield high

and equal amounts of power over one another and as such will be highly

cohesive. The individual member of a dyad who controls the greater

power can look forward to considerable influence over the values and

attitudes of his partner. Some of the strategies Thibaut and Kelley

suggest for increasing power in a dyad include; improving one's ability

to deliver rewards to his partner, building up the value of one's

product (i.e., rewards one can offer), and reducing the alternatives

available to the other member of the dyad.

Having spent considerable time describing and exploring Thibaut

and Kelley's reward/cost theory of interaction outcomes, it is now

appropriate to return to the original impetus for such a discussion;

that is, to incorporate the paradigm of bystander intervention into

this framework.

BIP: A Case for Interaction Outcome Theory

It will be remembered that the bystander intervention paradigm

involves a victim and a bystander, both possibly unprepared and unaware

of the emergency that is about to take place. The victim, in what

might be interpreted as an ambiguous situation is in the process of

being physically or psychologically harmed. The bystander, if he

so chooses, intervenes by giving aid or sending for the same.

It will also be remembered that according to Thibaut and Kelley.

C1959), "...The essence of any interpersonal relationship is inter-

action. By interaction it is meant that they (the dyadic members)








emit behavior in each others presence or they communicate with each

other (where)...there is at least the possibility that the actions

of each person affect the other" (p. 10). In other words, for inter-

action to occur, each participant in an interdependent relationship

must have the ability to affect the other's outcomes (i.e., rewards,

payoffs, reinforcements, etc.). If the relationship between the victim

and the bystanders in the bystander intervention paradigm is truly one

of interaction, then this relationship must meet two criteria; the

members must emit behavior in each other's presence or communicate

with each other, and each member must have the ability to affect the

other's outcomes.

The BIP meets the first criteria of interaction; that of emitting

behavior in each other's presence or communicating with one another.

In all naturally occurring instances (i.e., Kitty Genovese, Andrew

Mormille, Eleanor Bradley) of this phenomenon, both the victim and

the bystander were responding in each other's presence. In the case

of Andrew Mormille, all of the subway passengers watched as he was

stabbed in the stomach. Although he pleaded for help, none was offered.

The reaction of these bystanders, although it was one of non-intervention,

was emitted in his presence. Similarly, the New York Times account of

the Kitty Genovese murder (March 28, 1964) attests to the fact that

although no one actually helped, all of the thirty-eight neighbors

came to their windows to see what was happening and one man actually

called down to the killer to "Let that girl alone!" In essence, then,

each bystander by being at his window was reacting in the presence of

Miss Genovese. In addition, since Miss Genovese was calling to these








bystanders for assistance, she was both aware of and reacting to

their presence.

In most experimental variations of the BIP, the same is true.

That is, the bystander and the victim are responding in each other's

visual presence (Piliavin, et al., 1969; Latane and Darley, 1968).

A number of other bystander effect studies are designed in such a way

that although behavior is not emitted in each other's visual presence,

the bystander and the victim do communicate with one another verbally

(Darley and Latan6, 1968; Latane and Rodin, 1969; Clark and Word, 1972;

Levy, Lundgren, Ansel, Fell, Fink and McGrath, 1972). In all instances

of the BIP then, whether real or experimental, the first criteria of

interaction is met.

The second criteria, that of interdependency for the attainment of

positive outcomes is somewhat more subtle. It is obvious that the

bystander has the ability to affect the victim's rewards. If the by-

stander comes to the aid of the victim, he is either eliminating or at

least alleviating the victim's suffering. It is also true, however, that

the victim can affect the positive and negative outcomes (i.e., rein-

forcements) of the bystander. Thibaut and Kelley include as reinforcement

of interactions both material loss or gain (money, objects) or psycho-

logical loss or gain (power, status). Therefore, the victim at least

has the possible power to reward or punish bystander intervention via

financial reimbursement or other forms of material gain as well as

affecting the bystander's self-image for his actions. For interaction

to continue, according to theory, not only must participants achieve

positive outcomes, there must also be the maximization of positive








outcomes for each of the participants. That is, each individual tries

to achieve the most reinforcement possible for interacting. Therefore,

the greater the likelihood of reinforcement as perceived by the by-

stander, the greater the possibility that he will continue interacting

with the victim via intervention. We see then, that for all intents

and purposes, the BIP is an instance of interaction. As such, the

consequences of bystander/victim interaction can be viewed in terms

of rewards and costs.

In order to better understand the scope of Thibaut and Kelley's

interaction outcome theory for the BIP, a reevaluation of previous

experimental research is attempted within the reward/cost framework.

The purpose for such an endeavor is not to devalue the implications of

such studies, but rather to eliminate some of the confusion generated

by conflicting interpretations.

Literature Review

Since its inception in 1968, considerable attention has been

directed to the study of helping behavior in the context of bystander

intervention. Research can be divided into three major areas: factors

that affect the relationship among the bystanders, situational deter-

minants of the BIP, and demographic and physical characteristics of

the victim.

Relationship Among Bystanders

The effect of the number of bystanders present on subsequent

helping as well the degree of intimacy among bystanders can be viewed

as information related to the relationship among bystanders. As such,








both diffusion of responsibility among bystanders and intervention

by friend versus stranger bystanders are included here.

Diffusion of responsibility.--The earliest research in the field

of diffusion of responsibility was carried out by Darley and Latane

(1968). They claimed that diffusion of responsibility was the major

cause of non-action in an emergency situation.

Diffusion of responsibility takes its origins from two major

mechanisms that explain mob action (Brown, 1965). The first is the

feeling of anonymity that comes with being part of a crowd. This

results in a diffusion of the individual's sense of personal respon-

sibility. Because he blends into a large mass of others, each member

of a crowd can feel relatively anonymous and therefore less res-

ponsible for his actions (or inactions), than otherwise would be the

case.

The second mechanism to explain mob action was termed an "impression

of universality" by Allport (1924). According to this view, the member

of the crowd receives the approval of everyone. As a result, whatever

he does seems to him to be the right thing to do.

Applying this to the Kitty Genovese murder, Darley and Latan6

made these observations. Each of the thirty-eight observers by seeing

lights and figures in the other apartment house windows knew that others

were reacting. These facts provide several reasons why any individual

may have delayed or failed to help. The responsibility for helping was

diffused among all thirty-eight observers. There was also a diffusion

of any potential blame for not taking action. And, finally, it was

possible that somebody unperceived, had already initiated helping action.







S Darley and Latane state that when only one bystander is present

in an emergency, if help is to come, it must come from him. Although

he may choose to ignore it (out of concern for personal safety or

desires not to get involved), any pressure to intervene focuses

uniquely on him. When there are several observers present, however,

the pressures to intervene do not focus on any one of the observers;

instead the responsibility for intervention is shared among all the

onlookers and is not unique to anyone. As a result, no one helps.

For these reasons, Darley and Latane hypothesized that the more

bystanders there are to an emergency, the less likely, or the more

slowly any one bystander will intervene to provide aid. In their

study (1968), college students agreed to participate in an intercom

discussion where each participant would remain totally anonymous.

Subjects were led to believe that they were either part of a two,

three, or six member panel. In each case, there was only one true

subject and one victim. All other members were.simply voices pro-

vided on tape by the experimenter. Midway into the discussion, the

victim began to have an epileptic seizure. Presumably the experimenter

was not present and it was up to the real subject to either summon

him or help the victim directly. The experimenter, as his dependent

measure, clocked the speed of the subject's response. The results

supported Darley and Latane's hypothesis; 85 percent of the subjects

in the alone condition (subject-victim) went for help as compared to

62 percent in the three-man groups and only 31 percent in the six-man

groups. In addition, subjects in the alone condition responded more

quickly (52 seconds) than their six-man counterpart group (166 seconds).








In this same study, Darley and Latane found no significant

difference in helping behavior between males and females, or between

experts and non-experts (pre-med vs. arts and sciences students). In

addition, there were no reliable correlations between helping behavior

and personality traits as measured by scales of Machiavellianism,

anomie, and authoritarianism (Christie, 1964), Crowne-Marlowe's social

desirability scale (1964), and Daniel and Berkowitz' social responsi-

bility scale (1964). They also found no correlations between helping

behavior and socio-economic background.

One interesting aspect of this study was the reactions of those

subjects who did not help. The subjects exhibited great concern about

the victim when the experiment was over. Invariably such subjects

checked with the experimenter to make sure the victim was all right.

Why then, didn't they respond? Darley and Latan6 contend that such

subjects had not decided not to respond; rather they were still in a

state of indecision and conflict concerning whether or not to respond.

The emotional behavior of these non-responders, according to Darley

and Latane, was a sign of their continuing conflict, a conflict that

other subjects resolved by helping.

If Darley and Latane's study is analyzed within the framework

of Thibaut and Kelley's interaction outcome theory, diffusion of

responsibility can be seen as an instance of relationship evaluation.

In the case of the lone bystander, the only relationship available

to him involves the victim. Therefore, although his evaluation of

the relationship may fall below his CL, he will remain in the rela-

tionship and continue interaction (i.e., intervention) based on the








fact that this relationship exceeds his CLalt. This is not the case,

however, for multiple bystanders. Once again, interaction with the

victim may not be very attractive, but now each bystander has the

option of engaging in an alternative interaction with any other

bystander. Such an interaction would incur lower costs since it does

not involve the possibility of threat, harm, or increased effort in

responding and, therefore, raises their CLalt. As stated previously,

if an individual's CL falls above outcomes and below his CLalt, he

will discontinue the relationship. What we see then is that in the case

of multiple bystanders, each bystander chooses as his partner in inter-

action any or all of the other bystanders rather than the victim.

The idea of alternative relationships would also help to explain

the results obtained by Levy et al. (1972) involving diffusion of

responsibility in a non-threatening situation. The experiment was

designed to determine if the bystander effect could be produced in a

non-emergency situation; one where neither the bystander nor the victim

was threatened, but one which nonetheless demanded action from the

bystander.. A subject waiting either alone or with one or two confederates

heard an intruder demand entry into the experimental room where subjects

were filling out a questionnaire. Treatments were varied as to whether

intruder demands increased in intensity or remained the same, and

whether confederates appeared to notice the demands or not. Focusing

on response latencies, Levy et al. found helping rate was most rapid

for the alone subjects, followed by subjects participating with one

confederate. Subjects working with two confederates took the most time

in responding. In other words, the bystander effect found by Darley








and Latane was demonstrated for each of the present experimental

treatments, none of which involved fear or a real emergency situation

but each of which involved some intrusion or demand for response on

the part of the naive subject. As with Darley and Latane, bystanders

in this experiment had the option of continuing interaction with one

another or entering into a new interaction with a relative stranger

(victim). Although possible injury to the bystander was not a factor

in helping, interaction did involve an increased effort in responding

(getting up and opening the door). The lone bystander, having no

alternative relationship from which to choose, interacted with the

victim. The decision to help on the part of a bystander, therefore,

may have had less to do with the number of other bystanders present

as it did with the attractiveness and dependency such other relationships

offered compared to one with the victim. In addition to attractiveness

and dependency, the guilt aroused in the lone bystander for failure to

help might actually have increased the cost of not interacting. Helping

the victim eliminates this guilt, thus increasing the reward/cost ratio.

Another case in point concerns the results obtained by Ross (1971).

He found that a bystander paired with two children responded to a

victim's plea more rapidly than one who was paired with two confederate-

peers. He interpreted these results in terms of an increase in respon-

sibility. However, he could not explain why a single bystander responded

faster than his adult/child subject. If looked at in terms of CLalt

the results become clearer. Once again, the alone bystander had no

alternative relationship to consider, hence he helped. The adult/child

subject did have an available other relationship albeit not as appealing








as the one offered to the adult/peer subject; hence the former may even-

tually have chosen the victim for his partner and did so more quickly

and more often than the latter, but not as often or quickly as the

single bystander.

Friends vs. strangers.--Assuming there is more than one bystander

present to an emergency, will the degree of intimacy between bystanders

affect their probability of intervention?

This question of whether friends or strangers are more responsive

bystanders was addressed by Latane and Rodin (1969). Subjects were

asked to wait either alone, with a friend, or with a stranger (con-

federate or naive) to participate in a market research study. As they

waited, subjects heard someone .fall and apparently injure herself in

the room next door. Whether the bystanders tried to help and how long

they took were the main dependent variables. Results indicated that

two friends helped the same percent of time (70 percent) as single

subjects, as compared to 40 percent for two strangers and only 7 percent

in the confederate condition. This experiment may also be viewed within

a reward/cost framework. A naive bystander, paired with a stranger, must

choose between a continued interaction with this stranger or a new inter-

action with a victim. This new victim interaction involves a higher cost

and no guarantee of greater rewards than the subject's present rela-

tionship. The same might not be true of two friends. Friends might not

feel forced to choose between each other or the victim. Their relation-

ship to one another may be independent of victim-interaction and as such

they may consider themselves responding as a single individual. As such,

they are similar to the alone bystander. Considered this way, it is not








surprising that Latane and Rodin (1969) found identical degrees of

helping (70 percent) between two friends and single bystanders. Rather

than interpreting this percentage as inhibition due to friendship as

Darley and Latane did, it indicates joint action for a single response.

Latane and Rodin themselves state (1969), "...Friends...often dis-

cussed the incident and arrived at a mutual plan of action" (p. 200).

The second explanation of why friends are more willing to inter-

vene than strangers concerns the notion of cost incurred in interaction.

Thibaut and Kelley assert that the greater the difficulty an individual

has in exhibiting a particular set of behaviors, the greater the cost

of interaction. They cite anxiety, embarrassment, physical or mental

strain and competing response tendencies as factors that increase cost.

Referring back to the results of Latane and Rodin, one finds these

experimenters saying, "...It may be that people are less likely to fear

possible embarrassment in front of friends than before strangers" (1969,

p. 200). In other words, a decrease in possible embarrassment would

decrease the relative costs of victim interaction and would increase

the probability of intervention. If fears of embarrassment is less of

an issue between friends than strangers, one would expect, based on the

desire for positive outcomes, that friends would interact with a victim

more often than two strangers. Such is the case.

Situational Determinants of the BIP

Factors inherent to the BIP which affect the probability of by-

stander intervention can be discussed as situational determinants.

Two of the major areas studied deal with the effect of situational

ambiguity and geographic location on subsequent helping.








Ambiguity.--As noted earlier, ambiguity is defined as an event

that is uncertain or vague. With reference to the BIP, Latan6 and

Darley (1968) became interested in how bystanders interpret an

ambiguous event. When faced with such an event, they suggested the

individual bystander is likely to look at the reactions of the people

around him and be influenced by them. It was predicted that the sight

of other non-responsive bystanders would lead the individual to inter-

pret the emergency as non-serious and therefore not act. It was also

predicted that the dynamics of the interaction process would lead each

of a group of naive onlookers to be misled by the apparent inaction of

the others into adopting a non-emergency interpretation of the event

and a passive role. Darley and Latane termed this "pluralistic

ignorance" (p. 216). These experimenters had subjects fill out a

questionnaire either alone, in groups of three, or with a non-responsive

confederate. Midway through the questionnaire, the experimenter began

to introduce smoke through a vent such that by the end of the experi-

mental period, vision was obscured. Darley and Latane's results support

their predictions. An individual exposed to a room filling with smoke

in the presence of passive others, themselves remain passive (only 10

percent sought help). Groups of three naive subjects were also less

likely to report the smoke (38 percent) than solitary bystanders

(75 percent).

Clark and Word (1972) also studied the effects of ambiguity on

intervention. In their study, either one, two, or five naive male

subjects were led to believe that they would be discussing sexual

topics with a female student under the guise that the experimenter








was interested in observing which combination of males would be more

effective in changing her attitude. While waiting for the experiment

to begin, subjects overheard a maintenance man, in the adjoining room,

fall. In the low ambiguity condition he cried out in agony, whereas

no verbal cues of injury were emitted by the victim in the high ambiguity

condition. Clark and Word hypothesized that bystanders would be more

likely to respond to the pleas of an individual in distress than when

no such pleas were heard. Their results supported their hypothesis.

Helping behavior occurred regardless of group size in every case in

which subjects were exposed to an unambiguous emergency. In the high

ambiguity condition, however, bystanders responded in only 30 percent,

20 percent, and 40 percent of the time in the one, two, and five person

groups respectively. In addition, the mean reaction time in seconds

was significantly lower in the low vs. high ambiguous conditions.

Clark and Word interpreted their results as indicating that the

characteristics of the emergency situation are major determinants of

whether an individual or group is likely to respond to the pleas of

an individual in distress. Individuals who are confronted.with a

highly ambiguous emergency situation are less likely to help a victim

than are bystanders who are exposed to a less ambiguous situation,

especially when in the presence of non-reacting others. According to

Clark and Word, "...w'en an emergency is non-ambiguous involving

severe negative consequences to another person with minimal negative

consequences for the persons) who help(s), and when the amount of

effort required for intervention is minimal, derogation of the victim

is not an appropriate response, and diffusion of responsibility is








not likely to occur, individuals will intervene in an emergency

situation" (p. 399).

Although the experiments are quite different, both sets of

researchers (Latane and Darley, 1968; Clark and Word, 1912) reported

experimental results indicating an inverse relationship between

ambiguity and helping behavior. They interpreted these findings in

terms of the demand or emergency stimulus. All four experimenters

believed the more cues of distress emitted by the victim, the less

ambiguity of the demand stimulus, and the greater the degree of

intervention. However, as reported earlier, the results of Levy

et al., (1972) indicated that even in situations involving low ambi-

guity of demand stimuli, multiple bystander intervention is minimal.

The discrepancy between these studies can be somewhat eliminated

when reactions are explained in terms of the desire for positive outcomes.

In the experiment by Clark and Word (1972), subjects overheard

a maintenance man fall and apparently injure himself in an adjacent

room. In the low ambiguity condition, the victim called out for

assistance., high ambiguity subjects did not hear these pleas. For a

naive subject to intervene, he would have to discontinue interacting

with the confederate bystanders. This would involve analyzing the

new victim relationship in terms of rewards and costs. We have already

mentioned that the costs involved in such an interaction can be high

(harm, embarrassment, etc.). What about the rewards? By calling out

for assistance (low ambiguity) the victim is cueing the subject that

he will greatly appreciate interaction and as such, he (the victim)

is increasing the probability of rewards while removing the cost of








embarrassment, thus making intervention more salient. In highly

ambiguous situations this is not the case. While costs are obvious,

comparable rewards are not. Similarly, the increased effort in res-

ponding necessary on the part of the subjects in the Levy et al.

experiment might not be counterbalanced by the rewards offered by

the victim for opening the door. Indeed, perhaps this stranger does

not belong there in the first place, therefore increasing costs even

more.

Despite the finding of these experiments, the question still

remains as to why all of the thirty-eight witnesses to the Genovese

slaying, after hearing her pleas for help, and from the safety of

their own apartments, failed to telephone for help.

The answer may be that in the case of the Genovese bystanders,

in order to eliminate any possibility of retribution of the part of the

assailant, assistance would have to be anonymous eliminating any

possibility of rewards. In essence, then, ambiguity may be less a

matter of the social situation or the emergency stimulus as it is a

means of increasing or decreasing the salience of rewards for inter-

vention.

Geographic location.--Another topic related to situational deter-

minants and helping deals with geographic location. When comparing the

results of BIP studies from Darley and Latane with those of Clark and

Word, we find that although the designs were identical and utilized a

comparative population (college students), they observed differential

helping responses. More specifically, intervention occurred more

frequently among Clark and Word's subjects than those of Darley and








Latane. It is important to note that the former's subjects lived in

Tallahassee, a small southeastern university town, compared to the

home of the latter's subjects, New York City. This difference in

geographic location may affect bystanders' individual differences in

comparison level. It is not earth shattering to hypothesize that life

in a large urban center is different from life in a small town.

Therefore, it is not surprising that people who live in such divergent

atmospheres will respond differently to similar situations. One such

situation concerns perception of personal power. Milgram (1970) in

writing about urban life states, "...The interposition of institutions

between the individual and the social world, a characteristic of all

modern society and most acutely present in the large metropolis, has

its negative side. It deprives the individual of a sense of direct

contact and spontaneous integration in the life around him. It

simultaneously protects and estranges the individual from his social

environment" (p. 154).

Similarly, Thibaut and Kelley state that an individual who in the

past has experienced positive outcomes related to power and control

will view presently unattainable goals as within his reach, and as

such will tend to stress the reward aspects of such goals. Conversely,

an individual who sees himself as powerless will continue to view

unattainable goals as such and will tend to stress the high costs

involved in its attainment.

In other words, individuals from large metropolitan areas are

accustomed to having power controlled by anonymous institutions with

whom interaction is very frustrating and hence costly. Therefore, it






31
is not surprising that they view themselves as powerless in reference to

attaining presently unattainable goals. This in turn would cause them

to stress the cost aspect of ever getting involved. Small town dwellers,

on the other hand, do not have this problem of "overloading" (Milgram,

1970, p. 153) and as such feel more powerful and personally responsible

for their actions. Since interaction in such an environment is more

successful such individuals would tend to stress the rewards rather than

the costs of relationships. Since past experiences based on geographic

location can affect an individual's perception of present outcomes

(Milgram, 1970), one would expect a city dweller to be less prone to

help a person in trouble. If one could empirically measure an individual's

perception of interaction in terms of his emphasis on rewards and costs,

one would expect to find a significant difference in interaction approaches

between these two populations.

Demographic and Physical Characteristics of the Victim

This third area deals with the effect of victim/bystander simi-

larity along demographic lines on bystander intervention. Research

has focused on the state of the victim, his race, and sex.

State of the victim.--The state of the victim refers to his physical

appearance at the time of the emergency. A victim may look conservative

or liberal, rich or poor, sick or healthy, drunk or sober. Each of

these states may affect the bystander's perception of the victim, which

in turn, may influence his intervention decision.

An experiment by Piliavin, Rodin, and Piliavin (1969) focused on

the effect of the state of the victim (drunk vs. ill) on intervention.

In addition, race was a variable. Theirs was a field experiment








conducted in a New York City subway train by teams of four college

students. The emergency occurred within a seven-minute interval

between two subway stations. Each time, the victim began to stagger

and eventually collapsed to the floor of the car. In half of the

cases, a confederate came to the victim's aid. In the other half,

the fate of the victim was solely in the hands of the naive bystanders.

One of the findings of Piliavin et al. was that an individual who

appeared to be ill was more likely to receive aid than one who appeared

to be drunk. In addition, given mixed groups of men and women and a

male victim, men were more likely to help than were women. Given

mixed racial groups, there was some tendency for same race helping

to be more frequent (especially if the victim was drunk rather than

ill). And, finally, they found no relationship between the number of

bystanders and the speed of helping (i.e., no diffusion of responsibility).

These results appear to be contradictory with those obtained by Darley

and Latan6 (1968). There were, however, three major differences between

this study and both the study of Darley and Latan6 and the Genovese

murder. First, the bystanders in this study were literally trapped

in the subway car with the victim for seven minutes. The victims in

previous bystander intervention studies were always in rooms adjoining

that of the bystanders. Therefore, the emergency was always out of

sight and bystanders were free to leave if they so desired. Similarly,

the witnesses to the Genovese murder did so from the safety of their

own apartments, quite a distance away from the street slaying. Second,

there could be no uncertainty (ambiguity) about the victim's needing

help in this study. This was not true for the Darley and Latane study.








And third, there was no possibility of personal injury to a bystander

who helped an unconscious victim, whereas in the Darley and Latan4

study, at least, personal harm was not totally eliminated (perhaps

the victim would attack the helper while having his seizure). It is

even possible that the "I don't want to get involved" attitude of the

Genovese bystanders was an indication of the fear of retaliation by

the murderer or one of his convict acquaintances. Any one of these

differences, and all three acting together, could easily account for

the contradictory results.

A second study on victim state (Emswiller, Deaux, and Willits,

1971) was carried out to determine whether similarity in appearance

between helper and victim would increase the rate of helping behavior.

Victims were dressed either as "hippies" or "straights" (quotes added).

They approached prospective helpers who were deemed as either similarly

or dissimilarly dressed and requested a small favor. Results indicated

a significantly greater number of persons willing to aid someone who

resembled them in appearance. The authors hypothesized that dress

styles provide a basis for assumptions about other areas of similarity

and create a greater willingness to help a similar other.

Race and sex.--The effects of race and sex of the victim on

bystander intervention have typically been studied simultaneously and

as such, will be reported together.
Gaertner and Bickman (1971), in their study of the effects of race

on helping behavior, hypothesized that an individual of one race might

view another individual of his race as similar, and as such, would be

willing to aid him more often than one of a different race. Their







research was conducted in the field and included over one thousand

black and white subjects (helpers). Each subject received what was

supposedly a wrong number telephone call. The caller (victim) was

clearly identifiable as either black or white, by his voice char-

acteristics. The victim explained that he was attempting to reach

his auto mechanic from a pay phone booth which was located on a major

parkway (where his car had just broken down). The victim further

claimed that he had just spent his last dime making this phone call.

The bystander could aid the victim by contacting the car mechanic

for him. Gaertner and Bickman's results indicated that while black

bystanders extended approximately equal levels of assistance to both

black and white victims, white.bystanders helped black victims less

frequently than their white counterparts. Ignoring the race of the

bystander and the victim, the experimenters found that male subjects

helped more often than female subjects.

Wispi and Freshly (1971) also studied the race and sex effect on

degree of helping in a naturalistic setting. A total of 176 black

and white, male and female subjects, aged 20-60 found themselves in

a position to help or not help a young black or white female con-

federate whose bag of groceries had just broken in front of a super-

market. Their results showed that significant sex differences occurred

in helping behavior for the black but not for the white sample and that

women tended to be less helpful toward women of the same race. With

this one exception, there was no racial difference in helping behavior.

These findings run counter to the results of the Piliavin et al. study

(1969) where helpers tended to aid victims of the same race more than

those of a different race.








Bryan and Test (1967), in two field studies, found that black

Salvation Army solicitors received significantly fewer contributions

than did white solicitors, although there was no difference in the

amount of money donated. The effect of race of the victim solicitorr)

would also help to explain Gaertner and Bickman's (1971) results that

white bystanders help black victims less frequently than chance.

Despite the diversity, all of these studies stress the importance

of the role of external cues to helping behavior. In the initial

stages of the bystander/victim relationship, the availability of cues

is limited. Both the bystander and the victim evaluate one another based

on superficial external cues such as physical appearance. Then, working

from this first impression, each individual begins to evaluate the

relationship. Thibaut and Kelley believe that despite cultural norms

against initial self-disclosure, similarity of attitudes, abilities,

needs, etc. facilitate communication and increase the probability of

interaction.

Returning to the BIP, Emswiller et al. (1971), concluded that

similarity along dimensions such as dress styles and race provide a

basis for assumptions about other areas of similarity and create a

greater willingness to help a similar other. In essence then, our

initial impression of another based on his physical appearance leads

us to either a closer or more distant identification with him. If

someone looks similar to another in dress, race, language, etc. the

probability in the eyes of the first that the second is similar to him

along other dimensions such as values and interests is increased.

Thus, both members are more likely to anticipate a pleasant interaction

and would be more likely to pursue one.








It has already been stated that similarity between interacting

partners is both rewarding and cost reducing at the same time. Therefore,

the results of these studies can be reinterpreted in terms of inter-

action outcomes. When a bystander is confronted by a victim, an

initial first impression is formed based on outward appearance. The

more similar the victim is to the bystander along the various physical

dimensions, the more likely the bystander will assume intrinsic simi-

larities. Similarity, in turn, increases interpersonal attraction

(Byrne and Nelson, 1965) and the salience of positive outcomes for the
bystander (Thibaut and Kelley, 1959). The result, then, is an increase

in the possibility of intervention.

Summary

In looking back over the literature reviewed here, one finds that

all of the research has focused on either the bystander, the victim, or

the environmental situation as separate entities. With reference to

the bystander, experimenters have varied; the number of bystanders to

an emergency (alone vs. two or more), the age of the bystanders (adult

vs. children), the sex of the bystander, and their race (black vs.

white). Victims were varied as to their race (black vs. white), and

physical state (drunk vs. ill). The situational determinants that have

been studied range from: geographic location (urban vs. rural), to

degree of ambiguity (high vs. low). Theorists have searched in vain to

account for bystander behavior (i.e., social responsibility, reciprocity,

and interdependence theory). One begins to wonder then, why researchers

have focused on the victim, the bystander, and the environment as

separate entities when their interaction is so eminent and vital to the








entire paradigm? In order for intervention to occur, there must be

some degree of interaction between the victim and the bystander, and

between the bystander and the environment. Since research has shown

that both quantity and quality of human interaction (Festinger,

Schachter, and Back, 1950) are important determinants of behavior,

attention will be focused on bystander/victim interaction first.

Background of the Present Experiment

Bystander/Victim Interaction

The earliest reference to bystander/victim interaction can be found

in an article in Nation by Milgram (1964). The article was prompted by

the same incident which prompted all subsequent research in this area,

the Kitty Genovese murder.

Referring to the relationship between Miss Genovese and the thirty-

eight bystanders, Milgram states, "...Many facts of the case have not

been made public such as the quality of the relationship between Miss

Genovese and the community, the extent to which she was recognized

that night and the number of persons who knew her" (p. 604). He goes

on to say, "...in New York City it is not unusual to see a man sick

with alcohol, lying in a doorway; he does not command the least bit of

attention or interest from those who pass by. The trouble here, as in

Kew Gardens, is that the individual does not perceive that his interests

are identified with others or with the community at large" (p. 604).

Unfortunately, the literature pertaining to this phenomenon, lack

of interaction and hence lack of interpersonal attraction between

victim and bystander, is scarce. Subjects in one experiment in this

area (Epstein and Hornstein, 1969) believed that they were involved








in an impression-formation and decision-making task. They were each

confronted with a dilemma; they had to choose between earning money

for themselves while allowing another to be shocked, or foregoing

the profit in order to prevent the victim from being harmed. One-

half of the helpers anticipated a penalty if they chose to allow the

victim to be shocked; the rest held no such anticipation. In addition,

there were three conditions of interpersonal attraction; like, dislike

and (a control) no manipulation. Epstein and Hornstein's results

indicated that subjects (helpers) who liked the victim chose to help

more often when they anticipated punishment for themselves, but chose

to help less often when no punishment was anticipated. As expected,

the reverse was true for helpers who disliked the victims. In other

words, a bystander will help a victim if at the same time he avoids

hurting himself. However, if there are no unpleasant consequences in

store for a bystander who neglects to help a victim, the victim will

receive little or no assistance from the would-be helper.

In another study, working within the framework of the Zeigernik

effect, Hornstein, Masor, Sole and Heilman (1971) found that persons

were more likely to complete the interrupted goal attainment of liked

than disliked others. And, Emswiller et al. (1971) found that by-

standers were more interpersonally attracted to and therefore more

likely to aid victims who were culturally or physically similar than

dissimilar to themselves.

Interpersonal attraction has also been shown to be affected (i.e.,

increased) by having the bystander simply meet the victim prior to

the emergency. Darley and Latan6 (1968), in their epileptic victim








study observed the effects of prior acquaintance with the victim on

degree of bystander intervention. The results were impressive.

Subjects who had met the victim, even though it was for less than

a minute, were significantly quicker to report his attack than any

other subjects in the six-person condition. When questioned later,

these subjects explained their reactions to the emergency. As opposed

to subjects in any other group, some of the bystanders who had pre-

viously met the epileptic victim revealed that they had actually been

able to see him (in their own minds) having the seizure. It appears

that if one can picture a certain specific individual in distress, the

likelihood of bystander intervention increases.

Although the literature on the effects of interpersonal attraction

between the bystander and his victim are scarce, a number of points can

be made regarding the previous section. It will be remembered that

bystander intervention is a particular case of helping behavior. In

all such instances there is a helper (bystander) and a prospective

helper (victim). Previous research on helping behavior has shown that

the level of interpersonal attraction, as measured by physical char-

acteristics, attitude similarity, race, and prior acquaintance affects

the probability of help being offered. Bystander intervention is

different from helping behavior in that the emergency situation is often

ambiguous for the bystander. However, since both require one individual

to come to the aid of another individual, it is not unlikely that

increased interpersonal attraction should affect the bystander much the

same way it affects the helper; that is the greater the interpersonal

attraction between the bystander and his victim, the greater the








likelihood of intervention. One means of enhancing bystander/victim

interpersonal attraction is through increased attitude similarity.

Attitude Similarity Between Bystander and Victim

One hypothesis which has continually been supported is that people

like those who possess attitudes similar to their own (Newcomb, 1947).

It has also been shown that similarity of attitudes increases the degree

of interpersonal attraction (Byrne and Nelson, 1965). Within the frame-

work of helping behavior, attitude similarity functioning as an exogenous

determinant of interaction outcomes, serves to increase the salience of

rewards while decreasing its relative cost. This is accomplished by

the fact that interaction with a similar other decreases the likelihood

of competing response tendencies, strangeness and inaccurate first

impressions while increasing the probability of social support and

autistic friendliness. Similarly, it has been shown (Smith et al.,

1972) that attitudinal dissimilarity hampers continued interaction.

The variable of attitude similarity has been applied to the BIP

with reference to inter-bystander influence (Smith et al., 1972).

As was predicted, perceived attitudinal similarity between bystanders

significantly reduced emergency intervention. Only when bystanders

believed themselves to be attitudinally different from one another

was victim interaction in the form of help giving initiated. It is

surprising, therefore, that the relationship between victim/bystander

attitude similarity and subsequent bystander intervention has not

been explored. It will be remembered that the relative cost of

interrupting an ongoing emergency is high. There is the danger of

threat or harm in addition to possible embarrassment or anxiety








caused by overreacting. The rewards for intervention are less obvious.

Therefore, unless the victim can, in some way, cue the bystander of

forthcoming rewards, the probability of bystander intervention is

minimal. This can be viewed in another way. When the victim and the

bystander have little in common, the bystander perceives that the

victim has little or nothing to offer him in terms of a rewarding

interaction. Hence, the bystander has complete fate control over the

victim. If the bystander helps, the victim is rewarded; if he does

not help, the victim suffers. If, however, the bystander perceives

that the victim has something to offer him (in the sense of being

alike) similarity acts as a trump card for the victim and the rela-

tionship becomes one of behavior control. That is, the victim, by

holding similar attitudes, is potentially more rewarding and can make

it desirable for the bystander to intervene.

Clark and Word (1972) observed that cries for help by the victim

cued the bystander in such a way as to reduce ambiguity, thereby

increasing the likelihood of reward salience. The present author

believes that attitude similarity with the victim as perceived by the

bystander functions much the same way. And, likewise, dissimilarity

in attitudes has the reverse affect. That is, once the bystander

perceives the victim to be similar to himself, interaction becomes

more attractive since the victim now has a greater potential for

rewardingness. When the bystander perceives himself to be dissimilar

to the victim, however, interaction becomes more costly since the

victim, by being different, has lost much of his reward power.








Bystander/Environmental Interaction

As stated previously, in order for intervention to occur, there

must be some degree of interaction between the victim and the by-

stander and between the bystander and the environment in which the

emergency occurs. Having discussed, in detail, the interaction

between the bystander and the victim it is appropriate to turn our

attention now to bystander/environmental interaction.

Very little research has been done on bystander/environmental

interaction. Those experiments done, exist under the heading of

environmental familiarity.

Environmental Familiarity

One study, by Granet (1971) took place in both a New York City

airport and subway station, and involved helping a young man on

crutches. Granet hypothesized that persons who were familiar with

the physical location in which the emergency took place would be more

likely to help the victim. The results on helping supported his

prediction. In both the airport and the subway, there was a significant

correlation (r = .29, p<.05; r = .31, p<.05, respectively) between

familiarity and responding to the emergency.

Granet interpreted these findings to indicate that a person who

is more familiar with the environment is more aware of the way in which

the environment works. He is not overloaded with stimuli, and his fears

of embarrassment or, in the case of the subway, actual physical harm,

have moderated. He may have a greater stake in keeping the environment

safe. Thus, he is more likely to help.

Three developmental studies (Weizman, Cohen, and Pratt, 1971;








McCall and Kagen, 1967; Moseley, Faust, and Reardon, 1970) have also

examined the effects of environmental familiarity. Their results

suggest that subjects are more willing to engage in novel experiences

within familiar settings than when placed in an unfamiliar environment.

Although the research on environmental familiarity and helping

behavior is limited, the implications are clear. Environmental

familiarity, by decreasing a bystander's fears of embarrassment and

actual physical harm, decreases the potential costs of helping. In

addition, the salience of rewards for intervention increase as his

stake in keeping the environment safe increases, thus facilitating a

desire to help.

The Present Experiment

Attitude Similarity

Based on theoretical as well as empirical data, the following

hypothesis has been generated in reference to the affect of bystander/

victim attitude similarity on bystander intervention:

I. Bystander intervention will occur more frequently and more

rapidly when a bystander perceives himself to be attitudinally

similar rather than dissimilar to the victim.

Environmental Familiarity

Based on the research of Granet (1971), the following hypothesis

has been generated with respect to bystander/environmental interaction

and its effect on subsequent bystander intervention:

II. Bystander intervention will occur more frequently and more

rapidly when a bystander is familiarized with the emergency

setting prior to the emergency than when he is not.








In addition, the following secondary hypotheses have been

generated:

1. Bystander intervention is negatively correlated with

bystander hometown size.

This hypothesis is based on the notion that individual differences

and CL will be affected by a bystander's hometown size, as measured by

population density, and as such, urban bystanders should be less likely

to render aid to a victim than rural bystanders.

2. Bystander intervention is not correlated with age of bystander,

family income, educational background of parents, number of brothers,

number of sisters, and number of siblings in the bystander's family.

This hypothesis is based on the belief that these variables do

not affect an individual's CL and therefore would not enter into the

helping decision.

3. There is no relationship between bystander intervention and

bystander social desirability needs.

Although some experimenters (Darley and Latan6, 1968) have

inferred a relationship between bystander intervention and social

desirability, this author does not expect to observe a significant

correlation between these two factors since social desirability is not

systematically related to interaction outcomes.

4. Bystander intervention is not affected by the sex of the

bystander.

This hypothesis is based on the results of Gruder and Cook (1971).






45

In an experiment on sex, dependency, and helping, Gruder and Cook

found no helping effects due to the sex of the potential helper.

The results of their experiment imply that sex differences observed

in previous research were probably due to the sex of the person

receiving help and not to the sex of the person giving it. Since

the victim in the present experiment is a female, equal help from

both male and female bystanders is anticipated.













CHAPTER II

METHODOLOGY

Subjects participated either alone, or with two confederates

in a study on personality and visual perception. During the

experiment, they heard someone fall and apparently injure herself

in the room next door. Whether they tried to help and how long

they took to do so were the main dependent variables of the study.

Subjects

One hundred twenty-eight introductory psychology students from

the University of Florida served as subjects (Ss). There were an

equal number (64) of males and females. All Ss were recruited via

a sign-up sheet in the psychology department under the experimental

title Personality and Visual Perception. In order to avoid suspicion

on the part of the Ss, two additional names were added to the sign-

up sheet in the confederate conditions, making it appear that some

students were being tested in groups of three.

Procedure

The experiment took place at the University of Florida. The

rooms were set up according to the following floor plan.


























Room A Room B


All Ss, regardless of condition, were met by the experimenter

in room 217 and led back into the experimental rooms. Room "A"

which became known as the equipment room, contained an old book-

case stacked high with books and papers, a large movie camera on

a hugh tripod (the visual perception apparatus), and an Akai tape

recorder (which was concealed behind books and folders) in addition

to the table and chairs at which the Ss worked. Overall, the room

appeared crowded and disorganized. Room "B" contained three chairs

which faced the one-way mirror. In all conditions, the naive S

sat in the chair designated "S" on the floor plan.

The experiment involved the manipulation of three variables;

familiarity (high versus low) with the emergency setting, attitudinal

similarity (high versus low) with the victim, and number of by-

standers (S alone versus S+ two confederates) to the emergency.







The study, therefore, was a 2 x 2 x 2 design involving a total of

eight conditions. A total of sixteen Ss (eight male and eight

female) were run in each condition. Each S, then, was involved in

one of the following eight conditions:

Condition Description

1 High Familiarity (F)- High Similarity (S)- S Alone

2 High F- High S- S+ 2 Confederates

3 High F- Low S- S Alone

4 High F- Low S- S+ 2 Confederates

5 Low F- High S- S Alone

6 Low F- High S- S+ 2 Confederates

7 Low F- Low S- S Alone

8 Low F- Low S- S+ 2 Confederates

Part I:. Personality

SHigh familiarity vs. low familiarity.--In the High F condition Ss

were directed from room 217 into room A. Upon entering the experimenter

(E) said: "Hello. My name is Ellen Weiss. I am Dr. Severy's graduate

assistant and although he is in charge of this experiment, I run the Ss

for him. (The graduate assistant was dressed casually to give a non-

professional appearance). By the way, please excuse the mess in here

but quite a few of us have to use this room and it tends to get

cluttered after a while. The name of this study is Personality and

Visual Perception. The first phase of the experiment deals with

Personality. I've given you a questionnaire to fill out. In addition

to the cover sheet, this questionnaire contains a series of statements

about different issues and ideas. Each statement is followed by a







scale ranging from 'strongly agree' to 'strongly disagree'. What we

want you to do is to indicate your agreement or disagreement with

each statement by marking the appropriate word or words on each scale.

Take your time and read each item carefully before indicating your

attitude towards it. Are there any questions? In addition, in

accordance with department rules, you are free to leave at any time

if you desire not to continue the experiment."

This final comment was added to give the S the choice of leaving

during the subsequent emergency. The E then went on to say: "While

you're filling out your questionnaire, I'll be setting up this equip-

ment for the Visual Perception phase of the experiment. I'll try and

make as little noise as possible." (While Ss were filling out the

questionnaire, the E subtly commented on the general disorder and

instability of the bookcase, table, etc.).

The questionnaire that all Ss completed contained a cover sheet

and 53 items (Appendix A). In addition to the complete Crowne-Marlowe

Social Desirability Scale, items were selected which pertained to

attitudes toward Negroes, friends, work, etc. Ss in the High F

condition also rated the emergency room on a Semantic Differential

scale, forcing them to attend to the room (Appendix B).

Low F.--Ss in the Low familiarity condition were led directly
into the second room (room B). E made the same comment about the
messiness of room A as they walked through it. Instructions were

identical except this time E said, "Go ahead and fill out the

questionnaire. I'm going next door (room A) to set up the equipment







for the second phase of the experiment. I should be back before

you finish. If you finish before I return- just knock on the door for

me."

High similarity vs. low similarity.--All Ss completed the Person-

ality questionnaire. In the High- S condition, E took the completed

questionnaire from S and said, "I have to wait for the camera to warm

up before we begin phase two." (E then began to flip through the

completed questionnaire. After doing so she comments) "That's really

unreal. I filled out this questionnaire once for Dr. Severy and our

answers are almost identical. Far out!"

In the Low- S condition the procedure was identical except in

this condition E said, "You know, I bet that we're very different

kinds of people. I filled out this questionnaire once for Dr. Severy

and I think we answered lots of these questions differently."

Confederate condition.--Two undergraduate psychology majors

served as confederates. The confederates were instructed to always

position themselves in the chairs designated "C" on the floor plan.

In addition, the same-sex confederate always sat next to S during the

emergency. The confederates were also told to answer the personality

questionnaire at a slower pace than S in order to give E time to make

the appropriate comments.

Part II: Visual Perception

All Ss were instructed to sit in their chairs in room B facing

the one-way mirror. (Ss in the High- F condition were led from:

room A into room B). The exit door was left slightly ajar to alert







Ss as to a means of escape, if that was their choice of action. After

S (and confederates if applicable) were seated, Eproceeded to say,

"First let me close this hallway door. This second phase involves

Visual Perception. I've given each of you a Visual Perception

questionnaire and an answer sheet (Appendix C). In a few minutes a

series of two lights will appear on the mirror along this opening.

What we would like you to do is to write down the approximate distance

between each pair of lights. For example, if you believe the first

two lights are six inches apart, write 'six inches' next to trial one

on the answer sheet in front of you. Do the same for each pair of

lights. There will be a total of 100 trials in all. I'll be working

the lights from the equipment room next door (room A). On the other

side of this panel is a speaker which is hooked up to a microphone

in my room, so I'll be talking to you through a mike. I'll say 'ready,

begin' before each trial to cue you that the lights are coming on. The

lights will be on for one second with a ten second intervel between

trials. Are there any questions? If not, I have a few more things to

do in the equipment room. Why don't you begin answering the Visual

Perception questionnaire and when you're finished with it, we'll begin

the lights."

The Emergency

E then went back into room A and turned on a pre-recorded tape.

It began with E saying, "I'll be ready in a minute. I just want to

clear some of this junk off the table."

If S listened carefully, he would have then heard E climb on

a chair to stack a pile of books on the bookcase. Even if he were








not listening carefully, he would hear a loud crash and a scream as

the chair collapsed and E fell to the floor..."Oh, my God, my foot...

I...I can't move it. Oh...my ankle." Then E moaned. "I...can't...

get this...thing...off me." She cried and moaned for about a minute

longer, but the cries gradually got more subdued and controlled.

Finally, she muttered something about getting outside, knocked around

the chair as she pulled herself up and thumped to the door. The

entire incident took 125 seconds (Latane and Rodin, 1969).

If S intervened, the post-experimental questionnaire and inter-

view began immediately, If S did not intervene within the 125 seconds,

E waited an additional minute and then entered room B and began the

post-experimental session. In.the confederate conditions, the con-

federates had been instructed as how to react during the emergency.

They were to look up, shrug their shoulders and then continue writing.

If'S asked them for advice or suggestions, confederates always turned

the question back to S. For example, Subject:- "What do you think is

going on in there?" Confederate: "I don't know. What do you think

is going on in there?" Subject: "Do you think we ought to go look?"

Confederate: "Do you think we ought to go look?", etc.

The main dependent variable was whether the bystander (S) took

action to help the victim (E) or not. When E began the tape recorder,

she also began a stopwatch to time the speed of S's response. In

addition to speed of response, Ss were observed for type of intervention.

Ss. could have opened the door dividing rooms A and B; S could have left

room B to find someone else to help; or most simply, S could have called

out to see if E needed help.








After the emergency ended, Ss were given a post-experimental

questionnaire to complete. In it, Ss were asked to rate: the two

rooms (A and B), the E, and the experiment itself on a semantic

differential; their attitudinal similarity to E on a Likert-type

scale; and to describe their reactions to the emergency in a series

of open-ended questions (Appendix 0).

All Ss were then told the true nature of the experiment. Great

care was taken to relieve any anxiety experienced by those Ss who

did not intervene in the emergency by modifying the debriefing to

fit individual needs. Ss were then given their experimental credit

and asked not to discuss the experiment with anyone. All Ss were

also thanked for their participation.













CHAPTER III

RESULTS

Check on Manipulation

In the post-experimental interview, subjects were asked to

describe what they thought had taken place next door. All subjects

thought that the experimenter had fallen and hurt her foot. Less

than 10 percent of the subjects reported any suspicion that the

emergency was part of the experiment. Despite their suspicions, all

of these subjects said they had to check to be sure. All of the

subjects in the confederate condition reported that they believed

the two confederates to be other subjects.

A check was also performed on the attitude similarity and

environmental familiarity manipulations.

Attitude Similarity

Subjects were asked in the post-experimental questionnaire to

rate the degree of attitudinal similarity between the victim and

themselves on a Likert-type scale. The means were 6.99 for high

similarity subjects and 5.52 for low similarity subjects. A t-test

performed to compare the means proved to be significant [at the

p<.001 level (t = 10.86, df = 1/126)] indicating the manipulation

was successful. Subjects in the high similarity condition perceived







themselves to be more attitudinally similar to the victim than subjects

in the low similarity condition.

Environmental Familiarity

Subjects were also asked to rate the emergency room on semantic

differential scales. The mean for high familiarity subjects was 4.50

compared to 4.41 for low familiarity subjects. A t-test performed to

compare the means proved to be non-significant (t = 0.49, df = 1/126),

thus indicating that the environmental familiarity manipulation was not

successful. Subjects in the high familiarity condition did not perceive

the emergency room to be any more familiar than subjects in the low

familiarity condition.

For purposes of data analysis, therefore, after analyzing mani-

pulation results, a subsequent empirical mean was obtained for familiarity

subjects. This mean (4.45) was then used to redivide subjects into high

and low familiarity groups. Identical analyses were then performed on

these new groupings. The rationale for this procedure was that helping

behavior would be affected more by the subjects' own perception of

familiarity with the emergency setting rather than by any type of

manipulation performed by the experimenter. This was considered a

distinct possibility during the planning stages of the experiment and

was therefore done on an apriori basis.

Major Hypotheses

The major hypotheses of this experiment are:

Hypothesis 1. Bystander intervention will occur more frequently

and more rapidly when a bystander perceives himself

to be attitudinally similar rather than dissimilar

to the victim.








Hypothesis 2. Bystander intervention will occur more frequently

and more rapidly when a bystander is familiarized

with the emergency setting prior to the emergency

than when he is not.

In addition to investigating the effects of bystander/victim

similarity and environmental familiarity, differences in helping

behavior were observed for sex of bystander and for the alone bystander

as compared to one in the presence of two non-reacting confederates

(Darley and Latane, 1968).

The major hypotheses are addressed via four dependent measures.

These are:

1. First Help Latency. This score was determined by measuring,

in seconds, how long each subject took to respond to the

victim. Subjects' time was recorded as soon as he either

came into the emergency room or offered verbal assistance

to the victim.

2. Mode of Helping Behavior. Subjects were divided into two

groups; those who offered verbal assistance to the victim

(Verbal Only Help), and those who went directly into the

emergency room (Behavioral Only Help). This was done to

determine if any of the independent variables affect the

type of help offered the victim.

3.. Differential Mode Latency. This measure is similar to First

Help Latency in that subjects were clocked, in seconds, for

response time. Now, however, separate latencies were deter-

mined for both Verbal Only Help and Behavioral Only Help.








4. Satisfaction with Response. In the post-experimental inter-

view, subjects were asked to rate how satisfied they were

with their response, regardless of what it was.

A total of 105 subjects (of the original 128) helped the victim

in some way. It was therefore decided to analyze the data twice.

First, all 128 subjects were included in the analysis regardless of

whether they helped or not. Since the tape recorded emergency ran

for 125 seconds, all subjects who chose not to help were assigned

a latency score of 125 seconds. Similar analyses were then per-

formed excluding those 23 subjects who did not help. This was done

to determine if the independent variables, in addition to affecting

if a bystander helped or not, could also account for differences in

latency and mode of helping for those subjects who did help.
Data Analysis for All Subjects

A general overview of bystander intervention appears in Table 1.

It is apparent that the degree of helping behavior exhibited by subjects

in the present study is relatively high. Comparing these results to

those obtained by Darley and Latan6 (1968), we find that 97 percent

of our alone bystanders offered aid to the victim in less than 30 seconds,

whereas only 70 percent did so in the original design. Similarly, 65

percent of our confederate bystanders helped the victim compared to

only 7 percent tested by Darley and Latane.
The greatest amount of helping occurred in the high familiarity

alone, and the high similarity alone conditions (100 percent) followed

closely by the low familiarity alone and low similarity alone subjects

(94 percent). The least amount of help was exhibited by the high







TABLE 1

PERCENTAGE AND LATENCY OF HELP EXHIBITED BY BYSTANDERS
ACCORDING TO GROUP (MANIPULATION)


Percent Latency
Group Number Helping (Seconds)

All Alone Subjects 64 97% 22.99


All Confederate Subjects 64 65% 36.89


All High Familiarity Alone 32 100% 22.46


All High Familiarity
Confederate 32 69 39.04

All High Similarity Alone 32 100% 22.55

All High Similarity
*-Confederate 32 56% 34.83


All Low Familiarity Alone 32 94% 23.56


All Low Familiarity
Confederate 32 62% 34.53


All Low Similarity Alone 32 94% 23.46


All Low Similarity
Confederate 32 75% 38.43








similarity confederate bystanders. But here, too, the total inter-

vention, 56 percent, far exceeded any comparable Darley and Latane

group. The present results are more compatible with those obtained

in the Clark and Word (1972) experiment where helping behavior was

observed 100 percent of the time. While these percentages give a

brief overview of the results, more can be said concerning the nature

of these differences.

First Help Latency

Table 2 reports the results of the four-way ANOVA based on the

latency scores, in seconds, of bystander intervention, regardless of

mode.

There were no main effects observed for familiarity, similarity

or sex of bystander. Whether the bystander was alone or in the presence

of two non-reacting confederates, however, significantly affected their

speed in rendering aid (F = 44.48, p< .001, df = 1/112). The mean

latency for subjects in the alone condition was 26.18 seconds compared

to 67.18 seconds for confederate bystanders.

The Attitude Similarity X Number interaction approached signi-

ficance (p <.10, df = 1/112) and was the only such interaction to do so.

Figure 1 presents this data graphically.

It appears that although the alone bystander responds more

rapidly than the confederate bystander under both high and low

similarity conditions, it is the high similarity alone subject who

responds fastest (22.55 seconds). Under confederate conditions,

however, it is the low similarity bystander who aids the victim in

the least amount of time (60.07 seconds). It is important to note,








TABLE 2

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF FIRST HELP LATENCY (IN SECONDS) AS
A FUNCTION OF FAMILIARITY, ATTITUDE SIMILARITY,
NUMBER (ALONE OR CONFEDERATE) AND SEX OF BYSTANDER


Source df MS F


Familiarity (F)

Similarity (S)

Number (N)

Sex (X)

FS

FN

SN

FX

SX

NX

FSN

FSX

FNX

SNX

FSNX

Error (Subjects
within Groups)


799.507

386.074

53787.750

11.222

336.374

190.961

3686.207

320.364

584.392

69.840

69.427

344.195

104.127

843.034

1167.015


44.48***






3.05+


112 135426.100


+
p< .10
***p< .001
.4.






61
80.0


High
Similarity
70.0 -




Low
| 60.0-- Similarity





L 50.0 -



-J
-- 40.0--





30.0-





20.0

ALONE -CONFEDERATE
NUMBER


Figure 1. The Effect of First Help Latency in Seconds as a Function
of Attitude Similarity and Number (All Subjects).








however, that this is merely a trend since there is no significant

difference between the high and low similarity latencies.

Mode of Helping Behavior

Tables 3 and 4 report the results of the four-way ANOVA based

on the mode of helping behavior as a function of familiarity,

similarity, sex, and number of bystanders. It will be remembered

that any one bystander, if he is to help, can do so by calling out

to the victim (Verbal Only Help) or by going directly into the

emergency room (Behavioral Only Help). It was assumed by this

experimenter that walking into the emergency room was a qualitatively

stronger index of helping behavior than was calling out.

Behavioral help.--Looking.at Table 3 first, we see that once

again, familiarity, similarity, and sex of bystander were not signi-

ficant predictors, as main effects, of a bystander's decision to help

the victim by going directly into the emergency room. The fact that

a bystander was either alone or with confederates, however, was a

significant predictor of behavioral help (F = 13.22, p<.Ol, df =

1/112). The mean for alone bystanders as compared to confederates

was 1.11 and 1.38, respectively, where 1 indicated behavioral help

and 2 indicated no behavioral help. Based on these results one

would expect the alone bystander more than the confederate bystander

to aid his victim by proceeding directly into the emergency room.

An interaction affect was observed between Attitude Similarity X

Number. Here, as in first help latency, the interaction approached

significance (p <.10, df = 1/112). Figure 2 represents this data

graphically. When the bystander is alone, those subjects in the








TABLE 3

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF BEHAVIORAL ONLY HELP AS A FUNCTION OF
FAMILIARITY, ATTITUDE SIMILARITY, NUMBER (ALONE OR
CONFEDERATE) AND SEX OF BYSTANDER


Source df MS F


Familiarity (F) 1 .007

Similarity (S) 1 .070

Number (N) 1 2.258 13.22***

Sex (X) 1 .195

FS 1 .383

FN 1 .007 -

SN 1 .633 3.71+

FX 1 .070 -

SX 1 .383 -

NX 1 .070 -

FSN 1 .070 -

FSX 1 .070

FNX 1 .070

SNX 1 .070

FSNX 1 .007

Error (Subjects
within Groups) 112 .171

+ .lO
p 4 .10
***p < .01

14













1.50
High
Similarity


1.40
Low
Similarity


1.30
C)



1.20





1.10




1.00 .


ALONE CONFEDERATE

(1 = Yes; 2 = No) NUMBER

Figure 2. The Effect of Behavioral Only Help as a Function of Attitude
Similarity and Number (All Subjects).








high similarity condition are more likely to go into the emergency

room than subjects in the low similarity groupings. However, when the

bystander is in the presence of two non-reacting others, it is the low

similarity bystander who is most likely to render assistance. Here,.

as in first help latency, the differences between the two are more of

a trend than a significant difference.

Verbal help.--What about those subjects who chose to call out

rather than proceeding into the emergency room? Table 4 examines

the effects of all four independent variables on a bystander's

likelihood to help verbally.

Two main effects are significant in determining verbal help. As

in the two previous analyses, whether a bystander is alone or with

others grossly affects his willingness to verbally help the victim

(F = 47.04, p<.001, df = 1/112). Here, too, it is the alone bystander

( = 1.42) who is more likely to give aid than his confederate counter-
part (X = 1.91). Therefore, it is the alone bystander rather than one

with confederates who is most likely to help both by calling out and

by walking into the emergency room. The differences in F's between

the two modes of helping (13.22 for behavioral help and 47.04 for

verbal help) leads to the hypothesis that the presence of non-reacting

others is more of an obstacle to overcome if one is to call out than

if one is to get up and leave them to aid the victim.

Attitude similarity was also a significant predictor of verbal
help (F = 3.96, p<.05, df = 1/112). It appears that the effect of

higK similarity is to increase the likelihood of calling out to the

victim to see if she is all right (X= 1.59. over low similarity








TABLE 4

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF VERBAL ONLY HELP AS A FUNCTION OF
FAMILIARITY, ATTITUDE SIMILARITY, NUMBER (ALONE OR
CONFEDERATE) AND SEX OF BYSTANDER


Source df MS F


Familiarity (F) 1 0.070

Similarity (S) 1 0.633 3.96*

Number (N) 1 7.508 47.04***

Sex (X) 1 0.383

FS 1 0.070

FN 1 0.383

SN 1 0.633 3.96*

FX 1 0.008

SX 1 0.070

NX 1 0.008

FSN 1 01070

FSX 1 0.383

FNX 1 0.008

SNX 1 0.383

FSNX 1 0.008

Error (Subjects
within Groups) 112 0.159


*p < .05
***p <.001

1.1







bystanders (X = 1.73, where 1 equals giving verbal help and 2 equals

no verbal help). This is not to be confused with behavioral help,

since there was no similarity main effect observed there. In other

words, while high attitude similarity between bystander and victim

does not affect behavioral help, it does significantly increase the

likelihood of verbal help.

Once again, the only interaction affect observed occurred between

Attitude Similarity X Number of bystanders (F = 3.96, p< .05, df =

1/112). Figure 3 graphically represents this data.

Here, as in the two previous analyses, it is the high similarity

alone bystander who is more likely to render aid than one who is in

the low similarity condition. :There was no difference observed

between high and low similarity under confederate conditions; neither

were likely to offer aid.

Differential Mode Latency

Since it was apparent that at least two factors (similarity and

number of bystanders, alone'vs. confederates) did affect the mode of

help chosen by the bystander, the next analyses determined if the

latency of help was different across modes.

Behavioral help.--Table 5 reports the results of the four-way

ANOVA based on the latency, in seconds, of bystander behavioral

help.

As was anticipated, number of bystanders was a significant pre-

dictor of behavioral latency (F = 21.16, p <.001, df = 1/112). As

reported in Table 3, it was the alone bystander rather than the

confederate one who was most likely to offer behavioral assistance.








2.00


1.70





-J
1.50


o

LU
1.30











1.00

ALONE CONFEDERATE
NUMBER
C = Yes; 2 = No)


Figure 3. The Effect of Verbal Only Help as a Function of Attitude
Similarity and Number (All Subjects).








TABLE 5

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF BEHAVIORAL HELP LATENCY (IN SECONDS) AS A
FUNCTION OF FAMILIARITY, ATTITUDE SIMILARITY, NUMBER (ALONE OR
CONFEDERATE) AND SEX OF BYSTANDER


Source df MS F


Familiarity (F) 1 140.07

Similarity (S) 1 219.19

Number (N) 1 30624.94 21.16***

Sex (X) 1 2800.33

FS 1 2403.83

FN 1 1195.13

SN 1 4667.09 3.23+

FX 1 342.24

SX 1 3381.50

NX 1 2.98

FSN 1 1517.17

FSX 1 26.91

FNX 1 528.36

SNX 1 151.01

FSNX 1 1837.02

Error (Subjects
within Groups) 112 1447.26

+
p< .10
***p < .001
w.







It follows then, as seen in Table 5, that the alone bystander should

and does render such aid at a more rapid speed than his confederate

counterpart. The average behavioral latency for the alone bystander

was 40.14 seconds as compared to 71.08 seconds for the confederate.

As was also expected, the Attitude Similarity X Number of by-

standers interaction approached significance (p<.10, df = 1/112)

and was the only such interaction to do so. Figure 4 represents this

data graphically.

Following the same pattern as behavioral help, the high similarity

alone bystander renders the most rapid behavioral help (35.41 seconds)

followed by the low similarity alone subject (44.87 seconds). Once

again, however, we find it is the low similarity bystander who helps

more quickly (63.73 seconds) than the high similarity subject (78.42

seconds) under confederate conditions. Although this is more of a

trend than a significant difference, the pattern reoccurs often enough

to warrant attention.

Verbal latency.--Table 6 reports the results of the four-way

ANOVA for verbal help latency as a'function of our four independent

variables.

The two variables (similarity and number) which accounted for

differences in amount of verbal help offered also account for the

differences in verbal latency observed. Here again, not only was

the single bystander more likely to offer verbal assistance (Table

4), he was also found to do it in less time (F = 46.37, p<.001,

df = 1/112). While the subject in the presence of non-reacting others

took an average of 115.31 seconds to respond verbally, the alone







85.0





75.0





65.0




> 55.0 /

F-



S 45.0





35.0







ALONE CONFEDERATE
NUMBER

Figure 4. The Effect of Behavioral Help Latency as a Function of
Attitude Similarity and Number (All Subjects).








TABLE 6

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF VERBAL HELP LATENCY (IN SECONDS) AS A
FUNCTION OF FAMILIARITY, ATTITUDE SIMILARITY, NUMBER (ALONE OR
CONFEDERATE) AND SEX OF BYSTANDER


Source df MS F


Familiarity (F)

Similarity (S)

Number (N)

Sex (X)

FS

FN

SN

FX

SX

NX

FSN

FSX

FNX

SNX

FSNX

Error (Subjects
within Groups)


472.016

6730.887

80751.940

4092.870

813.059

3546.625

6672.750

96.243

687.278

84.567

555.379

3891.819

70.757

3967.221

441.857


3.87+

46.38***






3.83+


112 1741.195


+
+p .10
***p< .001
'4;








bystander did so in 65.07 seconds. Along the same lines, it was

observed in Table 4 that high similarity subjects were more likely

than low similarity subjects to help the victim verbally. Now it

is seen that he does so at a more rapid rate (F = 3.87, p<.10,

df = 1/112). High similarity bystanders took an average of 82.94

seconds to respond while low similarity subjects responded in

97.45 seconds.

The expected Attitude Similarity X Number of bystanders inter-

action was observed approaching significance (F = 3.83, p <.10, df =

1/112). These data are represented graphically in Figure 5.

The same pattern observed in verbal help is once again seen in

its latency. A high similarity alone bystander is more likely to

help verbally and does so more rapidly than his low similarity alone

counterpart. However, no differences were observed, either in degree

orlatency, under confederate conditions.

Summary

Before proceeding to the last dependent measure, satisfaction

with response, it seems appropriate to summarize the findings thus

far. Data from all 128 subjects were analyzed to determine which,

if any, of the independent variables accounted for differences in

helping behavior. Familiarity with the emergency setting and sex

of bystander did not account for any significant proportion of the

variance of any of the dependent measures. The two most potent

independent variables were the number of bystanders present and

the degree of attitude similarity between victim and bystander. It

was apparent that whether one was measuring the first time a bystander








120.0





110.





100.0





0 9. 0












L70.





60.0
80.0
UJ
I-

_J
-:r


























Figure 5. The Effect of Verbal Help Latency as a Function of
Attitude Similarity and Number (All Subjects).








offered aid, or whether helping behavior was broken up into its

verbal and behavioral components, it was the alone bystander who
most often and most rapidly offered assistance. In addition,

although attitude similarity did not effect behavioral helping
behavior, it did significantly increase the likelihood and decrease

the latency of verbal help offered the victim.

A consistent Attitude Similarity X Number of bystanders inter-
action occurred. For first help and behavioral latency, high

similarity subjects helped more often and more rapidly when alone,

whereas low similarity bystanders did the same when in the presence
of non-reacting confederates. For verbal helping behavior, no

differences were observed between high and low similarity subjects
under the confederate condition, while under the alone condition,

the high similarity bystander was once again the most helpful.
Satisfaction with Response

Table 7 reports the results of the four-way ANOVA for satis-
faction with response as a function of the-four independent variables.
Three interaction affects were observed, all of which were

significant at at least the p< .05 level. These were: Attitude

Similarity X Number of bystanders (F = 6.79, df = 1/112), Familiarity

X Sex (F = 4.11, df = 1/112), and Familiarity X Similarity X Sex

(F = 4.11, df = 1/112). Figure 6 represents the Attitude Similarity
X Number of bystanders interaction graphically.

Once again, we observe the same interaction between these two
variables that occurred for first help latency and behavioral help.
When the bystander is by himself, the high similarity rather than






76
TABLE 7

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF SATISFACTION WITH RESPONSE AS A FUNCTION
OF FAMILIARITY, ATTITUDE SIMILARITY, NUMBER (ALONE OR
CONFEDERATE) AND SEX OF BYSTANDER


Source df MS F


Familiarity (F) 1 .031

Similarity (S) 1 .125

Number (N) 1 .031 -

Sex (X) 1 .000 -

FS 1 .031 -

FN 1 .000 -

SN 1 2.531 6.79**

FX 1 1.531 4.11*

SX 1 .000 -

NX' 1 .281 -

FSN 1 .125 -

FSX 1 1.531 4.11*

FNX 1 1.125

SNX 1 .281

FSNX 1 .125 -

Error (Subjects
within Groups) 112 .373


p < .05
**p < .01








1.50









1.40








F-
1.30 _
C B








1.20








1.10


ALONE CONFEDERATE
NUMBER
(1 = Yes; 2 = No)


Figure 6. The Effect of Satisfaction with Response as a Function of
Attitude Similarity and Number (All Subjects).








the low similarity subject is more satisfied with his response.

When the bystander is in the presence of non-reacting others, however,

it is the low attitude similarity bystander who is most pleased with

his chosen course of action. As mentioned previously, possible

explanations for this continued interaction will be discussed in

the following section.

Figure 7 represents the Familiarity X Sex of bystander interaction

data graphically.

It is worthwhile to note that satisfaction with response is the

only dependent measure in which either environmental familiarity or

sex of bystander showed up as a significant effect.

According to the data, under conditions of low familiarity, female

bystanders rather than males were most satisfied with their response.

The opposite was true under high familiarity conditions; that is, it

was the male bystander who was most contented with his behavior.

Figure 8 represents the Familiarity X Attitude Similarity X

Sex interaction data graphically.

Of all the interactions observed on the data, this is the only

three-way interaction which was significant. It is also a most unusual

one. According to the data, high similarity male and female subjects

showed no difference in their satisfaction with their response, although

low familiarity bystanders were slightly less satisfied (1.31 vs. 1.36,

respectively). There was no significant difference between these two

scores. Low similarity, low familiarity females and low similarity,

high familiarity males were the most satisfied (X = 1.06 for both),






79
1.50









1.40









1.30
CJ
\











1.20
0
r r














FEMALE MALE
SEX
(1 = Yes; 2 = No)

Figure 7. The Effect of Satisfaction with Response as a Function
of Familiarity and Sex of Subject (All Subjects).









High Familiarity
S- Low Familiarity


1.50





1.40
bU
u,-




S1.30


u.--

1.20
(z)



CL
| 1.30











1.00
1-


FEMALE MALE


(1 = Yes; 2 = No)


Figure 8. The Effect of Satisfaction with Response as a Function
of Familiarity, Attitude Similarity, and Sex of
Subject (All Subjects).







while low similarity, low familiarity males and low similarity, high

familiarity females were the most dissatisfied (X = 1.50 for both).

Data Analysis for Helping Subjects
As mentioned in the beginning of this section, it was decided

to analyze the data in a second fashion. Any subject who did not

respond to the victim within the 125 second time limit was removed

from the analysis. The question was then asked; disregarding those

subjects who did not help, could our variables account for differences

in helping behavior latencies?

Because of statistical difficulties arising from the now unequal

group sizes, it was decided:

1. To exclude familiarity from these analyses since the familiarity

manipulation was unsuccessful in distinguishing between groups.

2. To limit the analyses to: first help latency, mode of helping

behavior (verbal or behavioral), and satisfaction with response.

A series of three-way ANOVAs were performed to answer the above questions.

Population

From the original population of 128 subjects, 23 were dropped

because they chose not to help the victim in any way. The breakdown

of these 23 non-helping subjects was; 12 female and 11 male subjects,

14 high similarity and 9 low similarity subjects, 2 alone and 21 con-

federate subjects. This left a total of 105 subjects in the new

subject population.

First Help Latency

Table 8 reports the results of the three-way ANOVA based on the

latency scores, in seconds, of bystander intervention, regardless of mode.







TABLE 8
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF FIRST HELP LATENCY FOR HELPING SUBJECTS
(IN SECONDS) AS A FUNCTION OF ATTITUDE SIMILARITY, NUMBER
(ALONE OR CONFEDERATE), AND SEX OF BYSTANDER

Source df MS F

Sex (X) 1 17.781

Similarity (S) 1 7.775

Number (N) 1 389.110 40.29***

XS 1 12.408

XN 1 8.316
SN 1 2.240

XSN 1 23.233

Error (Subjects
within Groups) 98 9.659

***p< .001








There were no main effects observed for attitude similarity or

sex of subject. Whether a bystander was alone or in the presence of

two non-reacting confederates, however, significantly affected their

speed in rendering aid (F = 40.29, p <.001, df = 1/98). The mean

latency for subjects in the alone condition was 22.99 seconds

compared to 36.89 seconds for confederate bystanders. This affect

was also observed in both two-way ANOVA's. Itappears, then, even

excluding the 21 sugjects who were in the confederate condition and

did not help, that number of bystanders significantly affects latency

of helping behavior.

Mode of Helping Behavior

Tables 9 and 10 report the results of the three-way ANOVA's

based on the mode of helping (either behaviorally or verbally), as

a function of attitude similarity, number of bystanders, and sex

of bystander.

Behavioral help.--Looking at Table 9 first, we see that, as opposed

to the all subject analysis where number significantly affected

behavioral help, none of the three variables alone affected whether

a bystander aided the victim by going directly into the emergency

room.

The Attitude Similarity X Sex interaction approached significance

(p.lO1, df = 1/98) in the three-way ANOVA, and reached significance in

the Sex X Similarity two-way ANOVA (F = 5.09, p <.05, df = 1/103). It

was the only such interaction to do so for this measure. Figure 9

represents these data graphically.

According to the data, female bystanders rendered behavioral help








TABLE 9
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF BEHAVIORAL ONLY RELP FOR HELPING SUBJECTS
AS A FUNCTION OF ATTITUDE SIMILARITY, NUMBER (ALONE OR
CONFEDERATE) AND SEX OF BYSTANDER

Source df MS F

Sex (X) 1 .015

Similarity (S) 1 .003

Number (N) 1 .000 -

XS 1 .019 3.44+

XN 1 .005 -

SN 1 .000

XSN 1 .008

Error (Subjects
within Groups) 98 .006

2 Way

Sex (X) 1 .005

Similarity (S) 1 .001 -

XS 1 .013 5.09*

Error (Subjects
within Groups) 103 .003

+
p< .10
*p< .05








TABLE 10 -
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF VERBAL ONLY HELP'FOR HELPING SUBJECTS AS
A FUNCTION OF ATTITUDE SIMILARITY, NUMBER (ALONE OR
CONFEDERATE) AND SEX OF BYSTANDER

Source df MS F

Sex (X) 1 .044

Similarity (S) 1 .039

Number (N) 1 .417 27.86***

XS 1 .002

XN 1 .004

SN 1 .025

XSN 1 .036

Error (Subjects
within Groups) 98 .015

2 Way

Sex (X) 1 .013

Similarity (S) 1 .043 4.84*

XS 1 .006

Error (Subjects
within Groups) 103

*p <.05
***p .001











1.30









1.20



-J o
I-J




S1.10 --


High Similarity






1.00

FEMALE MALE
SEX
(1 = Yes; 2 = No)


Figure 9. The Effect of Behavioral Only Help as a Function of
Attitude Similarity and Sex of Subject (Helping
Subjects).







under conditions of low attitude similarity (X = 1.00) but did not

always do so under high similarity conditions. Males, on the other

hand, although never helping as much as their female counterparts,

offered the most assistance under high similarity manipulations
(X = 1.04), helping the least when they were dissimilar to the victim

( = 1.18). The difference between these means, however, was not
significant.

Verbal help.--It will be remembered, that in the all subject

analysis, both number and similarity significantly affected a by-

stander's willingness to render aid. That is, the alone

bystander and the high similarity bystander were both more likely

to help by calling out and did so faster than their confederate or
low similarity counterparts, respectively. As indicated in Table 10,

it is the same two variables, number of bystanders and attitude
similarity, which again account for differences in verbal help.

Here too, it is the alone bystander who is more likely to render
verbal assistance than the subject in the presence of non-reacting

others (F = 27.86, p<.001, df = 1/98). On a scale where 1 =.verbal
help, and 2 = no verbal help, the mean for alone bystanders was 1.40

compared to 1.86 for the multiple bystander.

The effect of attitude similarity on verbal help is also con-
sistent with the all subject analysis. That is, high similarity

subjects more than low similarity subjects chose to help the victim
by calling out (7= 1.48 and 1.69, respectively). This difference

was significant at the p .05 level (F = 4.84, df = 1/103) in the




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