• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Review of related literature
 Methods and procedures
 Results of data analysis
 Summary, discussion, conclusions...
 Appendices
 Bibliography
 Biographical sketch














Title: Student affairs at the University of Florida
CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098305/00001
 Material Information
Title: Student affairs at the University of Florida as perceived by black, Cuban and white students of both sexes
Physical Description: xii, 185 leaves : ; 28cm.
Language: English
Creator: Davis, John Mathew, 1940-
Publication Date: 1975
Copyright Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Counseling in higher education -- Florida -- Gainesville   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 170-181.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by John Mathew Davis.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098305
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000162909
oclc - 02726996
notis - AAS9259

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 4 MBs ) ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page i-a
    Dedication
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    List of Tables
        Page viii
        Page ix
    Abstract
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Review of related literature
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Methods and procedures
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Results of data analysis
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Summary, discussion, conclusions and recommendations
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Appendices
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
    Bibliography
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
    Biographical sketch
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
Full Text













STUDENT AFFAIRS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AS PERCEIVED BY BLACK, CUBAN AND
WHITE STUDENTS OF BOTH SEXES











By

JOHN MATHEW DAVIS




















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1975





















To Kenneth, Jacquetyn, Ctaude (Poochie),

Kevin, Ebed-idge, and Dougtac66
















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The writer is indebted to many persons who

assisted in the preparation and completion of this study.

The writer extends special appreciation to all of

the committee members who have helped make this disserta-

tion possible: Dr. Joseph P. Wittmer, chairman, Professor

and Chairman of the Department of Counselor Education;

Dr. James L. Wattenbarger, Professor and Chairman of the

Department of Educational Administration; Dr. Roderick

J. McDavis, Assistant Professor, Counselor Education.

The writer is thankful for their comments, their time,

and their understanding.

The writer is deeply indebted to Dr. Richard H.

Johnson, former committee chairman and Assistant Professor

of Counselor Education at the University of Florida, under

whose able guidance this study was conceived and whose

constant encouragement and helpful criticisms were

necessary during the many months the study was in progress

before his departure to assume his present duties else-

where.

The encouragement of Mr. E. R. Tossie, Director

of the Carnegie Consortium, Dr. Kern Alexander, Professor









of Educational Administration and Mr. Richard Danford, for-

mer Director of Project Upward Bound, whose financial

renumerations enabled me to concentrate on learning rather

than earning, are all gratefully acknowledged and appre-

ciated.

Appreciation is extended also to Dr. Arthur "Art"

Sandeen, Vice President for Student Affairs, who granted

permission and advised the writer during this study. The writer

is also appreciative of the advice of the following persons:

Dr. Thomas F. Goodale, Dean, Student Services; Dr. Robert

A. Elting, Assistant Dean for International Student Ser-

vices; Mr. Robert Burrell, Assistant Dean for Student Ser-

vices; Mr. Benjamin L. Mathis, Assistant to the Vice Presi-

dent for Student Affairs.

The writer shall be eternally grateful for the en-

couragement of his father, Mr. George Davis, II, his mother,

Mrs. Mabel Davis, his brothers, Mr. James N. Davis, Mr.

George Davis, III, Larry T. Davis, and his sister Mrs. Jo

Ann Preyer.

Finally, the writer expresses his deepest appre-

ciation to a special friend, Ms. Mary L. Wright, who pro-

vided moral support when it was needed most. Her contribu-

tion has in the largest way been essential to the com-

pletion of this study.


















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . .

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . .

ABSTRACT . . . . . . .

I. INTRODUCTION . . . .

Need for the Study . .

Purpose of the Study . .

Importance of the Study

Definition of Terms . .

Summary . . . .

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Introduction . . . . . . . .

Racial Minority Students in Higher Edu-
cation . . . . . . . . . .

Student Perceptions in the Evaluation
of Personnel Services . . . . . .

Background of Evaluative Criteria and
Instruments . . . . . . . .

The Use of Student Perceptions in the
Evaluation Procedures . . . . . .

Studies Using Kamm-Wrenn's Instruments .

Studies Using the Fitzgerald
Instrument . . . . . . . .

Summary . . . . . . . . .


Page

. . . . . iii

. . . . .viii








2

4

7

. . . . . 10

. . . . . 11










Page

III. METHODS AND PROCEDURES . . . . . .. 45

Introduction . . . . . . ... 45

Methodology . . . . . . . .. 46

Hypotheses . . . . . . ... 46

Population Sample . . . . . .. 49

The Original Instrument . . . . .. 50

Revised Instrument for this Study ... 52

Collection of the Data . . . . .. 56

Analysis of the Data . . . . .. 57

IV. RESULTS OF DATA ANALYSIS . . . . ... 58

Introduction . . . . . . .. 58

Null Hypothesis I and Data Analysis . 58

Null Hypothesis II and Data Analysis . 64

Null Hypothesis III and Data Analysis . 71

Null Hypothesis IV and Data Analysis . 78

Limitations of the Study . . . .. 87

V. SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOM-
MENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . 88

Summary . . . . . . . . . 88

Discussion of Results . . . . .. 92

Conclusions . . . . ... . . 96

Recommendations for Further Study ... 99

APPENDICES . . . . . . . . ... . 100

A. SUMMARY OF SURVEY EVALUATION METHODS EMPLOYED
IN THE EVALUATION OF PROGRAMS OF STUDENT PER-
SONNEL SERVICES . . . ... . . 101










Page

B. CORRESPONDENCE RELATING TO THE STUDY ... .105

C. STRATIFIED SAMPLE OF QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONDENTS
BY CLASS, SEX AND RACIAL CLASSIFICATION . 113

D. SAMPLES OF STUDENT PERCEPTION FORMS ... .115

E. DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENT PERCEPTION FORM B
RETURNED FROM A STRATIFIED SAMPLE OF STUDENTS
AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA . . . .. .139

F. STUDENT COMMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FROM
PART II OF THE REVISED STUDENT PERCEPTION
FORM B . . . . . . . . ... . 142

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . ... .. . 170

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . .. . . ... 182
















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Chi-square Values in Percentage for Responses
of Black, White and Cuban Students' Knowl-
edge of the Location of Particular Student
Services' Components at the University of
Florida 60

2 Chi-square Values in Percentage for Responses
of Male and Female to Knowledge of Location
of Particular Student Services' Components
at the University of Florida 62

3 Analysis of Variance of Undergraduate Black,
Cuban and White College Students' of Both
Sexes Perceptions of the Importance of Minor-
ity Affairs Services at the University of
Florida 66

4 Analysis of Variance of Undergraduate Black,
Cuban and White College Students' of Both
Sexes Perceptions of the Importance of Minor-
ity Affairs Services at the University of
Florida 67

5 Analysis of Variance of Undergraduate Black,
Cuban and White College Students' of Both
Sexes Perceptions of the Use of Minority
Affairs Services at the University of Florida 73

6 Analysis of Variance of Undergraduate Black,
Cuban and White College Students' of Both
Sexes Perceptions of the Use of Minority
Affairs Services at the University of Florida 74

7 Analysis of Variance of Undergraduate Black,
Cuban and White College Students' of Both
Sexes Perceptions of the Satisfaction of
Minority Affairs Services at the University
of Florida 80


viii










Table Page

8 Analysis of Variance of Undergraduate Black,
Cuban and White College Students' of Both
Sexes Perceptions of the Satisfaction of
Minority Affairs Services at the University
of Florida 81

9 Analysis of Variance of Undergraduate Black,
Cuban and White College Students' of Both
Sexes Perceptions of the Satisfaction of
the Psychological and Vocational Counseling
-Center at the University of Florida 83

10 Analysis of Variance of Undergraduate Black,
Cuban and White College Students' of Both
Sexes Perceptions of the Satisfaction of
Student Housing Services at the University
of Florida 86











Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy



Student Affairs at the University of Florida
as Perceived by Black, Cuban,
and White Students of Both Sexes


By

John Mathew Davis

August, 1975


Chairman: Joseph P. Wittmer
Major Department: Counselor Education


The purpose of this study was to investigate the

perceptions of a stratified random sample of undergraduate

black, Cuban and white college students toward particular

components of the Division of Student Affairs and Func-

tional Student Services at the University of Florida.

Specifically, three racial groups were investigated to

determine if their perceptions would differ significantly

when they were grouped and compared on the basis of race

and gender, and by sex and race interactions.

The study was designed to answer four questions:

(1) How aware are students of the location of student ser-

vices? (2) How important are student services to students'

welfare? (3) How often do students use services available

to them? and (4) How satisfactorily do students perceive

services as they are performed?










Four null hypotheses were tested. Null hypothesis

I stated that no statistically significant differences

would exist in the perceptions of the three groups by

race and sex in terms of their awareness of the location

of the student services' components studied. Three addi-

tional hypotheses stated that no statistically significant

differences would exist in the perceptions of the three

groups by race, sex, and sex and race interactions for

each of the eight student services' components on perceived

importance, use and satisfaction.

The instrument used to assess the variables under

study was adapted from Fitzgerald's Student Personnel Ser-

vices Questionnaire. The questionnaire was mailed to a

stratified random sample consisting of 163 undergraduate

black, Cuban and white college students. The students re-

turned 125 usable questionnaires, of which 96 were randomly

selected for analysis.

Chi-square computations were conducted to test the

null hypothesis regarding location. Analysis of variance

was used to test the null hypotheses regarding importance,

use and satisfaction.

The major findings of the study were as follows:

1. Generally, racial backgrounds had no statis-

tically significant influence on students'

awareness of the location of the student ser-

vices' components studied.











2. Black and Cuban students were more aware of

the location of the office of minority affairs

and the psychogical and vocational counseling

center than were whites.

3. Generally, racial backgrounds of students had

no statistically significant influence on their

perceived importance, use and satisfaction of

student services' components investigated.

4. White students perceived the functions of the

office of minority affairs as significantly

more important than did either the black or

Cuban group.

5. Cuban students indicated the use of special

assistance provided by the office of minority

affairs more frequently than did either black

or white students, and also indicated more

frequent attendance of minority-sponsored pro-

grams than did either whites or blacks.

6. Cuban students perceived services provided

by the office of minority student affairs as

more satisfactory than did either blacks or

whites, while black and Cuban students per-

ceived a counselor's ability to recognize

problems as unsatisfactory.

7. White students perceived privacy in residence

halls as significantly more unsatisfactory

than did either blacks or Cubans.
















CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION



Need for the Study


Following new legislative acts and judicial deci-

sions of the 1950's and the 1960's, Cuban and black students

with uniquely different backgrounds entered whatwere es-

sentially white institutions designed for middle and upper

socioeconomic white students. Since the implementation of

these acts and decisions, the composition of these insti-

tutions' student bodies reflects the rapidly growing multi-

cultural structure of society. These same legislative

acts and judicial decisions make it imperative for chief

student affairs administrators to continuously examine

programs and policies for the purpose of determining what

changes should be made in order to meet the needs of today's

multicultural student bodies.

Evidence appeared in the late 1940's, and is in-

creasing in the 1970's, that in order for student affairs

staffs to function as meaningful agents of change on cam-

puses, clear perceptions of existing student attitudes

are needed. In the 1949 revision of Student Personnel









Point of View, Williamson stated:

students can make significant contributions
to the development and maintenance of ef-
fective personnel programs through contrib-
uting: evaluations of the quality of the
services, new ideas for change in the ser-
vices, and fresh impetus to staff members
who may become immersed in techniques and
the technicalities of the professional side
of personal work . Without such a stress
upon critical and experimental self-study,
student personnel work will deteriorate
into ritual observance which yields little
assistance to growing students (pp. 17,
20).

The utilization of current students' perceptions

of student services through an evaluative procedure is an

approach by which veiled defects can be identified for

effecting positive change. It would appear that an inten-

sive study is needed to determine the acceptance of the

existing services by universities with multicultural stu-

dent bodies. Ultimately, the use of routine and continuous

evaluation may lead to meaningful changes on multicultural

campuses throughout the country. This investigation was

addressed to such an intensive study related specifically

to the University of Florida.



Purpose of the Study


The purpose of this study was to utilize a ques-

tionnaire to investigate the perceptions of a stratified

random sample of undergraduate black, Cuban and white

college students toward particular components within the










Division of Student Affairs and Functional Student Ser-

vices at the University of Florida during the spring

quarter of 1975. The perceptual data was used to study

the adequacy of particular components of student services

at the University as perceived by students of three racial

classifications in order to ascertain whether: (1) sig-

nificant differences existed among full-time, undergrad-

uate black, Cuban and white students' perceptions of stu-

dent services, (2) significant differences existed between

male and female student services, and (3) to determine if

a significant interaction existed between sex and race

in students' perceptions of student services.

This study reports the perceptions of three racial

groups and what differences in perceptions exist between

these groups in the following areas:

1. Knowledge of the location of student services.

2. Importance of the student services to their

individual welfare.

3. Use of the student services available to them.

4. Degree of perceived satisfaction with student

services.

This study also reported these groups' recommendations and

comments on components of the Division of Student Affairs

and Functional Services in terms of meeting needs of a

rapidly increasing multicultural student body.










Importance of the Study


With nonacademic and individual needs of students

in mind, the Office of the Dean of Students was estab-

lished at the University of Florida in 1928. The estab-

lishment of this office gave recognition to the impor-

tance, even the necessity, of dealing with the individual

student as a total personality rather than as merely an

intellectual entity. Reporting to the President of the

Board of Control as stated in the "Biennial Report" of

1936, the first Dean of Students stated: "Thus we feel

that the first purpose of this office is to provide a

place where any student can come at any time (with any

problem) to find sympathetic, intelligent, and coopera-

tive counsel" (p. 13, 1936).

The University of Florida student services has

undergone racial change several times since it was estab-

lished as the Office of the Dean of Students both in terms

of student body and organization. In 1947, the Florida

Legislature enacted a bill which made the University of

Florida coeducational. Until this time the University

was for male students only. This legislative action made

it necessary for the Office of Personnel to become con-

cerned with facilities and services for female students

and required recognition and consideration of its poli-

cies regarding females. In 1948, it was recognized and




5



entitled the Office of Student Personnel, which embraced

almost all of the responsibilities of the nonclassroom

services for students.

In the late 1960's, following legislative acts

and judicial decisions, Cuban and black students entered

the University. Since these enrollments and with addi-

tional recruitment effort, the composition of the Univer-

sity's students reflects the rapidly growing multicultural nature

of society. This increase in minority enrollment makes

it imperative for chief student affairs administrators to

examine its current programs and policies for the purpose

of determining whether or not these services are meeting

the needs of today's multicultural student body. As

Rohrer (1949, p. 434) remarked: "Each institution must

develop its own program . in terms of the cultural

background of its students."

The initial step in evaluating and directing change

in the present system is to obtain the students' reactions

to the services being offered. Erickson and Hatch (1959,

p. 99) suggested that student services were established with

the student in mind but that students were ignored when the

services were implemented. They suggested that "a struc-

tured survey which permits the student to express his per-

ception of the present" could overcome this fault. Rudolph

(1966, pp. 47,53) supported Erickson and Hatch's statement

by labeling students as "the most creative and imaginative











force in the shaping of the American colleges and univer-

sities . extracurriculum is the most sensitive barom-

eter of what is going on in a college" and it needs con-

stant study. At the University of Florida, the multicul-

tural structure of the student body and the encouragement

from the experts in the profession all support the need

for this study. The importance of students' perceptions

as a research procedure in evaluating student affairs is

further documented in Chapter II.

Therefore, an evaluative study of the students'

perceptions of student services at the University of

Florida seemed important for the following reasons:

1. To gather information from students about

their association with, the importance of,

the use of, their satisfaction with, and

their awareness of student services at

the University of Florida.

2. To suggest a list of recommendations and

needed services which could be used by

student service workers in extending ser-

vices to meet the expressed needs of the

individual student.

3. To contribute to the growing body of knowl-

edge concerning students' perceptions of

student services.










4. To provide a list of recommendations which

could be used to improve student services

by making them more responsive to the

multicultural composition of the University

of Florida campus student body.



Definition of Terms


Terms used in the writing of this study are defined

below:

1. Division of Student Affairs at the University of

Florida.--Refers to those services which contribute

to the student's total development outside the strictly

academic areas are considered student services. These

services include: (1) career planning and placement;

(2) student housing; (3) student conduct (judicial

affairs); (4) new student programs; (5) student finan-

cial affairs; (6) J. Wayne Reitz Union; (7) student

petitions and withdrawals; (8) student organizations;

(9) international student programs; and (10) Institute

of Black Culture.

2. Evaluation.--Refers to the process of determining the

relative worth or importance of something as related

to a specific standard, making a judgment of student

personnel services functions in terms of their values,

ideas, solutions, methods, and products. The judgments

may be either qualitative or quantitative.










3. Evaluation Practices.-Refers to the procedures,

methods, and techniques used in the reported studies

of effectiveness of total programs of student per-

sonnel services.

4. Full-Time Undergraduate Student.-Refers to a male or

female enrolled at the University in the spring quar-

ter of 1975 who has not obtained the bachelor's degree

and who has enrolled for 12 quarter hours or more.

5. Functional Student Services at the University of

Florida.-Refers to those services used in the percep-

tion form which perform services for students' indi-

vidual welfare which may not fit officially into the

Division of Student Affairs area. Those services

classified as functional student services are: (1)

mental health services; (2) reading and study skills

center; (3) vocational and psychological counseling

center; (4) admission and registration; (5) campus

police; (6) student support and special programs;

(7) parking and transportation; (8) student accounts

(Goodale, personal interview, 1975).

6. Component.-Refers to a single service which may be

found in student service programs, such as placement,

counseling, financial aid, judicial, or similar ac-

tivities.










7. Method.-Refers to the manner in which the research

is conducted in following the evaluation procedure

and includes the research methodology and research

design used in the project.

8. Perception.-Refers to a sensation which leads to an

interpretation of a current situation but which may

be affected by real or vicarious personal past ex-

perience, the awareness of objects or other data

through the medium of the senses.

9. Predominantly White Student Populated Campus.-Refers

to a campus whose full-time graduate and undergraduate

student enrollment consists of at least 51% of white

students.

10. Racial or Ethnic Background Classification.--Refers

to a classification based upon the total experience,

attitude, and ethnic heritage of U.S. citizens or

permanent residents enrolled in the University of

Florida. Classification includes Cubans, blacks,

and white students (Elting, personal interview, 1975).

11. Procedure.-Refers to the broad means used to accom-

plish an evaluation project. Basically, this includes

the broad considerations of the steps to follow and

organizational factors involved in such a project.











Summary


This study contains five chapters. Chapter I in-

troduces the study and includes the need for the study,

purpose of the study, importance of the study, definition

of terms, and summary. Chapter II is the review of related

literature and includes a discussion of racial minority

students in higher education, student perceptions in the

evaluation of personnel services, background of evaluative

criteria and instruments, the use of student perceptions

in evaluation procedures, some studies using the Kamm-Wrenn

evaluative instrument, some studies using the Fitzgerald

evaluative instruments which discuss the purpose and results

of other relevant single institutional studies with emphasis

on students' perceptions and reactions. Chapter III pre-

sents the methods and procedures used in this study and in-

cludes sections on methodology, hypotheses, population

sample, the original instrument, revised instrument, col-

lection of the data, and analysis of the data. Chapter IV

describes the results of the study and limitations of the

study. Chapter V includes the summary, discussion, conclu-

sions, and recommendations of the study.

















CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE



Introduction


If you can show me how I can cling
to that which is real to me, while
teaching me a way into the larger so-
ciety, then I will not only drop my de-
fenses and hostility, but I will sing
your praises and I will help you to
make the desert bear fruit (Ellison,
1952, p. 6).


The purpose of this study was to utilize a ques-

tionnaire to investigate the perceptions of a stratified

random sample of undergraduate black, Cuban and white

college students toward particular components within the

Division of Student Affairs and Functional Student Services

at the University of Florida during the spring quarter of

1975. The data were used to evaluate the Division of

Student Affairs and Functional Student Services at the

University of Florida, which is becoming an increasingly

multicultural campus. The purpose of this chapter was to

review the literature related to student affairs in higher

education and to explore some concerns that are involved in

efforts to increase the participation of racial minority











groups in nonacademic services provided by predominantly

white-populated institutions for two reasons: (1) the

writer sought to develop an insight into the general

trends in the evaluation of student affairs services; (2)

previous studies enabled the writer to refine his approach

in order to make this project more efficient and meaningful.

Although some attention was given to other students,

the major part of this review was centered on concerns as

they relate to racial minority students-Cuban and black.

The review of related literature was divided into six

areas:

1. Racial minority students in higher education.

2. The need for student perceptions in the evalu-

ation of student personnel services.

3. Background of evaluative criteria and in-

struments.

4. The use of students' perceptions in the evalu-

ative procedures.

5. Studies using Kamm-Wrenn's instruments.

6. Studies using Fitzgerald's instruments.

This chapter contains a summary of review of the

related literature for each of the above mentioned topics.

The literature is presented by topic under each sub-

heading.










Racial Minority Students in Higher Education


The purpose of higher education is to provide the

student with tools for coping with his environment, tools

which are necessary for his survival and well-being in the

world, the society, or any segment within the society.

Linowitz (1970) stated that a college or university should

be flexible enough to accacnodate change, aggressive enough

to promote change, and wise enough to anticipate the con-

sequences of change. The very survival of the system of

higher education depends on the shared interest and mutual

respect of the entire academic community. Bradshaw (1936,

p. 121) wrote that the purpose of student personnel work

was "delivering the student to the classroom in optimum

condition for profiting from instructions."

Lyons (1973) declared that racial minority students

are being admitted to predominantly white institutions in

greater numbers than ever before. It is not the "liberal"

Northeastern colleges and universities taking the lead in

this trend, but those in the Midwest and the South. Brooke

(1974-75) reported that despite the fact that some 400,000

blacks are enrolled in white institutions as compared to

some 185,000 black institutions, more blacks are receiving

their degrees from black rather than white institutions.

This is due to the higher attrition rates of blacks in

white schools. The 85 four-year black colleges enroll less










than 40% of all black students, but award 70% of the

bachelor's degrees earned by blacks.

Altman (1970) stated that the issue of racial mi-

nority students on predominantly white campuses "is one of

unusual controversy and 'unmatched urgency' in the spectrum

of issues confronting today's chief student personnel ad-

ministrators, for the issue goes to the heart of much of

the dissent and unrest which plagues the nations' campuses."


The most difficult thing about being
part of a minority on a college or uni-
versity campus today is the majority. If
it were not for the majority, it would be
much easier to be a minority. One of the
problems of having the majority establish
aspirations for one to 'join it,' that is
to become a member of the majority. These
aspirations, as they now focus on higher
education, revolve essentially two issues:
Who shall get in, and what shall happen to
the individual once he gets in. The two
issues are closely related (Birenbaum,
1970, p. 4).


Birenbaum further stated that to join the team, as

it is applied to the poor and racial minorities,is called

integration. All that is required is that one accept and

successfully master the intricacies of the standards main-

tained by the majority, as determined by credential tests.

These tests embody the majority's estimate of quality and

its version of merit. Bruce (1970) indicated that not only

are many of these aspects of education meaningless, but many

of them are harmful in that they perpetuate the negative

conditions in the black community.











Rather than decreasing the potential for conflict,

"the majority's estimate of quality" explained via the down-

ward communication process only increases the anxiety and

hostility of the minority student toward the majority's

institutions. Often the result is that instead of learning,

minority group members experience increased feelings of

hostility (Tate and Belworth, 1973). His queries, chal-

lenges, demonstrations, and sometimes violent confrontations

caused chief personnel administrators to recommend immed-

iate and, at times, desperate changes in the complexion of

the institutions.

Usually until there is confrontation, the racial

minority student is an ignored man in higher education.

Wilson (1964) described today's colleges and universities

in his writing to the American Council on Education as

"knowledge industries" which engulf and ignore the student

and further stated that this depersonalization of the

student will gravely threaten the purpose of higher edu-

cation.

The utilization of current students' perceptions

of student services through an evaluative procedure is an

approach by which veiled defects can be identified for

effecting positive change. Bradshaw (p. 123) stated that

student personnel workers were first disciplinary in

nature, but now "they mediate between the individual and

the educational environment."









Barry and Wolf (1957) theorized that the need for

evaluation probably increases in proportion to the antici-

pated problems and noted that evaluative studies should be

accomplished as conscientiously as advising or other usual

duties associated with the student (services) worker's

position in a college or university. Brantley (1960)

expressed the opinion that an adequate student personnel

program could not be planned until the interests and problems

of students were known and understood.



Student Perceptions in the Evaluation
of Student Personnel Services


While this brief review does not purport to cover

all evidences of professional attention to evaluation, it

does indicate a broad and long standing concern for it as

an important element in student personnel work. The first

concern for evaluation of student personnel services was

centered around determining the extent to which particular

services were used by students. Mueller (1961) stated that

the power of a campus exists in the opinion of the public

toward it and not necessarily with the administrative body

on the campus. Personnel workers should be cognizant of

public opinion and use it to the best interests of the

college. The chief student personnel administrator should

consistently seek information from the students it serves










in order to ensure that needed services are provided

satisfactorily. Gonyea and Warman (1962, p. 355) stated,

"Attitudes of the chief personnel administrators and per-

sonnel workers might need reevaluation in light of desires,

perceptions, and expectations expressed by students." The

changing nature of today's colleges and universities has

made it imperative for the administration to examine pro-

grams and policies with the purpose of determining whether

these services are meeting today's multicultural society

and, more particularly, of today's multicultural student

body.

Jenson (1955, p. 498) stated that there are weak-

nesses in student reaction studies; however, "consumer

reaction determines the destiny of most, if not all, pro-

fessional services." Williamson (1961) supported Jenson

by stating that/tapping students' direct experiences con-

stitutes an important form of evaluating the institutions'

programs. Student opinion is not the only type of research

necessary, but the "consumer's reaction to the service he

is receiving is an important part of western culture."

Lunn (1957) also supported Jenson's theory that students'

"freshness" of thinking and directness of concern will

provide unique insights into the policy formation of the

institution. Eddy (1959) stated that the student who par-

ticipates actively in university projects will develop

more responsibility for himself. According to Wrenn:











The use of specialists (often called
'expert') or faculty opinion for the se-
curing of judgments on the adequacy of
the personnel program has been all too
prevalent. Often no facts are independ-
ently obtained and no check on the validity
of the specialist's opinion is possible.
The use of the student opinion as a cri-
terion of effectiveness is less common,
and yet as an index of 'consumer attitude'
it is more significant than any expert
judgment of what ought to be useful to
students. By a study of student perceptions,
one knows whether the service is 'accepted'
or 'used' (1951, p. 501).



Background of Evaluative Criteria and Instruments


The majority of the original evaluative surveys

consisted of the development of criteria by which well-

known experts could assess the quality of student per-

sonnel programs. By their very nature, these evaluative

methods were extremely subjective. However, these evalu-

ative surveys provided information on which comparisons

could be based, and in the formative years, student per-

sonnel programs needed to be compared.

Hopkins (1926b)conducted what is usually regarded

as the first national survey of student personnel services

that evaluates the nature, methods and accomplishments

of personnel work. Hopkins, for a brief two or three

days,visited 14 institutions* to gain a more intimate



*Institutions visited by Hopkins were the Univer-
sity of Chicago, Columbia University, Cornell University,










understanding of personnel work in relation to education

as well as to determine the directions and needs of this

new aspect of higher education. Hopkins (1926b) found the

following areas of student personnel services being

utilized: (1) selection and matriculation of students,

including orientation; (2) personnel service (counseling);

(3) modifying teaching curriculum for the best interest of

the individual student; (4) selection of teachers; (5)

improving methods of instruction; (6) research involving

individuals and the educational institution; and (7) co-

ordination.

Hopkins' (1926) ratings were as follows: A-

indicating that he thought significant and worthwhile work

was being done by the institution and that others would

benefit from learning about it; B-indicated that the in-

stitution was doing something in a creditable way, but that

the work was not particularly outstanding; 0-indicated

that the work was not being done or that what was being

accomplished was not effective. The major limitation of

the Hopkins study was that there was not attempt to de-

termine the extent to which objectives were being attained

by individual institutions of higher education.



Dartmouth College, Harvard University, Iowa University,
Michigan University, Minnesota University, University of
North Carolina, Northwestern University, Princeton Univer-
sity, Stanford University, Syracuse University, and Yale
University.










In 1931, Cowley appears to have made the first

effort in evaluating a program of student personnel

services in a single institution-Ohio State University.

The Ohio State project began with a definition of student

personnel, moved to a structural analysis and then to a

functional analysis. It consisted of: (1) agreement upon

a definition of personnel administration; (2) structural

analysis, a study of the functions performed by the exist-

ing units; (3) functional analysis, classifying the func-

tions logically, and (4) recommendations for action.

Cowley (1931, p. 21) defined personnel adminis-

tration "as those activities having to do with students

as individuals or groups 'outside the classroom' where

the individuality of the student takes precedence over

impersonal administrative procedures." He maintained,

"The first step in any survey, be it concerned with per-

sonnel as with some other service, must be a definition

and delimitation of the field." Cowley's second step,

the structural analysis, involved studying in considerable

detail the functions performed by the existing personnel

units or structures. This step entailed listing the exist-

ing personnel agencies and related legislative and advisory

boards in the university, selecting appropriate instrumen-

tation, collecting data, and writing the first part of the

evaluation report. The third step, the functional analysis,










involved classifying functions logically regardless of

what unit, or units, directed them.

Cowley stated that each personnel function was

listed, defined, and analyzed. The functional analysis

constituted the second portion of the evaluation report.

Cowley's fourth and final step "concerned itself with

proposals for the future." The surveyor, or an entire

group of personnel people, proposed recommendations for

improving student personnel services; these recommendations

became the third and last section of the evaluation report.

Vickers (1972) stated that Cowley found the technique to be

useful at Ohio State, however, its subsequent use else-

where is not indicated in the literature.

In 1932, Brumbaugh and Smith developed an in-

strument for evaluation which they called, A Point Scale

for Evaluating Personnel Work in Institutions of Higher

Learning. The Point Scale was developed as a result of a

year's study and investigation by the following method of

procedure which was reported in detail in a Master's

thesis by Mr. Lester C. Smith. The instrument was initially

used in evaluating personnel programs for institutions

associated with the North Central Association of Colleges

and Secondary Schools. A weight scale was devised by

submitting a list of items to 50 experts in the field. With

the help of this group of experts, a standard scale of values











was constructed for 10 major divisions: (1) educational

counseling; (2) systematized admission and orientation; (3)

personal problems; (4) records, data and research; (5) per-

sonnel organization; (6) health recreation; (7) vocational

counseling; (8) diagnosis and remedial treatment; (9) student

employment and placements; and (10) extracurricular activ-

ities. According to Brumbaugh and Smith, the instrument,

when used by an expert, would indicate the degree of effec-

tiveness for each service.

Brumbaugh andSmith (1932) stated that in using the

Scale, the column marked Standard Score is the maximum as

determined by the combined opinions of over fifty experts

in personnel work. According to Brumbaugh and Smith, the

instrument, when used by experts, would indicate the degree

of effectiveness for each service. The major divisions of

the Point Scale with their standard scores are listed below:

1. Educational Counseling 135 points

2. Systematized Admission and Orientation 130 points

3. Personal Problems 110 points

4. Records, Data, Research 105 points

5. Personnel Organizations 100 points

6. Health and Recreational Direction 95 points

7. Vocational Counseling 85 points

8. Diagnosis and Remedial Treatment 85 points










The surveys described earlier provide necessary

information. The information obtained from surveys provide

a basis for interinstitutional comparisons. In the formative

period, student personnel programs needed to be compared.

The information on new developments provided temporary

justification for program expansions and changes. In ad-

dition, surveys provided the means for identifying the

practices, procedures, and the scope of the programs as

they were emerging in institutions of higher education (see

Appendix A).



The Use of Student Perceptions
in the Evaluation Procedures


In the late 1940's and 1950's new emphasis on

student reactions to personnel services led to the develop-

ment of instruments designed to elicit student opinions.

This period focused on the student personnel programs and

described a student reaction inventory and a student per-

ception questionnaire. Major figures in the shaping of

student opinions as an evaluative process were Wrenn and

Kamm (1948), Student Personnel Services Evaluation Form;

Kamm (1950), Student Reaction Form; Fitzgerald (1959),

Student Personnel Services Questionnaire; and Mahler (1955)

Student Personnel Services As You See Them. They indicated

that "in order to ascertain the worth of a product it is

well to question the consumer" of the product.










Wrenn and Kamm developed a Student Personnel

Services Evaluation Form for student personnel services

workers. The evaluation utilized a score card approach

in judging the philosophy of the institution relative to

specific services areas. The form, which included a work

sheet for 14 student personnel services areas, could be

completed by outside evaluators as well as by a student

personnel worker. The evaluation of each service con-

sisted of the following three parts: (1) the extent to

which personnel services were considered essential; (2)

the extent to which personnel services were provided; (3)

the adequacy of the service. His study also intended to

indicate the extent to which the students were aware of

the services being offered.

In 1950, Kamm devised the Student Reaction Form,

which could be used in conjunction with the Student Per-

sonnel Services Evaluation Form. It was based on the

principle that if several pertinent questions about a

particular student personnel service were asked to a suf-

ficiently large random sample of the local population, a

valid indication of the worth of a service to those students

would be determined. The Student Reaction Form consisted

of 60 questions, to be answered by "yes," "no," and "?"

A tally sheet was provided to total the responses to each

item and to group the items by services. Kamm stated that










if less than two-fifths of the students indicated that the

service was adequate, then the services should be examined;

if 15% or more marked the category characterized by a

question mark, then more communication was needed. The

chi-square test was used to determine chance errors.

Fitzgerald (1959) stated that the clarification of

existing perceptions was necessary to ensure the implemen-

tation of a unified program of services to students.

Fitzgerald, in her doctoral disseration, developed the

Student Personnel Services Questionnaire, an instrument for

measuring faculty perceptions of student personnel services.

This questionnaire included the major functions performed

by student personnel services on the campuses of higher edu-

cational institutions. Following four revisions, 40

statements of functions of student personnel services were

selected; the selection of statements came from Wrenn's

book, Student Personnel Work in College and from Feder's

book, The Administration of Student Personnel Programs

in American College and Universities. The faculty per-

ceptions referred to the importance allocated to the opin-

ion about, and the consciousness and knowledge of the student

personnel functions described. The perceptions also im-

plied an immediate judgment, often requiring subtle dis-

crimination. Fitzgerald's work rested on the thesis

that if faculty perceptions and knowledge of the personnel











services could be determined, the student personnel workers

would have an adequate basis for effective communication.

Mahler devised and administered a questionnaire

to faculty and students at four Minnesota colleges. The

ratings on Mahler's Student Personnel Services As You See

Them was to secure opinions of faculty and students toward

student personnel services in general and to determine the

readiness of a particular campus for the development of up-

dating of student personnel services.



Studies Using Kamm-Wrenn's Instruments


Daughtrey (1953) employed two selected instruments,

the Kamm-Wrenn's Inventory of Student Reaction to Student

Services and the Mahler's Student Personnel Services As You

See Them, to obtain data from student and faculty samples

to ascertain the nature of student and faculty reaction to

student-to-student personnel services at the University of

Florida, which was administered under the Office of Student

Personnel. The study indicated that students reacted favor-

ably.toward the programs of personal services with marked

differences between some of the student subgroups. Faculty

subgroups in the sample responded in a generally similar

manner, but comparatively student-faculty reaction reflected

overall marked differences. To determine significant dif-

ferences between groups, the collected data were analyzed to

yield percentage, ratio, and chi-square statistical inter-

pretations.











Daughtrey's study concluded that student personnel

services was generally meeting its objectives, but it

needed further investigation in the components of Recruit-

ment and Admissions, Counseling, Health and Food Services,

as well as needing better visibility for Placement and Per-

sonnel Records.

Shigley (1958) conducted a study of personnel ser-

vices at Marion College, using two adaptations of the

Kamm-Wrenn Inventory of Student Services to obtain re-

action-revised to obtain both student and faculty re-

actions. Shigley was the most thorough in his use of the

interview survey method. He used all faculty and a 25%

random sample of students for personal interviews which

lasted about one hour, including time for administration

of the selected instruments. The purposes of his study

were:

1. To obtain opinions of both students and faculty

concerning the adequacies and inadequacies of

the various areas of student personnel services.

2. To derive conclusions from the findings which

would lead to a better student services pro-

gram.

These companion instruments contained 70 matched

items covering 12 components of Student Personnel Services.

Personal interviews were conducted with 27 faculty members

and 95 students. To determine significant differences











between the responses of various paired groups the chi-

square statistical test was used. The major findings were

as follows:

1. Generally, the programof Student Personnel

Services was rated as inadequate by both

students and faculty.

2. Of the 12 services, three were rated adequate

by students and two were rated adequate by

faculty.

3. Both students and faculty had sufficient in-

formation on the other seven services.

4. Significant differences were found between
Faculty and student opinions and the other

paired groups relative to their knowledge and

opinions of the adequacy of various services.

5. Greater differences were found among student

and faculty groups than between faculty and

students.

Twelve components were rated for adequacy, counseling, hous-

ing and adjustment of institutional programs to student

needs. The food service component along with extracurric-

ular activities and student personnel records were found as

being far below adequate.

Aubry (1963) combined the questionnaire technique

with the interview method in his study of the student per-

sonnel services at Xavier University. The study included










the following objectives:

1. Identification of the effective personnel

services.

2. Identification of the ineffective personnel

services.

3. Obtaining of suggestions for improvements in

the personnel services.

Aubry collected data from three different populations: un-

dergraduate students, graduate students and faculty, all by

use of a questionnaire. An interview with half of the

sample was conducted after they had returned their question-

naires. The findings indicated that the participants were

inclined to respond consistently to the items presented in

the questionnaire and the interview. After analyzing the

data, Aubry concluded a definite lack of communication

existed about student services. The deficiency was per-

ceived in all three groups.

Van Cleef (1968) utilized the reactions of students

and faculty in his study of personnel services at Sul Ross

State College in 1965. Van Cleef chose Mahler's instrument,

Student Personnel Services As You See Them, to gather data

on 11 areas: (1) housing and food; (2) orientation; (3)

health; (4) counseling; (5) curriculum; (6) discipline; (7)

activities; (8) admissions; (9) personnel administration;

(10) placement; and (11) financial aid. Among the major

findings were that:










1. Student perceived the orientation program and

the personnel administration scales more favor-

ably than any of the other areas.

2. Student indicated negative responses toward

housing and food, student activities, placement,

counseling and curriculum needs.

3. High proportions of uncertain responses were

noted in financial aid, counseling and health

services.



Studies Using the Fitzgerald Instrument


Tamte's (1964) Student Personnel Services Perception-

naire was a modification of the instrument developed by

Fitzgerald in his 1962 study of student personnel services

at Denver University. The purpose of this study was to

determine the perceptions of three groups of people-

faculty, student personnel workers, and students-on the

student personnel program at the University of Denver and

what differences in perceptions exist between these groups

and selected subgroupings.

The questionnaire contained a total of 40 state-

ments devoted to each of these following components: ad-

missions, registration and records, counseling, health

service, housing and food, student activities, financial

aid and placement, discipline and special clinics and

special services. The objectives of his study were:











1. To determine if the three groups perceived the

services as important to a college education.

2. To determine if the groups knew the services

were provided on the Denver University campus.

3. To determine the perceptions of the three groups

as to the adequacy of the services.

4. To ascertain if the respondents knew the func-

tion was performed.

Tamte found significant differences between the per-

ceptions of: (1) students living in university housing and

fraternities and students living in nonuniversity housing;

(2) students with military service and students without

military service; (3) transfer students and native students;

(4) students in upper division courses; and (5) male students

and female students.

Findings indicated a need for intrauniversity com-

munication among faculty, student personnel workers and

students. Relatively little disagreement seemed evident

within the sample as to the importance of the student per-

sonnel functions. However, considerable disagreement and/

or lack of knowledge was expressed concerning the location

of the agency performing some of the personnel functions.

Using a stratified random sample of 50 seniors

grouped according to sex, marital status and place of

residence, Zimmerman (1963) studied student perceptions of

student personnel services at Michigan State University.











The students in the study rated 11 personnel functions on

their importance to college students and on the quality of

the performance of these functions at Michigan State Uni-

versity. The following questions were asked in regard to

each area of service:

1. What contacts have you had with this area of

service?

2. Have you been satisfied with your experience

in this area of service?

3. Has this attitude changed in any way, and if

so, why?

4. How do other students feel about this area of

service?

5. What could be done to improve this area of

service?

The questions were designed to elicit the students'

experiences with an attitude toward the services. At the

conclusion of each interview the respondents were asked

two questions: (1) Do you feel that any of these services

are outstanding? and (2) Do you feel that any of these

services are particularly weak? The major findings of the

study were as follows:

1. Personnel services are important to the student

in college.

2. The attitudes of the members of the sample

toward these services were, in general, very

favorable.










3. The amount of student experience with the var-

ious services varied widely.

4. The students of the sample were least satisfied

with the area of student conduct.

5. The students of the sample were most satisfied

with the placement service.

6. The methods of improving personnel services

suggested most often by the students were im-

proved communications between the various per-

sonnel services and the students, and giving

the students more responsibility in the areas

of housing and conduct.

Zimmerman's most important conclusion was that,

in many cases, the students' contact with the admissions

and registrar functions was of a superficial nature.

Graduating seniors' perceptions were used in the

evaluation of the student personnel services on the Colorado

State College campus. Rankin (1966), using an adaptation

of the Student Personnel Services Questionnaire, grouped

the seniors on the basis of sex, residence status and dura-

tion of enrollment. Rankin's seven major conclusions were:

1. Graduating seniors perceive the personnel

services as being at least "fairly important"

to a college education.

2. Graduating seniors are aware of all of the per-

sonnel services, but are not aware of all the

functions provided by these services.










3. Graduating seniors have had contact with each

of the personnel services, but have not used

all of the functions provided.

4. Graduating seniors are generally satisfied

with the functions with which they have had

contact.

5. Graduating seniors perceived the Placement

Center as being the most important personnel

service.

6. Graduating seniors perceived the supervision

of off-campus housing as the most unsatis-

factorily accomplished function.

7. The perceptions of the graduating seniors,

when compared on the basis of sex, duration

of enrollment, and residence status, did not

differ significantly.

In 1970, Dunlop conducted a study of the student

personnel services at the University of Wyoming. Dunlop

developed an instrument, the Student Perception Form, using

Fitzgerald's instrument as a guide. This questionnaire con-

tained 39 statements, and four questions were asked about

each statement: (1) How important is this function for

higher education? (2) Have provisions for this function been

made at the University of Wyoming? (3) Have you had contact

with this function? (4) How effectively do you think this










function is performed at this institution? In the study,

the students were grouped according to sex, class standing,

place of residence and residence status. Dunlop concluded:

1. Generally, students perceived student personnel

services as an important aspect of higher edu-

cation.

2. The majority of the students had not experienced

contact with most of the student personnel

functions.

3. Where students lived was the most influential

factor when comparing their reactions to student

personnel services.

4. Students perceived a lack of communication be-

tween themselves and student personnel workers.

5. Student housing and food service received the

most diverse student opinion.

6. Female students had a more positive perception

of the services than male students.

7. On-campus students seemed more positive in their

perceptions toward student personnel services

than off-campus students.

8. The groups of students tended to differ in

their needs and attitudes toward student per-

sonnel services.










9. In most cases, the specific services appeared

to be used by such a limited portion of the

student body that their overall effectiveness

seemed questionable.

Vickers (1972) conducted a study to obtain opinion

data from the presently enrolled students, as well as pre-

viously enrolled students, which could be used in the eval-

uation of student personnel services at Lewis-Clark State

College. An adaptation of Dunlop's Student Perception Form

was the instrument used in his survey. The questionnaire

was constructed in two parts to ascertain students' per-

ceptions as they relate to the importance, provisions, con-

tact, and effectiveness of each student personnel component.

Part I contained 40 statements about the student personnel

services on the Lewis-Clark State College campus. Areas

included in Part II of the qeustionnaire were: (1) student

activities; (2) student counseling; (3) student discipline;

(4) student financial aid; (5) student health; (6) student

housing and food service; (7) student orientation; (8)

student placement; (9) registrar and admissions; and (10)

special services.

Part II of the questionnaire was designed to elicit

written comments and recommendations regarding the student

personnel services.

Chi-square analysis was used to analyze the data

comparing the various subgroups. Twelve subgroups of











previously enrolled and presently enrolled students were

compared. Results of the chi-square computations were

compared with the table value for one degree of freedom

at the .05 level of significance. Among the major con-

clusions were:

1. Overall findings of the study, as well as the

low percentage of return questionnaires, sug-

gested an apathetic or possibly hostile atti-

tude on the part of the students toward student

personnel services.

2. Many students were not aware that student per-

sonnel services existed, and many of those who

were aware of the services were not familiar

with the operation of the services.

3. Students at Lewis-Clark State College were more

critical of student personnel services than

students at other colleges cited in the Review

of Literature.

4. Student personnel services at Lewis-Clark College

apparently were not meeting the needs of the

students.

5. Apparently, student personnel services were

meeting the needs of the students less well in

1972 than in the years immediately preceding.










6. Student personnel services were meeting the

needs of vocational-technical students less

well than those of academic students.

7. Student personnel services were meeting the

needs of single students more effectively than

those of married students.

8. Student personnel services were meeting the

needs of on-campus students more effectively

than those of off-campus students.

9. Lewis-Clark State College students regarded

those services that were necessary for their

academic pursuits, such as registrar and ad-

missions, financial aid and faculty advising,

as more important than the other services.

10. In general, those services considered most

important were considered effective. Conversely,

those services considered least effective were

considered least important, with counseling be-

ing the only exception. Casual relationships,

if any, were not apparent in the seemingly evi-

dent correlation.

11. The dissatisfaction expressed by off-campus

students in regard to housing and food services

was partially responsible, perhaps, for the

small number of on-campus students. Apparently










substantial changes would be required to re-

verse this condition, assuming that it could

be reversed and that a desirable result would

thereby occur.

Jones (1972) designed a study to identify the per-

ceptions of student personnel services at the University of

Mississippi by undergraduate students who were enrolled

full-time during the 1971 spring semester at the University.

An adaptation of Fitzgerald's Student Personnel Question-

naire was used to measure students' perceptions regarding

the importance of student personnel services to the wel-

fare of students, awareness of existing student personnel

services, students' use of student personnel service,

satisfaction with student personnel services, knowledge

of the location of student personnel services, and

recommendations regarding student personnel services. The

51-item questionnaires were analyzed by a computer which

"provided frequency counts and percentages for three

choices for each of the five questions asked regarding

the 51 statements."

The findings indicated that all of the areas of

student personnel services were important to students' wel-

fare as undergraduate students, and that students generally

knew the location of each of the services. The findings

revealed that students were not aware of the existence of

some of the specific functions of each service and often











used only one facet of a particular service. Students in-

dicated that improvement was needed in all areas of student

personnel services. The services of admission, academic

records, and student activities were perceived as meeting

the needs of students. Students expressed dissatisfaction

with orientation, precollege counseling, recruiting, regis-

tration, the student health service, disciplinary pro-

cedures, financial aid services, and campus security. The

service with which students expressed the greatest dis-

satisfaction was housing. Students were the most unaware

of the student counseling center and the placement service.

Modification of existing instruments was true of

studies by Pershing (1952), Clevenger (1951), Minkin (1960)

and Beckers (1961) (see Appendix A).



Summary


The purpose of this chapter was to review the lit-

erature related to student affairs services in higher edu-

cation and to explore some concerns that are involved in

efforts to increase the participation of racial minority

groups in nonacademic services provided by predominantly

white-populated institutions for two reasons: (1) The

writer sought to develop an insight into the general

trends in the evaluation of student affairs services; (2)

Previous studies enabled the writer to refine his approach

in order to make this project more efficient and meaningful.










In 1975, researchers who study the predominantly

white-populated campuses will notice that these campuses

are faced with a number of problems that are the result

of many things: the traditional structure of university

life, the multicultural backgrounds of the students,and

the experiences students have had in their earlier aca-

demic lives, with the end result being conditions in so-

ciety to which college and university campuses contribute,

but for which they are by no means totally responsible.

The advent of the 1970's held the probability of con-

tinued demand for humanizing of the nation's institutions.

For, from more than one segment of America's multicultural

society has come a cry for participation in the decision-

making processes which affect people's lives. One approach

in which students can be involved was outlined by Williamson

(1949), Mueller (1961), Jenson (1955), Lunn (1957), William-

son (1961),and Gonyea and Warman (1962). They recommended

student and faculty involvement at all levels of the evalu-

ation project, while the reported evaluations usually used

students and faculty as a source of information with an

emphasis on how the programs were perceived by the re-

spondents.

Historically, the four types of survey methods em-

ployed by researchers to obtain respondents' perceptions

and/or reactions have been: (1) questionnaires; (2) inter-

views; (3) checklists; and (4) ratings. The greatest










dependence was placed upon the questionnaire approach in

the collecting of data for actual evaluation. Collectively,

the scope of the surveys included faculty, students, admin-

istration, consultants, and information secured from other

institutions. In 1924, the American Council on Education

began preliminary plans for a survey which was to deal with

the nature, methods and accomplishments of personnel work.

Hopkins visited 14 colleges and universities to gain a more

intimate understanding of personnel work in relation to

education as well as to determine the directions and needs

of this new aspect of higher education.

In a 1931 study by Cowley at Ohio State, the start-

ing point was a definition of student personnel work which

moved to a structural analysis and then to a functional

analysis. It consisted of: (1) agreement upon a definition

of personnel administration; (2) structural analysis; (3)

logical classification of the functions; and (4) recommend-

ations for action. Brumbaugh and Smith reported the de-

velopment of an evaluative device in 1932 which involved

a weight scale sent to the 10 major divisions and the many

subdivisions. This study represented a consensus of the

relative importance of the functions performed as judged

by the expert practitioners who responded to the survey

checklist.

In 1950, Kamm's Student Reaction Form focused on

the student reactions to the program of student personnel










services. He indicated that in order to ascertain the

worth of a product, it is wise to question the consumer

of the product. Fitzgerald, in 1962, devised the Student

Personnel Services Questionnaire to obtain faculty and

student perceptions of the personnel services. This ques-

tionnaire included items dealing with major functions per-

formed by the student personnel staff on most college cam-

puses. Adaptations and modifications of Fitzgerald and

Kamm instruments have been widely utilized in a number of

studies.

Researchers who adapted or modified existing in-

struments were: Daughtrey (1953); Kamm-Wrenn and Mahler

for student faculty use; Shigley (1958); Kamm-Wrenn for

both students and faculty; Tamte (1964); Fitzgerald for

seniors based on sex, residence status and duration of

enrollment; Dunlop (1970); Fitzgerald for sex, class stand-

ing, place of residence status; Vickers (1972); Fitzgerald

for satisfaction between presently and previously enrolled

students; Jones (1972); and Fitzgerald for students' per-

ceptions regarding various aspects of student personnel

services. The adaptations and/or modifications were made

either because the existing form might not be readily ap-

plied in certain situations or in order to enable the re-

searcher to use the instrument for groups other than those

for whom it was developed. This was true of the studies by

Pershing (1952), Clevenger (1951), Minkin (1960) and Beckers

(1961).










Of the three basic methods of evaluation (experi-

mental, developmental, and survey),only the survey method

was used by the researchers. The unanimous choice of the

survey method reflects a tendency to select the most readily

adaptable and easily applied method of evaluation of student

personnel programs. The questionnaire surveys were used

primarily to gather information on student and faculty per-

ceptions of the adequacy of the program and knowledge of

the services offered in the program.

The questionnaire approach, when used to assemble

information for the evaluation project, was often cited as

an indispensable method. The major advantage of the ques-

tionnaire is its ability to provide a wide array of in-

formation about students, faculty, and the program. The

information thus collected may be related to the existing

program in the subsequent application of criteria, if the

evaluator has properly developed the questionnaire in line

with the criteria to be used. A single questionnaire,

furthermore, might be of tremendous value to committees

other than those working in the student personnel areas.

















CHAPTER III

METHODS AND PROCEDURES



Introduction


The purpose of this study was to utilize a ques-

tionnaire to investigate the perceptions of a stratified

random sample of undergraduate black, Cuban and white

college students toward particular components within the

Division of Student Affairs and Functional Student Services

at the University of Florida during the spring quarter of

1975.

The data were used to evaluate the Division of

Student Affairs and Functional Student Services at the

University of Florida which is becoming an increasingly

multicultural campus. In this chapter, the methods and

procedures are divided into the following seven parts:

(1) an explanation of the evaluative survey method of

research; (2) a statement of the hypotheses; (3) the pop-

ulation sample to whom the questionnaire was administered;

(5) a discussion and description of the revised instru-

ment; (6) the approach used in collecting the data; and

(7) a presentation of the procedures used in the analyses

of the data.










Methodology


The evaluative survey method of research was em-

ployed for this study. The use of descriptive research,

particularly studies employing hypothesized relationships

between and among variables, has become an accepted re-

search method in education. According to Fox:

The evaluative survey can be understood most
simply as a descriptive survey with at least
one criterion measure available so that, in
addition to description, some evaluative judg-
ment can be made about the research situation
(1969, p. 434).

Since this type of research provides practical data about

existing conditions so that intelligent planning can take

place, this method was deemed appropriate for the study.

In addition, the descriptive method provided a foundation

for more detailed research.



Hypotheses


The purpose of this study was to investigate six

primary questions in relation to students' perceptions of

the Division of Student Affairs and Functional Student

Services at the University of Florida. The questions

are:

1. Is there a significant difference between

black, Cuban, and white students' awareness

of the location of student services components?










2. Is there a significant difference between

black, Cuban and white students' perceptions

of the importance of student services' com-

ponents?

3. Is there a significant difference between

black, Cuban, and white students' perceptions

of the use of student services' components?

4. Is there a significant difference between

black, Cuban and white students' perceptions

of the satisfaction of student services'

components?

5. Is there a significant difference between

male and female students' perceptions of

student services' components?

6. Is there a significant interaction between

sex and race in students' perceptions of

student services' components?

In order to answer the above questions, the follow-

ing hypotheses were subjected to statistical analysis:

1. There will be no significant difference among

students' awareness or knowledge of the loca-

tion of student services' components.

la. There will be no significant differences

between black and Cuban.

lb. There will be no significant difference

between black and white.










Ic. There will be no significant difference

between white and Cuban.

Id. There will be no significant difference

between male and female.

2. There will be no significant differences among

all students' perceptions of the importance of

student services' components.

2a. There will be no significant difference

between black and Cuban.

2b. There will be no significant difference

between black and white.

2c. There will be no significant difference

between white and Cuban.

2d. There will be no significant difference

between male and female.

2e. There will be no significant difference

between sex and race.

3. There will be no significant differences among

all students' perceptions of the use of stu-

dent services' components.

3a. There will be no significant difference

between black and Cuban.

3b. There will be no significant difference

black and white.

3c. There will be no significant difference

between white and Cuban.










3d. There will be no significant difference

between male and female.

3e. There will be no significant interaction

between sex and race.

4. There will be no significant differences among

all students' perceptions of the satisfaction

of student services' components.

4a. There will be no significant difference

between black and Cuban.

4b. There will be no significant difference

between black and white.

4c. There will be no significant difference

between white and Cuban.

4d. There will be no significant difference

between male and female.

4e. There will be no significant interaction

between sex and race.



Population Sample


Permission to conduct the study on the University

of Florida campus was requested and received from the Vice

President for Student Affairs at the University of Florida.

A copy of the letter seeking this permission and the letter

granting this permission may be seen in Appendix B.










To facilitate identifying and locating subjects

(Ss), three separate lists of full-time black, Cuban and

white students were obtained from the Dean of Students'

and the Assistant Dean for Minority Affairs' offices at

the University of Florida. The Ss selected from these

lists were checked against the two lists of international

students (Alien Status List Student Affairs and Resident

Alien Status List Student Affairs) in the Office of the

Assistant Dean for International Student Services.

The sample for this study was selected from the

total population of full-time black, Cuban and white stu-

dents at the University of Florida. In order to obtain

the data necessary to answer the hypotheses, a stratified

sample of 32 Ss was randomly selected from each of the

three groups. The sample included 16 males and 16 females

of each race and 24 males and 24 females of each classifi-

cation. The total sample for this study was 96 Ss divided

equally between gender, class level and racial classifi-

cation as shown in Appendix C.



The Original Instrument


The evaluative method of research was selected to

obtain "consumer" perceptions of student services at the

University of Florida. After studying various instruments

in the literature, used previously to evaluate student

personnel programs, the questionnaires used by Daughtrey










(1953), Dunlop (1970), Fitzgerald (1959), Zimmerman (1963),

Rankin (1966), Vickers (1972), Jones (1972) and Amprey

(1973) were analyzed for possible utilization in this

study. In 1959, the Student Personnel Services Question-

naire was prepared and used by Dr. Laurine Fitzgerald to

obtain faculty perceptions of student personnel services

at Michigan State University. Many statements on the Stu-

dent Personnel Services were adapted and modified by Vickers

(1972) to obtain students' perceptions; therefore, Vickers'

Student Perception Form is chosen as the instrument upon

which to base the study.

The Student Perception Form, a modification of

Fitzgerald's (1959) Student Personnel Services Questionnaire,

was adapted by Vickers in his 1972 study of student per-

sonnel services at the Lewis-Clark State College. The

instrument is constructed in two parts. The first part

consists of 40 statements about the student personnel ser-

vices on the Lewis-Clark State College campus. The ser-

vices included in the instrument are: (1) student activi-

ties; (2) student counseling; (3) student conduct and

discipline; (4) financial aid; (5) health services; (6)

housing and food services; (7) orientation; (8) placement;

(9) registration and admissions; and (10) special services.

Four questions were asked about each of the 40 statements:

(1) how important is this function to students in higher

education? (2) have provisions for this function been










made? (3) have you had contact with this function? and

(4) how effective do you think this function is performed?

The second part of the instrument is designed to provide

opportunity for written recommendations or comments re-

garding the student personnel services. The original

Student Perception Form may be seen in Appendix D.



Revised Instrument for This Study


The researcher made some alterations in Vickers'

(1972) Student Perception Form by combining it with ele-

ments of Jones' (1972) Student Personnel Services Ques-

tionnaire, and Amprey's (1973) Questionnaire. Vickers

(1972) distributed his instrument to the Lewis-Clark State

College student personnel staff for additions to the form.

Jones (1972) conducted a pilot study using 42 students

enrolled in Effective Study 101 offered through the Col-

lege of Liberal Arts at the University of Mississippi.

Jones made revisions on the Student Personnel Questionnaire

following the pilot study. The evaluative survey was then

administered to a group of fifteen students to pretest

for clarity and length of time needed to complete the

form. Amprey (1973) constructed and distributed six'

trial questionnaires to ten undergraduate and ten gradu-

ate students at the American University. These students

were asked to serve as critics in regard to the clearness











and the relationship to student personnel services of the

items in the trial questionnaires.

In Part I of the revised Student Perception Form

the number of questions asked about each statement was in-

creased by three. Three of the original questions were

dropped and the two revised questions read: (1) In your

opinion, how IMPORTANT is this type of service to your

welfare as a full-time student at the University of

Florida? (2) How often do you USE this service? and

(3) How SATISFACTORILY do you think this function is

performed at the University of Florida? Items corre-

sponding to LOCATION were added to the first page of the

questionnaire using the checklist system. Students were

asked to place a "/" under one of the three headings

(1) Yes; (2) No; or (3) Unsure.

At this point the Student Perception Form contains

two parts. In Part I all services in Student Affairs and

Functional Services were included under location. Twenty-

eight statements corresponding to (1) importance; (2) use;

and (3) satisfaction were rated by placing a "/" under

the appropriate groups of adjectives in each of the three

boxes which follows each statement. These statements refer

only to services that follow: (1) career planning and

placement; (2) minority student affairs; (3) psychological

and vocational counseling center; (4) student financial











affairs; (5) student health services; (6) student housing

office; (7) student conduct (judicial affairs). Recommenda-

tions and comments in Part II dealt exclusively with the

above seven services.

Part II of the revised questionnaire contains

three open-ended, subjective questions asking students

to list: (1) comments and recommendations for the improve-

ment of the personnel services; (2) services that they

definitely would not use even if they had problems in

those areas; and (3) any problems for which they sought

help in student services but were unable to find on the

University of Florida campus.

Twelve copies of the revised Student Perception

Form A were distributed to six students and six staff mem-

bers of the Division of Student Affairs at the University

of Florida. The purpose of this distribution of question-

naires was twofold. The primary purpose was to determine

whether staff members and students had any difficulty in

understanding the questions and to find and correct any

possible difficulties in the procedure. The second pur-

pose was to determine whether they understood the state-

ments in the questionnaire. Students and staff members

were asked to judge the questionnaire in regards to the

clarity of the questions, the time required to complete

the questionnaire, and the relationship of the question-

naire to the Division of Student Affairs and Functional











Student Services at the University of Florida. The judg-

ments submitted by students and staff members were then

used in constructing the final instrument. Copies of the

letter seeking recommendations and comments and the revised

Student Perception Form A may be seen in Appendix B and D,

respectively.

The final copy of the revised Student Perception

Form B was altered and typed as follows: Part I contains

items of location of eight students services using the

checklist system and 27 statements which were rated by

placing a (/) under the appropriate groups of adjectives

in each of the three boxes corresponding to (1) impor-

tance; (2) use; and (3) satisfaction. Categories in-

cluded in this instrument are: (1) career planning and

placement; (2) student housing; (3) student conduct (ju-

dicial affairs); (4) student financial affairs; (5)

minority student programs; (6) psychological and voca-

tional couseling center; (7) student health services; and

(8) mental health services.

Part II remains essentially the same except for

the addition of the return address instructions. It was

also found that the participants took from five to ten

minutes to complete the Student Perception Form. A copy

of the revised Student Perception From B may be seen in

Appendix D.










Collection of the Data


The final revised questionnaire was coded with an

identifying number and mailed to 168 students enrolled at

the University of Florida. Each student was asked to com-

plete the questionnaire and return it within seven days.

Each mailed questionnaire contained a stamped, self-

addressed envelope. A detachable cover letter was in-

cluded with the questionnaire. A copy of the cover letter

may be seen in Appendix B.

The following week, the first follow-up letter

and another copy of the questionnaire with a stamped, self-

addressed envelope was mailed to remind those students who

had not completed the initial questionnaire to complete

and return the questionnaires as soon as possible. A copy

of the follow-up letter may be seem in Appendix B.

The next week, a follow-up telephone call was made

to encourage subjects to complete and return the question-

naires. After the telephone call, no additional follow-up

was attempted.

The number of questionnaires mailed to the strati-

fied random sample of black, Cuban and white students and

the number and percent of returns by race and sex are

shown in Appendix E.

In the total sample of returned questionnaires,

there were 62 females and 67 male students. Of these 125











students, three indicated that they were enrolled in

graduate schools and were therefore not used. Twenty-one

students returned incomplete questionnaires. Six of these

21 were unusable in that nine or more of the 27 statements

were not appropriately checked. Therefore, a total of

116 students were actually eligible for participation in

the study. The researcher accepted all returned usable

questionnaires and from this total number 96 students

were selected using a stratified random method. Of these

students 24 were from each class of freshman, sophomore,

junior, and senior and were equally divided between gender

and racial classification.



Analysis of the Data


Hypothesis I, Awareness of Location, was analyzed

by means of a 3 x 3 chi-square procedure. One 3 x 3 chi-

square was calculated for each subhypothesis.

Hypotheses II through IV were analyzed by means

of 3 x 2 analysis of variance. One 3 x 2 was calculated

for each of the three subscales of the questionnaire:

(1) importance; (2) use; and (3) satisfaction.

Part II of the revised Student Perception Form B,

which asked for students' comments and recommendations

concerning particular components of the Division of Stu-

dent Affairs and Functional Student Services, may be seen

in Appendix F.















CHAPTER IV

RESULTS OF DATA ANALYSIS


Introduction

The purpose of this study was to utilize a question-

naire to investigate the perceptions of a stratified ran-

dom sample of undergraduate black, Cuban and white college

students toward particular student services within the Di-

vision of Student Affairs and Functional Student Services

at the University of Florida. This chapter reports the data

analysis as it pertained to the student services studied in

this investigation. Responses and analyses are presented in

the order of appearance of the hypotheses in Chapter III.


Null Hypothesis I and Data Analysis

In general, null hypothesis I stated that no sig-

nificant differences would exist between l(a) black and

Cuban, l(b) black and white, l(c) white and Cuban, and l(d)

overall group male and female college students' awareness of

the location of particular student services' components at

the University of Florida.

The eight services and the result of testing follow.

SResults of the chi-square computation of the re-

sponses made by the sample groups did not yield significant

differences in the awareness of undergraduate black, Cuban,








white, female and male college students' awareness of the lo-

cation of student services at the University of Florida re-

garding the following components: (1) career planning and

placement; (2) mental health services; (3) student financial

affairs office; (4) student health services; and (5) student

conduct (judicial affairs).

Results of the chi-square computation of the respons-

es made by the sample groups to the eight individual ques-

tionnaire items regarding awareness of location yielded sta-

tistically significant differences between black, Cuban and

white college students' awareness of the location of par-

ticular student services' components at the University of

Florida in the following components: (1) minority student

affairs office; and (2) psychological and vocational coun-

seling center.

A proportionately larger number of black minority

students' responses reflected an awareness of the location

of the minority student affairs office than did Cuban and

white students. Similarly, a proportionately larger number

of black minority students' responses indicated the awareness

of the location of the psychological and vocational counsel-

ing center than did Cuban and white students whose responses

were about equal in number.

Results of chi-square values found through compar-

isons of undergraduate black, Cuban and white college stu-

dents'(of both sexes) awareness of the location of particu-

lar student services' components may be seen in Tables 1 and 2.










Table 1

Chi-square Values in Percentage for Responses of
Black,White and CubanStudents' Knowledge of the
Location of Particular Student Services'
Components at the University of Florida



Race N Yes No Unsure Chi-square


Career Planning &
Placement 5.50

Black 32 81.3 12.5 6.3

Cuban 32 68.8 25.0 6.3

White 32 59.4 37.5 3.1

Mental Health
Services 5.11

Black 32 53.1 34.4 12.5

Cuban 32 31.3 62.5 6.3

White 32 40.6 50.0 9.4

Minority Student
Affairs Office 14.98*

Black 32 53.1 34.4 12.5

Cuban 32 28.1 62.5 9.4

White 32 15.6 81.3 3.1

Psychological and
Vocational Counseling 12.27*

Black 32 59.4 37.5 3.1

Cuban 32 31.3 56.3 12.5

White 32 31.3 68.8 0.0



*significant at the .05 level.










Table 1 continued


Race N Yes No Unsure Chi-square


Student Financial
Affairs Office 4.04

Black 32 90.6 3.1 6.3

Cuban 32 90.6 6.3 3.1

White 32 78.1 15.6 6.3

Student Health
Services 5.99

Black 32 90.6 6.3 3.1

Cuban 32 93.8 6.3 0.0

White 32 78.1 9.4 12.5

Student Conduct
(Judicial Affairs) 1.87

Black 32 31.3 56.3 12.5

Cuban 32 31.3 56.3 12.5

White 32 21.9 56.3 21.9

Student Housing
Office 3.63

Black 32 78.1 21.9 0.0

Cuban 32 65.6 25.0 9.4

White 32 71.9 13.8 9.4










Table 2

Chi-square Values in Percentage for Responses
of Male and Female to Knowledge of Location
of Particular Student Services' Components
at the University of Florida


Sex N Yes No Unsure Chi-square


Career Planning
and Placement 1.93

Female 48 72.9 25.0 2.1

Male 48 66.7 25.0 8.3

Mental Health
Services 1.12

Female 48 43.8 50.0 6.3

Male 48 39.6 47.9 12.5

Minority Student
Affairs Office

Female 48 31.3 62.5 6.3

Male 48 33.3 56.3 10.4

Psychological and
Vocational Counsel-
ing Center 0.50

Female 48 37.5 56.3 6.3

Male 48 43.8 52.1 4.2

Student Financial
Affairs Office 2.31

Female 48 83.3 12.5 4.2

Male 48 89.6 4.2 6.3










Table 2 continued


Sex N Yes No Unsure Chi-square


Student Health
Services 0.34

Female 48 87.5 6.3 6.3

Male 48 87.5 8.3 4.2

Student Conduct
(Judicial Affairs) 1.86

Female 48 22.9 64.6 12.5

Male 48 59.3 47.9 18.8

Student Housing
Office 0.84

Female 48 68.8 22.9 8.3

Male 48 75.0 20.8 4.2



Significant at the .05 level.










Null Hypothesis II and Data Analysis


In general, null hypothesis II stated that no

significant differences would exist in the perceptions of

undergraduate l(a) black and Cuban, l(b) black and white,

l(c) white and Cuban, and 1(d) male and female, and that

no significant interactions would exist in the perceptions

of l(e) sex and race of college students toward the impor-

tance of eight particular student services' components at

the University of Florida.

The eight services and the results of testing are

as follows:


I. Career Planning and Placement


Testing by the analysis of variance of the sample

groups' responses to the three individual questionnaire

items 4, 25 and 26 yielded no statistically significant

differences or interactions in the perceptions of under-

graduate Cuban, black, and white college students of both

sexes regarding the importance of the following services:

4. The University office furnishes information to

students about job markets, salaries, and place-

ment trends in a wide variety of fields.

25. The University placement service staff is very

helpful in assisting graduating students to

locate career positions.










26. The University placement service staff does

address itself to the needs of today's career

minded and "liberated" female.


II. Mental Health Services


Testing by the analysis of variance yielded no

statistically significant differences or interactions in

the perceptions of undergraduate black, Cuban and white

college students of both sexes regarding the importance

of the Mental Health Services as depicted by the following items:

7. The general tone of the mental health staff

is in touch with today's college student.

--8. The mental health services staff maintains

a sincere interest in the welfare of the

students.

27. Mental health services' specialists are avail-

able to assist students in overcoming person-

ality problems which interfere with academic

effectiveness and/or personal satisfaction.


III. Minority Student Affairs


Results of testing by the analysis of variance of

the sample groups to individual questionnaire items 23

(Special assistance for minority students is provided) and

24 (Well-balanced programs to meet varied minority inter-

ests are provided for a nominal fee) regarding importance










of the minority student affairs services yielded a statis-

tically significant differences in the perceptions of un-

dergraduate black, Cuban and white students.

A proportionately larger number of white students'

responses perceived statement 23 regarding special assis-

tance for minority as "very important" while black and

Cuban students' responses were about even. However, re-

garding the importance of a well-balanced program to meet

minority interests, a larger number of Cuban students'

responses perceived this statement as "very important" fol-

lowed closely by fewer numbers of white and black students.

Results of statistical analysis may be seen in Ta-

bles 3 and 4.



Table 3

Analysis of Variance of Undergraduate Black, Cuban
and White College Students'of Both Sexes
Perceptions of the Importance of Minority
Affairs Services at the University of Florida



Source of Degrees of Sequential F-Ratio
Variation Freedom SS


Sex 1 0.3285 0.99
Race 2 5.6608 7.48*
Race X Sex 2 0.1935 9.25
Error 87

Total 92 6.1828

*Significant at the .01 level.










Table 4

Analysis of Variance of Undergraduate Black, Cuban
and White College Students'of Both Sexes
Perceptions of the Importance of Minority
Affairs Services at the University of Florida



Source of Degrees of Sequential F-Ratio
Variation Freedom SS


Sex 1 0.0036 0.01
Race 2 11.6066 12.9*
Race X Sex 2 0.0558 0.06
Error 87

Total 92 11.6660

*Significant at the .01 level.



IV. Psychological and Vocational Counseling Center


Testing by the analysis of variance of the sample

groups' responses to three individual questionnaire items,

2, 3 and 6,yielded no statistically significant differen-

ces or interactions in the perceptions of undergraduate

black, Cuban and white college students of both sexes was

found for this particular service. The particular items

were as follows:

2. Counseling staff is able to recognize the

problems experienced by minorities.

3. Counseling services are adequate in the areas

of pregnancy counseling, abortion and the use

of contraceptives.










6. The psychological testing program adequately

evaluates the following areas: attitude,

achievement, interest, and personality.


V. Student Financial Affairs


Testing by the analysis of variance of the sample

groups' responses to individual questionnaire items 18, 19

and 20 yielded no statistically significant differences

or interactions in the perceptions of undergraduate black,

Cuban and white college students or both sexes regarding

the importance of Student Financial Affairs as depicted

by the following three items:

18. All types of financial aid are available to

qualified students, including scholarships,

loans, part-time jobs, work study, and grants-

in-aid.

19. Applying for financial aid is an educational

experience which includes financial counseling.

20. Distribution of financial aid is based solely

on student monetary need.


VI. Student Health Services


Results of testing by analysis of variance of

the sample groups to the three individual questionnaire

items 5, 21 and 22 yielded no statistically significant









differences or interactions in the perceptions of undergrad-

uate black, Cuban and white college students of both sexes

regarding the importance of the following services:

5. Preventive medicines including regular examina-

tions, innoculations and information on medical

problems such as drug abuse or disease is main-

tained for students.

21. Emergency treatment at the Univeristy center

is adequate.

22. Medical staff maintains high levels of confiden-

tiality and communication.

VII. Student Housing Services

Results of the data analysis by analysis of variance

of the sample groups' responses to individual questionnaire

items 1, 9, 10, 11 and 12 yielded no statistically significant

differences or interactions in the perceptions of undergradu-

ate black, Cuban and white college students of both sexes

regarding the importance of student housing services as de-

picted by the following items:

1. Students participate in the governance of housing.

9. University residence halls provide privacy for

students.

10. The atmosphere of the dormitories is pleasant

and healthy.

11. The dormitories are safe and secure from thieves

and prowlers.











12. The housing office is very helpful in assist-

ing students to locate adequate housing off-

campus.


VIII. Student Judicial Affairs


The results of testing by analysis of variance of

the sample groups' responses to individual questionnaire

items 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 yielded no statistically signifi-

cant differences or interactions in the perceptions of

undergraduate black, Cuban and white college students of

both sexes on the following five items relating to the

importance of student judicial affairs:

13. There is a well-defined administrative

policy regarding standards of student be-

havior.

14. Students play a vital part in disciplinary

hearings and decisions.

15. Judicial system allows for student appeal

of decisions.

16. Students exhibit an attitude of respect for

the disciplinary code.

17. There is a differentiation between majority and

minority students regarding the handling of

discipline cases.










Null Hypothesis III and Data Analysis


In general, null hypothesis III stated that no

significant differences would exist in the perceptions of

undergraduate l(a) black and Cuban, l(b) black and white,

1(c) white and Cuban, and l(d) male and female, and, that

no significant interactions would exist in the perceptions

of l(e) sex and race of college students toward the use of

eight particular student services' components at the Uni-

versity of Florida.

The eight services and the results of testing are

as follows.


I. Career Planning and Placement


The results of data analysis yielded no statis-

tically significant differences or interactions in the per-

ceptions of undergraduate black, Cuban and white college

students of both sexes for the following three items con-

cerning career planning and placement:

4. The University placement office furnishes

information to students about job markets,

salaries, and placement trends in a wide variety

of fields.

25. The University placement service staff is very

helpful in assisting graduating students to

locate career positions.










26. The University placement service staff does

address itself to the needs of today's career

minded and "liberated" female.


II. Mental Health Services


Testing by the analysis of variance of the sample

group's responses to individual questionnaire items 7, 8 and

27 yielded no statistically significant differences or in-

teractions in the perceptions of undergraduate black, Cuban

and white college students of both sexes regarding the use

of mental health services as depicted in the following items:

7. The general tone of the mental health staff

is in touch with today's college student.

8. The mental health staff maintains a sincere

interest in the welfare of the students.

27. Mental health specialists are available to

assist students in overcoming personality

problems which interfere with their academic

effectiveness and/or personal satisfaction.


III. Minority Student Affairs


Testing by the analysis of variance of the sample

groups' responses to individual questionnaire items 23

and 24 yielded a statistically significant difference in

the perceptions of undergraduate black, Cuban and white

college students regarding the use of the following









services: 23 (Special assistance for minority students

is provided) 23 (Well-balanced programs to meet varied

minority interests are provided for a nominal fee).

A larger number of Cuban students' response to

statement 23 denoted occasional use of this service fol-

lowed by black students and a fewer number of white

students. Similarly, a larger number of Cuban students'

responses to statement 24 denoted occasional use of pro-

grams provided to meet minority interests followed by a

slightly smaller number of black students and a minimum

number of white students.

Results of the statistical analysis may be seen

in Tables 5 and 6.


Table 5

Analysis of Variance of Undergraduate
Black, Cuban and White
College Students'of Both Sexes
Perceptions of the Use of Minority Affairs Services
at the University of FLorida


Source of Degrees of Sequential
Variation Freedom SS F-Ratio


Sex 1 0.0716 0.13

Race 2 5.1886 6.87*

Race X Sex 2 0.6974 0.93

Error 87



Total 92 5.9576


significant at the .02 level










Table 6

Analysis of Variance of Undergraduate
Black, Cuban and White
College Students'of Both Sexes
Perceptions of the Use of Minority Affairs Services
at the University of Florida



Source of Degrees of Sequential
Variation Freedom SS F-Ratio


Sex 1 0.0752 0.23

Race 2 5.5708 9.78*

Race X Sex 2 1.0693 1.89

Error 87



Total 92


* significant at the .01 level


IV. Psychological and Vocational Counseling Center


Testing by the analysis of variance of the sample

groups' responses to three individual items 2, 3 and 6

yielded no statistically significant difference in the

perceptions by race and sex of students regarding the use

of this particular service. The particular items were

as follows:

2. Counseling staff is able to recognize the

..problems experienced by minorities.










3. Counseling services are adequate in the areas

of pregnancy counseling, abortion and the

use of contraceptives.

6. The psychological testing program adequately

evaluates the following areas: attitude,

achievement, interest, and personality.


V. Student Financial Affairs


Testing by the analysis of variance of the sample

groups' responses to individual items 17, 19 and 20 yielded

no statistically significant differences or interactions in

the perceptions of undergraduate black, Cuban and white

college students of both sexes regarding the use of this

particular service as depicted by the following three items:

17. There is a differentiation between majority

and minority students regarding the handling

of discipline cases.

19. Applying for financial aid is an educational

experience which includes financial counseling.

20. Distribution of financial aid is based solely

on student monetary need.


VI Student Health Service


Results of testing by analysis of variance of .the

sample groups to the three individual questionnaire items

5, 21 and 22 yielded no statistically significant









differences or interactions in the perceptions of under-

graduate black, Cuban and white college students of both

sexes regarding the use of the following services:

5. Preventive medicines including regular examina-

tions, innoculations and information on medical

problems such as drug abuse or disease are

maintained for students.

21. Emergency treatment at this University's center

is adequate.

22. Medical staff maintains high levels of confi-

dentiality and communication.


VI. Student Housing Services

Results of analysis of variance of the sample group's

responses to individual questionnaire items 1, 9, 10, 11 and

12 yielded no statistically significant differences or inter-

actions in the perceptions of undergraduate black, Cuban and

white college students of both sexes regarding the use of

student housing services as depicted by the following items:

1. Students participate in the governance of

housing.

9. University residence halls provide privacy for

students.

10. The atmosphere of the dormitories is pleasant

and healthy.

11. The dormitories are safe and secure from thieves

and prowlers.











12. The housing office is very helpful in assist-

ing students to locate adequate housing off-

campus.


VIII. Student Judicial Affairs


Testing by the analysis of variance of the sample

groups four of the five individual questionnaire items

13, 14, 15 and 16 yielded no statistically significant

differences or interactions in the perceptions of under-

graduate black, Cuban and white college students of both

sexes regarding the use of this particular service for

the following:

13. There is a well-defined administrative policy

regarding standards of student behavior.

14. Students play a vital part in disciplinary

hearings and decisions.

15. The judicial system allows for student appeal

of decisions.

16. Students exhibit an attitude of respect for

the disciplinary code.

17. There is differentiation between majority and

minority students regarding the handling of

discipline cases.










Null Hypothesis IV and Data Analysis


In general, null hypothesis IV stated that no

significant differences would exist in the perceptions of

l(a) black and Cuban, l(b) black and white, l(c) white

and Cuban, and l(d) male and female, and that no signifi-

cant interactions would exist in the perceptions of l(e)

sex and race of college students toward their satisfaction

with eight particular student services at the University

of Florida.

The eight services and the results of testing are

as follows.


I. Career Planning and Placement


Testing by the analysis of variance of the sample

groups' responses to the three individual questionnaire

items 4, 25 and 26 yielded no statistically significant

differences or interactions in the perceptions of under-

graduate black, Cuban and white college students of both

sexes regarding the satisfaction of the following services:

4. The University placement office furnishes

information to students about job markets,

salaries, and placement trends in a wide'

variety of fields.

25. The University placement service staff is very

helpful in assisting graduating students to

locate career positions.










26. The University placement service staff does

address itself to the needs of today's career

minded and "liberated" female.


II. Mental Health Services


Results of testing by analysis of variance of the

sample groupstothree individual questionnaire items 7, 8 and

27 yielded no statistically significant differences or in-

teractions in the perceptions of undergraduate black, Cuban

and white college students regarding the satisfaction of

mental health services as depicted by the following items:

7. The general tone of the mental health staff

is in touch with today's college student.

8. The mental health staff maintains a sincere

interest in the welfare of the students.

27. Mental health specialists are available to

assist students in overcoming personality

problems which interfere with their academic

effectiveness and/or personal satisfaction.


III. Minority Student Affairs


Results of hypothesis testing by the analysis of

variance of the sample groups' responses to individual

questionnaire items 23 (Special assistance for minority

students is provided) and 24 (Well-balanced programs to











meet varied minority interests are provided for a nominal

fee) regarding satisfaction of the services yielded statis-

tically significant differences in the perceptions of

undergraduate black, Cuban and white college students.

A larger number of responses from Cuban minority

students perceived the providing of special assistance to

minority students as "satisfactory" followed by a slightly

fewer number of black students and a minimum number of

white students. In contrast to statement 23, a larger

number of responses from black students perceived programs

provided as "satisfactory" followed by fewer Cuban students

and a minimum number of white students.

Results of the statistical analysis may be seen in

Tables 7 and 8.


Table 7

Analysis of Variance of Undergraduate
Black, Cuban and White
College Students'of Both Sexes
Perceptions of the Satisfaction
of Minority Affairs Services at the University of Florida



Source of Degrees of Sequential
Variation Freedom SS F-Ratio

Sex 1 0.0906 0.19
Race -2 5.5455 4.21*
Race X Sex 2 0.8053 0.60
Error 87

Total 92 6.4414

significant at the .02 level










Table 8

Analysis of Variance of Undergraduate
Black, Cuban and White
College Students of Both Sexes
Perceptions of the Satisfaction
of Minority Affairs Services at the University


of Florida


Source of Degrees of Sequential
Variation Freedom SS F-Ratio

Sex 1 0.5125 0.85

Race 2 4.9678 3.45*

Race X Sex 2 1.3571 0.96

Error 87



Total 92 6.7374


* significant at the .04 level



IV. Psychological and Vocational Counseling Center


Testing by the analysis of variance of the sample

groups' responses to individual questionnaire items 3 and

6 yielded no statistical differences or interactions in

the perceptions of undergraduate black, Cuban and white

students of both sexes for this particular service. The

particular items were as follows:

3. Counseling services are adequate in the areas

of pregnancy counseling, abortion and the use

of contraceptives.










6. The psychological testing program adequately

evaluates the following areas: attitude,

achievement, interest, and personality.

However, the analysis of variance of the sample

groups' responses to individuals questionnaire item 2

(Counseling staff is able to recognize the problems ex-

perienced by minorities) did yield a statistically signif-

icant difference in the perceptions of undergraduate black,

Cuban and white college students.

A larger number of both black and Cuban students'

responses perceived the counseling staff's ability to

recognize problems experienced by minorities as needing

improvement than did white students.

Results of the statistical analysis may be seen

in Table 9.


V. Student Financial Affairs


Testing by the analysis of variance of the sample

groups' responses to individual items 18, 19 and 20 yielded

no statistically significant differences or interactions

in the perceptions of undergraduate black, Cuban and white

college students of both sexes regarding satisfaction with

student financial affairs as depicted by the following

three items:










Table 9

Analysis of Variance of Undergraduate
Black, Cuban and White
College Students' of Both Sexes
Perceptions of the Satisfaction
of the Psychological and Vocational Counseling Center
at the University of Florida



Source of Degrees of Sequential
Variation Freedom SS F-Ratio

Sex 1 0.0104 0.02

Race 2 3.0833 3.08*

Race X Sex 2 1.0833 1.08

Error 90



Total 95 4.1770


* significant at the .05 level



18. All types of financial aid are available to

qualified students, including scholarships,

loans, part-time jobs, work study, and grants-

in-aid.

19. Applying for financial aid is an educational

experience which includes financial counseling.

20. Distribution of financial aid is based solely

on student monetary need.









VI. Student Health Services

Results of testing by analysis of variance of the

sample groups to the three individual questionnaire items

5, 21 and 22 yielded no statistically significant differences

or interactions in the perceptions of undergraduate black,

Cuban and white college students of both sexes regarding

the satisfaction of the following services:

5. Preventive medicines including regular examina-

tions, innoculations, and information on medi-

cal problems such as drug abuse or disease are

maintained for students.

21. Emergency treatment at this University's center

is adequate.

22. Medical staff maintains high levels of confi-

dentiality and communication.


VII. Student Housing Office

Results of the data analysis by analysis of vari-

ance of the sample groups' responses to four of the five

individual questionnaire items 1, 10, 11 and 12 yielded no

statistically significant differences or interactions in the

perceptions of undergraduate black, Cuban and white college

students of both sexes regarding the satisfaction with the

student housing office as depicted by the following items:

1. Students participate in the governance of housing.

10. The atmosphere of the dormitories is pleasant

and healthy.










11. The dormitories are safe and secure from

thieves and prowlers.

12. The housing office is very helpful in assist-

ing students to locate adequate housing off-

campus.

However, the testing by analysis of variance of

the sample groups for individual item 9 (University resi-

dence halls provide privacy for students) yielded a statis-

tically significant difference in the perceptions of under-

graduate black, Cuban and white students. A slightly

larger percentage of white students perceived privacy in

the residence halls as unsatisfactory than did Cuban and

black students.

Results of the statistical analysis may be seen

in Table 10.


VIII. Student Judicial Affairs


The results of testing by analysis of variance of

the sample groups' responses to individual questionnaire

items 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 yielded no statistically signif-

icant differences or interactions in the perceptions of

undergraduate black, Cuban and white college students of

both sexes on the following items relating to the satis-

faction of student judicial affairs.

13. There is a well-defined administrative policy

regarding standards of student behavior.











Table 10


Analysis of Variance of Undergraduate
Black, Cuban and White
College Students'of Both Sexes
Perceptions of the Satisfaction
of Student Housing Services at the University of Florida




Source of Degrees of Sequential
Variation Freedom SS F-Ratio

Sex 1 0.6666 1.31

Race 2 0.1458 0.14

Race X Sex 2 3.2708 3.22*

Error 90



Total 95 4.0832


* significant at the .04 level



14. Students play a vital part in disciplinary

hearings and decisions.

15. Judicial system allows for student appeal of

decisions.

16. Students exhibit an attitude of respect for

the disciplinary code.

17. There is a differentiation between majority

and minority students regarding the handling

of discipline cases.










Limitations of the Study


The limitations of the study were as follows:

1. The study was limited to a stratified sample

of undergraduate black, Cuban and white col-

lege students enrolled at the University of

Florida.

2. The study was limited to data elicited from

the student population through a self-report

questionnaire.

3. The study was limited to the investigation of

eight components within the Division of Student

Affairs and Functional Student Services at the

University of Florida and cannot be generalized

to the total student services program. No

attempt was made to evaluate these services

to the students.

4. The instrument used was subject to possible

misinterpretation due to semantics.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs