Group Title: social factors associated with the happiness and mental health of people in the middle years and early old age
Title: The social factors associated with the happiness and mental health of people in the middle years and early old age
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Title: The social factors associated with the happiness and mental health of people in the middle years and early old age
Physical Description: xv, 290 leaves. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wray, Steven Douglas, 1948-
Publication Date: 1974
Copyright Date: 1974
 Subjects
Subject: Middle age -- Psychological aspects   ( lcsh )
Old age   ( lcsh )
Sociology thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Sociology -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis -- University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 267-290.
Statement of Responsibility: by Steven D. Wray.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098364
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000580757
oclc - 14081242
notis - ADA8862

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THE SOCIAL ACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE

HAPPINESS AND MlENTAL HEALTH OF PEOPLE

IN THE MIDDLE YEARS AND EARLY OLD AGE







By

'PSteven D. Wray











A DISSERTATION FRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILILMEN~T OF THE REQ.UIREMCENTS FOR THiE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY'


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1974

























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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA



3 1262 08552 8403





TO

The Graduate Students

in the Department of Sociology








ACKNOWLEDGEME~NTS


Many people have helped throughout my graduate
studies and this dissertation. I would like to thank

Dr. Ruth E. Albrecht, Chairman of my committee, for

introducing me to social gerontology. She has provided

continual encouragement throughout my graduate studies

and has given innumerable suggestions, many hours of

her time and skill, and infinite patience to help me

succeed in my goals.

I am very grateful to Dr. T. Lynn Smith for

giving me a sociological perspective and a model

of professionalism. It is with great appreciation
that I thank the remainder of my committee, Dr.- George

Warheit, Dr. Joseph Vandiver, Dr. Hal Lewis, and Dr.

David Hughes for their counsel and support.

My special gratitude goes to my colleagues

Billy L. Williams and Sharon Woodruff for their valu-

able support during times of extreme stress and at

other times. A special thank you is given to my

friend Jean Sneeringer for her patience, help, and

understanding in the preparation of this manuscript.

I want to thank Dr. George Warheit for his help

and permission to use the Florida Health Study data.

Thanks goes to Charles Holzer for his direction and

assistance through the guidance retrieval system





at "the project." I am indebted and appreciative

of the extraordinary kindness and patience shown

to me by Lynn Robbins in my meanderings through the

data at the Florida Health Project.

I acknowledge and thank the University of Florida

and the Department of Sociology for the computer funds

to help in analyzing the data in this study.

I will forever remember my friends among the

graduate students, secretaries, and faculty of :the

Department of Sociology for the wonderful adventures

that made my graduate studies a joyful experience.

AIcademic study is only one part of an education; it

is the people who make it all worthwhile.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

iii

vi

:zzlY


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .....

LIST OF TABLES ......

ABSTRACT .........

CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION

II REVIEW OF TH

III DERIVATION O:

IV METHODOLOGY

V PRESENTATION

VI SUiMMARY AND

APPENDIX A TABLES ...

APPENDIX B QUESTIONS USE:

BIBLIOGRAPHYY ......


E LITERATURE.

F HYPOTHESES



OF RESULTS .

CONCLUSIONS .



D IN THE STUDY


.1

.3

.60

.63

.79

.137

.147

.250

.267











LIST OF TABLES


Table PgeB

1 AGE AND SEX DISTRIBUTION FOR THE SAM-
PLE AND ALACHUA COUNTY WITH PERCENT
AND NUMBER .. .. .. .. .. . 147

2 AGE AND RACE FOR THE SAMPLE AND ALACHUA
COUNTY WITH PERCENT AND NUMBER . .. 148

3AGE AND RACE FOR MALES IN THE SAMPLE
AND ALACHUA COUNTY WITH PERCENT AND
NUMBER .. .. . .. .... . 149

4 AGE AND RACE FOR FEMALES INTHE SAMPLE
AND ALACHUA COUNTY WITH PERCENT AND
NUMBER 50

5 HAPPINESS AND MAJOR VARIABLES .. 151

6 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO AGE FOR MALES
AND FEMALES . ... .. . . . 152

7 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO AGE FOR WHITES
AND NONWHITES ....,.. .... 153

8 MEAN HAPPINESS SCORES .. .. .. 154

9 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO RACE FOR SOCIO
ECONOMIC STATUS ..... .. 157

10 HAPPINESS SCORES FOR INCOME, EMPLOYMENT
STATUS, MARITAL STATUS, AND EDUCATION
WITH PERCENT AND NUMBER .. ... 158

11 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO AGE FOR MARITAL
STATUS . . . . . . . 160

12 HAPPINESS FOR MALES AND FEMALES ACCORD-
ING TO MARITAL STATUS . .. ... 162

13 HAPPINESS OjF WHITES AND NONWHITES AC-
CORDING TO MARITAL STATUS ..... 163










LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

14e HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO MARITAL STATUS
CONTROLLING FOR HIGH AND LOW SOCIO-
ECONOMIC STATUS . ... .. . . 164

15 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO GOOD AND POOR
MARRIED LIFE IN PRESENT FAMILY .. 165

16 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO HOW WELL YOU GET
ALONG WITH YOUR SPOUSE .. .. .. 166

17 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO THE RELATIONSHIP
OF MARRIED RESPONDENTS WITH THEIR CHILD-
REN .. .. .... . .. ... 167

18 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO THE RELATIONSHIP
OF FORMERLY MARRIED RESPONDENTS WITH
THEIR CHILDREN . .. ... .. .. 168

19 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO WHETHER OR NOT
THE RESPONDENT COULD ASK A RELATIVE FOR
HELP . .... ... .. . ... 169,

20 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO WHETHER MORE, THE
SAME, OR FEWER RELATIVES ARE WANTED NEARBY 170

21 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO EMPLOYMENT STATUS
BY AGE .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 171

22 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO EMPLOYMENT STATUS
FOR MALES AND FEMALES .. . ... 173

23 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO EMPLOYMENT STATUS
FOR WHITES AND NONiWHITES .. .. .. 174

24 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO EMPLOYMENT STATUS
FOR HIGH AND LOW SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS 175

25 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO VOLUNTARY AND IN-
VOLUNTARY RETIREMENT .. .. .. .. 176

26 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO SATISFACTION WITH
RETIREMENT FOR MALES AND FEMALES .. 177










LIST OF .TABLES


Table Page


27 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO SATISFACTION
WITH RETIREMENT FOR WHITES AND NON-
WHITES .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 178

28 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO SATISFACTION WITH
RETIREMENT BY AGE .. ... .. 179

29 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO SATISFACTION WITH
RETIREMENT FOR HIGH AND LOW SOCIOECONOMIC
STATUS ... .. .. .. .. .. .. 180

30 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO HOUSEHOLD INCOME 181

31 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO WHETHER THE EM-
PLOYED THINK THEY RECEIVE A FAIR WAGE 182

32 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO HOW OFTEN THE
EMPLOYED ENJOY THEIR WORK .. .. 183

33 HAPPINESS OF THE EMPLOYED BY WHETHER OR
NOT THEY WANT TO WORK .. .. .. 184

34 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PERCEIVED PHYSICAL
HEALTH .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 185

35 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PERCEIVED PHYSICAL
HEALTH FOR WHITES AND NONWHITES .. 186

36 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PERCEIVED PHYSICAL
HEALTH FOR MALES AND FEMALES .. .. 187

37 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PERCEIVED PHYSICAL
HEALTH FOR RACE AND SEX . .... 188

38 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PERCEIVED PHYSICAL
REALTH BY AGE .. .. .. .. .. 189

39 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PERCEIVED PHYSICAL
HEALTH FOR SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS .. 190

40 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO ACTUAL PHYSICAL
HEALTH PROBLEMS .. .. .. .. .. 191

41 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO ACTUAL PHYSICAL
HEALTH PROBLEMS BY AGE .. .. .. 192


viii











LIST OF TABLES


TABLE

42 HAPPINESS ACCORDING
HEALTH PROBLEMrS FOR

43 HAPPINESS ACCORDING
HEALTH PROBLEMS FOR

44 HAPPINESS ACCORDING
HEALTH PROBLEMS FOR

45 HAPPINESS ACCORDING
HEALTH PROBLEMS FOR


PAGE


TO ACTUAL PHYSICAL
WHITES AND NONWHITES

TO ACTUAL PHYSICAL
MALES AND FEMALES

TO ACTUAL PHYSICAL
RACE AND SEX...

TO ACTUAL PHYSICAL
SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS


46 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PERCEIVED
HEALTH . . . . . . .

47 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PERCEIVED
HEALTH FOR WHITES AND3 NO~wHITES

48 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PERCEIVED
HEALTH FOR MALES AND FEMALES ..

49 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PERCEIVED
HEALTH FOR RACE AND SEX ....

50 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PERCEIVED
HEALTH BY AGE .........

51 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PERCEIVED
HEALTH FOR SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS


MENTAL
. .198

MENTAL
. .199

MENTAL
. .200

MENTAL
. .201

MENTAL
. .202

MENTAL
. .203


52 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO ANXIETY LEVEL.

53 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO ANXIETY LEVEL
FOR WHITES AND NONWHITES ......

54 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO ANXIETY LEVEL
FOR MALES AND FEMALES. ......

55 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO ANXIETY LEVEL
FOR RACE AND SEX.. ........

56 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO ANXIETY LEVEL
BY AGE .










LIST OF TABLES


Table Page


57 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO ANXIETY LEVEL
FOR SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS ... . .. 209

58 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO GENERAL PSYCHO:-
PATHOLOGY LEVEL . .. .. . 210

59 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
LEVEL FOR WHITES AND NONWHITES . .. 211

60 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
LEVEL FOR MALES AND FEMALES . .. .. 212

61 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
LEVEL FOR RACE AND SEX .. .. .. 213

62 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
LEVEL BY AGE ,. .. .. .. .. .. 214

63 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
FOR SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS .. ... 215

64 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO COGNITIVE IMPAIR-
MENT LEVEL ,,,. .. .. . 216

65 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO COGNITIVE IMPAIR_
MENT FOR WHITES AND NONWHITES . .. 217

66 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO COGNITIVE IMPAIR-
MENT FOR MALES AND FEMALES . .. .. 218

67 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO COGNITIVE IMPAIR-
MENT FOR RACE AND SEX .. .. .. .. 219

68 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO COGNITIVE IMPAIR-
MENT BY AGE .. ... .. . ... 220

69 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PHOBIA LEVEL .221

70 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PHOBIA LEVEL FOR
WHITES AND NONWHITES .. ... .. 222











LIST OF TABLES


Table Page


71 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PHOBIA LEVEL FOR
MALES AND FEMALES . .. .. ... 223

72 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PHOBIA LEVEL FOR
RACE AND SEX .. .. .. .. ... 224

73 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PHOBIA LEVEL BY1.
AGE ... .. .. .. ... .. 225

74 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO PHOBIA LEVEL FOR
SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS .. .. .. .. 226

75 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO WHETHER THE RES-
PONDENTS HAVE FRIENDS WITH WHOM THEY CAN
TALK ABOUT PERSONAL PROBLEMS .. .. 227

76 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO WHETHER THE RE-
SPONDENTS HAVE ANY CLOSE FRIENDS WHO
WILL HELP WITH REAL PROBLEMS .. .. 228

77 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO WHETHER THE RE-
SPONDENTS HAVE ANY CLOSE FRIENDS WHO WILL
HELP WITH REAL PROBLEMS FOR WHITE WOMEN 229

78 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO WHETHER THE RE-
SPONDENTS ARE CONCERNED OR UPSET THAT
THEY DO NOT KAVE MORE CLOSE FRIENDS
NEARBY . .. ... .. .. ... 230

79 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO WHETHER THE: RE-
SPONDENTS ARE CONCERNED OR UPSET TRAT
THEY DO NOT HAVE MORE CLOSE FRIENDS
NEARBY FOR MALES AND FEMALES .. .. 231

80 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO WHETHER THE RE-
SPONDENTS ARE CONCERNED OR UPSET THAT
THEY DO NOT HAVE MORE CLOSE FRIENDS
NEARBY FOR RACE AND SEX .. .. .. 232














































90 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF
AFTERNOONS AND EVENINGS SPENT AT CLUBS
PER MONTH . . . . . . . .

91 MULTIPLE REGRESSIONS OF PREDICTOR VARIABLES
AND HAPPINESS FOR THE TOTAL POPULATION


LIST OF TABLES


Table

81 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO WHETHER THE RE-
SPONDENTS ARE CONCERNED OR UPSET TRAT
THEY DO NOT HAVE MORE CLOSE FRIENDS
NEARBY BY AGE. ........

82 HAPPINESS ACCORDING TO WHETHER THE RE-
SPONDENTS ARE CONCERNED OR UPSET THAT
THEY DO NOT HAVE MORE CLOSE FRIENDS
NEARBY FOR SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS. .


Page


83 HAPPINESS
SPONDENTS

84C HAPPINESS
VOLUNTARY

85 HAPPINESS
VOLUNTARY
FEMALES

86 HAPPINESS
VOLUNTARY
NONWHITES

87 HAPPINESS
VOLUNTARY

88 HAPPINESS
VOLUNTARY
STATUS .

89 HAPPINESS
VOLUNTARY


ACCORDING TO WHETHER THE RE-
ARE ATTENDING CHURCH PRESENTLY

ACCORDING TO MEMBERSHIP IN
ORGANIZATIONS .......

ACCORDING TO MEMlBERSHIP IN
ORGANIZATIONS FOR MALES AND


ACCORDING TO MEMBERSHIP IN
ORGANIZATIONS FOR WHITES AND


ACCORDING TO MEMBERSHIP IN
ORGANIZATIONS FOR RACE AND SEX

ACCORDING TO MEMBERSHIP IN
ORGANIZATIONS BY SOCIOECONOMIC


ACCORDING TO MEMBERSHIP IN
ORGANIZATIONS BY AGE ....


235


236



237



238


239


240


241C



24C2


2413










LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

92 MULTIPLE REGRESSIONS OF PREDICTOR VARI-
ABLES AND HAPPINESS FOR AGE GROUPs 45-64
AND 65-74 YEARS .. .. .. .. 24-4

93 MULTIPLE REGRESSIONS OF PREDICTOR VARI-
ABLES AND HAPPINESS FOR SIX AGE GROUPS 245

94 MULTIPLE REGRESSIONS OF PREDICTOR VAR~I-
ABLES AND HAPPINESS FOR MALES AND FEMALES 248


Xiii














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the
Graduate Council of the University of Florida
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
For the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


THE SOCIAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE
HAPPINESS AND MENTAL HEALTH OF PEOPLE
IN THE MIDDLE YEARS AND EARLY OLD AGE



By

Steven D. Wray


September, 1974


Chairman: Ruth E. Albrecht, Ph.D.

Major Department: Sociology



The purpose of this study was to investigate

the major social factors associated with the

happiness and mental health of people in late

middle age and early old age. The data were

collected as part of the Florida Health Study

Program, College of Medicine, University of

Florida. The sample includes 575 adult.res-

pondents from the ages 45 to 74 years. From

the present research it was found that people

in the middle years of life tend to be as happy


xiv












as those in the early old age stage of life.

It was also found to be statistically significant

that men are generally happier than women. The

hypothesis that there is no relationship between

the happiness ratings and race when socioeconomic

status is controlled for was found to be true.

By the use of step-wise regression, it was seen

that there was a statistically significant indi-

cation that happiness patterns vary predictably

along age stages that are influenced by different

mental health, physical health, friendship, and

socioeconomic variables for the different age

stages. Mental health as measured by the anx-

iety, .psychopathology, cognitive impairment, and

phobia scales has about the same influence on

happiness scores of people in the middle years

as those in early old age.

















xv








CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION



This study is an investigation into the

social factors associated with the happiness

and mental health of people in the middle years

and early old age, specifically in the ages 45

to 74 years.

The datawere gathered from interviews

with a random sample of adults living in Alachua

County, Florida. This study is part of the

larger Florida Health Study Program. Out of

a total 1,645 adult respondents, this study

examines the subgroup of 575 people between

the ages of 45 and 74 years old. This group

was selected because it has generally been neg-

lected by investigators in the past. Although

many studies have been done that have used

the concept of happiness, very few have applied

their research abilities to an investigation

of the middle aged population. Investigation

of the charactersitics of mental health for

this group have also been rather neglected.

This study has included the middle aged people

and the early old aged population in order to











be able to study a potentially disrupting

event in the happiness and lifestyles of people

in this age group. Retirement is one eventful

occurrence in the lives of people during this

time and it is important to understand what

social and health factors most influence people's

happiness.

Some of the questions explored are: Are

middle aged people happier than older people?

Are the mental health measures of anxiety, psy-

chopathology, cognitive impairment, and phobias

more important for their influence on the happiness

of older people than middle aged people? Is

happiness a life pattern that varies predictably

along the age stages? Are men happier than
women? When socioeconomic status is controlled

for, are nonwhites unhappier than whites? In

general, are whites happier than nonwhites?

It is hoped that this study will make a

contribution to filling the gap of knowledge

about happiness and mental health and the social

factors that most influence these variables.










CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


The review of the literature is divided into

two sections. The first section is concerned with

tracing, in chronological order, the major defini-

tions and methods used in sociological literature

to study happiness. The studies are examined in

chronological order to show how the research into

"happiness" was built upon the work of earlier authors
and how~ the definition of the concept in question has

developed to its present state.

The sociological, psychological and psychiatric

literature has approached the problem of the study

of "general well-being" with the several labels:

happiness, satisfaction, adjustment, morale and mood.
All of these terms have more or less different inter-

pretations of the target concept. The meaning of
these terms are influenced by the academic background

of the investigators and the method used in each par-

ticular study. This first section gives the specific

definition of happiness as used in this study and indicates

how this concept differs from the related terms used

in other studies. Because of the great number of

investigations concerned with the generally related








concepts, only studies that pertain to "happiness"

and are sociological in nature are reviewed in this

paper. For each study examined, the definition and

the concept of the term used is given and the method

of measuring this chosen variable is indicated.

The second section is a review of the findings

with the major emphasis on age characteristics of

the respondents and how other social characteristics

are associated with mental health and happiness. A

person's socioeconomic status may be highest in late

middle age; early old age is often concerned with

the marital crisis event of widowhood; .. .middle age

is the time when the children leave the family; the

employment status of retirement is associated with

the age 65; the decrease in good physical health

occurs in early old age and sometimes in late middle

age. All of these social characteristics of people

living their lives are reviewed in the explorations

by various sociological studies.

The question of the influence of mental health

on happiness is also reviewed along with an examina-

tion of studies that developed scales for measuring

the mental health of a population.

Finally, there is included a review of the items

contained in this study's scale of happiness. Each
item is matched with the earlier studies that have

also used these questions.





Th onc~pt o Happiness

In the study of the subjects in this age stage,

the occurrences of crises events may cause major

disruptions in a person's happiness with himself

and those around him. These stresses can be exhibited

in mental and physical health problems for people.

To begin with, a review of research studies concerned

with the analysis of the general well being and sat-

isfaction of people's marriages, jobs, retirement,

and other human activities is needed. This first

section reviews the ways researchers have attempted

to study the happiness of a variety of people from

all walks of life.

A landmark study in the area of marriage and

the family was conducted by Ernest Burgess and Leonard

Cottrell (1939). They recognized the importance of

happiness when they wrote that "...happiness is by

common consent the criterion for judging the success

or failure of modern marriage, it is taken as the

point of departure for the evaluation of the success

of the 526 marital unions of our study."l Their

method was to ask the couple to check if their marriage

is very unhappy, unhappy, average, happy, or very



1. Ernest W. Burgess and Leonard S. Cottrell ,
Predicting Success or Failure in Marriage, New York:
Prentice-Hall, 1939, p. 31.








happy. Burgess and Cottrell assumed that the subjects

understood happiness to mean "a state of well-being

characterized by relative permanence, by dominantly

agreeable emotion ranging in value from mere content-

ment to positive felicity, and by a natural desire

for its continuation." The authors believed happi-

ness to be a very subjective concept of a state of

feeling. They claimed that their question was "...a

rather reliable and stable instrument for measuring

differences in the satisfaction or dissatisfaction

of married couples with their union."/ A measure of

happiness will give a reliable index of marital sat-

isfaction, but this is different from the concept of

marital adjustment. Burgess and Cottrell see happi-

ness as a part of marital adjustment.4

A measure of happiness was developed by Hornell

Hart (1940) with his Chart for Happiness. This chart

included several happiness related questions about

feelings of vigor, feelings of guilt, thoughts about

suicide, and satisfaction with one's play activities,

job, and marriage.5 Hart had each subject graph his


2. Ibid.

3. Ibid, p. 44.

4. Ibid, p. 45.

5. Hornell Hart, Chart For Happiness, New York:
The Macmillian Company, 190





happiness state on a continuum that may range from

+700 (extremely happy) to -700 (extremely unhappy)

for each day of the month over a specified period

of time. The subject also wrote down their reasons

for putting their score on the continuum where they

did. Hart gave two definitions of happiness. The

first was that "...Happiness is the state in which

people are when they say sincerely, 'I am happy,'

and it is the opposite of the state in which they

are when they say sincerely, 'I am unhappy.'"6 This

definition serves operationally as a basis for measure-

ment but it does not provide much insight into what

happiness is. Hart recognized this and gave a second

definition, "Happiness is any state of consciousness

which the person tested seeks to attain or to miain-

tain, and it is the opposite of any state which the

possessor seeks to change or from which he seeks to

escape or withdraw."7 Hart concludes that these two

definitions define the same thing -- happiness. It

is rather obvious from these definitions that Hart

viewed happiness as a state of feeling arrived at

and maintained by a series of adjustments to external

forces. This is similar to Burgess and Cottrell's



6. Ibid, p. 183.

7. Ibid.








earlier concept of adjustment.

Judson Landis divided the life span into five

periods and asked his elderly subjects which was

the happiest time and why.8 The concept of happiness

did not have to be defined to his subjects and Landis

does not define the term in his article. Dell Lebo

(1942) also fails to define his meaning of happiness

and uses the method of asking his subjects (age 60

and over) whether they are happier or not since the

age of 60.9

Ruth Cavan, E. W. Burgess, R. J. Havighurst,

and H. Goldhammer (1949) looked at happiness as an

indication of an individual's adjustment in different

activities.10 The main limitation in using happiness

as a "criterion of adjustment" is that the term is

so subjective. Cavan et al. concluded that happiness

ratings cannot be the exclusive measure of adjustment,

but "...happiness as an over-all report of personal

adjustment should be useful as an instrument for

determining the validity of an inventory of satisfaction


8. Judson T. Landis, "What is the Happiest Per-
iod in Life?" School and Society, Vol. 55, 1942, p. 644.

9. Dell Lebo, "Some Factors Said to Make For
Happiness in Old Age," Journal of Clinical Psychology,
Vol. 9, 1953, pp. 285-390.

10. Ruth S. Cavan, E. W. Burgess, R. J. Havig-
hurst and H. Goldhamm~er, Personal Adjustmenti l
Age, Chicago: Science Research Associates, 19lC9,
p. 104.








with participation in activities and in status."11

The terms happiness and good adjustment were

used interchangeably by Havighurst and Albrecht (1953)

in their Prarie City study. They state that the terms

have different meanings but "...the personal adjust-

ment of older people depends largely upon their

present happiness, much more than it does for younger

people...01der people have less to work for in the

future and, consequently, their present happiness

is a more important part of their personal adjust-

ment."1 In this study, happiness was a part of their

attitude inventory which, in turn, was part of the

more inclusive concept -- personal adjustment.

Another study that agreed with the definition

of happiness as being the same as satisfaction is

Erwin Fellows' study in 1956. Fellows' method of

measuring happiness was to have his subjects rate

themselves on a five point scale of happiness in

comparison to others their age.13

A new dimension to defining happiness was tried

by Gurin, Veroff and Feld (1960). They "...not only


11, Ibid, p. 108.

12. Robert J. Havighurst and Ruth Albrecht,
Older People, New York: Longmans Green, 1954, p. 52.

13. Erwin Fellows, "A Study of Factors Related
to Happiness," Journal of Educational Research, 1956,
pp. 231-234c.









asked people how happy they are but probed for the

sources of happiness and unhappiness."1 Also, they

asked about sources of past unhappiness and anti-

cipation of future happiness. Gurin et al. there-

fore defined happiness for each person as the stated

sources of happiness of the individual. Maybe an

individual can find feelings of happiness in the

enjoyment of material objects but these are sources

of pleasure and not definitions of the subjective

concept happiness. When happiness was discussed,

it is under the chapter heading of general adjust-

ment and therefore it should be concluded that Gurin

et al. thought of happiness as part of the concept

of adjustment.

No definition of happiness was used by H. Meltzer

(1962)15 in his study of older workers. Meltzer

divided the life span into age spans and asked his

subjects to select their best and worst years and

rank order the five given age spans. Meltzer later

(1963) stated that happiness is just one of several


14. Gerald Gurin, Joseph Veroff, and Sheila
Feld Americans View Their Mental Health: A Nation-
Wide_1nteryggg_ Stdy, New York: Basic Books, Inc.,


15. H. Meltzer, "Age Differences in Status
and Happiness of Workers," Geriatrics, Vol. 17, 1962,
pp. 831-838.








related life adjustment factors.16 Raymond Kuhlen

(1964) agreed with the idea that a person cannot be
"...well adjusted unless he is reasonably happy and

contented ."17 Kuhlen further says that the only way

to discover if a person is happy is to ask him.

A self-reported level of happiness was also con-

sidered by Norman Bradburn and David Caplovitz (1965)

as the best approach to measuring happiness. They

asked their subjects, "Taking all things together,

how would you say things are these days -- would you

say you are very happy, pretty happy, or not too

happy?"8 The answer was considered to be an esti-
mate of the respondent's present over-all sense of

well-being, or distress. By examining other variables

that influence happiness, Bradburn and Caplovitz con-

cluded that "...happiness is not a simple phenomenon

that can be understood in terms of a single dimension,

but rather a complex resultant of the satisfactions

and dissatisfactions, the gratifying and frustrating

emotional experiences that occur in a person's life


16. H. Meltzer "Age Differences in Happiness
an LfeAdusmet f Workers," Journal of Gerontology,
Vol. 18, 1963, pp. 66-70.

17. Raymond G. Kuhlen, "Developmental Changes
in Motivation During the Adult Years," in B. Neugarten
(editor), Middle Age and Aging, Chicago, Illinois:
The University of Chicago Press, 1968, p. 125.

18. Norman Bradburn and David Caplovitz, Reports
on Happiness, Chicago, Illinois: Aldine Press, 1965.









situation."1 Happiness is therefore conceptualized

as mostly an internal feeling; it is viewed as more

than what is meant by satisfaction; and to understand

happiness, both positive and negative fractions of

the emotional continuum must be included in the defin-

it-ion. This conceptualization is similar to Golding's

(1954) idea of a continuum of hedonic effect.

A new approach to measuring happiness was created

by Hadley Cantril (1965) with his Self-Anchoring Scale.

This scale is a ladder with the rungs numbered from

0 to 10. After showing and explaining the ladder

to the subject, the questioner would say,

Some people seem to be quite happy and
satisfied with their lives, while others
seem quite unhappy and dissatisfied.
Now, look at the ladder again. Suppose
that a person who is entirely satisfied
with his life would be at the top of
the ladder, and a person who is extremely
dissatisfied with his life would be at
the bottom of the ladder.

Where would you put yourself on the
ladder at the present stage of your life
in terms of how satisfied or dissatisfied
you are with your own personal life? 20

The example inquired about life satisfaction but

it would be just as easy to ask about job satisfac-

tion or marital satisfaction, etc.



19. Ibid, p. 8.

20. Hadley Cantril, The Pattern of Human Concerns,
New Brunswick, Njew Jersey: Rutgers University Press,
1965, p. 265.








Cantril viewed the terms happiness and satisfac-

tion as almost the samne concept. He stated that,

"Sa-tisfaction- comes from attaining a goal through

action based on choice -- a never-ending process of

transforming a potential desire into an experiential

raiy"21 Becoming satisfied because of success

in what a person chooses to do is no great revelation.

This conceptualization is completely in line with

psychologists' work in personal adjustment, or Havig-

hurst's concept "successful aging" and Neugarten,

Havighurst and Tobin's definitions used in their Life
Satisfaction Indices.

Cantril's method is a distinct improvement on

the self-report method of measuring satisfaction,

but it is primarily concerned with the present. There

may be a difference between a presently satisfied

person who expects things to become terrible in the
future and a presently satisfied person who expects

things to improve considerably in the future. These

people could have the same score on Cantril's Ladder
but different types of subjective satisfaction.

Kurt Back and Kenneth Gergen (1966) used the

term happiness interchangeably with the term morale

and, therefore, it must be assumed that they saw

no significant difference in the meaning of the terms.


21. Ibid, p. 274.








Their method was to directly ask the respondent if

he would be happier doing something else. The respon-

dent could answer yes or no. From their study Back

and Gergen concluded that "...the question of morale

(or happiness) of the aged is meaningless, because

morale and aging are both complex phenomena."22

Overall happiness is conceptualized by Paul

Cameron (1967) "...as consisting of a preponderance

of moods of happiness over moods of sadness."2

Cameron saw the concept as an intricate interrela-

tionship of happiness, morale, and ego-strength that

can be examined by studying the smaller units of

positive and negative moods. Cameron used the Barron

Ego-Strength Scale and the Zazlow Picture Sequence

Scale to measure happiness.

Derek Phillips (1967) also used the self-report

method of measuring happiness. He asked his subjects,

"Taken altogether, how would you say things are these

days -- would you say that you are very happy, pretty


22. Kurt W. Back and Kenneth J. Gergen, "Personal
Orientation and Morale of the Aged," in Ida Harper
Simpson and John C. McKinney (editors), SocialAspects
of Aging, Durham, North Carolina: Duke University
Press, 1966, pp. 304-305.

23. Paul Cameron, "Ego Strength and Happiness
of the Aged," Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 22, No. 2,
April, 1967, pp. 199-202.









happy, or not too happy?"24 Phillips saw satisfaction
as the main attribute of happiness but he cautioned

against the examination of only the negative or only

the positive experiences and feelings of the respon-

dents. Happiness therefore can only be studied if
both ends of the emotion continuum are included in

the consideration.

By 1972 Paul Cameron had deviated slightly from

his position of moods as an adequate measure of hap-

piness and had modified his method to asking specific

questions of the respondents about their level of

happiness in comparison to "...all other adults of

your sex."25 Therefore Cameron now accepts the self-

report method of measuring happiness as a better
device.

For other researchers the problem of a concept

of happiness does not exist. David Schonfield (1973)

states that "ratings for happiness hardly require

justification..."26 William Martin (1973) did not


24C. Derek L. Phillips, "Mental Health Status,
Social Participation, and Happiness," Journal of
Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 8, 1967, pp.285-291.

25. Paul cameron, "stereotypes About Generational
Fun and Happiness vs. Self-Appraised Pun and Happiness,"
Gerontologist, Vol. 12, Summer, 1972, Part I, pp. 120-
123.
26. David Schonfield, "Future Commitments and
Successful Aging I. The Random Sample," Journal of
Gerontology, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1973, pp.189-196.









define happiness in his study: but did equate satis-

faction w~ith hrappiness.27

Happiness has been conceptualized as a subpart

of the concept mood, adjustment, morale, and satis-

faction. At times mood, morale and satisfaction

have all been considered to be a subpart of happiness.

Most of the time the investigators adequately reported

what they meant by their variable but there was no

general agreement as to how happiness should be

defined.


Conceptual Integration

The terms that have been associated with happiness

can be divided into the implied action terms of ad-

justment and adaptation and the more subjective

feeling or emotional terms of happiness, satisfaction,

morale and mood.

Adjustment is the more or less systematic series

of actions by an individual in trying to successfully

achieve an adaptation.

Adaptation is the changing of a person's views

of what makes him happy to conform to what society's

view of happiness should be for his position in his

life cycle. An individual may be infatuated with



27. William C. Martin, "Activity and Disengage-
ment: Life Satisfaction of In-Movers into a Retirement
Community," Gerontologist, Vol. 13, Summer, 1973, pp.
224-227.








his teddy bear at the age of three, but by the age

of forty, teddy bears cannot make him as happy as

they did earlier in his life. He feels compelled
to change his wishes or desires to goals that society

feels are more valuable. People have the ability

to adapt in differing degrees; it is something that
must be learned. If an individual has succeeded in

adapting to his environment and achieves a happiness
state, then he is aging successfully,

In other words, several adjustments make up an

adaptation and several adaptations make up successful

aging.
To begin to adjust there must be a goal worth

adjusting to. "One of the strangest, least interpret-
able symptoms of our time is the neglect by psycholo-

gists (and sociologists) of the problem of happiness,
that inner state which Plato, Aristotle, and almost

all succeeding thinkers of the first rank assumed to

be 'the highest of all goods achievable by action.'"28

Happiness is therefore considered to be the goal of
all mankind. What is happiness? William McDougall

(1921) discarded the philosophical idea of happiness
as merely the sum of a person's pleasures. He finally

described the nature of happiness by writing:


.28, Henry Murray, ?'Towards a Classification of
Interactions," in Tow~ard a General Theor of Action,
by Talcott Parsons and Edward A. Shils (editors),
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press,
1951, pp. 455-456.








Happiness arises from the harmonious
operation of all sentiments of a well-
organized and unified personality, one
in which the principal sentiments sup-
port one another in a succession of
actions all of which tend towards the
same or closely allied and harmonious
ends. Hence the richer, the m~ore highly
developed, the more completely unified
or integrated is the personality, the
more capable is it of sustained happi-
ness in spite of inter-current pains
of all sorts. 29

Happiness is the feeling during the striving for

and more or less achieving of the goals set by oneself.

Why was the term happiness chosen to represent

the concept of the goal of adjustment? The terms

mood, satisfaction, and morale have been used by

many other investigators and many have used the four

terms interchangeably. Some have said that happiness

and morale are subparts of satisfaction; others have

declared that satisfaction is a subpart of happiness

and still others see all these as subparts of "elation."

The investigators have a similar concept in mind

but they cannot agree on the same term to describe

it. They do generally agree that the concept is an

inner or psychological feeling of well-being that

incorporates a need for the individual to adjust in

order to achieve his goals. To call the concept

"overall psychological well-being" is too awkward and



29. William McDougall, An Introduction to Social
Psychology, Boston, Massachusetts: John W. Luce and
Co., 1926, p. 161.





too general in nature. So another term is sought

and the more popular ones are mood, satisfaction,

morale, and happiness.

Most of the studies have recently agreed that

mood is not an acceptable term. Moods are affective

states that vary within short time periods. Moods

change too often and too quickly for the concept in

mind; the concept we are interested in is a stable

state of mind. The term most often chosen is "satis-

faction." But "satisfaction" like "contentment" de-

notes a feeling that the subject has achieved the

goal he has set out for and does not really want

something more. The actual concept includes a con-

tinual interaction between an individual's subjective

feelings and his exterior environment. This implies

that the feeling part of the concept cannot be com-

pletely achieved. This would mean that the concept

refers to the entire positive side of the continuum,

including the theoretically impossible positive end

of the pole. Both "morale" and "happiness" have

been used to describe this. The dictionary defines

morale as: "In any group, the group members' atti-

tudes toward the group and its goals, A) high morale

denoting generally favorable attitudes, belief that

the group will eventually be successful, and B) low

morale denoting generally unfavorable attitudes and

a sense of defeatism or antagonism relative to the








group goals."30

The difference between morale and happiness is

that morale refers to the group's attitudes and goals,

while happiness is more of an individual's attitude

or feeling.

So, in this study, the term "happiness" will be

used to refer to the concept that means an overall

psychological and social well-being in interaction

with the external world. Happiness is multidimensional

but not enough is known to specifically describe the

nature of the dimensions. Happiness is necessarily

a function of how the individual perceives his overall

feelings at any specified point in time.

The recent developments in the study of happiness

have centered around the work of three groups of in-

vestigators. By far the most significant work in

happiness has been and is being done at the University

of Chicago studies of personality and adjustment.

This group includes the work of Cavan et al. (1949),

Burgess and Cottrell (1939), Havighurst and Albrecht

(1953), Cumming and Henry (1961); and Neugarten (1964).

Havighurst (1968) and Neugarten (1964) are still ac-

tively pursuing new theoretical areas of the happiness

concept.



30. Thomas Ford Hoult, Dictionary of Modern
Sociology, Totowaa, New Jersey: Littlefield, Adams
and Company, 1972, p. 209.








Gurin, Veroff, and Feld (1.960) published an ex-

cellent book about their mental health study of 2,400

adults. They emphasized the role of health in happi-

ness and pointed out numerous variables that are

related to happiness. The degree of the relationships

were not reported.

Hadley Cantril (1965) has developed a short and

easy method of measuring happiness with his self-

anchoring ladder technique. The technique can be.

applied internationally and is easily adapted to

measure happiness on any subject. The only change

that has tobe made is to change the name of the title

on the ladder. This is the best devised self-report

method and is gaining adheren-ts each year.

The next step is to expand the study of happi-

ness to an international audience. It may be that

happiness is more likely to occur in certain countries.

The question always exists, "Do the relationships

between happiness and other variables continue over

international lines?

Review of the Findings in the Literature


The first part of this section traced the devel-

opment of the major conceptual forms that are related

to happiness. Then definitions of terms that are

used in this study were given. Part one also re-

viewed the methodsused in the various studies. This








next section is concerned with the presentation of

the findings and conclusions of the major studies

that pertain to the specific interests of this study.


Age and Happiness

As early as 1949 Cavan, Burgess, Havighurst,

and Goldhammer found that increased age is associated

with a "...decrease in feelings of happiness, useful-

ness, zest and a corresponding increase in lack of
interest in life."31 There are many other studies

that discovered increasing age to be a negative in-

fluence on happiness: Lebo,32 Gurin et al,,3 Bradburn

and Caplovitz, Cameron,5 and Maddox. Sri

and Schneider also agreed but they said that the

negative effect is slight.3 Alston (1973) found

that "...as age increases the proportion of people

who feel that life is not exciting also increases


31. Cavan et al., 1949, p. 60.

32. Dell Lebo, 1953, P. 387.

33. Gurin et al., 1960, p. 50.

34. Bradburn and Caplovitz, 1965, p. 10.

35. Paul cameron, 1967, p. 202.

36. George Maddox, "Fact and Artifact: Evidence
Bearing on Disengagement Theory from the Duke Geri-
atric Project," Human Development, Yolume 8, 1965,
pp. 117-130.

37. Gordon F. Streib and Clement J. Schneider,
Retirement in American Society: Impact and -Process,
New York: Cornell University Press, 1971, p. 161.








significantly." But Alston also said that "...the

higher income groups have a much larger proportion

of older people who find life exciting."3

Those that found happiness increasing with age

were Connelly, 1970,40 and Meltzer, 1963.111 Some

researchers found happiness increasing at various

age levels. Back and Bourque, 1970, concluded that

"...happiness increases with age until approximately

55 years of age, at which point happiness gradually
declines."42 In their study of eighty-seven. older

men, Reichard et al. saw that "...adjustment had im-

proved in later years." But they indicate that


38. Jon P. Alston and Charles Dudley, "Age, Occu-
pation, and Life Satisfaction," Gerontologist_, Volume
13, Spring, 1973, pp. 58-61.

39. Ibid, p. 60.

40. John Connelly, "Age Trends and Interrela-
tionships of Life Satisfaction, Job Satisfaction,
and Marital Satisfaction," Unpublished Doctoral
Dissertation, Department of Child Development and
Family Relationships, Pennsylvania State University,
1970.

41. H. Meltzer, 1963, p. 70.

42. Kurt Back and Linda Bourque, "Life Graphs:
Aging and Cohort Effect," Journal of Gerontoloy
Volume 25, Number 3, 1970, pp. 24c9-255.

43. Suzanne Reichard, Florine Livson, and Paul
Petersen, "Adjustment to Retirement," in Middle Age and
Aging, by Bernice Neugarten (editor), Chicago: Uni-
versity of Chicago Press, 1968, pp. 178-180.








there is a fluctuation in happiness over age when

happiness declines just before retirement and im-

proves afterwards. Kerckhoff, 1964, indicated that

satisfaction for males rose after the first five years

of retirement and then fell.

Finally, there are investigators that concluded

that there is no correlation between age and happi-

ness. Maddox, 1964, found that morale scores for

older subjects were not lower than those for younger

subjects.5 Bortner and Hul~tsch, Palmore and

Luikrartb Edwards and Klee mnack,lL and Mar~tin4

all concluded that theirs no correlation between
age and happiness.


44. Alan Kerckhoff, "Husband-Wife Expectations
and Reactions to Retirement," Journal of Gerontoloy
Volume 19, Number 4, October, 1964, p. 516

45. George Maddox, "Activity and Morale: A
Longitudinal Study of Selected Elderly Subjects,"
Social Forces, Volume 42, 1964, p. 199.

46. Rayman Bortner and David Hultsch, "A Multi-
variate Analysis of Correlates of Life Satisfaction
in Adulthood," Journal of Gerontology, Volume 25,
Number 1, January, 1970, p. 47.

47. Erdman Palmore and Clark Luikart, "Health and
Social Factors Related to Life Satisfaction," Journal
of Health and Social Behavior, Volume 13, 1972, p. 78.

48. John Edwards and David KleCmmck, "Correlates
of Life Satisfaction: A Re-Examination," Journal of
Gerontology, Volume 28, Number 4, 1973, p. 501.

49. William Martin, "Activity and Disengagement:
Life Satisfaction of In-Movers Into a Retirement Com-
munity," Gerontologist, Volume 13, Summer, 1973, pp.
224-227.








Age Trends an~d Happiness

Most studies do not investigate and compare small

age groupings in their sample to ascertain the happi-

ness patterns throughout life. Only a few studies

hnave expressed enough curiosity to publish their

results along these lines.

Cavan, Burgess, Havighurst, and Goldhammer50

looked at the five year age groups from age 60 to 74

and found that happiness for both males and females

steadily decreases at each higher age level.

Gurin et al. isolated two age groups and dis-

covered that 34 percent of the population aged 45

to 54 think of themselves as very happy but only 27

percent of the population over age 55 rank themselves

as very happy.51

Britton and Britton, 1972, reported in their

longitudinal study about 46 men and women over 65

years of age that the percent of men who rated them-

selves as very happy decreased from 18 percent to 13

percent in a six year period but increased to a high

of 25 percent three years later. The percent of women

rated as very happy steadily decreased from 36 percent



50. Cavan et al., 1949, p. 43.

51. Gurin, Veroff, and Feld, 1960, p. 43.








to a low of only 10 percent nine years later.2 So,

the percentage of very happy men reached a high in
their older years and the percentage of very happy

women greatly decreased during the same time.

Tallmer and Kutner, 1970, reported that the

pattern of morale is different for men and women.

"Between the ages of 50 and 64 years of age morale

increases in men but declines in women.n5

Connelly, 1970, used Cantril's ladder to deter-

mine satisfaction and found that the highest life

satisfaction average was for those people 65 years

of age and the next highest was-the people 55 years

old. The most satisfied were people 55 years and

over when compared to people in their twenties,

thirties, and forties.5

Of people over 45 years of age, Spreitzer and

Snyder, discovered that the percentage of very happy

women was greater than the percent of very happy men

until age 65. In the age group 65 to 74 years, the

percent of very happy men suddenly increased and the


52. Joseph Britton and Jean Britton, Personality
Changes in Aging: A Longitudinal Study of Community
Residents, New Yiork, New York: Springer Publishing
Co., Inc., 1972.

53. Margot Tallmer and Bernard Kutner, "Disen-
gagement and Morale," Gerontologist, Vol. 10, Part I,
Winter, 1970, p. 318.

54. Connelly, 1970, p. 55.








percentage of very happy women just as dramatically

decreased. Past the age of 70 years, the per cent

of very happy men declined to its pre-retirement level

but there was no increase for women in this later age

group. They stayed at their very low level.55

These few studies did not agree on how happiness

fluctuates with age but they all agreed that there

are some intervening variables that do cause happi-

ness levels to vary for different ages.

Sex and Happiness

There is no study that concludes that women are

generally happier than men. There are a few studies

that found certain subpopulations of women happier

than similar subpopulations of men. Gurin et al.

said that "...single women are happier and worry more

than single men."56 Bradburn and Caplovitz stated

that single men are "...twice as likely as single

women to report being 'not so happy.'"57

Several studies reported that women are less

happy than men, Cavan et al.,5 Lebo, 195315 ui


55. Elmer Spreitzer and Eldon Snyder, "Correlates
of Life Satisfaction Among the Aged," Journal of Geron-
tology, Volume 29, Number 4, 1974, p. 456.

56. Gurin, Veroff, and Feld, 1960, p. 233.

57. Bradburn and Caplovitz, 1965, p. 13.

58. cavan et al., 1949, p. 61.

59. Dell Lebo, 1953, p. 387.








et al., 19160,60 and Kutner et al., 1956.61 But most

studies concluded that there is no real difference

in the happiness scores for males and females. Brad-

burn and Caplovitz,6 Alsbton,6 Palmore and Luikart,

Cameron,5 and Hartmann, agreed that "...there is

no reliable difference between the averages for the

sexes..." but he said that women ...are more likely

to experience both the heights and depths of the hap-

piness scale."6

Race and Happiness

Only one study has been conducted that considers
the race of the respondents and their reported happi-

ness. Elizabeth Stojanovic, Marion Loftin and Walter

Drapald (1972) found that "...the morale score of the


60. Gurin, Veroff, and Feld, 1960, p. So.

61. Bernard Kutner, David Fanshel, Alice Togo,
and Thomas Langner, Five Hundred Over Sixty, New York:
Russel Sage Foundation, 1956, p. 51.

62. Bradburn and Caplovitz, 1965, p. 10.

63. Alston and Dudley, 1973, P. 59

64. Palmore and Luikart, 1972, p. 78.

65. Cameron, 1972, p. 190.

66. George Hartmann, "Personality Traits Asso-
ciated with Variations in Happiness" Journal of
Abnormal Social Psychology, Volume 34, 1934, p. 209.

67. Ibid.








black women was significantly higher than that of

the white women." Their measurement of morale

was Cantril's ladder.


Socioeconomic Status and Happiness

All the studies that have been considered in

this paper agree that happiness and socioeconomic

status are positively related. Kutner, 1956, con-

cluded that SES (along with health) is probably

directly linked with happiness. The greatest

value of variables like socioeconomic status is that

they are indices of discrimination between different

" ...life styles, values, status and role relations

and expectations."70 Adams, 1971,71 Cutler, 1973,2

Strib,195,73Edwards and Klemmack, .1973,7 Lebo,



68. Elizabeth Stojanovic, Marion Loftin, and
Walter Drapald, "Activity and Morale Among Aged Rural
Women," Ne.TGeront.,fol. 3, No. 1, 1972, p. 35.

69. Kutner et al., 1956. pp. 52-54

70. David Adams, "Analysis of a Life Satis-
faction Index," Journal of Gerontology, Volume 24~,
Number 4, 1969, p. 6

71. Ibid.

72. Stephen Cutler, "Voluntary Association Par-
ticipation and Life Satisfaction: A Cautionary
Research Note," Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 28,
No. 1, p. 99.

73. Gordon Streib, "Morale of the Retired,"
Social Problems, Vol. 3, 1956, p. 276.

74. Edwards and Klemmack, 1973, pp. 501-502.








1953,75 Kratcoski, 1974,7 Kerokhoff, 1964,7 Pollman,
1 71, Aso,1 73 Bortner and Hultsch, 1970,80

Maddox, 1968.81 Spreitzer and Snyder, 1974,82 and

Cameron, 1972, all concluded that the higher socio-

economic class has the greater happiness scores.

Some investigators examined education and income

apart from SES and found the same positive relation-

ship with happiness. Palmore and Luikart, 1972,

found that "...income and education were more strongly

related to satisfaction among those with below average


75. Dell Lebo, 1953, PP. 386-387.

76. Peter Kratcoski, James Hiuber, and Ruth Favlak,
"Retirement Satisfaction Among Emeritus Professors,"
Industrial Gerontologyr, Vol. 1, No. 1, Winter, 1974,
p. 81.

77. Kerckhoff, 1964, p. 516.

78. William Pollman, "Early Retirement: Rela-
tionship to Variation in Life Satisfaction," Geron-
tologist, Yol. 2, Spring, 1971, Part I, p. 46.

79. Alston and Dudley, 1973, p. 60.

80. Rayman Bortner and David Hultsch, "A Multi-
variate Analysis of Correlates of Life Satisfaction
in Adulthood," Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 25, No. 1,
January, 1970, p. 47.

81. George Maddox, "Persistence of Life Style
Among the Elderly: A Longitudinal Study of Patterns
of Social Activity in Relation to Life Satisfaction,"
in Middle Age and Aging, by Bernice Neugarten (editor),
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968, p. 331.

82. Spreitzer and Snyder, 1974, p. 458.

83. Cameron, 1972, p. 190.








incomes." Bradburn and Caplovitz, 1965, saw a

"...strong positive correlation between both educa-

tion and income..."85 Alston and Dudley, 1973, con-

cluded that the higher income groups have a much

larger proportion of older people who find life

exciting than the lower or middle income groups.8

Edwards and Klemmack, 1973, went so far as to say

that "...family income, in particular, is the single

most important variable in explaining reported sat-

isfaction."8 Bradburn and Caplovitz would not go

as far as Edwards and Klemmack with their praise of

family income as an explaining variable; they did

report that "...at every level of education making

more money is associated with being happier, but

having more education is not always related to being

happier. Education and happiness are positively

related for the majority of the sample, who earn

less than $7,000 a year, but negatively related

among the wealthier people..." Martin, 1973,

was the only investigator to venture the opinion

that the correlation between years of education and


84. Palmore and Luikart, 1972.

85. Bradburn and Caplovitz, 1965, P. 10.

86. Alston and Dudley, 1973, p. 60.

87. Edwards and Klemmack, 1973, p. 501.

88. Bradburn and Caplovitz, 1965, p. 10.








satisfaction is not significant. But he qualified

this finding by suggesting that the respondent's

"...uniformly high education may have restricted

the variation of satisfaction."8


Marital Status and Hanpiness

Being married is usually found to contribute

to the chances for happiness. Martin, 1973, found

a positive relationship ef marriage iso life satis-

faction. Kutner et al. (1956) report that "...married

older people tend to be better adjusted than single

people and the widowed occupy an intermediate posi-
tion."90 They also found that "...as the length of

widowhood increases, there is a rise in morale until

it reaches a level approximately that of the married

women."91 Bradburn and Caplovitz, 1965, reported

that "...respondents who are not married are con-

siderably less happy than those who are."92 They

indicated that married women are only slightly higher

in their reported happiness. An interesting con-

clusion is that "...being married is, in fact, more



89. Martin, 1973.

90. Kutner et al., 1956, p. 67.

91. Ibid.

92. Bradburn and Caplovitz, 1965, p. 13.








important for the happiness of men than of women." 3

Lebo, 1953, discovered that the unhappiest group

were the widowed. "The happier old people lived

with their spouse, friends, or relatives to a signif-

icantly greater extent than did the unhappy group."94

Both Lopata, 1968,95 and Lowenthal, 1965,96 agreed

that widowhood is negatively related to happiness.

Cavan reported the crisis of widowhood as

probably "...the most, drastic and widespread ad-

justment which old women must make...."19 Guin

et al., 1960, said that although the divorced or

separated women "...are only slightly less happy

than men in the same position, for all other marital

status groups women are happier than men." Hansen

et al., 1962, disagreed with Gurin and others by

concluding that favorable adjustment to aging was

shown to occur most frequently among women and the


93. Ibid.

94. Lebo, 1953, P. 387.

95. Helena Lopata, Occupation: Housewife, New
York: Oxford University Press, 1971.

96. Marjorie Lowenthal and Deetje Boler, "Yol-
untary Vs. Involuntary Social Withdrawal," Journal of
Gerontology, Vol. 20, 1965, pp. 363-371.

97. Cavan et al., 1949, pp. 60-61.

98. Gurin, Veroff, and Feld, 1960, p. 115.








married.9 Logically, the conclusion of Hansen et

al. is surprising. Burgess and Cottrell, 1939, found

that "...A~merican wives make the major adjustment

in marriage."0 If women make the major adjust-

ments, then there are more chances for them to fail.

Therefore, women should have a harder time in being

happy with their marriage than men. So, males should

have the larger positive correlation with marriage

and adjustment..

Two studies found no relationship between mari-

tal status and happiness: Palmore and Luikart, 1972,10

and Edwards and Klemmack, 1973-12

Children may be a positive influence on happi-

ness as people age. Albrecht, 1951, found that "...

old people who were parents rated higher than average

in mean adjustment."0 Even if children are a blessing,



99. Gary Hansen, Samuel Yoshioka, Maurice Taves,
and Frances Caro, "Older People in the Midwest: Condi-
tions and Attitudes," in OlderPeople and hi Social
World, by Arnold Rose and Warren Peterson (editor)
Ph~iladelphia, Pennsylvania: F. A. Davis Co., 1965,
p. 322.

100. Burgess and Cottrell, 1939, p. 349.

101. Palmore and Luikart, 1972, p. 78.

102. Edwards and Klemmack, 1973, p. 501.

103. Ruth Albrecht, "The Social Roles of Old
People," Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 6, 1951. P.
144.








it is best .that they do not live nearby. Kerc~khoff,

1966, noticed that "...wives whose children on the

average lived farther away had higher morale than

wives whose children lived closer."0 Also, "...

high morale is associated with low expectations of

the parent-child relationship. We have found that

high levels of mutual support are associated with

lowlevlsof morale."0 From this Kerckhoff sug-

gested that a nuclear family is associated with higher

levels of morale than extended families after retire-

ment.10 Townsend, 1963, also found that living

independently from the family is more conducive to

happiness.10 Martin, 1973, went further by sug-

gesting that "...maintenance of the family" has
no correlation with satisfaction.10 Edwards and

Klemmack, 1973, go on to say that "familial partici-

pation" is not significantly associated with life



10.Alan Kerckhoff, "Family Patterns and Morale
in Retirement," in Social Aspects of Aging~, by Ida
Harper Simpson, and John C. McKinney (editors), Durham,
North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1966, p. 192.

105. Ibid, p. 184.

106. Ibid, p. 193.

107. Peter Townsend, The Family Life of Old
People, Baltimore, Maryland: Penguin Books, 1963.
108. Martin, 1973.








satisfaction.109 In general, Gurin et al. summed

things up by saying, "...married respondents report

feeling happier than those who are unmarried, and

the difference is a sharp one for both men and

women."1


Employment and Happiness

Investigators agree that employment is posi-

tively related to happiness. Palmore and Luikart,

19r72, saw that employment is "...significantly asso-

ciated with satisfaction among men, but not among

women."111 Meltzer, 1963, found that work is more

significant to a person as he gets older.11 Rose,

1955, also found that employment is related to

happiness.11 Bradburn and Caplovitz concluded that

"...a man's employment status does indeed make a

considerable difference in reported happiness...

work is of crucial importance to the happiness of



109. Edwards and Klemmack, 19731 P. 502.

110. Gurin, Veroff, and Feld, 1960, p. 232.

111. Palmore and Luikart, 1972, p. 78.

112. H. Meltzer, 1963, p. 70.

113. Arnold Rose, "Factors Associated With
Life Satisfaction of Middle-Class, Middle-Aged
Persons," Journal of Marriage and Family Living,
Vol. 17, 1955, p. 19.








men."1 Women, on the other hand, seem to be about

equally happy whether or not they choose to take on

a work role; however, those women who desire a work

role and have been unable to find employment, or

have been forced to retire, are more likely to be

unhappy. 15Rose, 1955, made a different interpre-

tation by hypothesizing "...that the life satisfac-

tion of middle class women as they enter middle age

is a function of the degree to which they are able

to assume another central role to substitute for

their necessarily declining role as homemakers."ll6

Kutner et al., 1956, found a low level of morale

in married working women. Widowed women, when com-

pared to married housewives, have low morale, and

there is ...a lower morale among widowed working

women when compared to working men."l Gurin et

al., found that "...older men are more likely to be

satisfied with their job..." than are younger men.11



114. Bradburn and Caplovitz, 1965, pp. 14-15.

115. I~bid.

116. A. Rose, 19551 P. 19.

117. Kutner et al., 1956, p. 77.

118. Gurin, Veroff, and Feld, 1960, p. 172.








Retirement and Happiness

Cavan, Burgess, Havighurst, and Goldhammer,

1949, stated that, "...the most drastic and wide-

spread adjustment for old men is to retirement

from employment."l There are various disagree-

ments on whether retirement generally means happi-

ness or unhappiness for the retiree.

Pollman, 1971, found that "the early retirees,

as compared to those men who decided to keep working,

had a significantly higher proportion in the 'high'

life satisfaction classification."l20 Streib and

Schneider, 1971, also noted that "the data showed

that early retirees were somewhat more likely to

be satsfid'than those who retired later."1

Price, 1973, differed with his conclusion that "a

direct relationship between retirement satisfaction

and life satisfaction is supported for involuntary

retirees, but not for voluntary retirees."l22

Thompson, 1958, found that happiness is higher if


119. Cavan et al., 1949, pp. 60-61.

120. A. William Pollman, 1971, p. 46.

121. Streib and Schneider, 1971, p. 112.

122. Robert Price, "Life Satisfaction of the
Aged," unpublished Master's Thesis, Univeristy of
Florida, 1973.








retirement is voluntary.123 Lowenthal, 1965, noted

that there was no relationship of happiness and vol-

untary retirement.12

Kerckhoff, 1964, found that upper level (pro-

fessional and managerial) retirees did not want to

retire, but their retirement experiences were the

happiest. Middle level retirees wanted to retire
but weren't as happy with retirement as the upper .

level people. The lower level (semi-skilled) re-

tirees were the unhappiest with their retirement

experience.125 K~ratcoski et al., 1974, agreed with
Kerckhoff that greater satisfaction in retirement

can be seen in the "...professional types of work."2

Reichard et al., 1962, hypothesized that retirement

was most stressful just before it took place.12

Thompson et al., 1960, indicated that retirement neg-
atively affects adjustment only when it causes econ-

omic deprivation.12


123. Wayne Thompson, "Pre-Retirement Antici-
pation and Adjustment in Retirement," Journal of
Social Iss~ues, Vol. 14, 1958, ov. 35-45. --

124. Lowenthal and Boler, 1965, p. 68.

125. Kerckhoff, 1964, p. 516.

126. Kratcoski et al., 1974, p. 81.

127. Reichard et al., 1962, p. 169.

128. Wayne Thompson, Gordon Streib, and John Kosa,
"The Effect of Retirement on Personal Adjustment: A
Panel Analysis," Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 15, No. 2,
Section B, April, 1960, pp. 165-169.





In general, retirement is negatively related
to happiness according to Kutner et al., 1956, 29
Lipman, 1961,130 Adams, 1971,13 Lwnhl195132`

and Thompson, 1958.133 But retirement is positively

related to happiness for femalesl3 n owie.3


Physical Health and Happiness

Almost every study reported on concluded that

the health of the respondent was a main ingredient

to happiness.

The strongest voice for the relationship of'

health and happiness is by Palmore and Luikart,

1972, when they found that "self-rated health was

by far the strongest variable related to life sat-
isfaction and it alone accounts for two-thirds or

more of the explained variance in all groups

analyzed ."6


129. Kutner et al., 1956.

130. A. Lipman, "Role Conceptions and Morale
of Couples in Retirement," Journal of Gerontology,
Vol. 16, 1961, pp. 267-271.

131. David Adams, 1971, p. 66.

132. Lowenthal and Boler, 1965, p. 368.

133. Wayne Thompson, 1958, p. 38.

134. Loeb et al., 1963.

--~135.~- Gann Lloyd, "Social and Personal Adjust-
ment of Retired Persons," Sociology and Social
Research, Vol. 39, No. 5. 1955, PP. 312-316

136. Palmore and Luikart, 1972, p. 78.





The relationship of good health and happiness was

reported by Jeffers and Nichols, 1961,137 Cutler,

1973,13 Lebo, 1953,19 Bultena and 0Oyler, 1971,14

Edwards and Klemmack, 1973,14 Maddox, 1965,14 Streib,

1956,143 Kutner, 1956,144 Gurin et al., 1960,145 and

Lowenthal and Boler, 1965.146

Albrecht agreed by noting that good health does

not guarantee good adjustment but "...a high handi-

cap score...correlated somewhat closer with a low

adjustment score...."7 When the subject rates his


137. Frances Jeffers and Claude Nichols, "The
Relationship of Activities and Attitudes to Physical
Well-Being in Older People," Journal of Gerontology,
Yol. 16, 1961, pp. 67-70.

138. Stephen Cutler, 1973, P. 99.

139. Dell Lebo, 1953, p. 385.

140. Gordon Bultena and Robert 0yler, "Effects of
Health on Disengagement and Morale," Arine and Human
Development, Vol. 2, 1971, p. 147.

141. Edwards and Klemmack, 1973, p. Sol.

14.Maddox, 1965.

143. Gordon Streib, "Morale of the Retired,"
Social Problems, Vol. 3, 1956, p. 276.

144. Kutner et al., 1956, p. 158.

145. Gurin, veroff, and Feld, 1960.

146. Lowenthal and Boler, 1965.

147. Ruth Albrecht, "Social Factors in the
Health of Older People," Geriatrics, Vol. 8, 1953,
p. 110.









health as poor, even when it isn't, this usually in-

dicates that the subject has poorly adjusted to the

environment, says Maddox, 1962.14 With this in mind,

Cavan et al..'s statement, "women feel less satisfied

with their health than men"l4 takes on an extra:

implication that men are happier than women. Price,

1973, differed from the norm in his finding that "a

direct relationship between self-rated health and life

satisfaction is not supported, contrary to the liter-

ature in the field."150


Mental Health and Happiness
Pew studies have examined the influence of men-

tal health on happiness. Even fewer studies have

looked at this topic with regard to late middle-aged

people or the early old-age population. One of the

few studies was done by Gurin, Veroff, and Feld, 1960,

who found that low income, unhappiness and an ...ex-

pression of anxiety through physical symptoms"5

occur together. These relationships do not hold as

the level of income increases.152



148. George Maddox, "Some Correlates of Differ-
ences in Self-Assessment of Health Status Among the
Elderly," Social Forces, Vol. 40, 1962, p. 182.

149. Cavan et al., 1949, p. 61.

150. Robert Price, 1973, p. 53.

151. Gurin, Veroff, and Feld, 1960, p. 218.

152. Ibid, p. 217.









Bradburn and Caplovitz, 1965, reported that

"...there is a negative relationship between the

anxiety index and respondent's reports of how happy

they are, with the high-anxiety respondents being

more likely to report that they are 'not too happy'

and the low anxiety respondents being more likely

to report that they are 'very happy.'"5 They also

found that "...women are much more prone to high

anxiety than men, but there is no consistent rela-

tionship between age anld anxiety."5

Derek Phillips, 1967, discovered that "...those

classified as mentally ill experienced a great deal

less happiness than do those categorized as well."5

In general, Phillips found that the amount of

happiness is contingent on the state of the subject's
mental health.15

It is generally agreed that good mental health

is associated with happiness but no one has inves-

tigated to what extent this is true. A number of

studies have looked at the relationship between mental



153. Bradburn and Caplovitz, 1965, p. 28.

15'c. Ibid.

155. Derek Phillips, 1967, p. 288.

156. Ibid.








health variables such as anxiety, psychopathology,

depression, phobias, and cognitive impairment with

various sociodemographic variables.

Kutner et al., 1956, noted the influences of

societal role changes on the mental health of the

elderly. They stated that, "psychological collapse

is often precipitated by the emotional stress accom-

panying loss of employment, death of a spouse and
loved ones, isolation from community life, and an

awareness of declining physical vigor."1157 Their

study used a "scale of senility" as the only measure

of mental health problems of the respondents. The

scale was "...based upon items dealing with thoughts

of death, daydreaming, and forgetfulness."l58 Kutner.

et al., found that "...senile symptomatology is

strongly present in about one person in twenty and

moderately present in one of five others in the sur-

vey."l59 It is also concluded that there is a trend

for greater percentages of mental illness as age
increases, but this trend is not strong enough to

say that ...illness dominates old age."0


157. Kutner et al., 1956, p. 236.

158. Ibid, p. 132.

159. Ibid.

160. Ibid, p. 133.








Dorthea C. Leighton et al., developed measures

of psychiatric disorder in the Health Opinion Survey

to help in examining the relationship between environ-

ment and psychiatric disorder. A main purpose in

exploring this problem was "If a small number of ques-
tions could be demonstrated to indicate instances

of psychiatric disorder satisfactorily, this would

be usable as an inexpensive way to conduct numbers

of large-scale psychiatric epidemiological studies."l6

The Stirling Co~unty Study isolated the major symptom

categories of psychophysiologic, psychoneurotic,

mental deficiency, sociopathic ~behavior, personality

disorder, brain syndrome, and psychosis.16 For gen-

eral mental health, Macmillan reported that "...the

men appeared healthier than the women."l6 The authors

explain this by stating, "...while women, as compared

to men, more often have symptom patterns that are

clearly indicative of psychiatric disorder, these

symptoms are disabling to about the same or to only



161. Dorthea Leighton, John Harding, David Mack-
lin, Allister Macmillan, and Alexander Leighton, The
Character of Danger: Psychiatric Symptoms in Selected
Communities, New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1963, p. 201.

162. Ibid, p. 221.

163. Ibid, p. 226.








a slightly greater extent than those of the men."6

They found a greater percentage of women in the symptom

patterns of psychoneurosis and anxiety;16 depression

symptoms were more important for men than for women;

and psychophysiologic symptoms increase with age.16
The Midtown Manhatten Study, 1962, was interested

in many of the same problems that the Stirling County

Study was. With the use of a questionnaire, this

study attempted to measure "...psychosomatic symptoms,

phobic reactions and mood..."6 in their urban popu-

lation. They emphasized the individual and his place

in society by defining mental health as "...the free-

dom from psychiatric symptomatology and the optimal

functioning of the individual in his social setting."8

Srole et al., found mental health problems increasing

with age,16 "...particularly high prevalence or risk

of mental pathology is to be found among single men

and the divorced of both sexes...10 and "...patient

rates on the whole do not differ between the single


164. Ibid, p. 257.

165. Ibid, p. 267.

166. Ibid, p. 263.

167. Leo Srole et al., 1962, p. 60.

168. Ibid, p. 61.

169. Ibid, p. 169.

170. Ibid, p. 188.





and the married of either sex."?

In a later volume on the Midtown Manhatten Study,

Langner and Michael reported that, "No sex-differences

in impairment were found at the four age levels. How-

ever, women reported a greater number of psychoneurotic

and psychophysiologic symptoms."2

Finally, the Florida Health Study, 1973, has ex-

tended the concepts of the Stirling County Study and

the Midtown Manhatten Study in their evaluation study

of Southern mental health needs and services. They

also measured mental health by the use of a survey

questionnaire. Holzer, 1973, reported the formation

of five psychiatric scales to "...provide a normative

description of the distribution of psychiatric symptom-

atology in the population."l?3 These scales measured

anxiety, cognitive impairment, general psychopathology,

phobias, and mood. Warheit et al., 1973, when using

three scales, found low SES "...to be the most uni-

versally associated with high rates of symptomatology."7



171. Ibid.

172. Thomas S. Langner and Stanley Michael, Life
Stress and Mental Health, New York, New York: The Free
Press, 1963, p. 77.

173. Charles Holzer, "Social Status and Psycho-
logical Disorder: An Examination of Two Competing Hy-
potheses," unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of
Sociology, University of Florida, 1973, p. 17.

174. George Warheit, John Schwab, Charles Holzer,
and Steven Nadeau, "New Data From the South on Race,
Sex, Age, and Mental Illness," a paper presented at the
1973 meeting of the American Sociological Association,
New York, August 28-30, 1973.











Also noted were the "...high rates of phobic symp~tom-

atology among black females...and the absence of

significant differences between males and females
over age 50.15


Activity and Happiness

A preponderance of the studies supported the

hypothesis that high activity is associated with

happiness.
Albrecht, 1951, found that "high role-activity

ratings considered in this research were all signifi-

cantly related to good adjustment."6 Lebo, 1953,

reported that "happier people attended a larger number

of club meetings than did unhappy old people."7

Also the "...happier people had more close friends

than did the unhappy subjects."178 Rose found that

engaging in organizational activities helps increase
life satisfaction.179 Tobin and Neugarten, 1961,

said that "...social interaction is positively assoc-

iated with life satisfaction for all ages...with

advancing age, engagement, rather than



17.Ibid.

176. Albrecht, 1951, p. 145.

177. Lebo, 1953, P. 386.

178. Ibid.

179. Rose, 19551 P. 19.








disengagement, is more closely related to psycho-

logical well-being."8 Bradburn and Caplovitz,

1965, found that "...for both sexes and both socio-

economic groups there is, on the whole, a positive

relationship between belonging to organizations,

clubs, or community groups and having positive

feelings."8 "Organizational membership is posi-

tively related to happiness."8

Other investigators that agree in their studies

that activity and happiness are positively related

are: Reichard et al., 1962,183 D. Phillips,

1967,184 Palmore, 1968,185 Bultena and 0yler,

1971,18 Cutler,18 Anderson, 1967,18 Lipman,


180. Sheldon Tobin and Bernice Neugarten, "Life
Satisfaction and Social Interaction in theAin,
Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 16, 1961, p. 346.g

181. Bradburn and Caplovitz, 1965, p. 45.

182. Ibid, p. 46.

183. Reichard, Livson, and Petersen, 1962, p. 171.

184. Derek Phillips, 1967, p. 290.

185. Erdman Palmore, "The Effects of Aging on
Activities and Attitudes," Gerentologist, Vol. 8,
1968, p. 263.

186. Bultena and 0yler, 1971, p. 147.

187. Stephen Cutler, "The Availability of
Personal Transportation, Residential Location, and
Life Satisfaction Among the Aged," Journal of Geron-
1912gy, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1972, p. 388.
188. Nancy Anderson, "Effects of Institutional-
ization on Self-Esteem of Older People," Journal of
Gerontology, Vol. 22, 1967, pp. 313-317.





1961,189 Palmore and Luikart, 1972,190 Maddox and

Eisdorfer, 1962,191 Davis, 1962,192 Rosow, 1967,193

Lemon et al., 1969,194 Lloyd, 1955.195 and Kutner

et al., 1956.196

Price, 1973, qualified his conclusion about

activity and the life satisfaction of retirees by

saying, "A direct relationship between participation

in organizational activity and life satisfaction is

supported, but only for voluntary retirees.l9

Martin, 1973, supported both the activity theory

and the disengagement theory but said that there was

"...greater support of the activity theory....l9


189. A. Lipman, 1961.

190. Palmore and Luikart, 1972, p. 78.

191. George Maddox and Carl Eisdorfer, "Some
Correlates of Differences in Self-Assessment of Health
Status Among the Elderly," Social Forces, Vol. 40,
1962, pp. 254-260.

192. Robert Davis, "The Relationship of Social
Preference to Self-Concept in an Aged Population,"
Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 431-436.

193. Irving Rosow, Social Integration of the
Aged, New York: Free Press, 1967.

194. Lemon et al., 1969.

195. Grann Lloyd, 1955.

196. Kutner et al., 1956.

197. Robert Price, 1973, p. 53

198. Martin, 1973.




51


Several studies found no trend toward either

activity or disengagement and happiness. Those that

found no relationship are: Maddox, 1964,199 and

Palmore and Luikart, 1972.20 Lemon et al., 1972,

found no association between happiness and level of

activity with neighbors, relatives, formal organiza-

tions or solitary activities.20 Smith and Lipman,

1972, discovered no significant relationship between

peer interaction and life satisfaction.20 Lebo,

1953, reported that neither the number of hobbies

nor the number of hours spent in reading are related

to happiness.203 Stojanovic et al., 1972, concluded

that the activity of ...religious participation

seemed to be the most important predictor of morale.20

To sum things up, Symonds, 1937, said that "the

happy are more concerned with affairs outside them-
selves and with their relations to others.25



199. Maddox, 1964, p. 199.

200. Palmore and Luikart, 1972, p. 78.

201. Lemon et al., 1972, p. 522.

202. ]Kenneth Smith and Aaron Lipman, "Constraint
and Life Satisfaction," Journal of Gerontology, Vol.
27, No. 1, 1972, p. 81.

203. Dell Lebo, 19531 P. 387.

204. Stojanovic et al., 1972, p. 35.

205. Percival Symonds, "Happiness As Related
to Problems and Interests," Journal of Educational
Psychology, Vol. 28, 1937, p. 294. ----









Measuring Happiness

In a scale of happiness, a positive-negative

continuum is being measured that is sometimes called

the "hedonic level"20 or "elation-depression20

or "happiness-unhappiness"20 or "satisfaction-

dissatisfaction.20

A happiness scale also suggests a negative as
well as a positive pole. Many adjustment scales

and satisfaction scales are all positive in their

questions and it is readily apparent to the respon-

dent that being happy is the more desirable answer.

The one-question self-report measure of happiness

will have an extreme preponderance of subjects who

report themselves as happier than the average man.
Herbert Goldings (1954) studied the question of a

tendency in subjects to "...avow or overavow happiness

or disavow or underavow unhappiness."210 Goldings

found that "...most subjects tend to rate their own



206. Alden Wessman and David Ricks, Mood ad_
Personality, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston,
Inc., 1966, pp. 33-54.

207. Ibid.

208. Ibid.

209. Herbert Goldings, "On the Avowal and Pro-
jection of Happiness," Journal of Personality, Vol.
23, 1954, pp. 30-47.

210. Ibid, p. 46.








happiness as greater than the average."211 Symonds
(1937) early found that "most people prefer to think
of themselves as relatively more happy than unhappy."212

Hartman's (1934) study found "...seventy-five per
cent of the group rated themselves as possessing

happiness equaling or exceeding that of the average."213
This is not just a trend found by the early investi-

gators. Bradburn and Caplovitz (1965) found that 83

per cent of their population rated themselves as very
happy or pretty happy.21 Gurin, Veroff and Feld
(1960) found that 90 per cent of their subjects rated
themselves as very happy or pretty happy.215 only

ten per cent said that they were not too happy. Arnold
Rose (1955) found that so few people reported being

even "somewhat dissatisfied" that the answer "average"
had to be combined with the answers "somewhat dis-

satisfied" and "very dissatisfied" and called "some-

what dissatisfied.21 This same tendency is found

in the reports of scores of other investigators.


211. Ibid.

212. Percival Symonds, 1937, pp. 290-294.

213. George Hartmann, 1934~, pp. 202-212.
214. Bradburn and Caplovitz, 1965, pp. 8-9.

215. Gurin, Veroff, and Feld, 1960.
216. Arnold Rose, 1955, p- 15








If the variable happiness-unhappiness is a continuum

with the mythical average man as the median, then

half of the population is required by definition

to be less happy than the other half of the popula-

tion. Either the people in the lower half of the

continuum do not know that the majority of the pop-

ulation is happier than themselves or they will not

admit to the investigator that they are indeed un-

happy. If the first is true, then the self-report

method of measuring happiness does not work well

with the normal categories of answers. And if the

latter is true, then the method of directly asking

the~ respondent if he is~ happy or not does not achieve
accurate data.

A second problem is discovering a measure that

corresponds to happiness and only happiness. The

concept is very complicated and it is likely that

some happiness scores include more or less a measure

of the "...absence of depression, anxiety, or

neurosis.21 Also, there is a problem of very

recent disasters or euphoric happenings occurring

that could make the respondent rate himself as sig-

nificantly happier or unhappier than is his actual


217. Warner Wilson, "Correlates of Avowed
Happiness," Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 67, 1967,
p. 303.





overall general well-being. This tendency would

cause a measurement of moods rather than the more

stable-over-time concept of happiness, satisfaction,

or morale.

These problems seem to be adequately resolved

in the happiness scale used in this study. .This

happiness scale consists of eight questions.

All the questions or their concepts have been

used in various scales of satisfaction, happiness,

or morale in the past. The first question is, "Do

you feel in good spirits?" This is a popular ques-

tion in happiness scales and it has been used by

Watson,21 Burgess,21 Thompson and Streib,22

Thompson, Streib and Kosa,22 Lowenthal,22 and

Streib and Schneider.22 This is the only pos-itive

question that was factored into the happiness scale.

The second question, "Do you sometimes wonder if



218. Goodwin Watson, "Happiness Among Adult
Students of Education," Journal of Educational
Psychology, Vol. 21, 1930, p. 81.

219. Burgess and Cottrell, 1939.

220. Wayne Thompson and Gordon Streib, "Situational
Determinants: Health and Economic Deprivation in Re-
tirement," Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 14, 1958,
pp. 18-34.

221. Thompson, Streib, and Kosa, 1960.

222. Lowenthal and Boler, 1965, pp. 363-371.

223. Streib and Schneider, 1971.








anything is worth-while anymore?" is a negative-

sounding question and was positioned in the ques-

tionnaire just after the first question in the scale.

Pollak has used this concept in his investigation

of happiness.22

The next seven items were positioned together

several pages later in the questionnaire. The third

question is, "How often would you say things don't

turn out the way you want them to?" Kutner22 and

Phillips22 both have used this term in their scales.

The next item is, "How often do you have crying spells

or feel like it?" This question taps a physical ex-

hibit of unhappiness and was used by Watson22 in

his study. The fifth item is, "How often do you feel

you don't enjoy doing things anymore?" This item is

similar to the conception of "zest" by Neugarten,

Havighurst, and Tobin.22 The question is also



224. Otto Pollak, Social Adjustment in Old Age:
A Research Plannina Report, Bulletin 59, social
Science Research Council, New York, New York, 1948,
p. 68.

225. Kutner, Fanshel, Togo, and Langner, 1956.
p. 48.

226. B. S. Phillips, "Role Change, Subjective
Age and Adjustment: A Correlational Analysis,"
Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 16, 1961, p. 348.

227. Goodwin Watson, 1930), p. 81.

228. Bernice Neugarten, Robert J. Havighurst, and
Sheldon Tobin, "The Measurement of Life Satisfaction,"
Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 16, 1961, pp. 134-143.









concerned with the idea of engaging in activities,

just as question three was concerned with a respon-

dent's failure in his activities.

Question six is, "How often do you feel alone

and helpless?" Similar questions or concepts are

used by Burgess,22 Neugarten,23 and Lawton.23

The question is indirectly influenced by the friend-

ship bonds the respondent has with other people and

his perceived powerlessness in the world. The seventh

question is future oriented and it asks, "How does

the future look to you?" It is imperative that this

question be included. A person's psychological well-

being is largely influenced by his expectations. A

respondent who sees himself as pretty happy now and

expects to be even better off in five years has a

quite different life perception than a respondent

who says he is pretty happy now but can see only

bleak misfortune for his future. This is a little

like the farmer in The Devil and Daniel Webster who,

after selling his soul, felt pretty happy for years



229. Burgess and Cottrell, 1939.

230. Neugarten et al., 1961.

23.M. P. Lawton, "The Dimensions of Morale,"
in Research, Planning and Action for the Elderly, by
D. Kent, R. Kastenbaum, and S. Sherwood (editors),
Behavioral Publications, New York, New York, 1972,
p. 153.








until collection time came. Then the future looked

extremely dismal and this significantly affected

his present happiness. The eighth question is,

"How often do you feel that life is hopeless?" The

relationship of hope as .a helpful contribution to

happiness is used in the studies by Kutner,23 Thompson

and Streib,23 and Thompson, Streib and Kosa.23 The

final question is, "How often do you feel that people

don't care what happens to you?" This idea of caring

is closely related to love and friendship patterns.

The study by Maddox23 saw friendship as a meaningful

dimension of morale.

Because seven of the nine questions are nega-

tively stated (question one is positive and question 7

is neutral), the scale could be said to measure un-

happiness. Since the concept is composed of a

happiness-unhappiness continuum, the scale therefore
measures happiness also. It was stated earlier that

people tend to report, when they are directly asked,

that they are happier than the average person.

Hopefully this scale will not be as susceptible to



232. Kutner, 1956, p. 48.

233. Thompson and Streib, 1958.

234. Thompson, Streib, and Kosa, 1960.

235. George Maddox, 1962, p. 181.









this problem because the questions are negatively

stated and split into two different groups in differ-

ent places in the questionnaire. The questions also

fail to mention the words "happy," "satisfied," or

"morale." If a person is generally unhappy, he will

have to make a concerted, almost conscious effort

to misrepresent himself in order to score on the

happy pole of the continuum. If a person is genuinely

happy, he will have to answer counter to the way the

questions are worded to achieve a score on the happy

end of the continuum. It is hoped that this wording

will have the effect of partially correcting for the

respondents' preference of thinking of themselves

as relatively more happy than unhappy.

It is obvious from this review that some major

problems encountered by researchers are inadequate

representative sampling, fragmentary definitions

and inconsistent methodological techniques. The

literature showed a great deal of overlapping defin-

itions for both happiness and mental health.

The strength 6f this study lies in the use of

an excellent representative sample of an urban-rural

populations the selection of the 30-year age span

of ages 45-74, which has been relatively neglected

in the literature; and the measurement of important

sociological traits. This study should make a con-

tribution to the understanding of people in the

middle years and early old age.









CHAPTER III

DERIVATION OF HYPOTHESES


The objective of this study is to determine

the age trends from late middle age to early old

age and the interrelationships of sex, race, and

socioeconomic status to the variables happiness,

health, occupational status, marital status and

activity.

Is there a basic pattern of aging that is

systematically influenced by sociodemographic

variables? We know that some people are unhappy

and dissatisfied as they age but are there specific

aspects of peoples' patterns of living that make

happiness easier to achieve?

Most of the research on happiness has been

done only with older people. Only a few research

enterprises are interested in the middle aged

person also. One of the few, Neugarten and her

associates.(1964) have focused on personality in

middle and late life. There seem to have been no

studies that have focused on the sociological

perspective with an equal interest in middle age

along with old age.

Many independent variables have been considered









in relation to happiness but race has been largely

ignored in the literature.

The principal structur-al variables that pro-

foundly influence a person's life style and social

roles are:

Sex being male or female automatically brings

with it a set of experiences and social pressures

that differ considerably.

Race being black or white definitely means

that a person faces different life problems and has

different perspectives on how to adjust to life

situations.

Socioeconomic status being a member of a par-

ticular socioeconomic status brings with it differing

chances for various qualities of life.

Age this variable may be the most important

because so many other variables such as occupation,

income, health status, etc., will change over time

as a person ages .

From available evidence, five major propositions

have been generated:

1. People in the middle years of life
tend to be as happy as those in the
early old age stage.

2. Mental health as measured by anxiety,
psychopathology, cognitive impair-
ment, and phobias will be a more
important influence on happiness in
early old age than in the middle years.








3. Happiness is a pattern that varies
predictably along age stages that are
influenced by the sociological vari-
ables of sex, race, and socioeconomic
status.

4.There will be a statistically signifi-
cant difference in the happiness
patterns of men and women.

5. There will be no relationship between
the happiness ratings and race when
socioeconomic status is controlled for.

In addition to examining these hypotheses, some

investigation into various life patterns of health,

occupation, marriage and the family, and activity

will be pursued to help in formulating future research

directions.










CHAPTER IV

METHODOLOGY


The Sample

The data from this project were collected as

part of the Florida health study "Evaluating Southern
Mental Health Needs and Services."1 This is a five-

year epidemiologic study undertaken in Alachua County,

Florida, to evaluate the county's "...mental health

needs, examine patterns of health care (both physical

and mental), and refine assessment instruments which

can be used by Community Mental Health Centers for

evaluation research."2 The 982-square-mile county

had a 1970 population of 104,764 people. The main

urban area, Gainesville, had a population of 69,441

people and is surrounded by six small towns, several

rural non-farm settlements and much farmland. The

city is dominated by a major state university and

a large medical center.



1. NIMH Grant #15900-05-

2. John Schwab, George Warheit and Eileen Fennell,
"Community Mental Health Evaluation: An Assessment of
Needs and Services," an unpublished paper from the
Florida Health Study Program, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida, 1972, p. 6.









A random sample of 2,333 subjects were drawn

from the county's 37,000 households.3 To insure

randomness, Kish'sl (1965) tables were used to select

the respondents. After interviewing 322 respondents

for the pro-test anid revising the questionnaire, an

additional 1,645 interviews were gathered.5 There

was a low refusal rate of only 8.8 per cent and

"an additional 6.9 per cent could not be located

or interviewed even though trained interviewers

made as many as five call-backs. All subjects were

interviewed in their homes."6

This study was based on a random sample of the

population of Alachua County households. To substan-
tiate that the sample of 1,6115 respondents was rep-

resentative of the population of the county, a com-

parison of major demographic variables of the sample
and the county as reported by the 1970 Census was

made. The analysis confirmed that this sample was

representatives This particular study includes the


3. Charles E. Holzer, "Social Status and Psycho-
logical Disorder: An Examination of Two Competing
Hypotheses," unpublished Master's thesis, Department
of Sociology, University of Florida, 1973, p. 15.

4. Leslie Kish, Survey Sampling, New York, New
York: John Wiley and Sons, 1965.

5. Charles Holzer, 1973, p. 15.
6. Ibid.

7. Ibid.








575 men and women between the ages of 45 and 73.

The final interviewing schedule contained 317

items and asked questions to elicit information about:

(1) demographic data and a compre-
hensive social history, (2) items con-
cerning familial and-other interpersonal
relations, (3) questions concerning life
satisfactions, both interpersonal and
other, (4) indices concerning religion,
racial distance, anomie, perceptions of
social change and social aspirations,
(5) a medical systems review and de-
tailed physical symptom data, (6) a
detailed inventory of mental symptom-
atology...and (7) a series of items
concerning attitudes toward and utili-
zation of health services.8

The study necessarily revolves around the anal-

ysis of a significant life crisis event that nearly

all people must face at some point in time. This

life event is retirement, which can be a positive

or negative force in a worker's life situation.

There is no doubt that retirement signals a major

change in an individual's life and that it profoundly
affects every aspect of a person's social environ-

ment as well as influencing the entire family of

the individual facing the retirement event. To be

sure of studying the conditions of pre-retirement,


8. George Warheit, John Schwab, Charles Holzer,
and Steven Nadeau, "New Data From the South on Race,
Sex, Age, and Mental Illness," a paper prepared for
presentation at the annual meeting of the American
Sociological Association, New York, August 28-30,
1973, p. 5-








this study included people as young as 45 years, and
in order to include the later retirees, the age

categories up to 75 years of age were accepted as

part of the study. It-is of major importance in the
study of happiness to examine both the pre-retirement

stage and the post-retirement stage of life of men
and women workers to see which population adjusts
best to retirement and what social variables contribute

most to their happiness.
To focus on the fluctuations in happiness during

these two stages surrounding retirement, this study

necessarily examines the entire target population by

small age groups of five years. The respondents

included in the survey population consisted of 112

people in the age category 45-49 years; 130 people
So-54 years; 90 people 55-59 years; 91 people 60-64

years; 88 people 65-69 years; and 64 people 70-74

years of age. There are 235 men, 340 women, 416
whites and 159 nonwhites. The sample population

compared well with the same variables from the 1970
U. S. Census for the age, sex, and race distributions

as given in tables 1 through 4.








The Instrument


Mental Health Scales

A part of the Florida Health Study was the

development and validation of several scales to

measure various aspects of the psychiatric symptom-

atology of a normal population.9 Factor analysis

was carried out on 97 items of the 317 total items

from the interview. These items were first divided

into major subsets of somatic health, phobias, gross

psychopathology, worry, and "nervous" items.1 The

selection of these subsets is essential because

principal components analysis cannot be used to

ascertain psychologically common factors from a more

complex theoretical structure. The problem is to

reduce a large number of item variables to a "...small

number of principal components consisting of mix-

tures of common and specific variables."ll So

principal components analysis was used to reduce



9. Charles Holzer, 1973, p. 17.

10. John Schwab, George Warheit, Lynn Robbins,
Charles Holzer, Kenneth Hodge, Enrique Araneta, and
Edith Swanson, "Community Mental Health Center
Assessment Program," a grant application by the
Florida Health Study Program, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida, 1973, p. 102.

11. Wilson Guertin and John Bailey, Introduction
to Modern Factor Analysis, Ann Arbor, Michigan: Edward
Brothers, Inc., 1970, p. 115.









the data set. Also, the principal axes method uses

Hotelling's method of unities in the diagonal cells.12

This procedure of factor analysis measures the

clusters of items that are the elements of the sub-

scales. "The generation and perfection of subscales

was governed by the criteria that any given subscale

should measure only one psychiatric variable and that

the internal consistency of the item in a given sub-

scale be maximized, i.e., any given subscale should

be unidimensional and homogeneous."13 When the sub-

scales were tentatively isola-ted, Cronbach's Allphallk

was calculated to determine whether or not the scales

had "...acceptable levels of internal consistency."15

Also, a part-whole correlation was calculated for

each question in each subscale.











12. Ibid, p. 66.

13. Schwab et al., 1973, p. 104.

1.L. Cronbach, "Coefficient Alpha and the
Internal Structure of Tests," Psychometrica, Vol.
16, 1951, pp. 297-334.

15. Charles Holzer, 1973, p. 17.









The Subscales


Five scales were used in this analysis: Happi-

ness, Anxiety, General Psychopathology, Cognitive

Impairment, and Phobia.

Variations in possible responses by the respon-

dents required that all questions in the scales be

coded to include a similar possible range of scores

from 0 to 4. Five-point items with possible answers

of "excellent," "good," "fair," "poor," and "very

bad" were coded 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4. Three-point items

such as the answer choices of "better," "same,." .or

worses" were coded 0, 2, or 4. The two-point ques-

tions with the possible answers of "yes" or "no"

were coded 0 or 4. This coding insures that each

item in a scale has the same influence on that par-

ticular scale. A nine-item scale would therefore

have a possible score range from 0 to 36.

This same grading procedure was used for all

five subscales.

Happiness Scale. Many of the problems of measur-

ing happiness as discussed in the review of litera-

ture seem to be adequately resolved in the nine-

item happiness scale presented in this study. The

items used in this scale are:









Possible
Item
Scores

1. Do you feel in good spirits? 0 2 4

2. Do you sometimes wonder if 4-2
anything is worthwhile anymore?

3. Ho~w often would you say things C-3-2-1-0
don't turn out the way you want
them to?

4. How often do you have crying 4-3-2-1-0
spells or feel like it?

5. How often do you feel you don't 4-3-2-1-0
enjoy doing things anymore?

6. How often do you feel alone 4-3-2-1-0
and helpless?

7. How does the future look to you? 0-1-2-3-4

8. How often do you feel that life 4-3-2-1-0
is hopeless?

9. How often do you feel that 4-3-2-1-0
people don't care what happens
to you?

The possible range on the happiness scale is

0 to 36. To get the total score for the happiness

scale, simply add all of the item scores. The

lower the scale score is the greater is the level

of happiness for the respondent. Since other scales

measured anxiety and neurosis, etc., and no item

was repeated in other scales, the chance of measuring

these other variables along with happiness is much

smaller than the chance of doing so with a one-

question self-response measure.









The following four scales were used as measures

of the actual mental health of the respondents.


The Mental Health Scales

Anxiety Scale. Thle measure of anxiety is com-

prised of twelve items "...tappinig symptoms of

psychophysiologic distress and hypochondria."1

The questions in this scale are:
Possible
Item
Scores

1. Do your hands ever tremble 4 2 0
enough to bother you?

2. Are you ever troubled by your 4 1 2 0
hands tr feet sweating so that
they feel damp or clammy?

3. Are you ever bothered by your 4 2 0
heart beating hard?

4. Have you ever been troubled by 4 2 0
cold sweats?

5.Do you feel that you are 4 2 0
bothereden byn all sorts (differ-
entkins)of ailments in
different parts of your body?

6. Do you ever have loss of 4 2 O
appetite?

7. Has ill health affected the 4 2 0
amount of work (housework)
you do?

8. Do you ever feel weak all over? 4 2 0



16. Ibid, p. 19.









9. Do you ever have spells of 4 2 0
dizziness?

10. Have you ever been bothered 4 2 0
by shortness of breath when
you are not exerting yourself?

11. For the most part do you feel 4 2 0
healthy enough to carry out the
things that you would like to do?

12. Have you ever had periods of 4-3-2-1-0
days or weeks when you couldn't
take care of things because you
couldn't get going?

The scale has a possible range of values from

0 to 48. A score of 15 or over is considered high.

The lower the scale score is the lower the measured

.anxiety.

General Psychopathology. This is an eight-item

scale that relates to the concept of "...psychotism

and paranoia."l?

The scale consists of the questions:

Possible
Item
Scores

1. How often do you have unwelcome 4-3-2-1-0
or strange thoughts or thoughts
that frighten you?

2. How often do you find yourself 4-3-2-1-0
doing the same things over and
over to be sure they are right?

3. How often do you feel that 4-3-2-1-0
people are trying to pick
quarrels or start arguments
with you?



17. Ibid, p. 21.









4. How often do you get upset, up- 4-3-2-1-0
tight, or irritable with those
around you?

5. How often do you think people 4-3-2-1-0
are following you or plotting
against you?

6. How often do you get really 4-3-2-1-0
angry?

7. How often do things not seem 4-3-2-1-0
real to you or do you have feel-
ings that you are not really
here?

8. How often do you see or hear 4-3-2-1-0
things that other people don't
think are there?

The possible range of scores is 0 to 32. A

score of 9 or over is considered high. The lower

the scale score is the lower the measured symptoms

of general psychopathology.

Cognitive Impairment. Four items comprise the

cognitive impairment scale:
Possible
Item
Scores

1. How often do you have trouble 4-3-2-1-0
concentrating or keeping your
mind on what you are doing?

2. How often do you have trouble 4-3-2-1-0
remembering things?

3. Does it (trouble remembering) 4-3-2-1-0
dause you difficulty?

4. Does it (trouble remembering) 4-3-2-1-0
keep you from doing some
things that you want to do?

The possible range of scale scores is 0 to 16.

A score of 7 or over is considered high. The lower

the score is the lower the measured cognitive impairment.








Phobia Scale. The phobia scale consists of

ten items about the particular fears of the popula-

tion. These items can be further grouped into fears

of situations including fears of animals or insects,

high places, closed-in places, thunder and lightning,

and the dark; and a second group of personal fears

including fear of driving or riding in a car, fear

of crowds, strangers, bodily harm, or fear of being

hexed, witched, or the "evil eye." There is a

possible scale score range of 0 to 20 for personal
fears, O to 20 for situational fears, and a range

of 0 to 40 for the comprehensive phobia scale. The

questions asked are:

Do you have any strong fears about any of the

following:
Possible
Item
Scores

1. Driving or riding in a car? 4 0

2. Being in crowds? 4 0

3. Strangers? 4 0

4. Fear of bodily harm? 4 0

5. Being hexed, witched, "evil eye"? 4 0

6. Any particular animals or 4 0
insects?

7. High places? 4 0

8. Closed-in places? 4 0

9. Thunder and lightning? 4 0

10. The dark? 4 0








A score of 13 or over is considered high. The

lower the score is the lower the measured phobia

value.


Socioeconomic Status

Socioeconomic status was calculated following

the method of the Bureau of the Census.8 The socio-

economic score is based on the respondent's education,

the family income, and the respondent's occupation.

The ranks of these variables were based on the sample

of 1,645 subjects and not on the national census

data. Therefore it is "...insured that a respondent's

SES score would be determined by comparisons with

the educational, income, and occupational structure

of the specific population to which he belongs."l9

The socioeconomic status scores are a simple

average of the three scores computed for the respon-

dent's occupation, education, and income level. The

possible range of SES scores is from 0 to 97. The

study population had a mean of 52.23 with a standard

deviation of 26.07. When detailed analysis of the



18. United States Bureau of the Census, U.S.
Census of the Pooulation: 1960, Subject Reports,
Socioeconomic Status, Final Report PC (2)-5C, U.s.
Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1967.

19. George Warheit, Charles Holzer, and John
Schwab, "An Analysis of Social Class and Racial Dif-
ferences in Depressive Symptomatology: A Community
Study," revised edition of a paper read at the 1972
meeting of the American Sociological Association, New
Orleans, August 28, 1972, p. 6.





76


variable socioeconomic status was needed, the scores

were grouped into five levels of SES. When a more

general analysis of socioeconomic status was needed,
the SES scores of 60-97 were designated as "high"

SES and the other levels were combined into the

"low" socioeconomic category.




77



The Methods of Analysis

Univariate Statistics

Because of the various levels of measurement,

several different statistical tests were used in

this study. To test for significance, the chi square

was used when at least one of the variables was at

the nominal level of measurement. Tau C was used

when `both variables were at least at the ordinal

level of measurement. For analysis of variance the

F-test was used, when the criterion variable was at

the interval level and the concern was for more than

two populations. For testing the differences between

only two populations, the t-test was used. The level

of measurement of the data was the criterion for which

the appropriate statistical test was selected. For

example, when examining the levels of happiness ac-

cording to marital status, chi square was used

to test significance. When examining levels of happiness

according to anxiety level, then tau C was used to

test for significance.

Multivariate Statistics

To supplement the results of the descriptive

statistics, the multivariate technique of multiple

regression was used to look simultaneously at the

relationships between the happiness scores and the

contribution of the variables age, sex, race, and








socioeconomic status. The F-test was used to measure

statistical significance, and a correlation coefficient

matrix was generated to display the zero-order corre-

lations among the variables. For examination of

interaction between the variables being considered,

the step-wise multiple regression technique was used

and includes the cross-product terms of the variables

under analysis. These results were compared with

the descriptive analysis of the data.


Presentation of Findings

With information from 317 items on 575 people,

it was imperative that the data be reduced to manage-

able proportions. The computation. of percentages,

means, standard deviations, and variances were done

to analyze, present, and summarize the data. The

complexity of the study resulted in the use of many

tables. For ease of presentation, most of these

tables have been gathered together into one appendix

at the end of this paper.





CHAPTER V

PRESENTATION OF RESULTS


Age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status are

the main sociological variables used in this study.

All of these factors are expected to affect the

happiness of people in middle age, early old age,

and during the life crisis event of retirement at

about the age of 65.


Age and Happiness

Very happy people are characterized by the

feeling that the future looks excellent; they feel

in good spirits most of the time; they feel that

things are worthwhile and that things turn out

the way they want them to; they enjoy doing things;

they feel hopeful and that someone cares for them.

They do not feel alone or helpless and do not have

crying spells.

An example of a very happy person is the case

of a 57-year-old white male who has been married

for 33 years. He sees the future as excellent, is

in good spirits all of the time, feels that life is

very much worthwhile and is very hopeful of the

future. He has kept his job for 24 years and likes

the interpersonal relations with people that are









associated with the job. He is a teacher.

A single happiness score was obtained for each

respondent. The analysis of the scores shows no

statistically significant change for the various

age groups from ages 45 to 74. There is a trend for

the per cent of people who are very happy to steadily

increase from age 45 until the age of 65 (table 5).

For the years 65-69 there is a sharp decrease in

the per cent who are very happy and in the per cent

who are unhappy, then the per cent of happy people

begins to climb to its former high levels while the

per cent of unhappy people increases at a much
slower rate.

Very unhappy people are characterized by rarely

feeling in good spirits and they often wonder if

anything is worthwhile anymore. Unhappy people see

the future as looking bad for them; they feel life

is hopeless and things rarely turn out the way they

want them to; they do not enjoy doing things; they

feel alone, helpless and that people do not care

what happens to them. They often have crying spells.

An example of a very unhappy person is the case

of a 57-year-old black male. This man is a highly

anxious person who rarely feels in good spirits; he

feels that the future looks bad and life is generally

hopeless. He does not enjoy doing things and feels








that people do not care about him. He has less than

a fourth-grade education, is disabled and not working

because of poor health. He has fifteen children and

has a total family income of 1,680 dollars per year.

The percentages of unhappy people in the total

population are more variable by age groups than were

the percentages of happy people. About 15 per cent

of the population aged 45-49 are very unhappy. This

percentage increases to 20 per cent in the early
fifties and then decreases to about 13 per cent in

the late fifties. The early sixties show another

increase to over 17 per cent of the people being

unhappy and then a sharp decrease after age 65 for

the per cent of unhappy people to just over the 10

per cent level. The lowest sustained percentages

of unhappy people occur after the age of 65.

About seven out of ten people in each of the

age groups are classified as medium happy. This

grouping was done to facilitate the examination of
the extremely happy and unhappy categories. These

very happy and very unhappy people scored more than

one standard deviation from the mean happiness score

of the total population.

Hypothesis one states: People in the middle

years of life tend to be as happy as those in the

early old age stage. Table 5 shows that there is








no significant difference in the levels of happiness

over the various age stages. This hypothesis is

true.

When the happiness scores of men and women are

compared along age groups, it is seen that more men

are generally happier than women from age 45 to 59.

The lowest proportion of men who are very happy occurs

at ages 60-64, while the lowest percentage of women

who are very happy is at ages b5-49 and ages 65-69

(table 6). Table 6 also shows that although changes

in happiness scores by age for men occur, the changes

are not enough to be significant. For women the

changes from high, medium and low levels of happiness

are much greater in the various age stages and are

significant at the .001 level.


Race and Happiness

In this study, 27.8 per cent of the population-

is nonwhite. For all practical purposes, the nonwhite

population can be considered as synonymous with the

black population, because there are 157 blacks and

only 2 orientals. Only 6.9 per cent of the nonwhite

population ranks as very happy, while 17.3 per cent

of the white population is very happy, a difference

significant at the .001 level.

Race helps clarify the effects of age on happi-

ness (table 7). For whites, the proportion of happy








people increases throughout middle age until the

highpoint just before the usual retirement age, then

slowly decreases. Nonwhites have a low percentage

of very happy people at all ages except the 50-54

year age group (12.5 per cent). They have the highest

per cent of unhappy people (37.5 per cent) at ages

50-54-. Again, the majority of nonwhites fall into

the medium happiness category. The change for whites

is significant at the .05 level. The more erratic

changes for the nonwhite population are also signifi-

cant at the .05 level.


Sex and Happiness

In the overall evaluation of happiness, 19.1

per cent of the men are rated as very happy while

only 11.2 per cent of the women are high in happi-

ness, a difference significant at the .05 level.

This finding differs from most other studies of happi-

ness that report no real difference in the happiness

scores of men and women. Gurin, Veroff and Feld

expected to find that women expressed greater unhap-

piness1 but their study did not support this for

their skewed sample.

Hypothesis four states: There will be a statis-

tically significant difference in the happiness


1. Gurin, Veroff and Feld, Americans View
Their Mental Health, 1960, p. 4C2.








patterns of men and women. Table 8 shows the mean

happiness scores of men and women by age groups. The

mean happiness level for women is less than that for

men from ages 45 to 54. After this age, the women's

happiness level is greater than that for men. The

F-test shows that for men there is not a significant

difference in mean happiness scores for the various

age groups, but the F-test for the female population
is significant at the .01 level.

When the age groups are examined when controlling

for sex and race, the results show a significant F

value only for the white females. It would be possible

to conclude that the hypothesis is correct for the

female population but fails to find a significant

difference for the subpopulation of black women.


Socioeconomic Status and Ha~ppiness

In other studies, it has been found that socio-

economic status and happiness are positively related

and this study is no different in this respect. In

the total sample, there were 133 people (23.1 per

cent of the population) in the lowest socioeconomic

group of 0-19; 154 people (26.8 per cent) scored

20-39; 131 people (22.8 per cent) scored 40-59; 81

people (14.1 per cent) scored 60-79; and 76 people

(13.2 per cent) scored in the highest SES category
of 80-97. The scores 0-59 were combined and called




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