Group Title: effects of a Vocational Exploration Group program with incarcerated youths /
Title: The Effects of a vocational exploration group program with incarcerated youths
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 Material Information
Title: The Effects of a vocational exploration group program with incarcerated youths
Alternate Title: Vocational Exploration Group program with incarcerated youths
Physical Description: vii, 143 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bercun, Corey Stephen, 1949-
Publication Date: 1976
Copyright Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Juvenile delinquents -- Rehabilitation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vocational guidance -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 134-142.
Statement of Responsibility: by Corey Stephen Bercun.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098291
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000176145
oclc - 03057971
notis - AAU2623

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THE EFFECTS OF A VOCATIONAL EXPLORATION GROUP
PROGRAM WITH INCARCERATED YOUTHS













By

COREY STEPHEN BERCUN












A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1976














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The author wishes to gratefully acknowledge the

following people: Dr. Robert Myrick, who inspired and

taught him to realize his talents. Dr. Robert Lee, whose

involvement in the study is appreciated and whose influ-

ence led to meaningful involvement with juvenile delin-

quency treatment. Ms. Carol Klopfer, whose friendship,

support, and involvement in the study are appreciated

beyond words. Mr. Dale Fowler, without whose influence

and inspiration the author might have become a retail

dress merchant. Mr. Richard Touchston and Mr. Charles

Mask, without whose cooperation and assistance the study

could not have been conducted. Dr. Gail Cross, whose help

in designing the study was extremely valuable. Ms. Barbara

Rucker, whose help with the WWAI is appreciated. Mr. and

Mrs. Julius Bercun, for their support and confidence in

his abilities and, most of all, their love.














CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii

ABSTRACT V


CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION 1

Need for the Study, 1. Purpose of the
Study, 3. Definition of Terms, 4.
Organization of Remainder of Study, 5.


II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE 6

Incarcerated Youth, 6. Group Treatment
with Incarcerated Youth, 11. Aliena-
tion, 28. Vocational Maturity, 34.
Facilitating Career Development, 39.
Vocational Exploration Group, 42.


III METHODS AND PROCEDURES 53

Hypotheses, 53. Population and Sample,
57. Design of the Study, 60. Voca-
tional Exploration Group Program, 61.
Instruments, 65. Collection of the
Data, 71. Experimental Procedures and
Timetable, 72. Analysis of the Data,
73.










CHAPTER

IV


ANALYSIS OF RESULTS


Statistical Analysis Overview, 76.
Hypotheses, 81.


V SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, LIMITATIONS
AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary, 107. Discussion, 111.
Limitations, 116. Recommendations,
118. Conclusions, 120.


APPENDICES

A VOCATIONAL EXPLORATION GROUP TASKS

B EMPLOYABILITY PERCEPTIONS INVENTORY

C WORLD OF WORK ALIENATION INVENTORY

D REPORT ON NEXT STEP

E FORMAT OF A REALITY GROUP THERAPY
MEETING

F INFORMATION ON THE FLORIDA JUVENILE
JUSTICE SYSTEM


REFERENCES


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH










Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



THE EFFECTS OF A VOCATIONAL EXPLORATION GROUP
PROGRAM WITH INCARCERATED YOUTHS

By

COREY STEPHEN BERCUN

August, 1976



Chairman: Dr. Robert D. Myrick
Major Department: Counselor Education


The effects of a Vocational Exploration Group (VEG)

experience on three dimensions of the career development

of incarcerated youths in two State of Florida Youth Ser-

vice Programs' institutions for delinquents were studied.

The design of the study was the Solomon four-group re-

search design replicated in each institution. The Voca-

tional Exploration Group (VEG) is a small group, with a

carefully defined approach, based on a sequence of tasks

leading participants to better understand their personal

relationship with the world of work and to take concrete

next steps toward achieving their specific job goal.

Completed data on 214 subjects were utilized in

multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) procedures,

followed up by univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA)










procedures and examination of mean scores on posttest and

difference scores.

The dependent variables of: Career maturity atti-

tudes (CMI); job personalization--Employability Perceptions

Inventory subscore 1, (EPI-1); movement toward job personli-

zation (EPI-2); self-recognition of work potential and

aspiration (EPI-3); attitudes of alienation from the world

of work (WWAI); frequency of exploratory career behaviors

(Next Step) remembered, and; frequency of exploratory career

behaviors (Next Step) taken; were investigated for each

independent variable measure of: Treatment (experimental/

control) group; sex; race; pretest status; and VEG leader.

Examination of the results indicated the following;

There was no evidence (at the .10 level) of any VEG leader

interaction for any of the obtained data; a significant

treatment group and sex interaction indicated through further

examination of WWAI posttest and difference score means,

significant differences at the .05 level favoring male

experimental subjects over male controls and all females.

There were no significant pretest score differences on the

WWAI; on the CMI, main effects for posttest mean scores

favored female and white subjects; on the EPI, higher post-

test mean scores for males on EPI-1; no significant differ-

ences for EPI-2; greater differences (.05) on EPI-3 for

subjects of the second institution, with a significant (.05)










decrease from pre- to posttest; for the 64% of subjects

remembering the "Next Step," 77% were from the first and

52% from the second institution; for the 30% of subjects

who took the "Next Step," there was a significant (.05)

difference favoring non-pretest subjects; additionally,

78% of the experimental subjects indicated a wish to see

a counselor immediately after completion of the VEG.

It was concluded that the VEG had some definite posi-

tive effects with this hard to reach population and that

a short two-and-one-half hour treatment cannot be dis-

missed as ineffective with incarcerated youths. This

study provides a firm basis for further investigation

of short-term treatments with incarcerated youths.
















CHAPTER T


INTRODUCTION



Crime and fear of being a crime victim are growing

concerns of the American public. We constantly hear of the

overcrowded conditions in our nation's correctional insti-

tutions while at the same time crime rates continue to

rise. There seems to be little being accomplished in the

effective rehabilitation of incarcerated individuals.

Across the country as many as 300,000 children are

living in reform schools and detention homes. Many of

these youths will become adults locked behind bars unless

more effective ways can be found of diverting them from

adult correctional institutions.


Need for the Study


Effective methods of dealing with youths in trouble with

the law must be developed and implemented. Efforts must be

made to rehabilitate delinquent youth already in correctional

institutions. In many such institutions children get

little or no treatment and are sometimes abused (James,

1971). New methods need to be developed to help rehabili-

tate these young people so they can return to society and










live within the law. In order to do so, positive self images

must be developed. These youths need to see themselves as

capable and worthwhile individuals. Traditional approaches

have not demonstrated effectiveness in this area.

Many counseling approaches, as well as vocational train-

ing, have been used with this population as a means of help-

ing youth prepare for reentry into society. Little research

has been done on the effectiveness of these programs.

A vocational coordinator and at least one assistant

are now working in each of Florida's training schools. They

have been directed to begin working with their youthsusing

group approaches. Few if any have developed effective group

vocational procedures. In addition, most of these personnel

have had no formal training in group counseling, and little

if any counseling training at all. Even with the necessary

training in counseling and group counseling, replicable group

career counseling models are scarce in the literature and

nonexistent with incarcerated youth.

The Vocational Exploration Group (VEG) is a small

group, with a carefully defined approach, based on a se-

quence of tasks leading participants to better understand

their personal relationship with the world of work and to

take concrete next steps toward achieving their specific

job goals. The group experience is designed to encourage

creativity, increase motivation and provide occupational

information. Both the group procedure and group leaders'

training are standardized.










Some research has been done on the effectiveness of the

VEG program. Most of this research has focused on young

unemployed adults seeking jobs and on high school students.

There has been no research on the effectiveness of the VEG

with delinquents, although subjective reactions of delinquent

probationers and their probation counselors has been favor-

able. The State of Florida's Bureau of Education for Train-

ing Schools, as well as several training school vocational

coordinators, haveexpressed an interest in the program.

If the VEG can be shown to be effective with this hard-

to-reach population, it could be a major breakthrough in

career development education for incarcerated youth. Also,

since the program is standardized, it could be expanded into

a large-scale program with relative ease. It seems important

to examine the effectiveness of this program with

incarcerated delinquents.


Purpose of the Study


The purpose of this study was to measure the effects

of a small group vocational exploration experience on three

dimensions of the career development of incarcerated youth.

The following questions were investigated.

1. What effect does a small group vocational explora-

tion experience have on incarcerated youths' attitudes

toward the world of work?










2. What effect does a small group vocational explora-

tion experience have on incarcerated youth's employability

perceptions of themselves and the world of work?

3. What effect does a small group vocational explora-

tion experience have on incarcerated youth's frequency of

initiating behaviors oriented towards achieving a specific

job goal?


Definition of Terms


Incarcerated youth. Any delinquent youth committed to

the state of Florida's Youth Service Programs' Training

Schools.

Career development. The lifelong continuous process

of establishing identity through the world of work. This pro-

cess is related to the individual's environment, interests,

attitudes, abilities, values, and behavior patterns.

Vocational maturity. An index of an individual's

career development relative to others of the same age group.

Employability perceptions. The degree to which one

sees himself/herself as employable including awareness of

work potential and aspiration.

World of work alienation. The degree to which an indi-

vidual sees himself/herself as unable or is unwilling to

engage in the career development process and establish

positive identity through working.




5




Organization of Remainder of Study


A review of the literature providing a rationale for

the study is presented in Chapter II. Chapter III contains

the experimental hypotheses, experimental design, treatment

procedures, and discussion of criterion instruments. The

results of the study are reported in Chapter IV. Chapter

V includes a summary and discussion of the results,

limitations of the study, and recommendations.
















CHAPTER II


REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE



The review of related literature providing a rationale

for the study will focus on the following areas: 1) incar-

cerated youth, 2) group treatment with incarcerated youth,

3) alienation, 4) vocational maturity as a measure of career

development, 5) facilitation of career development, and

6) Vocational Exploration Group.


Incarcerated Youth


Juveniles are incarcerated for a variety of reasons.

They may have been involved in offenses for which adults

are also liable for prosecution such as for felonies and

misdemeanors. A juvenile may be adjudicated delinquent and

subsequently committed to a facility as the result of com-

mitting a juvenile or "status" offense--an act prohibited

by, and often applicable only to juveniles, e.g., truancy,

curfew violation, or the consumption of alcoholic beverages.

The court can also commit because parents have asked for

help in controlling the child. The traditional goal of the

juvenile justice system has been the care and reformation of

the young offender rather than punishment.









Training Schools for Delinquent Youth


The training school was the first widely accepted in-

stitutional setting for juvenile corrections. The physical

configuration is often restricting and affords little con-

tact with the community. It is the most secure form of

incarceration for juveniles and tends to receive youngsters

who present more serious discipline problems and are diffi-

cult to control.

The first public youth correctional institution in the

U.S. was the "House of Refuge for Delinquents." It was

opened in 1825 under the management of a private society,

and later became public. Other states followed the lead of

New York and by 1866, 12 states had built juvenile reforma-

tories while another 9 states had erected facilities called

"houses of refuge" (Carter, McGee, & Nelson, 1975).

By 1972 each of the 50 states, the federal government,

the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico,

and the Virgin Islands all had institutions housing juvenile

delinquents. A census of these juvenile detention and

correctional facilities has been taken by the U.S. Depart-

ment of Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration,

National Criminal Justice Information and Statistics Service

(1974). The report is based on a survey of 722 facilities

to a questionnaire. As of June 30, 1971, 57,239 youths

were in the custody of the correctional institutions. Of









the facilities surveyed, 192 were training schools with a

total population of 35,931 youths; 27,839 were male and

8,092 were female.

Florida's state training school population was 1,254

youths (see Appendix F). This figure is comparable with

other large states. For example, New York's state training

schools held 1,687 youths, Illinois held 1,182, Michigan

held 783, and Texas held 2,366. In the continental U.S.,

Vermont's state training schools had the lowest population

with 98 youths held, while California had the greatest state

training school population of 3,784 youths.

Only 35 of the 192 training schools were coeducational

with 106 holding only males and 51 holding only females.

These training schools have varying capacities ranging from

as few as 20 and as high as 500. Some 60% of the institu-

tions in the census had designed capacities of 150 or more.

The average length of stay for youngsters committed to these

correctional facilities is eight and seven-tenths months.

Most juvenile training schools in the country fall

far short of providing any really viable educational pro-

grams for their wards. Vocational and trade training

always have been emphasized in correctional training schools

from their very beginning. The recent trend is to emphasize

skills in reading and understanding written directions as

well as computation and measurement skills common to most

trades. In order to maximize the effectiveness of vocational










training, related counseling is provided with the goal of

motivation toward pursuit of an occupation best suited to

individual interests and skills (Carter, McGee, & Nelson,

1975).

Vocational programs are exploratory and prevocational.

They are designed to provide information, interest, and only

introductory training while a responsible attitude toward

work is developed (U.S. Department of Health, Education,

and Welfare, Children's Bureau, 1957).


The Offenders


Of the 621 facilities holding adjudicated delinquents,

category of offense data were available for two-thirds of

the population (U.S. Department of Justice, 1974). Seventy

percent of the females and 23% of the males were being held

for offenses for which only juveniles can be charged (i.e.,

truancy and curfew violation). One-third of the youth

for whom offense data were reported were in custody as a

result of having committed "status" offenses. One-half

of the male adjudicated delinquents were guilty of felonies

while only 8% of the female delinquents were confined for

these offenses (U.S. Department of Justice, 1974). The

least common violations were drug offenses with only 6% of

both the male and female populationsbeing held on this

account. The unavailability of much of this offense data

might be due in part to the practice of judges of committing









children under the descriptive label of "child in need of

supervision" (CINS), rather than a specific offense.


Future Trends


Carter, McGee, & Nelson (1975) make the following pre-

dictions related to incarceration of delinquents: 1) Seri-

ous juvenile delinquency will continue to rise, at least

until 1980; 2) the rise in delinquency will be especially

prevalent among girls; 3) Confinement of delinquent youth

to large training schools will decline sharply; 4) Alterna-

tives to incarceration such as community-based treatment

programs will expand; 5) Residential treatment facilities

will become a back-up resource for community programs but

primarily reserved for the severely maladjusted and dangerous

individuals; 5) The use of volunteers will increase during

the next decade; 6) Efforts to totally reorganize the

juvenile justice system throughout the country will con-

tinue; 7) The costs of juvenile correctional services will

increase; and 8) Increasing responsibility for financing

and operation of juvenile delinquency programs will be assumed

by the states, while their actual operation will become

more centered in the populous communities.









Group Treatment with Incarcerated Youth


Methods of Group Treatment


Group treatment methods vary considerably from one

youth correctional institution to another. In an effort to

better understand and simplify the many group approaches in

the literature, Sarri and Vinter (1965) identify two prin-

cipal methods of group treatment: direct and indirect.

Direct methods include group education, group counseling,

and several types of group therapy. Indirect methods, also

called millieu methods, include institutional management

and other forms of environmental manipulation.

Of the direct methods group counseling is the method

most frequently referred to in the literature as group treat-

ment. Nonprofessional staff usually conduct the groups with

5 to 15 youths. "Group therapy" includes group psycho-

therapy, social group work and "guided group interaction."

While the goals of group counseling and group therapy over-

lap, the main difference is the training level of the leader.

Group therapy leaders are usually professionally trained

and include psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers.

Group psychotherapy is most frequently directed toward per-

sonality change, while social group work and guided group

interaction are directed toward attitudinal and behavioral

change (Sarri & Vinter, 1965).










Numerous authors addressing themselves to the treat-

ment of institutionalized delinquents make no mention of

vocational counseling or career guidance in groups (Carter,

McGee, & Nelson, 1975; Cavan, 1969; Downes, 1966; Garbedian

& Gibbons, 1970; Gilman & Gorlich, 1968; Konopka, 1954;

Platt, 1969; Polsky & Claster, 1968; Sanders, 1976; Sarri &

Vinter, 1965; Street, Vinter, & Perrow, 1966; Teeters &

Reinemann, 1950; U.S. Dept. of H.E.W., 1957; Wheeler, 1968;

and Wheeler & Cottrell, 1966).


Reality Group Therapy


Reality therapy as a group treatment approach is employed

in all of Florida's training schools for delinquent youth

(Blanton, 1971). Peer influence is identified as the primary

vehicle for change and accomplishment of treatment program

objectives.

The following principles of reality therapy have been

specified as an integral part of youths helping each other

to become more responsible:

1. Be involved The helping person must be dedicated
to helping another person, by being warm and friendly.

2. Ask what not why The helping person always asks
what and not why. The use of why implies blame
and the helping person is more concerned with
changing behavior than placing blame.

3. Judge behavior One must learn to identify and
evaluate behavior and make a value judgment.










4. Make a plan The helping person must assist in
formulating a plan to resolve problems. This
should be a concrete plan with acceptable alterna-
tives.

5. Make a commitment The helping person encourages
commitments from the person needing to change. A
behavioral change is more likely to occur if the
person has made the commitment to change. The
helping person encourages reasonable commitments.

6. No excuses The helping person will not accept
any excuses for a broken plan and/or commitment.
If a commitment is not kept, a new plan should be
developed.

7. Help not hurt There is no room for hurt. Al-
though no excuses will be accepted normal and
natural consequences will occur.

8. Don't give up The helping person never gives up,
and he never pushes too hard. (Blanton, 1971,
pp. 105)

All institutional programs including academic, voca-

tional, cottage life, recreation, and food service revolve

around the group meeting. The group leader is provided with

daily feedback on all institutional activities so that each

youth's behavior is subject to daily review by the small

group. The group meeting lasts for one hour and takes

place five days a week. The 9 or 10 youths in each group

live, attend school, work, and eat together. The format of

the reality therapy group meeting is provided in Appendix

E. The approach is essentially the same as that of guided

group interaction.









Guided Group Interaction


Several authors (Bixby & McCorkle, 1951; McCorkle,

Elias, & Bixby, 1958, Richardson & Meyer, 1972; and Scott,

1970) have described techniques employed in guided group

interaction programs with incarcerated youths. The empha-

sis of the process is on the peer group as the catalyst for

change while utilizing high levels of interaction (Blanton,

1971; Glasser, 1965; and Richardson & Meyer, 1972). The

techniques include "reversal," "hot seat silent treatment,"

"harassment," "work projects," "isolation," "isolation-

confrontation," "supportive confrontation," "restriction,"

"strict assignment," "group assignment switch," "nonreward,"

"field trips," and "restraint-release."


Group Treatment Goals and Objectives


Sarri and Vinter (1965) describe the objectives of

group counseling with incarcerated youth as 1) providing

information, 2) assisting clients in the perception and

acceptance of social reality, 3) encouraging fuller expres-

sion of feelings and attitudes, 4) providing positive group

experiences and meaningful interpersonal relations with peers

and adults, and 5) enhancing the self-esteem of the clients.

Gilman and Gorlich (1968) identify the following goals

for delinquents in group counseling:1) to release tension,

2) to provide opportunities for testing new ideas, 3) to










reduce stigma, 4) to develop inner controls and understand-

ing of the world, 5) to find different methods of resolving

problems, and 6) to gain new perceptions and competence.

The U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare's

(1957) Guides and Goals for Institutions Serving Delinquent

Children suggests the use of group treatment as a means of

furthering the individual's understanding of problems and

increasing motivation toward self-improvement. Confiden-

tiality is also stressed as an essential ingredient of suc-

cessful group treatment.

Empey and Rabow (1961) describe the goals of guided

group interaction as 1) to juxtapose clearly for clients

socially approved and delinquent alternatives, 2) to induce

them to question the utility of delinquent alternatives, and

3) to guide them toward identification with socially approved

values and norms.

Blanton (1971) identifies the goals of reality group

therapy as employed in the state of Florida's training

schools: 1) identification of individual problems, 2) work

on solving problems, 3) overcoming sitting on problems,

4) youth helping each other to go home, and 5) preparation

for making it at home.

Konopka (1954) outlines the following principles of

group treatment with incarcerated delinquents: 1) volun-

tary participation, 2) intelligent grouping of members,

3) informal discussion, 4) focus on feelings, 5) establishment










of relations, 6) avoidance of quiz sessions, 7) participa-

tion of the group leader, 8) use of a variety of techniques,

9) constructive use of limitations, 10) relating reality

situations to feelings, and 11) extensive recording.


Difficulties in Group Treatment
of Incarcerated Youth


A criticism of the use of group counseling methods with

incarcerated delinquents is the tendency to seek unrealistic

changes. Sarri and Vinter (1965) criticize group counseling

in many institutions as seeking changes in the attitudes or

behavior of the client which have little connection with,

or only tangential relevance to, immediate living situations

as well as behavior in the community. They also criticize

group psychotherapeutic methods as ineffective with lower-

class delinquents, because these procedures require con-

siderable verbal ability, internalized conflict, and high

potential for development of insight about one's attitudes

and behavior. Another concern is with group treatment pro-

vided by nonprofessional staff without adequate supervision.

Konopka (1954) describes several disadvantages of

working with incarcerated delinquents in groups. The wide

variety of characteristics and behavior difficulties of

individual delinquents may be difficult to treat effectively

in a group situation. Also discussed is the difficulty in

providing adequate individual attention to group members.










Gilman and Gorlich (1968) identify the following dis-

advantages of group treatment with delinquents: 1) the

content of group sessions may be shallow and superficial,

2) youngsters who know each other may not be honest in the

group, 3) confidentiality cannot be adequately safeguarded,

and 4) there may be rivalry among the youths for attention.


Advantages of Group Treatment
with Incarcerated Youth


There are advantages of using groups in the treatment

of incarcerated youths. Most of the earlier mentioned goals

and objectives of group treatment can also be considered

as advantages.

Additional benefits from using groups in the treatment

of delinquents are discussed by Sarri and Vinter (1965).

Discussed is the relative economy of group treatment as

compared with individual treatment. The powerful potential

of the peer group as an effective means of creating change

is another advantage mentioned in their discussion as well

as by numerous earlier cited authors.

Gilman and Gorlich (1968) identify the following ad-

vantages of group counseling as compared with individual

treatment with delinquent youth: 1) youths may feel freer

to talk in the group than in individual counseling ses-

sions, 2) peer respect is more important than adult re-

spect, 3) in the group, youths not only learn from others,

they contribute, 4) some youths accept correction from









peers easier than from adults, 5) differing opinions by

group members can be tolerated and understood whereas in

individual counseling, the adult's beliefs can inhibit

expression of opinions and values.


Group Treatment Research with
Incarcerated Youth


Research on the effects of group treatment with incar-

cerated delinquents suffers from many of the shortcomings

of group counseling research in general (Gazda, 1970). Lack

of treatment replicability, small samples, inadequate con-

trol groups, and use of subjective criteria for evaluation

are common problems (Sarri & Vinter, 1965). However, some

studies have shown signs of the efficacy of group treatment

with this population.

Redferring (1970) studied the effects of group counseling

on the connotative meanings of concepts held by girls in

a state training school. Subjects were selected on the

basis of counselor recommendation, reading ability and

parole possibility. The 48 subjects were randomly placed

in either a control or experimental group. The experimental

group was further divided into four subgroups of six members

each. Experimental subjects participated in weekly group

counseling sessions lasting approximately two hours. The

control group experienced the same institutional treatment

with the exception of the group counseling. The counseling










groups were led by a female staff psychologist and a male

psychology intern. A semantic differential technique com-

prised of 12 sets of bipolar-evaluative adjectives was used

to measure the connotative meanings of "father," "mother,"

"myself," and "peers." It was hypothesized that the mean-

ings of these terms would be more positive for the experi-

mental subjects after participation in group counseling as

compared with the control subjects. Group means for experi-

mental and control groups were obtained for each of the four

concepts on the pre- and posttest administrations. Signifi-

cant differences between the groups were obtained at the

.05 level through a two-tailed t-test.

In a study of the durability of the effects of group

counseling with institutionalized delinquent females,

Redferring (1973) conducted a one-year follow-up. An ex-

perimental group of 18 subjects was compared with a control

group of 18 subjects again using the same semantic differ-

ential technique. It was sought to determine if the ini-

tial positive effects of group counseling on the perceptions

of "father," "mother," "myself," and "peers" were still

present in the experimental group. In addition, a post-

institutional adjustment questionnaire was administered.

Data were also collected on the number of girls on proba-

tion and parole, attending school, holding jobs, and re-

turned to the institution. A two-tailed t-test was used

in determining whether significant differences existed









between experimental and control groups on the semantic

differential. With the exception of the concept of "peers,"

reported results show significant differences favoring the

experimental group. Reported chi square analysis of the

post-institutional status questionnaire indicates a signifi-

cantly greater number of experimental subjects released

from the institution with less recommitments. According

to the author, the results should be interpreted with caution

due to small sample size.

Dill (1970) compared single-therapist and multiple-

therapist group counseling with incarcerated female de-

linquents. Subjects were chosen for the study on the basis

of 1) suitability for group counseling, 2) age, 3) reading

level, and 4) proximity to parole. A single-therapist group,

a multiple-therapist group, and a no-treatment control group

each received 19 subjects through a random assignment pro-

cedure. The 11 weekly group counseling sessions lasted

approximately two hours. A three-way analysis of variance

was used to determine if significant differences existed

between the three groups on the Tennessee Self Concept

Scale and the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orienta-

tion. All subjects were pre- and posttested. Only one

variable showed significant changes from pre- to posttesting.

The moral-ethical self variable in comparison between the

control group and the single-therapist group changed sig-

nificantly at the .05 level. Although not significant at










the .05 level, analysis of self-concept mean differences

showed decreases for the control group while the two treat-

ment groups showed increases.

Williams (1971) compared institutionalized delinquent

females receiving group counseling with a placebo group

and a control group. The 107 subjects were randomly selected.

The experimental group received group counseling for one

hour each week over a period of 10 weeks. The placebo group

viewed films one hour each week for 10 weeks. The control

group received no treatment other than regular institutional

activities. All subjects were pre- and posttested on the

Intermediate Form of the California Test of Personality.

Other criteria used to determine if changes occurred included

number of discipline reports and academic grades. An analy-

sis of variance was performed in determining if significant

differences existed between the means on the established

criteria. All reported results were not significant at the

.05 level. The author concluded that group counseling in

the experiment was no more effective than viewing films

or no treatment at all. Recommendations based on the find-

ings included the use of more sensitive and appropriate

measures to assess personality and behavior change as well

as increasing the frequency of counseling sessions to more

than once a week.

Sarason and Ganger (1973) investigated the relative

effectiveness of two group methods of communicating









information described as relevant to the social, vocational,

and educational adjustment of institutionalized male delin-

quents. The study utilized 192 male first offenders whose

mean age was 16 years and 7 months old. There were 64

subjects in each of the modeling, discussion, and control

groups. Subject assignment to groups is described as essen-

tially random with occasional changes in order to accommodate

new admissions. The modeling treatment, derived from social

learning theory, involved imitating roles which subjects had

observed models perform. Each of 16 one-hour sessions had

a particular theme, such as how to apply for a job, how to

resist peer temptation, and how to deal with a variety of

problems. The discussion treatment groups focused on the

same topics as the modeling treatment groups, except that

all references to role playing were omitted. Both treat-

ments lasted four weeks. The control group received regular

institutional treatment only.

The measures used to assess changes included Sarason's

Test Anxiety Scale (TAS), the Pd scale of the Minnesota

Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the Gough Im-

pulsivity Scale, Navran's Dependency Scale, Wahler's Self-

Description Inventory, the Word Rating Scale, Lyken's Activ-

ity Preference Questionnaire, and Rotter's Internalization-

Externalization (I-E). The interval between pre- and post-

testing was approximately five weeks. In addition, coun-

selor ratings of subject behavior and recidivism data were

used as outcome measures.









Comparisons of changes among the three groups revealed

two significant differences. Modeling subjects showed a

reduction in emotional reactivity on the Activity Preference

Questionnaire that was significantly greater (at the .05

level) than for the other subject groups. Both discussion

and modeling subjects showed a significantly greater shift

(at the .05 level) toward internalization on the I-E scale

than did controls. Differences between the modeling and

discussion groups, however, were not significant. Between-

and within-group comparisons of positive and negative be-

havior changes were performed by chi square tests. The

proportion of subjects who continued to show positive

change did not differ significantly among the three groups.

However, a significantly greater number of control subjects

changed negatively than did either modeling (p < .01) or

discussion (p < .07) subjects. Significantly greater numbers

of subjects within both the modeling (p < .01) and discus-

sion conditions (p < .05) showed positive as opposed to

negative behavior changes. This was not the case for

the control group. A three-year follow-up to determine

recidivism rate difference for the groups revealed that sig-

nificantly fewer modeling (p < .06) and discussion (p < .009)

subjects became recidivists than did controls. A chi-square

test was used for this analysis.

Sowles and Gill (1970) investigated the institutional

and community adjustment of incarcerated delinquents









following individual and group counseling. The subjects

were 45 boys and 15 girls ranging in age from 13 to 17 years

old. The boys were randomly assigned to either individual,

group, or no counseling, under the direction of male social

workers. The girls were assigned to a female social worker

for either individual, group, or no counseling. The treat-

ment subjects were seen twice weekly until all received a

total of 40 hours of either group or individual counseling

of an unspecified type. Each of the four social workers

were randomly assigned 15 subjects. These subjects were

then randomly placed into one of three groups administered

by their worker as follows: five were counseled together

as a group for two hours a week; five were counseled indi-

vidually for two hours a week; and five were interviewed

for approximately 15 minutes only when they requested.

Outcome measures included the California F Scale,

Ethnocentrism. Scale (E Scale), Eysenck's Intolerance of

Ambiguity Scale (IAS), Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (MA

scale) and the California Test of Personality (CTP). The

measures were administered before and after the treatment.

Institutional adjustment was measured by records of total

escapes from the institution (AWOL), disciplinary reports,

and total months until release from the institution.

Community adjustment was measured 10 years following parole

by recording, from each individual's record, the number

of parole violators, their total parole violations, length










of time to the first parole violation, and recommitment to

any correctional or rehabilitative institution. Significant

differences at the .05 level were found between group coun-

seled boys and controls on the mean scores of the CTP.

No significant differences were found between groups for

the girls on any of the attitude measures. Institutional

adjustment and community adjustment as measured by the afore-

mentioned indices showed no significant differences between

any of the groups for boys or girls.

Persons (1966) studied psychological and behavioral

change in incarcerated delinquent boys following individual

and group psychotherapy. Forty-one pairs of boys were

matched on age, intelligence, race, socioeconomic back-

ground, numbers and types of offenses, institutional ad-

justment, and total time spent institutionalized. One

member of each pair was randomly assigned to either the

therapy or the control group. Each of the 41 therapy group

participants received one and one-half hours of group

therapy twice a week, and one hour a week of individual

psychotherapy. Throughout the 20-week treatment period,

the control group participated in the regular institutional

program but received no therapy. Two psychologists and

three social workers conducted the individual and group

sessions. In every case, a boy had the same individual

and group therapist. The therapy is described as centering

on relationships and how to live less self-defeating lives.










Interpretation, role playing and various reinforcement

techniques were also used.

The instruments administered to assess outcome included

the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS), the Delinquency

Scale (DS), and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality In-

ventory (MMPI). The therapy group's post-therapy scores were

significantly lower than their pre-therapy scores on the

MMPI, DS, and the MAS. The therapy group also showed a

significantly greater decrease on these same tests when

compared with the control group. The differences between

the groups and the pre- and post-differences were significant

well beyond the .001 level of confidence as computed in a

Lindquist Type 1 mixed analysis of variance. The therapy

group also received their privilege passes significantly

sooner than did the control group (p < .01). The therapy

group received fewer disciplinary reports than did the

controls with differences significant at the .01 level

for the 20-week period. During the school grading period

coinciding with the treatment, significantly more therapy

participants made the institution's honor roll than did

the boys in the control group (p < .02).

Persons (1967) conducted a one-year follow-up investi-

gation in order to assess the community adjustment of par-

ticipants in his earlier study of institutionalized de-

linquents receiving psychotherapy (Persons, 1966). The

therapy group committed significantly (p < .10) fewer










offenses, broke parole less (p < .001), and had a signifi-

cantly greater number (p < .01) of boys employed for a

longer period of time (p < .05).

Eckstein (1973) investigated self-concept differences

with groups of incarcerated and nonincarcerated delinquent

boys receiving group counseling. Two experimental groups

received eight weeks of group counseling once a week for

three hours. They were compared with two no-treatment

control groups on a pre-posttest of the Tennessee Self

Concept Scale (TSCS). The counseling treatment was not

described. Sixteen incarcerated teenagers at a youth

services' school for boys were randomly divided into either

experimental or control groups. Fourteen probationers

were also randomly divided into experimental and control

groups. Reported differences between the groups on the

TSCS were not significant. Reported trends did, however,

favor the incarcerated experimental group.

The methods of group treatment in the cited studies

vary. The outcomes of this research have provided mixed

results even where the treatment was reasonably similar.

The group procedures were often too briefly described to

be replicable in other institutions. This problem also

exists in the research with vocational group counseling

and group counseling research in general (Anderson, 1969;

Cross, 1975). There is a need for multivariate projects

with multiple outcome criteria and specified differential

treatments (Cross, 1975).









Alienation


Definitions of Alienation


An alienated person may be described as "one who has

been estranged from, made unfriendly toward, his society and

the culture it carries" (Nettler, 1957). Alienated persons

are further described as politically disenchanted, frus-

trated, and having the feeling of living a meaningless life.

The estrangement of the alienated individual may lead to

criminal behavior (Nettler, 1957).

Feelings attributed to alienated individuals include

powerlessness, meaninglessness, social and self-isolation

(Clark, 1959). Alienation may be defined as "the degree

to which man feels powerless to achieve the role he has

determined to be rightfully his in specific situations"

(Clark, 1959).

Five meanings of alienation are described by Seeman

(1959) and are based on values, behavior, and expectations.

They are 1) powerlessness--characterized by the individual's

expectation that his behavior cannot bring about desired

rewards, 2) meaninglessness--characterized by a low expect-

ancy that satisfactory predictions about future outcomes

of behavior can be made because minimal standards for

clarity in decision-making are not met, 3) normlesness--

a high expectancy that socially unapproved behaviors are

required to achieve given goals, 4) isolation--characterized








by assignment of low reward value to goals or beliefs that

are typically highly valued in the society, and 5) self-

estrangement--characterized by the transformation of an

intrinsically meaningful activity to one dependent upon

anticipated future reward.

Two types of alienation described by Jackson (1973,

1974) are social alienation and self-alienation. Social

alienation is characterized by negative assessment or re-

jection of roles and societal structures they represent.

Self-alienation which is subjective is characterized by

dissatisfaction with one's social evaluation in terms of

self-identity and values.

Alientation is considered by Dean (1961) as having three

major components: 1) powerlessness--as first suggested by

Hegel and Marx which reflects the worker's feelings of help-

lessness and being used for purposes other than his own,

2) normlessness--involving the necessity to engage in so-

cially unapproved behavior to achieve goals, and 3) social

isolation--characterized by separation or isolation from

group standards.


Work Alienation


The concepts of social alienation and work alienation

may be brought together. Willensky (1964) for example

combines the two. Social alienation is described as the

feeling of incongruence between prized self-image and role










obligations. Work alienation can be similarly defined as

the poor fit of work role with prized self-image. Sources

of work alienation can be broken into four categories: 1)

work role--this includes actual tasks as well as social

relations in the work setting, 2) workplace and organiza-

tional structure, 3) occupational groups and associations

crosscutting work milieux and workplaces, and 4) the type

of career job pattern instituted by workplaces and occupa-

tional groups (Willensky, 1964).

Three predictors of work alienation identified by

Willensky (1964) are 1) low freedom, high pressure work

situation and organizational structure, 2) blocked and

chaotic career, and 3) life-cycle squeeze (i.e., large

number of children with low amount of savings).


Measurement of Alienation


A 17-item scale designed to measure alienation as

estrangement from society has been developed by Nettler

(1957). Nettler's alienation scale is designed to measure-

degree of estrangement from popular and favorable attitudes

toward concepts such as family, mass media, current events,

education, religion, and belief in the electoral process.

Clark (1959) suggests that measures of alienation should

be a measure of the discrepancy between the power individuals

believe they have, and what they believe they should have.










The DJ Social-Self-Alienation scale was developed by

Jackson (1973). The six subscales are intended to measure

acceptance of conditions of aloneness, powerlessness,

meaninglessness, valuelessness, hopelessness, and self-

abasement. A decrease in self-alienation as measured by

the DJ Scale of Alienation for older adolescent males with

vocational commitment was reported by Jackson (1974). This

decrease in self-alienation with vocational commitment did

not occur, however, with female subjects. The study, which

controlled for age, sex, and vocational commitment utilized

290 adolescents (age 17-19 and 20-22).

The three components of alienation described by Dean

(1961) showed a low but significantly negative correlation

with occupational prestige, education, income, and rural

background. Scales were constructed to measure inter-

correlation. The correlation coefficients were significant

at the .05 level of confidence for occupational prestige

and education, and significant at the .01 level for income

and rural background. The author strongly asserts the neces-

sity of more research before the alienation concept can

be empirically validated.

Measurement of alienation can be made through two

types of observations according to Daane (1972). They are

1) social distance and 2) believability. Social distance

is intended to be a measure of perceptual intimacy and

feelings of comfort and safety with others during social








interaction. Believability is intended to be a measure

of positive attitudes reflecting social trust toward others

and the world of work (Daane, 1972).

Social distance scores are obtained through assessment

of degree of distance between self and five items thought

to symbolize the world of work. A test-retest reliability

study with mean differences between teachers and Manpower

trainees of 56 subjects were conducted. Results yielded

a reliability coefficient r=.92 which is significant at

the .05 level (Daane, 1972).

No method of obtaining scores for the five believability

items is described by the author (Daane, 1972). A test-

retest reliability study with mean differences between

teachers and Manpower trainees was conducted with 56 sub-

jects. Results yielded a reliability coefficient (r) of

.77 which is significant at the .25 level (Daane, 1972).


Alienation and Delinquents


Fifteen percent of the total youth population is

alienated according to Havighurst (1964). Delinquent youth

are included in this category that are described as malad-

justed to society. These youthsdo not accept the norms

of society and many of them are hostile to the society.

Special help is needed by these youths if they are to make

a successful adjustment to the world of work. Their numbers

could be reduced through help in examination of requisite




3 J


abilities and attitudes leading to entrance into ego-

involving jobs (Havighurst, 1964).

A common source of alienation with delinquent youth

described by Downes (1966) is the failure to achieve success

in goals by socially accepted means. This leads to the at-

tribution of blame to the social system rather than to the

youth themselves and hence alienation.

Alienated delinquents believe work is only important

as a source of income. They look elsewhere for feelings

of achievement and satisfaction. Their dissatisfaction

and alienation is related to the gap between aspiration and

achievement (Downes, 1966).


World of Work Alienation


This concept developed by the author is defined as an

individual's degree of unwillingness or perceptions of

inability to engage in the career development process

and establish positive identity through working.

The World of Work Alienation Inventory (WWAI, Appen-

dix C) was developed by this author with the intention

of measuring this concept through its hypothesized four

dimensions: 1) "Assertiveness--Complacency" relative to

working, 2) value attributed to working, "Value--Devalue,"

3) perceptions of fairness of the world of work, "Fair--

Unfair," and 4) pleasant or unpleasant feelings toward the

world of work, "Positive affect--Negative affect." More









information on the instrument is provided in Chapter

III.


Vocational Maturity


Vocational Maturity Definitions


Vocational maturity may be considered the level an

individual has reached in the life-long career development

process (Super, 1957; 1960). This process becomes more

complex and specific with age and proceeds through the

five life stages of 1) growth, 2) exploration, 3) establish-

ment, 4) maintenance, and 5) decline.

The five tasks of crystallization, specification, imple-

mentation, stabilization, and consolidation are successfully

dealt with as the individual matures to the next stage

(Super, 1971).

In addition to long-term goal satisfaction, attitudes

and age are important aspects of vocational maturity (Super,

1960; 1971). One conceptualization of the individual's

vocational maturity is based on a comparison of actual coping

behaviors with expected behavior in terms of age. Another

definition considers the relative maturity of the individual's

task behavior according to stage and regardless of age

(Super, 1960).

Other authors (Ginzberg, et al., Havighurst, 1974) have

described stages or tasks through which individuals proceed










as they become more vocationally mature. In addition

there are numerous other authors providing definitions

of vocational maturity that are quite varied (Bartlett,

1971; Crites, 1961; and Westbrook & Cunningham, 1970).

Crites (1961), for example, criticizes the many dif-

ferent definitions of vocational maturity on the grounds

that an individual may be considered mature according to one

definition and immature according to another. His defini-

tion is a combination of others (i.e., Ginzberg,et al., 1951

Havighurst, 1964; and Super, 1960) resulting in a measure

of both degree and rate of vocational maturity. Degree

is determined through measures which differentiate by age

various vocational behaviors and tasks. The measure of

rate of vocational maturity is determined through compari-

son of an individual's degree with peer norms.


Vocational Maturity Measurement


Numerous researchers have developed indices to measure

the vocational maturity of the individual (Crites, 1973;

Dilley, 1965; Gribbons &Lohnes, 1968; Hollender, 1971;

Mathewson & Orton, 1963; Smith & Herr, 1971; Super, 1960;

and Vriend, 1969).

Vriend (1969) studied high school seniors and developed

the Vocational-Educational Survey for High School Seniors

(V-ES). Eight areas were identified that differentiated

the students according to vocational maturity. These










included knowledge of self and occupations, actual movement

toward continuing education or work, participation in school

and extracurricular activities, amount of actual work ex-

perience, level and attitudes toward vocational aspiration,

level of self-confidence, and school grades. Super (1960)

in his Career Development Inventory specified five dimen-

sions comprising vocational maturity: orientation to voca-

tional choice, information and planning related to chosen

occupation, vocational preference consistency, trait crystal-

lization, and wisdom of vocational preferences. Planning

orientation emerged from his Career Pattern Study of ninth-

grade boys as the factor which comprises four indices

associated with each dimension.

Gribbons and Lohnes' (1968) eight Readiness for Voca-

tional Planning scales are 1) curriculum choice, 2) occu-

pational choice, 3) interests, 4) values, 5)'independence

of choice, 6)verbalized strengths and weaknesses, 7) accu-

racy of self-appraisal, and 8) self-rating.

Westbrook and Mastie (1973) used the Cognitive Voca-

tional Maturity Test (CVMT) to assess vocational maturity

through fields of work, job selection, work conditions,

educational requirements, attributes required, and duties.

Crites' (1973) four dimensions of vocational maturity

include consistency of career choices, realism of career

choices, career choice competencies, and career choice

attitudes. The competencies include problem solving,









planning, occupational information, self-appraisal, and

goal selection. The attitudes include involvement, orienta-

tion, independence, preference, and conception.

Cross (1975) summarizes the various measures of voca-

tional maturity as including 1) knowledge of both self and

the world of work, 2) attitudes toward vocational goals as

exemplified by Super's "planning orientation," 3) decision-

making skills, 4) realism, and 5) activity.


Vocational Maturity Research Needs


More research is needed to better define and measure

vocational maturity. Crites (1971) identifies four types

of vocational maturity research: survey research to im-

prove definitions, theoretical research for hypothesis

testing, technique research to improve measurement, and

applied research to improve the effectiveness of vocational

counseling.


The CMI as a Counseling Outcome Measure


Several studies using the CMI-Attitude Scale (Crites,

1973) as an outcome measure have yielded positive results.

For example, Gilliland (1966) counseled Negro high school

students; Asbury (1967) counseled disadvantaged youth;

Bovee (1967) counseled students in a church guidance pro-

gram; Frost (1972) used the VEG with community college stu-

dents; and Flake, Roach, and Stenning (1975) counseled









vocationally immature students. Negative results were

also obtained. Examples are Carey (1965) counseled high

school students; Guerriero (1967) studies vocational

school students. Three studies of the BEG with high school

students also failed to show significant results with this

measure (Cross, 1975; Crow, 1973; and Williard, 1976).

Many of these previously cited studies contain metho-

dological errors as well as problems with independent

variable definition according to Crites (1971).


Career Maturity of Maladjusted
and Delinquent Youth


Several authors have suggested that delinquent youth

are vocationally immature as well as having occupational

adjustment problems (Robbins, 1966; Westbrook & Parry-Hill,

1973; and Woodbury & Pate, 1974). A study of emotionally

maladjusted high school students by Karayanni (1976) re-

vealed significant differences in the career maturity

attitudes of maladjusted and well-adjusted students, and

between whites and nonwhites.

More research is needed to determine how to facilitate

career maturity and occupational adjustment of those

individuals whose career maturity is low (Crites, 1971;

Flake, Roach, & Stenning, 1975; Robbins, 1966; and Woodbury

& Pate, 1974).










Facilitating Career Development


Recommended approaches to facilitate career development

generally involve the client in direct examination of the

world of work as it relates to self-exploration.


Super's Approach


Vocational counseling involving self-exploration was

described in one of Super's (1957; 1963) earlier works as

a six-step process: 1) nondirective problem exploration

and self-concept portrayal; 2) directive topic setting, lead-

ing to further exploration; 3) nondirective reflection and

clarification of feeling leading to the self-acceptance

and insight, 4) directive exploration of objective data from

tests, occupational information, extracurricular activities,

etc., for reality testing, 5) nondirective exploration and

working through of feelings and attitudes aroused by reality

testing, and 6) nondirective consideration of alternative

courses of action, for help in decision making. Super's

six-step model involves both affective components and factual

information on the world of work. The process is intended

to alternate between the two components.


Pritchard's Approach


Pritchard (1962) recommends that vocational counseling

be based on the interrelationship of occupational information









with personal information. Encouraged is "self-at-work"

exploration through the following four dimensions related

to the counseling process:

1. We must seek to obtain, develop, and use occu-
pational tools sensitive to the expanded kinds
of variables, occupational as well as personal,
identified as significant to vocational develop-
ment, success, and satisfaction.

2. Occupational exploration should generally give
precedence to the broader and longer view of
progressive vocational planning over the limited
view of a one-time final occupational choice.

3. Self-exploration and occupational exploration
should become more fully correlative processes.

4. The systematic search for positive vocational
suggestions should be based on the particular
kinds of personal-vocational factors and rela-
tionships explicitly hypothesized as significant
in the individual case and should contribute
to the modification and verification of these
hypotheses. (Pritchard, 1962, pp. 676-678)


Morrill and Forrest


Four types of career counseling which are related to

the client's career development are described by Morrill

and Forrest (1970): 1) counseling which provides the

client with information and clarification of issues related

to a specific decision, 2) counseling which focuses on

decision-making skills rather than on a specific situation,

3) counseling which views career as a process of making a

continual series of choices, and 4) career processes coun-

seling which aides the individual in determining objectives

in order to influence the course of future choices.










Other authors have discussed the relationship of client

affective involvement in effective vocational development.

Healy (1974) emphasized the need for vocational counseling

to include exploration of feelings and attitudes related

to career. Tuckman (1973) identified four developmental

stages of career exploration which include affective in-

volvement.


Group Vocational Guidance


In order to provide optimum vocational development

of individuals through groups, Bennett (1964) describes three

essential considerations: 1) the individuals' potential

abilities, interests, values, goals, and aspirations,

2) occupational opportunities and socioeconomic trends

and 3) psychological and environmental factors that may

influence vocational decisions and plans. These considera-

tions are essential to the goal of helping each person's

lifelong quest for self-direction.

Other important elements of effective group vocational

guidance according to Bennett (1964) are participation of

leaders and members to establish cohesion necessary for

exploration of goals and interests, leadership that estab-

lishes a group climate of real acceptance for all members,

and prevention of group pressure.

For all of the above authors, there is an emphasis on

the involvement of the clients' affective processes in

effective vocational counseling.










Vocational Exploration Group


The Vocational Exploration Group (VEG) is a structured

small group experience designed by Studies for Urban Man to

make the process of occupational planning enjoyable. The

program is designed to increase self-confidence and self-

awareness of an individual in relationship with the world

of work (Daane, 1972). The program, developed by Calvin J.

Daane, personalizes career planning by involving partici-

pants in a process of relating themselves to the world of

work and increasing their knowledge of occupational informa-

tion. Various jobs are explored from the point of view of

what they demand and what they give to workers in return.

Self-disclosure and feedback activities related to jobs

lead participants to gain increased self-confidence for

creativity.


Five Phases of VEG


The VEG progresses through five phases in both the

short program with 18 tasks (about two and a half hours)

and the long program with 40 tasks (about five one-hour

sessions).

The five phases of group experience are as follows:

Phase I, the Inclusion phase which reduces fears of explora-

tion, creates cohesiveness and increases levels of self-

confidence in order to enhance creative thinking.










Phase II, the Job Inventory which increases knowledge of

jobs while establishing a framework for looking at the world

of work.

Phase III, the Job Personalization phase through which par-

ticipants explore job function, job satisfiers, interest-

skills, and training needs.

Phase IV, the Expansion of Jobs Personalized phase through

which there is an exploration of other possible job alterna-

tives.

Phase V, the Next Step. This final phase leads to formula-

tion of specific exploratory behavior to bring the partici-

pant closer to a job goal. The program is described in

greater detail in Chapter III


VEG Research


The first major study of the VEG was supported by the

U.S. Department of Labor (Daane, 1971) and utilized 1,406

employment service applicants in eight states as subjects.

The two major research objectives were 1) to assess the

effectiveness of the program upon vocational decision making

and adjustment over a one-month period and 2) to measure

the effectiveness of a pyramid training approach to prepare

VEG group leaders.

The following sampling procedures were used: 10

"trainer"-supervisors from the Bureau of Employment Secur-

ity from 10 states received the VEG training and then










trained 5 more people in their own states, who in turn

trained an additional 5 group leaders for a total of 245

group leaders and 6 supervisors. Each group leader selected

20 people from three categories--walk-in applicants, Man-

power trainees, and high school students. Of these 20

people, 5 VEG subjects and 5 control subjects were randomly

selected. In six states the control subjects received no

assistance and in two states controls received equal amounts

of staff time in individual interviews lasting a half hour.

Data collected were on 14 groups: three groups con-

sisted of walk-ins, work training, and high school students;

eight groupings by state; and three for totals. Eight

trainer-supervisors, 31 trainer-assistants, and 156 group

leaders were utilized in the study. In the study, 1,649

subjects were posttested. In addition, 1,406 were tested

in a one-month delay assessment on tests for employability

perceptions, perceptions of social alienation, Rokeach's

dogmatism, and status concerning job immediately following

the experience and again one month later (Daane, 1972).

VEG participant subjects achieved twice as many new

jobs as did the control subjects. Also, those VEG par-

ticipant subjects who were in training during the research

period received twice as many jobs as those who did not

receive the treatment.









Significantly higher scores were obtained by VEG

participants on all three measures of employability per-

ceptions immediately after the experience and again one

month later (Daane, 1972).

For each of the subject groups, five measures of social

distance were obtained. Significant results favoring the

VEG participants were obtained for 29 out of 70 scores. Of

70 measures of believability and trust in others and the

world of work, 29 significantly favored the VEG group. VEG

participants also received favorable scores on 5 out of 15

dogmatism and flexibility scores (Daane, 1972).

Trainer and leader reactions as to the value and ease

of conducting the VEG training were reported as favorable

by 80% of the trainers and leaders (Daane, 1972).

These specific goals of the VEG experience will vary

from individual to individual as each person provides the

content of the experience according to their unique set of

circumstances, abilities, interests, etc. Research has

been conducted with several populations with varying degree

of career maturity level as well as varied needs (Cross,

1975; Grubb, 1971; Hawxhurst, 1973; and Williard, 1976).


Research with High School Students


Beach (1975) used a pre-post and six-week delayed

post design in a study of the VEG as a technique for










expanding perceptions of self and the world of work with

high school students. Significant differences were reported

for Employability Perceptions Inventory measures taken

immediately following the VEG experience and repeated six

weeks later. The study utilized 409 group participants

and 86 VEG leaders who were school counselors. The students

and counselors responded favorably toward the VEG on a ques-

tionnaire designed to assess reactions to the program.

Crow (1973) studied the effects of the VEG on locus

of control, self-esteem, and vocational maturity of 300

high school students. No significant differences were found

between three groups randomly assigned to VEG, a semistruc-

tured vocational counseling experience, or a no-treatment

control group. The measures included the Rotter Internal-

External Control Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale,

and the attitude scale of the Career Maturity Inventory.

Subjects were pretested, posttested immediately after

treatment and again four months later with pretest scores

used as a covariate in the analysis of covariance. Replica-

tion of the study was, however, recommended by the author

with populations varying in grade level, abilities, and

interests.

Bergland and Lundquist (1974) assigned 63 high school

students to treatment and control groups using a stratified

random design procedure. The treatment groups were more










able to differentiate among requisite job interests and

skills, identify more job satisfiers, and name more job func-

tions than were the controls as measured by a questionnaire

administered one week following the VEG treatment. No dif-

ferences were found for information-seeking behaviors as

reported on a career planning inventory.

In another study, Bergland and Lundquist (1975) studied

the effects of the VEG with Mexican American junior high

school students. The 60 male subjects were randomly assigned

to VEG, VEG without interaction, or a wait control group.

One week after treatment, a career exploration question-

naire was administered. VEG participants showed significant

increase over controls only on naming jobs with different

subjects.

Grubb (1971a) compared ninth-grade students who had

received the VEG with a group who visited job sites, lis-

tened to job topic speakers, and wrote career papers. The

two groups of 28 students each were administered a 15-item

attitude questionnaire developed by the author. VEG par-

ticipants made significant gains from pre- to posttesting

in self-knowledge, self-assessment, and attitudes toward

jobs, while the classroom activity group made no signifi-

cant gains.

Cross (1975) studied the effects of the VEG with 422

eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth-grade students. The Solomon









four-group design was used and subjects were assessed on

the attitude scale of Crites' Career Maturity Inventory,

Daane's Employability Perceptions Inventory, and a follow-

up self-report questionnaire developed by the author. Sig-

nificant increases in self-perceptions as measured on the

Employability Perceptions Inventory were reported. Thirty-

four percent of the VEG participants reported taking their

"next step" within two weeks of the VEG session as measured

by the author's self-report instrument.

Williard (1976) found no significant differences be-

tween 10 experimental and 10 control subjects on the attitude

scale of the Crites Career Maturity Inventory administered

on a pre-, post-, and six weeks delayed posttest basis. A

three-way analysis of covariance was performed on the ob-

tained scores of subjects randomly selected and stratified

for sex from each of four ninth-grade classes in separate

schools.

In a study of the effect of the VEG with handicapped,

disadvantaged, and impaired secondary students, Neely and

Kosier (1975) used 24 counselors and 470 volunteer students.

Self and peer ratings were obtained on three dimensions of

job personalization consisting of job satisfiers, work poten-

tial and selected items taken from the Employability

Perceptions Inventory. An analysis of variance was per-

formed and significant gains at the .05 level were reported









in the areas of information seeking and understanding as

well as increased empathy of group members.

Two studies of the VEG with potential dropouts report

no significant outcomes. Hawxhurst (1973) compared 42 poten-

tial eighth-grade dropouts with a no-treatment control group

on the attitude scale of the Career Maturity Inventory and

an inventory of career choice factors. Cross (1974) studied

87 eighth-grade potential dropouts who participated in

either VEG, or a two-hour group session utilizing films

about dropping out and choosing a vocation as a stimulus for

discussion. No significant differences were found between

the groups two weeks later on a semantic differential,

the Employability Perceptions Inventory, a checklist for

exploratory career behaviors, or educational expectations

and aspirations.

Two studies have been done to assess the VEG's effects

on outcomes other than career development. Grubb (1971b)

used a pre-, post-, and two-week delayed posttest design

to determine whether fathers could predict the occupational

self-assessment of their eleventh- and twelfth-grade sons

significantly better following participation in the VEG

program with their sons. The students completed a 20-

statement questionnaire ranking items such as job functions,

job satisfiers, and job demands, according to importance

to them while their fathers completed the same questionnaire









as they predicted their sons would. A matched control

group of fathers and sons was administered the same ques-

tionnaire. This control group showed no pre-posttest sig-

nificant differences over a two-week interval. The experi-

mental group showed significant increased congruence

between sons' ratings and fathers' predictions of sons'

ratings. Underestimates by fathers tended not to change,

while overestimates significantly decreased.

Powell (1973) studied the effect of the VEG on openness

with 48 group leaders and 240 participants compared with

240 control subjects. The subjects were employment service

applicants. The leaders were employment service workers.

Significantly greater openness as measured by the Rokeach

D Scale for the VEG participants was reported. No signifi-

cant correlation between group leaders' degree of openness

was found with that of the VEG participants.


Research with College Students


Two studies of the VEG have been done with community

college students. Frost (1972) studied the effects of the

VEG on measures of vocational maturity, employability per-

ceptions, perceptions of social alienation and of dogmatism

of 89 two-year college students who were registered in

either a psychology or philosophy class. Analyses of

covariance and variance were used to test for significant










differences between groups that either saw a demonstration

of the VEG, saw a demonstration and then participated in

the VEG, or had no treatment at all. Significant increases

in employability perceptions and decreases in social aliena-

tion and dogmatism were reported for the group participating

in the VEG experience.

Strachan (1974) studied the VEG's effects on attitudes

toward the efficacy of vocational counseling with 92 ran-

domly selected community college students. The study utilized

the Solomon four group design and an analysis of covariance

followed by an analysis of variance. Four of six of the

statistical tests indicated significant gains on a question-

naire developed to assess attitudes toward vocational coun-

seling.

Most of the research done on the effectiveness of the

VEG program has been with young employed adults and on

high school students (Beach, 1975; Bergland & Lundquist,

1974, 1975; Cross, 1974, 1975; Crow, 1973; Daane, 1971,

1972; Grubb, 1971a; Hawxhurst, 1973; and Williard, 1976).


Research with Disadvantaged Youth


There has been only one study of the VEG with disad-

vantaged youth (Neely & Kosier, 1975) and two with poten-

tial drop outs (Cross, 1974; Hawxhurst, 1973). There have

been no studies done on the effectiveness of the VEG with

delinquents.









The experience provides several recommended components

of group treatment with incarcerated youth as well as facili-

tation of career development and vocational counseling.

These include personalizing information, focus on process

rather than content, emphasis on creativity and alternatives

rather than on one choice, goals defined in terms of indi-

vidual participant's perception of self and needs, and in-

sistence on a behavioral outcome of the experience expressed

in terms of an individual's own gaols (Cross, 1975).

If the VEG can be shown to be effective with this hard

to reach population, it could be a major breakthrough in

career development education and counseling for incarcerated

youth.














CHAPTER III


METHODS AND PROCEDURES



Chapter III contains the hypotheses tested and a

description of the research design of the study as well as

population, sampling procedures, experimental design,

treatment description, instruments, data collection, time-

table and procedures, and data analysis procedures.



Hypotheses


Six major hypotheses were tested in the proposed

study of the effects of the Vocational Exploration Group

(VEG) with incarcerated youth. The following null

hypotheses were tested in the investigation:

1. There will be no significant differences between

VEG participant subjects and control subjects in career

choice attitudes as measured on the attitude scale of the

Career Maturity Inventory (CMI).

a. There will be no significant interaction of
sex with VEG participant and control subject
scores.

b. There will be no significant interaction of
race with VEG participant and control subject
scores.









c. There will be no significant interaction
of institution with VEG participant and control
subject scores.

d. There will be no significant interaction of
protesting with VEG participant and control
subject scores.

e. There will be no significant interaction of
VEG leader with VEG participant scores.

2. There will be no significant differences

between VEG participant subjectsand control subjectsin

degree of job personalization as measured by subscore 1

of the Employability Perceptions Inventory (EPI-1).

a. There will be no significant interaction of
sex with VEG participant and control subject
scores.

b. There will be no significant interaction of
race with VEG participant and control subject
scores.

c. There will be no significant interaction of
institution with VEG participant and control
subject scores.

d. There will be no significant interaction of
protesting with VEG participant and control
subject scores.

e. There will be no significant interaction of
VEG leader with VEG participant scores.

3. There will be no significant differences between

VEG participant subjects and control subjects in active

movement toward job personalization as measured by sub-

score 2 of the Employability Perceptions Inventory (EPI-2).

a. There will be no significant interaction of
sex with VEG participant and control subject
scores.

b. There will be no significant interaction of
race with VEG participant and control subject
scores.










c. There will be no significant interaction of
institution with VEG participant and control
subject scores.

d. There will be no significant interaction
of protesting with VEG participant and control
subject scores.

e. There will be no significant interaction of
VEG leader with VEG participant scores.

4. There will be no significant differences

between VEG participant subjectsand control subjectsin

self-recognition of work potential and aspiration as

measured by subscore 3 of the Employability Perceptions

Inventory (EPI-3).

a. There will be no significant interaction of
sex with VEG participant and control subject
scores.

b. There will be no significant interaction of
race with VEG participant and control subject
scores.

c. There will be no significant interaction of
institution with VEG participant and control
subject scores.

d. There will be no significant interaction of
protesting with VEG participant and control
subject scores.

e. There will be no significant interaction of
VEG leader with VEG participant scores.

5. There will be no significant differences between

VEG participant subjectsand control subjectsin attitudes

of alienation from the world of work as measured by

scores on the World of Work Alienation Inventory (WWAI).










a. There will be no significant interaction of
sex with VEG participant and control subject
scores.

b. There will be no significant interaction
of race with VEG participant and control
subject scores.

c. There will be no significant interaction of
institution with VEG participant and control
subject scores.

d. There will be no significant interaction of
protesting with VEG participant and control
subject scores.

e. There will be no significant interaction of
VEG leader with VEG participant scores.

6. There will not be a 50% frequency of next steps

remembered by experimental subjects within two weeks

after participating in the VEG program as measured by

a self-report questionnaire.

a. There will be no significant differences
between males and females.

b. There will be no significant differences
between blacks and whites.

c. There will be no significant differences
between institutions.

d. There will be no significant differences
between subjects according to VEG leader.

e. There will be no significant differences
between pretest and non-pretest subjects.

7. There will not be a 30% frequency of next

steps taken by experimental subjects within two weeks

after participating in the VEG program as measured by

a self-report questionnaire.









a. There will be no significant differences
between males and females.

b. There will be no significant differences
between blacks and whites.

c. There will be no significant differences
between institutions.

d. There will be no significant differences
between subjects according to VEG leader.

e. There will be no significant differences
between pretest and non-pretest subjects.


Population and Sample


Population

The population for this study will consist of

approximately 300 incarcerated youths at two of

Florida's Youth Services Training Schools. The Lancaster

Youth Development Center, located at Trenton, and the

Alyce D. McPherson School, located at Ocala, are the

system's only coeducational training schools.

The McPherson School receives admissions directly

from the juvenile court system only when space is

available. The population consists of approximately

16% males and 84% females; 50% black and 50% white.

The average daily population during 1975 was 154 youths.

The Lancaster Center receives no admissions

directly from the court. Children too difficult to

handle in other treatment programs are transferred to









this highly intensive environment providing a high staff/

child ratio. Transfer to Lancaster usually occurs when

other training schools are no longer willing to work

with the child, frequently due to their disruptive nature

or the need for more individual attention. The average

daily population during 1975 was 157 youths, consisting

of approximately 60% black and 40% white youths; 55%

males and 45% females. Ages ranged from 11 to 18 years

old. The average female age is slightly younger than

that of the male population.


Sample

A random selection procedure was used to provide

120 subjects from the 157 juveniles held at Lancaster

Youth Development Center. This group was divided

randomly into 60 experimental and 60 control subjects.

The control group of 60 subjects was then divided

randomly into a group of 30 subjects that were pre-

and posttested and another group of 30 subjects that

received only posttesting. Likewise, the 60 experimental

subjects that received the VEG treatment were randomly

divided into a group of 30 subjects that were pre-

and posttested and another group of 30 subjects that

were posttested only.

The experimental group was randomly assigned to

one of three VEG leaders in groups of five (see Figure 1).












120
Subjects
/\


Experimental
/
/ \


30
pretest


30
no pretest


Leader Leader
I II
5 5 5 5
S's S's S's S's


Le
I


60
Control


I,







30
pretest









ader Leader Leac
II I II


5 5
S's S's


iei


5 5 5
S's S's S's S


30
no pretest









r Leader
III
5 5 5
's S's S's


Figure 1

Subject Assignment for One Institution










An alternate list of experimental and control subjects

was compiled through a random selection procedure and

provided replacements as needed.

The sampling procedures described above and in

Figure 1 were duplicated with the population of the Alice

D. McPherson Training School. Thus, a total of 240

subjects were selected.


Group Leaders

The three VEG group leaders in this study had ex-

perience using the program with delinquent youth. Two

of the leaders are doctoral candidates in the field of

counseling, and the third has a doctorate in the field

of counseling. All leaders received the standardized

two-day training program in Vocational Exploration Group

Leadership from a certified VEG trainer. All leaders

followed the short 18-task VEG program from a standard

leader's manual.



Design of the Study

This study utilized the Solomon four-group model,

which was replicated in each institution. This design

controlled for all sources of internal invalidation as

described by Campbell and Stanley (1963). These sources










are history, maturation, testing, instrumentation, re-

gression, selection, mortality, and interaction of

those mentioned. Also controlled by this design is

possible invalidity from the external sources of test

main effects and interaction.

The design for the study, as applied in each

institution, was as follows:





R O X 0

R 0 0

R X 0

R 0





R = Randomly selected group

X = Treatment

O = Observation





Vocational Exploration Group Program


The VEG is based on the assumption of the exist-

ence and need for examination of a give and take realtion-

ship between man and his work through the critical links









of Job Function: What is the job like? Job Demands: What

interests and skills are necessary? Job Satisfactions:

What does the job offer?

The aim of the group is for each participant to under-

stand the man-job relationship and to apply this understand-

ing to himself and his own situation through the formulation

of a realistic "Next Step."


Phases of the Vocational Exploration
Group Process


Both the short and long programs entail similar tasks

and proceed through the following five phases: Inclusion,

Job Inventory, Job Personalization, Expansion of Jobs Per-

sonalized, and Next Step.

The Inclusion Phase entails activities designed to

provide a comfortable atmosphere for exploration through

reduction of fears of rejection and increased feelings of

acceptance, and thereby maximizing creative thinking. The

aims of a safe, close atmosphere with decreased defensive-

ness and increased self-confidence are brought about

through introductions, self-disclosure and feedback.

The Job Inventory Phase involves the sharing of job

information using graphic stimulus materials and is designed

to bring out intrinsic rewards leading to increased moti-

vation for further exploration.










In the Job Personalization Phase, job choices are

examined by each participant relative to job demands, job

satisfiers, job function and training needs.

In the Expansion of Jobs Personalized phase, choices

are expanded through the consideration of other job pos-

sibilities to meet the needs of participants in relation to

previously examined choice areas.

The Next Step phase has each participant formulating

a specific behavior leading to a chosen job goal. Helpful

comments and suggestions are elicited by the leader as the

session ends with a group focus upon each member's realis-

tic "next step."

A group of five or six participants is guided through

a sequence of structured tasks by a VEG group leader using

a programmed manual and kit of materials including charts,

posters, job inventory sheets and job information books.

The short program (Appendix A), as used in this study,

consists of 18 procedures and takes approximately two and

one-half hours to complete, while the long program consist-

ing of 40 procedures takes approximately four hours in five

45-minute sessions.


The VEG Group Leader


VEG group leaders are prepared by VEG trainers who

have also been leaders. The two-day standardized training









program begins with the actual VEG experience followed by

instruction in theory, leader tasks, responding techniques,

and role playing as leader. Leader trainees run practice

groups, receive feedback from observers and participants,

discuss strategies for VEG implementation with specific

populations, and evaluate the experience.

The leader's function in the group includes two sep-

arate categories: 1) tasking and 2) selective responding.

Tasking is the term used to describe delivery of brief and

clear statements of instruction for each of the tasks in

the program in a way that assists participants to proceed

through the activities.

The second leader function of selective responding is

designed to increase the enjoyment and quality of the group

experience while moving through the tasks and includes the

following: identification of the focus of participant

statements, simple acknowledgment, self-disclosure, various

types of questions, reflection and restatement based on

both content and feeling, pairing and contrasting partici-

pant statements on either content or feeling, and the con-

cept of excitement/comfort level variation of the individual

or entire group through combination of response type and

focus. Recommendations as to response type are included

with instructions for each task in the leader's manual.










Instruments


Subjects participating in the study were assessed

through the use of seven measures. Career choice attitudes

were measured through the attitude scale of the Career

Maturity Inventory. The three subscores of the Employability

Perceptions Inventory were used to measure subjects'

degree of job personalization, active movement toward job

personalization, and self-perceptions of employability poten-

tial and aspiration. World of Work Alienation Inventory

scores were used to measure subjects' degree of aliena-

tion relative to working. A count of "Next Steps"

remembered and taken by experimental subjects was obtained

from a self-report questionnaire.


Attitude Scale--Career Maturity
Inventory (CMI)


The attitude scale of the Career Maturity Inventory

was developed by John Crites over the past 10 years and

published in 1973. The 50 items of the self-report instru-

ment are designed to elicit feelings, subjective reaction,

and dispositions of individuals toward making career choices

and entrance into the world of work (Crites, 1973). The

items are representative of attitudes as they have actually

been verbalized by young people and fall into the following

five clusters: involvement in the career choice process,










orientation toward work, independence in decision making,

preference for career choice factors, and conceptions of the

career choice process. These five dimensions are theoretical

in nature and rather than yielding separate scores are

grouped into one total score.

The 50 items of the scale are either first or third

person statements about career choices and the world of

work. First or third person singular item type as well as

five-point scale compared with a true-false response format

showed no significant differences on scores of the 2,822

subjects used as the standardization sample.

In determining the acceptability of the reliability

and validity data for this scale, the following considera-

tions are relevant: The variable is theoretical in nature

including five dimensions in one total score and maturation

over time takes place with developmental variables measured

by the attitude scale.

A test-retest reliability coefficient of .71 for 1,648

subjects in grades six through twelve is reported over a

one-year interval as well as item data showing a mean in-

ternal consistency coefficient of .74. These reliability

coefficients are acceptable in view of the aforementioned

considerations.

Content validity has been demonstrated through 80%

agreement by expert judges (counseling psychologists) on what









constitutes a vocationally mature response to the items of

the attitude scale, as well as 74% agreement by the same

judges with an empirically derived scoring key.

Criterion-related validity has been demonstrated through

correlation with other career maturity measures in studies

yielding r's in the .30's. These other career maturity

measures include: Realism of occupational aspiration; con-

sistency, decision, and realism of career choice; and the

Readiness for Vocational Planning Scale.

Construct validity in the areas of response bias, cor-

relations with other variables and experimental manipula-

tions of counseling and didactic experiences is generally

supported by studies (Crites, 1973).


Employability Perceptions
Inventory (EPI)


The Employability Perceptions Inventory (EPI Appen-

dix B) was developed by Daane (1971) as an outcome measure

for use with the Vocational Exploration Group. The three

subscores of the 19-item questionnaire are designed to

measure the subject's perceptions of himself as being em-

ployable. The first subscore (EPI-1) is Job Personalization

and is designed to measure understanding of man's relation-

ship to work and the critical links of job function, job

demands, and job satisfaction. The second subscore (EPI-2)

Movement toward Job Personalization is designed to measure









level of active involvement in the job personalization pro-

cess through less passive responses to the job personaliza-

tion items. The third subscore, Self-Recognition of Work

Potential and Aspiration (EPI-3), focuses on clarity of

self-perceptions toward work potential and choice aspirations.

Statements about man/work relationships and the spe-

cific man/job links examined in the VEG program comprise

the first 13 items of the EPI. Responses for each item are

marked as "True," "False," or "Don't Know." The number of

correct responses comprise subscore 1, while the number of

"Don't Know" responses yield the second subscore. The last

six items are first person statements relating self-perceptions

to job choice aspects examined in the program. A five-point

Likert-type scale has subjects responding to each item

from "Very Sure" to "Don't Know." Subscore 3 consists of

the sum of the values of each response.

Test-retest reliability is reported to be significant

at the .01 level over a one-month interval for 500 no-

treatment control subjects. No reliability coefficients,

however, are reported by the author. Two reliability studies

were performed to test the degree of consistency for the

instrument when orally administered. The first study,

which used two administrators and 15 subjects yielded a

reliability (r) or .84. The second reliability study failed

to show a significant degree of consistency between several










administrators with 38 subjects. A t-test was used for

this analysis.

Content validity is apparent as the items are related

to the concepts of job function, job demands, and job satis-

fiers as defined and examined in the VEG program. Part III

of the EPI is closely related to the goals of the VEG ex-

perience. The items are intended to measure the subjects;

certainty of interests, skills, training aspirations, and

satisfiers as related to chosen jobs.

Construct and criterion-related validity are not

reported by the author, although greater job placement and

job satisfaction as well as less alienation and dogmatism

was demonstrated by subjects scoring higher than controls

on all subscores of the EPI (Daane, 1971).


World of Work Alienation Inventory (WWAI)


This instrument was developed by the present investi-

gator as an intended measure of subjects' degree of aliena-

tion from the world of work. The 25 items of the inven-

tory are either first- or third-person statements related

to the world of work, and subjects respond through agree-

ment or disagreement on a five-point Likert-scale for

each item (Appendix C).

A test/retest reliability study of the instrument

was conducted with 20 high school students over a one-week









interval. The results yielded a Pearson Product Moment

Correlation Coefficient of .76 which is significant at the

.01 level.

Content validity has been established through expert

judge agreement of at least 70% on which items comprise

the four dimensions hypothesized as indicative of accurate

assessment of alienation from the world of work. Ten

counselor educator judges were asked to sort an initial

pool of items into four categories: "Assertiveness-

Complacency" relative to working; value attributed to

working "Value--Devalue," perceptions of fairness of the

world of work, "Fair--Unfair," and pleasant or unpleasant

feelings toward the world of work, "Positive-affect--

Negative-affect." Five items receiving no less than 70%

agreement and thought to be generally related to the

concepts of alienation and identification with the world

of work. A factor analysis of this instrument, with the

data collected in this investigation, is planned.


Next Step


This self-report questionnaire (Appendix D) was de-

veloped by Cross (1975) as a follow-up frequency measure

of exploratory career behavior for use with the VEG pro-

gram. The questionnaire and its directions are intended

to eliminate bias toward affirmative answers due to social

acceptability and tester influence.









All experimental subjects were asked to complete

this questionnaire which determines whether the "Next

Step" identified during the final part of the VEG is

recalled, and if so, was it taken by the participant.


Collection of the Data


Raw scores on the Career Maturity Inventory, Employa-

bility Perceptions Inventory, and World of Work Alienation

Inventory were used in the analysis. Scores on the CMI

consist of the number of correct responses. Subscore 1

of the EPI consists of the number of correct responses on

items 1 through 13. Subscore 2 consists of the number of

"Don't Know" responses on items 1 through 13. Subscore 3

consists of the summed values of checked responses to the

five-point scale on items 14-19. A response of "Very

Sure" has a value of 5, and a response of "Don't Know" has

a value of 1. Scores on the WWAI consist of the summed

values on items 2, 6, 11, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24,

and 25; added to the reversed sums of items 1, 3, 4, 5, 7,

9, 10, 12, 13, 17, 20, and 21. On the five-point scale

a response of "Strongly Disagree" carries a value of 5

and a response of "Strongly Agree" carries a value of 1.

Completed data were collected for 119 subjects pre-

and posttested and a total of 214 subjects. Missing data

resulted from subjects who were not present for the








treatment session, pre-,or posttesting sessions because

of the following reasons: There were 24 subjects locked

up; there were four subjects who refused to complete the

tests; there were two subjects away for home visits; and

there were incomplete answer sheets for the remainder.


Experimental Procedures and Timetable


1. During the first week of the study, half of the

experimental and half of the control group of the first

institution were administered the preexperimental instru-

ments--the attitude scale of the Career Maturity Inven-

tory (CMI), the Employability Perceptions Inventory

(EPI), and the World of Work Alienation Inventory (WWAI).

2. All experimental subjects at the first institu-

tion participated in the short 18-task program of the

Vocational Exploration Group (VEG) during the first week

(see Appendix A).

3. During the second week of the study, half of the

experimental and half of the control group of the second

institution were administered the preexperimental instru-

ments--the attitude scale of the CMI, the EPI, and the

WWAI.

4. All experimental subjects at the second institu-

tion participated in the short 18-task program of the VEG

during the second week (see Appendix A).










5. During the third week of the study, all experi-

mental and control subjects of the first institution were

administered the postexperimental instruments--the same

forms of the CMI, EPI, and WWAI. Experimental subjects

were asked to report in writing the status of their

"next step"--which is a specific career-goal exploratory

behavior formulated by each participant at the conclusion

of the VEG experience.

6. During the fourth week, all experimental and con-

trol subjects of the second institution were administered

the postexperimental instruments--the same forms of the

CMI, EPI, and WWAI. Experimental subjects were asked to

report in writing the status of their next step. The

experimenter administered all instruments to the subjects.


Analysis of the Data


Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) procedures

for unequal cell sizes were performed on posttest scores

and difference scores for the dependent variables. The

MANOVA tested the effects of factors and factor interactions

on all dependent variables simultaneously. This initial

analysis served as a screening device for factor and

factor interaction effects. A significance level of .10

was chosen as the level indicative of the need for further

investigation.









If a MANOVA showed that a factor or factor interac-

tion had a significant effect on at least one of the

dependent variables, a follow-up univariate analysis

of variance (ANOVA) was performed. In order to deter-

mine the source of the significant multivariate effects,

the follow-up ANOVA was performed on each dependent

variable. The .05 level of significance was indicative

of the significant differences necessary to reject null

hypotheses.


"Next Step"


The frequency count of "next steps" taken by VEG

treatment group participants was investigated through

nonparametric analysis of variance procedures to test

for significant differences in frequencies of "yes"

responses by sex, race, pretest status, and between

institutions. This analysis tested for any interactions

with treatment group up to the two-way level. In addi-

tion, percentages of "yes" responses to the questions,

"Do you remember what your next step was going to be?"

and "Have you had a chance to take your nest step?" were

calculated for the total sample. Percentages were also

calculated for groups that were significantly different.














CHAPTER IV


ANALYSIS OF RESULTS



Chapter IV contains a systematic report of the data

analysis. The effects of five independent variables on

seven dependent variables were determined from the obtained

data.


Independent Variables


The independent variables were 1) institution,

2) pretest status, 3) sex, 4) race, 5) control/experimental

groups, and 6) VEG leader.


Dependent Variables


The dependent variables were 1) the attitude scale of

the Career Maturity Inventory (CMI), 2) subscore 1 of the

Employability Perceptions--Job Personalization (EPI-1),

3) subscore 2 of the Employability Perceptions Inventory--

Movement Toward Job Personalization (EPI-2), 4) subscore

3 of the Employability Perceptions Inventory--Self-

Recognition of Work Potential (EPI-3), 5) the World of

Work Alienation Inventory (WWAI), 6) frequency of "next










steps" remembered, and 7) frequency of "next steps"

taken.


Statistical Analysis Overview


Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) procedures

for unequal cell sizes were performed on posttest scores

and again on difference scores for the dependent variables.

The MANOVA tested the effects of factors and factor inter-

actions on all dependent variables simultaneously. This

initial analysis served as a screening device for factor

and factor interaction effects. A significance level of

.10 was chosen as the level indicative of the need for

further investigation.

If a MANOVA showed that a factor or factor interaction

had a significant effect on at least one of the dependent

variables, a follow-up univariate analysis of variance

(ANOVA) was performed. In order to determine the source of

the significant multivariate effects, the follow-up ANOVA

was performed on each dependent variable. The .05 level

of significance was indicative of the significant differences

necessary to reject null hypotheses.

The first posttest MANOVA investigated the interactive

effects of each of the first four independent variables

(sex, race, institution, and pretest status) with the

experimental/control group variable. This treatment group








variable was investigated as one factor with four levels

to determine whether the data provided evidence of VEG

leader interaction with the other independent variables.

None of the multivariate hypothesis testing procedures

furnished evidence (at the .10 level) of such interactions.

F values are reported in Table 1. This suggested that all

posttest score analyses were free from VEG leader interaction.

Difference scores were also analyzed with the same

procedures described above; however, only the pretest

group was involved in these analyses. The first difference

score multivariate analysis investigated the interactive

effects of VEG leader with the other independent variables

of institution, sex, and race. No evidence (at the .10

level) of interaction between the factors was obtained. F

values are reported in Table 8. Therefore, all subsequent

posttest and difference score analyses considered the

treatment group variable at two levels representing either

control or experimental status.


Posttest Scores with Interactions


The interaction model obtained from a MANOVA procedure

(F = 3.20) indicated a significant sex and treatment group

interaction (.008) at the .10 level of significance (Table

2). An examination of the follow-up ANOVA indicated this

interactive effect was strongly significant for WWAI

(.021) and approached significance for EPI-1 (.08). F









values are reported in Table 2. Means are reported in Table

3. The sources of these significant differences are

reported in Table 4.


Posttest Score Main Effects


Main effects significant at the .10 level were

determined (F = 2.198) for institution (.055), for sex

(.007) (F = 3.441), and for race (.0007) (F = 4.667)

through a MANOVA (see Table 5). In order to determine

the source of the effects, ANOVAs for each dependent

variable were examined as reported in Table 6. For the

CMI, both sex (.002) (F = 9.81) and race (.0001)

(F = 19.63) were significant at the >.05 level in favor

of females and whites. For EPI-1 (.03) (F = 4.85) sex

was significant at the .05 level favoring males. For

EPI-2 and EPI-3 there were no significant effects at the

.05 level. For the WWAI, institution (.002) (F = 10.23)

and race (.009) (F = 7.03) were significant at the .05

level, favoring the Lancaster Youth Development Center

(LYDC) and whites. Means are reported in Table 7.


Difference Scores with Interactions


The interaction model obtained through a MANOVA

showed a significant sex and treatment group interaction

at >.10 level (.05) (F = 2.28). As reported in Table 8,









examination of the follow-up ANOVA indicated this inter-

active effect on the WWAI (.009) (F = 7.11) was significant

at the .05 level, strongly favoring male experimental

subjects over the other three groups. F values are

reported in Table 9. Means by treatment group and sex are

reported in Table 10.


Difference Score Main Effects


The main effects model obtained through a MANOVA

reported in Table 1 identified institution as significant

at the .05 level (F = 2.30). Follow-up ANOVAs reported

in Table 12 indicated a significant interactive effect at

the .05 level (.008) (F = 7.17) with EPI-3 favoring the

Alyce D. McPherson School. The McPherson School scores

rose from pretest to posttest while the Lancaster Youth

Development Center scores dropped significantly (.05)

from pretest to posttest. The McPherson School difference

score gains were not significant at the .05 level while

the LYDC score drop was significant at the .05 level.

Mean differences by institution are reported in Table 13.


"Next Step"


The frequency count of "next steps" remembered and

taken by subjects was relevant only for experimental

treatment group participants. A multivariate nonparametric









analysis of variance was performed on these frequency

counts in order to determine whether there were significant

differences at the .10 level in frequencies of "yes"

responses for the factors of institution, pretest status,

VEG leader, sex, and race. The analysis held four factors

constant while checking for the effect of the fifth factor.

The significant factors were institution (.03) (X = 6.83)

and pretest status (.097) (X2 = 4.65). The ANOVA follow-up

revealed that institution differed on the remembering scale

(.009) (X2 = .7321), favoring LYDC, while pretest status

accounted for significant differences (.033) (X = .3513)

in "next steps" taken, favoring the non-pretest group.

Chi square values are reported in Table 14. Percentages

and frequencies are reported in Table 15. Sixty-one of a

total 95 VEG participant subjects (64%) remembered their

next step. A 95% confidence interval for the true popula-

tion fraction who remembered their next step was calculated

as .54 to .74. For those who reported taking the next

step, an estimate of 28 of a total 94 equaled 30%, with a

95% confidence interval for the true population fraction

calculated as .21 to .39.


Posttreatment Counseling Requests


At the bottom of the Jobs Inventory form is a box,

next to which is printed "I wish to see a counselor."

Seventy-eight percent of the experimental subjects marked

this box.









TABLE 1. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSES OF VARIANCE OF
DEPENDENT VARIABLE POSTTEST SCORES FOR
TREATMENT GROUP INTERACTIONS WITH
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES



Independent Variables df F Value F Prob.


Four levels of treatment group:

Institution 576 1.4359 .1248
Pretest Status 576 1.3614 .1607
Sex 576 1.3614 .1505
Race 576 .7063 .7800


Two levels of treatment group:

Institution 200 1.68058 .1399
Pretest Status 200 1.54842 .1755
Sex 200 3.20385* .0085
Race 200 .86124 .5096


*p < .05




82




TABLE 2. UNIVARIATE ANALYSES OF VARIANCE OF DEPENDENT
VARIABLE POSTTEST SCORES FOR TREATMENT GROUP
AND SEX INTERACTION



Dependent Variables df F Value F Prob.


CMI 1 .74406 .3894
EPI-1 1 3.08314* .0806
EPI-2 1 .90098 .3436
EPI-3 1 .01395 .9061
WWAI 1 5.40830** .0210



*p < .10

**p < .05










TABLE 3. POSTTEST MEANS BY SEX AND TREATMENT GROUP


Control


Male


4.18 (40) 3.63 (27)
83.40 (48) 91.00 (29)


3.27 (78) 3.68 (69)
87.26 (81) 86.22 (73)


EPI-1
WWAI


Female


EPI-1
WWAI


Exp.










TABLE 4. POSTTEST MEAN DIFFERENCES BY SEX AND TREATMENT
GROUP



EPI-1 WWAI


Male control versus
male experimental .90 4.75*

Male control versus
female control .70* 3.68*

Male control versus
female experimental .72 3.75

Male experimental versus
female control .80 4.37

Male experimental versus
female experimental -.05 4.43*

Female control versus
female experimental .60 3.26


*p < .05





85




TABLE 5. POSTTEST SCORE MANOVA F VALUES FOR MAIN EFFECTS
(EXCLUDING INTERACTIONS)



Independent Variable df F Value F Prob.


Institution 204 2.198* .0552
Pretest status 204 .9810 .5687
Sex 204 3.4418** .0066
Race 204 4.6665t .0007
Treatment group 204 1.2945 .2667


*p < .10

**p < .05

tp < .001





86




TABLE 6. F VALUES FOR POSTTEST UNIVARIATE ANALYSES
OF VARIANCE MAIN EFFECTS BY INSTITUTION,
SEX, AND RACE



Dependent
Variable Source df F Value F Prob.


CMI Inst. 1 .00075 .9782
CMI Sex 1 9.80615** .0002
CMI Race 1 19.63140t .0001
EPI-1 Inst. 1 .66001 .4175
EPI-1 Sex 1 4.84609* .0288
EPI-1 Race 1 .68444 .4090
EPI-2 Inst. 1 .05831 .8262
EPI-2 Sex 1 .32151 .5713
EPI-2 Race 1 .57470 .4493
EPI-3 Inst. 1 3.51180 .0623
EPI-3 Sex 1 1.13834 .2872
EPI-3 Race 1 .71637 .3983
WWAI Inst. 1 10.23495** .0016
WWAI Race 1 7.02946* .0086



*p < .05

**p < .005

tp < .0005










TABLE 7. POSTTEST MEANS FOR DEPENDENT VARIABLES WITH
SIGNIFICANT MAIN EFFECTS


Dependent Variable


Means


Sex
Male
Female

Race
White
Nonwhite


26.3
29.0*


30.3*
26.4


EPI-1


Sex
Male
Female


3.95*
3.46


WWAI


Institution
McPherson
Lancaster

Race
White
Nonwhite


85.23
87.92*


89.09*
84.77


*p < .05










TABLE 8. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSES OF VARIANCE OF DEPENDENT
VARIABLE DIFFERENCE SCORES FOR TREATMENT GROUP
INTERACTIONS WITH INDEPENDENT VARIABLES


Independent Variables


Four levels of treatment group:

Institution 303
Sex 303
Race 303


Two levels of treatment group:


Institution
Sex
Race


df F Value


.83590
.96343
.99381


107 .16733
107 2.28577*
107 1.67507


*p < .05


F Prob.


.6380
.5055
.5382


.0722
.0506
.1460




89




TABLE 9. UNIVARIATE ANALYSES OF VARIANCE OF DEPENDENT
VARIABLE DIFFERENCE SCORES FOR TREATMENT
GROUP AND SEX INTERACTION



Dependent Variable df F Value F Prob.


CMI 1 .17136 .6797
EPI-1 1 2.20660 .1403
EPI-2 1 1.01755 .3153
EPI-3 1 .10869 .7423
WWAI 1 7.10868 .0088*


*p < .01










TABLE 10. WWAI MEAN DIFFERENCE AND PRETEST SCORES BY
SEX AND TREATMENT GROUP


Control


Exp.


Difference Scores


-2.61 (28) 6.93 (14)
1.64 (39) -1.08 (38)


Pretest Scores


84.71 (28) 82.64 (14)
86.77 (39) 87.71 (38)


NOTE: There were no significant pretest differences at
the .05 level.
Male experimental mean difference scores on WWAI were
significantly greater (p < .05) than male control mean
difference scores and female mean difference scores.


Male
Female


Male
Female




91




TABLE 11. DIFFERENCE SCORE MANOVA F VALUES FOR MAIN
EFFECTS (EXCLUDING INTERACTIONS)



Source df F Value F Prob.


Institution 110 2.30056* .049
Sex 110 1.35222 .2471
Race 110 1.84201 .1097
Treatment group 110 .43509 .8245


*p < .05




92




TABLE 12. F VALUES FOR DIFFERENCE SCORES UNIVARIATE
ANALYSES OF VARIANCE MAIN EFFECTS BY
INSTITUTION



Dependent Variable df F Value F Prob.


CMI 1 2.95829 .0882
EPI-1 1 .16890 .6819
EPI-2 1 1.05929 .3056
EPI-3 1 7.17049* .0085
WWAI 1 3.38940 .9682


*p < .01




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