Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Educational directory
 Biennial report of the State Board...
 Biennial report of the Superintendent...
 Report of the Division of Adult...
 Report of the Division of City...
 Report of the Division of Health...
 Report of the Division of...
 Report of the Division of Research...
 Report of the Division of Rural...
 Report of the Division of Schoolhouse...
 Report of the Division of Special...
 Report of the Division of Teacher...
 Reports on the State Special...
 Reports on the State Teachers...
 Publications of the California...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098241/00004
 Material Information
Title: Report
Physical Description: v. : ill., plates, maps, plans, tables (part fold.) diagrs., forms. ; 22-25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: California -- Dept. of Education
California -- Dept. of Public Instruction
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Sacramento
Creation Date: 1928
Publication Date: 1851-
Frequency: biennial[1863/65-1877/79, 1880/82-]
annual[ former 1851-1862/63, 1879/80]
Subjects / Keywords: Education -- California   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Summary: 1926/28- contains statistical tabulations relative to the public schools of the state (Division of Research and Statistics).
Summary: 1926/28 includes the Thirty-third biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Biennial report of the Director of Education; 1928/30- include the Thirty-fourth biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Biennial report of the State Board of Education.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year irregular.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report for 1896/98 not printed. Cf. A.R. Hasse, Index of economic material in documents of the United States. California, 1849-1904, p. 85.
Numbering Peculiarities: 1926/28- in two parts each year. Part 1 includes the Thirty-third- Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Biennial report of the Director of Education; pt. 2, contains the statistical tabulations relative to the public schools of the state (Division of Research and Statistics).
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07919364
lccn - 05040131
System ID: UF00098241:00004


This item has the following downloads:

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Letter of transmittal
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Table of Contents
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    List of Tables
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Educational directory
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Biennial report of the State Board of Education
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
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        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Report of the Division of Adult Education
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Report of the Division of City Secondary Schools
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
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        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Report of the Division of Health and Physical Education
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Report of the Division of Libraries
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Report of the Division of Research and Statistics
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Report of the Division of Rural Education
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
    Report of the Division of Schoolhouse Planning
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
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        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
    Report of the Division of Special Education
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
    Report of the Division of Teacher Training and Certification
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
    Reports on the State Special Schools
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
    Reports on the State Teachers Colleges
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
    Publications of the California State Department of Education
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
    Back Matter
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
    Back Cover
        Page 235
        Page 236
Full Text






State Department of Education

Including the Thirty-fourth Biennial Report of the
Superintendent of Public Instruction and the
Biennial Report of the State Board of Education

For the School Years Ending June 30, 1929, and June 30, 1930


Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Ex officio Director of Education

........ ..-.,.....':.....
/5 '" ,Ij.'




SA('CAMENTO, September 15, 1930.
Governor of California,
Sacramento. California.

I have the honor to transmit herewith the biennial report of the
State Department of Education covering the period July 1, 1928, to
June 30, 1930.
This report embraces:
1. The biennial report of the State Board of Education, as required
by School Code section 2.1389.
2. The thirty-fourth biennial report of the Superintendent of Public
Instruction, as required by School Code section 2.1417.
The statistical report of the biennium, to be prepared by the Division
of Research and Statistics, will be issued separately as Part I[ of this
biennial report.
Respectfully submitted,

Superintendent of Public Instruction,
Ex officio Director of Education.




The present State Superintendent of Public Instruction and ex officio
Director of Education is especially happy, in submitting these sections
of the biennial report, to take this occasion to commend the fine spirit of
cooperation which it was his pleasure to inherit with the staff of the
State Department of Education. It is much more than idle comment
and passing compliment to state that all associates in the State Depart-
ment of Education, in Sacramento, San Francisco, and Los Angeles
have been found to be diligent workers in the performance of their
assignments and of superior ability in the mastery of educational
problems. To each one is due this recognition and compliment.
Cooperation between the State Department of Education and the
various functions of state government-the office of the Governor, the
offices of the State Controller, State Department of Finance, State
Treasurer, Secretary of State, the Attorney General, and the State
Printing Department-is deserving of particular mention. Mutual
responsibilities which reside in charge of the State Department of Edu-
eation and the State Department of Public Works have been so satis-
factorily discharged during recent months that a particular word of
compliment is due from the State Department of Education to the
Department of Public Works for its helpfulness in the solving of
problems having to do with building and construction.
To the members of the State Board of Edueation there is extended
herewith the appreciation of the department and the sincere congratu-
lations of the State Superintendent. This particularly congenial body
of citizens, unselfishly devoting hours of time and study to meetings
and to private analyses of the problems of the schools of the State of
California at much personal sacrifice, is worthy of public recognition.
During the years of experience which the State Department of Educa-
tion has had in cooperation with various state boards of education
there has never been reflected a higher sense of cooperation and a keener
enthusiasm in duty than is now prevailing among members of the pres-
ent State Board of Education.
To the various superintendents and other public school officials,
including members of boards of education and members of boards of
school trustees, numbering several thousand, in all quarters of the State
of California, there is extended a word of appreciation. In no place
in the entire state is it possible for us to indicate at the present time
an unwholesome educational attitude. This is due to the fine spirit of
understanding which teachers, principals, and administrators, with the
help of boards of trustees and boards of education, have created in the
minds of the public. Public education envisions a wholesome future
as this fine spirit continues. .
To that unselfish and devoted body, of"teachers who, throughout the
State of California, labor for the advancement of childhood, there is
expressed in these words a rich token of commendation for their pro-
fessionalism and for their earnest service to the future citizens of this


There exist in tlie State of Californiia many professional organiza-
tions, many groups privately interested in public education, many
orders, societies, and agencies which add their support to the length-
ening and strengthening of the arm of public education. To them, we
extend thanks. From them we solicit a continuance of their kind and
needed support.
Public officials throughout the state have been generous in their
attitude toward education. This generosity comes not from a selfish
desire to see education thrive in order that they may say they are
deserving of recognition because of support of this thriving institution,
but we are convinced that public officials know that the solution of
the problems in a democratic state is to be attained through a thorough-
goingo program of public education. We shall expect a continuance of
the support of these officials.
Institutions of higher learning in all sections of thle state have been
particularly cooperative. To the state university for its very advanced
point of view in matters of educational relationship there is extended
this public recognition of its prevailing attitude. The administration
at the university has extended to public schools of the state much
encouragement. A new era of cooperation in the attainment of
advanced standing in educational circles for all deserving pupils is
therefore upon us.
To that army of office workers who perform the vast routine of
clerical tasks which have to do with the integration of an educational
program, there is extended this word of recognition in order that they
may be encouraged thereby to continue that high order of service and
interest in their work which now prevails. Probably no offices of public
contact in the state are more faithfully served by office assistants whose
spirit is in the service than are the offices of public education. Particu-
larly, does this apply to the State Department of Education.
The citizens of the State of California have been generous in the sup-
port of their schools. Appreciation of that generosity is expressed in
the diligence of those of us who are engaged in public education in
giving answer for our stewardship. We hope that we may all of us be
subject to scrutiny and question, and that. as we are so questioned, we
may interpret our acts with proper relationship to the price the public
The press of the State of California has rendered an invaluable
service to the schools, to the professional workers and leaders, and to the
people of this state. Their earnest desire to make available news and
editorials which lend to the advancement of education rather than
through exploitation and sensationalism, as it may be drawn out of our
schools, is a policy we appreciate. In the future, it will be our desire
to count the press as a close associate in the important responsibilities
of maintaining an informed and sympathetic attitude toward public
Cordially yours,

Superintendent of Public Instruction.


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.----------------------------------------------
FOREWORD ---..--- --------------------------------------- ------------

State Department of Education- --------------------------------------- 17
County Superintendents of Schools--- -- ------------------------------ -- 19
City Superintendents of Schools ------------------------------------- -- 20

Rules and Regulations---------- --------------------------------- -- 23
Textbook Adoptions ------------------------------------------------------ 25
Departmental Organization --------------------------------------------- 25
Departmental Administration ------------------------------------------- 26
Policy Concerning Administrative Units------------------------------------ 26
Junior College Districts -- ---------------------------------- -----------26
Accreditation --------- ----------------------------------------------- 27
Credentials and Certificates----------------------------------------------- 27
Teachers' Retirement ----------------- --------------------------------- 27
California Historical Association---------------------------- --28
Education in State Institutions ---------------------------------------- 30
State Special Schools ---------- ----------------------------- -------31
State Teachers Colleges ------------------------------------------------- 31

The State Department of Education---------------------------------------- 35
Departmental integration--------------------------------------------- 35
Changes in personnel ----------------------------------------------- 35
New services -------------------------------------------------- 36
Legal interpretation-------------------------------------------------- 36
Special statistical studies---------------------------- --------------- 6
Expansion of field activities ----.------------------------ ----------36
Publication -------- ------------ -------------------------------- 37
Departmental policies and program -------------------------------------- *9
Junior colleges ---------- --- ----------------------------------- 9
Junior high schools ----------------------------------------------- 40
Finance ----------------------------------------------------------------- 40
Administrative units ------------------------------------------------- 41
A State program of public education------------------------------- -- 41
Legislation Enacted in 1929 ---------------------------------- -------11
Legal Interpretation --_------------------------------------------------- '4.
Legislative Recommendations --------------------------------------------- 44
Clarification of the School Code----------------------------------- 44
Teachers' tenure ---- ------- ----------------------------------- 44
Retirement of teachers---------------------------------------------- 45
School districts ------ ----- --------------------------------------- 45
Finance ----------------------------------------- 45
Certification of teachers--- ----------------------------------------- 46
Special legislation --------- ------ --------------------------------- 46
Leave of absence----------------------------------------------------- 47
Junior college standards----------------------------------------------- 47
Transportation ---- --------------------- ----------------------- 47
Insurance ----------------------------------------------------- 47
Attendance tuition ------------------------------------------------ 47
Fees ------------ -------------------------------------------------47
Teachers' contracts and school warrants------------------------------ 48
State Department of Education------------------------------- --48
Legal interpretation ------------------------------------------------ 48
School district budgets ----------------------------------------------- 48
Statistical Summary -------------------------------------------------- 4
State Printed Textbooks ------------------------------- ---55
State Nautical School---------------------------------------------------- 56
Education of Handicapped Children--------------------------------- 56



Conunissions and Committees-------------------- --------- 56
The Curriculum Commission -------------------------------------- ---- 56
The California Commission for the Study of Educational Problems--------__ 58
The Commission of Credentials ---------------------------_ 58
Affiliation Committee --------------------------------- --------
Public Safety Committee --- ------ ---------------- --59
Olympic Games Committee------- ------------------------------------ 59
School building problems ------------------------- -- ------------59
Mental hygiene survey --------------------------------------- 60
Educational Relations -------------------------- -- ------ ------ 60
Conventions and Conferences--------------------------------------------- 62
Secondary school principals' conventions------- -------------------------- 62
Public school superintendents' conventions------------------------------- 62
Junior college conferences---------------------------------------------- 63
Teacher training conferences ------------------------------------------- 63
Division Reports ____-------------------------------- -- -- 63
Auditor's Statement -------- ------------------------------------------ 63

The Purpose of Adult Education in California ---------------------------- 67
Limited character of early development ---------------------- 67
Recent developments -------------- ----------------------- 67
Education for freedom ------ ---------------------------------------- 68
Changing concepts ------------------------------------- 68
Purposes of present-day adult education ------------------------_---------_ 68
Serving community needs---------------------------- ---------- 69
California Association for Adult Education--------- -------------- 69
Institute of Pacific Relations-------------------------------------------- 70
Growth of Adult Enrollment-------------------------- ----- 71

The Adult Summer .School----- -------------------------------- 71
Curriculum and faculty--------------------------------- --72
Character of the summer school----------------------------------- 72

Mental Independence---------------------------- 74
Report of the Bureau of Child Study and Parent Education--- ----------__ 75
General description---------------------------------------------- ------ 75
Discussion class leaders--------------------------------- 75
Personnel of classes---------------------- -------- 76
Cost of the classes-------------------- ----------------------------- 76
Critical summary---------- ---------------------------- 77
Report of the Bureau of Immigrant Education--------------------------- 78
Recent developments ------------------------ ------ --- 78
Immigrant education bulletins ------------------------------------------79
Needs of immigrant education------------------------------ ------- 79

Division Staff-------------------- ---------------------------83

Division Responsibility------------------------------------------------- 83

Objectives ---------- ---------------------------------------------84

Accomplishments of the Biennium ---------------------------------- 85
Present Status of the Division-------------------------------- 87

Projected Objectives for the Next Biennium------------------------------- 87
Special Recommendations------------------------------------ 87

Report of the Bureau of Business Education--------------------------- 88
Development and present status of business education-------------------- 88
Organization of the Bureau of Business Education------------------------ 89
Objectives of business education------------------------------ ---- 89
Enrollment in business subjects-------------------------------- ---- 89
Business majors ------- -------------------------90
Comparative studies in business education------------------- ------- 90
Teacher training in business education--------------------- ----- 92
Projected objectives---------------------------- ----------- 93
Recommendation -------------------------------------- 93



Report of the Bureau of Civilian Vocational Rehabilitation------------------ 94
Objectives of the bureau-----------------------------------------------94
Status at beginning of biennium--------------------------------------- 94
Accomplishments of the bureau----------------------------------------- 95
Present status of the bureau--------------------------------------------- 96
Recommendations ---------------------------------------------------- 96

Report of the Commission for Federal-and-State-AIded Classes------------- 97
The growth of vocational education in California-------------------------- 97
Significant contributions of vocational education--------------------------- 97
Standards for measuring the efficiency of vocational education------------ 99
Bureau reports--------------------------------------------------------- 99
Report of the Bureau of Home-Making Education--------------------------- 100
Function of the bureau------------------------------------ -------100
Funds available for home-making education------------------------------ 100
Objectives of the bureau----------------------------------- 100
Accomplishments of the bureau during the biennium----------------------- 101
Summary ------------------------------------------------------------ 104
Projected program-- _----------------------------------- 104
Itinerant teacher training programs recommended------------------------ 104
Report of the Bureau of Trade and Industrial Education--------------------- 105
Functions of the bureau---------------------------------- 105
Need for an efficient program----------------------------------- 105
Financial status -------------------------------------- ---------105
Objectives of the bureau 0-------------------------------- 106
Accomplishments of the program --------------------------------- --- 106
Objectives of the next biennium-------------------------------- 108
Recommendation ----------------------------------------------------- 108

Staff ------------------------------------------------------------------- 111
General Activities------------------------------------------------------ 111
Special Activities----------------------------------- 111
Curriculum for Professional Training----------------------------------- 113
State Manuals-------------------------------------- --------- 113
Credit and Time Allotment- ------------------------------ ------------ 115
Experimental Program --------------------------------- ---- -------- 116
Evaluation of Programs in Physical Education---- ----------------------- 116
Regional Conferences -------------------------------- 117
Annual Report Blanks-- -.-------------------------------- --------118
State Association------.. ----------------------------------------------- 118
Junior College Athletics-- ----------------------------------------------- 118
Olympic Games Committee-----------------------------------------------119
Summary --- -------------------------------------------------------- 119

Library Fund ----------------------------------------------------------- 123
The New Home-------- ---------------------------------------------- 123
American Library Association----------------------------- 123
A Foreign Venture--------------------------------------------- 124
Statuary Hall Commission--------------------------------- 124
State Geographic Board--------------------------------------------------- 125
A Library Caravan ----------------------------------- -------125 .
Visitors --------------------------------------------------------------- 125
Books for the Blind ---------- -------------------------------- --- 125
Publicity --------- ------------------------------------------------- 126
California Department ----------------------------------------------- 126
Catalog Department------------------------------------------- 126
Documents Department-- ------------------------------------ ---------127
Law and Legislative Reference Department--------------------------- -- 127
Organizing Department---- ---------------------------- --- 127
Periodicals Department----- ------------------------------------------- 128
Prints Department .------------..------------------------------ 128
Reference Department--- -------------------------------- 128
Shipping, Printing, and Photostating Department--------------------------- 128
Sutro Branch---------------------------------------------------------- 129
Board of Library Examiners------------------------------- ------129

Objectives of the Past Biennium ..------------------------- --133
Personnel --- ----------------------------------------------- 133



Activities of the Biennium------------------------------------------ 133
Research and statistics-----------------------------------------133
Clerical and administrative--------------------------------------- 135
Editorial activities -------------------------------------------135
Publications issued -------------------------------------136
Addresses ---------------------------------------------------137
Conferences, conventions, and committee activities------------------- 138
Miscellaneous field activities------------------------------ -------138
Advisory services------------------------------ ----------------------139
Present Status of the Division --------------------------------------- -139
Future Plans for the Division------------------------------ ----- 139
Administrative ------------------------------------- ------- 139
Legislation -------------------------------------------------139
Publication --------------------------------------- ---------- 140
Research and statistics--------------------------------------- 140
Recommendations ------------------------------------------------ 140
Division personnel------------------------------- 140
Salaries of the division-------------------------------- 141
Publications -------------------------------------- --- ------141

Urgent Problems in Rural Education----------------------------- -- 145
Predominance of rural schools--------------------------------- 145
Unionization of schools------------------------------- -----145
Inadequate district valuations-------------------------------- -- 146
High standards necessary for rural teachers----------------------------- 146
Increased support necessary ---------- ---- ------------------- 147
Contrasting conditions of urban and rural schools------------------------ 147
Better conditions encountered -----------------------------147
Suggested solutions------------------------------ 148
Rural schools must preserve rural life--------------------------------- 148
Improved Professional Leadership--------------------------------------- 148
State Demonstration Rural Schools------------------------------------ 149
The Articulation of Elementary and Secondary Schools ---------------- 150
Guidance Programs In Rural Schools ---------------------------152
Studies in Rural Secondary Education-----------------------------152
Cooperative Curriculum Study in Northern Counties----------------------- 152
Course of Study for Non-English Speaking Children -------------------153
Report of the Bureau of Agricultural Education _----------------------- 154
Introduction ------------------------------------------------154
Scope of the agricultural education program--------------------------- 154
Rural secondary vocational agricultural education program-------------- 154
Agricultural education for urban secondary schools----------------------- 156
Rural elementary school agricultural education----- ---------------- 157
Agriculture teacher training program -------------------------157
Report of the Bureau of Attendance and Migratory Schools------------------ 159
General report----------------- ---------159
Migratory schools---------------------------- ---- ----- 159

The Scope and Character of the Work---------------------- -------163
Field activities ------------------------------------------------ 163
Bulletins ---------------------------------------163
Field conditions indicate need for services of the division------ ---------163
The adequacy of state school housing----------------------------------- 165
Educational Leadership and Publicity --------------------------- 166
Public contacts------------------------------------------ 166
Conventions and institutes----------------------------- --------- 167
Individual contacts------------------------------ ------------167



Research Activity---------------------------------------------------- 167
The need------ --------------------------------------------------- 167
The types of data needed-------------------------------- ----------- 168
Research conducted----------------------------------------------------- 170
Inadequacies of our present methods of support-- ---------------------_ 170

The Development of Standards-------------------------------------- 171
The types of standards needed------------------------------------------- 171
Bulletins ----------------------------------------------------171
Score cards----------------------------------------------------------- 171
Standards for building plans----------------------------------------- 171
College site standards -------------------------------------------175
College room-layout standards------------------------------- ------- 177
Specifications ------------------------------------------------------ 177
Safety standards------------------------------------------------------ 177

Financial Problems ---------------------------------------------------- 178
Study of problerns needed--------------------------------------------- 178
Technical aid needed----- ----------------------------------- 178
Advice about school bonds--------------------------------------- 180
Special school finance --------------------------------------- -------- 180

Summary -- --------------------------------------------- 180

Summary and Recormnendations------------------------------ -- -- 187
Value of special education ------------- -------- 187
Changes in personnel -------------------------------- 187
Extent of special education activities------------------------------ --- 187
Special education needs-------------------------------------- --- 188
Personnel recommendations--------------------------------------------- 88
Bureau of Education of the Deaf--------------------------------------- 189

Bureau of Education of the Blind---------------------------------- 190
Bureau of Correction of Speech Defects----------------------------------- 190
Need for additional classes---------.----------- --- ------ 190
San Quentin class------------------------------- --- ---- 190
Other special classes- ----------------------------- 190
Recommendations ----------------------------- 191
Bureau of Education of Crippled Children------------------------ 191
Extent of the work and present status -------------------------------- 191
Special classes for the tuberculous ---------------- ------ 191
Teacher selection and training --- ------------------------192
Minimum standards --______-___----- _--- ------------------------- 192
Counseling and coordination---------------------------------- 192

Development of Unified Teacher Training Program----------------------- 195
Teacher Training Institutions ---- -- -------------------- 196
Kindergarten-prima ry creden t in iI -- -------------197
General elementary credential_------------------------ 197
.Iunior high school credentia--------- ----------197
Special secondary credentials------------------------------------ 197
General secondary and junior college credentials------ ------------- 197
Administration, supervision, and research credentials--------------------- 198
Granting of Credentials_ ---_ -- -------- --------------- 198
Selection of Candidates----------------------- ------------------- 199

Evaluation of Teacher Training------ --------- -------------- 199
Research Studies Contemplated-- --------------------------------- 200
Teacher Supply and Demand---------------------------------------------- 201

Californik State Nautical School------------------------------------------- 205
California School for the Blind ---- ---------- --------------- 206
California School for the Deaf------------------------------------ 208
('alifornia Polytechnic School __------------- ---- ------------------- 211
Biennial improvements------------------------------------- -------- 211
Recommendations -------------------------------- 212

(11 )


Chico State Teachers College--------------------------------------- 217
Fresno State Teachers College ---------- ---------- ----------------- 217
Growth in enrollment ------------------------------ ------- ---- 217
Physical needs ---------------------------------- 218
Educational policies ------------------------------------ 218
Faculty preparation ----------- --------------------------------------- 218
Projected plans ------------------------------------- 218
Humboldt State Teachers College-------------- ------------------- 219
Curricular expansion --------------------------------- ---- 219
Enrollment data ------------------ ------- ----------- 219
Permanent improvements ------------------------------ 219
Extra-curricular activities ---------------- -- --- ------ 219
Girls' dormitory ------------------ -------------- 219
Campus ------------------------------------------------- 220
San Diego State Teachers College --------------------------------------- 220
Background _-------------------- 220
Present building program_---- ------ ----------------- 220
Summer session development ------- ------------------- 220
Professional training ------------------------------------- ---- 220
Faculty preparation --------------------------------------------- 221
Administration --- ---------------------------------- 221
San Francisco State Teachers College--------------------------------- 221
The student body----------------------------------- ---------- 221
Buildings and grounds--------------------------- 221
The curriculum -------------------------------------------------------- 222
Certification, credentials, and placement-__ --------------------- 222
The faculty -------------------------------------- --------- 222
Training for special education------------------------------ 223
Teachers in service--_-------------------------------223
Practice teaching ----------------------- --- ------ 223
The lower division ----------------------------------------- ------ 223
San Jose State Teachers College------------------------------------------ 224
Santa Barbara State Teachers College----------------------- ------ 224

EDUCATION ---------------- -------------------------- 227

(12 )


Statistical Summary of California Public Schools for 1928 1929 and 1929 1930-- 49
S-tatement of Expenditures of the State Department of Education---------___ 64
Enrolnlent of High School Stuflbnts in Businrss Cours__ -_------_-------------_ 89
l'.nrollinient in Part-time Extension Classes in llome Making --------------______102
Trade and Industrial E(lucation Classes by Type, Number, and Enrollment of Stu-
dents, 192S-1929 and 11.429-1930------------------------------------------- 108
Educational Statistics of the Trade and Industrial Education Teacher-Training
l'rogram, 1"9S-1929 and 1929-1930 -------------------------------------- 108

Statistical Iteport of the Books for tie Blind Department of the State Library,
192S-1930 ------------------------------------------------------------- 126
liomie Teaching Statistics of the Books for tile Blind Department of the State
library _--_-- ----------------------------------------------------- 126
Circulation of Books in the Law and I(egislative Reference Department.--------_ 127
Statistics of the Reference Department, State Library -------___-------______- 12S
Tabulation Showing Distribution of Elementary School Districts, by Number of
Teachers Employed ------------------_--------------------- _---- 145
Tabulation Showing Location of Rural Demonstration Schools --------------__ 150
Distribution of Junior High Schools by Number of Pupils Enrolled------------- 151
Tabulation Showing Distribution of Non-English Speaking Children in California 153
Tabulation Showing Distribution of Children of Seasonal Laborers Receiving
School Instruction ---------------------------------------------------- 160
Tabulation Showing Amount Expended for Migratory Schools from State Migra-
tory School Fund from September, 1929, to May, 1930--------------------- 160
,List of Schools Checked by the Division of Schoolhouse Planning, Showing County
and Contract Price, for Period July 1, 1929, to June 30, 1930 -----------_ 11-
Adequacy of the California State Teachers College Housing Facilities---------- 184
Tabulation Showing Type of Handicap Suffered by Applicants for Rehabilitation 188
Tabulation Showing Supply and Demand for Teachers in 1926-1927 and 1928-1930 201


Chart Showing Organization of the California State Department of Education-- 16
Plate I-School Plans Checked and Approved, from July 1, 1929, to June 30, 1930 162
Plate II-Status of Surveys Undertaken by the Division of Schoolhouse Planning 164
Plate III-Suggested Arrangement for a Junior High School Administration Suite 168
Plate IV-Plot Plan of the Union High School Site for the Monrovia City High
School District ---_----------------------------1---------------169
Plate V-Standard Arrangement for a One-hundred Pupil Cafeteria------------ 170
Plate VI-Suggested Development of San Jose State Teachers College---------- 172
Plate VII-Plot Plan of Santa Barbara State Teachers College--------------- 173
Plate VTII-Plot Plan of the San Diego State Teachers College---------------- 174
Plate IX-Assembly, Oral English, and Music Department, Chico State Teachers
College ---------------------. ---------- ---------------------------- 176
Plate X-Plan of Main Floor Library Building, San Diego State Teachers College 178
Plate XI-A Proposed Elementary School before Restudy_---------------- -- 179
Plate XTI-A Proposed Elementary School after Restudy-------------------- 179




















State Board of Education
(Members of the State Ioard of Education are appointed lb the (Covernor for a
term of four years. Terms expire the year indicated in parentheses.)
CHARLES L. McLANE (1934), President, 1027 North Van Ness Ave., Fresno.
Charles Albert Adams (1931), Humboldt Bank Building, San Francisco.
Allen T. Archer (1932), 215 West Sixth Street, Los Angeles.
Mrs. Minnie B. Bradford (1931), 1215 Thirty-ninth Street, Sacramenti.
E. P. Clark (1932), Riverside Press, Riverside.
Mrs. Mary Roberts Coolidge (1932), end of Dwight Way. Derk lvy.
Gordon Gray (1934), 1310 J. D. Spreckels Building, San Diego.
Mrs. Irene Taylor l-leineman (1933), 254 S. Spalding Drive, lev\'rly Hills.
Mrs. Daisie L. Short (1933), 1010 Harvard Road, Oakland.
Mrs. Amy S. Steinhart (1934), 2400 Steiner Street, San Francisco.
Vierling Kersey, Secretary, Sacramento.
Mrs. Florance B. Argall, Assistant Secretary, Sacramento.

Superintendent of Public Instruction
VIERLING KERSEY, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Director of the Depart-
ment of Education, Sacramento.
Sam H. Cohn, Deputy Superintendent, Sacramento.
Henry M. Lynn, Departmental Auditor, Sacramento.
Mrs. Pauline Winner, Secretary to the Director, Sacramento.

A. Division of Adult Education
EDNA STANGLAND KASCH (Mrs.), Chief of Division, Sacramento.
Magdalene Wanzer, Chief of Bureau of Immigrant Education, Los Angeles.
Herbert R. Stolz, M.D., Chief of Bureau of Parental Education, Berkeley.
John F. Dale, Supervisor of Child Study and Parent Education, Sacramento.
Gertrude Laws, Ph. D., Supervisor of Child Study and Parent Education, Los Angclhs.

B. California Historical Association
OWEN C. COY, Director, Los Angeles.

C. Division of City Secondary Schools
NICHOLAS RICCIARDI, Sc.D., Chief of Division, Sacramento.
J. C. Beswick, Chief of Bureau of Trade and Industrial Education, Sacramento.
Ira W. Kibby, Ph.D., Chief of Bureau of Business Education, Sacramento.
H. D. Hicker, Chief of Bureau of Civilian Vocational Rehabilitation, Sacramento.
J. M. Dodd, District Supervisor, San Francisco.
F. M. Ballard, Training Officer, San Francisco.
Jeannette E. Condy, Assistant Training Officer, San Francisco.
W. E. Smith, District Supervisor, Los Angeles.
Herbert H. Hope, Training Officer, Los Angeles.
Oliver Olson, Training Officer, Los Angeles.
Made I. Murchie, Chief of Bureau of Home-making Education, Sacramento.

D. Division of Health and Physical Education
N. P. NEILSON, Chief of Division, Sacram ento.
Winifred Van Hagen, Chief of Bureau of Physical Education for Girls, Oakland.

E. Division of Libraries

MILTON FERGUSON', Chief of Division and State Librarian, Sacramento.
Mabel R. Gillis, Assistant Librarian, Sacramento.

F. Division of Publications and Textbooks
Chief of Division.
W. S. Dyas, Chief of Bureau of State Printed Textbooks, Sacramento.
Stella Trussell (Mrs.), Chief of Bureau of High School Textbook Listing, Sacramen:t.
I Resigned September 30, 1930; succeeded by Miss Mabel R. Gillis.

( 17i )


G. Division of Research and Statistics
WALTER E. MORGAN, Chief of Division, Sacramento.
A. E. Lentz, J. D., Associate Chief, Sacramento.
C. Frederick Muncy, Assistant Chief, Sacramento.

H. Division of Rural Education
HELEN HEFFERNAN, Chief of Division, Sacramento.
Lillian B. Hill (Mrs.), Chief of Bureau of Attendance and Migratory Schools,
Julian A. McPhee, Chief of Bureau of Agricultural Education, Sacramento.
H. F. Chappell, Regional Supervisor of Vocational Agriculture, San Jose.
R. J. Werner, Regional Supervisor of Vocational Agriculture, San Jose.
A. G. Rinn, Regional Supervisor of Vocational Agriculture, Chico.
Edward W. Everett, Regional Supervisor of Vocational Agriculture, Fresno.

I. Division of Schoolhouse Planning
ANDREW P. HILL, Jr., Chief of Division, Sacramento.
Charles W. Bursch, Ed. D., Assistant Chief, Sacramento.

J. Division of Special Education
Chief of Division.
R. S. FRENCH, Ph.D., Chief of Bureau for the Education of the Blind, Principal,
California School for the Blind, Berkeley.
Elwood A. Stevenson, Chief of Bureau for Education of the Deaf, Principal, California
School for the Deaf, Berkeley.
Mabel F. Gifford (Mrs.), Chief of Bureau of Correction of Speech Defects, San

K. Public School Teachers' Retirement Salary Fund Board
VIERLING KERSEY, Secretary, Sacramento.
Marion H. Ketcham, Assistant Secretary and Principal Clerk, Sacramento.

L. Division of Teacher Training and Certification
EVELYN A. CLEMENT (Mrs.), Chief of Division, Sacramento.




(alaveras ----..........
Colusa--- -----------
Contra Costa-----------
Del Norte -----------
El Dorado-----------
Fresno ..__.____ -------.
Glenn- ------------
Humboldt ---_-_---
I imperial ---_----------
Kings----- --
Lassen--- ---
Los Angeles ---------
Madera ----------------
Marin__ ---_______--_
Mariposa ---------
Merced-- ___----
Mono -------------------
Monterey ________
Nevada ------------__ ---
Plumas ------------__---
Riverside --- ---........
Sacramento ----------
San Benito______________
San Bernardino_________
San Diego________-
San Fra lliseo---_ ______--
San .1onaquin_.______--__
San Luis Obispo- _---
San Mateo---------------
Santa Barbara______----
Santa Clara-----------
Santa Cruz__________-
Stanislaus -___________x
Sutter-- ___-----------
Trinity__ -----
Tulare --_------- ---_
Tuolumne ---____________
Ventura ________
Yolo -----_--
Yuba----- -----------


D. E. Martin------------------
Mrs. E. AI. Bruns --------_----.
Mrs. Sabra Greenhalgh .---------
.Tay E. Partridge--------------
Charles Schwoerer_----- -----
Miss Perle Sanderson -------
Win. II. Hanlon --------
Mrs. Anna R. Douglas---------
E. J. Fitzgerald--- -------- --
Clarence W Edwards ----- ----
Edgar P. Mapes_ _------__----
Robert A. Bugbee_--------------
H. C. Co--------------------
Mrs. Ruth W. Leete-----------
Herbert Healy- -------------
Mrs. Elsie I. Bozeman---------
Miss Minerva Ferguson--------
Mrs. Jessie B. Madison----------
H. S. Upjohn__--------------- -
TV. L. Williams----------------
Jas. B. Davidson-_ ____--------
T. B. Price-------------------
Fred D. Patton___-------------
C. S. Weaver__-----------------
Mrs. Lena C. Crabtree----------
Mrs. Nora A. Archer-__-------
Jas. G. Force-----------------
Miss Eva Holmes_- _____----
Mrs. Ella Austin---------------
RI. P. Mitchell-----------------
Mrs. Portia F. Moss___--------
Mrs. Vivian L. Long--_--------
Ezra E. Smith--____------------
R. E. Golway------------------
Mrs. Catherine Gray Hooton ---
Miss Ida MI. Collins-----------
Miss Ada York -----------
J. M. Gwiinn-----------------
Harry Bessac-----------------
Robert L. Bird ________--
Miss Pansy Jowett Abbott------
A. S. Pope_---_---------------
J. E. Hancock----------------
Miss Edna Young--_______---
Miss Bertha A. Merrill______--
Miss Belle Alexander------------
L. S. Newton ------__ --------
Dan H. White -----------
O. F. Staton -----------------.
A. G. Elmore ------------------
Mrs. M. M. Gray-----------
Paul D. Henderson--------------
Miss Lucy Young-- ---__--
J. E. Buickman ---------------
G. P. Morgan-- -- ----
Mrs. Blanche Reynolds ---------
Mrs. Rowena Norton------------
Mrs. Agnes W. Meade-----------


Gardnerville, Nev.
San Andreas
recentt City
El Centro
Lone Pine
L akeport
Los Angeles
San Rafael
Nevada City
Santa Ana
San Bernardino
San Diego
San Francisco
San Luis Obispo
Redwood City
Santa Barbara
San Jose
Santa Cruz
Santa Rosa
Yuba City
Red Bluff
Wea verville




City County Superintendent
_____________________ _______

Alhambra ------------
Bakersfield- -----
Burbank -------------
Grass Valley-------------
Long Beach-------------
Los Angeles-------------
Nevada City'------------
Oakland---------- ----
Oroville-- -------- ----
Palo Alto----------------
Pasadena --------------
Petuluma -------------
Piedmont ---------------
Pomona --------------
San Bernardino-----------
San Diego---------------
San Francisco-----------
San Jose-----------------
San Luis Obispo---------
San Rafael---------------
Santa Ana----------------
Santa Barbara------------
Santa Clara---------------
Santa Cruz______________
Santa Monica--- -----
Santa Rosa----------.----
Stockton----____--- ____--
Visalia---__---- --______

Alameda -----------------
Los Angeles-----------------
Kern--------------- ----
Los Angeles-------------
Butte-- -- -----
Los Angeles ------
Fresno---------- -
Los Angeles----------------
Nevada--------- ---
Los Angeles--------------
Los Angeles ---------
Los Angeles ------
Stanislaus --------
Alameda ------------------
Santa Clara--------
Los Angeles--- -----
Sonoma---- ------------
Alameda ------------------
Los Angeles -_-_-- ----
Contra Costa--------------
Monterey--- -------
San Bernardino __----------
San Diego -----
San Francisco------------
Santa Clara-- ---
San Luis Obispo-- ____
Marinu----__- ____
Santa Barbara----------
Santa Clara ----------
Santa Cruz -----
Los Angeles-------------
Sonoma __----------------.
San Joaquin---------- .
Tulare_ ----------------
Solano____- ______
Tulare -------------

William G. Paden
John Franklin West
Forrest V. Routt
L. E. Chenoweth
Lewis W. Smith
Frank A. Henderson
Chas. H. Camper
J. Win. Gastrich
Geo. B. Albee
0. S. Hubbard
Richardson D. White
J. S. Hennessy
George Wilmot Crozier
W. L. Stephens
Frank A. Bouelle
J. H. Bradley
----- ----------- ---
Willard E. Givens
Clifton L. Boyle
A. C. Barker
John A. Sexson
Bruce H. Painter
H. W. Jones
Emmett Clark
Walter T. Helms
Ira C. Landis
Chas. C. Hughes
Arthur Walter
L. E. Adams
Walter R. Hepner
J. M. Gwinn
Walter L. Bachrodt
Charles E. Teach
Oliver R. Hartzell
John A. Cranston
Paul E. Steward
Chas. W. Townsend
C. Ray Holbrook
Frederick F. Martin
Jerome O. Cross
Ansel S. Williams
S. J. Brainerd
Elmer L. Cave
E. L. Van Dellen
De Witt Montgomery

SHas city board of education but no city superintendent of schools.


for the period ending June 30, 1930


The more significant of the activities of the State Board of Educa-
tion during the past biennium are reviewed herewith in brief form.
Legislation enacted in 1929 supplemented that of 1927 for the pur-
pose of clarifying the functions of the State Board of Education and
the relationships of the State Board to the rest of the State Department
of Education. This legislation, however, does not even yet completely
clarify the status of the State Board of Education and supplemental
legislation is still required for this purpose.
The present School Code (section 2.1321) provides: The State Depart-
ment of Education shall be administered through: (1) The State Board
of Education which shall be the governing and policy determining
body of the department: (2) The State Director of Education in whom
all executive a nd administrative functions of the department are vested
and who is the executive officer of the State Board of Education.
The amended legislation of 1927 and 1929 did not specifically
modify those responsibilities which previously had been delegated to
the State Board of Education. The Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion js ex officio Director of Education and, therefore, the chief
executive officer of the Department of Education, as well as secre-
tary and executive officer of the State Board of Education.
The School Code (section 2.1383) places responsibility with the
State Board of Education for the adoption of rules and regulations
for the government of the public schools including the state teachers
colleges. During the past biennium the schools of the state have been
governed by the rules and regulations published together with the
State School Code in the SCHOOL CODE OF CALIFORNIA, 1929. At its
meeting held in San Diego, April 11 and 12, 1930, the State Board
enacted several amendments to its rules and regulations. Some of these
were to take effect immediately, whereas others which were intended to
modify requirements for high school graduation were made effective
for students graduating from high school subsequent to July 1, 1932.
Requirements for Graduation from High School.
Section XIII, paragraph C, was amended to read as follows: For all
students graduating from high school prior to July 1, 1932, the total
number of credits which shall br required for graduation shall be 160:
provided, that students completing the ninth grade in a junior high
school shall be permitted to graduate upon completion of a total of 130
credits in grades 10, 11, and 12 of a senior high school or a four-year
high school; and provided, that students completing the tenth grade in
a junior high school shall be permitted to graduate upon completion


of a total of 80 credit s in grades 11 and 12 of o senior high school
or a four-year high school.
For all students graduating from high school after July 1, 932,
the total number of credits which shall be required for graduation
shall be 170, including 10 credits for health and physical education;
provided, that for students completing the ninth grade in a junior
high. school the total requirement for graduation shall be not less
than 120 credits completed in grades 10, 11, and 12 of a senior high
school or a four-year high school: and provided, that for students
completing the tenth grade in a junior high school the total require-
ment for graduation shall be not less than 80 credits completed in
grades 11 and 12 of a senior high school or a four-year high school.

Prescribed Courses.
Section XIII, paragraph H, of the rules and regulations was made
section XIII, paragraph G. In subdivision 2 of this section the fol-
lowing paragraphs were added relating to the required laboratory
science to be completed in grades 10. 11, or 12:
h. Geqnral science, for those students who are not planning to enter
higher institutions of learning, provided the general science course
shall have been approved by the Stale Department of Education as a
laboratory science. Pupils completing the general science course in
any high school grade (9-12, inclusive) shall not be required to com-
plete any other laboratory science course in order to graduate.
i. Industrial science, for those students majoring in vocational trade
and industrial courses, provided that the industrial science course shall
have been approved by the State Department of Education as a
laboratory science.
j. Home making science, for those students majoring in vocational
home economics, provided, that the home making science course shall
have been approved by the State Department of Education as a.
labooorory science.

Local Requirements. Electives.
Paragraph G, of section XITT, was made paragraph H and was
amended to read as follows:
Local high school boards may prescribe such additional uniform
requirements for graduation as in their estimation are desirable; pro-
rided that each student shall be permitted to elect a total of not less
than 30 credits to apply toward graduation.

Continuation Education.
Section XIV, paragraph I, was amended to read as follows:
Minors subject to the provisions of section 1.350 of the California
School Code shall be required to attend continuation classes if the dis-
trict in which they reside or the district in which they work has estab-
lished such classes, .Such minors may attend continuation classes in
private schools, provided,prvi that the work in such classes is of the grade
,md quality required by the rules and regulations of the State Board
of Education governing continuation education.


School Code section 6.264 provides tint the Curriculum Commission
shall study and recolmendI( to tile State B]oard of Education textbooks
submitted for adoption for use in tile elementary schools of the state.
The State Board of Education during the past )ienniuin adopted the
following textbooks:
Freeman's Correlated Handwriting. Books One to Six. July. 1928.
Zaner, Bloser & Co.
History of the American P)eople, Second revised edition by Beard
and Bagley. July. 1928. The Macmillan Co.
Speaking and Writing English, Books Two. Three and Four by
Sheridan, Kleiser. and Matthews. July, 1928. Benjamin H. San-
born Co.
McFadden English Series, Book Three, Parts One and Two by Effie
B. McFadden. July, 1928. Rand McNally Co.
Child Story Readers, Primer, First, Second and Third Readers by
Freeman. Storm, Johnson. and French. July, 1929. Lyons and Car-
Child Slory v leaders. Fourth Reader by Freeman and Johnson.
SJuly. 1930. ILyonls and Carnahan.
Good Readings, Fifth Reader by Manly, Rickert, and Leubrie. July,
19930. Charless Scribner's Sons.
In addition to the above adoptions contracts covering the adoption
of the following textbooks were extended for another four-year period:
Journeys in Distant Lands by Barrows and Parker. July, 1928.
Silver, Burdett & Co.
A Beginner's History by Mace. July, 1928. Rand McNally Co.
Thorndike Arithmetics, Books One, Two and Three. July, 1928.
Rand McNally Co.
The original dates of adoption of the above renewals were as fol-
lows: Barrows and Parker, 1924; Mace, 1916; Thorndike, 1920.

Physical Education Manual.
Under authorization of School Code section 6.260, the Slate Board
of Education authorized the publication and distribution by the. Divi-
sion of Health and Physical E(ducation of a manual of physical educa-
tion activities for the elementary schools of the State of California.
This volume, prepared by Mr. N. PI. Neilson and Miss Winifred Van
Hagen of the Division of Ilealth and Physical Educalion, was pub-
lished in April, 1929.

Under the provisions of the State School Code the organization of the
State Department of Education is the dual responsibility of the Super-
intendent of Public Instruction and the State Board of Education.
During the past biennium the State Board of Education approved the
recommendations of the Superintendent of Public Instruction for the
establishment of a Bureau of Business Education. Dr. T. W. Kibby
was appointed chief of this bureau. A report of the activities of the
Bureau of Business Education has been submitted by Dr. Kibbv and


is included in the report of the Division of City Secondary Schools
found elsewhere in this volume.

Several administrative procedures of the State Department of Educa-
tion initiated by the Superintendent of Public Instruction have
received approval from the State Board of Education. A cooperative
study of library training has been instituted and a committee of the
State Board of Education was appointed to give direction to this study.
The study will involve the State Department of Education, the state
teachers colleges, and the State Librarian and will lead to'the estab-
lishment of principles governing the extension of library training in
the teacher-training institutions.
Approval was granted by the State Board of Education for the
publication of the TEACHERS' GUIDE TO CHILD DEVELOPMENT, concern-
ing which statement has been made elsewhere in this report. Authori-
zation has been granted for the development of materials for the use'
of teachers in the field of humane education, safety education and thrift
education; and extension of the TEACHERS' GUIDE TO CHILD DEVELOP-
MENT has been authorized to cover the period of the middle grades of the
elemffentary schools.

As an outcome of the enactment of School Code sections 2.440a-
2.454a., inclusive, relative to the exclusion of elementary school dis-
tricts from high school districts for subsequent formation into high
school districts, the State Board of Education has found it necessary
to establish a policy governing its consideration of petitions submitted
under these sections. The policy adopted is expressed in the following
resolution: RESOLVED, that as a general policy the State Board of
Education is in favor of larger rather than smaller units of school
administration, as in the interest of both economy and efficiency, and
that the board is opposed to the separation of elementary school dis-
tricts from existing high school districts to form new high school dis-
tricts except under such unusual conditions as might justify a devia-
tion from the policy stated above.

Owing to the extreme rapidity of the growth of district junior col-
leges and the enrollments therein, together with a marked decrease
in the income from the federal government comprising the basic state
support for these institutions, the State Board of Education was obliged
to postpone consideration of petitions requesting approval for the
formation of junior college districts in the cities of Los Angeles and
Santa Monica. The necessity for more careful consideration of the
factors affecting the need for the establishment of junior college dis-
tricts than those specified in the School Code has impelled the State
Board of Education to consider seriously the establishment of definite
policies relative to the extension of junior colleges in the state. Legis-
lation will probably be requested authorizing the State Board of
Education to establish standards for the formation of junior college


lis-tricts amu requIl iili'g care 'fl surv'\'eys to be made before approval is
given to petitions for ihe forimationl ofl new districts.

Responsi)bility is placed with the Stiae Board of Eiducation for the
acrelitatioi n oI' teacher traiiinlog institutions, upon1 the recoinilenda-
tion of the ('omm01 mission of Credentials for 1ie( pIurpose of issuance of
state credentials or teachers' certificates. During Ille past two years
criteria have been esIablished for the a creditation of private institu-
tions in Cali'fornia seeking approval as teacher training inlstitulions.
Similar erileria liave beenl set up for the (accreditation of teacher
training institutions outside the State of California. Report of
these criteria and 'of the activities of accreditation are presented in the
report of the Division of Teacher Training and Certification.
Approval has been given by the State Board of Education to a form
drafted by the Division of Teacher Training and Certification to be
used as a teacher's credential for private tutor s as required by School
('ode section 1.144. enacted in 1929.
A procedure for the certification of continuation educeaion teachers
and evening hiigh school teachers has been approved by the State Board
of Education to guide the activities of the Division of Teacher Trainin,
and Certification in the issuance of credentials in these fields.
The State Board of Education is required by state law to serve as a
public school teachers' retirement salary fund board. In the latter
capacity the Slate Board of Education is required to enact and enforce
all necessary and proper rules and regulations relative to the adminis-
tration of the state teachers' retirement salary funds. The Superin-
tendent of Public TIstruction s-erves in ex officio capacity as secretary
of the retirement salary fund board. Miss Marion II. Ketcham is assist-
ani secretary an1d principal clerk of the board.
The retirement salary fund board holds quarterly meetings. Its
policy is to limit its activities adl regulations to tlihe securing of an
efficient administration of the state teachers' retirement law. A clerical
force is maintained for the purpose of administering tile retirement
salaries, maintaining teacher records, and development of statistical data
relative to the work.
The present plan under which the state teachers' retirement salary
fund is operated has proven to be somewhat unsatisfactory and several
investigations have been made with a view to recommending sounder
actuarial status for the fund. Thus far no recommendation has been
made which has proven satisfactory to all parties concerned. Hence it
has been impossible to enact any legislation materially changing the
procedures originally adopted. At the present time a fourth actuarial
investigation is under way sponsored by the California Teachers Asso-
ciation. It is expected that this study will result in definite recom-
mendation for a modification of the present plan.
It is the recommendation of the State Department of Education that
some amendment be made whereby teachers leaving the profession


may be guaranteed a return of the retirement salary dues paid in by
them to the fund.
During the biennium just closed a total of $960,784.77 was collected
from the contributing certificated employees eligible under the retire-
ment salary act. During this biennium a total of $1,227,341.86 was paid
in retirement salaries. On June 30. 1930, there were 1417 annuitants on
the pay roll.

The California State Historical Association became an official state
body by a statute of 1927, and was given recognition by the State
Department of Education early in 1928. The statute transferred to
this new agency all property and archives of the former Historical
Survey Commission (1915-1923), custody and general control being
vested in the State Board of Education as trustees.
The constitution of the association provides for a membership
of citizens and organizations who contribute to its support. The
elective officers of the association are a president and four vice presi-
dents, chosen at an annual meeting.
Headquarters of the association are established at Los Angeles where
the executive officer or director, who is appointed by the Board of
Education to serve on a part-time basis, may divide his time between
the association and university classes in California history.
The purpose of the association is to promote interest in and dissemi-
nate knowledge of the history of California. The association seeks
to fulfill this purpose chiefly by means of publications. To interest
the young people in our schools and the general reader, there is issued
eight times a year THE CALIFORNIA IISTORY NUGGET, a sixteen-page
magazine which goes to junior and senior members of the association
and to other subscribers. Articles in the NUGGET are simple, readable,
and written with scholarly care. It is being well received as supple-
mental reading in secondary schools.
For readers of California history who desire more scientific material,
the association looks forward to the publication of a quarterly maga-
zine, to be entitled the CALIFORNIA IISTORICAL REVIEW, for which funds
are not at present available.
The association also proposes to publish from time to time historical
studies and aids for beginners and for advanced students of state his-
tory. During the past biennium we have published THE HUMBOLDT
CALIFORNIA. This is a monograph of 346 pages prepared by the
director of the association and well illustrated with engravings and
maps. It is the first of a series of regional studies that should be under-
taken by students of California local history in order that the facts
about our state may be properly assembled and interpreted. Under
the trusteeship of the State Board of Education, the association is in
a position to cooperate closely with the public school system. To
further this program, the board has appointed from its number a
special committee of three members, Mr. Allen T. Archer (chairman),
Mrs. Amy S. Steinhart, and Mrs. Dasie Short. Several aids for
teachers of California history are now in preparation, among them
CLUBS and a series of separate topical outlines of California history


subjects in folder form. These will provide useful reference guides
for class activities. They should be helpful to teachers and club
leaders who have not had specific training in the subject, or those
who wish to cover the most important points in a limited time.
The association seeks to develop throughout the state an apprecia-
tion of the value, both civic and personal, of our unique legacy of his-
tory and romance, and to assist all popular movements already under
way, to the end that the authentic history of the state may be more
generally known. The association office is therefore coming to be a
reference center or "clearing house" for historical workers in societies
and in committees of citizens who are dealing with problems of local
history. We are now compiling a directory of historical agencies in
California for early publication, showing for the first time the extent
of popular interest in state history. Cooperation with these groups will
be a useful function of the association. An advisory council is pro-
posed, to consist of the officers of the association, chairmen of com-
mittees, and one delegate from each affiliated organization.
Systematic and thorough study of the history and architecture of
the old missions, begun by the Historical Survey Commission in 1917,
is being continued. Restoration of several missions is being under-
taken at the present time by groups of citizens, and the association
lends its heartiest encouragement to this work. San Diego Mission is
now being rebuilt according to plans and models based on data in our
files and perfected in our office by cooperating architects. While we
do not direct the actual work of restoration, we are glad to advise and
assist so that the result will be true restoration, rather than mutilation
of these venerable landmarks.
Through Mr. Hilliard Welch, president of the association for 1930,
we have direct contact with the current state-wide landmarking pro-
gram. The marking of historical sites, when properly selected, adds
greatly to the charm of any locality, and can be of great educational
value. The NUGGET devotes its pages from time to time to the story
of important landmarks and will give more attention to this subject
in the forthcoming volume.
Historical celebrations and pageants have come to hold an important
place in California community life. The association js frequently
called upon through its director for advice regarding the historical
groundwork for such spectacles. One of our members, a specialist in
pageantry, has volunteered to gather data on historical pageants in
California, with a view to preparing a brief handbook and index on this
There is a great deal of valuable material on California history sub-
jects in our files and elsewhere which should be made available for use
by publication and distribution as rapidly as funds can be secured.
The quarterly review is urgently needed; the articles in such a pub-
lication will come to the association without cost except for the editorial
work involved. The mission studies should be printed. A directory of
newspaper files, with an introduction on the history of journalism in
California, awaits publication. We have an extended bibliography of
periodical literature on California which could be brought down to
date and published for use of students in the field. A survey should
be made to determine how many public and private schools of secondary
or collegiate grade are conducting courses in California history. It is


recommended that a reduction in the price of the NUGGET to $1 per
year be effected if possible by the beginning of the school year 1931-
The chief service of the association to its members and the state
will be through publication and wide dissemination of authentic and
useful historical materials. Fifty-six historical bodies outside of the
state, including the historical conuissions and societies of all states
in the union, receive our publications regularly. It is hoped that addi-
tional support by the legislature and members of the association will
make possible a steady development of the publication program.
Three annual meetings have been held since our establishment as a
state agency; December, 1927, at Berkeley; December, 1928, at Clare-
mont Colleges in joint session with the Pacific Coast Branch of the
American Historical Association; and December, 1929, at Millerton
and Fresno upon invitation of the Fresno County Historical Society.
The 1930 meeting will be called at Palo Alto in conjunction with the
Pacific Coast Branch.
Elective officers of the association have been as follows:
1928-President, Joseph R. Knowland, Oakland. Vice presidents,
George Cosgrave, Fresno; Augustin S. Macdonald, Oakland; George W.
Marston, San Diego; W. L. Valentine, Los Angeles.
1929-President, Angustin S. Macdonald, Oakland. Vice presidents,
Phil B. Bekeart, San Francisco; Win. H. Ellison, Santa Barbara; Hil-
liard E. Welch, Sacramento; Allen H. Wright, San Diego.
1930-'Prcsident, Ililliard E. Welch, Sacramento. Vice presidents,
Phil B. Bekeart, San Francisco; Wm. H. Ellison, Santa Barbara; Ben
R. Walker, Fresno; Allen II. Wright, San Diego.
Communications and inquiries should be addressed to the Director,
Owen C. Coy, at 3551 University avenue, Los Angeles.

The 1929 legislature authorized the State Board of Education to
assist in the development of courses of study for inmates of state insti-
tutions. During the past biennium contacts have been established with
several state institutions and assistance given in the development of
courses of instruction in vocational education and in speech correction.
Reference is made to the latter work in the report of the Division of
Special Education. Several conferences were held at San Quentin
with Mr. II. A. Shuder, Director of the Educational and Religious
Department, for the purpose of setting up vocational courses for,
prisoners. The value of this type of instruction has been definitely
proven in experiments conducted in penal institutions in the rehabilita-
tion aind regeneration of the socially maladjusted. The educational
activities at San Quentin are very broad in character, covering the
entire elementary field, and offering not only commercial subjects in
the high school field but also classes in foreign languages, agriculture,
history, philosophy, foreign trade, and economic geography. Univer-
sity extension courses are also conducted in the prison. The state
library l1urnishes emaly books for these courses, particularly in the
field of vocational education.
It is hoped that more activity will be developed in assisting the
directors of state institutions to develop educational courses for their


inmates, particularly along the vocational lines which seem to be of
greatest value in these cases.

It is the function of the State Board of Education to establish
policies governing the operation of the several state special schools
maintained under the administration of the State Director of Educa-
tion. These include the California State Nautical School at San Fran-
cisco, established by act of the legislature in 1929; The California
Schools for the Blind and the Deaf, which are maintained in Berkeley;
and the California Polytechnic School which is maintained at San Luis
Obispo. During the biennium considerable attention has been given by
the State Board to matters of policy relating to these institutions. Dis-
cussion of these policies will not be presented here since reports of
each of these institutions are contained elsewhere in this volume.

Reports of the seven state teachers colleges administered by the
State Director of Education under the regulations of the State Board
of Education are presented elsewhere in this report. During the
biennium the State Board of Education has given much time to dis-
ciission of problems of the state teachers colleges, particularly with
reference to the functions of the teachers colleges with regard to
teacher training and other types of local regional service. No final
policy has been formulated as yet but it is trusted that within a short
time agreement can be reached concerning the policies which are to
give direction to the future development and growth of these state


of the


for the period ending June 30, 1930



Departmental Integration.
The present Superintendent of Public Instruction was appointed to
that office on February 11, 1929, by Governor C. C. Young, to succeed
the Honorable William John Cooper, who resigned to accept appoint-
ment as United States Commissioner of Education. The excellent
work which had been accomplished by Dr. Cooper in the establishment
of departmental unity and cordial professional relationship between
the State Board of Education and the staff of the State Department of
Education, facilitated in no small measure the adjustments incident
to the assumption of office by the new superintendent. These fine atti-
tudes have made it possible to continue the development of the inte-
grated departmental plans, )policies, and programs so well initiated
by Dr. Cooper.
As a result of legislation enacted in 1929 (discussed more fully
elsewhere in this report), those provisions of state law relating to
the powers, duties, and organization of the State Department of Educa-
tion were clarified and the foundation laid for a unified department
which succeeded to the several responsibilities theretofore charged to
numerous individuals and boards. During the past biennium, no
change has been made in the actual organization of the Department,
though several changes in personnel have resulted from resignation.

Changes in Personnel.
As is indicated in the Directory of the State Department of Educa-
tion, Mrs. Irene Taylor Heineman and Mrs. Daisie L. Short were
reappointed by Governor Young to serve as members of the State
Board of Education. On the staff of the State department of Educa-
tion tle following changes in personnel occurred during the period
July 1, 1928, to June 30, 1930:
Vierling Kersey, appointed February 11, 1929. to succeed Wmi.
John Cooper, Superintendent of Public Instruction and Director of
Mrs. Pauline Winner succeeded Miss Mary T. Stafford as Secretary
to the Director.
Mrs. Edna Stangland Kasch succeeded Mrs. Ethel Richardson Allen,
resigned February 1, 1930, as Chief of the Division of Adult Education.
Miss Zellah Ryan appointed Acting Chief of Division of Special
Education on resignation of Dr. Anita M. Miihl, May 1, 1929.
Mr. Alfred E. Lentz. J.D., appointed Associate Chief, Division of
Research and Statistics, as specialist in school law, as of April 1, 1929.


Mr. C. Frederick Muncy, appointed Assistant Chief, Division of
Research and Statistics, in charge of records and reports, as of October
28, 1929.
Mr. Charles W. Bursch, Ed. D., appointed Assistant Chief, Division
of Schoolhouse Planning, July 1, 1929.
New Services.
No essential changes have been made during the biennium in the
organization of the State Department of Education. Some new fun.-
tions have been added, and the field and service activities of all divi-
sions of the department have been materially expanded, particularly
with a viewpoint to rendering greater aid in the solution of local and
state school problems. New functions added in the program of the
State Department of Education included the rendering of advisory
service to all types of local school officials relative to local problems;
an expanded and technical legal interpretative service; preparation of
special studies of statistical character to aid in the solution of local
financial, educational, and administrative problems; and publication in
bulletin form of information and data of a more general type for the
guidance of school administrators.
The expanded program of local service has affected the activities
of all divisions of the State Department of Education, embracing such
activities as schoolhouse surveys; regional and group conferences on
local problems; preparation of special statistical studies in the Sacra-
mento offices; and presentation of data and analysis of conditions
to local school boards and administrators.
Legal Interpretation.
Mr. Alfred E. Lentz, J.D., who was responsible for the major
part of the work of codifying the school laws of the state, was employed
as Associate Chief of the Division of Research and Statistics and to
him, under the direction of Deputy Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion Sam H. Cohn, was assigned the technical phase of interpretation of
school law. The services of Mr. Lentz have made possible, for the
first time in the history of the department, a complete and technical
legal interpretative service to the school people of the state.
Special Statistical Studies.
The addition to the staff of Mr. C. Frederick Muncy, as Asisstant
Chief of the Division of Research and Statistics, has increased the field of
service of that division in many ways. Numerous special studies have
been made possible for the service of local school officials as a result
of Mr. Muncy's employment. Increase in the personnel of this divi-
sion has also enabled the chief of the division to devote considerably
more of his time to administrative duties and to the performance of
numerous field services not hitherto rendered.
Expansion of Field Activities.
Stress on the importance of rendering adequate service to local
school officials and to groups and individuals interested in the study
of school problems, has materially increased the demands on the time
of all staff members. A reallocation of department funds was neces-
sary as a result of these increased divisional activities. These services


included calls for addresses at teachers' institutes, and meetings of
school trustees: conferences with groups of principals, supervisors,
and superintendents; individual conferences; addresses before such
groups as parent-teachers' organizations, city and county educational
associations. real estate associations, press associations, public school
business officials' organizations, junior college associations, civic and
professional clubs and associations, and many other similar groups;
surveys of local school districts; meetings with county boards of
supervisors; and activities in conjunction with numerous committees
and commissions studying professional problems.
The necessity for this expanded program of field service is evidenced
by the increasing frequency of the requests which come to us for
these services. Continuance of this program without loss or detri-
ment to the manifold activities of a more nearly clerical or adminis-
trative nature, which are legal obligations of the department, necessi-
tates more adequate budgetary support and increased personnel.
As a part of the expanded program of the department, directed to
the performance of helpful service to school officials throughout the
state, an expanded policy has been adopted with regard to publication.
An official organ of the State Department of Education, CALIFORNIA
SCHOOLS, has been issued monthly, beginning January, 1930. In this
publication are presented in brief form the policies and program of
the State Department of Education; current interpretations of school
law; announcements of enrrent professional interest; significant facts
concerning California schools; a legal calendar for all public school
officials; and other similar itents. The need for such a publication
has long been felt throughout the state, and the reception which has
been accorded it has more than justified its cost.
A complete list of all publications of the Department of Education
now available will be found on pages 227-231. The following is a list
of the publications issued during the biennium:
Bulletin Division
numi br Title of publication responsible
5-H A Drill Book in English Structure for Foreigners in Evening
School (reprint) ---------------------------------Adult Education
5-J Letter Writing and Written Composition for High Intermedi-
ate and Advanced Foreign Students (reprint) -- _-----Adult Edncation
5-K Some American Customs, Business Ways and Business Men,
for Intermediate and Advanced Classes of Foreign Students
(reprint) -- ------------------------------- ----Adult Education
5-L Civic Lessons for Intermediate Students (reprint) --------- Adult Education
5-M A Supplementary Reader for Women's Classes: Buying and
Budgets, and a Holiday Series (reprint) --------------Adult Education
5-N Home Lessons (Iealth and First Aid) for Women's Classes.
(reprint) ---------------- ----------------------Adult Education
5-0 Short Plays for Foreign Students in Evening Schools--------Adult Education
5-P Suggestions for an Evening School Newspaper for Foreign
Students and Teachers of Foreign Students----------- --Adult Education
B-1 A Suggestive Course of Study in Industrial Art for Rural
Schools ------ -------------------------------Rural Education
B-2 A Tentative Course of Study in Music for Rural Schools--- Rural Education
B-3 Reference and Procedure for Supervisors of Child Welfare and
School Attendance------------------------------ Rural Education
C-2 The California Plan for Vocational Education: Federal and
State Aided Instruction in Home Making for Girls and
Women --------------------- ----------------City Secondary Schools


Bulletin Division
nutimber Title of puablicutioi responsible
C-3 The California Plan of Vocational Education: Teacher-Train-
ing Course in Home Making for Experienced Home
Makers_______- ------------------_-- City Secondary Schools
D-1 Analysis of State Laws Governing the Education of Physically
Handicapped Children .------.----- -- .--- ------Special Education
l)-2 Report of an Experiment in Nutrition at the California School
for the Blind _----------------____________-_ _____ Special Education
Manual in Health Supervision and Instruction for the Ele-
mentary Schools of the State of California___Health and Physical Education
Manual of Physical Education Activities for Elementary
Schools ----------- -----------------_Health and Physical Education
E-1 A Curriculum for the Professional Preparation of Physical
Education Teachers for Secondary Schools_--- _
Health and Physical Education, and Teacher Training and Certification
Excerpts from the School Code, Part IV: Retirement of
Teachers -----------------------------_---- State Board of Education
Circular of Information regarding Teachers' Retirement Sal-
ary Law ------- ---------------- -----State Board of Education
Report of California Public School Teachers' Retirement Sal-
ary Commission ..Commission,-- ----- A. R. Heron, Chairman
List of Teachers Exempt from Salary Deductions Under the
Teachers' Retirement Salaiy Law--192S_ _- -----State Board of Education
List of Teachers Confidential Personal Reports-1927-
192S-------------------------- .-------State Board of Education
List of Teachers Confidential Personal Reports-1828-
1929-------------------- --------State Board of Education
California State Departmenj of Education-Biennial Report,
1928-Part One ..------- --_ -- --. Superintendent of Public Instruction
School Code of California. 1929-------Superintendent of Public Instruction
The Story of Jedediah Smith Who Blazed the Overland Trail
to California (reprint), by Noel J. Breed _----__ State Board of Education
First Apportionment of State School Funds for the Fiscal
Year Ending June 30, 1929--._---- -- Superintendent of Public Instruction
Second Apportionment of State School Funds for the Fiscal
Year Ending June 30, 1929_ ------Superintendent of Public Instruction
First Apportionment of State School Funds for the Fiscal
Year Ending ,June 30. 1930 ------Superintendent of Public Instruction
Second Apportionment of State School Funds for the Fiscal
Year Ending June 30, 1930 -------Superintendent of Public Instruction
G-4 Handbook on Continuation Education _------------The Director of Education
California Schools. Monthly, beginning January,
1930------------------------------------The Director of Education
11-2 Regulations Governing the Granting of State Teachers' Cre-
dentials and County Certificates in Cali-
fornia ------------------- -----------Teacher Training and Certification
H1-2 (Supplement) Regulations Governing the Granting of Special
State Teachers' Credentials of Vocational Arts Type in
Trade and Industrial Education and Supervision Type in
Trade and Industrial Education--___-----Teacher Training and Certification
California State Department of Educantion, Biennial Report,
1928, Part Two; Statistical Report-__-- --------Research and Statistics
Statistics of District Junior Colleges, 1927-28_- __ --Research and Statistics
Statistics of District Junior Colleges, 1928-29 ----- Research and Statistics
J-1 (1929) Directory of California Secondary Schools, as of
October 1. 1928 ------------------- ----Research and Statistics
J-1 (1930) Directory of California S(eon(ar-. Schools, as of
October 1. 1929 --.------------------....- ----- Research :and St:tistics
Statistics of California Cit.\ School Disiricts for the School
Year Ending June 30. 1927 --_---_-- _-------- Research and Statistics
Statistics of California City School Districts, 1926-27 (Series
of four charts) ----------------------------- Research and Statistics


Bulletin Division
nuni'hr T'itl of publication responsible
J-2 Statistics of California City School Districts for the School
Year Ending June :30 192S ------- ------_---Research and Statistics
S Statistics of California City School Districts, 1927-2S (Series
of four charts and bulletin of explanation) ---------Research and Statistics
.-3 California Junior College lMental-Education Survey, by Dr.
Walter C. Eclls -- ---------- --------------Research and Statistics
K-1 Standards for Sanitary Fixtures in Public Schools ---__ Schoolhouse Planning
K-3 The Type, Design, Installation, and Care of Blackboards-_Schoolhouse-Planning
M-3 List of High School Textbooks_ -----_---------- Publications and Textbooks
M-3 (Supplement) List of High School Textbooks_--- Publications and Textbooks
M-4 Information Regarding the Listing and Adoption of High
School Textbooks in California --------------Publications and Textbooks
-- California County Free Libraries---------------- -------State Library
News Notes. Books for the Blind Department, California
State Library. Reprint from News Notes of California
Libraries, January, 1930--------------------------------State Library
Handbook of Information for the Use of Members of the
California Legislature, 4Slh Session. 1929 ------ --------State Library
--- Library Laws of the State of California ----------------- State Library
SCalifornia County Free Library Law_ ------ ----------- State Library
Circular of Information for Applicants for Certificates of
Qualification to Hold the Office of County Librarian in
California --------- ----------------- ----State Library
California County Free Library Service to Schools ------------State Library
Biennial Report of the California State Library, 1928. Reprint
from Biennial Report, California State Department of Edu-
cation, 192-S ----------- ----------------_State Library
News Notes of California Libraries. Quarterly------------ State Library

Departmental Policies and Program.
It has been our endeavor during the past biennium through numer-
ous regional conferences and through the agency of the publications of
the State Department of Education, notably that of CALIFORNIA
SCHOOLS, to establish and formulate generally acceptable policies
relative to the public schools of the state, and to develop in the light
of such formulated policies a program of activities for the State Depart-
ment of Education. In this endeavor many conferences with small and
large groups of representative persons have been held in a number of
localities throughout the state. From the discussion developed in
these conferences tentative formulation was given to specific policies
concerning various phases of public education. From these statements
of policy it has been our attempt to develop and convey to the school
people of the state definite programs of activity to be undertaken.

Junior Colleges.
Conferences were held on numerous occasions both in northern
California and in the southern part of the state in which representatives
of all of the junior colleges of the state as well as persons interested
in the junior college movement from the standpoint of school adminis-
trators or universities and four-year colleges participated fully. As a
result of these conferences the following uniformly accepted policies
were adopted:
1. That junior college education is definitely part of secondary educa-
2. That the junior college has as its major purposes:
a. Preparation for the specialized professional training offered
in higher institutions,


b. Specialized technical and semiprofessional education designed
to prepare for immediate vocational placement.
c. Preparation for the cultural or academic curricula of higher
d. Cultural or academiic education of advanced secondary level,
not preparatory to further or higher education but designed
to improve the general level of educational attainment.
3. That in view of the characteristic objectives of junior college
education, this field of secondary education embraces not only those
institutions designated as junior colleges but also all other academic,
technical or preparatory institutions of the same level, including the
lower division of the teachers colleges and of other four-year colleges ,
or universities.
4. That as a part of the secondary school offering of the state, junior
college education should be made available to all who desire it in so far
as practicable.
5. That the curricula of the junior colleges should be individualized
to as great an extent as possible, particularly in the so-called "terminal"
or vocational courses; i.e., adapted to the specific needs, abilities, and
objectives of the individual students enrolled.
6. That the organization of junior college districts should be based
upon sound standards which would guarantee educational adequacy,
efficiency, and economy, and not upon the arbitrary requirements of
assessed valuation and enrollment now set up in the School Code.
7. The present methods of financing junior college education require
complete revision in order that:
a. A greater proportion of the total cost shall be borne by the
b. Local property shall be relieved of a considerable portion of
the burden which it now bears.

Junior High Schools.
Recommendations relative to junior high schools, which have grown
out of numerous conferences held throughout the state, are:
1. That the junior high school be made fully a part of the
secondary school system and supported on the same basis as are the
high schools of the state.
2. That the advantages of junior high school education be extended
to children in rural areas.

State policy with regard to public school finance in California centers
in the following recommendations:
1. A revision of the tax base for the support of public education so as
to provide material relief from the present burden of taxation upon
local, real, and personal property.
2. Assumption by the state of a greater proportion of the cost of
public elementary and secondary education.
3. The establishment of equalization funds which will:
a. Equalize educational opportunities.
b. Equalize local burdens of school costs.


4. Materially increased state support for junior high schools placing
these on the same basis as high schools.
5. Increased aid for junior college courses i maintained as depart-
ments of high schools.
6. The establishment of all state seliool funds on a nonflnctuating
basis so as to guarantee adequate revenues without reference to the
sources of these revenues.
7. The establishment and the sul;port of tie kindergarten as an
integral part of the elementary school system of the state.

Administrative Units.
Intensive study and extensive participation in discussions and con-
ferences have pointed to the need for larger administrative units in
our public school system. From these the following general principles
have been evolved:
1. The present district system involving some 3300 elementary
school districts, 300 high school districts and 16 junior college districts
must be revised to provide:
a. Larger administrative units.
b. Consolidated control of elementary and secondary schools.

2. Legislation relative to larger units must be permissive in character
and must provide state aid to meet such increased costs as may result
from consolidation of schools.
3. No reorganization should be completed except with the consent
of the citizens affected.
4. Legislation relative to larger units should grow out of careful
study and recommendation by local school officials.

A State Program of Public Education.
In the light of such principles and policies a state program of public
education is being projected. School officials throughout the state are
participating actively in its development. Tentative formulation of
some aspects of the program has already resulted. Its advancement
will constitute one of the major objectives of the State Department of
Education for the ensuing biennium.

During the 1929 session of the legislature a total of 147 bills directly
bearing on education were introduced. Ninety-six were introduced in
the assembly, 51 in the senate. Of the bills introduced, 59 were killed
in committee or on the floor of the legislature. Eighty-eight bills were
passed by both houses and were sent to the Governor who vetoed nine.
Thus, there were 79 educational measures which were enacted into
law. These measures all became effective August 14, 1929.
The legislation enacted touched upon practically all phases of educa-
tion. Some of the measures enacted were either local in application
or not of primary importance. The remainder constitute important
factors in public education in California. A brief resume of the more
important measures (as chaptered in the Statutes of 1929) follows:


The School Code.
Chapter 23. Codified according to subject matter the whole body
of the laws relating to the public school system in a single code, the
SCHOOL CODE OF CALIFORNIA, thus taking the first important step
toward a complete revision of the school law.

California Commission for the Study of Educational Problems.
Chapter 759. Created a commission of nine members, with an appro-
priation of $50,000, for the study of the educational, geographical,
financial, and organizational problems of public education. The com-
mission's report will be made to the Governor on December 1, 1930,
for submission to the 1931 legislature.

Compulsory Education.
Chapter 885. Required tutors instructing children who would other-
wise be subject to compulsory education to hold credentials issued by
the State Department of Education. Previously there had been no
control over the educational qualifications of such tutors.

Compulsory Continuation Education.
Chapters 185 and 187. Superseded the compulsory part-time educa-
tion law.

Suspension of Pupils.
Chapter 692. Prohibited the suspension of a pupil for more than
two consecutive weeks and allowed, in the case of expulsion, an appeal
to the county board of education having jurisdiction.

Teachers' Retirement.
Chapter 887. Extended the benefits of the state teachers' retire-
ment act to all employees of school districts holding valid credentials
and serving the major part of each school month in work authorized by
the credentials held. Also brought under the state retirement act all
employees of state teachers colleges and of the State Board of Educa-
tion who perform services which, if rendered in the public school
system, would bring them within the retirement act.
Chapter 854. Granted authority for the establishment of district
retirement salaries for district employees retired under the state retire-
ment act where two or more districts, employing a total of 500 teachers
or more, are governed by boards having the same personnel, thus
.allowing the state retirement salary paid a retired employee to be sup-
plemented to provide a larger total retirement salary.

Rural Supervision.
Chapter 609. Rectified, to a large extent, the hitherto existing
inequality in funds available for supervision facilities in city and rural
school districts by increasing state and county apportionments to
county emergency and supervision funds.


Elementary School District Tax Rates.
Chapter 397. Permitted increase in the maximum rates of tax for
elementary school districts by a majority vote of the qualified electors
residing in the district.

Emergency Cash Fund for Districts.
Chapter 547. Authorized the establishment in each district of a
district emergency eash fund of not more than $500 to allow the busi-
ness transactions of school districts to be more readily and conveniently

Accumulation of District Building Tax Funds.
Chapter 154. Permitted the accumulation for three years of the
proceeds of district building taxes, to be expended under the super-
vision of the Division of Schoolhouse Planning of the State Department
of Education.

School Supply Revolving Fund.
Chapter 532. Strengthened the law governing the cooperative pur-
chase of school supplies by providing a revolving fund.

State Junior College Fund.
Chapter 433. Authorized transfer from the General Fund of not
to exceed $30 per pupil to augment receipts from the federal govern-
ment for junior college districts.

Junior College District Standards.
Chapter 433. Raised the required assessed valuation of prop-
erty included in new junior college districts from $10,000,000
to $25,000,000. thus insuring more adequate support through dis-
trict taxation: Increased the minimum average daily attendance
required to prevent the discontinuance of junior college districts from
75 to 200: Exempted junior college districts organized prior to August
14. 1929.
Courses of Study.
Chapter 226. Authorized the State Board of Education to establish
courses of study for inmates at any state institution upon the request
of the governing authorities thereof.
Chapter 391. Prescribed instruction in public safety and accident
prevention in all elementary and secondary schools and in state teachers
There are submitted annually to the State Department of Education
by school officials and others, hundreds of requests for interpretations
of school law. To enable the department to insure more nearly correct
answers to these requests, the department has added to its staff, Alfred
E. Lentz, a member of the state bar who is experienced in the school
law and who has made a special study of it for some years.


The department, however, can not serve the public schools to the
best of its ability under existing conditions, which permit of the render-
ing of interpretations of school law by the 58 district attorneys of
California and by the Attorney General. There is an ever increasing
lack of uniformity in the opinions given. The public school system does
not function as a complete unit, but as 58 or more divisions, which is
admittedly detrimental to the functioning of the state school system.
It is recommended, therefore, that the Department of Education,
through the Superintendent of Public Instruction, be given the sole
power to interpret the school law and to decide all questions arising
thereunder, the right of appeal to the courts being retained, of course,
by parties dissatisfied with opinions rendered by the Superintendent
of Public Instruction. Such legislation is now in effect in 26 states,
including notably New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Washington, and
New Jersey. There is no other single piece of legislation that would
be more effective in the administration of the public school system.

The following recommendations are made for the purpose of clarify-
ing or amending the provisions of the SCHOOL CODE OF CALIFORNIA, in
order that the needs of the public schools may be more adequately

Clarification of the School Code.
In drafting the School Code, the legislative commission labored under
definite instructions to accomplish nothing more than a reorganization
of the then existing provisions of the several codes and general laws
of the state relative to the public schools. The commission consci-
entiously refrained from any attempt to reword the provisions of the
several codes and general laws, but rather attempted merely to regroup
and reclassify the existing ,aws in the form of a separate code which
was enacted by the 1929 legislature as the SCHOOL CODE OF CALIFORNIA.
As a result, numerous defects of wording which frequently have occa-
sioned difficulty of interpretation and practical impossibility of enforce-
ment of many of the sehol laws of the state, have continued in the
several sections of the School Code.
It is imperative that the language of the School Code be clarified for
three purposes:
1. In order that contradictory sections may be harmonized or elimi-
2. In order that ambiguous provisions may definitely be clarified.
3. In order that obsolete and inoperative sections may be definitely
It is not the intent of this recommendation to suggest a redrafting
of the School Code. Rather it is the intention to make effective the
intent of the legislation which has been incorporated in the School Code.

Teachers' Tenure.
Present legislation relative to tenure of office by certificated
employees of school districts should be amended in order to eliminate
many injustices both to teachers and to the school districts which have
resulted from the operation of those sections of the School Code eom-


only designated as the Teachers' Tenure Act. This legislation should
be the primary concern o' all professional educational organizations.

Retirement of Teachers.
Those sections of the School Code governing tlhe retirement of certifi-
cated employees of school districts should be completely revised for
the purpose of providing complete definition of the types of service
qualifying individuals for participation in the benefits of the teachers'
retirement salary fund. This recoinllendal ion makes no reference to
legislation affecting either the retirement salary to be paid or the con-
tributions to be made by the teachers.

School Districts.
It is recommended that legislation be enacted relative to public school
administrative units as follows:
1. Eliminating the present dual control and responsibility in the
case of districts lying partially in two or more counties. It is sug-
gested that complete control, including responsibility for the levying
of district taxes, be charged to the officials of the county having control
over such "joint" districts.
2. Simplify the nomenclat ure relating to the types of school districts
in order to eliminate all unnecessary types, thus reducing the present
volume of the School Code and facilitating interpretations of those
sections of the School Code relating to varying types of school districts.
3. Amending existing legislation relative to consolidation of school
districts, to facilitate such consolidation and to provide a stimulus for
this extremely desirable method of securing- larger administrative units
and consolidating the control of elementary and secondary schools.
4. Annexing to the nearest high school district all elementary school
districts which are not now part of any hi'ih school district. This legis-
lation should give the voters of the district the right by special election
to join another high school district rather than to be annexed to the
nearest high school district.

The present organization of the public school finances in California
is in serious need of rather complete revision. Until such time, how-
ever. as adequate study may yield recommendations for such complete
revision, it is felt that temporary relief may be secured from the adop-
tion of the following recommendations:
1. Equalization.
Special aid should be provided by the state in the form of equaliza-
tion funds to be taken from the state general fund, in addition to the
present state school fund, for the purpose of equalizing educational
opportunities and local burdens of district taxation for schools in those
elementary school districts of the state which are incapable of providing
adequate educational facilities.
2. Kindergartens.
Legislation and, if necessary, constitutional amendment should be
enacted, creating the kindergarten as part of the public elementary


school, and providing for state and county support of the kindergarten
on the same basis as that governing such support for elementary schools.
At present the kindergarten is maintained entirely by district taxation
as a local, not a state, enterprise.
3. Junior High Schools.
The intent of existing legislation is interpreted by the State Depart-
ment of Education to define all the grades of junior high school includ-
ing the seventh and eighth grades as high school grades, to be sup-
ported on the same basis as are other grades of high school. Contra-
dictory provisions in existing legislation render the definition of the
junior high school ambiguous. It is recommended, therefore, that
legislation be enacted specifically defining all junior high school grades
as high school grades, and repealing such provisions of the School
Code as now authorize consideration of the seventh and eighth grades
in the junior high school as elementary grades. This legislation would
require the financing of grades seven and eight in junior high schools on
the same basis as that governing state and county apportionments for
grades nine to twelve, inclusive.
4. Junior Colleges.
Financial legislation relative to junior colleges should:
a. Stabilize state support of district junior colleges by requiring
all apportionments to be made definitely from the state gen-
eral fund instead of from an insecure junior college fund.
b. Provide increased state and county support for junior col-
lege departments of high schools by placing the support of
these departments upon the same basis as that maintaining
for grades 9 to 12 inclusive. This would require apportion-
ments to be made from state and county funds for grades
13 and 14 as they are now made to other high school grades.

Certification of Teachers.
It is recommended that existing legislation relative to certification
of teachers by county boards of education and county superintendents
of schools be repealed, and that in lieu of such certification provision
be made for registration by county boards of education or county
superintendents of schools of teachers' credentials issued by the State
Department of Education. The fees now charged for state credentials
should be reduced or the surplus receipts from such fees in excess of
the amounts necessary to administer the granting of such credentials
should be made available in the budget of the State Department of
Education for the conduct of investigations in the field of teacher

Special Legislation.
All existing laws enacted as special legislation intended for the
benefit of isolated situations in the state should be repealed. It is
specifically recommended that those sections of the School Code
authorizing the withdrawal of specified types of elementary school
districts from high school districts be repealed.

- 46


Leave of Absence.
It is recommended that legislation be enacted legalizing the almost
universal practice of governing boards of school districts in granting
certificated employees sick leave without loss of remuneration. Legis-
lation should also be enacted authorizing school districts to grant
certificated employees leave of absence in the form of sabbatical leave
for the purpose of study or travel, such study or travel to be conducted
under the regulations of the governing board of the school district and
for the benefit of the school district.
Junior College Standards.
Existing legislation relative to requirements of assessed valuation
and enrollment for the formation of junior college districts should be
repealed and provision made whereby the State Department of Educa-
tion would be authorized to establish standards for the formation of
junior college districts. Similarly, present requirements for the estab-
lishment of a junior college department of the high school should be
amended, to authorize the State Department of Education to set up
standards for the approval of such junior college departments.

The phraseology of existing legislation governing the transportation
of pupils to school operates as a hindrance in many cases to the pro-
visions of this necessary auxiliary agency to public education. Legis-
lation should be enacted:
1. Authorizing contracts between school districts for the transporta-
tion of pupils.
2. Requiring the governing boards of school districts to provide
transportation upon the petition of parents.
3. Authorizing the expenditure of school district funds for the
maintenance of dormitories or for paying cost of pupil maintenance in
lieu of transportation.
4. Requiring standardization of transportation equipment and
licensing of school buses by the Division of Motor Vehicles.
5. Authorizing the purchase of school buses from the proceeds
received from the sale of school district bonds.

It is recommended that legislation be enacted authorizing school dis-
tricts to insure against all types of liabilities imposed by law. It is
recommended that such insurance should be carried by the state in
order to avoid much unnecessary expense.

Attendance Tuition.
Legislation is recommended strengthening and clarifying those sec-
tions of the School Code relating to contracts between school districts,
particularly with regard to payment of tuition for the education of
pupils residing in one district and educated in another district.
Legislation is recommended definitely prohibiting the collection of
fees or deposits by school authorities from any pupil enrolled in the


public elementary or secondary schools, except in such cases and for
such purposes as may be definitely specified in the School Code.

Teachers' Contracts and School Warrants.
It is recommended that the Superintendent of Public Instruction be
authorized to prescribe standard forms for teachers' contracts and
school warrants to be employed in each school district in the state.

State Department of Education.
Legislation should be enacted clarifying the status, powers, and duties
of the constituent members of the State Department of Education,
including the State Board of Education and the Superintendent of
Public Instruction. Present ambiguities of law relative to the Super-
intendent of Public Instruction and the Director of Education should
be eliminated.

Legal Interpretation.
One of the most important single items of legislation which should
be enacted by the 1931 legislature is the centralization in the office
of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of responsibility for inter-
pretation of the state School Code. At the present time, each district
attorney or county counsel in the 58 counties of the state, as well
as the State Attorney General, is authorized to interpret the provisions
of the School Code. The result has been chaos, not only in the
interpretation but in the application of the state laws relating to
the public schools. This is particularly true with regard to those
important laws which govern public school finance, the powers and
duties of the governing boards of school districts, and of other school offi-
cials, and problems of public school personnel. It is imperative that the
state laws governing the public schools be uniformly interpreted and
applied throughout the state. This can not possibly result unless
responsibility for interpretation of school laws is centered ,in one
responsible individual. Authorization for the Superintendent of
Public Instruction to serve as the official interpreter of school laws
would not, of course, operate to deny to any individual his constitu-
tional right to appeal to the courts from any decision of the Superin-
tendent of Public Instruction.

School District Budgets.
The amendments to the school district budget laws enacted in 1929
should be repealed, since it is entirely impossible to comply with the
purpose of the district budget laws if budgets must be submitted at the
early date now required by law. District budgets are intended for the
purpose of estimating district tax rates required to be levied for pub-
lic schools. These rates are based upon the amounts requested by
governing boards of school districts and they can be computed only
if accurate estimate of state and county aid is available at the time the
budgets arc completed. Such estimates are not and can not be made
available within the time limits now set by law.



The growth of C('lifolrnia's public school system during the past
iiennillll is briefly indicated by the following statistical summary.
The data are taken from the annual reports of the 58 county superin-
tendents. for the school years ending June 30, 1929, and June 30, 1930.
Segregations are given for all divisions of the school system from
llhe kindergarten througll the district junior college. The basic items
of information ineludedl are: Nuinlber of school districts, nlunbel
of schools, average daily attenllancle, state 1en1ol lnn01 number of
certificated employees, and school district receipts and expenditures.
It was tholulight advisable to present the school district receipts and
expenditures ill composite form as well as in the regular summary.
Percentages and amounts per pupil in average daily attendance have
been computed in certain instances where they were essential for ready

Statistics of California Public Schools, 1928-29 and 1929-30

1. Number of elementary school districts main-
taining kindergartens --------------
2. Number of counties in which kindergartens
were maintained--..__-- ---
3. Number of kindergartens maintained ------
4. Average daily attendance-----------------
5. State enrollment -__--___ ----------
6. Number of certificated kindergarten em-
a. Supervisors ------
b. Teachers
c. Assistants ----- --------
d. Totals -
7. Kindergarten receipts:
a. Balance on hand July 1-----------
b. District taxes ------ _______
c. Miscellaneous
d. Total receipts-----------------
S. Kindergarten expenditures:
a. Current expenditures ---------------
b. Capital outlay expenditures-_____ ------
c. Total expenditures-----------------------
9. Percentage of kindergarten current expendi-
tures devoted to each budgetary classifi-
cation :
a. General control---------------------------
b. Teachers' salaries* -----------
c. Instructional expenditures--------------
d. Operation expenditures-------------------
e. Auxiliary agencies -- -------------------
10. Kindergarten current expenditure per pupil
in average daily attendance:
a. General control-----------------
b. Teachers' salaries*
c. Instructional expenditures--------------
d. Operation expenditures-----------------
e. Auxiliary agencies-------------
f. Total current expenditures-----------
11. Kindergarten capital outlay expenditure per
pupil in average daily attendance -___----
12. Total kindergarten expenditure per pupil in
average daily attendance-----------------
Also included in instructional expenditures





13,2 6:i
8 2,786



$886,941 79
4,210,490 23
12,901 51
$5,110,333 53

$4,111,699 19
75,668 99
$4,187,368 18

$901,164 87
4,346,554 59
39,611 09
$5,287,330 55

$4,282,360 02
156,893 07
$4,439,255 09

t;4.2 %
1 1
I. I q

$1 67
62 S5
65 21
33 69
1 09

$1 88
60 38
62 52
33 14
1 44

$101 66

1 87

$103 53

1.4 (,

$98 98

3 63

$102 61



Statistics of California Public Schools, 1928-29 and 1929-30-Continued

1. Number of active elementary school districts:
a. City______
b. Regular _- -__ --
c. Joint ----

d. Total active districts -----------------
2. Number of suspended elementary districts --
3. Total number of districts -__-- -----____-
4. Number of union elementary districts:
a. Union __
b. Joint union--------_
c. Total union ---_______________
5. Number of lapsed elementary districts-----
6. Number of elementary schools maintained --
7. Average daily attendance in elementary
schools ---- -
8. State enrollment in elementary schools:
a. In regular grades:
1. First grade-- --------
2. Second grade-- --- -------___-
3. Third grade -------------
4. Fourth grade------___
5. Fifth grade -----------__
G. Sixth grade-- ---.......
7. Seventh grade -------------------
S. Eighth grade--_--_- -----

9. Totals----------
b. In postgraduate courses--------------
c. Special day and evening classes---------
d. Physically handicapped children---___ -

e. Total in elementary schools--.-----
9. Number of certificated employees of elemen-
tary school districts:
a. District superintendents ------
b. Full-time supervisors----_ ___ .-_-
c. Partial-time supervisors ----- ------ _
d. Supervising principals ---- __-
e. Teaching principals---- ____-
f. Full-time regular teachers------------
g. Full-time special teachers .------------
h. Total number of partial-time teachers in:
1. Day classes--__--_--_--_
2. Evening classes----- _--__-.___- __-

3. Total partial-time teachers --------
i. Total number of certificated district em-
ployees --- --















10. Elementary school district receipts by sources:
a. Balance on hand July 1--- __-
b. State apportionments---- _____
c. County apportionments-- _----__
d. District tax for maintenance _------ _-
e. District tax for building_--_-_
f. Bond sales---- _---------- ---_
g. Miscellaneous

h. Total receipts _- __-_-
11. Elementary school district expenditures:
a. Current expenditures--__-- _-- _--
b. Capital outlay expenditures ----------
c. Total expenditures--__ ----_
12. Percentage of elementary school district ex-
penditures devoted to each budgetary clas-
sification :
a. General control__-------
b. Teachers' salaries* -- ---
c. Instructional expenditures -----__------
d. Operation expenditures -_----- ___-
e. Auxiliary agencies_------_
* Also included in instructional expenditures

$16,128,028 52
19,010,219 36
23,017,463 93
18,037,047 36
5,596,863 82
5,233,905 21
2,949,186 32

$89,972,714 52

$57,154,653 89
11,747,475 82

$68,902,129 71


$16,935,180 48
19,449,958 21
23,856,371 14
18,903,402 20
5,765,247 50
5,357,595 93
3,503,317 27

$93,771,072 73

$60,318,792 36
1'1,325,997 65

$71,644,790 01
















Statistics of California Public Schools, 1928-29 and 1929-30-Continued
I1. EI.EI2IENTARY ScHooLs-Continued : 1928 29 1929-SO
13. Elementary school district current expenlldi-
tures per pupil in average daily attendance:
a. General control ------------------- -- $3 13 $3 04
b. Teachers' salaries*---------------------- 72 43 73 64
c. instructional expenditures----------------- 77 02 78 71
d. Operation expenditures------------------ 14 62 16 20
e. Auxiliary agencies---------------------- 3 38 3 S1
f. Total current expenditures---..---------- $98 15 $101 7;
14. Elementary school district capital outlay ex-
penditures per pupil in average daily attend-
ance ---------------------_ -------- 20 IS 19 10
15. Total elementary school district expenditures
per pupil in average daily attendance------ $118 33 $120 SG
1. Number of high school districts maintaining
junior high schools------------------ 46 51
2. Number of junior high schools maintaining:
a. Grades 7, S and 9------------------------ 131 144
b. Grades 7, S, 9 and 10-------------- 7 9

c. Total junior high schools----------------- 138 153
3. Average daily attendance in junior high
a. In elementary grades-------..---------- 62,193 6S,148
1,. In high school grades-- ------------- 32,S40 35,964

c. Total in junior high school------------ 95,03 104,112
4. State enrollment in junior high schools:
a. In elementary grades:
1. Seventh grade --- -----------------_ 35,686 37,815
2. Eighth grade------------ ----------- 34,582 36,932

3. Total in elementary grades----------- 70,268 74,747
b. In high school grades:
1. Ninth grade ----------------- --- 35,252 37,956
2. Tenth grade--.----------- ------ 43 1,382

3. Total in high school grades------------- 36,095 39,338

c. Total in junior high schools-------------- 106,363 114,085
5. Number of certificated junior high school
employees :
a. Principals ---------------------- 95 109
b. Full-time regular teachers ------------___ 2,998 3,321
c. Full-time special teachers------------ 1,284 1,322

d. Total full-time employees-------------- 4,377 4,752
e. Partial-time teachers---------- ----- 185 262

f. Total number of certificated employees--- 4,562 5,014

1. Number of high school districts:
a. County-_ _--- _____ ______ 5 5
1. City ------------------------------------ 32 33
c. Regular _------------------------_ ----_24 241
d. Union ------------------------------- 207 211
e. Joint union------- -------------- 24 24

f. Total number of high school districts----- 292 297
2. Number of high schools maintaining:
a. Grades 9 and 10 only- 1
b. Grades 9, 10 and 11 only------------- 2 1
c. Grades 10 and 11 only--------- ------- 1 -
d. Grades 9, 10. 11 and 12 ----------------- 285 286
e. Grades 10, 11 and 12 ------ --------- 71 74
f. Grades 11 and 12__--- --------------- 3

g. Total number of high schools .----. -- 359 365
Also included in instructional expenditures


Statistics of California Public Schools, 1928-29 and 1929-30--Continued

IV. .HIGH SCHOOLS-Continued:
3. Average daily attendance in high school
a. Regular classes-- --____ ____-______
b. Special day and evening classes----------
c. Compulsory continuation classes---- _____
d. Junior college courses --._______________

e. Total in high schools---------------------
4. SLate enrollment:
a. In regular classes:
1. Ninth grade -
2. Tenth grade ---_-___ _______
3. Eleventh grade -----______ ___
4. Twelfth grade- ----__-----------______
5. Special pupils--_-_--___-___

6. Total regular classes------------------
b. In special day and evening classes-- ----
c. In compulsory continuation classes----
d. In junior college courses--------- --- ---

e. Total in high schools-------------------
5. Number of certificated employees of high
school districts (excluding junior high
school employees):
a. Supervisors:
1. Full-time ---_--. _._.. -
2. Partial-time

3. Total -
b. Principals
c. Full-time regular teachers---------
d. Full-time special teachers---------------
t. Partial-time teachers-------------

f. Total number of certificated employees--
6. High school district receipts by sources:
a. Balance on hand July 1 ---_--
b. State apportionments--- ---
c. County apportionments-_ -----
d. District tax-------- -----
e. Bond sales __----- --
f. Miscellaneous

g. Total receipts------ -----
7. High school district expenditures:
a. Current expenditures--- --_- _-----
b. Capital outlay expenditures-_---- -

c. Total expenditures_--------
8. Percentage of high school district expenditures
devoted to each budgetary classification:
a. General control_---- -- __
b. Teachers' salaries*-- -----
c. Instructional expenditures-----
d. Operation expenditures--__---
e. Auxiliary agencies----- ____-
9. High school district current expenditures per
pupil in average daily attendance:
a. General control---- -----
b. Teachers' salaries* --
c. Instructional expenditures- ----
d. Operation expenditures -- _--_-- ----
e. Auxiliary agencies-_-- ----

f. Total current expenditures-- ---
10. High school district capital outlay expendi-
tures per pupil in average daily attendance

11. Total high school district expenditures per
pupil in average daily attendance..-----_

* Also included in instructional expenditures










$14,338,007 24
6,177,576 64
13,481,109 67
37,336,688 86
4,070,231' 85
1,275,209 45

$76,678,823 77

$52,742,994 03
12,706,160 55

$65,449,154 58









$15,718,662 70
6,578,355 40
14,331,021 b-
39,286,809 91
4,483,982 42
2,711,453 14

$83,110,295 11

$57,068,119 89
14,323,310 42

$71,391,430 31



$7 16
132 78
146 26
30 31
8 19

$191 92

46 23

$238 15

$192 06

48 21

$240 27


Statistics of California Public Schools, 1928-29 and 1929-30-Continued

V. JUNIOR COLLuEGES: 192S-29 1929-.1
1. Number of junior college districts ------ 16
2. Number of junior college courses maintained
in high schools------------------------ --- 1
3. Average daily attendance in district junior
colleges -_ --_----_----- ---- --- 7,21
1. State enro!lmei nt in district junior colleges:
a. First year- ---- -------,----- ------ S,34, 12,6n7
1S. Second yea;r- --------------------------- 3,37 4,311

c. Total state enrollment .---__-- --- 11,711';
5. I'er cent junior college enrollmn nt in district
junior colleges-------- -------- --------- ;.'

G. Number of certificated employees of district
junior colleges:
a. Principals ------------------
b. Full-time regular teachers---------------
c. Full-time special teachers----------------
d. Partial-time teachers_-------------------

e. Total number of certificated employees ---
7. Junior college district receipts by sources
a. Balance on hand July 1------------------
b. State apportionment---------------------
c. County tuition tax-------------- ---------
d. District tax -------- --------------
e. Bond sales-------------------------------
f. Miscellaneous--------------- -----

g. Total receipts------------------------
S. Junior College district expenditures:
a. Current expenditures-------- ------
1). Capital outlay expenditures--- --

c. Total expenditures _--_---- ---
9. Percentage of junior college district expendi-
tures devoted to each budgetary classifica-
tion :
a. General control-------------
b. Teachers' salaries*--
e. Instructional expenditures-----------------
d. Operation expenditures-------------------
e. Auxiliary agencies------------------------
10. Junior college district current expenditures
per pupil in average daily attendance:
a. General control--------------------------
b. Teachers' salaries*
c. Instructional expenditures-------------
d. Operation expenditures------------------
e. Auxiliary agencies----------------------

f. Total current expenditures----------------
11. Junior college district capital outlay expendi-
tures per pupil in average daily attendance

12. Total junior college district expenditures
per pupil in average daily attendance-----

* Also included in instructional expenditures


$371,966 21
465,100 00
250,581 64
1,372,593 17

23,437 90

$2,483,678 92

$1,765,638 09
303,721 68

$2,069.359 77


$8 46
164 45
191 00
41 50
3 66

$244 62

42 07

$286 69


$114,319 15
753,800 00
506,173 97
1,196,863 54

35,312 70

$2,906,469 30

$2,247,014 7o
229,189 26

$2,476,203 96


$11 05
168 23
197 06
51 43
2 73

$262 32

26 75

$289 07



Ill.9 1


Distribution of School District Receipts by Sources and by Divisions of the School System, 1928-29, and 1929-30

Sources Kindergarten Elementary High school District junior Total
school High school college Total

United States----------- -------------._ '$252,976 48 2$187,248 52 $465,100 00 $905,325 00
State ....--------.---.---------.....- .. 19,010,219 36 6,177,576 64 -------- _--- 25,187,796 00
County-.-----_-----. ---------- 23,017,463 93 13,481,109 67 250,581 64 36,749,155 24
District--------------- $5,110,333 53 47,692,054 75 56,832,888 88 1,767,997 28 111,403,274 44
Totals------------ $5,110,333 53 $89,972,714 52 $76,678,823 71 $2,483,678 92 $174,245,550 68


United States.--------- -------------- '$265,281 28 2$186,318 56 $742,715 75 $1,194,315 5!)
State ------------------------------. 19,449,958 21 6,578,355 40 11,084 25 26,039,397 86
County- _-----------.------ -------- 23,856,371 14 14,331,021 54 506,173 97 38,693,566 65
District--------------- $5,287,330 55 50,193,462 10 62,014,589 61 1,646,495 39 119,147,877 65
Totals------------- $5,287,330 55 $93,771,072 73 $83,110,285 11 $2,906,469 36 $185,075,157 75

1 Receipts from the United States government for the education of Indian children and from the forest reserve.
2 Smith-Hughes receipts from the United States government.

Percentage Distribution of School District Receipts by Sources and by Divisions of the School System,
1928-29, and 1929-30

Kindergarten Elementary igh school nior Total
school ih school college
Sources ________________ __________________
1928-29 1929-30 1928-29 1929-30 1928-29 1929-30 1928-29 1929-30 1928-29 1929-30

United States-----.--.. ..--- -------- 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 18.7 25 6 0.5 0.6
State -..--.------..- ...- ------- 21.1 20.8 8.1 7.9 0 4 14.5 14 1
County ----------------. -------- 25.6 25.4 17.6 17.3 10.1 17.4 21.1 20.9
District ------------ 100.0 100.0 53.0 53.5 74.1 74.6 71.2 56.6 63.9 64.4
Totals---------- 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100 0

Distribution of Expenditures by Budgetary Classifications and by Divisions of the School System, 1928-29

Current expenditures
School division
General Teachers' Instructional Operation Auxiliary
control salaries' expenditures expenditures expenditures

Kindergarten ----------- $67,368 55 $2,542,045 15 $2,637,359 35 $1,362,701 06 $44,270 23
Elementaryschool .----. 1,822,154 40 42,174,551 36 44,849,117 75 8,514,827 90 1,968,553 84
High school- ---------- 1,968,082 23 36,490,686 76 40,194,751 39 8,329,437 03 2,250,723 38
District junior college.... 61,045 52 1,187,035 26 1,378,672 03 299,531 89 26,388 65
Totals_------.---_ $3,918,650 70 $82,394,318 53 "$8e,059,900 52 $18,506,497 83 $4,289,036 10

I Also included in instructional expenditures.
SIncludes $2,110,381.72 expended for library books.

Total Capital Total
School division current outlay expenditures
expenditures expenditures e

Kindergarten-----------. --------------------------.. $4,111,699 19 $75,668 99 $4,187,368 18
Elementary school----- ------------------------------ 57,154,653 89 11,747,475 82 68,902,129 71
High school _----_-...._---------------------._ --__- 52,742,994 03 12,706,160 55 65,449,154 58
District junior college__ -----------------.....--..__... 1,765,638 09 303,721 68 2,069,359 77
Totals....... --_------------------------------------- $115,774,985 20 $24,833,027 04 $140,608,012 24
__ I


Distribution of Expenditures by Budgetary Classifications and by Divisions of the School System, 1929-30

Current expenditures
School division
General Teachers' Instructional Operation Auxiliary
control salaries' expenditures expenditures expenditures

Kindergarten .. ... 5 $81,488 99 $2,612,327 70 $2,704,609 60 $1,433,877 19 $62,384 24
Elementary school- .. 1,799,464 18 43,650,086 80 46,657,485 66 9,600,724 31 2,261,118 21
High school........... 1,963,162 67 38,569,506 02 42,960,183 88 9,408,736 53 2,736,036 81
District junior college-.. 94,672 62 1,441,361 78 1,688,380 53 440,174 79 23,786 7f,
Totals.-------....------. ,7; 4 55,2.73,:5'l J 0 $94,010,659 57 $20,883,512 82 $5,083,326 02

SAlso included in instructional expenditures.
Includes $2,260,338.47 expended for library books.

Total Capital Total
School division current outlay expenditures
expenditures expenditures

Kindergarten ------------------------------------- $4,282,360 02 $156,895 07 $4,439,255 09
Elementary school------------------------------------- 60,318,792 36 11,325,997 65 71,644,70S 01
High school ----------- ---------------------- 57,068,119 89 14,323,310 42 71,391,430 31
District junior college._ --------------------------------- 2,247,014 70 229,189 26 2,476,203 96
Totals------------.------------------------ $123,916,286 97 $26,035,392 40 $149,951,679 37

The following information has been reported by Mr. W. S. Dyas,
Chief of the Bureau of State Printed Textbooks. This bureau has
immediate responsibility for handling the printing and distributing of
all state printed textbooks for the elementary schools:
"During the past biennium the Bureau of State Printed Textbooks
has distributed 3,258,909 free state textbooks, which represent a total
cost to the state of $836,526.77. This distribution is approximately
1,000.000 larger than any previous biennium since the free textbook
law was enacted in 1913.
"This great increase in free books to the elementary schools is due
partly to constant increase in enrollment but primarily is due to the
many new texts that were made ready for distribution during this
period. These new texts have consisted of three language books, two
English books, six writing compendiums, and four readers, making a
total of fifteen new books.
"The Bureau of Printing has printed and delivered to our ware-
house 3,409,900 books. Of this number 1,347,594 were small paper
covered books such as spellers and writing compendiums. The balance
of 2,062,306 have been cloth covered books. The next new work to be
started by the Bureau of Printing will be the new Fourth and Fifth
Readers recently adopted and which will be ready for the schools early
in. 1931.
"This bureau also sells state textbooks to anyone within the state
who wishes to purchase them and in this branch of distribution there
has also been a decided growth. The receipts from the sale of books
during this biennium is $31,318.50 as compared with $16,898.03 for the
preceding biennium. All of this money is deposited in the Schoolbook
Fund and is used for the printing of additional books. The reason for
this increase in the number of books sold is due to the adoption of


our State Series books by so many additional parochial schools through-
out the state."
During the latter part of the bienniumn attention has been given by
the Superintendent of Public Instruction to carrying out the provisions
of the law enacted as chapter 661 of the Statutes of 1929, providing for
a State Nautical School at San Francisco. A report of the progress in
the establishment of this school as made by Mr. J. H. Moore, secretary
to the board of governors of the California Nautical School, appears
elsewhere in this report.
In the report of the Division of Special Education submitted by Mr.
H. D. Hicker, and in the reports of Mr. Elwood Stevenson, principal of
the California School for the Deaf, and Dr. R. S. French, principal of
the California School for the Blind, will be found statements concerning
the education of handicapped children in the public schools of Cali-
During the past biennium legislation enacted by the 1927 legislature
was effective in providing from state funds in addition to all other
state school moneys, $212,137.17 for apportionment to the several
school districts of the state in which special educational services were
given to children suffering from physical handicaps. An equivalent
amount was provided under the terms of the law by the counties in
which the districts providing this special education were located. This
special reimbursement-has made possible for the first time in the his-
tory of the state special attention to the educational needs of a large
group of California children who, because of physical handicaps, have
not heretofore been able to attend school or to receive any education at
public expense.
The physically handicapped group includes orthopedic cases, chil-
dren with disorders of the heart, pretubercular and tubercular children,
and others of similar types of physical disability. Many of the children
who were given this special attention were taught in the home or in
sanitariums or preventoriums, while many were provided with trans-
portation in order that they might be brought to the regular classroom.
Continuance of this activity will no doubt make larger demands upon
the state and upon the counties for the special remuneration provided
under the law. The social value and the necessity for this work will
not be questioned by anyone. This is a humanitarian work which should
have been initiated long ago.
A brief report is given herewith relative to the more important of
the several special committees and commissions which have functioned
in connection with public education in a state-wide way during the
The Curriculum Commission.
The State Curriculum Commission is composed of the Superintendent
of Public Instruction and ten members appointed by him with the
approval of the State Board of Education. During the past biennium,


four members of the Commission were reappointed upon expiration of
their terms of appointment, each to serve for a period of four years.
Mr. Rudolph D. Lindquist, Assistant Superintendent of Schools in
Oakland. was appointed to replace Miss Julia L. Hahn, who has left
the state on an extended leave of absence.
During the biennium the Commission has held nine meetings. After
extended consideration and evaluation, the Commission recommended
to the State Board of Education, for adoption as state textbooks for
use in the elementary schools of the state, the following texts:
Grades 1. 2, 3. and 4-Child Story Readers, Lyons and Carnahan.
Grade 5-Good Reading, (lhas. Scribner's Sons.
In October, 1929, the Commission adopted the following procedure
to govern the study of textbooks submitted for adoption by the State
Board of Education:
1. Each individual member of the commission will study each book
presented. whether it is a book in his own particular field of special
interest or whether it is a hook in another field. From his own study,
lie will raise questions and also form an opinion.
2. Each individual member of the commission will secure the advice
and opinion of others to whom he may particularly care to refer in
the matter of the study of the book in hand. In this connection, com-
mission members may consider that they may refer to superintendents,
course of study experts, specialists, groups of teachers, or principals
and supervisors. Commission members may carry on a progressive
individual study in this manner with such groups and under such
direction as they may choose, guarding always that their procedure be
impartial, fair. and especially for the purpose of securing information
upon which to base final opinion. It is understood that these personal
investigations be confined to the administrative unit in which this
member works unless otherwise approved by the commission. It is fur-
ther understood that all evidence so secured shall be made available to
the entire coniniission for its use before final recommendation of a text-
book is made.
3. The commission may designate a particular group of individuals
to whom may be assigned the responsibility of making a special study
of a certain text or body of materials presented for the consideration
of the commission.
4. In the study of books submitted, the activities of the commission
shall be confined to consideration of the complete educational merits of
the books.
One of the most significant activities of the Curriculum Commission
during the biennium was the development of the TEACHERS' GUIDE TO
CHILD DEVELOPMENT. This is a manual for kindergarten and primary
grade teachers which offers guidance in the interpretation and devel-
opment of an activity curriculum. It is being developed through wide
participation by teachers throughout the state. The value of this man-
ual should be extremely great as it will place in the hands of our
p1rimlary teachers definite and concrete suggestions for modernizing
curricular content, methods and techniques.
The most important problems immediately facing the Curriculum
Commission include the continued development and publication of the
TEACHERS' GUIDE TO CHILD DEVELOPMENT, the issuance of a state man-


ment of a TEACHERS' GUIDE for the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The
latter project will be a continuance of the teachers' guide now being
completed for the kindergarten primary unit.

The California Commission for the Study of Educational Problems.
In compliance with the provisions of Chapter 759 of the Statutes of
1929, Governor C. C. Young, on December 23, 1929, appointed the
following persons to serve on the California Commission for the study
of Educational Problems:
Dr. Susan M. Dorsey, Chairman, 1506 Arapahoe Street, Los Angeles.
SMr. Arthur J. Brown, Evening Telegram, San Bernardino.
Mr. Marshall DeMotte, Corning.
Mr. Samuel Leask, 19 Green Street, Santa Cruz.
Mr. James W. Mullen, 2940 Sixteenth Street, San Francisco.
Mrs. Maynard Force Thayer, 789 E. California Street, Pasadena.
Mrs. Frederick C. Turner, 2710 Durant Avenue, Berkeley.
Mr. Julius Wangenheim, 148 W. Juniper Street, San Diego.
Mrs. Julian C. Whitman, 707 Poplar Street, San Mateo.
The Commission met on January 3, 1930, at Sacramento, determined
upon policies to govern and methods of study, and agreed to make
immediate study of the problems of public school finance, units of
school organization and administration, and reorganization of the State
Department of Education. During subsequent months the Commission
has met monthly or at more frequent intervals. It has attempted to
sit as a strictly lay commission, studying the school problems of Cali-
fornia from a lay point of view rather than from the point of view of
the professional educator. The Commission is to render its final report
to the Governor on December 1, 1930, for study and presentation to
the 1931 legislature.

The Commission of Credentials.
As provided for in the School Code (Section 5.121) the Superin-
tendent of Public Instruction and four persons appointed by him
served as a Commission of Credentials, having as its chief function the
development of policies affecting teacher training and certification.
The Commission at present includes:
Superintendent of Public Instruction Vierling Kersey, Chairman.
Mr. Sam H. Cohn, Deputy Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Mr. Nicholas Riceiardi, Chief of the Division of City Secondary
Miss Helen Heffernan, Chief of the Division of Rural Education.
Mrs. Evelyn Clement, Chief of the Division of Teacher Training and
Certification, Secretary.
The Commission of Credentials reviews and makes decisions upon
such individual applications for state credentials as present unusual
problems. Any applicant for a state credential is authorized to appeal
to the Commission of Credentials for reconsideration. Meetings are
held at least once a month upon call by the chairman.


Affiliation Committee.
For the purpose of bringing about improved relations between the
secondary schools and the higher inslil tions of the state, particularly
the site university an Affiliation (ommiiiite.e consisting of representa-
tives of the State Department or Edication, the Association of Cali-
fornia Secondary School Principals, and the University of California,
iiiets semiiiinnnully. The deliberations of this committee are i]mportain
an vital. Mcl adjust ment aind closer cooperation have resulted from
tle stldy anl coiferuce initialed by this committee. Problems studied
involved s-1delit guiidance in tle secondary schools, problems of the
secondary a;nd higher school curricula, requirements for high school
graduation and for college entrance, and other similar matters bearing
upon t he relationships between the public schools and the university.

Public Safety Committee.
As a result of legislation enacted in 1929, the public schools of
the state are required to give instruction in Public Safety and Accident
Prevention. The law requires also the development of a state manual
to guide the teachers in this work. During the past year, the State
Department of Education, through its members and through the sub-
committee on safety of the Curriculum Commisison, has cooperated
with the Public Safety Committee representing numerous agencies
throughout the state. As a result of the many conferences held during
the year, the cooperation of the several automobile clubs and other
civic clubs ,interested in public safety has been directed to the develop-
ment of the state manual. This is now under process of construction
and will be issued for the use of the schools shortly.

Olympic Games Committee.
A Committee of 23 representative educators under the chairmanship
of Mr. N. P. Neilson, Chief of the Division of Health and Physical Edu-
cation, was appointed by the Superintendent of Public Instruction to
cooperate with the State Olympic Games Committee. The function
of this committee is to determine upon the scope of public school activi-
ties necessary for the promotion of an adequate state-wide interest
in the Olympic Games and to study ways and means of accomplishing
this purpose. Preliminary meetings of this committee have been given
over to the establishment of the principles upon which the committee
should operate. The major outcome of the committee deliberations
so far is expressed in the agreement that the function of the committee
is not to stimulate competitive participation by school children in the
Olympic Games, but rather to sponsor group demonstration of activi-
ties typical of programs of physical education according to the high-
est education] standards.

School Building Problems.
The Honorable William John Cooper. United States Commissioner
of Education, late in 1929, appointed a National Advisory Council of
45 members, which developed the plans and recommendations relative
to public school building problems. In accordance with a plan devel-
oped and adopted by representatives from the several states at a meet-


ing held at Atlantic City, New Jersey, the United States was divided
into regions in order to simplify organizational problems. The Sierra
Nevada Region, including the five western states, has as its represen-
tatives on the National Advisory Council the following members:
Vierling Kersey, Superintendent of Public Instruction, California.
C. E. Rose, City Superintendent of Schools, Tucson, Arizona.
Ada York, County Superintendent of Schools, San Diego, California.
Alfred I. Esberg, member, Board of Education, San Francisco, Cali-
Andrew P. Hill, Jr., Chief of the Division of Schoolhouse Planning,
Sacramento, California.
Myron Hunt, Architect, Los Angeles, California.
Preliminary discussions held at Atlantic City indicate that the
services which this National Advisory Council may develop will be of
extreme value to all participating states.

Mental Hygiene Survey.
Apportionments made by the 1929 legislature made possible the initia-
tion of the state-wide Mental Hygiene Survey, to be conducted under
the direction of the State Department of Social Welfare.
Dr. Norman Fenton, who was selected to take charge of this activity
has developed a traveling clinic which has given demonstration psychi-
atric examinations in numerous communities for the purpose of aiding
in the solution of individual problems of mental maladjustment. The
Superintendent of Public Instruction has served as a member of the
advisory committee planning this activity.
As a result of the activities of the traveling clinic, stimulus has
been given to this vital work in numerous communities, frequently
with the result that the school authorities together with the municipal
authorities have conducted the work on their own initiative following
the traveling clinic's initial activity.

In addition to the activities of the affiliations committees and their
attempt to work out more harmonious relations between the secondary
schools and the higher educational institutions of the state, numerous
activities have gone forward for the purpose of creating closer accord
and more efficient coordination between the elementary schools and
the secondary schools and between the secondary schools and higher
institutions in California. No promotional effort has been expended by
the State Department of Education for the extension of kindergarten
service in the state. Nevertheless, considerable increase in the number
of kindergartens in the state has resulted from the activities of local
and state-wide groups interested in kindergarten-primary education.
In the period 1928 to 1930, the number of public kindergartens main-
tained in connection with elementary schools increased from 1006 to
1077, while the enrollment in these classes increased from 76,899 to
82,786. This numerical increase accompanied and was largely the
result of stress upon the kindergarten as an integral part of the kinder-
garten-primary unit of elementary school. As a result of this develop-
ment, the work of this unit of our public schools is much more closely
coordinated than ever before in California.


During the biennium much attention has been given by the State
Department of Education as well as by groups and school adminis-
trators throughout the state to the extension of junior high school
facilities for the purpose of decreasing the high rate of pupil mortality
in the early secondary grades by developing closer correlation of the
work of the elementary schools with that of the early secondary school
grades. In this two-year period, the number of junior high schools in
lhe state increased lfrom 138 to 1.5:. The enrollment in these institu-
tions increased during the same period from.97,7(i0 to 114,08S. D)ur-
ing the school year 1929-30, forty-eight per cent of the total state
enrollment of grades seven, eight, and nine was housed in the junior
high schools of the state. Increased demand on the part of the public
for advanced secondary school facilities in localized institutions,
coupled with the desire of school officials to create a more nearly ade-
quate adjustment between the senior high school grades and those of
the junior college or lower division years of higher institutions, resulted
in a marked increase in the number of public junior colleges and in the
enrollment in these institutions. Thirteen district junior colleges were
maintained during the school year 1927-28, and junior college courses
were offered during that year in 21 high schools. In 1929-30, sixteen
district junior colleges were maintained and junior college courses were
offered in 19 high schools. The total state enrollment in junior
colleges in 1927--28 was 10,710. This enrollment has increased to 20,561
b)y June 30, 1930. Thle enrollment in the district junior colleges alone
increased during the biennium by 8937 students, a total increase in
these institutions of 111 per cent. Numerous studies have indicated
that this increase in enrollment in the public junior colleges has had a
very marked effect toward reducing the rate of increase of enrollment in
the lower divisions of the several higher institutions of the state, while
at the same time, it apparently has resulted in considerable increases in
the enrollments in the upper divisions of the latter institutions.
Much consideration has been given during the past biennium not
only by the Affiliations Committees, but by members of the State
Department of Education and by different committees, groups, and
individuals throughout the state, to the problems concerning rela-
tions between the secondary schools and the higher institutions. Some
revision has been effected in the college entrance requirements of the
University of California. iMIuch remains to be done in this field. It is
felt that with continued cooperation between university authorities,
the State Department of Education, and secondary school officials,
much can be accomplished to eliminate sources of friction and to facili-
tate the advanced education of the graduates of the California public
secondary schools. Considerable attention has been given by all public
school officials to the development of closer coordination of public
school activities and progress with those of other agencies interested
in public welfare. The public schools have been kept in closer touch
with public opinion than ever before. California Public School Week
has brought into the public schools literally millions of adults whose
interest in public education has been strengthened and whose acquaint-
anceship with modern techniques and methods of instruction has been
improved as a result of this contact. Cooperation with the public
press and with such organizations as the local associations of the Cali-


I'ornia (ongr'vess of Parents and Teachers, the State Federation of
Women 's (Clubs, thie California League of Women Voters, the Ameri-
can Legioin, and similar civic and patriotic organizations has brought
the public schools into much closer contact with the people, and it is
felt has resulted in increased efficiency of the public schools.

Much of the progress of public education in California is due to the
high professional spirit of California's public school officials. The
maintenance of this professional spirit results in a large part from the
frequent group conferences and conventions which bring together from
all over the state those public school administrators whose problems
and responsibilities are similar.

Secondary School Principals' Conventions.
Pursuant to the requirement of the state law, the Superintendent
of Public Instruction annually calls into convention the principals of
all of the secondary schools of the state. These conventions are held
in alternate years in the northern and the southern part of the state.
The programs are purely professional and provide opportunity for
large group consideration of the most significant developments and
problems in secondary education, as well as for small group discussions
of administrative problems and procedui'es.

Public School Superintendents' Conventions.
The Superintendent of Public Instruction is required by law to call
an annual convention of city, county, and district superintendents of
schools. These conventions, like those of the secondary school princi-
pals, are held in alternate years in the northern and the southern part
of the state. The programs of the conventions deal more directly with
state-wide policies and with the peculiar administrative problems of
public school superintendents. The convention is comprised of general
sessions in which all of the superintendents convene, and in addition
separate meetings of the several types of superintendents in which the
city, county, and district superintendents discuss their own common
The rural supervisors employed by county superintendents for the
supervision of schools in rural areas meet jointly at their own expense
with the superintendents of schools. It is felt that these conventions
of public school superintendents and rural supervisors are the means
of bringing about a concerted attack on a purely professional plane
upon the manifold problems of public school finance and administra-
tion, and that great value results from these conventions in the
improvement of public education in California. The contribution made
by the rural supervisors of the state and the value of their association
with the superintendents in these annual conventions point definitely
to the need for legislation authorizing payment of the expenses of the
rural supervisors while in attendance upon these conventions. Such
legislation does not now exist. The rural supervisors have financed
their own attendance upon the conventions for a number of years. It
is our belief that legislation such as is suggested should be enacted by
the 1931 legislature.


Junior College Conferences.
lkeference is made in preceding sections of this report to the confer-
ences called by the Superintendent of Public Instruction for the con-
sideration of problems affecting the public junior colleges. Several
such conferences have been held during tihe biennium. The value of
these conferences can not be over estimated and the procedure estab-
lished therein is being incorporated in numerous series of conferences
of regional character being called throughout the state for the consid-
eration of many types of public school problems. It is felt that
this procedure will definitely contribute greatly to the solution of many
of our problems and that in the process of such conferences a high type
of professional spirit is being created and closer coordination of educa-
tional effort results. The outcomes of several junior college conferences
have been presented elsewhere in this report.

Teacher Training Conferences.
Several conferences have been called from time to time during the
biennium by the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Chief
of the Division of Teacher Training and Certification of the State
Department of Education. These conferences have brought together
representatives of all of the public and private teacher training agencies
in the state. The purpose of these conferences has been the establish-
ment of fundamental principles of teacher training, together with the
determination of specific requirements relative to teacher training
curriculum. 'Many of the recommendations developed through these
conferences have definitely resulted in changed and improved programs
of teacher training in the state teachers colleges. In addition, it is felt
that the closer coordination of the several state teacher training agencies
is of genuine value to public education in the state.

The biennial reports submitted by the chiefs of the several divisions
of the State Department of Education are earnestly commended to the
attention of the reader. These reports present in concise form state-
iments of the objectives and activities of the divisions during the past
In this biennial report an attempt has been made to limit the dis-
cussion presented by the division chiefs to the specific functions
and activities of the several divisions as carried on during the biennium.
Much of the detailed information and statistics heretofore submitted by
division chiefs for incorporation in their biennial reports has been
eliminated, The more complete and detailed statements of several of
the divisions are available to those interested, and may be secured
upon request addressed to the appropriate division.

Auditor's Statement.
Herewith is submitted the statement of expenditures of the Califor-
nia State Department of Education for the period beginning July 1,
1928, and ending June 30, 1930, as submitted by Mr. H. M. Lynn,
Departmental Auditor.



General administration ---_- -- --
State Library____________.__________
California Historical Association----
Supervision of special classes for education
of handicapped children --------
Education of speech defective --------
Child study and parent education2- ---
Smith-Hughes vocational education3----
Vocational rehabilitation4 ----
California Nautical School--- ----
Commission for the Study of Educational
Teachers' Permanent and Retirement Sal-
ary funds------ -----
State (elementary) textbooks ---------

$168,973 66
162,397 99
5,506 97

10,036 86
10,004 17
7,500 00
77,474 58
77,552 12

607,144 19
420,351 73

Total expenditures -- ----------$1,546,942 27

$180,378 54
156,162 54
7,198 53
4,099 47
13,706 38
7,500 00
74,901 53
77,552 12
26,661 77
2,140 85

643,796 11
447,150 72

$1,611,248 56

$349,352 20
318,560 53
12,705 50

14,136 33
23,710 55
15,000 00
152,376 11
155,104 24
26,661 77

2,140 85

1,250,940 30
867,502 45
$3,188,190 83

SNot including amounts apportioned as reimbursement to districts.
2Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Fund grant.
3 Includes federal and state funds. Does not include amounts apportioned to
school districts.
4Includes federal and state funds.






One hundred years ago the struggle for liberty was a struggle of tne
average individual against the tyranny of a nobility, a monarch, a
priesthood. Now the enemy of liberty seems to be the crowd itself,
operating through the instrumentalities of the machine age and its
social organization. If this view is correct, then the problem of liberty
must be recast in new terms of social psychology. It becomes a chal-
lenge to men to understand themselves and to master themselves in
new ways in order that they may retain some vestige of their inherited
freedom.-Everett Dean Martin : "Liberty."

The State Department of Education has given consideration to the
education of adults in California for ten years. In 1920 a director of
adult education was appointed by Superintendent Wood to answer the
increasing demands created by the war for the Americanization of the
foreign-born population of this state.
With wisdom that time has proven, Superintendent Wood saw
Americanization in terms of education rather than in terms of propa-
ganda. He approached the problem of schooling for the foreign born
in terms of the finest kind of development of citizenship, a citizenship
which neglected nothing which the individuals themselves had to con-
tribute, and which made available to our foreign population all that
America has to offer for self-development.

Limited Character of Early Development.
The first adult education in California, as everywhere in'the United
States, was undertaken with a very limited view of the responsibility
of the public schools. It was assumed that if grown-up people were
made literate, could speak the English language, and had at least the
equivalent of a sixth-grade education, the public schools had done all
that they could.

Recent Developments.
A startling change has come in the development of the education of
adults during the ten-year period in which the state has been directing
this work-a development which has maintained the breadth of view
which was presaged by the original Americanization program. If the
State Department of Education has any justification, its task is to
interpret the signs of the times in terms of the work of the school. In
'Succeeded Ethel Richardson Allen, resigned, February 1, 1930.


a generation enormous changes have come about in the life of the every-
day citizen of the world. There are greater contrasts than similarities
between world conditions before the Great War and those which fol-
lowed. The war which was fought to "make the world safe for
democracy" was hardly terminated before two great countries of the
world, at least, had repudiated democracy altogether.
In this book entitled "Liberty" Everett Dean Martin has said that
"the delusion has long persisted in American democracy that people
may enjoy the liberties of the civilized man without having first
attained the civilized man's attitude toward life." It is appropriate
that the State Department of Education, recognizing the new demands
upon the intelligence of the individual citizen, challenged the public
schools of the state to undertake a new responsibility in the hope of
making possible the functioning of a democracy in the United States
to which so many lives have been devoted, and about which so much
oratory has been expended.

Education for Freedom.
As the quotation at the beginning of this report suggests, there is
no freedom without intelligent understanding. The mob and the crowd
are as tyrannical as the most unscrupulous monarch. Plato and Aris-
totle, in the time of the Greek republic, understood this. Aristotle
said that the aim of education is the training of men to be free, and
men can not be free even when they are the elected rulers of a
democracy when they themselves are controlled by desire and prejudice.

Changing Concepts.
In the ten years that the state has been working with adult education,
the purpose of adult education has changed from the mere elimination
of handicaps to one of the means by which we are hoping to secure
the freedom of mankind. This has necessarily changed the whole
approach to the question. There was a considerable extension of adult
education in California before the State Department organized this
division. Thirty and forty years ago, evening high schools were estab-
lished to which adults were eligible. In a large measure, however,
these high. schools, conducted at night for grown-ups, followed the
schemes and set up the curricula that were originally intended for
adolescents. If we taught history in the day high school, we taught
history at night--and much the same kind of history. If the boys and
girls studied the preliminaries of trades and professions in vocational
courses, similar courses were offered in the evening. The evening school
was looked upon as an opportunity for the under-privileged; those
whom formal education had passed by in their youth.

Purposes of Present-day Adult Education.
As the State Department of Education grew in its effort to inter-
pret the postwar world in terms of school practices, it soon became
evident that such an evening high school was, at the best, archaic. In
the first place, all that the old evening high school did must be done
and done more effectively; those who lost opportunities in their youth
must be given a chance in later life; those who had found themselves
misfits in their vocations should be given opportunity to change. These,


however, no longer collstilute lthe great responsibility of adult educa-
tion in the publlic schools. Those who haive suffered educational handi-
caps into mature life probably will not represent the leaders of though
in a democracy; land those who are seeking vocational training must
ultimately become a charge upon the industry into which they go where
the best and most direct training can be given. It is the great task of
the public schools to do their part to make the experiment of democracy
a success, and this can only be done when educational opportunity is
given, as long as human beings are capable of growth, to all those
citizens in tile community who will avail themselves of the opportunity.
IHistory must still be taught in the evening high school, but not the
history chronologically told to which the 1)oys and girls subject them-
selves for two or three years in the day school. It must be history that
will throw light upon the problems of our generation; that will inter-
pret to us the rapidly moving world in which we live ; that will make us
understand the forces by which we are controlled and which man must
himself control if society is to evolve.

Serving Community Needs.
It is because the public schools of California have accepted the
demand which the new times have placed upon them that California
has had so much publicity as a leader in adult education. In gen-
eral, evening high school principals have become an intimate part of
thie whole eonmmunity which tle high school serves. They have studied
all the organizations of the community; its social and political prob-
lems; the kind of men and women which make it up: and then have
offered courses which will help those men and women to live more
wisely and more completely in that community. Sometimes it has meant
starting a discussion group on the local charter. Sometimes it has
meant organizing adult music groups, to develop the recreational life
which has been too meager. Sometimes it has meant courses in city
planning, house decorating, the education of parents, the problems
involved in the propositions on the ballot, the important literature in
the current magazines. Whatever the titles, all the courses are designed
for the purpose of developing the critical thinking of the students and
of applying that thinking to the upbuilding of the community life.
Obviously no high school principal could be equal to the whole of this
task. Consequently, the organization of an evening high school on these
lines requires the help of the best minds and ablest leaders which the
district affords. In the best sense, a proper evening high school is a
New England town meeting.

The State Department of Education realized that public schools as
well as any other tax-supported agency can not indulge too freely in
experimenting where the results are not certain, and yet there is no
field where experimenting is more necessary than in education. In
order to make experimentation possible, and to have the results avail-
able to the public schools, the State Department of Education during
the past biennium sponsored the organization of a privately-supported
association for developing adult education. Using every available
resource for getting the largest number of people to continue their


education, regardless of their previous opportunity or present status,
this association has been developing discussion groups among adults of
all classes in various parts of the state, attempting to discover what sort
of education has permanent value for adults. Where the results have
been successful, the schools usually have taken over the work and
carried it on, leaving the association free to attempt new experiments.
Where these experiments have been unsuccessful, the association has
been able to study the causes of failure and often to provide as much
enlightenment for future effort as though the work had prospered.
The purpose of the association, its method of work, and the hope that
it promised of bringing California to the forefront in a state-wide adult
education program, appealed so strongly to the Carnegie Corporation
that they have been assisting with funds and very materially increasing
the endowment of the association. It is the expectation that the
experimental period in this particular field should not continue for long.
Public schools such as California boasts can not risk their reputation
for progressive-mindedness, and, in time, should be able to take over
whatever the association has discovered of merit in this field and
eliminate the need for privately-endowed organizations. That a large
foundation such as the Carnegie Corporation should have felt confi-
dence in California's program of adult education was one gratifying
evidence of our progress.

Another such proof came when the chief of this division in the State
Department of Education, Mrs. Ethel Richardson Allen, was chosen
as a delegate to the international conference at Kyoto. The Institute
of Pacific Relations, which meets biennially in the Pacific, is a perfect
illustration of adult education at its best. From each country border-
ing the Pacific basin, a very small number of delegates is chosen.
Although no one officially represents any group or organization, an
effort is made to see that each delegate is as thoroughly representative
of the best of his own group as can be found in that country. These
delegates, instead of going to the usual type of conference where large
audiences sit quietly listening to lengthy speakers, are assigned to small
round-table groups where the most critical discussion goes forward
for several hours each day until every side of the problem has been
thoroughly searched. In many conferences the subjects which might
bring about permanent friction are carefully avoided. In this confer-
ence these are almost the only questions discussed, and rightly so, since it
is the controversial questions which are naturally the important issues.
Chinese and Japanese delegates sit quietly around the table and state
the point of view of their own countries on so difficult a question as the
future of Manchuria. Chinese delegates told their Occidental com-
panions of the vicious consequences of foreign courts on Chinese soil;
or of municipalities, such as Shanghai, controlled by outside powers,
where the Chinese residents are taxed without representation. Subjects
so delicate that they might involve future wars were discussed day
after day by those whose inherited prejudices might have made them
bitter enemies, and they were discussed in the cool light of intellectual


Nothing more inspiring for the future of the world could have been
offered to a director of adult education than this conference. It gave
the hope tlat, in time, all men, if sufficiently educated, might apply
reason rather than prejudice to the solution of their problems: that not
only great wars could be obviated, but that the minor social frictions
that waste man's time and make him captive could ultimately be done
away with, if human beings could become sufficiently educated to be
civilized. If one knew history, not as a series of dates and wars, but as
a succession of causes and effects, one might avoid the repetition of past
errors. If one saw science, not merely as the explanation of the
material world and the elaboration of comforts, but as a satisfactory
explanation of the operation of physical law, one might begin to look
for social laws and utilize them to the better organization of society.
Tlie public schools have always been our fond hope for the success of
democracy, but we have only recently recognized that their service will
be exceedingly limited unless it is life-long.
The Kyoto conference must be taking place everywhere where men
and women are trying to live together without infringing on one
another's rights. The town of three thousand people has its own causes
of war and only intelligent understanding on the part of its citizens can
eliminate those frictions by reason rather than allowing them to smolder,
to be utilized by agencies which are depending upon man's greed and
stupidity for their own advancement.

The growth in enrollment in classes for California adults has been
truly remarkable. In 1926 the enrollment totaled 176,370. Four years
later the enrollment reached the tremendous figure of 283,231. It is
obvious that the total cost for such education runs into great sums of
money. But such money is wisely spent if it furnishes an education
that definitely changes for the better the life of the community. That
task and that test in the final analysis rests with the high school prin-
cipal or his delegated assistant, the director of adult education.
To increase man's freedom through increasing his understanding of
himself and the world that he lives in; to make his own life richer
because of his continuous growth: these are the ideals of the State
Department of Education, and these are the principles which have
actuated many of the high schools of California in their programs of
adult education.
It has been no small problem to find leaders with this new conception
of adult education. And in truth where are persons eager to become
technically equipped for leadership in adult education, to find training,
and to make contacts with authorities in that field? The question is
a fair one. None of the teacher-training institutions of the state were
offering adequate courses in methods of handling group discussion until
the summer of 1929, when the State Department of Education and the
University of California decided to cooperate in conducting a special
school of adult education within the larger summer session at Berkeley.
Its purpose was to offer special training to leaders in adult education


by providing courses that were alive, stimulating, and full of interest
to anyone wanting to know more about the world in which he lives.
Politics, history, art, and science were taught as models of method. The
only prerequisite was an experimental turn of mind. Special buildings
were assigned to this school so that although the students attending
were part of the regular summer session, they constituted a homogeneous
group in themselves. In this way all the best experience in adult edu-
cation throughout the state was shared.
Students and faculty lived together at Hansford Hall and specialists
in every line were invited in for luncheon and dinner and a rich oppor-
tunity was afforded for knowing the leaders and having discussions with
the promoters, the admirers, and the critics of adult education. Various
speakers, musicians, and artists were invited to join the students in the
dormitory for dinner and talk around the fire afterward.

Curriculum and Faculty.
Parent education, methods of teaching English to the foreign-born,
the technique of group discussion, the history of philosophy of the adult
education movement were offered. The faculty included Dr. H. A.
Overstreet, head of the Department of Philosophy, College of the City
of New York, and author of "Influencing Human Behavior" and
"About Ourselves"; Dr. H. P. Eames, professor or esthetics, Scripps
College; Dr. H. R. Stolz, of the Institute of Child Welfare, University
of California; Dr. Hubert Phillips, professor of history, Fresno State
Teachers College; Miss Ethel Swain, Department of Immigrant Educa-
tion, Los Angeles City Schools; and Dr. W. A. Orton, Department of
Economics, Smith College.

Character of the Summer School.
A very interesting account of the experiment is to be found in the
January, 1930, issue of the JOURNAL OF ADULT EDUCATION published in
New York. The article was written by Miss Bonaro Wilkinson, one of
the students, and is entitled TEACHING TEACHERS IN A NEW WAY.
Commenting on the Monday evening fireside discussions she says:
"But here again there was something decidedly new. The speakers
were not invited to make individual speeches. A specific question would
be put to them--one which had some bearing upon the courses of the
department. For example, one such question had to do with the rela-
tion of education to crime. Another dealt with the effect of the
economic system upon education. Another with problems of racial
intercourse. Then the speakers, in conversational fashion, would dis-
cuss the question among themselves. Soon, however, their monopoly
of the conversation would be invaded. Faculty members would begin
contributing their views or questioning the speakers. And then at last,
no longer able to refrain, the audience would break in. The best
argument fpr the success of these discussions was, perhaps, the difficulty
of bringing them to an end. After the audience had partially dis-
banded, after most of the outsiders had gone, even after the principal
speakers had taken leave, the Hansford Hall group would linger on,
continuing the discussion or presenting kindred ideas which it had
happened to suggest,


"Tie most striking qliuality of these discussions was their freedom
from rivialiy. We ar all failiai v e al r with the obstacles which stand in
the way of lthe intelligent exchange of tho-ught. We are hindered by the
inadequacy ot' words, having to depend upon terms of indefinite con-
notation or terms that have become dulled froni overuse. And there is
the persistent proneness to talk of things and personalities rather than
of ideas. But these summer discussions continued to maintain their
significant level. In the first place, they were initiated by speakers
who could be counted upon to give material which was both authorita-
tive and interesting: and in the second place, the group had become so
accustomed to struggling with ideas that it was increasingly able to
meet issues squarely. Tlie people were not merely talking, merely
repeating pleasant platiludes about education and crime and economies
and racial problems. They were honestly probing into their own con-
victions and into accepted social assumptions. The pursuit of ideas
liad somehow taken on the quality of a delightful adventure, one to be
entered into honestly and for tlie sheer joy of it."
Another important phase of thle program brings forth this statement:
"Drama, too. was looked upon as an experience to be shared. So we
experimented with spontaneous dramatics. Life situations of a prob-
lematic nature were suggested and discussed. Then, without rehearsal
or predetermined outcome, they were presented as plays. Each volun-
teer actor tried to fit himself into the type of role assigned to him,
saying that which would seem most reasonable under the circumstances.
And the audience, knowing that the problem-solution was still unde-
cided. entered eagerly into the situation, anticipating the lines of the
actors and later discussing with them possible alternative outcomes.
Hence, we became newly aware of the dramatic element in life-of the
types of problems which persistently present themselves, of the char-
acteristic people who create problems for others, of the methods of con-
viction which carry weight.
"*" We were obliged to think of adult education in new terms.
Most of us approached the session thinking in terms of Americaniza-
lion and continuation schools. We identified adult education with class-
room work and the imparting of practical information to retarded
groups. We left the session thinking in terms of personality-responses
to life situations. We been to see that our task was adequately per-
formed only as we opened up ways of release for those powers which
are inherent in every individual and every community.
"The summer witnessed the breaking down of barriers between the
social and the intellectual. Life has a curious way of becoming set in
rigid grooves. We learn facts and we perform work-but we do not
quite know how to utilize the facts learned and the work done to make
life interesting. We entertain ourselves, or we let others entertain us-
but we usually anticipate no definite carry-over from the avocational
life to the vocational. But here was a new situation. Work was made
the basis for a. delightful social intercourse. It was something which
could be rendered meaningful by fireside friendships, by companionable
walks, by meal-time associations. And our life of entertainment was
correspondingly broadened. Here were social activities which we
enjoyed because they made us think and because they terminated in
creative achievement.


Mental and emotional release-an awareness of potential powers-
an awakened sense of the importance of personality-an interpenetra-
tion of work and enjoyment-thesc, it seems to me, were the summer's
contribution to those of us who lived at Hansford Hall."
The school enrolled some two hundred fifty students from all parts
of the United States and was considered so successful that the uni-
versity will include in the session of -1930 a program quite similar to
the original one, adding to the faculty and enriching the curriculum
according to the needs made obvious by the previous experience.

Teachers are recognizing that education is not something for "the
other fellow."' They are discovering that adult education is not so much
learning more facts as learning to interpret facts and understand them;
that the educated person is one who can form judgments in accordance
with facts instead of prejudice, who is capable of discriminating
between the false and the true, who is able to think for himself and be
independent of the crowd:
Such is the general picture of adult education in California.

The organization of classes in child study and parent education as a
part of adult education in the public schools of California commenced
in August, 1926. The biennium from July 1, 1928, to June 30, 1930,
therefore, coincides with the third and fourth years of this experi-
The activities of the bureau during this period have been predicated
upon the assumptions that group discussion of problems of parent-
hood and child guidance constitutes an important opportunity for the
education of many adults in this state and that the organization of such
discussion classes can be successfully carried on by the State Iepart-
ment of Education in cooperation with local school authorities and with
other existing agencies engaged in the promotion of child welfare.
The bureau staff consisted of Herbert R. Stolz, M.D., Gertrude Laws,
Ph.D., and Mr. John F. Dale. Dr. Stolz devoted one-sixth of his time
to the bureau work and five-sixths to the direction of the Institute of
Child Welfare at the University of California. Dr. Laws devoted her
entire time to the work of the bureau in southern California. Mr. Dale
gave full time to the work of the bureau in northern and central Cali-
The work of the staff consisted of promotion, the training of dis-
cussion class leaders, the choosing of leaders, the organizing of groups
and giving assistance to local school authorities and individual leaders
in carrying on these discussion classes. In the work of promotion and
organization the bureau received the active cooperation of the Cali-
fornia Congress of Parents and Teachers. The growth of the move-
ment is largely due to the devoted efforts of both state and local repre-
sentatives of this body.
Some idea of the development which has taken place may be obtained
by comparing the scope of the work in 1928-30, with that of the previ-
ous biennium:
Number Number Number of Total number
School of of Number towns and of two-hour Total
year leaders classes enrolled cities sessions cost
1926-28------ 44 82 2,042 27 1,062 $23,304 50
1928-30-----... 135 349 14,839 65 4,316 46,336 30
State credentials to lead discussion groups have been granted upon
evidence of maturity, physical and' intellectual vigor, experience with
young children, experience in leadership of adults and upon ability
to present a satisfactory plan for conducting a discussion class. In


almost every case the applicant has been a member of a parent
education discussion class for one or more years. A credential was
granted only when the applicant received the endorsement of the
group to be led and of the loeal school authorities. Under these regu-
lations a sufficient number of good leaders has been discovered in the
larger centers of population. In the rural districts it has been more
difficult to find leaders and occasionally the formation of a class has
been frustrated for want of a suitable leader.
During the last two years the tendency for experienced leaders to
increase the number of classes has become noticeable but with the
exception of the staff of the State Department of Education and of
three leaders in southern California, leadership of these classes has
remained upon an avocational basis.

The discussion classes attracted 390 men and 4449 women in 1928-29.
In 1929-30, there were enrolled 594 men and 10,149 women. The
majority of the women were mothers of school children and members
of local parent-teacher associations. In general, the intellectual and
educational attainments of these women were above the average. For
the most part they were native-born citizens of the United States. In
Long Beach and in Bakersfield there have been classes composed of
Mexican women and in Bakersfield one class of negro women was
organized and successfully carried on.

The cost of the promotion, administration, and conduct of the 349
classes organized during the biennium was $46,336.30. This amount
was derived and expended as follows:
Source Amount Use
Spelman Fund, Rockefeller Foundation__$] 5,000 00 1. Part payment of the salaries
of Dr. Laws and Mr. Dale.
2. Travel expense of Dr. Laws
and Mr. Dale.
3. Clerical help.
State Department of Education_____- 3,810 00 1. Part-time salary of Dr. H.
R. Stolz.
2. Travel expense of Dr. H. R.
3. Clerical help.
22 Local School Districts ------------- .2S3 40 Part payment of salary and
travel expense of Dr. Laws
and Mr. Dale.
71 Local School Districts ------------ 1,242 90 Payment of discussion class
Total------------ -------_---_ $46,336.30

Complete data concerning the fees charged to class members are not
available but it is safe to say that some tuition was charged in at least
90 of the 349 classes, the amount varying from $0.75 to $2.50 per person.
Thus, the sum of $21,242.90 paid. by 71 local school districts was
derived in part from district school taxes, in part from state and
county school apportionment, and in part from fees collected from the
individuals enrolled.


1. The number of discussion classes in child study and parent edu-
cation, organized as a part of the public : school prog'ramn in (alifornia,
has increased steadily during the past two years; there has been a cor-
responding increase in the number of adults attending these classes.
2. The increased interest in this aspect of adult education is largely
due to the active cooperation of the California Congress of Parents
and Teachers with tle efforts of the staff of the State Depart ient of
Education and the local school authorities.
3. The methods employed for selecting and training leaders have
secured a sufficient number of suitable women for this work; they
have failed to secure suitable men.
4. The classes have been recruited largely from tihe more intelligent
mothers of school children. The number of fathers reached has been
small, as has also been the number of teachers.
5. Regularity of attendance at these classes has increased over pre-
ceding years but is still unsatisfactory to the local school authorities.
6. The practice of charging a tuition fee for these classes is becoming
more general and may be counted on to yield a significant revenue for
their maintenance.

With the cutting down of immigration due to the quota and to
increased vigilance in guarding the entrance of Mexicans into the
country, it was hardly to be expected that there would be great expan-
sion of the immigrant education program of the state. The emphasis
rather has been placed on reaching those localities that have neglected
the educational needs of non-English speaking people and illiterates,
and on strengthening the program by improved teaching through better
trained teachers and better lesson material.
It is interesting to note, however, that this work has more than held
its own. A few districts that had conducted classes for the foreign-
born have dropped the work either because of lack of funds or because
it was no longer needed. On the other hand, new classes have been
started in other localities. As the Mexican has receded, the Filipino
has advanced, as much in need of instruction as the Mexican but, in
general, meeting with less hospitality on the part of school authorities.
In the biennial report of the State Department of Education for
1928, sixteen high school districts were listed as being in "pressing
need of an immigrant education program." Of those, five now have
flourishing classes for foreigners. It is probable that in at least four
districts the "pressing need" no longer exists due to shifting of the
population. The rest are apparently unable as yet to make provisions
for such work.
There is noted an increased desire on the part of industry and
employers to have their non-English speaking workers understand and
speak English. Among districts in which such cooperation is out-
standing is Santa Paula, where owners of the great citrus groves who
employ large numbers of Mexicans, are outspoken in their preference
for workers who have had training in the evening school classes.
Sonora has maintained five classes to meet the needs of the foreign
laborers in the lumber mill there. Westwood, in spite of business
depression, has continued classes for Mexicans employed in its lumber
industry. Classes under a full-time teacher will be started in the new
term at the Walker 1\[ine in Plunmas County.
The delinquency problem has been aided by the institution of classes
of interest to young people, especially boys, who have had little school-
ing but who are beyond the compulsory school age. Notable examples
of this type of work are Selma and Saticoy.
Ample opportunity to study methods of teaching English to for.-
eigners was offered through extension classes in Los Angeles, San Diego,
and Hanford, besides the regular and summer courses at the University
of California. An extension course is planned for Fresno in 1930. The


quality of the teaching has steadily improved, the majority of the
teachers now having had special training for the work.
Greater care has been used in the preparation of lesson material and
in adapting it to local needs. A lesson exchange has been maintained
by this bureau. About 400 lessons written by teachers throughout the
state to suit particular needs and localities have been made available
and have served not only as lesson material but as a unifying factor in
the work of the State Department of Education. This material is
being revised constantly and kept up to date.

The following bulletins have been published during the last bien-
nimn :
5-0 Plays for Foreign Adults.
5-P An Evening School Paper.
A-1 Supplementary Set for Beginning Classes.
A-2 Supplementary Set for High Beginning Classes.
In addition to these the available bulletins are:
5-D Book 1-Lessons in Oral English for Classes of Beginners-
5-D Book 2-Oral English for Foreign Women.
5-E Lessons in Oral English for Beginners in Rural Schools.
5-F Series 1-Little Journeys in California (Lessons in English
for Intermediate Students).
5-H A Drill Book in English Structure for Foreigners in Evening
5-J Letter Writing and Written Composition (for High, Interme-
diate, and Advanced Students).
5-K American Customs, Business Ways, and Business Men (for
Intermediate and Advanced).
5-L Civic Lessons for Intermediate Students.
5--M A Supplementary Reader for Women's Classes (Buying and
Budgets and A Holiday Series).
5-N Home Lessons (Health and First Aid) Women's Classes.
5-X Helps for Teachers in Migratory Schools.
Material is being prepared for the following bulletins:
No. "A-3 A Motor Trip Through California.
No. A-4 Some American Customs.
No. A-5 Biographies for Intermediate and Advanced Classes.
Teachers of immigrant classes" have continued to find a clearing-
house for ideas, experiments, teaching methods, and devices and lesson
material in the official journal of the teachers of Americanization in
their magazine, the Community Exchange Bulletin, which is edited by
the chief of this bureau and now is in its eighth year of publication.

The greatest need is for more full-time directors and home teachers,
particularly in the rural districts, whose business should be promo-
tional as well as educational. To ascertain the extent and nature of


the problem, surveys of the foreign population should be made by a
worker trained to deal with non-English speaking people. The prob-
lem of the native-born illiterate, an increasingly serious problem in
California, must also be considered in this connection. More home
teachers for day classes for women are needed. Until all school authori-
ties realize their responsibility for the foreigners and native-born
illiterates in their local communities, a complete state program of edu-
cation for them can not be organized. But a steady advance is being
made. Several full-time directors and home teachers have been
appointed each year. Eventually it is hoped to have classes available
and conveniently accessible to all adults in all high school districts
where needed.





The staff of the Division of City Secondary Schools at the begin-
ning of the biennnium consisted of the following:
Nicholas Ricciardi, Chief of the Division.
Ira W. Kibby, Chief of the Bureau of Business Education.
H. D. Hickcr, Chief of Bureau of Civilian Vocational Rehabilitation.
Made I. Murchie, Chief of the Bureau of lHome-Making Education.
J. C. Beswick, Chief of Bureau of Trade and Industrial Education.
San Francisco District Office, Bureau of Civilian Vocational Rehabil
J. 31. Dodd, District Manager.
F. 31. Ballard, Training Officer.
Jeannette E. Condy, Assistant Training Officer.
Los Angeles District Office, Bureau of Civilian Vocational Rehabili-
W. E. Smith, District Manager.
O. Olson, Training Officer.
II. Hope, Training Officer.

The Division renders service:
1. In secondary education to:
a. Senior and four-year high schools in urban areas.
b. All junior high schools.
c. All junior colleges.
d. Continuation high schools in urban areas.
2. In federal- and state-aided vocational education to:
a. All secondary schools.
b. Labor, in effecting cooperating relationships through advisory
committees designed to enhance the efficiency of the voca-
tional training program.
e. Industry, in effecting cooperating relationships through
advisory committees and foreman-training conferences
designed to enhance the efficiency of the vocational training
d. Vocational teacher trainers, in carefully selecting occupation-
ally competent persons and providing suitable vocational
teacher training.


e. Local school systems, in providing local supervision and
regional supervision on a cooperative basis, to improve the
work of the teachers in service.
The service in federal- and state-aided vocational education is ren-
dered in accordance with a state plan approved by the State Board of
Education and the Federal Board for Vocational Education. This
plan is known as the California State Plan of Vocational Education.

Controlling Objective.
The controlling objective of the division is to render service in
secondary education, and in vocational education as an aspect of sec-
ondary education, in terms of the needs of the different types of indi-
viduals enrolled in the secondary schools for which the division is
responsible. This service is designed to aid in the establishment of
conditions that will develop in each individual the skill, the technical
knowledge, and the social understanding required to live efficiently as
a social-civic, occupational, and cultural person.
As the individual grows in power to do, he develops the ability
designated as skill. Skill is knowledge in action. It is the facility with
which an individual does things. There are, of course, different kinds
of skill. There is the skill of the typist, of the stenographer, of the
milliner, of the bookkeeper, of the banker, of the architect, of the law-
yer, of the teacher, of the doctor, of the surgeon, and so on.
As the individual grows in power to explain whly he does things he
develops the ability which is designated as technical knowledge. A
motorman, for instance, may know how to run a car satisfactorily but
may not know why he performs certain operations which enable him
to run the car. The same may be true of the elevator operator, of
the automobile driver, of the tool maker, of any worker who has the
skill, the how of the work he is doing, but has not the why, the technical
Any success which is the outcome of skill and technical knowledge
only is not a genuine success. To be genuinely successful, the indi-
vidual must grow, also, in the power to relate himself sympathetically
and wholesomely to his fellow beings; he must be open-minded, loyal,
cooperative; he must know how to appreciate the Good and the Beau-
tiful in life. As he grows in such power lie develops the asset essential
to genuine success which is designated as social understanding.

Immediate Objectives.
The immediate objectives set at the beginning of the biennium may
be indicated as follows:
1. To aid school administrators to determine the educational needs
of the areas which they serve by evaluating their programs of educa-
tion, using a practical procedure developed by the division.
2. To develop a survey procedure for establishing district junior
3. To train special groups in conference leadership.
4. To adapt the conference procedure to curriculum making.

I)IVIS-1( N OFI c n'1 SE( t N)IYs('hOOLs

5. ''o dleerinile thriogh a series of vonl'erences the problems in con-
tin uatioln tlu'ation rel I(piringl special consideration.
6. To aid ill working out new legislation in coninuation edlucalion
and in establislhing coninuial ion-eduilcation service.
7. To produce a handbook I'or continuation education.
S. To study junior high school proble)l(s anid produce a symllposium
volume ihat would be a 'prael iCtal guide to workers in the field of junior
high school education.
9. To produce a handbook for counselors through a series of regional
conferences of deans anid counselors.
10. To produce a guide for conil'erlence lea;derls to be Iused in a series'
of regional con l'erencles of principals ad11( representatives of the Cali-
fornia Coniress of Parents and( Teachers.
11. To work out with the State Advisory Co(1omnittee on Aeronautical
Education suitable courses for secondary schools.

Some of the accomplishments of the bienniiium which may be given
special comment are the following;:
1. The development al(d the use in conferences and in faculty meet-
ilgs of a practical procedure for evaluating any secondary-school pro-
gram. This procedure, effectively used in cooperative endeavor by
the principal as conference leader, or by any conference leader, is a
practical device for drivingI home the fact that the service expected
of the secondary school may be rendered most effectively when the
secondary school provides curricula which are the outcome of the fol-
a. A philosophy of secondary education with definitely formulated
'general and specific objectives recognizing as fundamental the
principle that education is supported as an investment and should
be required to pay dividends.
b. Conferences of secondary high school administrators in cooperative
endeavor with the State Department of Education directed to the
formulation of an acceptable philosophy of secondary educa-
tion emphasizing agreement upon "social values" in terms of
which the dividends of education may be measured.
e. Criteria for building the kinds of curricula that look toward the
betterment of society through social integration, acceptable
attitude., and emotional balance as well as approved factual
d. Curricula designed to modify the conduct of each individual in
terms of his interests, needs, and capacities, thus insuring the
highest development of each individual and the worthiest contri-
bution to society.
e. A guidance program designed to aid in building suitable curricula
most effectively and economically.
2. The development of a survey procedure ini cooperative endeavor is
concretely illustrated in the JUNion COLLEGE SURVEY OF SISKIYOU
COUNTY. The Survey Report was printed by the Board of Supervisors
of Siskiyou County, July, 1929.


3. The Chief of the Division was requested to familiarize a selected
group of teachers of the Sacramento City Schools with the conference
method for the purpose of enabling each one to use it as chairman of a
group of teachers in the discussion of secondary-education problems.
The degree of success of this cooperative enterprise is reported in TIIE
tor and Ricciardi.
4. Upon the request of principals, the Chief of the Division held
conferences of teachers and of principals to illustrate how the confer-
ence method may be used in curriculum making.
5. The study of problems in continuation education in a series of
regional conferences produced the HANDBOOK ON CONTINUATION EDU-
CATION, which is known as Bulletin C-4.
6. Field service for the purpose of giving assistance in continuation
education, particularly with reference to the carrying into effect of the
provision in the new Continuation Education Act requiring of unem-
ployed minors an attendance of 15 hours per week, and for giving
counsel to school administrators regarding problems involved in con-
tinuation education, has been made available.
7. There has been produced a symposium volume on junior high
school education1 which serves as a practical guide to workers in junior
high school education. This work is a cooperative study which reports
administrative procedures now prevalent in the junior high schools
of the state, making available information that should be of practical
value to junior high school administrators in solving their problems and
in aiding them to fit the junior high schools to the needs of the pupils as
effectively as possible.
8. In a conference of deans and counselors of the high schools of the
Central Coast Area, scheduled for three successive mornings, it was
unanimously agreed that a handbook for counselors would be of prac-
tical value to high school counselors, school administrators, and teach-
ers, particularly if such handbook would be the outcome of a series of
field conferences of deans and counselors. In accordance with that
decision, conferences were held during the last semester in Salinas,
resulting in the working out of the first chapter in the HANDBOOK FOR
The field conferences will be continued until the Handbook has been
produced. The following chapters will be included:
1. The Need for a Handbook.
2. A Guiding Philosophy of Secondary Education.
3. Functions of Counseling.
4. The Training Program for Counselors.
5. The Technique for Counseling.
6. The Application of the Technique.
7. Reasonable Outcomes of Counseling.
8. A Procedure for Evaluating the Outcomes of Counseling.
After each chapter has been prepared by members of the conferences,
mimeographed copies will be forwarded to all the members of the con-
ferences and to selected individuals in the field, for criticisms and
SProctor, William M., and Ricciardi, Nicholas R. THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL.
Stanford University Press, 1930.


su ggestio ns. Each chapter will be revised in conference, giving careful
consideration it tlhe criticisms and suggestions received. The chapter
lthus revised will Ihe ine111ed( in Ilie Ian(dhook.
After tlie eight chapters have been wrillen in ilccordance with this
procedure, the Stale Department of E'ducatlion will publish the 11anl-
book a< an official bulletin.
Because of limited space, no further conmmimts will be made con-
cerningi olier accomplishments of the biennium.

With respect to personnel, the present status of the division is
identical with that at the beginning of the biennium. Limited space
precludes special comments concerning the growhll of the program and
other important factors bearing upon the necessity for increased per-
sonnel and funds.

Because of limited space it is impossible to enumerate tile projected
objectives for the next biennium. It is appropriate, however, merely
to point out that the controlling objective of the division is never lost
sight of when working out projected objectives. The immediate objec-
tives of the last biennium which have been only partially realized
during the biennium, as, for example, the production of the HANDBOOK
FOR COUNSELORS, will, of course, be carried on until the work involved
in the realization of each objective- is completed.

Legislation assuring a stable state junior college fund, and a sound
procedure for establishing junior colleges, should be enacted.
The legal and financial status of the junior high school should be
clearly defined in new legislation.

Business subjects, designed to prepare boys and girls to enter occupa-
tional activities, were among the first popularizing courses offered in
the American high school. As the secondary school population became
more cosmopolitan, the demand for some type of training to meet the
practical activities of life became more dominant. To meet these
needs, business subjects became a part of the high school curriculum.
These courses proved of such value that now they constitute a large
part of the modern high school curriculum. "Approximately 17 per
cent of all the pupils enrolled in the public high schools are pursuing
ihe business curriculumn"

Standards of Instruction Lacking.
The academicians have not granted full recognition to business sub-
jects and colleges have been reluctant to recognize these courses as
having sufficient educational value- for students who desire to pursue
a higher education. As a result no higher educational institution has
attempted to set up standards of content or accomplishment in the
commercial subjects; nor has any check of the product of commercial
education been made. Thus, commercial teachers have not been
required to meet standards of instruction set by higher educational
authorities. In many ways this has been advantageous as it has left
teachers free to develop courses to meet the needs of the student. On
the other hand, when no coordinating agent assists in developing and
maintaining the proper quality of instruction throughout a given group
of institutions, the quality of such instruction soon varies and tends to
become less efficient.
The indiscriminate assignment of students to business courses without
regard to their abilities and aptitudes, soon resulted in a lowering of
the quality of performance in these courses. In many instances, the
quality of performance fell below the standards required for actual
job performance.

Growth of Business Education.
The great increase in business activities has brought about an increase
in business workers. The division of labor has resulted in multiplying
the types of occupational pursuits, each requiring a mastery of different
knowledge and skills. Educators have recognized the need for a more
adequate and varied training to meet these new business conditions.
Courses have been added to the curriculum but there has been no
From Bulletin No. 26, 1929, COMMERCIAL EDUCATION SERIES, U. S. Bureau of


agency to assist in working out the content and standards of these

PThe only apparent way in which business courses can be properly
developed and ade(luate norms of accomplishment established is through
state assistance. In .July, 1928, the State Board of Education created
the Bureau of Business Education and through a competitive civil
service examination selected a chief for the bureau.
The bureau was placed under the Division of City Secondary
Schools and was assigned the following duties:
1. To carry on a continuous investigation and survey of business
education in the secondary schools of California, as well as the oppor-
tunities for employment in business pursuits throughout the state and
of tlie educational requirements to enter such pursuits.
2. To formulate courses of business education which will best qualify
studentss for the various types of business employment and to develop
standards and improved methods of teaching these courses.
3. To initiate and participate in the development of an adequate
plan for training teachers of business subjects.
4. To conduct regional conferences of commercial teachers.
.. To develop cooperative training in business education.
6. To develop effective plans of cooperation between commercial
teachers and employers in the training and placement of commercial
7. To counsel with school administrators, teachers, and employers in
all matters relating to business education.
S. To perform other related work.

Business education has two major objectives: First, to develop atti-
tudes, skills, and technical knowledge to fit individuals as successful
workers in type commercial jobs; second, general business training to
prepare better all individuals to carry on their private business activi-
However, it is recognized that business courses must be carefully
coordinated with other courses in the curriculum so that students may
develop the proper health, civic and social attitudes, as well as to
create a desire for wholesome living and further personal improvement.
The first two years of the business curriculum of the high school
should be devoted largely to the second objective, while the definitely
vocational training should be concentrated in the period immediately
before individuals leave school to enter employment.

The enrollment in business subjects has increased steadily in the
high schools of the state. The following data show the enrollments in
the various commercial subjects, as reported by 291 regular four-year
and senior high schools and 78 junior high schools in February, 1930.


Regular Four Year and Senior High Schools

Subject Boys
Typewriting _____ ____---------------------------______ 11,241
Bookkeeping ----------_ ------------------------7,157
Shorthand -----------_____ ------ -----___ 1,254
Junior Business Training --- ----___-----_---------__ 3,927
Business Law ---------------------------_____ 2,735
Economic Geography -----------------------------------_ 2,08S
Business Mathematics ---------------------------------- 1,973
Salesmanship --------------------------------1,782
Office Practice ----------------------------------------- 679
Business English _______________________________-----_ 936
Advertising -- ----__ _-__ --_---------------- 676
Machine Calculation ------------------------------256
Machine Bookkeeping -------------------------------356
Secretarial Practice---------- ------_______-------_ 47
Penmanship ---- -------------- -------- ------ 308
Retail Selling -------------------------------------337
Business Management and Organization---------------- 287
Commercial or Industrial History---------_ 263
Money and Banking --------------- -------------- 179
Filing ----- ---___ __-------------------------_ 55
Commerce -------------------------- --------- 77
Modern Business (Occupations, Fundamentals of Business,
et cetera) ------------ ------- -------- 105
Store Practice --------------------- ---------95
Penmanship and Spelling (combined)--- ------------ 50
Business Economics-- ---- --------- 101
Secretarial Bookkeeping----------------- ------- 2
Office Appliances ------------- --- ----------- 3
Marketing-------------- --------- --------- 48
Merchandising --------------- --------------------------- 42
Foreign Trade----------------------------------33
Cooperative Commercial Education----- -------------__ 14
Cooperative Salesmanship ---------------------- -- 15
Stenotyping -- -------_------ -----------
Totals--------------------------------- 37,121

Junior High Schools

Junior Business Training ------- _-----
Business Mathematics----------------------------
Bookkeeping --- ---------------------- --
Penmanship and Spelling (combined) ------
Office Practice------ -- --------------------
Economic Geography --------------








Totals---------------------------------- ------8,831 14,764 23,595


The adoption of there amended rules for graduation from high school
which placed vocational majors on a par with academic majors in ful-
filling graduation requirements greatly stimulated a coordinated pro-
gram in business education. The Bureau of Business Education in
cooperation with the commercial teachers has set up the majors in the
following fields of work: Stenography, bookkeeping, clerical sales serv-
ice. (See Bulletin No. C-5.)


The Bureau of Business Education recognizes the value of coopera-
tive effort in solving modern day problems. It realizes that the prob-
lems confronting business education in California can only be solved
through the efforts of the commercial teachers and business leaders
working in cooperation with the bureau. Committees have been set
up to study the major problems in business education.


Follow-Up Study.
The follow-up committee has completed a report outlining a plan
for tlie follow-up of students who leave high school in order to ascer-
tain their occupational success and the type of jobs that are open to
high school trained students. The plan is organized so that it may be
used as a unit of instruction in the office practice or advanced type-
writing courses.

Penmanship Study.
The penmanship committee has set up the following objectives:
1. To determine the standard of handwriting reached by high school
2. To compare standard attained by high school students with occu-
pational standard, as determined by studies which have already been
3. To determine the standard attained at the end of the eighth grade
and compare with the standard attained at the end of the twelfth
4. To determine the opportunities offered in the grades to reach an
occupational standard.
5. To determine what grade of penmanship is requisite for the study
of shorthand.
Penmanship tests were given to the pupils in 30 schools of
northern California. After a careful study of the results of this test
the committee reached the following tentative conclusions:
1. That the standard reached by high school graduates is far below
standards for success in business.
2. That standard attained by high school graduates is slightly lower
than required social standards.
3. That no systematic, definite work in penmanship is done in ele-
mientary schools during the seventh and eighth grades. That prac-
tically all schools up to the sixth grade attempt to teach penmanship,
but the teachers, as a rule, have had no definite preparation to teach
this subject.
4. That this study at the present time does not contain sufficient
information for the committee to make a definite recommendation
regarding the teaching of penmanship in high schools.
5. That the committee shall continue its investigation over a longer
period and include a larger number of cases.
Typewriting Study.
The typewriting committee is making a study to determine the norm
of accomplishment reached by typewriting students in each semester of
work. Teachers in the past have had no state standard or norm upon
which to judge the accomplishment of their students. This norm will
be compared to the standard requirements of business so that voca-
tional business teachers may have reliable information upon which to
judge accomplishment requirements.
A study of the relationship of accomplishment to time allotment will
be made, as well as an analysis of the teaching content needed to pro-
duce efficient typists.


Iu order to obtain necessary data, the committee, in cooperation with
the Bureau of Business Education, developed a typewriting test which
was given to 45,000 students enrolled in the typewriting classes of the
public schools.

Commercial Arithmetic Study.
The commercial arithmetic committee has set up the following
1. To determine, through a series of tests, the accomplishments of
high school commercial students in arithmetic.
2. To determine the relative retention of mathematical processes by
students as they progress through their high school courses.
3. To determine, through a study of the mathematical computations
made by high school graduates who are working in commercial occu-
pations, the kind of mathematical problems graduates need to know in
the various business occupations.
The committee has planned its work in terms of a two- or three-year
study and in that time, undoubtedly, will make a valuable contribution
to business education.

Salesmanship and Merchandising Study.
The salesmanship and merchandising committee is making a study of
the content that should be included in the sales service major. Occupa-
tional surveys of students leaving high school and entering employ-
ment show that a large percentage enter the selling or merchandising
field. Up to the present time little training has been given in the high
schools of California to fit such individuals for such occupational pur-
suits. The committee is working out a three-year course of content
which will include the study of salesmanship, retailing, merchandising,
advertising, and cooperative selling practice.

From the inception of business education the program has been
handicapped through the lack of adequately trained teachers. The
certification regulations in California permit any teacher who holds a
general certificate to teach any subject which may be assigned to him.
As a result teachers who have not studied business subjects are often
assigned to teach them.
The State Board of Education has set up requirements for special
certification in business subjects. These requirements are of such char-
acter that teachers can obtain general certification in approximately
the same time required to obtain the special certification. Inasmuch
as the general certificate allows a teacher such a wide latitude in teach-
ing subjects, individuals going into the teaching field invariably work
for this type of certificate, realizing that upon obtaining the same they
can teach any of the business subjects as well as academic subjects,
regardless of the fact that they may not be properly trained to teach
Prior to 1928 only one recognized institution of higher learning in
California offered courses for the training of commercial teachers and


such traiining did not cover all tile major subjects. Inasmuch as Cali-
fornia universities credit only a very limited number of units in busi-
ness subjects for college entrance, and do not offer courses or even
recognize credits earned in other institutions for many of the business
content subjects, individuals desiring to become teachers of business
subjects have had to obtain their training outside of the state or in
private institutions. After obtaining such training most of the credits
so received are not recognized as applying toward university degrees.
This condition has been detrimental to the development of an effective
program of business education in California.
To overcome this situation, teacher training courses in business edu-
cation have been developed in three California state teachers col-
leges. Although these courses are well organized and offer the kind of
training needed, individuals who pursue them and obtain their
bachelor's degrees thereby arc not permitted to take advanced degrees at
the state university without being penalized in credits. The ambitious
commercial teacher is thus blocked in his aspirations and soon shifts
over to general certification and the general education fields.

The committees studying the various phases of business education
will continue their projects throughout the next biennium. As each
study is completed, the results of the study will be presented to teach-
ers and administrators with recommendations. Other committees will
be appointed to study other phases of business education such as the
place of bookkeeping in the curriculum, norms of accomplishment for
shorthand, what should be included in an office practice course, content
for a course in junior business training, and content for courses in
fundamentals of business.

The following recommendation is submitted in the interest of develop-
ing business education in California.
That the certification laws and rules be amended so as to permit
teachers to teach only such subjects or fields of knowledge as they are
specifically prepared to teach.

H. D. HiCKER, Chief
If self-support to the full measure of physical and mental capacity
is the duty as well as the highly prized prerogative of every adult
member of society, it follows that society is morally obligated to afford
to each individual vocational opportunity. It follows also that since
this principle applies to all members of society, equality of opportunity
demands that the physically handicapped as well as normal individuals
share in vocational activities suited to their needs. Federal and state
legislation providing for the promotion of vocational rehabilitation of
persons injured in industry and otherwise and their return to useful
employment is evidence of the public recognition of the acceptance of
these principles.
The Bureau of Vocational Rehabilitation is the agency through
which the state offers to its disabled residents opportunity for voca-
tional readjustment and assistance in preparation for suitable occupa-
tions. The service is primarily one of counseling, training, and place-
ment, but this is modified or supplemented by such other related serv-
ices as may be needed in the individual case.
From the beginning, success has marked the efforts of the bureau.
It has been demonstrated repeatedly that disabled persons may, through
retraining or other vocational adjustment, overcome the effects of
almost any physical handicap and again take their places in the world
of industry as useful and productive citizens. Dependency which
results from physical injury is seldom excusable. Both the individual
and the state alike, profit by a service which justifies itself both in its
obvious humanitarian aspect and in the economic return which results
from the renewed productivity of this salvaged human material.

At the beginning of the biennium, the resignation of the former
bureau chief and the promotion of the writer left a vacancy in the
staff which has never been filled. At that date the bureau had an
active load of 577 disabled persons in training who were being fol-
lowed up after employment. It was believed that this was the maxi-
num number which might lbe cared for with the staff and appropria-
tions available. Policies and procedure ihad been carefully worked out
in conformity with regulations of the Federal Board for Vocational
Education and the bureau was functioning smoothly but with a con-
sciousness of its limitations. Since-all demands for the service could
not be met, it was necessary to make careful selection of applicants on
the general principle of greatest good for the greatest number. Pro-


emotional work and personal contact service were therefore not stressed
as a sufficient number of applications were being received continuously
to keep the training load at maximum capacity without stimulation of
demand. All members of the staff were experienced and efficient, and
except for the limitations noted the biennium opened auspiciously.

The past two years have been the most successful in the history of
the rehabilitation movement in California, despite adverse economic
conditions, and despite two other personnel changes with consequent
loss of experienced leadership. Credit for this excellent showing is
due to District Supervisors J. M. Dodd and W. E. Smith and Training
Officers F. M. Ballard, Jeannette E. Condy, Herbert H. Hope, and
Oliver Olson, whose united effort and outstandingly faithful and effi-
cent service has brought about the results herein reported.
The following tables afford comparative statistical data for the past
three biennial periods:

Status of case 1924-26 1926-28 1928-30
1. In school training -- ------------ ---------- 348 464 482
2. In employment training ------------------------ 12 30 27
3. Being followed up after employment---------------- 28 83 SO
Totals------------------------------- 388 577 589

Rehabilitated through 1924-26 1926-2S 1928-30
1. School training ---------- --------_----- ---- 277 383 451
2. Employment training----------- __--__-- --------- 25 44 38
3. Job restoration--------------------- ------- 27 18 12
Total rehabilitated------------------------ ---- 329 445 501
Average cost per rehabilitant ---------------------- $308.77 $327.26 $313.29
NoTE.-For the period 1921-1924 there were 501 rehabilitations, making a grand
total since establishment of the service of 1776 rehabilitations. In addition some
3000 others were given assistance in their vocational adjustment.

It is truly remarkable that there should have been trained and suc-
cessfully placed on the job 501 disabled persons during tie period
1928-30 (257 of these during the past year, 1929-30) at a time when
thousands of able-bodied persons are and have been unemployed. Tile
explanation is, of course, that the bureau's trainees are carefully pre-
pared for specific occupations and are individually assisted in place-
ment on a job suitable to their particular needs and abilities. This
double "fitting" process thus demonstrates its advantage over ordinary
employment methods.
The following data concerning the 501 rehabilitants of the biennium
are illustrative of the values of the service:
Average age ------------ ------------------------30 years
Average weekly wage prior to injury _________ $22 10
Average weekly wage at time of contact------------______- 2 39
Average weekly wage on rehabilitation job .- ----------- 26 98
Even without anticipated increases the wage following rehabilitation
is seen to be 2.21 per cent over the wage prior to injury and 1027 per
cent over the wage at time of contact. The average age being 30


years and assuming a productive period of 20 years additional, it is
obvious that the pay roll value to the community of the disabled men
and women thus restored to industry represents an enormous financial
dividend on the small investment of $313.29 (average cost per rehabili-
tant) required to lift them from the ranks of potential dependency.

Despite the excellent showing made as indicated by increased enroll-
ments and increased rehabilitations, the demand for rehabilitation
service in the state is still far from being met. In recent years it has
been necessary to discontinue active contact work during the final
quarter, but even so approximately 50 applications have been placed
on a waiting list annually. At the close of the biennium there were
approximately 2000 reported injury cases in the bureau's prospect
files still awaiting investigation. There is no doubt but that with
increased staff and increased appropriation the live-load of trainees
and the number of rchabilitants may easily be doubled. In brief, the
present status of the bureau is one of efficient service to the maximum
of present resources in a field demanding expansion both as to service
for persons eligible under present policies and for others who would
benefit by a liberalized policy as proposed below.

Without increased appropriation and liberalization of policies, the
bureau can not hope in the future to do more than duplicate the
accomplishment of the past biennium. It has become increasingly
apparent in recent years, however, that in addition to extending its aid
to all now eligible, the scope of the service should be broadened to
include types of cases and disabilities now deemed nonsusceptible under
our rather restrictive policy. Wheel-chair cases, tuberculosis patients,
and blind persons who need sheltered employment. and others who will
never become fully self-supportinlg but may readily be made partially
so, should be eligible for this service. Other needs include placement
service for the handicapped, maintenance during training and closer
coordination with the program of Special Edncation for Physically
Handicapped Children. A plan has been outlined and heretofore sub-
mitted setting forth the proposed expansion, which is intended to make
this bureau the clearing house for the needs of all disabled persons in
the state.
An experiment nine years ago, vocational rehabilitation is now an
accepted service conceded to be economically as well as socially sound.
Its accomplishments in a limited field justify increased support and
amended legislation which will enable it to serve other handicapped
)persons wh(o re equally entitled to vocal ional opportunity for self-
support and happiness.