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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Directory of personnel
 Administrative organization of...
 Organizational chart
 Biennial report of State Board...
 Biennial report of Superintendent...
 Division of Research and Stati...
 Division of Textbooks and...
 Division of Teacher Training and...
 Commission for Vocational...
 Division of Adult and Continuation...
 Division of Elementary Education...
 Division of Health and Physical...
 Division of Libraries
 Division of Schoolhouse Planni...
 Division of Secondary Educatio...
 Division of Special Education
 The State Curriculum Commissio...
 Commission of Credentials
 State Teachers Colleges
 State Special Schools
 Back Cover














Report
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098241/00002
 Material Information
Title: Report
Physical Description: v. : ill., plates, maps, plans, tables (part fold.) diagrs., forms. ; 22-25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: California -- Dept. of Education
California -- Dept. of Public Instruction
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Sacramento
Creation Date: 1931
Publication Date: 1851-
Frequency: biennial[1863/65-1877/79, 1880/82-]
annual[ former 1851-1862/63, 1879/80]
biennial
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Education -- California   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Summary: 1926/28- contains statistical tabulations relative to the public schools of the state (Division of Research and Statistics).
Summary: 1926/28 includes the Thirty-third biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Biennial report of the Director of Education; 1928/30- include the Thirty-fourth biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Biennial report of the State Board of Education.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year irregular.
Numbering Peculiarities: Report for 1896/98 not printed. Cf. A.R. Hasse, Index of economic material in documents of the United States. California, 1849-1904, p. 85.
Numbering Peculiarities: 1926/28- in two parts each year. Part 1 includes the Thirty-third- Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Biennial report of the Director of Education; pt. 2, contains the statistical tabulations relative to the public schools of the state (Division of Research and Statistics).
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07919364
lccn - 05040131
System ID: UF00098241:00002

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Letter of transmittal
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
    List of Tables
        Page vi
    Directory of personnel
        Page vii
    Administrative organization of Sate Department of Education
        Page viii
    Organizational chart
        Page ix
        Page x
    Biennial report of State Board of Education
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Biennial report of Superintendent of Public Instruction
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Division of Research and Statistics
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Division of Textbooks and Publications
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Division of Teacher Training and Certification
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Commission for Vocational Education
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Division of Adult and Continuation Education
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Division of Elementary Education and Rural Schools
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Division of Health and Physical Education
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Division of Libraries
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Division of Schoolhouse Planning
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Division of Secondary Education
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Division of Special Education
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    The State Curriculum Commission
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Commission of Credentials
        Page 120
        Page 121
    State Teachers Colleges
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    State Special Schools
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Back Cover
        Page 147
        Page 148
Full Text












UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARY









BIENNIAL REPORT

of the

California State Department of Education

including the

Thirty-fifth Biennial Report of the Superin-

tendent of Public Instruction

and the

Biennial Report of the State Board of Education For
the School Years ending June 30, 1931
and June 30, 1932

Vierling Kersey, Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion and Ex Officio Director of Education


PART


9S283



















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CAL .A.,I


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i'-HvirrilOrl STATE FAiri rER
S4Cr~F. r IEriTO I9:


)18283














LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


Slate ID)epartment of Education
Sacramento, California
September 15, 1932

Io1114nriable .l James Rolph, Ir.,
(overiiono or California,
State Capitol.
Snera nme it'n, California.


Herewithl is submitted the biennial report of the Department of
Education covering the period beginning July 1, 1930, and ending
.1Iine 30, 1932.
''liis report includes the biennial report of the State Board of Edu-
c;ation, as required by School Code section 2..1389, and t the thirty-fifth
bielllial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction as required
by School Code section 2.1417.
A cc-mplete statistical report for the biennium will be issued in a
separate volume as Part II of this report.

Respectfully submitted,






Superinlti nJle nt of Public Ins/iruction.
Dirr'tour of Education, auinl Secrc-
t,!l r, id1 Exc.,urtire Officer of Iibc
Intate I',llr 1 of Education


7?77/
















CONTENTS


Page
Letter of 'Tri illa~iittal ---------------- -------------------- 111
Directory of Personnel --- ..... ----------- -------------- vii
Administrative Organization of State Department of Education__ viii
Organization of State Departiment of Ednuetion (Chart) --------ix
Biennial Report of Sl3ate Board of Education------------------ 1
Biennial iReport of i superintendent of Public Illstruction -------- 7
Division of Research and Statistics-------------------------- 33
Division of Textbooks and Publieatios ---------------------- 35
Division of Ieaclher Traii.iiing land Certification ----------------- 44
Col ninissionl for Voe;itioll Il Edi-ationl ------------------------ 50
IB rean of1 Agri:ciiltiira Edl.lcatiol---------------------- 51
Bureau of Busiless Eduttion -------------------------- 53
Bureau of IIollne-lmkili Ediicltioin---------------------- 5
Bnr11ii11 Of Tl';l nil( Ind(llstrial E(d ;tion---------------- 58
Bureau of Vocational Rehabilitatiol --------------------- 62
Division of Adult Ili(d Coiltiniiatioii Ediuction--------------_ 65
Division of El' meliita; y lEIldeatioin nd Iural Sclools_ __------ 76
Division of IIealtll and PIlivsicall Ediuctionl __-__-----------_ 89
divisionn of Librarils -_--_ ---------------------------------- 5
l)iv\iionl of Sc'ioollloulsc I'lanilin -------------------------- !
Division of Secondlry ]' nation --------------------------- 105
Division of Special Ediclltio ------------------------------- 110
Bi1reau of Mental IIvy'iec n. ----------- 11
Biirealu of Correction of -Speech Def'ct,_----------------- 114
The' State' Curriieluin Colninissio ---------------------------- 117
Commission of Credentials--------------------------------- 120
State Teachers Colleges __--- ------------------- 122
State Special Schools____________------_---------_ 135
California _Sclhool for flie Blind------------------------- 13.
C;iliforllni Sichiool for tile Dea---------------------------- 137
Califorllia Iolyteclnic School -------------------------- 142
Calif'ornia Nautical -Scool------------------------------ 14;









LIST OF TABLES


Page
Table No. 1. Statistics of Cali'ornia Publie Schoiols, 19'.30-31
and 1931-32 _-- -24-----------.------- 2-

Table No. 2. State Textbooks Distributed During Biennial
Period, July 1, 1930, to June 31), 1932, and Al,,p-
tion Period of Each Book -------------------- ---40

Table No. 3. Cost by Counti'.-s, of I;o'ks IPurchased by Eleinen-
tary, High Sehool, and Juniori C ollee Districts.
and Amounts--Tr'n'llst'*rr-i'l -I SchiidI. Di,,tridts to
County Librari'.-- ------------------------_ 42

Table No. 4. Vocational Tral,': aiil indi~trial Eduin' ti in Cla..es
by Type, Nnnmld,.r. and, Eiirollniiiewt ,ft Stuldents,
1930-1931 and 19I:1-192 '-2------------------_ __ _

Table No. 5. Live Roll of Tr;liiiiiin (C';ais fI.r Vo_..-ati ina; l I t] ia-
bilitation __---------_--------- -

Table No. 6. Number of Per'-,,,i I.-iilitr.d and Av i._e
Cost of Program ---------------------------- 4

Table No. 7. Number of Scli'il lhnls f E:ll Typi ExiiXamiinll
and Given Final Approval iy, thi,: Division 4t'
Schoolhouse P!; n inl. l y Y. ... 1927-192S to,
1931-1932 --------------------------------99

Table No. S. ('os olf School P1nildiuugs ErI1icrl frI l Pllan l.
A\pi)r(ov' (l !Ny Ille Division of Se-cllwI n llo .. I'IP ,l;l1 i .in,.
;ni l Total Capital Outlays For l'llli.- S,.lIii ls in
(alifornia, 1927-1928 to 1931-ll2- -----___--_ (11

Table No. 9. Number of Credentials and Lif', lD)ipli,-mu;-s Is.-:.-d
During the Biciiium 1930-192_ ------------_ 121

Table No. 10. Degree Curricula Offered by CaliL'Lrnia State
Teachers Colleges and the Year Each (Currienlum
was Authorized ----------------------------- 124

Table No. 11. Regular Students Enrolled in l~':gnlar Seumesters
in the State Teachers Colleg's f Ca lift'.ir ia, t'f.r
Years 1920-21 and 1925-26 to 19:30-31, inclusive-_ 1:0

ILLUSTRATIONS
Plate 1. Plot Plan of' Santa llrbara Sta-t T,..ia-lrs C ll,.ge_ 128

Plate 11. Fresno State Teachers College Library_ --------------- 29
vi












DIRECTORY OF PERSONNEL




STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION

Chi.iir1l All.ort A.\iiam,, S;aii lr;lin:i'.-i __ _----- t______ drm xIpired March 1, 1931
Allen 'T. Archli'r, its Anlgi-les
.Miniii 14. I;r'rd. S; r:a llitl_ _---------------- I:'rin 1 expired iMarch 1. 19':2
i:. 1'. Clh:irke. Iivor.-ilde
M:lry .ilir C'olbl-r. I',.rl (l h.y------ --l-------- ---lt m expired Mairch 1, 1932
lr'. L.,\\-i< I'. Crit'lh.-r. I.nE ): 'll ------ --------- :.llpinted .T;J nuary 15, 1932
Alice II. IIlclrty, l;l:mld----------------------- appointed March 4, 1932
1L. 1. Gil\'.:iV. S:;ra:llt------------- ------ ---- ;:1psiteld January 12, 1932
(.GIrd ln ('r:i;, S:mi 1 ii ,.;.-
\\'in. 11. HII:nli. ..l.Iriiiir------------------------ ;oiited December 3, 1931
IrciI 'T. Ili.iniem:I, I.s A.\:,l...---------------------- (. I M .l,:i11w, Froslil
)ani'l C. (i' irlly. S: F'ran.: i.i.o _:iinted--------------------''ited August 26, 1931
Amy S. Stiilmi:rt. S.in Fr:ir.--i .....----- ---eceasod April 9, 1932

1'i.rlin;l K ri.r -.y'. S.-r> :l-h;l y .I ;iilI Exr.,.i i\ive Illicer
l''l..rriei' I'.g.Ar ill, A .i-1in t S.-irI.;ir.



STAFF

P'irllil Il 'Ir i-.-'y, S iipllrii .Illii'-l1it ,If 'iulllii .' Ill trll.ti ti* l, I ir I ,. ri of E duiic tion
I':itiliile \\'i iir i( r . A.. initii-lr;itiv A -.\ .istaiiit
Alf'rc-d I'. L.-iifz, Adilli iii r'ativ, A l\ i<,r
.1:lirinli II. lKrl'-:l:In. A.\- i-lint S~cr''.I: i :iIv I'ri'i ip.il Cle'rk, lPiililie Sclioi, l
T O'';i. hlin .s' I-' lil.t- i ii,.lit S :1]l-\a l FundI '.:'ilrl' i
11 i 111y L.y I I i.irllii .i" Al;ll A.\.'ri t:iI:Iil
SS-' ii1 1 I.'I uil (i,'li[ ii .4ii t S 'p i In i'i'l iil f ]' illl ii I -in il 'lii"ii
\V:iII.-r 1.:. M ori': ll. A. -.>i.tliij| Sl iil,,l ni iIthl il ,1' I'illi i- 11n-I 1 ii ll :Il1nd ('lli'lf of
D i\ 'ii- i i ,m l i ,.. ,.;ir' li :iila I S ;i1 li-ti,.
C. ],'. L c. M iniiy. Ay s-i- ill. l C(li t ef
II,.l-n T ;i ,l"r l],.l ,'iii.ili i 1l.M . \ ... I li l S il 'rinil -iid iit f IP public lls 'lr ctioli,
3 1 1 1 .'.llif, r'iiiii S lt il l.ilililin i 1.0,.- .\iil-','l,'-
l \ ;i N 1 \\';It.-ri; inI. C(liit. f "'f Ii\'i>iii ,of lT'x\lllino kl ;mIII 'l ibliClations
\' ~. S. ) i, C'hi,.'f ,of l ii ,;lival 1of ~1i11 l'rlillt.I- T .-x.\ll.,ik
E1'valyni .\. (.'1 -,iirt I( .111. ("C iie i ii\i.-illi of T'l'Co:;1i:he Tr:'illiinig .nd Certilic; tifioi
.1. (C li_.-\\ il,; .\~-i.s; lnt ]I.'.\-l il e O( lli.i'.- (,'lll i ii.-iii Ifor V\ ,,,l ti(inil E d tiitll ion :iiI1
('lhi'f ,f 1: iIr'';, i n 1' uTra l.. :uild IIln n-tri;l] I -il,:l i ii
i .i;in Ai l\. 31 l'lii'-. I 'Ii f "f 1 :iir ii .t .\ A: riill r : lli r l: l -:u ition
Ir:li W'. K illiyv. ('lhirf of I1lru.rna oif il' iiE.tii ..s I.lii'-ition
.1:-iiidl 1. Mlllc i -liP ('llii f f l iir-.:iii 'if 'Illinm -.31 l;l ini I.:'li' ilitio
II. I [lick' r. C hi.f ..f l itur,; ii of V o,.; liiii l l ie .ibilit:li i
1. .1. I .IIl. lil-lri,-t S upllr_ i'\ nr .If V ,,":iti.,ll :il I .lli,i ,ilil :ition. :>l : ~;; i.1W.-
I' .ilding, S a; l,'lF .i:1 -iN.-,
\\. E S i h D i rirt S.li i\ r f, \"..-:rili.,i.il I .i, bilitatiion, 117 (.':ili-
f'l'r lini S t:l i,, lliiil, ii :. L.... A lii.,1l'-:
I I'. T r.iv- r.<, .'hlief of Il )ivi.siii .of A d.\ llt :I l '._',,iii;i li, i ..:l ii in 13 11 C .ili-
f,' iii;ia Sll.i liiiiling, L., A.. 11'',: S'






STAFF-Continued


Herbert R. Stolz, M.D., Chief of Blirelu ,f P'r'rnt Education. 2739 Eneroft
way, Berkeley
J. F. Dale, Bureau of Parent ],'lui. tii -n
Gertrude Laws, Bureau of Parent Edlu-l;,ii,.. 211 Californiin State Building.
Los Angeles
Magdalene F. Wanzer (Mrs.), Chie if tf lIu Ia' o:f lmin iigir:in[ Edieu tion. ::17
State Building, San Francisco
Helen Heffernan, Chief of Division of Elemenutanry Edlucaioun and lRural Scihools
Gladys L. Potter (Mrs.), Assist:int Chief
N. P. Neilson, Chief of Division of 1Henltlh nl I9Plhsi-ol EI.liation
Winifred Van Hagen, Chief of B -,re.:-u o4f Pliy.Iical EdIlcation ior Girls
Mabel R. Gillis, State Librarian, Chief f Division of Libraries
Eleanor Hitt, Assistant Librarian
Andrew P. Hill, Jr., Chief of Division ,of Scdio,'lio use PIlanniilng
Charles W. Bursch, Assistant Chief
J. A. Burkman, Research Expert a;nd Adviser f. r TeaIchler Collegec
Nicholas Ricciardi, Chief of Division of Secoidary Education
--- --- Chief of Division of Spe.:i:l Edii;-:ilioi
R. S. French, Chief of Bureau for1 tIh Eli:I. :-nion of tihe Blinud. Principal Calii-
fornia School for the Blind, Berhllevy
Elwood A. Stevenson, Chief of B.unr i n f,,r th_- Elducati..ii of t he r)e:if, Princilpal
California School for the BDe: f, eilcelev
Lillian B. Hill (Mr.-.), Chief of I:nr,'eil of Menitnl HyIgie.ne
Mabel F. Gifford (Mrs.), Chief .-( r;Ireaii of Correction ..,f Speecl I)el'fectIs.
317 State Building, San Fl'r;iiii_-i -c


ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION OF THE STATE
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

The State Department of EduAln tion consists of the State Board of
Education, the Superintendent of 'Publi' e Instrilction wlho is. ex-officio
the State Director of Education, ,and, a stfft or,'-anization, part of which
is specifically provided by law ajindl lpart of which is provided by author-
ity vested in the State Board of Erduel;iti-n mandi thie State Director of
Education.
The State Board of Educathi i.. ,stlalished na tlie ".c u:.'vning ,and
policy determining body of the deIlp;rtmentl ;and ini the State Director
of Education are vested "all executi e atnd adilministrativc filctionsl."
The chart on the opposite pae' pclrei' its a diaw'-:am of the organiza-
tion of the Department of Educ;ation which obtained for tile major part
of the biennium, and shows in addition tle organization provided for
the state teachers colleges and state tc'.ccia0l schools.











School Code section 2.1:121
l'iild.



















Biennial Report of the State Board

of Education

REORGANIZATION
A reorganization of tile State Board of Education was effected by
1931 legislation ameldiniig School Code section 2.1371 to read as follows:
Except as herein provided, the term of office of the members of the
board shall lie four years and they shall hold office until the appointment
and qualification of their successors. The terms of the members of the
board in office when this amendment takes effect shall expire as follows:
two members Septcmber 15. 1931: three members January 15, 1932; two
members January .1, 1933; three members January 15, 1934. Such terms
shall expire in the same relative order as to such members as the terms
for which they hold office before this amendment takes effect, except that
mIimbhers whoce terms would have ,xpir,:ud on tihe same (lay shall determine
their relative order by lot. The terms commencing September 15, 1931,
shall expire January 15, 1935.

Thii.s provisions resulted in deic(reasiingL the length of the terms of
office o certtain of thle inelliers tlcn serving on the board and in replac-
ing cert;ill l eillnhers.1

RULES AND REGULATIONS
S:dliol (Codfl. section 2.13S3 eI pov.ers lhe State I3oard of Education:
To adopt rules and regulations not inconsistent with the laws of
this state for its own government, for the g'.'vernment of its appointees
alnd employees, for the government of the day and evening elementary
school,. the day anud evening secondary schools, the technical and voca-
tional schools of the state, for the government of the several teachers
colleges of tile state. as iherviiiniftr pr.'viiled. and for the government of
-,,ir :l tlher scl.11.'Is, except.liiin tl.- Ulniv.'vr.-ity of California, as may receive
inl whole or in part financial support from tile state;

Cert'~iii revisions and additions to existing rules and regulations
Vwere lade id during tlie biellllimii At lie regular quarterly meeting of
Ilie State Board of Edulcation, Marcli IS anid 19, 1932, the rules and
regulat ions relative to secoll(;nary sicool courses of study and graduation
requiiremenilts were materially changed.
Tli revisions adopted were intended to eliminate the specific
requil'relments heretofore mlladle Iy thle board ; nd to give to local school
ildiniistration tlie respond sibility alnd alliority for adapting secondary
school requirements to tile individual needs of pupils. Tie only specific
requirements relative to grladuation il remlin ing after revision are as
follows:
I See Directory of Prsonnl-. p. vii






DEPA:'[:''IMl T OF EDU'C.ATION, L:IENNIAL I:EPORT


Junior College Graduation
The govern ing board of aniy high school district ill which junior
college courses aie maintained, or tie e' covering board of ay junior
college district shall confer the title of Associate of Arts upon any
student who shall com plete satisfaetoi'il y a two-year junior college cur-
riciulum of G4 semester liours, includin- tihe following:
1. A major consisting i' of at least 20 semester hours in a specified
field of study.
2. Four selmester ]hours in health and physical education.
3. Two semester hli'os in the institutionn of the United States,
includill-.' the study of American institutions and ideals.
4. Such requirements ini or'l and written English as may be estab-
lished Iby tilie g-overninw g boal-d.
Specific requirements for -Mraduatiou from hiiih school have been
changed to read as follows:

High School Graduation
A diploma of Iiig-l school gradation shall be granted to any pupil
of food clal'aecter who s atistfactorily completes the full curriculum of
a senior h i -,h school or of a four-year hi'-hl school.
Such curriculum shall involve a total of 190' semester periods of
(]Issroomn instruction or supervised learning, activity completed in a
tour-yveir I1i,-,h school or in junior hi-Lh school ;,nd senior high school.
A .eilnester period is defined as nne period of 40 to 60 minutes per
week throughout one semester of not less thanii 17 weeks.
Each four-year hi' iih school curriculum shall include:
1. Instruction in health and physical education daily tllroughout
luchl year of thl( high school curriculum; except that exemption may be
autlhorized as provided in Sc'hool Code section 3.731.
2. Not less than ten semester periods of instruction inl Amnerican
history and civics includinw- the study of American institutions and
ideals anid the United St;ites Coinstitution.
3. Attainment of a satisfactory mastery of oral and written
En 1 lish.
Both the above requirements take effect July 1 132.

Rules and Regulations Governing Pupil Transportation
One of the noteworthy achievements in education in California Ias
been tlie developmnc-it of pupil tra nsportation. consolidation n of schools
and uiiinization of school districts will undoubtedly have the effect of
increasilngi tlie extent to which putpil transportationl will be used in years
I0 co111e.
Fortunately. Ilhere liax' been com paratively few serious accidents
involving, pIupils beinll' transported to or from sellool. The hazards
iolved and t all accidents wlhieh have occurred, liowever', indicate the
I',-ceesity for re'2'-ulat ion and control of pupil tra sport action.
The rules anld regulations adopted by tile St;ate Board of Education
relative to pupil tlrallsportation were developed for tlie purpose of
iinilnizng th azaIrds and avoiding many of the dangers involved in







STATE BOAlD O' EDUCATION


pul il traiisport tliiti ,I tlhereby ,g,.aIralt, 1iilti Ig,, inl so c far as possible, tih
safety of pupils bI)2in '. transported to and lroni school.
The placing or thiesc rules and regulations into l'c 't is the coopera-
tive responsibility of thi State Depalrt oent of Ed(lIleutionl and tihe Cali-
fornia IIighll.way Patr ol. lThe completed loxt of tllhi5;Oe ir l(es ;Ind rcgila-
tions was publlishled in D)cparitmcn o]f Edluicaion BDl hlin No. 2, Janu-
ary 15, 1932. Thc icliulaliion of Pupil 'T'riasporlilion.

TEXTBOOK ADOPTIONS
In aiLecordaicce \villi Articlc IX, section 7, ofl tll C;aliforinia Consti-
iution a;d( Scliool Code section (.26('0. tic ,Staitc Board of Education
adopts anld distribluts froee of' elrgc aI series or state textbooks for 1us
in thle elementary selools of thle( state. '11- t'ollo\in textbooks were
adopted during itle past bieiininin

Music Series
The followiim, nmuisie textbooks wcre adopted for a four-year period
be'giniiing July 1, 1931:
MeConath v, hliessner, Bi r'ee, aind Br;iy, Tlhc Ml.oic Hour Scries
First Book, for use in tlie second grade
Second Book, for use in tlie third gradc
Third Book, for use in tlie fourth grade
KIinderEart-en and First Grade Book, for teachlers
Elementary TFeachers' Book
Intermediate Teacihers' Book
Giddings, Earhart, Baldwin, and Newton, Music Education Series
T'wo-part Music, for use in tlie fiftli ,'-rade
Inlteirmediate Music, for use in tlie sixth grade
Adventures in Music. for use in mixed c'lsses

Language Series
Tlie Sleridan-Klci.,er-MIatliew.,s Iannnalge series, Speaking and Writ-
ing English, consisting of three books, for the fourth, fifth, and sixth
grades published by Beinj. IH. Sanborn & Company was reandopted for a
four-year period begionin,' July 1, 1932.

English Series
The McFadden English series, consisting of two books, for tlie
seventil and eig'htll grades published by iind M3cNally & Company
was readopted I'or a fiiur-year period bI,-riiiiiigi J.ly 1, 1932.

California Geography Series
California Geography. by 1 arold W. Fairbanks, published by Harr
Wagner Publislhing, Company, was readopted for a four-year period
beginning July 1, 1931.






DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BIENNIAL I;:L'(::T


Arithmetic Series
The following arithmetic textbooks were adopted for a pi'riod ofl
not less than four years nor more than eight years beginning July 1,
1932.
Brueekner, Anderson, Banting & Merton, The Triangle A ri h inirlitcs
Book One, Part One, Grade Three
Book One, Part Two, Grade Four
Book Two, Part One, Grade Five
I:ook Two, Part Two, Grade Six
Mathematics for Junior High School, Book One, Grade Siviin
Mathematics for Junior High School, Book Two, Graide II'lit

Extension of Adoption Period of Other Textbooks
The Secretary of the State Board of Education was authorized to
enter into contracts with the publishers to authorize the distribution of
such books as may be on hand June 30, 1932, in terms of price agree-
inent to be reached by the secretary and executive office and the pub-
lishers, and arrangements for further printing and distribution of these
books to be in accordance with needs to be determined by the secretary
and executive officer of the board.
A Beginner's History, by Wm. H. Mace, published by Rand
MeNally & Company.
Advanced History (Second Revised Edition), History of the
American People, by Beard and Bagley, published by The
Macmillan Company.
Human Geography, Book Two (Revised Edition), by J. Russell
Smith, published by The John C. Winston Company
Geographical Reader, Journeys in Distant Lands, by Barrows and
Parker, published by Silver, Burdett & Company
Civics, How We Govern, by Fredric P. Woellner, published by
Chas. Seribner's Sons
Primer of Physiology, by John W. Ritehie, published by World
Book Company
Handwriting Books, One to Six, Freeman's Correlated Handwrit-
ing, published by Zaner & Bloser Company

TEACHER RETIREMENT
The State Board of Education is constituted the Public School
Teachers' Retirement Salary Fund Board, and as such is :li;hrgied with
responsibility for administering the teachers' retirement system.
The following data relative to teacher retirement duriungl ti. bli i1n-
nium are herewith presented.
Number of Nco teacherss Contrib ulingl:
In 1930-1931 accounts were opened with 3246 new contributors to the teiclher-'
permanent fund for retirement. Data for 1931-1932 are not yet avaihlble.
Each new teacher is required by law to file a confidential personal rep--rt I'. befre
receiving the first month's salary. The following figures include a niiiIbeIr of such










reLports Irom ohl tuachl.rs, Ilint haid been olsintdling :unl w\vr-'. -:illied il during the
bitinnium:
19 30-1931--3r950 conlidlintial iprs-ntiml Ire'porils receiveil.
192.1-1.32-2-942 coflidlcntial personal report-' received.


loronc for birinium:i

'[o:ichlr' s' ,]l.n .I in, .. ... ..
I tll ritance taxi ---------
Net inlt1r-I- __ -_ -- ------


1930-1931
$5.04 .518 :55
7582,:50 51
1709.S1 70


193 1-193?
$.-, 1 15
GS6,79 57T
201,S02 91

>81,411,-1:S 1:;


'I'.l:Il rlc'ilp ----------- -1.20; ."50 7" S
C ii: n 11 il l :ll ,i .iir ,ll.' i nni-,ii i iiiii


Di.hlursCIarnis for B1icn I ium:i


Riet irenilent .--: I-n : ------ -
OTice slari.--------------
Genc itral e.x i e'n' I, - -

Total; ex1 -en,]itures -_
T I \f"st Il 'iit s-


1930-1931
$660,940 15
16,918 07
4.986 90

.$682.545 12
504.1706 25


$1 ,17,021 37


1931-1932
$711,1064 W66
17..326 78
3,(035 47

$732.149 91
760,0335 72

$1.492,.15" ;-


.' umbri of Prrsons RI'tii ol:
Silni till ti.:lchelir.'" rc(l ir.nl'rit ifunl \\':1i e-i.l i, li-h-. l .\itng t
liTiil "I Ol' llit ,. ; ll.i l'"low -n i:'i .\ o 1in1 '.'II 1 .l l i'.
Thie following rtlircnment sa:llnri,. I:iv\e iccn gin-it,:l dliiuring tlihec


'Total receipts
$1,024,364 20
1,269,140 10
384,184 61

.$2.677,688 91
$52,200 56

>"'.729.SSq9 -47


Total
dissburscments
$1,372,104 81
34,244 85
S,645 37

$1,414,995 03
1,264,211 97

$2,679,207 00
50,682 47

.2,729,889 47


11, 1913, 2382

past biennium :


YVur Full r-lrciiicnt Disability
10-1931 _---------------------------------- 1:2 3:3
1931-' 192_----------------------------- 11 33

'T.',tl ..----..---.--- ----------- -250 "6


Total
168
151

319


Ti:he foriegiing d)cs nit include 74 niinuitics (57 for full retirement and 17 for
li-:.ililyI :i 0-l: ti ,l .ittne "'1. 1.'.'. liee:inu .e lhi y g ..n ti ll pa1. roll .tlu y 1. 1932.
The: tnble incliili:s eight aill:irterly lists of anpplicationw. tile tirst being presented to
tlie li liir.iment IBoard July 12. 19110.

N '-l gr'.. ll in :1tnt lilIIN "s' I .I.1 I' .,l :'
nue to diaInlls :iind re.sumiiil)ti.ln of te:Ichinllg the Io't gtI.w\th in tile annulitniits'
1,3:1 r"ll 0 :ha-1 1 n11 Ib t 1711) 11:1111n- ilt-in '. lhl IiiW illliinlll :


.\'N ii li r of ninn.11 on Il roll
Mh lt- I'nll retir iim ( uit Ili1i bililt/ T'll
.11111e :11l. 19 ):;0I --------- _1 ", .; 1 117
.Ittle :;fl, 191__ ---------- 1111 -101 15
J.Iile 30, 1932 --_ --_-- 116(; 421 1587


.OVi ircrcase
)'Vcr Bicinniuim


.'I'.\''-: I' ,\IA D .-' I:I) II'.\T' ION'








6 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BIENNIAL REPORT

Sf't-l.s of Fund .1Je .Jo 1.?,?:
Total receilrpt from A.\gu-t 10, 1913, to .Jine 3(0. 1'32:
Teachers' du.lnation ------.----- ------- -.022.1 21
Inheritance tax---------------------------- 5-,0),:037 1S
Net interr---------------------------- 1,329,14 20

Total reci'eipts-------------------


Total disbursmn-:.in.its from Aug .it 10, 1913, to .Tune 30, .1932:
Retirement laris------------------------- .307.8S3 44
Office salaries------ -------------- 172,2S5 2:3
General exoIh.ine ---------------------------- 42.S3S -4S

Total ,exi:pi (lit- re -------
Investment- ------------------------------- $5,6S7.111 07
'nash on haln ------------- ------------- 5.S2 47

Total balan ie. on bhalnd_ ------------ --- ----

Total (lisburslmen)1ts ..-- .......__________________-_-_--- --


$13.200.S01 59


$7.,523,007 15



5,737.704 44

$13.260,S01 50












Biennial Report of the Superintendent of

Public Instruction

V I\' in IA '. : K 1:4Ii:V. illP"'lvilll il ,,illi

LEGISLATION ENACTED IN 1931
1931 Legislation Principally for Clarification Purposes
r'Illi Ir,~ islilltll' c (11 1 .'1 Ciia;ctl e'l ;I co ip;ilill \oti lil.r,' iiinljCer of
laws ;il'r't iille'. piuhlil ctdi ic lle ion. Ill io .ll i llti Ile \\'Ws wel' ? ;111 nd-
(ments to existing sQelionls of the S',ho l. Cr'.dlr nf Ca!if'oriini, drafted
for thi pll rii n e o r, l lri ilil. 'i thi e illl o Ii I nf .oti.ll, tl isl. iti oill or for
tile' I)llI 1 r oSI (r -'cIiIo\'llp e \oi ltraldictoryv ]rovi~' i 5is hiotWvpnl seVl'eri. l sec-
io1ns o' tflie SAi Wnl i (Cod Tlle rtesillt o lf s 11ll ('liifik;itioll Ilei.isum '
hlias )011 1o 0 o sinl)liflV\' n(liini.stritiv'1 proc... i i r',s aiidl to telimin lat- r l(.tr'i-
lions on AIldl nluiistr; 111 ivi' lr;ic1ti ilpo'dJ l IIyl linw< Whlilz Wiel'? Ca 11: 1 p;
of \virial)le illtorpl retaitiol .

Financial Legislation
T'l'iiq. all Iti,' S' ;lia s o) f il' S I Oii l (11'1i ri,' l;tilg tI sl .l 1i ;Illd
r: i "1,-l il pporlio i nelli nts, onollunt t. ai1x; il, ;iid (lisi'tri l ln.1 tiltl. ', ei,-
iiic tnry ;i"if .s7' 1'oiilil'v .sVliools wore s ii lleiclletl na, to 1' ril' Ilollom into
lIarii n ill. i \ it OIClW ofl',? r. C(oli rilit r. st-cttiosIN, A stilllt ilating 11111i-
ilm ilin rilt of taxIll ;,i l l p lr vidiin; l vaiia hl, mi.'tlio;1C 1fo' tih 1lv, of
.i.chool taxes wI-l' I;I'lii ii ed ll thI i ro'"Ilval o(if it"0110 t if sich l;iws aI(nd
ii;llllidillji'it of 1Il llroini1ll 2 .s'.O Iloll. As i rosilit, folr l1, lir. i ll niii ye1 ;rs \\ i. i havc' i ij bi1ody o le:gislati':,ii inl rlI'l),l'tl\id i 1n t Ci School
(Code w\vieli is clearly ox. pr'es l go\'verning thlo 11minnecial ;ffair.s of ti:he
pibl)lie scholiols.

Specific Results of Financial Legislation
Some of e r .e ults o. t thi 1 i vilii:eation i:'asu. r's affecting- s,'hiool
ini n:e l' illli'l be s11n 1111i riz.dtl s follow :
1. WS;I" aippori ionili'llts aire now 1filiir'dPi to hle imau directly to
the inldiv(idual eldinplelt;l" si.-liool (listriets ill eil]l )n'i lt il tI le s.-nIl:i
Ii:i111110l s to hi lh 1 1 o (1 1l dlistrit:I.s.
2. T li l 1nll.llI, IgOru ol i ,' I | 'i I ,i. rilaliii'J n1 1 le st;if and col l inty
lil,2,i rlio iin il-is 1 ,o ligil liiiil u ii ,.(1i s \ Iv-; tlJ;rifli(' .5 i.s to pl rovi(le
..,etic iliih ll\' a (i -fillit ;i|lpor'l io i'ii llt 1',er I.'iell o l'f !r.idi..s to 14, i .c ll-
Ai1V ill al .jl i ii,,r. ,.ii,,l. t',iilr-yv;ir. ofr i \',lvii '* li l'JI (li01ools.
:),. A dleli ile ipp lfiffio iinliill is ; ll Wi'v l' tor \\-" iuIi school distrii ts
l11 |I f 'oi1 .fro lm' Ilali ('and liIl v S. ,ill'1-..
4. ('oiii[l d-ilsory liniin;itii ll c|;is s \\,.r, groil,,d W illi other typ')"S
of sp' :ciI d( aI ; vI1 I iili ng c_.1..'. for llirO1Mes of colmplting l ionlls
lppo|)rtiolilln ills on I lio lvi\-i:ge daily ;lifillitlle ill SiIuch c]asss.

2--'S2S3







DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BIENNIAL I:LPORT


5. School district tax legislation was simplified so as to ) provide
for a single district budget to be submitted by each school board and to
stipulate a single set of maximum tax rates for school district piiurposes.
This legislation also provided for the same deductions to be Imade
from the assessment roll in fixing school district t;x rates as is nmade
in the case of the levy of county taxes, on account of anticipated tax
delinquencies. The old sections of the School Code providing or
district taxes for a special school district building ifnd ;aiil sloecial
school district fund were repealed, as were also Irovisi~onsi I'r higll
school and junior college district "estimates."
6. The provisions of the School Code relative t .-,holl I listlriI.t
bonds were materially simplified and a number o.if mli;.ijlor ilIm ges
were effected in these sections of the School Code. hse c ge.
include: A reduction of the maximum rate of interest on school district
bonds from 6 per cent to 5 per cent per annum ; reduction of the lmaxi-
mum term of school bonds from 40 years to 25 years ; provision for the
payment of premiums and accrued interest received romi the sale of
bonds into the interest and sinking fund of the district rather tihan
into the building fund of the district; and requirement tli;tt payments
on bond principal must begin not later than the sixth year of the terml
of the bonds instead of after the first half of the term oft the bonds.
7. The clarification measures affecting school finance also provided
for the creation of a definite unapportioned county elementary school
fund from which to pay the numerous charges required in the School
Code to be paid from such fund. Heretofore no provision has been
made creating such a fund and the charges against the fund haive
operated to reduce the amounts of the county apportionments to tile
individual school districts. The creation of this fund will make it
possible for the county superintendent of schools to take care of emner-
gency situations arising within the county without loss to the ot her
school districts of the county.

Publication of and Hearing on School District Budgets
The legislation relating to the school district budgets il.so pro-
vided for the publication of each school district budget except in the
case of districts employing but one teacher or requiring no district tax
A public hearing on the school district budget was also required by this
legislation. The Department of Education believes that this ileis-
lation is intended to serve a meritorious purpose but that it \v\ill be in
the main ineffective and will constitute an additional c.xpeseii \whiiel
will not yield commensurate values.

Junior College Finance
Despite the fact that experience during the previous l.tienim iMii had
shown conclusively that the growth of the junior colleges had been si.u-.l
as to render the decreasing receipts from the federal govern menL I. wlhichl
were applied by the state as apportionments for the su'lorlt of tihc
district junior colleges, entirely inadequate to make the apportionments
required by existing legislation, the Legislature of 1931. did inot provide
for the establishment of a state junior college fund adequate to m;ike
the required apportionments. At this session of the Legislature thos.i







SUI'I:IIIN'I'iNIlI.:NT' OP' PUI.uLIC INSTI'UCTION


sr.:,ctiolls of tlirl .'i-,litl, Cod( relIatillu' to thle stlite j n llior c-illege funltd
wcre .s-o amnllll (ded as to I)laeeie I lie support of tihe district junior collegLe.S




n:c with ihe poli 1 r ivn lviiin hl by gneir;il l\aw, to $1,601,.20. It is
ill1irl'\" ev\tild t llihnt tilis;iilioillnt will i n11 early l a qual rt'er of ma million
.,ill i.. s ic_ fllO 1 1 xi.ti I)J I., 'i.l 'ililrji. 'lh i. .l' i lrt a 'l f w ill Il '. 1t l, I, lll Ial,'
I 'ill .i l't i, t, ha ll io' lt, lili 1 I .(111.. 1 Il libo apipilitiOlic11i to the ,J1111ill
I;IX I 1 \' I'i it'rl lldol'l i.o wllllll)l rl I(rrII.oryin. s.
l;iNt\s L vic il Ilpoin io iioo1il [jol'ojuorly.

County Maintenance and Repair Fund
TI lc .i.islatioii of 1P.l:1 provided for thie :reavntion in e;cl c.ninity
fil '1 selcool nitiilitei lance ati'i.1 rel)pair fund Ito comilprise imonyi s set a-sidi
from thle fulidls of those districts desiring to participate, th:e fund lo I,,l
a(_1miknistered by (lir. eoniity siipelrinteinent of el (hools for the mainlte-
iinnci alnd repair 'of tihe phIysical prol)erties of the school dlistri.t.- of tinh
county. Tilis imeasre ..sliouhl result in inllp)roved Iimaintenlince of seli il
facilities aind i, thle saivilip of consid(eralble amounts of money.

Teacher Tenure
'I'lie so-v- illed 1 leaci i r 1_-' iilr acet. C: ilj)Flpr isi g i nlumler o1.f seel l .il.s
tif tile S.ii''u l( Cmod(_e ,ov.rnii'l n, the .1assiticalio ) f teachers ailnd pro\vil-
ig' ftlur .I 'i'lia11,'nlI clas.silic litionln 1f tecl llers ill certain (ype.s of li.s-
triell ';Is ailltieile SO ;Is to) leOlluire lhat ail teadlels elli)loyed ill
dlistriets hi vin.I S.)0 or iore l)pupils in ;vero;.'u d(lily attendiinee should.
l)e (:;lasiti(c ;is i erl ) ii ellt upll i lon ree1 i ployi1leit f or1 the f'lu'ti con1 seCenl-
tivoe y'ail ill ls ell d(i.' riei. Perliiallnit te llire 'as autliorizeid to l)e
graute(l by schIeo'l I boards ii dt riets liavil'i less than 850 pupils in
,iverIage daily attel(nhinec. Thlis iodifiu.liticni -f tlie teacher teinre
l,.pisli'tiol Wl s illtendlled( lo elininate in |iart (tle more serious d(efeets
of existin'2 teauler tenure leisllation% as it aff'ected1 thle smaller districts
of lihe state.

Sick Leave and Leaves of Absence
A series of laws was eniietedl providling" for thie granting of leaves
or ;ilbsence aind sielk leave forr t(Ielies or other selio',-l eliployees undlter"
.lspeifiodl conditions. Ii 1lle nmailn llhie.e bills authorized tl!e granting
1il I" oiv .,s ol- ;ibsel e not) I n ) oNve0,e1d nil:, yei_'r for puri)oses of stulldy or
Irivol ; ,JI il l)pr vid*( ''l thi, iiit,'-t lod 'olh r ,.-oili|> 1ti llg Ilie ai tolilit to )0e
ii'-li -11. 'd flr i)ll 111 .> l; y o(I ol l iicltl.(d (Ill[loyeUes i lli te (event of
Sh).u *Ilc*., il ;i law\\s will allav Io) lh If.'sltd ( li, a;lii i li i rni lie tfore co lmllleni t bieI1 he
iitN lr1 tinli reliilily I il 1'ir vail11 .

Municipal Taxes for Schools
A special law was einiaeted requiring that all moneys collected by
the governing body of anvy in uieipality front taxes levied for school







DEP.\:T.MENT Of' Cr~li'.lTION, BIENNIAL REPORT


purposes be paid into the county treasury to the credit of the school
district. This law was necessitated hec(ausel of variation ill practice in
the administration (f funds so collected under special state laws or
city charters.

Temporary Transfers of Funds
Provisions of the Shool Coe requiring temporary transfers from
county funds to school district fulnds1 which are temporarily depleted
were somewhat modified by tlie .1 :11 Legisaiture so as to give effect
to the constitutional iiiaiiditI requiring suchl transfers.. This legisla-
tion should result iln ; saving of many tenll ot thousands of dollars to
school districts now required to ).be expen-ded in the form of interest oni
registered warrants because (of t.nlmporary depletion oi f school district
funds.

School District Liability and Insurance
Several laws were enacted clarifying and defining the liability of
school districts and school district employees or agents on account of
injuries to person (or property, and authorizing the ca trying of insur-
ance at school district expense to protect tihe district against claims on
account of such injuries. These biIlls probably impose too heavy a
liability upon school districts in proportion to tlhe liability imposed by
law upon municipal and other subdivisions of the state.

Junior College Legislation
In addition to tihe legis nation referred to as affecting junlior college
finance a series of bills were enacted relating to tile orLganizationll and
administration of junior colleges. These laws eliminated the arbitrary
standards previously stipulated in the School (Code for the formation
of junior college districts and. si Iustituted thIler'efor tlie C.rquiirement that
the State Board of Educatio'n .shl,11l Oi.stabllish standards for llie for.ma-
tion of such districts andl that .snuch districts should lie forced only
after a survey imaide by or unler tli, direction of the State D)partiment
of Education. These laws also pii-vided that the State Board of Educa-
tion should be required t" aplprove the establishment of juniIor college
courses in high school districts before such cou rses should he authorized.

Textbooks
Serious attenlpts inmade to require tie slate printing of all elemen-
tary school and high sclholI textbooks andtl supplementary books were
finally compromised in legi.slhlion revqiring reports to be submitted
annually showing inl detail the anlio;llts exlpn-,ded hy schooell districts
for ;ll kind of hboks and tli' titli's ;wd niunlmers of such books pur-
chased. The State Blo;rd of EJdilC.llioll w's also ailt oriz..iZd to provide
two I-r nIm-r, lextolnks iin those elnlelitalry .scliool sllubjects inl whlichl
slp lleii itallri y lxl.s are le(qllirled.

Transportation
The purchase nf school bitses. frulil any sel',ol district funds except
bond funds or teachers' salary fund-s was authorized by 1931 legisla-
tion. High school boards were authorized to pay the cost of pupil







SUPEI:INTLND)INT OF' I'Mll.IIC INSTRUCTION


11in I C(Piiaiit'. n1o1 l l to Cxet.c I t le lc i, l'i 1 1 ir ll-sportatioll, ill lit.il Of trails-
puirtailliol ill 1 llo se.-, wili 'e I .llsportlntioll eots wold be excessive
i1,r h\\le tIra;liill'nrt;lt ill I;n illi iv, (r:clloll nlot )o i pro 'vided.

Legislation of 1931 Constructive but not Radical
MIost ol the educational bills enacted by the 1931 Legislature were
dorfiititl'y constrllcti\'e in elCm;racter and will provide a material basis
for a recoilstrti-tld eScool Code which will be simple and clear and
therefore effective. No radical legislation was enacted and little if
. itly material change was effected by tlie bills which were passed.
In one or tvwo instances special legislation was enacted at the
instance of local groups wh\\ were niore concerned with the solution
of local problems thalin they were with tlie general welfare of the
schools ot' tlie state. It probably will be necessary to introduce legis-
Intion Inlter to correct some of the ill-considered effects of this special
Iegislat ion.
Nuiierous bills iiwhich would have provided constructive changes
of a Imajor chlaraeter in tlie present administrative practice in public
(l incation failed of passage by the 1931 Legislature. Among these
hills llhre was proposed:
1. Tlie creation of a state public school equalizing fund.
2. Centralization in the office of thie Superintendent of Public
Iniitruction of responsibility for interpreting legislation relating to
theI pu lic schools.
'. Provision for tlie support of tlie junior high school on the
.;Iiie In 1ais as other high schools.
4. Provision of state support for kindergartens.
5. Stabilization of state support for junior colleges by requiring
annuiiul ral';lsf'ers fromi1 thi' e'eleral fmlnd of the amounts required for
j.11nior college apportiollment.
T'e I'ailure of tlhee Iills is in the minai to be attributed to the
pnrsure u11,1 tllhe Legislaitu re for retrenchment in public expendi-
itures. Continuantce of tie economic depression undoubtedly will pre-
v'olt anyv material proIIgressive and cons'truetive school legislation for
at least ;inotlter hiniiinu. It should be noted, however, that the
Legislature demonstrated conclusively that it was interested in main-
taiiing oaf a high level the services of public education. It is to be
Hoped tllt tile same attitude will characterize succeeding Legislatures
an,1 that the public schools will continue to merit this confidence on
lle part of the people and their representatives.

FINANCING PUBLIC EDUCATION
Of all problems confronting public education in California at the
iprc.sellt lime, hliose involving questions of school finance are by far
lite lii',t in Imeed of immediate solution. The economic depression
Ia;s brought will it a host of problems which involve the public
s.ilsas wes well as many other Ipdases of public and private enter-
iprise. D eereased revCe IIIues have Iatlde retreIInchments necessary. High
tax burdens on certain forms of wealth have made evident the need







DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, I IELNNIAL REPORT


for drastic revision of the present state tax plia. A\dequacy (of finan-
cial support for schools is seriously threatened.

Retrenchments in School Expenditures
Public school officials have always been keenly aware of their
responsibility to the public for maintaining schools on a basis of econ-
omy consistent with educational efficiency. With the advent of lower
prices brought about by the depression, school adlininistrators imme-
diately began to take advantage of thle situation to effect substantial
savings. For several years there has been a strong tendency to enlarge
the size of classes in the interests of economy. Many other means of
effecting economies in school expenditures have been employed.
As the depression continued, and lowered property valuation
necessitated higher local taxes to provide revenues, the need for fur-
ther retrenchments became increasingly evident. Reduction in expen-
ditures not consistent with educational efficiency, however, is not sound
economy. Reductions must be planned : carefully and with full knowl-
edge of their effects on educational programs.
Realizing the need for a wise program of economy, thie State
Department of Education prepared a statement for the guidance of the
local school officials.1 This statement set forth in brief form tlhe
natures of the situation calling for careful economy ~,nd emphasized
the necessity for planning reductions in school expenditures in such1(
a way as to produce the least harm to the educational ;system ndl the
pupils in our schools. Possible economies were divided into two
groups: (1) economies not involving' curtailment. of school activities,
and: (2) economies involving curtailme nt or elimination of certain
educational functions. A suggested order in which certain economies
could l e effected in local school districts was pre,(sented. A summary
shlowinlg thle suggested sequence follows:
I. Economies which do not involve ciirliiliinl af school activities
A. Consolidation of school districts
B. Elimination of small schools
C. Increase in size of classes
D. Extension of participation illn coslidaled purchasing
of school supplies
II. Economies involving curtailment of c(ll'rent school activities
A. Curtailment of service expansion
B. Temporary discontinuance of expCa;i :lned phases of edu-
cational program
C. Reduction of experimental activili's
D. Curtailment of quasi-educational services such as health
service, dental service. safety ac tivities,~ attendance
supervision, etc.
E. Postponement of expendilures for maintenance
F. Lower standards of merchandise
G. Restriction of materials and supplies
H. Postplonenll t of capital outlays
"First Things First ill Education" Calijornia Schools, Volume III, No. 3.
Maircl h, 1932, pp. r.i-t 0.






.1.TI'EI~N'TIN II.N :NT 01-' I'TlllT:, INSmTRUCT'ION


T. lI ndlilng r;illier IlImiii piyiti, oill gl' I :nI rreill i\ax r lte
T. Elilli ntlion C of All' Ilc'llfi- s' llliols fro1' 11m e rritCIIIIII
IK. E'li il;llill ol' f i.rl;il plm~II.i s of adullt iodileu tion program
1,. I edielioll Imlf siIpplelli(' l :II allate'ri;lls of illstriletion
M Redul etionol ;0 iiinisltritive n:tivities
N. R ed ti l o' IC II(t' s 1p \'irvs ry se'vice
0. PRled(ll iol of t'celi'rs' salaries

T'lere is ;b11,inl;:il eidvdlilne which shows that school expecnditurei s
have bee(' mnt:litriallyv 1'redi. ed dl rin.'i llie past biennium, particularly
during tlhe pIst y.ear. PreliiniInri reports shiow that (during the school
year 193:'2-19:1:. even inore drastic rpedilions have been cfl'eeted.
Mainy school districts are opdlpertiing on hibudgets that have forced mur-
tliilmnrii.'s of absolutely esseonial ediuetimonl activities. Out of the
dleire to save as Ininch ans posille sPovernin' hIallrd of school districts
and school n(tiinistrntors the .snte over redlued lthl'ir expenditures
oI a ininiiuilni. III many conlinii nifies the inadequate. of funds has
plrohlilited tlir Ininitenanre of even minimum educational programs.
Th'le eliminaii n of s'rv'ices and netivities is now havin-z hIairmful effects
pin t llie edcintional sy stel otf lhe state. Many school children are
Ieing' (lep)rivi'd of lth edl ;eatioini oppoi rtuniies that are rightfully
I h- irs.
Thlie present system of financial support for schools is inadequate
itn I\\t respects. First. tlie perce'ntla;'. of total revenues derived by thli
.Mcliool districts from state sources is far too low. Secondly, state
hllonol funds are apportioned neordiin-' to n plan lint totally ignores
tlie 'elalive fi inncial ability of the school districts and the counties
It s pIjlpJort eduenltion.

Theory of State Support of Schools
Edirlntiao is a slate flilncliol. It i, tile respol. sl)lility of thie .stlat
l i'novide flor tli,, malint ,ina nc'e of aide'iqull te schools for all the child en
ol' tlie state and to provide v.'l:hr'.vb these schools shall he financed.
'I'lTis (cn be done in one of -two ways, first, by requiring school dis-
Irn.ts. t o Iea' tli total bil(rden for sculionil Sil)ppOrt, and see ]nd, by n
sy.trin \wherelby tlie state alnd otlier units will contribute a portion
ft' tlhe support. Full nac -r tannce of Ili principle that education is a
s.late function demands either that the state contril)ule the whole cost
ol in adequate school prog,'rni" for tlie whole state or that state schAiol
unIlle's bY le arlponi'rt ned to local comn11unli itc inS il such a way tlint local
lINx rate. for tlie supIport of an adequate school pro,-rauni shall be equal
fthrong-liot lhe state. Not only is local support to thle extent that it
,xisis today in Californiin oppiosd to sound tlieo'vry of educational sulp-
pumrt, Iiit the systeill Ins it na tuillly ol ornl" iss ll ItlI- state imposes unjust
ailnl opplre'Csive tax Ihirdens on l>rop~lrty owners n:111( failk to 1 provide
ii,.e.essi'y r enluir'e s iln tile poorl'r di.strlicts antd counties of tile state.

Excessive Property Tax Burden
It will he Inotmd from tihe tablle o( page :1 1 \hat tlhe state con-
Itril ltes Illit 1 G. per c ni( t of the total schliool district revenues. Eighty-
I hr'ee per -ell t of tli ne' ri'-'\ v iu ;11 conll I il lit ed 1y t li ern l11 ieC1 nd






DEPARTMENT OF EDUI.'.TION, IIl:NNI.\L I:EPOI'T


school districts and derived from taxa tiNn of I're;] l i)id persiiial pop.-
erty. Furthermore, 76 per cent if the revenlu-.s f'r all govei rnmental
purposes in the state are derived fri-nii the pr'iperity t:.i. W hei it i.s
considered that property contri utes. lilt appro:: xinat:ly o llne-fo.turthl
of the total earned income in the state, it is clearly evidnlt. that tlhe
tax burden placed on this one form of wealth is higiily excessive.
Property valuations are rapidly i'e-ereasin,-' with ; direct Ire-ult tof
higher tax rates to produce the s:ne revenues. Tax delinquencies
are increasing at an alarming rate. In thl face of tlese enditions,
many school districts have found it injl,,ssiblel to raise the ''t revenues
required to maintain adequate sch'i-,ls. Conditions ,are rapidly
becoming worse. Disaster threat:e-l lar-'e nIlullllbers lof the poorer
school districts in all parts of the ltiate.

Inequalities
Acceptable theory of school suip.ppl rt demands equality (,f edrina-
tional opportunity and equality of taxatiimi for tlie .sulplrI f ti schliols.
This principle can not be realized under the ip, :ient system of supl,"rt.
Due to the unequal distributi,-ii ,f wealth Iertain :'lcolunties are fiar
more able to support education than tiller counties.
The California Constitution requir l.s tliht c.olntiH-.s sl:11 llll atfhl
state apportionments for elementary schoolsll. and dloubl. state. appiCir-
tionments for high schools. This constitutional mandlate impln s l ur-
dens upon the poorer counties 1of the state. that are m:iny lines 1a
high as those imposed upon the im ore w.ealtlih countii'. I )ilTfrelnc:es
in school district tax burdens amn'iLe- siclo, distcrieis :ire f'ar greaterr
than those among counties.
Differences among counties aindl :iii ii'ar s.:ln, li;stri.t.s in t'ina i;i;l
ability to support education have ;l.iused io'iirmnus inllJqualiii.s ill tilhe
educational programs offered pupils Ilir olln,-.iiit tille sa.' -I general
those districts with great wealth I Iave ereltle.d fine sll Cil )I;iit.ts ;lnd
provided excellent educational opp'l,'rt cities f'cir thilr clilreni tI l i 'se
districts with little wealth althonl.-li tlie have extiremelyli hit -iI 1;ixes
have been unable to provide adequate ;sctlic-c'lliousila- facilities ; iul l1av
not been able to finance adequate eduational offerings.

The Remedy
In order to correct the defects in the existing .i;vsyste ,of schlol'I sup-
port in California, the following- remedi al inis res sh uld be taken:
1. The state should assume a ainteriall.v ;lr;e ljilburd ,lof tlhe c.st of
maintaining the public seholfIs, tihus re'living tie ci-iounties and
school districts of a part o, tle 1c I tsent excessively hiig-h prop-
erty tax.
2. The Constitution should be amienlded to r0eliev\ cI' eunties tof tliir
obligation to match state a fit rtiitinents fl'or ,eleilentary sIlch'ols
and double state apportionmlentsj tr. hlig.lh schools by transferrini.r
the present county burdens ,-rf npp"I'rt to (li slate.
3. State school funds should 1 distributeditl iln such manner I as t i
equalize educational oppr'irt uiti-,' and scl:.iiol tax burde-ns
among counties and school districts.








Proposals to Decrcase or Eliminate Present Guarantees of State Support
Tlicr'' ;1"' cillI''(' ill rl o p.i -;flS i ,) 1i1'i' ;i' i.- II' ,l I 1liei 1 illi' l 11' p111'.n 11i

]','I pl pi ilI i ; i i';', i I- ,l; iil '" ;Ill .I tiid; .. l' I I" ll s p oI' ll i l' li illl i i,'l,'-
ll lt" Iill b c lll] iI _II sI 1 11 -; IfI I. f lc O il l t tpu d iv "0\' 1It 1111f11In"' rdI t+r:
..ulppl r,'t ifil 1 lli,- .,,.. il., ]- P+i< "t ll y'l.\" ii t lII :in~ l -s of It l > ,:uis lil ll': To
illip:i )i.llni) l ;ilIplI l 'ri;ijoI11 .-J l 'l fr il ,' l'll li"' .-Cliof ls o. whit,?\,' 1ilnoniit
lley se fit.
T l *i. )i'o'.c' nll .. '.11's i l i, f S*. liinl s.ii p I| ril' ilt lr ill'_li ilnl1t',l| l;ii; ,t in
s.e\'v ri al lres "-rIc s. i,-iviu,-, ;] lii-'li Liip,-'' e ol" st;illiit S ,lio l ,liSt ri' -td s
;I :' "i.i ll i' l ill ;il1\';ll 'ilt I s.iii< Ti) bi 1' 1.111i(Vd1 fro(l 111t 1;iliv'
'11i'l 'illl *\ly. eli\f liI ilYi l i, s l I '' s i iil ol. ;1nt 1 ca 'l e ili; i i;il Ipi'o-
l'rn ills ll l i,' >;1'.is f-l llis II; il ll'.' '. 'FO I' llill 'iv ? ti' ii' 4,'llt coiils i-
lliii iO I l 2iii;il% c i l' 1I I',I 1 .'Isi i i -j \jot W lo l ld o i) iTo l in iv t ll lo l f' t ill'
of stability froin lie pirI-l'ift SVstli of support. A lii'li degree of
liinie 'tniiif WO lili] I( inlli ,fi1il eti. S, ili 1 uiol'O s;il would le:lll inll vi-
i1lly Ito c..ol lful.,ioll nind clm .--, ill o lii ,n iollill ]m1;ii 1nim <'l.
Thl ndlopt l lin id \111y iro|)ioli il to silhstiilIlo I ] .'if' lativle' ;1 pjri' i;i.
tiofl li fo ll' ..lil s itllie jl<' i ls i i;l P-ii ll-ii ii'o of stlite sl ipcilt for dill -
il''it Woilld ill.ij c' llfilliti illi o Ii l-tlilion. ? schools wouldl li e
tfo l' o ll-,ni l, \\'ili,'r" ;Ttl'_rf l ',"i s o-,1" ,,o\-,i'ill illi ll ,1 o I |io]ii i,-'
t1 1.,II'1 to if IIl i 111l l\'i I Ill it ll l' ;1I ll'l 1(lf' (i 1oV i' i'uiieil jl ll 1 'l'il 111l
lii..sis. I 1to i i Ilia l iI iiill in Tl: Lof' L 'i'ntlii'. 1o wirlk coni l iin ill"v for
;i illii;il, i 'l)fii l:1 .i liiiol. 'I'i l1, a l';llr il ivpl 1t 1i i ils l l i1 h ft l io .s
w rilil i li fi ii l l \, iltl ii.i',ly o p li.1';l f1 1': s (,i jo fll i lis. i ld f i cl' e t oi
;J i.clP iT \v iit ,\l l i iu- ll v',,iiinfl il 'llt l' ol' n ii;',l i l iliii lr-i' i,- w il :. l on"l
ip olii 1-. l inifln l. i ,;>,' h1 l u1 -.II. l ld l ,.' is.. iti l i',p i|il. loint I'o l1 -l 1," I U "ll -
llrISis. Slii l i coll' li l Wi o -il 1 I li) ilt clier ll) .
I '11'.,l l ;il pl '. lt il lllil -t ii il '1lrop '--;il:11 I ll;is th li; ,vl ;is ll 'is lr p i-

Ili110' 1k ll i' r -.l ll fii 1111lt li i' i ll( i 1i ,1 'V I :li :. p, .il l 'itilli'sS. i illis
I I lil' ] t i l l I IIr ,-,". 1 i lr ',, is ;i 111i l'Iit,1 r \l" y 1l 'o n fi:o n|lis i it. T lln '
-,lio ls liJ\l' l ;il el' i ti Illl'l' ll i'I '.-' t\'o >r;'i' iiilIdh s sio'iill <;llf l't hili -
lion is in o pxl i'ilelll '-. It'. liII \-elor. fll 1li-r tr I olile liItiiIills 11111 i t b1
'li;id '. t lii h- .1io lli S Il. Il ,r in atll ;1ei \iz' is ta< of'ir e t I l l.;lsi lle 'lln -
in hi stll' .t ssi r ill of |11 i li ,11 il .-Il< i id fil f l i e' h liill r .n ill (-ill'
s lonols. Trax relilelion sxl-illl r'li i'.-'t ot ni l Ilhose o'ills of 1enltIlI
inow li.osi ov -,rl;i ol 11 i4 ;llilrioll hnt nl tlie lir'es, nt lillic pirop-
'I'ly tl i( l lo illv i ,-,l i l'OI ;llii i I-i ;i l i ll 11 -0 i l 1x b lld n lill Tlie opel'-
live pirop-orl," i Nl '\ y he .111 ;itli. This f;11 llne Iils 1), nll poilnt'd out
ri ntolItdl. i in reports o if 1 ': Sntli,, -onrl of E- i 1iinliznlion m-i1 in thlie
reports [' |-f isl,:, live i.\- ,o iniissiis. hli pin, I:', to ,'tl',o,'t t.x\ recdui -
io11n is n prol' ' f. i lli i'rop l' t ;i:: o-i ilinlos l 'ilo tli' s l\' ''r;ll 1-i ,iil 11111 ll
s i-hool ilisl 'ri ,s oI liht still u11 i ill As1ill- 1txes. As li:is eli'n'illv bcnll
finlfi1 oillu Illv prop,,,io'lli ill 1' lo il l,,ol i'," ,lli's,. d rl'ved fl'roill tle
.liat i' fl"' loo low I iotli lf'iiili ti. Slt ilndli iilt of Clnilliii .ltlive' t;lx
Iiill'rdlins l evi'd on ilif-rl'ri'l formins of wonl( th ild l from lI 1h 11111 ;l lpin ll
in hl' inu, i li is ill iol ;i sN iiiol tax llird'-ls aiiil il oillientioin:-I
,1l fl,, 1'li ll -ls. T li,, lljl'wl .4 oill'l',,lill v llimi, o to eo,-, n'zl* '' l ,t .Ull)-
ili't I it it's. 'I'll 'n of I.if ivs I eli i' iit ,y I v made to l', -- lrf p;-4' sd I t I vsi j--


til ,l' '1 ll' s l.o, ft i lN p :111 ) ; 111(1 ii t w ot l o )por'ite to i cl plie ti lo t ll i.i.ll:- ile i ll
Pi' l)' lilo, .ll ilpnil l i's in ?,, lll ol nl .i' 4 n d I li e d ,li, ,l onll o i 'i l lllr ltIcs.I


SiII'I:I;IN'I:NI1I:NT ()I' l'I':I ,i" IN.','I LUC.'TION






DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BIENNIAL REPORT


THE JUNIOR COLLEGE MOVEMENT
During the past biennium the continued increasing popInlnaity of
the junior colleges was evidenced by an average ilncr-ase in average
daily attendance of approximately 27 per celnt and an avera;.: increase
of 66.5 per cent in the actual number of students enrolled in the junior
colleges. These increases in the number of students atteid:lini the
public junior colleges indicate clearly the growing demand for the
upper extension of the educational opportunities which have, in the
past been afforded the mass of California's .outh. even in these times
of economic depression when every attempt has been made to hold
school budgets to a minimum in order to relieve the pressure of loal
taxes.
In 1929-30, at the close of the precediiIn biennium, there were in
operation in California 16 district junior colleges and 19 junior colle-ges
maintained as departments of high schools. In 190-31 with one
additional junior college established in the Fresno Technical lihi!'h
school and no change in the district junior colleges there was an actual
increase of 3454 students in average daily attendance in these institu-
tions. This represented an increase of 29.62 per cent in one year.
During the same interval the number of student ts enrolled ilnreased by
14,750, an increase of 120.79 per cent. This unusual ilicrease in
enrollment was occasioned by the expansion of the lproJ'ram of a
number of the district junior colleges to afford junior c'oleev e(du lct ion
to adults.
In 1931-32 the Los Angeles junior college whichl tlhrcetof.:ore had
been operated as a junior college department of tlhe Los An''les high
school district, formally organized as a district junior ioi1 r e. Durin,,
this year also a junior college course was ,-stablislied in colnnecti:n
with the Ventura Union Evening high school. The actuall increase in
average daily attendance in the junior coll,',-los in 19;1--:2 was (366:.
or an increase of 24.23 per cent over the ;v' ra;ine Ilaily att.ntdalie (if
1930-33. The increase in enrollment durinigL tlli .w a was :3332, or
12.86 per cent.

Junior College Trends
considerablee time has been devoted during tile mpat biennimil
both by local junior college officials and by thel Stlate Depa Irtment of
Education to a study of the trends of junior cllk-ee edliction. Special
attempts have been made to define the functions ,of the junior college
and to ascertain the extent to which the junior cIoll:egs have li,-en
meeting the educational needs of the stud('nts en':rolled. It Ihas lon
been recognized that the major functions of the jlnii r c1ole.es in so
far as students purposes and curriculum enrollments are an indica-
tion, has been preprofessional or ipreacademic in character. It has
been the contention of educational authorities not only inl Calitfornia
but throughout the United States that tlhe primary function of the
junior college should be to provide a finishini-, or terminal type of edu-
cation on the secondary level of such nature ;s to provide til. students
either with a definitely technical or vocational traiiningj or with a gen-
oral liberal or cultural training which is not itltcnld-l to pre 'p r the
individual for further study in higher institutions 'The fIot'r major









I'llnief itlls 1 f l liv.' j,"illii VII ,s inl .IIiV lol h t fr n I III pioilnt oC
view or I Ilore,:lil atnal s,.s a nl fromni 1 sl .dy of ncttual stildenli.s
I'llmrliilel n 1s re' resolv-'od IIlo (1) prinli'I ilio(i n fo' 1profe'sioln l or 1 ne;i-
idenli l stulldy ill llighel r insti lioii 1s. ('2) s; e ii.ilized Feclinianl oir eiC ;i-
lionnl edll(cietion. (:) general clnrail or ;;lc.iemiei edlention o' spe-
cifiealiy second.iry "'rile 1)h1i not ..sig ned to prepare for higher
institutions.
A founrili fnilictirnl o l tile *jlli e hieli (1ll'illg the pi st
)ielllliiiln li;is a issnIiied1 Imnjo(r inlipol rl;lllce is lla1t of nadllt fl'i ialtiot n.
A stulld of tie ri roll' h l l tllC s n11t1 lie 1' roIS. of einrolli'illt ill tile
.nllliIr e-oln es inllicnle 'I tlint Ilioe. iiistinlii a101 re i nlnetinf inh l increais-
inigly to provide high school ''railntin's lopfirlnnity for ; furtlihe twvn-
y'C;1 ecln ricnliin an n coniple:'tic n of fll, .s'co'larnIlvy selio l d111c;itio
"\\lilch f trnlle.'ry terlninatel d nt tlih: t\vIll i .t gradede!
While tihe number of stnudenls grnaltatin- fro" i tihe junior college-:
ic'lreseints onil.y opp:r)-rnxin(te'lyv 10 MprI cent ofi the total et(rollmin'it in
ih, jinnior colleges hitring l.nyv y.ea'r, it is obviouns that thel' rIl'uantes
rp) 'ese lit i.i nrly 5' 0 pe,'r cent of tlie ,eljrollilnl'nt ill tile se:cond1 year of
tlhe instiitution l 'eh year. .Vnrorove.r. tile! s:'eco id yea'r enrolillielit is
aplproxiltai tely ol-oe-linlf tiln' e.ilrolllei'nt in tile first 'ear of tlie junior.
( ollIpre course.
Tl1e lllb11111 r f o Jillior (oll.'.' p r;zllifltel s \w'lln ctlua llyll elitr Ili_'lrl'
institutions is tnot available.. T. forl-lllitioil sei.'llired from 11111111her of
till,' ll,_. ,'r inlsiti lltii llWo e '-o r. ilndl ic s tlhat ;iln iIlleroaiv n pAl' later 'r
lierel-oiit -r of tl i j1 ior O' ollo divlisioiln w~'rlk in ile statl le ecll.ers colli'o'r alind iln ti' e iller e~oll.egiante.
instilintions of tihe state. It is still true. liowevvr, that very largf'e
per.entciitg'es of lthe jnior ol le- l' grailnnites. (',1n of tliose \who are
fully iqu"lificd for iiadnission to hiilic'or institutions, are not going on.
cc lllse of til s conidlio1 ,s.ri'ill ilelin a llas Ec'row\l for thn extenlsioni
of colle!,iate edmot ilionia l Seorvico I" ;i nIIIi'ber of reS'ions in the stnte
Wvhlere ;it. ple.sent 11 instlitution exist ol'l'erillq r.'illtcationnl opport ntility
above lle iltliol' college level. TI'llis d.,in.iiti IIns Ihee'n pnrtienlarly.
strong in Snernilliito and in tllh Ilo\er Sain .Tonquiin V;alley region
;itand iis also coi. in froi cevei'n l o le ;ir'ro;is ilo se\'i.-ce.'d bl 1110e tillo
techlelrs eolle e.s. In these latter ireac 1 expannd.ld oflt'inls' l lnve heen
inade avaiilable within the lower division of tile teancihrsi eollc, es but
legal and otlhe.,r restrictions in olerinp-ts on the upper division level
l;iavc 0o peih'td to prevent situldentlls o 10- nt 1i[ esir ea t lneli traiiiiign
froii conttinuing llieyond thle lower division.
Thie rerionail cilairnet''r of tlie service reii,,re.d liy tile illtior n ol-
leges is indliente.d by tile f;et thliat ill nleo rly all instanee. tlle ij nior
collee.es enroll over 90 per cent of their students from nal nrea within
;i ri-dins of not more than 25 miles from the institution. Tlis. of
course, is a condition which requires' tile serce rellndered'l i practically
all ecaionlinnnl sitntionls ol junior college or senior college types.
Coninulied slndies of thle distribution of fli, enrollment in junior
eolliege students liy onlyy of residence slhow the junior college dis-
triets themselves are in Ilhe main eonishl.,'rablly sinaller as administrn-
tive units than lhey should he. .\Aipro-cinilely 3'2 per cent of the
otal average daily nalti'nuidane in llhe di,'lriet junior icolheres is earned
by inon-resident stindrns: i.e.. liy students wiho reside outsitle of thie


SI.TI'Ii TN NI)Ii:N'I 0I-' I'llfll INSTR'I'UItCTION







DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. IEIENNIAL IEPOIT


district in which they are attending. 'he non-resident average daily
attendance comprises more than 50 per cent of the total average daily
attendance in six of the seventeen district junior colleges and is i
excess of 40 per cent in ten of these junior colleges. Thus. while the
vast majority of the junior college students attend institutions which
are mostly within reach, yet there is involved in thei.e conditions
necessity for considering a reorganization or tlih junior college district.
system so as to make the area of the. junior college district more
nearly correspond with the major area of residence: of the stildents
attending.

Junior College Legislation of 1931
The Legislature of 1931 completely revised the provisions of the
School Code relating to the establishment of junior college districts.
The requirements stipulated in the School Code that the area proposed
to be included in any new junior college district must have a high
school attendance of 1000 or more students and an assessed valuation
of $25,000,000 or more, were eliminated from the School Code and
the simple provision substituted that the the State Delpartment of
Education should be required to co;liduct a survey to determine
whether the proposed junior college district should 1 ie approved as
meeting the standards required to be established by the St-:Ite Board
of Education. This legislation also eliminated the distinction between
the several types of junior college districts providinel that a junior
college district should comprise one or more high school districts in
one county or in adjoining counties.
Provision was made in the 1931 legislation for contracts to be
executed by the junior college districts autlhorizi ng' stldlents rc.siding
in one junior college district to attend junior college: ill ;aiothtri
district.
The State Board of Education was Ireqluired by I his legislation
to approve high school junior college courses before sicll courses may
be established.

Legislation Relative to Financial Support
In the legislation which modified tli: )mjetl:ho of alpp)ortionmentl
of state and county funds for high schools provision was mIad(e for
an apportionment of $1,100 from the state and $500 f-rom tlie county
on account of the two years of the junior college course imaintailled
in any high school. This gives to the thirteenth and fourtlenth grades
when maintained as part of the high school the same apljoritioniiient
which is allowed on account of grades 9-12, inclusive.
Recognizing the inadequacy of. the existing state junior college
fund to meet the apportionment requirements of tile School Code.
bills were introduced which would have required the state to augnient
the receipts derived from the federal gov\erlllnment for the junior college
funds in such amounts as to make thie required al pplortionm ent to
district junior colleges of $2,000 per institution and $10) per unit of
average daily attendance. These bills were rejected by the Legislature
and ilst(cead of providing for a guaranteed fixed amount to be appor-
tioned by the state to district junior colleges, tlhe Legislature ennctcd






SUI'ERINTENDENT 01' I'UII,IC INSTRUCTION


a hill providing a biennial appropriation of $1,701,520. The Governor
reduced this appropri'tion to $1,001,520. This act of the Legislature,
coupled with tlile actionn of the Covernor, apparently was taken with
the fulll knowledge tl:tt thl. appropriation thus made would be insuf-
ficieit to make' the full apportionment to tihe junior colleges guaran-
teed by the Scehool Code, and hi]at as a result, there would be added
to the burden of local taxes for the support of the district junior
colleges ni anl ditional amount of nearly a quarter million dollars
during the bicinium 19,1-33.
The iincertninity and variability of the state support which hlas
been given to the district .junior colleges constitutes a genuine detri-
lent I, Ille. deveioplienit of these institutions. In several eases peti-
lions for approval for the formation of new junior college districts
have been withhlldl because of the. uncertainty as to the' amount of state
suppllort to b1e expected. Moreover, it has proven very difficult intelli-
iently to develop tlie budget for any of the district junior colleges
since thie a mounts to be received from theli state have been unknown.
As a result, lor district junior college budgets have been1 prepared
by guess work. It is obvious that this sort of procedure should not
be plermnitled. It would seem equally obvious that the policy of pro-
viding inadequate state apportioinments for tlle junior colleges, at the
expense of local taxpayers, should he discontinued.

Junior College Needs
While thie development of the junior college in California has
in some respects been retarded by thlie uncertainty resulting from lack
of definite state policy witl regard to fi nance, the demand for junior
college services continues to grow. Enrollments in these institutions
are' cotiining toi il increase, at a greater rate than is true iln any other
level of tlihe pilblic school system. Movements whichli were started lur-
ing tlie past 1two or three years looking" toward thlie establish ent of
jii,1m elegs i several new areas of tli. state have beeni withiliel
pendinllg, te fIor 'iillation of l a definite state policy. The need for a'ddi-
lionall ,secoiid;1ar selhoiol service il tilt's area s ihas been clearly dem. on-
strated, It i% thllrefore ohvionus tllhat some nation should be taken by
the state Legisl;ture which would make it possible for this necessary
secodhilary school service to be made availinle in these places.
It is lpossihle that continued expallnsioi of organized junior college
merices will have to lie limited. There is little doubt that it would
bie iile.oiloini:cal to establish j.illior. colleges ili ;ia y areas of file state
whv'ere cilulifarailivoel few students "'would take adIlvantage of such
olfrinigs. Tlie g.Teneral slate-Ivide demand for increased educational
. pportl uniti's on lli st e'itllar lev'l coupled with inced for providing
.somn iiFI''rms f d fiinit'ly ,veal ional ,education for the highly school grad-
iil;i't. w li I mia'' l ii l h 11c'ii p irpal "il for ,ce.iipatioaill emlllo 'iyment, andi(
li' l'rl lul'r ni'vessity Hl' providing smill sqtliustitillte for actual employ-
li'nt 1,fr il l;l,d I s ainl I'grls For w oiiil there is now no opening ill
industrial fields point to the lI'vl for legislation authorizing the insti-
tulion of post'zrailailte work iln 1 large number of our high s.chols.
PostI gr' iiatil couri'sel s ill fihle igh scliols slihould not attempt to (dupli-
cate I tlie work ol' Itli rieg ', iiirly established junior colleges. Such
colss shouldd be priinarily of two types. Thlie first and most essential







DEPARiTMENT OF1 EDUCATION, 1:IINNIAL I:EPOI:T


would consist in special unit coures in the social studies which would
give an improved background for citizeiinsip. The second would com-
prise the units of training in those specieti o.liipatiolns in which local
opportunities for employment are available. At the present time high
school graduates may return to the high school after graduation and
enroll in courses already established in the schools which they were
unable to take while undergraduates. In most cases, however, such
courses are not of such character as to meet thle specific i-,needs of the
high school graduates. Specific authorization by legislation seems to
be necessary to enable the high school districts to estbhli-.h tlh.-et neiede
postgraduate courses and to receive tile .sauln state and1 colluty aid
therefore as is granted for other types of high school work.

High School Junior College Departments
The present dual status of the junior colleges is entirely inequi-
table to those institutions which are maintained as part of an l-xisting
high school. These institutions should be placed on the saine basis of
financial support as are the district junior colleges. At ipresetnt the
high school junior college departments receive aid on the same basis
as other high school courses. The amounts received are inadequate.
The high school junior college departments are in lhe main organ-
ized in much the same way as are a number of the district junior
colleges. Of the 17 district junior colleges, seven are housed together
with high schools, each being administered as a part of a single high
school-junior college institution. Nineteen of the 20 hi Il s.cIiol junior
college departments are similarly housed and administeredl. Prob-
lems of organization and administration in these two types of institu-
tions are therefore almost identical, and the financial inet.lds of tlie two
types of institutions are very similar. There seems to be no reason
why one system of financing should not apply in both cases.

SUPERINTENDENTS CONVENTIONS
During the biennium two conventions of county, city, anid di.,trict
superintendents and conferences of rural supervisors wen, held. The
first, September 29-October 2, 1930, was held at Tahoe Tav.i.rn, Lake.
Tahoe; the second, October 5-8, 1931, at Mission Inn, Riverside.
Space does not permit of a detailed discussion of these mIeetiI ns.
The outstanding features of both meetings may be snmmui)aiz.eil as
follows:
1. The primary purposes of our public schools are to imns're tlie
security of the state, the development of Ihle individual the ri;isiin'_
of the social level and the protection of the rights of chlild llood.
2. Economy shall be practicedl" a all times but only Io ithe point
where standards established for efficient schools shall not lbe lowered.
3. Tlie individual administrators minist he subservient Ilo tile lietics
of the profession.
4. The larger problems of administration, not the details of opera-
tion, must govern the thinking of the administrator.
5. The administrator who serves the. community also serves the
school.






SUI'IPIlN'INT:NDnINT 01' I'UIJI IC INSTIIUC'TION


CONVENTIONS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS
Th'le purpose of tlie annual state convention of secondary school
principals, as clearly stated in tlie School Lanw, is "for tile discussion
of problems pertaining to the nm.litinistration, organization, and super-
vision or tIlie state public seec dary schools and such other subjects
:iafccting tie welfare and. tile interest of tlle public secondaIry schools
as shall properly be brought before it.''
In acc-rdil wit;ih tllt purpose a slate convention is officially called
by fie State Board ofl Educalion in the spring n._ eac1' h ya;ir. The
responsibility of preparing a suitable prograiii is as.sigiuld by thie State
Bonrd of Ediuention to tlle Superintendent of Public Instruction who is
designated clia-irmann of the convention.
Two conventions were held during the past jiennillmi, one at,
Santa Cruz from Marci :30O to April 2, 1931, and the other at Los
Angeles from March 21 to Marcli 24, 1932.
In Preparing the program for eachli convention, the coinittee in
charge definitely planned to at'ord the principals the opportunity:
(1) to discuss tie.' problems. confilrting tliem in the light of the con-
stantly clianginig coiilitions of a modern and scientific age, anii (2) to
give consideration to tli il, portance of adec lately relating the funda-
imental, physical, intellectual and spiritual values to this modern age.
In botli tlie Sainta C'ruz and thli Los Angeles conventions tlie prin-
cipals were given, in general sessions, inspiration and stimulation
designed to aid them in formulating a sound and acceptable philosophy
of secondary education. In section meetings and in conferences they
had opportunity to participate in discussions relating to problems of
organization, of administration, of finance, and of supervision, the
solution of which would enable the principal to answer affirninatively the
following questions:
1. Is my school efficiently fitting, Iplpils to disi-large their social
duties and. responsibilities;' ,
2. Is mny sihiool hitting puipil..s in .' ph'lisiK all a ld ii(mintally
efflicien t
3. Is ilmy sclio'I .iu cce.-.sfilly littingi pupils to pursue programs of
specialized education de(liLed to make individuals occupa-
tionally c.oiiipetill )
4. I.,s iiy sdiool .sIt I .i's l' ly I illillt iii L p ils Io IIp llsue prI'Op'';IIIIs ol'
sill u v in li llsl it l l i ft li'll l o I.'l r llill' '.1
5. I. iimy Selio'l .i .cl,, fIlly fit i.* ii plils to conellfinl e lli ir educa-
tirol al't.r le;i' Iill',' tIlI .sr'ni~ id; a \. s.liCool?
I'll,0 11 .i r il,.111 1,1 s ,il' Ille I \\% ', vtill i'ol l 4 11i ; 1111' i l Ill: Ie stat11 '(d
brielly as follow'-:
1. ''lic c it;1l" I'1.;iliz/ i l Ii b I l :li ',ii li'a r .snlit l l ;I~l iliiilist rlati
I11l llitw l'.lol i\\iill ; rl'r liis rlli il i l'res ll, sili li i,.s :
;1. 'I'll. I'l iilll;l l io 11 0 11 ;I Ip liil,- ,,I i li 11' s U11( III;lary (*ilil ;llli ill
k 'elpili-' \\ili 11 dt iioii l.s of0 (* ililllip .i lil'if, (o .ser\'e l- a ;Ii ilide
ill ri'lli 'i i lli 1 :11 L vi.' h iis pI ll i ils oiC, 'd .
1c. Tli,. builoC d, i riiiiri l siiteld o the varied iiiler sts.
lie,.l.s. ;iid, apliil,'ili .s i |111 [ I i ii ls ~ ,iirolled.
Sellol Code, suectlon 5.G630








c. The scientific evaluation of the outcomes of the service ren-
dered by the schei.ol to determine whether or not the school is
successfully i litti;n a doles.-ints ti' modern American life.
d. Thle fina-inuii,_ of the school in tlIe most efficient and l econom-
ical 1ma lnneir 1iposible.
2. The practical aid piven the principals through the publication
of the proceedings lof bot i conventionlls. Th1es1e materials the principal
can refer to for ulidaiee ;il any time im thie disciharue of his duties
and responsibilities.

AFFILIATION COMMITTEES
There are three aWfliati',n colunlittees in 'eco. Indai' education
which have thle same coiulollitri ai i nd l.uiblill purpose; nIllely, to study
matters relating ti. seco(ndmary education vhiich are of crnloiion interest
to the state university, lt. tlte C'aliflornia Asociati.on of Secondary
Schools, to the (_'alifornia Federationm of Junior ('olleges, and to Ihe
State Departmient of Education.
Two of these anfiliation e:oni ittii ee d. eal \itl ini matters af'ectin'g the
high schools. (Une is de i ',1, nted .is tlhe At;tiliation Coiimmittee of the
Association of California Secoidary ScLiooI I'rinlcip,als, and the other
as the Affiliation Conumnit tee of tlie University of California.
The third aftiliation cmininittee recently created, whose tirst meet-
ing was held ,n11 M\1y 21. 1-12:. 2, is. tie Junior ('ollege AfliliNtion Com-
mittee. Its nativities d.1;il with matters relating to jinnior college
problems.
The conferene est of the liulh s-.ool afiliati(on committees held
during the past ten years have made possible the solution of problems
and the establishment of a cordial andl sympathetic understanding
between the state university at.d tlie high schools. It is believed that
the same desirWii- uitLtrne \\ill be a:hieved tllron -i'h the activities of
the junior college aftiliation( coniimit tee.
Some of tle llle iplrll.rlir alm npliishinents of the high .school afilia-
tion committees durin-', thle lpat l ', \ ,i" y -; -; ari, the Iolliowing:
1. Th e cliii,;in Ain /. /./i p/ic.rpl/ion of course content
Briefly, thlis meanl ; that tile respl)lsibility for determining lihe
sOpe and conlltent of .,ilege preparaltmI.y (ulses rests no0w primarily
with the higli .iehool illit orities.
2. A sul i, ni h l // v i /, ';, ,i., i t 'lclrIIIl ]hoi.s
This Co0 linill i , i s li. r.'iiil.shiilit f i ll 1 i',\ ite\'iii ai, i\, ipll ini
which any si ,'nl diri. .liri l pri l-ipal l mi y wi-'dli 1i p[res,.lit a .id of
recom mi endin i ',ir",iri;i.- ;,- a liio I 1si d I11)i .11 ilt re'vic o a' coni liaint.
3. Special 1t1lic.
Special sill lithes Iy ill (cI. I ii ittl .s of pri b iiills f tadllissioii to thle
state nmivcrslty hilav*: 1.Iiem 1,1' I| iM in cle:lri'is I1i) liisinde"stanidini.'s
regarding these pro ,blems.


DLl'.Ui'TMENT OF !:L)l;i'.TI'.iN, HIl.NNi.\1L iKEPORT







SUPERINTENDENT OP PUBLIC INSTRUCTION


4. Contact cilth former students
The high school principals, while .-,,rving as members of the afrilia-
liOl (oOi llm ilitces. liav'e 111( till oplportunlity to i1ne t their forlller stu-
(de1l s on tile illiversity i .l l, IIIs, iave mile to iundelrstalnd more fully
tile problems of .'eiterilg sttludelnts. and l ha'e taken action directed
lo\'~viI1 tie solutil l of Ithue irol)l lins.
T'lle illost illpolrtaiit anl i vital ice'olinpslishinent i, indicated iln the
openiiindedlle(l s ai tihe sin( erity*V of purilmoe whie -ll ciharrterize tlie
(diseussioli of ev.ry* i probl)lei, at every meeting by Itle state uniiver-
sity, the seoniidary-sc'hoIl, a in tie state-departinent representatives.
I3eeause of tl is splendid slsirit, tlhe al tili tion common itter:s constitute
effective coordinitinc ;penll'iesii in nniversity-secondUary school rela-
tionships.

STATISTICAL SUMMARY
Thle following- taillations presel( t a recapitulation of essential
sIilistie, r,.lati\,V to l lhlice education in California for the biennium
beg'inii g' July 1. 1! .',. a oind ending- .uniie :30, 19:32. Careful perusal
,f these ,.lai \\aill indieite lthe na.ijnr trends and te ldeiicies chlaraeter-
izini, tihe developi-nnc t of public edie.ation- during' this bienniuii .
>.\ attempt \will bIe made here to refer to the detailed items contained
in tih1 talnillitions. Attention should be directed, however, to the
fact that. d(1ring, tilis binniiiuin tle aetual expenditures for elementary
and s-cconiidlary schools was reduced lby approximately $10,000,000 ind
that this reduction was effeeted largely by actual reductions in the
salaries of s.ehool officials and by increases in the size of class. Admin-
istrative, supervisory, and t-eael ingl loads have been increased very
materially in thle endeavor not only to prevent actual increases in
school costs but to secure material rednetions in the amounts expended.


3--15S5









24 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BIENNIAL REPORT


TABLE No. 1

Statistics of California Public Schools, 1930-31 and 1931-32


I. KINDERGARTENS
1. Number of elementary school districts maintaining
kindergartens___------------------- ..--
2. Number of counties in which kindergartens were
maintained--------------------------------
3. Number of kindergarten classes maintained.------
4. Average daily attendance -----------_
5. State enrollment-----------------
6. Number of certificated kindergarten employees:
a. Supervisors ----------------------------
b. Teachers.--------------------
c. Assistants ------------------------------

d. Total.------- --------- --_
7. Valuation of kindergarten property:
a. Grounds--------------------------------
b. Buildings-------------------------------
e. Library books--------------------- -- ---
d. Equipment ------------------------------

c. Total.-----------------------------
8. Kindergarten receipts:
a. Balance on hand, July 1--.---------------
b. District taxes --- -------------
c. Miscellaneous -----------------

d. Total receipts----------------------------
9. Kindergarten expenditures:
a. Current expenditures----- ----------------
b. Capital outlay expenditures-----------------

c. Total expenditures .---------------. ----
10. Percentage of kindergarten current expenditures
devoted to each budgetary classification:
a. General control ----------------
b. Teachers' salaries -----------------------
c. Other instructional expenditures .----------
d. Operation expenditures..------------------
e. Transportation expenditures ---------
f. Auxiliary expenditures_----------
11. Kindergarten current expenditures per pupil in
average daily attendance:
a. General control_-------------------------
b. Teachers' salaries-------------------------
c. Other instructional expenditures-..----------
d. Operation expenditures--------------------
e. Auxiliary expenditures----------------- --

f. Total current expenditures -------.---
12. Kindergarten capital outlay expenditure per pupil
in average daily attendance_.----------

13. Total kindergarten expenditure per pupil in aver-
age daily attendance -....-------------------

II. ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
1. Number of active elementary school districts:
a. City-....-------.----....-.. ...---------
b. Regular ----. .-............._....-.....--
c. Joint-.........-. -- --

d. Total active districts-----------------------
2. Number of suspended elementary districts-..--....
3. Total number of districts.- .._- ------.-....-.
4. Number of union districts:
a. Union-------.------ ------. -...----
b. Joint union--------------------- ...-----

c. Total union---------------------- .......
5. Number of lapsed elementary districts.......------
6. Number of elementary schools maintained --.----.
7. Average daily attendance in elementary schools....
8. State enrollment in elementary schools:
a. In regular grades-
1. First grade-------------..............
2. Second grade------..........-.......-
3. Third grade---------------........-
4. Fo:iiri grade------------------------
5. Fifth grade-...............-..........
6. Sixth grade--------------- .........
7. Seventh grade ....---..--...---..-..
8. Eighth grade,..---.-- ......--.....- -

9. Total.-.............................


1930-31


2;9

17
I."19
41.5 2(.
51I:,2t.


1931-32


2",5

IS

42.728
78.57.


1,757
14,


$133,1)021
47 1.132
1 .11.
2 5 1S2


l.3;4







$45,;.4n 3;


6
1,787
158


$222,304
651,436
13,308
329,143


$840,896 59
4,638,289 25
53,104 57


$4,497,171 40
145,293 14


$2 06
62 40
2 42
35 64
1 42









45
3,070
53




182
8


5 l.2'!*; II




$4.5 5.4 ,'*4 4 I1



$4. .4 140.4 '4


ii''.3 ~.4
.1.


~l''7 .i~'j


3 J2f'.
.3 _1"


i)

34
,' ,lll lll


1. 15S
1.3
3.22 1


l'S


Sl's

4. 2.5
6 12,4t'.2


I
12
4 ,4I9
1.11;,449


134,999
101,173
98,031
97,761'
90,515
82,496
41,854
39,664


131.53N
:,ii.7"44
:'7,551
i." ,.")-'4

4.31195

39,352









SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 25


TABLE No. 1-Continued

Statistics of California Public Schools, 1930-31 and
1931-32-Continued


II. C .E'F.T%'tll r HOOLS-CollntinuPi
i. Pcst-l radualte pupil .......................
I'. Physieall hi-inilaIrrprpil clildr n ............
.I. Sp.e-m l layi :ind t\ nifi (l ., ........ ..

c Total enrollment in elementary t hoolI... ...
'i Nimiler of eraduater from the eachth rr.al .......
In. Nuint'r of crrtlficat,' i mplo)3ee
.. I tric't iiperinltenl r lts ..................
li. F Ill-tim e uiler\i ;or,. .................... .
e. Parltal-tll e i 'p.rviori ....................
d. Su.irvrinrg princlirp al-s.. ...................
p Trctinia printiratis.... ....................
f. rull-time regular tea( i.er ..................
e. Full-time sprejial tlaclersr ...................
h. P-rlial-limn tetcbhers in-
1. I) y cla r .; ..........................
2. E ening rg clase.;. ...... ............ ..

I Total r ilnnl er of certificrted ieml lovei .......
I \alualtion of (lernntar., n school proi.ert.
a.. G( round .................................
Ih liildinmC ................... ... .........
c. libraryy bool: ........................
Il. E: 'uipm ent ..............................

c. T ut il..................................
t2 (Oii'taaiidinr bi on.:!l iarInltedri .: .. .
13. A.\ e"';d \aluation of elementary liitrict: .. .
14 FIlemrn'tary t3 (oorl diail ract reclipl .ts~ s'ourr ...
a Rn larner on l rn.. July I ............
b. Statt apr.ortionarii nt. ........... ... ....
(. County' apportionments ...................
,) Di-lrict tna for maintrane ............ ....
r DnLtrit tax for buillinrg... ...............
f Bnnld als-...............................
g. Mliscllaneou .................. .........

Ih Total re'nipts.................... .... .
15. Elementary t hool di'trart e rpenditure4-
n. Current erpendiitiiurs ......................
,. Caprtl outlay e rrr.nditures ....... .... ... ..

c. Total er endl tur, .... ... ..............
II. Ierrontare of elementary 'nhool ditirat rpexrIeni-
Iu rc devoted to ech liudgetnr\ ela,~l'tfiation:
a t 'ie niral control ----....... ............--------------------.
b. Tearhers' salaries ...... .................
'. f Lther instrujcional er.:enlritires .... ......
,1. operation erptidujre.; ......................
r. Transrort-tion er penlitur .s ....... ....
f. Other aniilihry erlenditurie: ...... .. ....
7. 1:lemriintarv fehool li;triet uiirrert eipenr-.Iituri.
r.p-r *lupil in'sorace 01111) attendance:
a (;en ral errintrol ...........
I.. Teairhers' anl ris. ..
r. nOtl r in,,tractioaal enrl endaidtr,. .... ..
*I lpcration exrpernlitrca .
'*. Trarip.ortation e saenlitire.i .
f .Au iliary erpenilitir(sa . .

c. Total current r i-r nltilirre ..... ..
IS. r.lerentary schnol district rapitral o0atl:i exprn1li-
lures [wr pilpil in nverace daily attendance ...
19. Total plmntary school ditrirt exirenflitureM per
plapil in average dajil\ attenlione,'


Ill. Jt'Nion lihal Scinni.'
1. Numl, r of hilh school iliatricts rn in:m aiinaial jiinior
high schinns. .
2. Nimlwer of junior hich school rn:iint:u:iiii
n. (ramrde 7. q and 9'......
b (G;radi 7. S, 9 and II) .

c. Total junior which schools..
3. .\A\rage daily at rnilanre.
a In rinmentary gra 'l's-
1. lreguilarclisa.se.. ........... ...
2. Special day and evening cla... .

3. Total in elementary grales ............


1910-31



1.21' I
12.251


37.1147


12;

217
.q1 -
1.57'-

9(1i

S5,
55



$54.91i4.9?.

2 1 41.74.
17 1'" ,.2S

. . .. .



$17.132.712 'i
19.977.3711 21
24.194.977 54
19.3111.25') 1.i
4.-52.3i% 21-
2.123.31il 7;
3.221.S39 .59


21.14' 'i





S22-.3I4..s12
I 113.:; 3.359i
$7,4 7.5. 1.. 43


l91,311.'53 34

$S'.l., i.1M 9q (12
9.33S.71i IS

$71.2- .S.43 2 i


3 3
72 '
52
1" 5

4 'i


$3 3q
7. 71,
5 .11


4 11


till2 39

15 13

$117 S2


1511




72.512
oN


1911-32



10
4.077
9.7'7

7 11.19t.


127
2.e
42
i173
1.'. 19
19.54It'
711

r?.


23. .;75

51.i;.5i;. 132
155.1'.34. 115
2. 1112.C'.
I7.f'.3,3.31

1231 S'.5,.22.1
'1 21.1195.177
$7."22,.'S32.14 1


?15 732.45'1 1S

22.*'12.25.5r 74
23.551 349 34
4.37a.1.,3A 37
2.4 't..e,47 fi(l
1.651.C0.12 14



i',3.A91.373 55
*;.'51.i05' 77











$3 ir9


11 31
1 q')
2 iu


W591.159.9511 42



i70.542.43A 32


3.2
73 5
4 7
14 '1
1.2
0 2


7


75.S51









Y05 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BIENNIAL REPORT


TABLE No. I-Continued

Statistics of California Public Schools, 1930-31 and
1931-32--Continued


III. JUNlOR fBcn SCHOOL'--Continued
b. In seeondary grade--
I. Regular clai:e ................... ...
2. Special day nud evening cla"cs ......

3. Total in secondary gr.id.; ...........

c. Total in junior high schooll ................
4. State enrollment in junior high schools:
a. In elementary grade--
(1). Remijlar -lh.e,-.
(al. Se\enr h grade..................
(b). Eighth grade..... ..............

ci. Total recilar cls:i. ... . ........
(_'I. Special day arid veeringg clrK: es
tal. Physically h rndlicapped ..........
(bi. Comrpulory continuation cla'ie; ..
ic. All other special day elas'ep ......

id). Total eirollmert irn special da.
anid evening cvir'e. ............

(3). Total in elementary grade ..........
b. In secondaryy grades-
ill. Regular eli- es:
(a). Ninth grade............. ...
ibj. Teuth grade ......... .. .....

(C). Total regular class se.. ........
(2) Special day and e\errinrg clases;
(a 'by;ically ha'r.ndicarppr d .........
(bi. Coiupultory continuation cla:p.: .
(ci. All other ;spr iil day cl '--... .
(d). Evening schoolss and speeal e.ven-
ILg cla.:ses of day high schools ...

(e). Total enrollment in sreecial d'y
and evening cl. sse ...........
(31. Total in ;ec-ondary grad'-. .........

c Total in junior high school-............
3. Number of graduatel. from the eighth crade......
b. Number of c-rrtificated junior high school ermploe, ( .
a. Full-time ;upervi-or; .....................
b. Pariial-tim e ;upervii ors ............. ... ..
c. Supervising principals................... .
d. Teaching priiciprsal ...................
e. Full-time regular teache-rs..................
f. Full-time sp-cial teacher;. ..................
g Partial-time techers..................
D ay cla.si e .............................
Evening cl- ses; ........................
h. Total juniorr high school certificated emprloc ee:.
7. \aluation ofi junior high school property:
a. Purchaedi from elementary furind--
(I Land........ .................
(2). Buildings......... ............. .
;3). Library hook .......................
(i1. Eqiiiprmerit ... .......... ..........

(S i. Total. ........ ................
b. Purch.ved from hirh school fund'-
(I). Land......... ............ .......
t21 Bjildings ............... .........
(3). Library books .....................
i(4 Equipment .........................

i3). Total. ............... ........... ...

IV. HImO SCiio'L.
I. Number of which schooll di-trict;
a. Count...............y-.........
b City................... ...............
c. Rcra lar..................................
d. Union .................... .. ........... .
e. Joint u mion..............................

f. Total umher of high schooll district ........


1930-31


37,41111
143


37.543

110,14.5


41,41i6
35.455


I 3
l3
14


123

sis~11, ,


39. 24 1
1, 91


21

42'4

1.225


1.714



36.114


II
4


1,171
L* l l


5,21S


.2,.'77'.526
,.717.iy4.
21,15''
327,53".


1; 211 635
2S.154.24
341t.111
4,532.397


412,S73,714


54


24.1


1931-32


39.S72
1.773


41,1345

117.496


41 .2'1t



92
12
1:I


S17

53.211


1.32
13.552

7,903


Ii;
I
Ill
13
3,177
1.4 '5

l2ull
1111


33.lS1.1.S72

13 .373



-..370.2.3i
2.1.925,H^
352.57T'
4.335..54


$38.217,431


53
35

205
24


43,413


23.6S5

;II 9
131,.3l1i
3 .5r 3;


5 50)5


$9.1325-.9







SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 27

TABLE No. 1-Continued

Statistics of California Public Schools, 1930-31 and
1931-32- Continued


1930-31 1931-32

IV. Ilion SCiiooLS-Ccintintill
2 Numnl r of hlil scelools.
a. Day bhih schools rrintaining-
S1). (raide 9 only. ...................... 3 4
(2). Grades 9 and 1l] only.----.........---.. 7
(3). Grndes 9. I and II .................. 5
(4i. Grades ., lO and 12-.................. I
I5). Grades 9. 10.I II :nl 12.-.....-......... 273 274
I6l1. Grades l 1 III and 12................. 7i, 77
(7). Grades and 2.-----...-...........-....- I
;S1. Gral:-s 9. 10, II. 12. 13 and 14........ 14 14
(0). Grades 10. I. 12. 13 and I I.......... 5 4
(10l. Grades 11, 12. 13 and 14 ............ I I
(11). Total day high school maintain:td ..... 384 3.;
b I:venirn high ~ehools maintaining-
(11. Grad.-s 9 and 1 only..............------------------ 1 2
(2). Grades 9. 10 and I I.................. 2 I
(3). Grades 9. 10. II and 12 3...... ...... 63
(4). Grades 10. II and 12-.................- I
(5). Grades 9, 1). 11, 12, 13 and 14........ I
(I.). No grades ....................--..... 51 II
(7). Totld numb,-r of :tvcning hich schools
mainintan d ......................... Go 79
e. Continuation day and ev:-ning bigh schools
maintaining-
(1). Gradis10. 11. 11 1and *12............... 2 1
(2). Grades 10, 11 and 12 .........-- ..... 2 I
(31. No rades...................----......------ 3
(4). Total number ofcontinuation day and
:vcnin_ high s.?hools................ 7
d. Total number of high schools maintaoed..... 451 472
3. .\verae dai ly attendanc:-:
a. Reg lar cl I:s.--- --.....---......- ...... ..... ... .I- 193.9Sl
Ib. Special day and :-v:-nin el-i.5es ............. 22.7S3 22.964
e. Junior college colirrcs .................. ..... 4.123 3.065
d. Total avc-rge daily att ndane :in high schools. 20S.1)05 '21 9,S70
4. State enrollment:
a. In regular cla.3cs-
(1'. Ninth erade-........- .......... ..... 40.237 38,217
(2). Tenth gradc-......................... ---9.16S 71,632
(31. Eleventh grad. --.............-...-... 54.039 5S.449
(4). Twelfth crad-..-..................... 42'.554 46.532
t5). Special pupils......----............-. -4.02 6.371
(G6. Total enrollment in regular c-lasses..... 210,03) 221.21
b. In speciall day and evening clas-ses-
I1). Physically handicapped --.......--..... --39 SS7
(2). Compulsory continuation ............ 15.493 13,056
(3). All other special dy .:lasss..s ........ 3,.705 34,682
(4). Evening .ichaole and special evening
ela.es of day high schools........... -25S.220 240.373
(5). Total enrollment in special day and
cenine cl.sse.s -.................. 313,239 289,99
e. Junior collegecourse-
(I). Thirteenth grado.................... 3.97 3.017
(2) Fouirteenth erade ...................- 1.370 1.474
(3). Specialpupils ....................... 352 309
(1).Totalenrollmcot in juniorcollcece coujrc 5.701 4,800

d. Totalstatccnrollment ...................... 529.00 514.99,
5 Number of graduiat'
a. Number completion four-yenr high school
course................ ............ ..... 40,117 43.87S
b. Number completing two-year junior college:
course.--------....... ................... 549 512
' N'imbper of certificated employees of high school
districts(crcluding unior hLih school >mployess).
a. i)striet superintendents.................... 5 S
b. Full-time supervisors-...... ............... 14 109
e. 'arnil-time supervisors. -.................. I I 1
d. Principals ................................ 35%
e. Supervising prinepal s........... ......... ..... 241
f. Teaching prnciipa Sl...................... ... 1I.1
C. Full-time regular teachrs..................... 6,39 .
i. Fuill-time slpecnl teachers .......... ......... 3,241 3,169
i. Partial-time teachers-
Day classes-...........................-. 72 869
Eveningelases -........................ 3.975 3.757
j. Toil nuimlbr of ceertifieratl emploI es....... 15.466 15,299

Includes GO uilns of emergency average daily attendance.









2S DEPARTMENT o:1' EDUCATION, BIENNIAL REPORT


TABLE No. 1-Continued

Statistics of California Public Schools, 1930-31 and
1931-32-Continued


I'.ii. 31I 13 -32


IV. HIGtH Sou...Ls--Cilth,ue.I
7. V\'.Jut Ion of high 4ehool prop.. rt
a (;ro iun'l ............... ..............
I. lu ldi i ........... . .................
( Lbtrsry I,.ok: ..........................
di. E.iuipire tii .................. ........

e. Tot.l ...............................
S IOult st lining o'nldel in'lerte-lr,.e of high school
d i-trict ........... ....................
9. A'ese;,l v iluaiition high -eho'ol 'iItret ........
l' High school l ,d irlet r.:eCi-pt4 1.y 'ourie-.
a. B:al:,nec on hira .iJuly I ...................
h State apport lonlue .....................-.
c. Countl : ppor[tinnri nt; ....................
d D itrict ta .x ...............................
e B.onid :le- ...............................
f. MI lerllanu'eoJ............. ...........

g Total r -ptI ................ ...........
1I. High ehoorl dlrict ep.ernitetiure-.
3 Curre-it *xpenvlittire- ......................
h. Captal outlay expendituri.- ................

C. Total expervn itjr- .........................
12. 'crcrnta.ge oi bih ;ehool d.itriet : p.:iiliure-
ievotern to .ich li .uJ~l .iry el-i i tZr ion ........
3 ( -;e er.al con trol ............... .........
i. Tjea her-r' liari ..........................
(. Other ;n-tru.ctional ep\ren.liture.- ..........
,i. O peril ior i *o';[le nliture- .....................
.. T r: iil: ur ior n l.i ii I -:li-ii litl r:- .................
f. Other *m '.illh:r ep':prerditures ................
1:;. High school dJitret CurreiJt eriienJiture- per pupil
in average 'liil. :IttrjlirinCe.
a. (rnirl eontrl..........................
b'. T-echer-' 'alari .........................
e. Other inlrietr i Io[al e\prndlitire .............
,. OCperation r\periuritr .... ..................
e. Tr.anportation rexpnditur.e ..............
1. Other au'ilhary e';prend t ret ...............

u. Tot l current exp-ndilturi' .................
11. High. -ehool ,ih-triet ce pital o.u l. e'.prl,,iturea
per pupil in ai verageP Jail .Itt-ilenlane ..........

1). Total hich ebhool di, trick t expnlitiure. i,"r puril
in av,-r:jea daily a ttenl:danrce ...................


1'. JINI.,R CuI.LF1rF Dl;3ThFIiT
I. Nu lmberr of junior :olllege hd! 2. Aver:ge.- ,Jily atent lanCe .n di'ltrict junior colleg,-o .
3 Stat, ,-iirollrien it i di triet junior eoll.-cI ::
3 Fir \:t :r .................... ..... .....
b. Second ye3 ir ..............................
e. Sr.-e;ia ..................... ...........

1. Tot l .....................................
4 N uimte-r of gra'diate-l fronm 'ltrilct j ituior eoll'ai -..
5 Per cent of to(ail]liunioreollllgenrol iin r ,t in d;ltriet
junior eollen e ...........................
:. NiIntib.r olf 'ertifi'.t,-,l cruplo ,-,- iii ,in trict junior
coll .!4 :
a PF incip al. .... ...... .. ................
ti. Full-time regular t-.ech, r .................
e. Full-time 'pecial teiacher; ................ .
d Partial-tim- tea.ch'r ......................

c. Total number of clrtifi.etei ni-mlovye. ......
7. V'aliahon of properr y oJf junior college gli-tricrt
i. roundn rl ................................
I null nesi...............................
e. I.irair ,hook ...... ............... .....
d. Eqpii moment ....... ........ ...........

c. Totil?. ............... ..................
S. Out'3tanjilini bonlelId ltirhl'elrine- of junior college
d'l;Irl: ......................... .....- .. .
9. A ;e,-'. 'r va li.ltion 1 junior coll-e'li-e lr,:tric .......


2.111. 1 .1 4'4



Pi. I I2'A.1
S 7. .7. .'6 5'.S. I.S

5 | ..". :)) 5
7.1 .'1, ._21 SS

".11., 44112 I'lI
1.74..]t;S'2 5i,
t ,". I)0 i, 'il ."I 31"1


14,..1ii,2''i 4 7





.5.2
S I

4 i;


fi, 71,
12. 7'4



5 74


I 1
I'fl |rV'2


7.SI2
3,'1ii i
,i 54.3


1 21. 11,
721 r1
7S 'I


121'
I'll
1.11


I I,I i. n ll
14iilii, S,25


:25 ',72 li..,
l l i .i .lri.1.32
2.127 It.5
21,432.721'

5I'$'), 1')7.59-1


17. 1.3i 6'i I' l
L7.I'. 15. 2 7.11


.15.752 31


3,1111,7-^ no
.2. 1 26 22L

", I 'M.tu, '-1: I'1

574.4I.'.''7 -S

f ihll.l,4 S-24 411
S .352.T7,SI I';



5.3'7.'t5 s;


7 S

2 s
I S


12.3 57
11 '.3

21.'


177T *'5

5?4 71,


i$2112 71


17
I r.1'. Ll..


1 1.5.1''
5.55i


2).4:l:;
2'S .I*
2,t,2.S

54 2


51

II|



.I 1,S,'t35
.3.1 .15 t,11 *
m *,., li l-


i.5214.31

2, .liS6,. 1ii I, I








SIUJl'ERIlN'iIENDENT O1' I'UBL IC INSTI-UCT'IION


TABLE No. 1-Continued

Statistics of California Public Schools, 1930-31 and

1931-32-Continued


V. N,1 0I l C'iLL:l;I: I);.-ril, "T" ('O]tlIl|:11f
ii. ,unior e-rlley d'litrIi l re :'il .-t by .' o r .
a 13al.i 1 on hliiid. J.ul. I ......... .......
b. Sta.ilr :LlportilO 11 rti' t ................... ...
C oui v t Uilt i t. .... ...............
I. ) irict t ................ ............ . . . . .
I11on l :al. : ................................
f 1M 1:- 11:1n1 .......................... .

e Tot-l r t . .............. . ........ .
1 Ju iIor -'olle I i- l ri t ,: r l., rii t Ii n ur s:
a. Curr it eI n, :ll tlur,:_m .....................
I Ca.pl t:il outl:l.i : Xl i'litu res .................

c. Total ell\ :lndlur............... .........
12. rercehIneiw, of junior : olhlg,: du i tr I t ex pendt' ure.
il\otril to 'each bl,'Jd ,lar., la.ii,-.lttioi
a. flori.:r,a l onrol ....... . ... ..........
b. T.ri- hei- .rr. ..il ir ................... .......
3 . r r. O ti r ih rurliona l ,p I lit ire'; .............
d ) pr"-ition : l n turi : . ... ..... ..........-
''. nI mll r i r' lton I ri [ I iJn r . . . . . . . .
f. .inmlinryl "lIr nd iir..:. .....................

V. T ot. l .... .. i... ..... ......................
I i. .luranior .:ol]re dJi-trl:i Iclirrient ei"lhdi litur.S per
plpili] in dailer" :'d il y attl q?,,:-
a. TI ell r m r l n.: ilrol. ......... .......... .......
lI T each 'rs.' salari._ ..........................
I I Ither in-tru tilonail exl pe.r, il ir-.. ........
I ('ipalerati ii exipenditreus ....... .......
r. T an' portl.il n .o xj. nildlur:I ..............
f. .\A il :liarv e'p? iIJlturie ....................

i To .l iarr nt i xr irditlurn e. ........... .....
II. JunIior collIo r' di-tri I :.i.iitl nIo l .i exr.?iidilturri
pcr p[ipil in aI crack ']ailn alttelmianl. ..........
15. Tot dI junior college dlislr. I cxp i n'liturc, per piipil
i .iv r.l 'ar dail.i attn:'ll in .... .. .........

VI. SrATE TEcnrPs COLLF-GES
1. N umr i.r of : .: tn h-..:rs oll ...............
2 1nmrollmint:
a. lI.:Rsilar i.la.---.<-
(1 F rchmen......... ..............
(2'. Pophomor-. .........................
1 1. rllnors ...........................
( ) -n or . . ..... ................
(5). necial stud rnts.....................

6 t. Total in regular .inss- ...............
b. l.imrtid tludall s............. .... ..
Suimier -'ion ..........................

d. Total Ir.i.lllmenl. ....... ... .............
i:'. Total enrollmrrint. ,ulhlicat elmini .ate.l .. ..
3. Nirmrlbr of fall y meml n. Pr sidini . .. ............
Li. Othir faculty mcmbers--
ill. Ii ,i l.r *i:railmit xe ur-
Full p'rofesors. ..............
A.ws .i.It professor ..... ..... ..
.\~ ~i b :i nl profe'.s r.r ..............
Inztructlirs. ........................
.\sIl't anls ......... .. .........
Partlil-tim:. faculty. m-mb rs.........

Total in regular acnrl"-mni: \,,ar. ......
(21. Suim ier .se*sinn .... .. .... ....

(3 Tot.l . . .
SI). Total, it iplicatl.' .'Iirnlrel'l .........

*. Tot l inniln r r.f fLa ulty rmii mnlIr.r, Idu lil:trs
el nini l l. ... ... .
4. Vnlual on of slate t'ea, Ii ri olre property
a. ro in s.. . .......
b. IIIIlline... .. .....................
c. Library look. ...... ............
d. :q ipm'nt ... .. ....... ............

e. Total valuation of slate teadrlrs college
property...............................


131.1-31


?4 it0.' 5 Ill
1.35.444 24
7Sl.u55 1:1
I .:3l'2.767 12
..... ..,. ,,




12.4.1,131 .54














$1I 75
137 71
24 Iri
43 4 1

2 I1










3.131
1.5111"
1.3'.5
1,255
35

7.313
-I 3


; L272,1 I' 5




$2 S21.1.223 113


4 9I
6-5 9
11.1
IS 1

I I'










"23' 32

1'37 3

17.' 71














!14397
13.5.13


1.:

1117
l -'l
5
123

4i.S9
697

r.*i7


$1.124,y1:.,
4.523.41.
123.7r6;


.1'31-32




4.51 ,7'tl 5:1
I -I 1 ,'1 I Ill )
772.5..2 62
2.73 .2201 41

:32, 11i1, 47

$i.1142.tIS J7

$'.L:.9.434 42
1,111.1.1l1 4

$ .41.ii,445 SG


33
G4 9

21 4
.I

lalo1 o


Vt; "I.I
13', 4',

I 1';
-*t;


21sl 1S

,7il Sii


?-i .i i


3.1'i4

1.576t
1,3911
6


2.S49
4.1511


15.571
13,S71


121

497
253

752


I;1i


$I.IS. 5.15
.1l;".222
3:51,9911
735,945


511.033,302







,0) DEPARTMENT OF1 EDUCATION, BIENNIAL REPORT


TABLE No. 1-Continued

Statistics of California Public Schools, 1930-31 and
1931-32-Continued


VI. STkTE: Tfr iiR n; COLIu FrG --C.nlfirnie
5. Total e rpenditlre. of ltate teachers (olle gI::
a. Current e r.pren'iit'r' ......................
b. C:,pital outll-i e.pen ilt ure. .............

e. Total cp .ndJlt'ir,... ............. ...
6. Tencher.,. college training school':
a. Number of teachers college majiintining-
(I Kind.cru jrrens .................. ...
(21. Filerrcntjri school .................
b.\ Aerargedaili; atterndanCe-
(I'. Kinergrrten.....................
(2'. Grjade' I to S. inclu,'i-ve ...............
c. State enrollment-
(I i. K indergarter- ............... .......
(2'. Elementary i'ehol--
Fir't gride ............. ..........
Second grade ......................
Third gre. ........................
Fourth grade.......................
Fifth grjde.............. ......
Sixth grade .......................
seventh gra:le.....................
Eighth gra e ................... .

Total gra.de.: I t. S. incli' ive........
d. Numter of pupill grad.:,tlinr from the eighth
rje....................................

VII. CALItFORNI A PiOLV:T.ECBNrM SCHIo:l.
A. Toll number of .i i cla. ,; were in eelon......
B. Number of pupil-' enrolled in:
I. Regular ,iiviuion-
a. First ye .................... .....
b. Secon, l e:jr .................. .... .
c. Third ar. .........................
d. Fourth sioe r ..........................

Totl i ...........................
2. Junior college livii'ion-
a. Fifth -c:ar ............... ..... .
b. Si.th ejr ..........................

Total...........................

3. Tot l enrollment of pupil' .......... .....
C. Numl-er of gr. iiite,':
1. R regular di _.ion .................. .......
2. Junior college dit iion ........... .. ......

ToiT l ........................... ........
I). Number of le-ehing enm loyee'..................
E. Number oi icre" in :ile .........................
F. Number ind typc of -eparr:te main building':
I. T % pe A .................... ..............
2. T ype B ..................................
3. T e p fe C ...................................
4. Type D ............................
3. T i pe E ...................................

Totjl ....................................
G. Number of:
I. Cla-.iroomn ..............................
2. G vm n 'in ........................... ....
3. .Audtori. ............................
4. Cafeterias ................................
5. Dormito ires...............................
i.i. Ho -i'e: for faculty mcemLber ................
IH. Va Ia lion of rproperl :
1. Ground .......... ........ ...............
2. Iilfiniw. ..............................
3. l/ibrar. hlool::. .. .... ....... ............
4. Eqiipment ....................... .......

Total......................... .. ..

1. Tot:il e.penditure- .- -........................


1930-31


2,.111,.33 1 fi
223,274 1.3

'2?.3'7,.23 72


3


Sii
1,210

1i3


21)1)
217
1194
I .7

199

53


1.423

90


54

47
37

23S

45




32
1 1


127

3S5



43
33
1,1.0


3

32.


$15i,2530
337,432
10.035.;
159.74'1


$51'.,529

1157..12 69l


1931-32


i2.345.053 S3


l,.S14.3,37 (2
33011.34. 21











17',
127
113
131I
121
109
57
41


4'r
54
37
39

17'9

91'





39
15


15$

337


3










9 15'.250
573.6 11
I [".)29
173.114 I


3")

30
1

5
9





V1911).73

$153,333 00







SUPERINTENDENT 01' PUBLIC INSTRUCTION


TABLE No. 1-Continued


Statistics of California Public Schools, 1930-31 and
1931-3 2-Continued


DISTRIBUTION OF SCHOOL DISTRICT RECEIPTS' BY SOURCES AND BY DIVISIONS OF THE
SCHOOL SYSTEM, 1930-31


?oure'


IUlni ed Statns...........
State......... ..........
Cointri ...............
UDitrii.t ...............
Totali ............


liidergarten '


j5 332.2.0.0 41

$i.532,290 41


1.lincrn(iary
school

'314.19S 13
19.977.3710 23
24.49-.-77 54
41.521.319 14

5;1.311,S3; 34


SI)IrIi l,
IlIhla .choi ,o le


S193.01>3 .1
7.117!.8121 8
51.5|,1.. lI,, 27
51,'l.31.303 54

5i-2.G25.5S5 30


S17S.454 SS
?5I;..0i'" 3i6.
740,111i 13
l.351;.5211 21

$3.272.(i I' j S


Total


SSOil.il' i,2
27.314.1. 1 47
411.79I0 .41i 1
113.7 40,13 11il
19'2.711.751 '3


DISTRIBUTION OF SCHOOL DISTRICT RECEIPTS. BY SOURCES AND BY DIVISIONS OF THE
SCHOOL SYSTEM, 1931-32

E-leenl ,ry Di or I, tTotri
Sources In,l.erarlen et hool 0 school jior ig:' Total


United Stal,' ........... ................. 245.416 34 S21 4. 0.106 4 I 325. i 09 776.26S 37
Sa. .................................2512 '..15.75I2 *l0 725I.25, Ill 01 2*."34.0i-> 5,
Couni .............. .......... ... .. 22.i.02.2 74 10. ,.71S 33 *7 2 'i:2 3',1 .00; 9O
District ................ ...... 7,i .278 09 50.379.270 53 3,215,413 43 101.0l ..'4 i7
Total.............. ') 911.959.9' 1 42 I 74.4,9.19' 7 90 t5.012.19. 07 $170.371.943 29

I ECeludes all re. ci.t 'v Itranifer from othir Jiitricts nndi count le
7 Lezil iion enctecd in 1931 a nil effective di rini lle -clh nnl year I3 -1. 1 1 dlicoiiiiiuedl lle el.ara e l.minJd:rarl er
tajl nd l provided for the support of kinldere.irlens fromb th, L h ruce, cf the elemn rita. n clionl di trit r.-. Kindergiarlcn
receipts aire th irefore inclu'jdd under elementary school receilpt ( for 193 1-32.

PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF SCHOOL DISTRICT RECEIPTS BY SOURCES AND BY DIVISIONS
OF THE SCHOOL SYSTEM, 1930-31 AND 1931-32


Sindrgarter, Elienent lry l ih -chool Dit ri, I Total
-chool "ju, .r ,olh)?ce
Sources.
1931.'-31 1931-32 1930-31 1931-32 .1310-31 193 1-32 19 30-31 1931-'32 1931031 1931-32


United States ........ ..... ........ 0) 3 0 2 0 2 0 3 11 i i 1..5 0 5
tate ............... ........... 1 9 22 10 2 7 9 14 4 1 .1 l'
Coiinty ............. ..... .... 2 9 15s 219 23 ? 1 3 22' 3 23 3
District ............. 100 0 ........ 51 0 32 3 72 4 1 .7 7 56r 7 j3 S '2 2 5 3

Totals.......... I100 0 ........ 100 0 10 ) 0 100 0 100 0 l I.1 10 100 0 100



DISTRIBUTION OF EXPENDITURES BY BUDGETARY CLASSIFICATION AND BY DIVISIONS OF THE
SCHOOL SYSTEM. 1930-31

Culrrent expenditure:

School divL-ion
General Teaclcr.f' lri lructiuia.l Oper.tl ion \iuxliary
control a.lariea expenditrlrs e penditiure. expenditure.C

Kiodcrgarten ........... iS!luO 33 $2,711U.027 20 $n1f,541- 73 $.141.'42 17 131.407 97
Ilementary school ... 2..U 55.63,14 1i 4 4.590.3, 7 33 3.215.243 74 '.il,.','; 1' 2 2.47.97 77
Iligh school... ...... 2,15 4.12 fn2 41 i7.9010 7 4.002.3.r 74 !,3.'l.lI,0.. 14 2.7,8'4,n7S 93
District junior colleae.. 119.711) 34 I.)07,337 Oi' 245.533 42 44"2.990011 i 23.5.'). in
Totals.............. 5,i400.Si, 75 S ',9S5.i2 290 1647.97. 63 $.0.0'i 1.74l 35 $).361,021 49







DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. 11ILNNIAL REPORT


TABLE No. 1-Continued

Statistics of California Public Schools, 1930-31 and
1931-32- Continued


School division 1To l. I rrcnrt Cr I nl outla Tot:,l
c 'p'ii'iit ire .*-r- re .rrht.,t rri.

Kindergarten --.. -------------------------------- . .. 1.. 17 11 I40 115.22 14 1 '.12.14 51
Elementary school..---------------..... .....----- .... 1, '-. )1u.1 IS02 ( ..' .7.3.5 .5 71 .2S.i, 2'11
High school... _------------_ ------------------_ __ __ ... .. .... 7.S,, 55 I31,/ 17 71.537
District juniorcollcge ------------------------------- 43... 131.31 .51 .3s.1r.3 I 2.8211.22.2', i15
Totals---------.---------------- -----------7 ......... .15'.25.7 1 I524. 175.11 2 3 15 .15.3.3.'.i1,tIl,



DISTRIBUTION OF EXPENDITURES BY BUDGETARY CLASSIFICATION AND BY DIVISIONS OF THE
SCHOOL SYSTEM, 1931-32

C iirr,-rt e r'] -r tr,.'
School division
General Teachers' I trict ri't to l Op'-ri tionr, r.arportat on
control salary':; x rp.r-n itlire; '. -r' ir exp ren'Jitir-

Kindergarten----------- ----
Elementary school------- 2,019,571 67 $46,973,.S7'. 1..2 '.-*. i is ..3l ,..352.1 i'.S 572.77' 7
High school ----------- 1,889,002 07 41,687,511; .3- 1.7'4.11' '.5 T."82,.3 S.] I.' '2,.311, '2
Districtjuniorcollcge ... 108,810 29 2,141,532 '11 .iI.'"*3 l4 71,4.11.5 112' 4 in1
Totals ----------- $4,017,384 03 $90,802,1.i5 sl IS,' I .5.15,1, 1" I }' i3S.4-2 s'4 $2,51,1.1 i





School division Auxiliary T it.,I current C pit I outh, l otl
expenditure-s :- ,rtjhit.,r,. e .,x-nhture e pi.riit uri-.

Kindergarten .-------------- ----... .------------------------ ..
Elementary school------------ ---------..1, 373,577 l i.l' .3". 55 i.. '. 1 .5 71.51 2.41 ':3
Highschool------------------- ---------- 1,109,517 51 .,'i.31.21 In S.. 52.751 1I ,S.3: 7i,.5 5',
District junior college--------------------- 30,71'- li ..29'S, 1.31 I l.Ill.1'1l l 1.1'",1415 3s.
Totals-------- ----------------..... $2,513, 11 52 i127.220.'1.32 37 i1.. 111..1 37 143..33'i.1SI 71












Division of Research and Statistics


W .ir.':r: E. i\lol;.\x. A.ssistin/ l p :i clfr fciule nt of Public Inst.riction
and C(hiif. Divisitui of esear,'c-h andl Statistie.

Thlic 'lifunIcItiiis of lthe Divi.sion of weseari l nnd Sttitics involve
ilt' iapportionii en't o' thle state school funds; the drafting lnd distri-
bnition of ofticiail report forms to local school officials; the auditing of
tlese replnors \\lien submlliittel to ithe Sluperintendent of Piublic Instrue-
tion; the conlpiltion of statistical data from such official reports and
froin speeial ropirts sculirced froni tilme to time for the purpose of
prepl ring tie stntistionl se:tioln of tile biennial report of the state
supenriltenleniit. ainnul reports of c:ity school statistics, junior colleges
an sd Secondary cools. and for special comnpl)artiv'e studies of selected
gronips of individual school districts: the provision of speciall types of
Wlaitistieal ;itan and supervisory s.rvyice for the assistance of loan sehnool
aidl iniistrators ill the .-ollll iml of 0lo;Il problems of iad iniistr;ation and
s,.ihool Iitiniee: and such Iitler fuiictions as from time to time are
dIelegatiled to 11e division by the Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Ill the plerforiiianliee of these functions (drinllg tie past bienniium
every effort ;I s b.eeii ]n ade to render dir(1ct and ] pranetitaal service to
local alniinist irantors in their endeavors to conduct genuinely economnical
pror;ams of adinjii.ltration ;,nd at the same time to maintain as high
a standard of efliMielcy of educational service as possible.
In puirsu ne of this policy the division has during, the past
bieiiliiiin endlldeal ved to relate its activities to tle specific needs of
individual school districts. It has been recognized that in order to be
of immediate and direct service tlhe statistical information sluppllied by
lie division must be furnished as soon ns possible after the information
has been collected from the lil nand tliat tle data themselves should
le of suelhTvcllirater as to relate directly to the imminediate loenl prob-
leiis. This, the division has continued the policy established during
tlie preceding hieilliiii rl' Ipubllilshin in printed form n complete
.slllllli;ry 01' all statistici nal data vn ilable rel;liin to the public schools
in all o tlie city school districts of the state. This information was
pIrovided in thlie Dcpnr)timent of Edfucalion Bulletin No. 5 on March 1.
1932: Slatistics of California Cityi School Districts For lthi School
Yciar Ending Jun c .10. 1929. and .June .0, 19.90. Similarly, the divi-
sioln initiated lihe publiention in printed form of the Statistics of
Califoriia Junior Coll'Oes. providinii complete tabulations of all avail-
able dant relative to each o' tie Ca.lif'ornia jui iior colleges in Bulletin






DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BIENNIAL REPORT


No. 4, August, 1931, and in Department of Edurcation BMlletin No. 1,
January 1, 1932. In these bulletins information was ivejn for the
school years 1929-30 and 1930-31.
In order to serve more directly the needs of individual school
districts other than the city school districts the division has prepared
and distributed during the past biennium a series of 19 separate cost
studies of elementary, high school, and j.1iiiior college districts in which
comparative data were provided for groups o",f comparable districts of
various sizes. Among these studies were eight which provided infor-
mation relative to 176 elementary school districts ranging in size from
300 average daily attendance to approximately 9,000 average daily
attendance; 10 studies including data relative to 184 high school dis-
tricts ranging in size from less than 50 averac-e daily attendance to
approximately 7,000 average daily attendance; and one study embrac-
ing all of the district junior colleges of the state. These studies were
completed under the direction of C. F. M,[iney, Assistant Chief of the
division. The data provided in these studies have proven of consider-
able value, judging by the comments which have been made Ib local
school administrators relative to their effects in use in connection with
local administrative and financial problems.
The chief of the division has served during the past biennium as
Assistant Superintendent of Public Instruction and in this capacity
has performed many functions assigned directly by the Superintendent
of Public Instruction, both with relationship tio the administrative
activities of the State Department of Education and local school
administrators. In this capacity the chief of the division has func-
tioned for the purpose of assisting in the conservation of the principal
values of public educational service during a time when urgent need
for economizing in the expenditure of school funds has been forced
upon school administrators by the general economic depression.












Division of Textbooks and Publications

IVAN R. WATIrrMAN, Chief

Tile Division of Textboo ks and Publie tions iwas rented il 1929
u1Ilner Ithe new plan of depa rtmeOnt organization adopted. Originally
there were in this division two hIbrenus. 1lle Bureau of State Printed
Texthooks and. t'he iiroan 0f IIigh School Textbook Listiing. For three
year-s tilis division operated without a d1ivisioin v chief, eacli bureau being
(diretlI responsible to the DiErector of El1luncation for the ex.erIise of its
fiinel c io s.
In M.Nay. 1931. the division wmis reorganized anml a division chief
IIppoin ted. .Mll f niitions of tle depairtiime t relating to publientiouns
w-re eontr;liz/ed inl this divisitii. The Biurea of High School Textbook
Listing_ \wa's dinoitinidl and tie l work of tllt' bureau signedd as one of
llhe funi tiolns of tlle division.
Tie nn.inor flnictioni of this ilivision may bei 1 siiiinnriz-ed ilinder t\\o
elh;l.i fie'ntionIs as follows :
1. Pnllientlions
;i. Assist iin: st;if Iiiembl)ers in tih prl'epa ration of materials for
publicat ion
b. Edition all Stnt Departinment of E(lduna;tion publications
e. Prepaation of California 'Shools, oftii l orgain of the State
Dtepairtliiint of Edneation
d. -Advisory editorial responsiiilities in connection with puillien-
tios of tlhe State Cuirrieulun (Ci'ollission
e. Distribution of dep;irtinental publications
2. Textbooks
n. Distributiion nf state series elementi ry textbooks to all school
districts of tlhe .state (llhrmiulh dlie Brnman of State Printed
Textl)ooks)
1). (C'ooper;tion with tlie Stiat' Ciirriechlinl Commni ission in ?evalui-
at in- eclrinenta. ry tc-xth)o ks )prelininiar t o in;aking-' reu(IO lll(CIi-
dtition for adoption to [tIe State Board o|f Editentioun
e. Listing of lii.hl ~ eIionl textlbooks

ACCOMPLISHMENTS DURING BIENNIUM
California Schools
In .J;iniinry, 19310. the IDep;irtiiment of EdI.uiction inauigur.-ted a
miontlhtly bullletin kno'iwn as California Iclool.. 'Thiiis publication was
designed to be of service primarily to school ;adminiist rators throughout
tlhe stant. It contains .stntemients conin'I(er inl in)lportu'l t eoduinc tional
prol)l(iis. tfTiciiIl Comiiininicetions fIroinm tli State D'lepartinmetlt of Eduen-
tion, suinmm ries orf (n r( d cisinis nd o|pininls of tle .\I ttornc y (ieneriil
3>







DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BIENNIAL REPORT


on matters of school law, announcenlcnts of educational iInterest throIuh-
out the state, reviews of outstanding ednlcatiIonal publicantioins, and other
articles dealing with public education in California. This publication
has been continued as the official Cor;an of the State Department of
Education.

Department of Education Bulletin
Previous to January, 1932, bulletins -of tlie I)epartment of Educha-
tion were issued by the several divisions. Beg'innin with January.
1932, all division publications were discon(tiniued and a lnew series known
as the Department of Education Dircllcin was provided to replace the
division bulletins. This bulletin is issued t\\ice each lImontl. In this
series are now published all bulletins of the State Department of Edu-
cation. The Department of Educilioni Bullt in has 1 eeI n entered at the
post office in Sacramento as second-elass matter. The low postal rates
required for such material has enabled thle Departlent of Education to:
make a saving of approximately $2.i0 httwoeen January 1 1, :932, and
June 30, 1932, on the item of postage.

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS ISSUED DURING BIENNIUM
California Schools
Volume I, Numbers 7-12, July to DI).*o:iin,lr. I'I::I.
Volume II, Numbers 1-12, January t- D1-.:ell"r. 19I31, iniluli. thi. follovIwingl
supplements:
January, 1931, Directory of Cal;foila'i Sll iiriniiC'leiC' ts of ScI hools, .Jliin iary,
1931
June, 1931, California Educational Lcqislat;on, 19,i31
October, 1931, Directory of Califoraiii Supi eic triedt,. of Scholols. Octole r.
1931
October, 1931, Legal Calendar for Public School Otficials. For tlh Bieiiiiu
July 1, 1931, to June 30, 113.3
Volume III, Numbers 1-6, January to TJuiii. 1!':82

Department of Education Bulletin
No. 1, January 1, 1932, Statistics of] (Cilifornii, .lla ;ior Coll'es. fo"r it e hol Yt ar
Ending June 30, 1931
No. 2, January 15, 1932, Thl'e RKcguiltion ,j Papil Trnci.~,porlrrtiion
No. 3, Part I, February 1, 1932, Direclo'ry of C,(lilorian Sicoinl,'. School
No. 3, Part II, February 1, 1932, .1 Drill Pl,,l: in EnPi i.i, h ',i'rau:nt for J .li.s.w..
for Foreigners
No. 4, Part I, February 15, 1932, Sno,';i of ua;.or S.','hool Colde Pro vi.ion h:elal-
ing to Public School Fin ince
No. 4, Part II, February 15, 1932, S~uygv stions for Public Schools Wl:, ..1pril :?3
to 30, 1932
No. 4, Part III, February 15, 1932, Li eil P'ori.,,iitos awd S tlat loat of Educ, tion
Regulations Governing Retircicar'l o'f 'Te'cher.I ,
No. 5, March 1, 1932, Statistics of (',l;jo,, ri, Cir So:i ool Dui.rics. For tie School
Years Ending Jiuc 30, 1929, and, Jiliv, .;,. 1i.".
No. 6, March 15, 1932, Continiatlion EdIlu:alion ii, ('1ilifornia, 1i.30-31
No. 7, April 1, 1932, The Washingtlon Il ;Nniivmul: .1n Oipport'lity ii Cihra'cler
Education
No. S, April 15, 1932, A Guide for Ti'acirxrrs of IJ!i;,,,!iiifi oonl-EI,!7lish Sproakiiia
Cbilldrii







DIVISION Or TFXT'I'OOK .\N'D Po 'Ill.".'.lTION8.S


No. 9, May 1, 1932, Litllc, Jouirni'-, ill Clifirniai. Le.sons in EIn',llih for Interme-
dli te Cl/ar.< of .Adullt
No. 10, .M1ay 15, 1932. Lit of Ifllih schooll Tc.rlbooks, Suippli,.micnt to list of July,
IPSI, in Bulli tin No. .11- of the Cailforiiia State Department of Education
No. 11. J.in 1, 1U932, .Adequacy of Slvries Paid to Oakland School T'cachers
No. 12, June 1., 1!D32, .'ro-rdiings of the A.1innl Conitrcalion of Secondary School
P'rinc:ipa'l of California


Bulletins Issued During Period from July 1, 1930, to December 31, 1931
A\-1, Spple'mentiry Si't of Les.son. for fl.i yinn!/ Clasiss (1931.1
.\ -2. Siupi'lcuicntir SOI of IU Forciin Cl.'ars (1MY:l)
.\-3, Short Stori.es for IliyLh i'Lyinning anid [.,ow, lnter imeiate Classes of Foreign
St Iudenits (1 ;1)
.\-4. Good .11nlleri in A irric- Les.soni for Illih LBrinini and Low Interme-
ilicte Class of Forci'gn Studnil:ts (1931)
.\-.5, suiggcsl'ld l'roiildrc. for Cla',' in Childl Studyi aid l Prcnt Education (1931)
.-,-E. L.rs..,o in -rial Eng.lish for /lr, in,'r.r in liara l S l'chools (1930)
5-4, Lessons in English for iinteri(dliatce Cluas'e, of .idultls (1930)
5-11. .1 Drill Book in En;,lih Structiire for l'orcitiirs in lEvriing School (1930)
5.1., l.rtcr ll'riti'ni .ind 11'rittcn Coin ipo.s ion for Hli!gh Intcriieliate and Advanced
F'ori'iji l',oinii (1980)
5-.11 .1 p pillh e i tnc 'r! ] l, i .', hr for ll',i nci,'. Cl'.h.si'<. 1:11tin, niil lnnudgets find 1(
Holiday .S'cri (1 l 1 ; )
51-P. Si;.';(.sti'ul.s for .lnu Er.tii.inl S(hiool A'ewspap i for Forrigyn Studencts and
'Tcchi'rr of F'orriyn Stud;ents (1930)
1:-l, .SA/;;g /tir(; Coure of Study li In hdustrial Art for iRunil Schools (1930)
V-3, Reference and Proc.,lurc for Supert'i.sion of Child 4Wclfire aid dSchool Attend-
ance (1931)
C-2, federal and State Aic.irl ,I itrction ii llome .cMa king for (Girls and TVomen
(l printin, rvi-,'i 19;;-)
C-9, jGuide for Counseling in thei Scoidlary Schools (19831)
C-10, Stlccled Biblioigraphyji for Hloiin Mil/.iik Inistruction of Secondary Grade
(19.;1)
IE-], .-1 Curriculum for the l'rofe,%,ioniil P'rceparation of Physical Edhcaii ion Teachers
for Secondary S.chools. (1!1:0)
E-2, .-1 Score Card for Jrilahtin I'hiysi, al Ediliictlion P'i'ogrami.s for High School
loiys (1931)
1-:-3, A Score Card for L 1ri I ila I ing Pl'hyi .iil L'dirt ion lPrgri'ims for High School
Girls (1931 )
F"- 1, iule%. and, li./u, lit i,ois of the State lfotrd of lilnhtion (1l -vis' Il August, 193'0)
G-1I, The ',tlifo rni.a Public .''c/hoo, Systmin (1931)
(;-4, Hiamdboot: on Cniitinuition l'Eduilctiii, ( 19.iii
S'-5. T ih .1 ipplicaiitin of th"e Coniifei'ren e .rtlithod to C,'rriuljiii .Ma/l.'ingl (19.2,1)
II-1. CGaliforania li'.i, T 'each r. s .'iillhg'.' (1Il'\ i.-,,I 19311)
I1-2, R,'gulatiio.ns Go(rrriin the 6raniling of .Stile Ti't'cheri' Cril .tiils find Cmi1nltI
C'criifieati'.s in Calif ornin i (1 ei\'vi-,id 181:'
SNuppll l'm 'nt to 11-2. ]iiculbtiionx Cre'lential.m (1 19."01
.1-1, Ilirctryt of t'aliforiii S'o,'c,11 irty .S'chl,sl." (1131)
.1-3. Ca( liforn i lfiinior (C,'ol/ I /y .ll ti II l-i'.d itiu tioiinl S iirri'i ( 1'31 I
.1-4, S'i st't ics of California 'i iinior Collg'q, (1 ;'.1 )
K-1, St ndia .rds for Stlittryl F"ix lltre., in 'Public Sclhools (1930)
K-2, Standards for 'Public School Sites (19!20)
K -3, The Type. lresign. Initll-ition, andl Cre of lihrl./'board1. (1930)
.1-.-, List of Higinih School T'J.rthiol/:.- (V, 391)
.M-3I. List of lli!ih School Te7'jlloul:.s (Itvis ed 1931)







DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BIENNIAL REPORT


Other Publications
Biennial Report of the State Department of Ednectlll i. For the $Schiool Years
Ending June 30, 1929, and June 30, 1930. Part I and Part II.
School Code of California (1931)
Teachers' Guide to Child Detelopment (193i1
Suggestions for Public Schools Week April 20 /t, 25,, 1931
Survey of the Palo Alto Public Schools (1931
Survey of School Conditions in San1ta Ynez l'niuii Hilgh SchoOl Ditrict (1!31)
First Apportionment of State School Funds for the Fircal Yfar Ending June U0.
1931 (September 10, 1930)
Final Apportionment of State School Funds for Iht Fiscal Year Ending June 0.
1931 (February 20, 1931)
First Apportionment of State School Funds, jf,' thl FI.r'al Y',ar, Endig JInmC .30,
1932 (September 10, 1931)
Final Apportionment of State School Funds f,,r the Fiwcal Year Ending June 30.
1932 (February 20, 1932)
Secondary School Principals Leaflet No. 1. Soil:e Plh;il,3 ,phl al Cln~.sideralii DBavic
to Curriculum Making (1932)
Secondary School Principuls Leaflet No. 2. F'.,,-nltinig a Plan fhr Mfakiig High
School Curricula (1932)
Secondary School Principals Leaflet No. 3. Sl.tac Rislmo,,Fib'ilitic I in rFin,,il(ii
Secondary Education (1932)
List of Teachers Confidential Personal Reports fili d it 19!9-19J30 ( 19!3(0
List of Teachers Confidential Personal Report fil (d i, 1; ..3-19..31 (1931)


DISTRIBUTION OF STATE TEXTBOOKS
The Bureau of State Printed Textlbooks lii.s iinnediate rI''ponllsibil-
ity for the printing and distribution of all stti,' series textbl)ookls. On
pages 40 and 41 are listed the books in u e as 'tate textbo,:oks during the
biennium, the adoption period of each, and the number of copies of each
book distributed.


EVALUATION OF ARITHMETIC TEXTBOOKS
The Division of Textbooks and Publications cooperated with the
State Curriculum Commission in evaliintiii' tie a;ritimetic textbooks
recently submitted for adoption to tlie State Board of Ediiation.
The chief work of the division in this co inec.tion consliste'd of mlconduc(tiung
objective analyses of the books submitted. Tl'.se analyses were pre-
sented to the commission for review and decisionn by tliat body. A com-
plete account of the methods and procedures involved in the evaluation
of arithmetic textbooks will be published in Il)(r parl t ,r l of Edm :rlion
Bulletin No. 19, October 1, 1932, Ev(luilti, of ri/tllith Tcxlbook.x.


REPORT ON BOOKS PURCHASED BY SCHOOL DISTRICTS
The 1931 Legislature enacted provisi(JonI. reiquirilg re)Orts from
school districts and county superintendents of schools as follows:
2.1223. Every superintendent of s.-chL.ol. in this state muist, on or
before the twentieth day of July in each yeanr. i:1ke a relorirt under oath t'.
the superintendent of public instruction. s.-howinIg tlie number of b.I:oks pur-
chliaed by any city or district in his county with monkeys from the library
fund, the number of copies of each title allnd the price paid f,.tr all: copies of






DIVISION OF TEXTBOOKS AND PUBLICATIONS


encl title. If hIe fail tIi, ju:k,;:1 a t'u1l :1 n enrr.ect report as riu'i ire.d I 1nd1er
the provi.-ion.s 'lf this s.ecutik' l f r'i'ils .'iin' hulindril dllnars of his salary ;
:IIn l t11c uI11t y :Iii(lilmitr w h)lio e (lity it is t" Iri':\\" t !he \\i':tr in:lt foir the
sal:ry (lf tin: sbI.lli intidetli.' it .I.1 sclmi s s.l all -leh2le1:t this :111o1iOiit from the
W:Irr;IIIt ui pon r'ceiviing ii'nttice f'rom t(e siiu'.riititien]iie t I.f publilic iii.strie-
tion to ti'e effectt I hat the .-iiin'ritiiteniiont f" schools ihas failed to make the
ri'l'p'it bol. veI' refe'rred'l (o.
.52"',. T Ihe I.lnrd f I r rii -.,.' ianl eity. :iiln city iand c( unty boards
of '-lidce tionii s.- 111il ii:k r p rl it ,- .I.r l(efrl' 1(i li'rst dny 4f .ltri e .' of e.'chl
':iar to ti.he eou.iity sl 'p rit'itlii lt1iii .ii''.vii i ii l il.1111111l. r of titles o.f bioolis
iiurii 'li:isil < ring the nl-t .Ilir'ee.'lingi .p'':Ir f- ir sch l. liliraries or with
in.,iioI ys fi'iI fhol librl ry fun l ; tlhe nuiminl r .f c(l i. ie of (':each title ; the
price paid for all c,,jpi's nf each tid!, n li'! any ''thler library statistics
which may be reltuir.'l by the ili:nks furii-ihed for the purpose by the
sii'ii-rinteitl int of public instruction.

Tihe Attorney Genieral iniilrpretcd these provisions to require that
reports be sulbmitted from hil ig lsclhool and junior college districts as
well as from elementary districts.
Accordingly, the State Departm ent ofl Edueation required reports
fror all school districts and all county superintendents. A stiunmary
showing, by counties, the cost of books Ipirelihased I)y clunmenta'Iy, high
school, aind junior college districts, and the amounts transferred by
school districts to county libraries, herewith is presented on pages
42 and 43.


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40 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BIENNIAL REPORT

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DIVI\'ION 01 TEXTBOOKS AND PUBLICATIONS 41




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Division of Teacher Training and

Certification

EVIELYN CLEMENT, Chief

The Division of Teacher Training and Certification is organized
to render service to the teachers, administrators, and supervisors of the
public schools through teacher training and certification activities.
Improvement in all phases of educational work is made possible by the
education of the prospective teacher, by the issuance of credentials, by
investigation of teacher placement, and by the study of those factors
that influence teaching success and failure. The specific activities of
the division include a general supervision of training activities in the
colleges and universities approved by the state board of education for
teacher training, the establishment of professional standards for
teachers, and the issuance of teaching credentials and life diplomas
granted by the Commission of Credentials.

TEACHER TRAINING CURRICULA
Any program of teacher training must develop naturally from the
current trends of public education and be determined by the demands
that are made upon the schools. This division is making a continuous
study of public education todetermine the needs for teachers in various
grade levels and subject fields. The curricula of the teacher training
institutions are being studied constantly with a view to developing in
the prospective teacher those characteristics which may be acquired
through a scientifically organized training program. Thle cours-s are
being designed more and more to give a broad cultural background a;nd
to afford an understanding and appreciation of the educative process.
There needs to be an increasing understanding of modern civilization
with its roots in the past and its development through the ages; a
comprehension of the demands made upon the school of the twentieth
century and the increasing responsibility which it must assume. Over
and above this the professional training must, through organized
courses and first-hand experience with children and young people, giv:
an understanding of the nature and needs of youth and the potentiali-
ties of the teacher-pupil relationship. Teacher training institutions
should provide their students with ample opportunity for contitit with
spontaneous activities of children in natural situations, much oh-,elrva-
tion in classroom and playground, and, most important of all, dirctedl
teaching with increasing responsibility until the student teacher
assumes complete control of a class. After graduation there shiiiild be
a probationary teaching period during which the young ta.llcher is
closely connected with and supervised by tlhe institution from \vIli,:-l hI'
was graduated. Before any long term credential is granted. ti, insti-
tution should be assured that the young teacher is succeedin.h in hisi






DIVISIO.N i I' i :.t1t'1:i 'lI,\I.iNING .\NI o 'l:I;Tl tl-'Ii.\'TION


work. ThIese problems. the Cali'fornia iI-tIittions are studying and as
rapidly .l as possible putting I lhe results ot' their studies into operation.

SELECTION OF TEACHERS
A t ;i tiie whl e ,relll io l r11111 rs o ( well l|lillii ed :111(1 fully trI illned
I:i li rs nr ae Lilr'lul In (intl ,(lia'hiing pmoitir l.s, ftle ( it tist ion a'00es 0a0h
.lererl trainiingl institution as to how the poell'tial Supply of teaclhers
;llim y lie r,.giltlatlt i llrn. o I' ille (4-Ill ild. 'T he ri. lit of ally nlil i'ill I Il
In e'te'r ;a .-late--..41)pplrtod,. ;iI(l oertailly ;Iv privately eIIdol \ed, i .stitl[-
iIal t; ;i ll it cii l lt ililed by l t.'islaitirilI. W'lieI it t '(lliies to cgivini; a
Ire oilll ~e lllid oil for i leln:lic I 'r de'( ioill l tlie proldleml is d ill'erent. T' le
ivi, llers ,,lle-',s ;ind thle s. l ,is '-dl' eI in;A-tion l of thle other approved
i.lier 1I itr iing- inl.til ltiolis li;ivte agi'reed 11111 nre w' Wo kinlg i' po tl1i,
;issiinlition that the .siupp)ly may le,.t he regulated bly thle selection (I|'
tfIose t nlln idntes t'nr t ira iln Wlio sliOw oi tfiltandil y pr illise of suell.lli S.
Til'is sele tioi' o11l ]rosper.tive tea:icers s.l i l)he'vii in the second( llry
school. Alreny 1 lle r,'spiisiluilitv lhas been plnaed blfore Iigh s:iliool
principal afnld u(,nislelors to direct into thle tneh liing lield those students
who ,slinw tlhe following definite pier,'inal traits and albiliti's: an entliln-
..ia m ll o o I'i rol 'relsstS, ; liel in ,ll let'i1 OIi:rvi:y as 1 e 1 1 i nc1,'ri 1sii1
lin ll li plii ,e.'ls.,l all 1 ,literest il 1 1iC(ildren. I'iitl in tilte. ed .llua1tive plroCess,
a11( vitality bh vyoind tli.' i t .ts o tlie ; nt li l woirk in telelici'c.
Hlavin'g ll te l _.coiisNiio sll st'lected tfo0 t(eacliingx'. ii- ditl da.tes receive i
.,111tin al .'_l idancl e after tlhe ent, .r tle ill-titillion. Pl'roviion is lma1dl
for eliiiiiation on thle Iiasis of f irtlier fl'ut finldii-i. Usually at tlhe
Ie.giinning of' upper division work. again before entering student teaonl-
ing andi finally before' re',eivigli a re'commtlaiitiion for a state eredlentinal,
eacli stMil.ent rt'eceivesO and mIl.ust pass a physical examinillatioun, lmulIt show
atI itudes aid pr res tlint lrC'al.nc ,li i tat'" tfIt ehinee t' r tfailulre in
actllal tnealhing experience.
Tl1ere is a teideInIy to adv anlce I e-oUstantly the level of sIcholar.ship
as an means to securing the hoest quality of teachers. lThlis mere raisin-l
of standanirs does not necessarily mean that the best selection of teachers
will I)e made. Any arbitrary standard ofl scholarship establishes an
immelliate te end1eH-y to wei0lit the trading system in order that a maxi-
11111111 1111111number m be g'adulted. Sclilarshlip, illn and for itself, las
lint hbeen fillund anil llnfilin- eriteriol for dietermining flitlire teahlin-ig
su.c.'ss. 'd'lmere is ,need of extensive stuly of this problem of teacher
selection ii orIder that .sell falctors of s1ucess nmay lie determined as
health, personality traits, and special aptitildes for lulildling subjects
and dealing with children.

THE PURPOSE OF TEACHER CERTIFICATION
To insure unifoaiirmitv inl standards, the state board of education has
establlished minimum icertifiealion requirements under which teachers
art' a1itihorizted to ilarly on Iltir work ill thle publi) sehlools. Each
emplnoing official is able I asert;iin, lby an inspection of tlhe credvlential
Ileld. lit, w HIrk ill whiill :a (t.arl,'r lhas received trinininLz andt which lie is
qualified to carry on ill sc ihol]. Tn tlie last analysis. tlhe success of anmi
school system (l'openilds upon Ilie ability, cliarniler. skill, and training







DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BIENNIAL REPORT


of the teaching personnel. Regardless of investment in land. building.
and equipment, regardless of the .flii'ny of the administrative
organization, a school system can function successfully only as the
teachers in the individual classrmons are speeiictially trained and carry
on their work adequately.
One of the most frequent criticki ln of the public school system
coming from colleges and univ .rsiti..s is that entering studentss are not
well prepared in handling th.-- tools of lealrniin' effecetivel.v. The answer
from the public schools is tlhat. for tile most part, these. students have
been taught by people whom the *ollei,.s ;ind universities have prepared
for teaching. There is no particular use, in trying toi shift the blame.
A study of the problem reveals the: fact that in all too nmanvy cases
teachers are not teaching the :irodlce nor the siu.bjC'ts in whihll they have
received training. California has a systi.m of blanket e-rtifi'ation by
which the holder of a general sec'-indary cr deniall is aunthourized to
teach any or all subjects from tile first Grade through the junior college.
There are teachers in rural one.-'c-omi sclholls who have had no experience,
no courses attempting preparation 1or elnii.ntary school work. In high
school, hundreds of teachers arnc attmlptin'-' to 'ive instru,'tion inl four
or five subjects, with perhaps no prepare ti'on in any :of them. No college
or university training is so inclusive that a graduate is able to t1.aeh five
or six subjects effectively.
Before a teacher is permitted to draw a salary from the school
funds he should have definite academic and professional training for
those grade levels and subject fields which he is to teach, an under-
standing of the growth and development of children, a comprehension
of the educative process as a whole, and a philosophy of education.
With a state system of blanket certification, whereby holders of
the general secondary credential are permitted to teach any or all
subjects in all grades, the teacher training institutions have been unable
to organize their curricula for training for specific work in the public
schools. The studies of the State Department of Education and the
deliberations of the teacher training conferences aive been th the end
that certification regulations be modified to correct this fault. Employ-
ing officials should be able to read on the face of a credl.nitial the grade
levels which a person is able to handle effectively, and in tile secondary
schools the subject matter fields in which he has received training and
which he is able to teach. The institutions are lookin-g forward to this
plan and are eager to organize the curricula to mi:t this standard.
Aside from the limitation of credentials to definite nralde levels and
specific fields of instruction, there are certain other changes needed in
the state plan of teacher certification. California stands foremost in
its standards for teacher preparation as far as training for a state
credential is concerned. The bachelor's degree is thle minimum r- quire-
ment for all types of instructional credentials, and for teaching' in
secondary schools a year of postgraduate work is necessary. But
teachers in the elementary schools are not required tl hold state reeden-
tials for there is still in existence the method of granting elementary
school certificates on county examination to hilgh school graduates.
Such certificates are not only valid in the county in which tlie examina-
tion is given but may be used as a basis for certification anywhere in






DIVISION OF TEACIIER TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION


the state. This places California among the lowest in tlie minimum
requirements for teaching an1d as one of tlle very few remaining states
in \vliehl certificates are granted by this method. An investigation
carried on amongOlg tile county superinteiident' indicates that practically
all of these officials are inl flvor oI' a;bandoning llie county board
examinat ions.

EVALUATION OF TEACHER TRAINING
'Tlee State Board of Edulcation has placed upon approved teacher
training institutions the reslpnsibility for tihe selection of candidates,
tle training 1an1 recommending, for state credentials. For the past
several years tlie oversupply of teachers in the state indicates that the
emphasis in trainitig m" ut be placed on training better teachers rather
than on training a large number. The final evaluation of this training
may be scullred froni those school officials. superintendents, principals,
and supervisors v,-ho are able to iteasure the efticiencyv of the teacher in
his actual work. Since so many teachers secure their first experience
in rural schools, thlie State Departmet of Education looks largely to the
rural supervisors and county superintendents of schools for reports and
estimates upon tle training, program.

UNIFICATION OF TEACHER TRAINING ACTIVITIES
'llie great majority of teachers \\who enter tlhe public schools of
California iire trained by the seven st, te teachers colleges and by the
University of California. In addition to this there are two other
sources of trained teachers: those coming from teacher training institu-
tions outside tlie state, and those coming from privately endowed
colleges and universities in California.
There is no restriction on out-of-state teachers provided they are
recommended for state credentials by approved institutions accredited
by tlie Association of American Universities on the completion of work
equivalent to Ihat required of graduates of California teacher training
institutions.
The privately endowed colleges and universities in the state author-
ized to train teachers are required to maintain standards equivalent in
every r,-spect to those of the state institutions. Private institutions are
free to carejy on experimental work and thus contribute to the state
without cost. 'Tis is being Ii realized to some degree. Only those insti-
tutions are considered for alppnroval which avi;e been accredited by the
Association of Amleriean Universities.
In tlie past and even at present there are certain special schools
which train teachers in highly specialized work. These schools were
approved by the state board of education at a time when there was little
special training offered in thlie teachers colleges and a consequent short-
age of teachers prepared to offer instruction il special fields. With the
ooverslipply of teachers and more extensive training in li]e state institu-
tions tlie coniditioln is being adjusted gradually. )Duriing thie ienniu
two kinilergarten schools have elected an affiliation with recognized
colleges or nniversii iis. and a library 'chliool has l,-en discontinued.







DEl'AR'T.1MENT OF1 EIDULCATrION, IENNIAL REPORT


There yet remains the problem of the affiliation of the three remaining
special schools with institutions whiich have the organization and the
financial support to carry ..n a thoroughly ffe'ctive professional school
or department of elcneation.

TEACHER TRAINING CONFERENCES
Anniuallly thi.' Superintil ent of Piblic Instruction ails ;, teachller
training conferen' ce. ami inforinlil aidvisol'y ',''0rolp Y 1 t1o11 ut l'2'aiil pol\ve'.
which meets to consider problems of policy in connection with stautlard.i .
of aecreiltittioi, determination i :i t eacherl r trainilln ,'irieifil plroft.'s-
sional st anlari.1s for teachers, revision of cred.ential regiidiatlis, iand
such othlier QUiestions as mhiv arise in ciinne,:tion with problemI s conhe:r1i-
ing the relationship of the state department of eui.ictioln ad teacher
training institutions.
In November, 19.-.t, the conference was li.l.l at the San Jose
Teachers College. Th main snliject n,.der dliscuission was the publidia-
tion of a State Manual on Te.ahr Trainin. In 1981, the conference
was held at the University of Cialiforniai, at Los An,'.'les. At this time
the revision of state i relenti.fls Cwai consii.lred.. At eachl OlionifertPiiee
there is ill p ortlillity for those ni.I aTl 'li.' in teacher trainii.rll" to be' eil e
acquainted with each i tllh r's probIti is aini l tl.i discuss tliese' iinlividlially
or in groiiups aln in 'rilin ti abl i:-' meet in2'-s. A .m in1. t in pporttiiitvy ot'
visiting .de nonstr itioton ir'.k anli for olisv'ivinl'- stnii' nlit tea:lin''i is i veii.
As part of tile sipe.riit.tei.ili'nts' convention ealch fall ttl'ir acre
teacher training' sessions devoted to the, problems .,f teacher l slpp)ly and
demand., the ,ieieis of tihe school supelrintendents for talhiers. ;mll
teacher placement.

TEACHER SUPPLY AND DEMAND
Reports on te;cller -.ipply and ieAianld which i; h- ein,' made
throughout the country idlicat tl;hat there is at present a surplis of
certificate a- n Cl leg'atlly qialitie1 t Ia l.'' r.-s in tIht' United S'ttes and that
this surplus is gradually iicrca.sin.i. A r'.port recently iublishied by
tlhe Anmerican Association of Teachers .'olle:.e states: Every 1rofes-
sion is interested in thle welfare of its inembers. This is .li.iubly truo of
the teaching l profession became its interests a;.. the interests of
humanity are identical. Better ,ll alified. te acli:rs ma:ints. a blette:'r futi re
citizensiip.,. On thi'e otIer hand, if there is an over-supply. of (inalitidl
teachers there is danger that thi' profession itself will suffer."
In an earlier part if this report. methods are suggested which are
being used by the traiiiine' institutions to stabilize the supply antl
demand. For thle past four years th is division has carried. on ia ,co01-
tinuous study of teacher supply and demand, using ;i as a mllethodl of
approach a comparison of the number of new teaelle-rs el'.'rtifi-cated for
a given school year with the number ,f ni'w teachers .m*inplnyel in the
public school the foll'w.i\ing year. The ililf''rence is ia eiier.' l indication
of the iaii,.,i r siiplII.s. rTle dalia ol t'-;i tl' silipply a illn t ile ae: iirIlei
since earll II,'\\ I,, ll :1 i list se,:iii', a ,stale ,..r ,1,..eatial or a ,... lili.at, ol
county ,exaiminationf,. Tite? .Idata for tea h-lor" dean id ar,.. i1it so reliable
since several moircpo (r i ifrmatiri Illn-st Ix d.i-,endl:-.l npi l. I exports







DIIVISION OF T ,I:.\CllEl T'i.\NING AND CERTIFICATION 49

made to the teonclhr retirement salary fund board by each new teacher
(iterLelinle the a nctil lnl lu.lllr nlo t.eacheliCrs entering the schools. For
i)l;ic lleimlt i ll tie illi\i'iill;il school ill grade and especially in subject
lilds thie comnity (dirIctorie.s lni.st I ,.iir.siilll. Since tihe directories
,are iss.,lid early iln thi, rFill scimestIer, t, chliors employed after October
;ir. not iinliinlI-. 1'or this r';i.sol. there appea)C rs in the report a
io01sidil'r hl, Inllm iher olf I i n ,l-.rs ,lliila"iified as to position.

I 'l'l i iliai'l ii ld ina 1 |Iil 1, I' 1r till, i N;l f1 .~ I\. erlal )year' s :


MI- \\" ''I .\ 111:IS <'ll 'l'l l.-i .\'I, IN CAIcIFOINcIA

1-. -l-2 l 1 .n :t i-,1, inclusive

Gr i-v kel


K ii'lnl' tiin l[ n
plrillia l'ry i f ,id
Y'Crrr 111h I1 r ftr 11
19225-1!921 -- - 2 1.-,1
192l-1IOl .....___I----------
]:'l2i9-1 9::(; _, __,______- 1 )-s i
] 9 I -1 93 ] I1 ------------


l,,ior hi i ,
7! i:',

762


Gcnerual
and special
secondary IJunior college
3528 __
1450 35
1300 38
1747 46


NI:\ ''.lTAi.'lll.:l :S .I'ILOIIY IN OALIFOINI-A

1'>2 ;- 1 "'-'7 I I:.;I- .,: ilint]lusive


J ii
)'Ciir /d
11 0 ,-l1i27 ---------


1:131-1'i2 ..__._. -

I Tllis' include- i.
null.:a1. t, (.


I'III II I# II I

2SIS
1722
1131
700


2Iniol I; il,
201
217
19i
11


II !//I school
857
814
550
409


.Junio
collcyc

53
70
57


Unclassified


677
097
GTT
GOT 7


*;iclrs w\\i, li;\ iic t taught in California previous to the year


Total
7320
4054
3433
3415


Total
3935
2S06
2621
2010


IGrade le vl













Commission for Vocational Education

TVIERLING KERSEY, Director of Voe;ntional Education

J. C. BESWICK, Assistant Executive Officer of (lCon mission

At the October, 1931, meeting of the California State Board of
Education, a resolution was unanimously adopted to reorganize the
administrative set-up for vocational education in the State Depart-
ment of Education. The resolution is as follows:
WVhereas, the people of the State of California didi by act rpIsseIl
by the Legislature of the State of California and approvedd by thi- Governor
on May twenty-ninth, nineteen hundred seventieen, aep, lt the provision
and benefits of an act passed by the senate and lIouIe of representatives
of the United States of America in congress as.-enmibled and approvedi
February twenty-third, nineteen hundred seventeen, to provide for the
promotion of vocational education; to create a :vocartional education fund
and making an appropriation therefore; and
Whereas, the legislature of the State of California: in Section 2 of
said act of acceptance provided "that the State Board of Education is
hereby designated as the state board to carry out the purposes and the
provisions of said act, and is hereby given all rjece-sary power n ntd
authority to cooperate with the Federal Board for Vo'ational Eduiintion
in the administration of the provisions of the federal ;at andil of tlii
act"; now, therefore, be it
Resolved, That the State Board of Education hereby cre;ites and
establishes a Commission for Vocational Education who-e duty it shall
be to administer the policies of the State Board of Education relative
to vocational education and to recommend to the State ,Board of Edu:a-
tion through its executive officer the adoption of such policies. as may be
deemed necessary in the administration of the program of vocational
education. The Commission for Vocational Ediantion shall also be
responsible for the administration of the policies of the State Board of
Education established in accordance with the provii.ions of the federal
and state acts hereinbefore mentioned. Be it further
Resolved, That the members of the Commission for V-icational
Education shall be (1) the Superintendent of Public Instructi.,n, who
shall serve as Executive Officer for said Commission, and State Director
thereof; and (2) an assistant executive officer to be appointed byI tlhe
Superintendent of Public Instruction, and (3) thle t'ollwii: bureau
chiefs:
(a) Chief of the Bureau of Agricultural Education
(b) Chief of the Bureau of Business Education
(c) Chief of the Bureau of Home-Making Education
(d) Chief of the Bureau of Trade and Industrial Education
(e) Chief of the Bureau of Civilian Vocational eliihabilitation

Under the present organization, the assistant execiitive officer acts
as administrative officer for the Commission for Vo'eational Education.
He coordinates the work of the commission with the work of the






COMMISSION FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION


various divisions o)f tlie Stakte DeparIulent of Education. lie presides
over meetings of tile Cotnimiissioni for Vocational Education in the
absence of the E.xecutiv\e Oileer. llis position is on a level with those
Sthe iefs of lei cis of e various divis-ions o' the State Department of Edu-
cation.
The functions of the Comn Imission for Voeational Education have
been designated, briefly, a fll\ows: to develop a sound program of
vocational educalionm for the whole y\a;ir; tI administer time whole
program of vocational education for the State h-ard of Edueation; to
initiate policies anid refer tlemi to the state board for approval; to
integrate thie programs of the various ibureas; to approve or dis-
approve of proposed programs of work or surveys which would affect
a great body of schools and the policies of tlie various divisions of the
State Departmenit of Educletion: to settle 'quCestions of inlter-relation-
ships between bilreatis wltiich can not be settled through conferences of
tlie bureau chiefs concerned with the administrative officer; to deter-
mine. in cooperation with division chiefs, policies which will atlect both
vocational education programs and thi programs nf the various divi-
sions. etc.
Each bureau chief lhis been inalie responsible fr administering
his particular phase of vocational edinenilion according to the programil
which ha.s been initi alel 1 lli'iligh lt e atlit o of tlie Colimmn ission for Voca-
tional Edueation.



Bureau of Agricultural Education

JULIANx A. MPii:r. Chief
INTRODUCTION
The idea lias loig been prev;dl.'nt that wh\\li a man could 1do nothing
else, ihe could fIarm. A survey of 11he various fininig enterprises in
California will show that there is 11,e'1 for muicli improvement i n farll
practices. -No oilier calling ill life- requires sueli a wide range of
qualities a1nd talents or such a high degree of prolicionecy as is demnaded
of the man who makes a profit on tile farin year after year. No other
business rerliires closer calculation on icoslt roduction and utilization
of time and energy Ilhain does farming. i'le fariier lnnst be well
trained and well ilnformiled. Tiih welfare and prosperity of tlie nation
is dependent on farming, which is the basic industry. Vocational agri-
cultural education is onw of I lie inost important means in improving
farm, conditions. 'This programil is being carried out ill tile public
school system of Calil'ori'ia at tlie present time blinder the provisions of
the Simithli-Iluglies Act.






DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BIENNIAL REPORT


OBJECTIVES OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURAL INSTRUCTION
The objectives of vocational agricultural edllucation are to give-
systematic, technical, and practical instruction in a riiculture to those
who are farming or preparing to farm. Tih instruction deals with
local farm enterprises in crop and animal production and the meechani-
cal and managerial work connected with these enterprisess. It includes
study, observation, demonstration, and particilpationJ in ol)perati\ve and
managerial activities under actual working com-iliins. Ea,:h student
supplements this technical classroom instruction witlh ix imontlis oft
practical farm work carried on through the home poj.ect.

EXPANSION OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION
The expansion of the vocational agricultuiirl c.dIluncition proii'ran
has been consistent each year since its introduction in 1917. At the
present time there are 119 Smith-Hughes ;i._ricu(ltlur;l departments.
In 1928-29 there was an average enrolhnent of 43 st ludents. in leach
agricultural department; in 1929-30 the aver';l'c wa;\ 44 tl- dents; ill
1930-31 the average was 42, and in 1931-32 tihe avrl''e, \\was 47.
In 1930-31 there was a total of 14 special clises for the out-of-
school farm boy, with an enrolhnent of 226 students. In 1931-32 thiis
type of work increased to 32 classes, with 29, students rollede.
In 1931-32 there were 67 evening school lciss,'s with a n enlll ent
of 2045 adult farmers.

TEACHER TRAINING
The Bureau of Agricultural Education iias lheen e ca ryling on a
teacher training program, and in 1930-31 trained 25 ;Lricultural
teachers. In 1931-32 there were 18 agricultural tel'rs, trainied.
These teachers have been trained through the a;I)pp)rcnltic systtlii. They
have been located part-time at the California Polytchmnie Srciool, San
Luis Obispo, and part-time in the high school na2ricrltural departments
throughout the state.
This program of training through palici nation has proved
exceedingly successful.

FUTURE FARMERS OF AMERICA
The Bureau of Agricultural Education spol'nsor.s organ iizatio
called Future Farmers of America in high schools having vocational
agricultural departments. This organization carried out a very
expansive annual program of work. The object 'of this ,(organiza-
tion is to train Future Farmers to become real farm leaders, to








eC OlOpe tri o ;Ill t li..r-I liti -ii se.eS.- iIIti'l l, 3 li filn r ilng. Ttl Irolg i' par-
ticip)ation ill Vario.ls a;n livillics, .Ii(:lI ai l j l vgin, -' n111tes s, 1.'xllil)its at
fair.s. public speaking contests. project compl)'tition, fat stokel. shows,
et,'., these students I ve1', dr'vi'lopedl rialpily in their .alilit" to lead and
world; together'.

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION FOR RURAL ELEMENTARY AND
URBAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
In adillitioln t1 o I l e l r'Ol rnill o vocaltionill l ai'hitI ll lii il ,i_'di:afilil,
tl ll i Lure.atu of Ari-'nlli r;il Ednlention lihis p)roimoted.] inistruiction in
;Ir.,'itilt re in Il ir ;il.;, ( c]'iut 'il;ar' .ss lIool.s ;111n 1 l] n ; sllceeoioidll in sttilln
lup 1 iclietr-Lrnin ,ill pro.g.rnins 'r tc.;i ler's SO tlint liot,?" will iht moreD .
I.'ile.'i lt Illi ti '-' ot"f w\olork. It ilso t Ir illOttS ;) lriel iltl'ail eldi nation
iii I'l) n l seondri-.lav s i l.oo ls lo ,_"- vorilliol il ;,i .i n l)rP -iin ti\'o? lill?s.


Bureau of Business Education

Tl;,\ \V. K inll v. ( 'lli i '

PURPOSE OF THE BUREAU
'r I Ii.(lel i of( l iis!- I ',: .iliic;ll ion ;is.11111i.os li'~in llsv il ) f'l, tili'
(dLvelopl)til? t 1 ; pi rou' rani of puilli:- edllition ll th t as.i.sl, indi-
vi.1rials 1o:
1. Detlri.niiin the kind ofn work tie'y would like to do iil tiI, Inisini'sS
field.
2. Prep r;ii.' )o eIn r tli,'ir l :iose ofttiO ,? or bilsiiii.ss oc.'iIl>;itlion.
'. D v'\'lop in their \orl ( ir Il.iilst into a letter position.
4. Pr'rfol' rli i.lle.I'r lii.'l r o\ ii (jeri:.oll; Illiilies. ;itt';ilirs.
>. 1il lr'r.s l.li ,d l llr'i lll Isilli'ss ;ieli\vities a;lnd rlationsliips, t'Sl,'-
c:i;lll ;s lli s I .. ;. li \'il ivrs ;i' d relationisilips effectt isiiiess,
S.001 o ;111(1 ili (:l i( ,.illi i* .


ENROLLMENT IN BUSINESS SUBJECTS
Tl 1 eilrollIilei 111 ln u iiI,.-ss .aIl)bj't't tins steadly iiiere';ised .1111-111r
l Ic |>I.I I wo yV.'I'-ir 'Ti' v0o011i iic [11 -il ti ll m I; 1' torci'd im,. iii" to lri?l vi r,
tfor illm ,"diti e hl1( i 'illf ) iir'I .i 1ii[ 11in *r d l i ll tOI lluit i .hi ,:liooC l oir .jlii ior
, o l l ', ,, p A l t l i i ti l i l l l l i i "i Illlr i' r inl u _, l i l l i s ( (.. pl l;o i l 1 ,t i 1 li t.-A
lict i i;lal Ir I l Ii'.dili('e I iliil u t Jliis p)i ondr 1 it i.-, lliIii\'v-e l 111;it 1 'illloV-
le.'ilt ill ll i I l' .in o.ss li,, 1 will hioi b thie first to r,?>l)oi( l o l isiiis
r 0o\'Oel'*'.
liiIdrCl.-, oiE uilts hiave Il nrolledl ini class's inl order to obtain
n.ssi,,t nii;e ill a.dj.i tinll o pnr1.i'i.,seit davly ii.tliodls Ind pi;icl ie's, OL" t.u


'OM..111.4-10-N I'ONl \'r.,\TlON.\., 1:1)I'C'.\TION






DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BIENNIAL REPORT


develop skill in the use of office machines which are rapidly finding a
place in office work. Many have had to take over new duties alnd have
come to the school for assistance in making the adjustment.

COOPERATIVE STUDIES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION
The bureau recognizes that the problems in business duciiction can
only be solved through the cooperation of school administrators and
teachers. Committees for the study of some of the problems have been
set up. The following have rendered valuable service during the past
two years:
Typewriting Committee
Business Arithmetic Committee
Shorthand Committee
Salesmanship Committee
Elementary Business Training Committee

STATE TYPEWRITING TESTS
A state-wide typewriting test was given to over 40,000 typewriting
students in May, 1930, and in May, 1931. The purpose of these tests
was to:
1. Determine the accomplishments of high school students in typing
straight continuity matter composed of words of high
frequency.
2. Determine the relative accomplishments according to time
devoted in acquiring a typewriting skill for copying con-
tinuity matter.
3. Give teachers accurate statistics in typewriting accomipl islhmen t
for comparative purposes.
4. Assist in establishing norms of accomplishment tliat should be
required for promotion and in giving credit for gr-aduation.

The results of these tests indicate that the average accomnplislment
of students taking typewriting on the double period basis is only
from five to six words more per minute than the average accomplish-
ment of students taking typewriting on a single period basis. The
time given to instruction and practice is twice as much for the double
period classes. Results of the tests have been compiled and may be
obtained from the bureau.

COOPERATIVE STUDY IN TEACHING BUSINESS ARITHMETIC
Arrangements have been made to determine the feasibility of teach-
ing business arithmetic by using calculating machines. The Stockton
high school is cooperating in this experiment. Three groups will be







0( .I M lMISI.OIN l'1I: V\'i '.\TIi'N.X\ I:i'f .\'TI)N


given ill.striL till i l ll l siI.Si ,s ritillieljic. I e. groul) will iie c(alcu-
hitilng ialcillnes exclt.l 'ively. A second grollp will use caleiul;ling
machines for all problem work 'Ind will be given short drills dclily on
tile fundcnmentals. The third group will use the pad ;inc pencil for
computing purposes. The students will Ihe grouped accordingg to age,
comllputing ability. mlld sex so Ihat caelh gnnup is i)comparaible. A series
or' Iests. usilln the p.ld aiinl pInol il nIlltloi of comup tliling, will he gi\',en
to dleterlmine t lie rel;t i\-e eftliinli( of ilit (rlnet ion.


TEACHER TRAINING IN BUSINESS EDUCATION
D]iiring 1.:.' 1-'2 I le Universi1y x ('o liforniia developed'( n l )l 2' ;lIi
for Ill.e Irraininu ofl tofte lier.s of blii..ineles ill)jec Th'l s i s i.,tittilion now
oferl's tel';ililliiy major ill bookl ingy 1nilor iSln Ne t1'el~ril prneetiee.
The University of Southern ('alifi'rni; lhas greatly explInded its
programin of training in tie tield of business eduention anld now offers
one of t11e best teneher-training llill PO iralls i lliple countrnl y.
Tile following CL;Iliforni; instill Iiols lare now offering training for
individimals who desire to teaelih luisin ss subjects:
University of Califorunia
I Jniversilt of California nt Los Anigeles
I Jniiversit of Soit'll rn C(';ilil'ornia
.Sn .loJse .Stnte Teac;iers Colle.-''
Fresnio State Teachel.rs C(oilloge
San Diego State Teaelwrirs C(ollege
Aristroung's College of 11usiness Adininistration

Caiifornii illsstitii Iwns aire now neet in llie drilninld for Itrliiied
leachilers of blisiness subjects.



.Bureau of Home-Making Education

M3\imt, I. Mun:i cI:Il. Chief

OBJECTIVES OF THE BUREAU
Thle na.i.jo obljectivei s of lte blureal aire lilt followiinlg:
1. '110'l pro(m lII oll l (i d, r vel ieinii t Io' fir(peo l;Ille SItallnlrdt.s ill
ho ,lie-llikim .r" e(lie;ition ill all school d,-rg-;iiiz;alion1s a-,Sii ]ed to
tile ('Oilimissi-,Ni'tl for Vo ;I'iiol l; l l 'I( llic lioiI.
2. (_'oo;peralion wi\lli oil o r alniir;m.z a tid divi-ils., of thile lStale
Deparimeit of Edlm(A.tion in prlovidil0ig ed'uentional service.


.5--'IS23







DEPART ENT 01F EDUCATION, BIIENNIAL [:L'POi:T


3. The promotion and supervision of federal-an d-state,-aideld liome-
making instruction for girls in junior and seiiioir high schools,
and for women enrolled in special day ,-lasse.
4. The initiation, promotion, and supervision of fedl'ral-and-state-
aided programs in teacher training.
5. The exposition of suitable plans and piroc:edlres and tlhe dis-
tribution of such in bulletin form to sh-ool ;ithloritiesi and
teachers.

ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE BUREAU DURING THE BIENNIUM
The special day adult program in home making, r.uanizled uiiilr
the provisions of the California Plan for \',,,;:linii;l EIlii 'atioiI, Ihas
expanded in the scol)e of offerings and in the un111111 hlr L' \\ unl .-li enrolld.
Many have taken advantage of this educatiollal sr'-\ice:i: to r.11nable, tlheiii
to meet their home-making responsibilities niir' _.f'*t,,l iv.y during t Ie
period of reduced incomes.
The enrollment in these classes increased from 17.lsl; in 191i -:81
to 18,636 in 1931-32.
The number of classes increased t'rom 4:;1I in 19i:11-:71 to 472 ini
1931-32.
In 1930-31 for special day classes in hoile-iii-l; kirn'. .SllitlI-II .11'es
flnds were apporlionled to school districts in tn an;llint o'f 71 pr e.nt
of the claims. Ini 1931-32 the increase in Smithli-1 I fles i fluls inadei it
possible to meet the claims in full.
In 1930-31 the apportionment from Georg_.-lH'.ld 1'1,Lnds for slpeial
day home economics classes amounted to 42 pr ,',1nt of thIe la ims. In
1931-32 an increase in the fund made it po.-ible iIi- appj,)'tiotn i 5) per
cent of the claim amounts to school districts.
The niiiiiber of all-day vocational progr;ln-; inlrsed(l f'rlmll I1l ill
1930-31 to 82 in 1931-32.
In 1930-31 claims for reimbursement fIlr ;1l- I;day Siitlh-Hh-111'les
programs were reduced by 15 per cent. In 1I91-:2 an inerase in 111i
funds made it possible to meet the claims, in full.
In 1930-31 claims for George-Reed prog imia w-rire met inll full but
in 1931-32, although there was an increase in tlii f'li1nd, it wi;is ie':es-
sary to reduce the claims by approximately S p'r i.i.t ill making the
apportionmlents.
Many schllools organized directed activity vr._-;rais -f hoi e p raetic
and home projects in liome-imaking responsibilities and duties, repre-
senting normal home activities and interests il' tinh girls. This p,--
gram makes possible a type of home-making (i in; tin wliili functions
in the lives and homes of the girls.







I l i .1 1 1..ll SiN I i; l \' i. Hl .\11L I' l'.\ iIN .57

1l 1..,1-.2 i" il ti iilii l c\'isst .'s' 229.i- homlut l rj.i-,. 1W \ ',, rl,. 'tlt. ,
ill:lll(l.ill S lI IllI 'it'.s 1 I J lI ll ''-llill.,- i cll, jIS ilili,'lillg I'li I ',l:\' l,.tllq ll,'l 1.f
including Such p ses of lio -I ik ill" ;1-4 child d.\ lop 'n .
c'lo llilng. ifo d p l)l'tllrodn litil. prl ;iriti l 1 nd ''t '. 111111 ritiol, llarko't-




il liII lil lli .liiii iili ii






ottii IIiui (1 :n ti. lItt- I 'll i'til l H' Ii' lll liii: tie i i |iny i I' | tir ; l:1.1.. l i t1m-
t'hltr't l iii ll Ii (4liio -il i l 1 (11 1%' t' 'Ii 1sit' iini lly'' I i'g Ii "t'1.(1111 pi i tny Il rso tt;i|I
'I'lli.s ll 'all t' al)li, l ; I I .-a l1 .r\'i < ill O i -ity 1 (11 ) O a lan l

\,Ilerig It i tl l ;l 'l l i( i h 'r-. ll alitir ; sl ll i 11' 'l Iil lCl i' l 1)i< I olS' 11~ l
rxlp. rill ,i'l ;i l yll h' l',, ;i'l1,tl i |,: '1 .' L i'i',s :>|: l i.idl;t tI ,.l l | im 'l -tl' i(.



(' i11li t111t i l l In ll lit I il l r T Ili.ll it' .l.l fi l l II |.1 i' o 'r; ill ;ir t. I' .'
lh e l r il\';i t' s; ill il rl i ,-\\' I wl I i t l ll ill i tl l t '; ll'l".
D inirt lei 1; 1-:i.2 t'lisl;. illh ll i 'l.;l iii/.< i | <; I crit-, ,)f 2II Sall. nrl iy
Colli f lv illt |PIir 1i> iii.I or li. I 'ilie tr nllll-lllil'I.. F i \' i ll l 11i re'tl and



ti l t1 lt ii ill li 11 ii lle .. I rl i is i ilii, t.i ', I:.- ;lm Il I t' li' ll ll. i 1 i Il inc'i Oli(l
%oIn I t I, -i ,,' Io l',1" c s. F11 1i ,. ,. tI ., six t I I -I.-,+i , i l',din"- s.l lr:'
lea>lich r-tr l illl rs aIIn I 111llir ",:(lm lll e.s sil|)t *r\- ii.1, It : ; I114- led thIese iie11 t-
Ii .s' ,_-,l Ill rshlip of flit lI rt -iil lief of o1II 1 l' l'iol l Su|Cpe visor.
T hc p|l> jipos Of 1110o| \\';ilt'c.rii i'. \\ Iis it m 11111 ii l lii.. thiinkll nly of
l l .ll li l- rs rl l.ln l ,i l < t ,i tl l lctJ l 'i t' ;Il l h.l-t.llfil p hil is p" rll |' 4 ~I',I, li -llill illnl
il c ;Ilt ionl : il nd to p o, i ll i Il it, f ill-l t, tli ld c i. I ilil (Iy o l or ;1 11i.ii _,' ;i 1-
.s I t' t Id ll y iii l loii -i l < iil (I i ilr.1c^ i n l' II. l sfii io| jiiroL' JIIIIi so t liil
Slii." I .ll 1ijortI y of *-ir ls 11iL"li ct r Icivl I i I I illiI l l ill lllinil lll |IoIi I duringill
l]ih 'ir p),,ri ld ol" lii hl, l..-Iol .l ,llen(c ili l .''.
ljM.it l ly e- li.lt' d, .y Il the ,.i.o l,'.,'..-il- \\%;Is gi\'el 1o ol)j(. iei\ve., iln
loliol e-niiliing t, let -1 lioni iandl t o i.iC4tdis 1i, ,,,is rih /l, lil.l |lrol)h.li.4 anidl
1110-. i ll" (dly to v -1 1 1i ,li llit b 1ildiin<_,.
T '', dh \i-llopilln" t (1o t*c il.rl l 'i l ,"y i jl .<_,.l ll the I' 1i\\',r.-1it.1
," _' alil'on ii ;t I, \ ,_ A l_ I-,l.,. ;i ld i ;i llllf 1tid \\il w ith th( e sta1 r; tvai(lIers.
,.olle-,s ;t S;ill J-s,:, C 'll. ;ind 1F'r'.esno li;is I,,el l o" lit, p.l l)rp ose r O
.,lim lllitillly tle.-c ili it, itln lili i 111l Iro iJ i1 o f le,,ic _li ,, to I, -et thl.e
( d l.n.itionlil l1ood1 ( ;IIll do1iIilln s of till public 11cii or < of :elivel\'y lhy phl -
ily liltn h ie ii.,ltitlilli l.-; i ll d i 'v, i roCl tioiislii.), tIl rlm ll l l11i- bil_ ro i], wvitlh
the ]lm li' .,,',i ,il pl'ngrl*illIl. T hl'.,' inst itmtio, 4s hli v\e tlir1 blyv r' "lld -r:.d
inv'il b)l, service..- to ) li-n thi.: I 1'ea tll'iro li thl'.eir ,:',o[ -'r1 iin .
Till, ,,l ii lionm al Id lill.sph "- r'fl .ledI in thi:' liberal retqulirem ents
fir" g nm ililalion. rc oi .. lly ..s t I. 1 Il v lilte St. itl i o, ird or< l l" Idii.'ition.
s. li llI illik, i. o ..il hl i li I .i l.in gy, ,d i l; tili, \vill i *11 4 .1 ,li l il) jl. .I I I I1 \\ ki'l il ," 0 1ll o |"
\'i i4hil)l ti lll'lri illl Ito I '<'l .. ilid t'll IlIl 'i'd ., .sc i nllc'' ; lll ;11"1 in 1 t \'r* l 1 1 1 \'"
Y ie lid i r 1I .\1iiiiiii vm l I ribilln i i n t ilm t 1 l i eIi 1; 1.1o I !l"i'l 11 1e (* n-
.b111mpr.











Bureau of Trade and Industrial Education

J. C. B1 vwicK. Chief

The Bureaiii of Trade amil Indiustrial Education is responsible for
tlie promotion, adliin]strii ation, supervisionn, and inspection of all trade
aiid inilltustrial el liationll or'aglllize'l n11hI1 tile Cailifolnia Plan for
Vocational Education: and I',r ill their insftru.tim oft a; trade and
industrial cliaraeter.
The bureau is likewise concerned with all iiidlii.-l il arts educa-
tion in tile mtell'tary scliool. antd (ity andi rura;il s'p1:oidlary' schllools
of the stnte. It i- ri.sp))oInisillt1, t l tli Dirie'-tor of E.ln ieation 6lor the
industrial arts and, tralde an.II ilndlitrial programs in talte ilnstitu-
tions nnd:er hlis dir':'eition: ajitn is also re''1ion.sible to, tihe Director of
Education for tlie triinin of ind1,ustrilii arts teaieCer' as c'arri'ed nl in
the state teachers ctillee.s.
All trade a;1ind industrial ti:eacher: train in' a.s carried on in eoolper;-
tion with tle Division of Vocation al Ellin-atiol of tIhe University of
California., t Los An.-,tele- and i erkeleyv. is a ,lirecft r,'sponsibhility of
the Bureaii of Trado and Industrial Edilue'ationi, as well as all tteclier-
training don,' l.y lo)c. slpierviors- of tridi and industrial 'ilne;ltion.
The tradl anil iindi-l riial teIlehl r-tlrailini i og,'. Ir a'II n eCn ri':il on in tilt'
staltr is fiil,] i re.l nlt of tlhe: spi',eial tonael::'r-l r;ininll I 'und anil d f',e fjin ls.


DEMANDS FOR TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION
CHANGING
Fro',i a si tudl of ti lii-turv (if ftr t 1'de ai1 iili..stl'ial o'tp'n if tioiis of
tlih past we kjnotw that tlhe inlil-Istrie's of tomorrow in (California will not
he those I to' y. To kep toi o d.ite our knowledge of thle principles,
laws, aind liroee'es of ecoi ,illie organization, to klee, paie' with enlarg-
illg teil1111olA y, ;I1d1 to ke,'i Oill learllllil, nd.,jistedl1 t title clil;lln iny
status of i llsuhtr'\ so th;lt it \will be ;ilbreast of tlhe ,eo _111ilie! str'lletul'e
of tomorrow, is thle problelt- of trade and illduitrial education.
Not o lly 11lllSl W(' trail for ccllpationll asI they a re. bilt we llmust
shallpe ou11' ate ait lcal] fl'Oi't) ,ii to retrlaill thos,"e wl o'e jobs have
been ell inattl,. T'l'ls illt;i s Ira1 inu' noL onlly for ,('lie j i.'b, bu t Lfo two
f 11101ir', Nas tI ,' l'ei1 ;ilit.'. 'l lis i a iis a ii l.ii.stillt eliall 'e ill trade al(nd
inlld triaIl 1it1 till ;11 i a ttiie f t iit l t 'l li l'e i oIrll I ll or anll eZ d tlri ilnj'. Tlie'
iI0ore (o0111iI]..1\ a1 itkll lit-a lili 1i, .lii1.1,, I Io lilt or intelligo, t ;nd 1 ighly
.skilled must be tlIe Iso-ig ntrs. to:l Iia'ker', repairmeni antd otIt'hers who
lust keep tile imlchile 1.1p to its hligllest degree 1, eftt'iene in operation.


1>P'.\1;T.M1:N'1 01' 1:l)(lT'.\TION, IlilCNNI.AL RE;PORT







\\ ill i ll' 1 I 'lliI('] ii I' ll sioll- ,~ e o l l i i l, i anlld the keenier
-OliIip 11 iln i I' oIIlni' II d r 111. 111iii 1 1. 1 llt 4 1r I 'l. I l -Iivr I 111i i IIg of Iiglof
111(11 l) l'.s I' pII p'1 Ii.s ; l ,"lp 1,,. Si lcs" ;iinl in eitiOl hlvai ve b ')roi l ilht
ilib iilt these la lllip rs.-,a illi ill :1 i di c ll- lial\', 'l'.i; ll al ly nlew jobs,
detected r1 lw fonllid ehliang s ii iiii nlly o;.it"lli il i.s, alliI c'cale d tile demand
for" gri'a ly in '-i'iased it,'lii.i l kllwI'Ild, l. (ll I ie part of cral'llellnii,
aind Ill:e il ili.ly I ii api l\ l i.ial ii,\\'l, .'l inl,.lligenlltly on the job.
C'liilr |l| d a dili, w al'i ii .',ll triade aiii ( indll lll ilril ',ill-C;itoll i S e.s ell-
tia] tio 'ml iiinilin ci viiliz/:i ion. Tra'ldii al itii n ii.rial cdii-;il ion is an
I-'iiiii r d1vi t io naiiilj'' our rll ~ll1ft Stati ol C(alifornia 1o more
Ctei,'inlly :e',_ri'ir' .snrie- l \\-v iltli. whliichI, pirol ) rly c controlled, affords
so ilety tice ol r tl r unity ol iiiii taliin .-t:Iiljlit.y ;in ] ro'gress.


ACCOMPLISHMENTS
TI'r'ildI, ;ii il l .lstl'i; il 'dili; ilfio l 'fori lilt li linlliil ]) l'iod 1930-1932
lii.s t'l nl iln i'ii inl i im ichli mior1( .' \v.-il'dl \\;-I tlihai ever before the
.*,:Cial ;iall oc'Olliii' n l diili.,n1s o( tll' .o; s itle's i dlllstl rial strlu turcl and
llie irl(.igr;1n lii; I. c ''ll ii 'ri .' e clos cl.ly ;i.sOciiat-l willtl I lho' state's industrial
devlclopelilnt. AIaniy or.iriaizaftiois outside of the edicaltional groups arce
inaikiilli" d.'iui.n ilinl l illpoi tI ie I r ii..;i0. of 'l' idc ;iiid i industrial Education
for special cCdnemation services. as anI ecm :i:ioin'ii asset to the state. For
eOXaillii ''. ;i sllIny of tile, lee:I f'ir v \': tioll;il a ii(lu;llati() for fire service
w'as ii i l)- a f 's pro 'i fil -'' cliii'fs, in cio c ration with the office
(11 lli State Fire MJiarsli ;iindl 1in,' iBl'r'lai no1 Trade and Industrial
I',l-li'll iill. 0Illd ;"i ;Ni 1 '.,lill :1 1.l;1 i l t''l ;i .sllla I rv u''Vil of voC national
1rili liiiLp.' f'li" il,,lii i 1i:i., i i o-i' l ii/. d II li;i.,. S,.li stal c l l)y those ill
;iiillit it" ill tli .ii ,- irr' lilal a; \\W<'ll- 'li uili. t,, l .aile prOglrali ol vocta-
li- l til n iii-"i fI ll' lil',illlll 1 iill I I,'.n.t l tli I t\\' Il n illi ll (d oll i'-.
Ti.' l lui' aiil o 'l' l'u icIt i (I an lldiistri il llEd ai lion is also cooperating
w it i lil,' I\Os \ n cles 1'oli ), Departiiim l. asistini tliiit department with
the l l' leiii.ti/-iOli vl i e'i.vlot liilent of ilistriitliolal niiatl'ri;il for what
11~1 ii t Lc'.!l 1 \VI I I 'C" liZed ill I, 1.i'.'i, i l l l" iiiill't tii as; 1 one of tlhe 11m o'
. fl'lit-i.- r p lici v ro i ;1, 's illn 111'- ni tl r lil rs.
fl ilis. i a ii la ih i" li i\r, llail ii,,i', di'ill iilk.- iiio l 1le l bi li',a l of
T i':.i ,i lil, I ii. .l. iall I'st iir.ll tio i I' ," < 'i'\'i,., liill i *,', Y )cl,'i i ',,. I,,, di, i's
hI'I i rd li i' il i/ ii i l I( l 11 1 ;1111iii 1 11 I l 1 i li, IlI 1 hi.~ illl( 11 \'. i ',i'dl

'ofx' ke .r Io l il /., tli.'irl" i .ri'l ,1il l iII l'l i li l lil i i'.i 'l l fll l or 'tra ii ing
to fit tlhillsoe'l s for'. l i" ill l' I,:l'lli:e ll sr iI'c nlr I fit thi l-n.ii elvOs to Carry
on new' j"o1-)b. L on'ail .s"IllOol districts liia'' r'spondi(-d sihlendidly in estab-
his liii" \ 'v',,,"aiiinal t raiiiii p 'o1rtini s lo iii.','t rert" in .s1Coi, ic i'.c-ds whi-Ih
hiiv','i lin' i asi ler ai liei l I ih'li hr i 'ilf i ii'li,', \\'itli lo.aidCrs ili lalilor and


('i-M ,MIS.I'





[l Al'.\ T i..N'T OF ElI.Ti i.\ iON I 1IN'Ni.,\L REI'ORT


T l 'I'iO lial i' 'nll ai Ii i,,i' ,. idls"ll ,'J ,id I'"-.'lll_' it olin oIf 1 li ,' I 'lll,'. allnd1 f
1110 ])ai al illl t iiilJip rt;llli:' (if ;ill ,i'lli''ie it iprn '..iili if a',li.i' tilli al 'e l ciloa-
iionl fl'r IIs, i'1l .Illlll]rii.lit. N '\'- r Il- tilii lii.'r I .'li 111(ii l11' i illp relll t
thllan it i 1at tlhin p c srll t tillie'. dill'illl till,. olli.l-ta ,.Cllo litiil~ ill I)ilsi-
iness alldl t.lli(oyI\lil it. ltI'','ssi. iv's .s, 'i,' i til iilStlIii s.. ll \t.l! t' lie
state tl.iv':l' I.-i<'ti' i/.e-il tilni ian''i' an l li ;\ l',' st i .l .'\tt A 'iot? ti'ce in tilhe.
B ureaull Triil' ;nilil Il tist'in ] Ell ii:;ti i'n. Iiill m t Ilf tl li '(l1111iin11 i-
ties of t li t lt;lt'. b l.lir aiin inli.llitry'' lihi\y.. st!iodl s;tl' gl. beli nd the
Bureau orf ''ti' .lt aii i,.lin histrial llipiy.tion il till. 1 ,ic;l sc-lh l syst iims
ill th e Iir'-irl-iio ii olli. illiillilt. iiille. .1" ,:_.i cien t tii .i ';ti ,-ll If itr;l.1 liidl
iii ust rill t'i liii'1 t li ii. .
Ill -ir ler' to il:iil il lill t i)-: |i'_']l,- t ,1,.;i' .,_. g i l' e li eiePnt.. i tliis I pro-
g'rall Ii ''-i'l ..',ivl .ehi'( inl Id.l i1iilii.,iiIit ,it l'-is inll fl "i'ill s (if 1 e.1lel itifn ll in\'e
r'cog i\ti/.e l t(i. \ lte' i'f li;t 'ie- i oi |' '.srt i il l 'li i~ (io f tl'I1 :' ti.', \vWi' i cfiil il.1
br'inil. lle 1h l l,- intlli< ., I:II,, i( tllt;iet \\it nl lJil.)l. i-ll;n ] illill.trl v, 1it ])ir pl.are1 '
tlhe way" l,' Wi n i .il..st.,,fr n ll (-lIi,.ll.ll f per,-ils w ho h.- li la\t Imoilp _'t.-il
vocati('o ;ll i';iiiniiij. Jl'., r, ;illns. ;ilil1 iO I;etjI siit li tri;iillil' pil.:I';Tillll 11 ))
to the -t;an l. i' 1iin t COf I ',:Il -ii|p i' -i\'i-, ir' Jill.1 ilid ',; t:l r, I' f \ l l,: tio.l; il. l (all; ill in
g'leat ]iill n iV l:i, iili- 1111111 1it f ti st:i'1 \\iL.os' lli t it is i, \\to i'( hlil '-
n 0onio 0l1.,I \'itlio ililist'ry l ll l ;1 l'' ill' tile' best illit'rists (if tlie -, ,lil1's.
It has :il 11 I ti l till, ;l iltc l i( il l 'ii i-l'I E Ei l i'l l iii'rs ,f I 'I t il l ;Iii i,1 il lllls-

(loiie inll III. II I \\ it i tillI \\,-(i l1; ]i1i,, 1 l ii .Ij li) Il tllis-, ( ili',I I i l,4I )I I. t l ;1lI
iand ilili t iil* ill l rll'tiii ll. .it li.lrr iII1 ;1 1 ,1if i' ti\l', ,In ,'r .il. i i lli.,i-~i .
()11, ,, il- rl ,, lii l" I,-'-,I,, ii-;i l il iii ,.r I' Ii,| ;;il s plll rl'l'\i. sl i'.r iiiiil I lii','>;t',i.s
Of 1OCal 'i l .Ii'l' ia Ijili l I,',i il i aIi li t l i niv l i hi i '!i,_" Elill','i'll':'S i f ir

tile p) i'j i )( schl ools. I ', lii:iil ii 111111 ii) t' i'''' iii ll ii t l o' f'i f ili i.llist al
('ollferif ll' (llii iifl c 1.i s411' 1 liri l siIj IIir ol.'isn s ;i-( Ilwffi I r trs i ldI l i'oll 'sll -
oll t tilt. slil;t, Ii:\'t. ,lCiIl 11111i,. ii l l i ,II ,'l'; iil iilill st i'll \\, n lrkel's. ilit.I to
o'nl olll'iigi ill ill'tIi.' t i1ll thlir. 'i;N' f nl,:L ij.I iN lls, ill iII l'tr.ii\'il l_- thl -ll-
selves jil'Eil',-siiiil I l\v. Tll 'ii,' h I le i l'ij-linilli f_ itilll i) t':O ie 'rt l'c.'s ia vast
a loul t (Of 1 f v\' l ill iaiil l 'iiti lil' ilEii .l iil r i i -s I.,, ii f Ell i"'ai2iiZ.'.l ;ilit1 i1)i'-
parled, \'lii:li is "lt f g iv t si'vi,.,i:'' i ll tlil' El ';iiiz;il i n oif I 'riliini pl'(o-
rii Iis,
E xpl'ri'lI.i'' lioi,s slmi,\\n tlii;i( Ilv\'is,,ry i iEii)iilt''ees are of vital
liipol) rl't ii''' tE i; oi-',aii i/.;iiT i n I illI T iai ilt aiii'ii 1 T i f s'StrEimgJ lro'-r;liiiis (fi
t ll' l li'r II illd i l I ai li ll t i ll, Tintl l ii,,11t Ocli (I i l )lii ti s 1 ;1 \' I. 'l.lili'l ,d tl lis
li _. l I. I 'i,11111 it tf'i ('1) i)i-P si) I l' I I I I \'.'il I''i'. i' lI i/.lt.' i llI iTlt' lltl ls 'i a
r p'O rl'es ll itivc. fl iiill ill..- sI.I ll)" I, 'tliliit i Vt .- betell .or''a iilzed lc,,ally
iill' .' .C,\'* .IlIal i:.t fiolii lllfii l s 'r ii : 1 cl i l traii t(iu \\'1 i'lr \'itil ti l? ii:i 1l ilp ] '-
\i.l)l'.s n iil dlil .,i'll'r s aIl l si.'liC 11 ii'ni ill. il l Il i .110 ~, ill o(ll linil -. 11 1 ll 'i 'os If
iillnstr tion'l \'liil.'i \woulidll ii he.':t le nillstndarul prl'aticets of thle trail.es, arid





(r' ~llMIS.-.'i"N 1.'l V\'O'.\iThiN.\'T, .lWl'(.\T'I'IN.


In li)lill" iltn l rliir' T' l iitin 'iin II t l t' :l (*(olS ~ illicl 1h ;lrI, 1;1 1 i Indiistlr v ''liis

l l,(I. s ll l\" .,,1 I l', .. l",l I llllr i 'll;I IIIs .I' V\ ';l i(-lio ;l ] p l; liii ll' ;id i's
Ilul' t' 1ri 'll.s r lll- l' I ll lir i';il p r .i .l i. nd \'1 lii l i 1 i'tl .'' ll io ;i lt ii I l li


u'l ;n (if tilet \\w' irl'i.
III' 1 I'ld' I t V t 1 ii l IIII 11;t 1 1 Iin I ll l 'i- 1 tt' 1 l'tit'Wi lit''' \Vif it ii (lli
t I' ( ilr. lie'r I i ;ll'ii l iil ls 1 i i li ",l t t i.'- I I it 'lin ll, .' l-yI n I( ll I '.


tIllti |rt _'t lmit \i r lhl ,l' i ii.'I l intriittr l t t' r lt. si'\i 'it' lit ii' s.sit' 'l t tll.i
lli' ti.. ';t lit ll i'. x is t I t .l.;titg ;iIf ilt It 1'r t l el l fll' i .s.i ll iT( \lll i l' v i l lt CII


"i ;;i t' i i ll t t 1 <1 I i s l iiii ''l I i li ls d I 11ic I i'll i i lisi i.' l l i' 1 I. t liY .i 1.11'
<.tillilt ioilill so. vI'\ le .


FINANCIAL STATUS
D iiurin 11li, fir.sit Y.;ir, 1!:0-1!1:1, of til'- hi imi iiil peri'nl tin-
'il l," Iu kl r i ll J;l l io i'.ill, .1' 1 illi.' I'ltll (" i it t t1 l lp r ,.'


It |nIl I, t| lS ', l f It. .li l h ,li l l ] ''_* I-ll ; ',. lit I 11 it 'i> f tllr I lll' ;I l i li t ill IH ;ll I
t'I II ; II I fnI". wI l,,t Is,,r ll III I.. .'1,l'.l_ ll ll 'l Lll II l', I ] 1i,7 I', ,rt
i 1 |lIII IIll. I l 1. l lrrir*I ss*1 n'.. | I I* fll rrr. I, ril 'I I l .i till' ,.l .H lllI I '

Ili'll.r,;i. D ilw I l Ir, n l l ril, il ( (:l lilln;. I.i. r.ll i rI il twIh' f; ltli -. r
H 11 ,11"P4 il n p 1i Ii 11 i 1i il rl il i f ti lt t lr111 f lii II i d'
Illrl 1! I0) ,i o'll. I -,l. C ';llif 1i'll I 1 I 'iv l ;I .11 i ll..1111' llti Il iltll .r ,,l ( i t l ll i,
;ll)|)r ,ip i ,i l '-,r" \'-,o i ,,i i i ,. li ,' it: ioI n in ll,'i" 1 1,1o l r:|'>i\-.i ,iii I l" Itl,
.ii, li-~ ] l ~ li~, A tI. T slis illi'- SI'I l ; l llp)('l it'i t l o I, f o': lll 1 ,111r;l 1 ,f l.-.
;i(, u'lioiil_ lIto tilt_ Oc-t orf i cel, pt.ol ne pbYss d by the (C'ilit'f rniia n Log'islatnr'.
\vin.- 1 '-hl11.rd l). .l;itl l f liid.. Ili f l. i, lilr;f' nrli. ;iv;' il;lil' for I. C il-
l)ill'.Si lllPillt t o I io lo-,..il ., lool I]itricts o-ll ;i',i'o t llt o f tlr il;iiill lln .', (,Io
Ir nIlo ;11111 in t 'illl 'll inll li tiin Il lipl tI tli' ).;li 1 I) ]l);irltli ito l Of
l dilll l';i t I, l ,i. p ; i ii ii. si til, in itt idi t 'i" tlli. i,\' i.' ill 1'ill r Ili i Y'III'
]9:1 1-1!):12.
Ior lilt, ve ir 19:i2-1 :: lino r vi,'r. ll, I'n ls \\ill ;pr iil lI,
i lI( I'l.-', l.s 1 i I III l t, (|It' 'it l ill ;i 1 f l In'iI ',r '.S i Ill i l:-I .lI *'.t>:, 1iil v\ ti .ll II r'll
j 'r' .'II I It lml r ,l l ill III l I', I,.; I ; lfl,'iip ii i ll( l, r, i r' ,'1 f1 lhi' ,
il l .it i l l l nl ._"I't w.vliih i lh I il. rI.rsi lt 'l E'l 1' i'.11 l )rl.st.'ll t
'Ot id IIiol t io ,' sl ill I. l l I' ti li) l it tlr I; t i ll i" It tll.'- l im el'. A lillli '.l t ls
r, 11i -.lin i n .dll 'ill iw i 11 Ilif l ,.,l n iY ;l k il t ,r .rssilr'v for thle S tit,






62 DEI'.\ARTM:ENT OF' T:DI.t.\TION. BIENNIAL IEPORT

Depal'tm0ent of Ed_. ,ition to pri rat'.' ciiiii for ril.n i r.l.ulint f'romn
local school districts toi tht? next bielinial period, it i., anticipated that
the program will Ib-e natintaini1 ;at it-, pr.es..t 1i,-1' ilerc,' o(f tticioncy.

TABLE No. 4
Vocational Trade and Industrial Education Classes by Type, Number,
and Enrollment of Students, 1930-1931 and 1931-1932



Type of class N. .itber 1: l.:.lli. it N r. ble r EI .:.llne.t
MtI-n \ .. ii T.'. l 1I en : T.:.I l

All-day classes---------- 25 5.4 64 r t. 142 24.5 5.6111 .'93 l.57t6
Trade preparatory part-
time classes..---------- -. 2.21I 1.'1.'2 4,111'2 II 2,S44 1.711J 4.5.52
Day trade extension
classes--------------- .; .* 2 1 1.571 15 792 ..:: 1.127
Evening trade extension
classes ---1 - ----- l '. 1112 1 I.57 2''7 9.45 1 .I' I. 4 1.
Cooperative education
classes------------- 51 lb 52' 15 25 ; t 24
Totals ------------- i 4 S.5 24.'214 t'l.: 17.;7 4.74 22. 1i




Bureau of Vocational Rehabilitation

II. L). II.t KIER:. (C'liict

OBJECTIVES OF THE BUREAU
D1)'partitllic t l r.',r,. ;ill.izi tii i n, thIo St;at, l.))ep;i ll.-lii l ,if Educa-
tion il 19!)31 pli(ci'.l tilt- lI'i'reu ~.ii d ,i, ,l;tini ;lI l 'li;ilhilitati Non iln tlhe
D ivisioni of Special IEtI li'; lti ll hii l. l n i~Itliii ll its i ltill;i tc : 'o-., ldiml tioii
w ith ili ficld o1l v\rN ;tii.n;II l c'I lic;eti'll Iy)- 11,1i',lil<, tl ;lt in fcdert l-
aided relationship it slill f'liictilo tli roiil tIe Colliinission for
Vocational Educatini, i.i, wlit\lii the .buil'rIau c-lhii.f is a ,inl'.tbr.
This change i.s iidi.lati, i ,_,f ll\\' .inills.a lI jillrl'pS,?S now ;cceptlcd

as functions of tli'h- iiire;. Its ri'iiial p)riillnry objective of directly
aiding disabled alilts i tliir \ .ocatillia;ll ai.i jistlineiit tlirorug'l' a pri P -
g'raln of' v( ae tional .,liti -lin I raiii lu pl;i.'iill'iit, 4I. i1 ,tli'er Ilne 'essary
slippleillellltalry service;., i< itiitiiitl. Iii adeIlitiInii, the hilieall no110W
seeks to alid local se'!it'l systriin ill Inln a'd .irill ii )I w II llimii ;1Ia Im iraill-
ingl of physically Iulincap II hliilhrn, and in Itle cstab lishiien11it and
adliinistralion of il,;al -L-lia;ll. ilii l I *l pro7I'aiI.-,. A l..o, lI i(- bureau Is
now promoting active participation ill rehillilitation activities on tlhe
part of welfare ali.l thlor intrrstel:.0' agnc-ic-.I withill tll,?il o\in cilin-
Immn iics with a view to bl'linl.iii' l about tiit? facccptanll ? oft the lrillilple
of local responsibility ii \oc;ltion; rehabilit;tion.






III1-P)I:T 1' 1 ill : l: ll 'lI:. j 01' \( i lr.- l'Iio N.\ I, I [:Ii .\I1I ,I'I'.\T IO.N G3

ACCOMPLISHMENTS
iP'blications
-\.s ;i I. 'i lliI 1.1 ili I( 1 o \1(- i lie;i ii i.lii.':, lle ln)Ilr ;il published
(iii coopler-ition wilth other vo. inl ionill ii nl't rests) Series I of "Oceupa-
.liollI 1 isiel' '" illi i r ll t, rHI oi iirit.lI i.iils (l i(1f ) o:.li:iip 1; ioniits. Printed
11n cir a ill l i ) loo... Ii. 1.l' f(' i I 'II o ror ,idu .l'rI! ,l I ll ;ill( .] is' revision.
lli. Illot 1 iilf 1 I ,I;I 'ii i;lI i-,.' jiel l n ;i lli it is 1 lo| ~d1 ( )llI' l.'ii Sr II;I '01 follow .
Depinri ilol of L',tiration llnli-in Nmheiiirni 14, entitled Voca-
tionlu I .11(/h bili/ailii for D1)isblr,e IP rs,,. in C?'aliforniii. _,ives a con-
rispe huit c'i ill l a .' tt- iliitit C ,i'l ," Ii2 ti rlie 1 ': (if I l i )l -rc.;li.

Local Participation
1 lrl'liI Ii ll; ) ; ll ld ", l ,l'('SIil i 1' I ir ri I; l il i.,l l ,' ( i: |l, (,ra iv C
i' li;Iltili it; t111 ilroU'lililii iii (:I illr o i li \\iili !( .'caI ',C(- Ill f .- i111. in L os
Aigeleis, SJill F-rimlcisco, md111( Oaklinnd wCere rciidered temporarily
i eiillToli' e tiv l ;oin(0 llill (I f clll t liiic'lt of 11n0\\' u i\itie Ill prol.gl'SS has
l. 1 Illliii.n il sc i'lli'i l ;Icc00 p'l illc l'l 111" li l tiller ilk: t11 c(i l1i1 it. Ire'OSpoil-
sibilit'v 'I'1 habiltlittioln service. I 'iviate lco'ncis:i in Sain ,lJose have
ituilll ial- I i;ll I h;i l .] l illi tation l II 'l.rol ii,'ill 11 1iin ;i li lli 'r of o t lie cities
liive( il(di<;it( d ;iii ilioi'e 't ; il]d w illilL',il-s's to o. ili.t lisIi the service
l(.-i lllV iS s', l ai ;.S c' ii(litioIll permit.


STATISTICAL SUMMARY
T lip. follow iii,, t hil .-| s ail" ', an' i no p ai ;it i 'c t .sl ti it i>;il ,. it 'i ',.r lile past
lli' r.r lihl ii ii i; il p .ri .is :

TABLE No. 5
Live Roll of Training Cases for Vocational Rehabilitation

/ t .0', .Illr -0. */It/ 30,
.Slalus of c a.e I.'' 1.9 19
1. Ill shliool train in lll ---------________(-4 4.S2 8:19
'2. ]11 Irll' loyLill ill ';i _____ l__ :i) (27 55
:1. I11 otl ,' p l'aI,;li';i'11 .tI 111. -- --.__ .. -I __) 44 50(
4. A,\\'l i eil l l l 'l II i --- --I------ _- _ II II 9)
. Ih 'ill i 1 \\ ',1 i il ; I 1 1' I )l'y1 i I i _ ,1 ,11 1

To1 ; s1 ---- --- _..___._____. .. .. -)7 Ii:,:, 112:1






DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, I LINNIm .\ E rl:E[lTT


TABLE No. 6
Number of Persons Rehabilitated and Average Cost of Program

Number of persons rchabiliuled l'J,- -2S 9-30 11930-.32
1. With training---------------- 427 4 44
2. Without training----------------- 15 12 S2

Total .144.5 .0 496
Average cost per rehabilitant ----- 27 2 $:11:.2!1 $415 25
Note: Since 1921 there have been rehabililr a-i 22"2-' ll.: I.el.-o ii. The:.-
had 2444 dependents. Other disabled persons anii..l 1.n. t li r.i. i.-elnIil. I.v "i tliah ili-
tated" 2144. Thus, a total of 6860 residents ha'e dirI.tly I.rofir ed l.Y me -er\lee. III
addition to thousands of others who were counsel-. witlii.ut i being trinally eisrelster
for service.

It is worthy of special conunent that tlie lnllllberl It pr'--son.
rehabilitated during the biennium 1930-1'.212 i-, n (4ily 1v ii la t thill
nmnber for the preceding bienninm, de.site tlii:- fII't ofl' ei'rr'lit noinie stress with widespread unemploymenllt aitnd o1 Cn'll''lll,'it xtl rm,'P
(ifficulty of placement. The trained disabd ll i; i inr,.- t*Ihao ,iu .I l tliirl
own. Also, it will be noted that the current li\i. Iad1 i.- no.irly dl) l.)
that of two years ago. This is evidence of the r-kii,'.\ le'hl. vlhnle of
the service in providing training for tlih lu iliei| ip'dl wliirli rabl.,
them to use profitably a period which would theirr \ ise6 In. nl' discon-
tented idleness. They will be adequately Ii 'r.ilrd in, reii l.'r i it'ul
service when\ the revival of indll story .n';,t, a liiil ,I f'r s.killuI
workers. The ilcreasedl cost per rehabilitant is '-l..; I'Irly ; nriu: l tMr
li the great increase in training load. ;,iid \\1i11 I1h iil lied I w\\l.n
)resent trainees are eventually placed.
The Bureau of Vocational Rehabililat 1n1 Ui- h f iu .tiidi.n l ftlcti'.-.ly
tlhrolghollt the hienniuml in the face of dlifileirll its ;ltil lmint ipon tlih
llurrent depression. It is now prepared t itl.'-i,',eu, it- Ilt4' li,'s- Iy
promoting community participation to til. ndIl Ialt hile Ie.t ii \tw;I-
tional service nmay be readily available It r.- v pviiralli\ ldis-aled
resident of the state who needs and may proifit I,, s u I- i wl vi iv. It \\ill
tlihs afford to the handicapped the equality -if (luplo-rt unity ti '.\ liich as
citizens of a democracy they are entitled.










Division of Adult and Continuation

Education

l,. Ir 'l'i.\ it;-u c'lli,'f

OBJECTIVES OF ADULT AND CONTINUATION EDUCATION
r]'ljT tr;iilitiil ll col.i i.'rln Ill. inIll lic s.-i.llnil s v..st of till. state
li .is I),'1 tii r..dilli' o I;,ii l '' -Ii l( l l .r i I itl,s ( '1illu,''11 \\ill ti .is
I rob :ill 111 \\' lllill II Ii ;I- .\'i r I i'. ll in ll p' ji,;i.,1l. I'll lre i.s dev\'elopinig,
ti1','l ', ;i 1 1iiI l iil l' (lilit ~~ Iil i'lli i k o ll i' 'llr i li lii i 'ii",f'l.S lim itedii'

'scle il if .tIll lLc;' iii pnlo li'str1 1 ll iil' oll 11 1r itt JI ;ilii i1 ; Si ill ii't. t ll-. i t il
;i1 ltlitiooi1 ;ii! il ire(.' s '(l ,xilvri( nce lili s possible n deeper uiiller
;il i))l oi;l l ;tl i ;Il i lililr ', i.; il|il ;il)s(l iill iu i ioll I \ liio\,t lri' .II'.o tl;il.
\ tlli(i lio ;(1 li i dI il :i llr il i- inl ii 1111 \" I'?t11l) 'i, l.s -i i I' l Iill ll l ; iii i i
.,: li'. c -io. liol rll ; 'Ii ll lr ;II" ,- ll l,,l ;lb j, (,I o1"r now' O Il;ii"ll I il l;l
_l iii iii .l I |iiintt' ;iI Il' iilli l n Iioll' iO i'. ('1 i i f iei i vli; i I' l l ; hli-t. I fi' hiali':.is
bd coi' s .s iii iig llp0! x i 'il i d i l i .it. Cl INiii'.. Hi Ilil jii'i.-l l.itiii \ fIO l lt' i:Ii t-
IilInl l i it n1 .t I)) ri2ll ;(llp ;1ll11 -illt il i lol0...:.
1tW ii n iti l lt ; '1 or tl;li(li)I 'll ti" I' il' t: i ool s i, ,' llii.'llm i. I1, i donli ;i

l' i cli~ ; II I I il ) i' l il l n ii i 1 ilh"0.l ,, I'o lii .;ll i ,il i' lli ,l* i| > in rll ii .il l ll l r;il li lr I li;ll ;I 1li i -1 iiiibo r 1i' ill
rlll' ll i li i. '\ ilil'it lii o "f l ',r \"y liiwli 1 i i l i i im I l I o li- i l h l'r nf -r,.(
In l i 111 In ilil li i;i.' [.i j ill i ii.;ii I Ii l i f .Ni il I 'l i'I'l i i l l ; I 1 1 i l 'ill li;t 11il l
li;lli i, l ii,< ; ',i li;is l tli il'tllii i llrii \ V ,, 1 ni l Ii r iui ii'. dl ,lll l r 1 i il Siirfil
oI l il il' i i t r f itl"I i l'.,.,iils ., i'ly ;i 1 ;I Irc'' i;il;nil fll r ad il t ill il nd It i
ilo \V' I, i I l'l III \' r .v i., t, ll I, d \ fi )ili l li t Ill, iIll i\ i lii;dl frol ill
c 1hild od n;illl to 2ill io > ;I ;i irr loill of rll;iiiii 'for rlilt,'lllt, irili .ollS

A l l .,;l iin l il 1 "1 ll i ,H i i il lilo ;d ii.. il l i. 1111 I 'llctilll |ire'.-O l ( 1 d ;i1
lifo iRi. l)l ii.< f tll lio'f \ 1 \\\i:. i 1\1 o 1 tIl fol iill fI il l-tlill,' hool ll(divhit ."s
;i \ i(h i lim, of" 1,1' i.* to lit, rP id<-l ',d. i'r tlho riOl '.s li w ho, l. c,.illse
ol ;i li-l< Iof skill or I ,..li iiL.iil li vdi-| (lg ,, f' rls ili.s.( i. '. in ii s d iil.
occi' ll ifii i ( 'or lil..s h.'o' rilv lil', (di~ jlid'o I l;illl ,. in i oi1 .rn illpvei I-
t 'i;i] ]li;l.li(:,,. a, i 1 il'lni'l' l ll ,' "H' ilc lll ll d iK/.(: l i ll .i1:t ;i s i ; .- il I
1iS. ;I ( l '. iII 0: ildI ,i, 'loii* ili, iil I ; I In (il ll i .r'. \\ ilh \v, ( I ill ilv l \"
li (,id i il l d i', \\wm ,Ii NIl6i I ,,lli il l 1i l li'r. lf ill r ii i i._ [i il il ill ., i,
Ilot -to s(t* i11 i ;i Illiil,-d p ri' |l ii i ', ;ill l li',.1 \'llo \wiild ;ll < .-r-pit it.
I bllt so it li r.il'"y .li- p roill r1 ill I lh it Iv .r1 ii ll. 'll ill] ii ;i S.\" i rilli'
l o:l',dl' iy 10 li.s iit'P ;i .or\'i, ot'f v'illl, lIn millionn l' illl toi sov'i 'ty.






DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BULLETIN


THE FUNCTION OF THE DIVISION
The activities of the staff of the division lhave been dev\otedol to the
promotion and development of an educational program in confofrmlity
with the objectives stated above. Certain plhaes of tihe problem have
been considered of sufficient importance to justify their assignment to
a bureau. Such work as immigrant education, parent education, trade
extension education, agricultural extension education, hlsiness exten-
sion education, and home-making extension eClination 'or adults have
been assigned to specialists in the specific field in :order that more
effective work might be done in the local school districts :of the state.
Description of tlese special services will be found elsewhere in this
report.
ADULT SUMMER SCHOOL
As a cooperative enterprise shared by tite State Departmnent of
Education, the University of California, and the- California Association
for Adult Education, the summer session for adults at Berkeley con-
tinned through the bienninum. Classes and informal study groups were
held for the benefit of adults who had special interests in continuing
their own education, and more especially for teanlters actually engaged
in dealing with mature students who wanted further professional train-
ing. Students and members of the staff lived together at llansford
Hall, and the Monday night fireside discussions v.were carried on. These
discussions have developed a. pioneer method of for'niil m Oilianagement,
which is now spreading widely over the coumntlv. and \\a, ii'-ed for tlie
major part of tihe program of tlie annual mli-etllg il' tlie A\llricanll
Association for Adult Education held in Buffalo, May, 1932.
The last biennial report covered the activities, of the s1uniner sclholl
for the year 19929. Since lten the sane gen-ral currienla ha\e been
offered, including the philosophy of adult educationo, parent ed iucation,
methods of teaching English to the foreign borni, Ilie It,-:elnillue of group
discussion, methods of teaching social science to adults, music, art, and
handicrafts. The faculty has included educators from all parts of the
country nationally known for their work in adllllt ediucatioIn.

CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION
Since Oelober 1, 1929, the California Asso,.iatiion lor Adull Educa-
tion has had its own professional staff, and ha.s been l ITying on work
in experimentation and development of all ,phlase- of adult education
in the state. As was explained in the last biennial report, this independ-
ent agency was created on the initiative of the Division of Adult Educa-
tion in order that private funds might be utilidled freely for the
d(iscn\overv of now methods and aims in this field,. It lnia devoted itself









niutlail 11'o 111 develeopIlll'ienI iii il'url i l actlivillis wlli llii ma e ror a
more enlilitillll led _ilizt'-l11,1ip. \W ithill thle schll systcIll it lla; pro-
videld h1 elp ainld thl e bellelfit of 'Icetii ii.iht d eXI pel ille ilI setting li l
forills alit.nd dissellSiol groiips for the coi.i ,i 'ltioli ol cIIrreiil problelis,
social, political, and ecoiioimic. Outside tie shiiol .sysclel, it has been
inistrunmeiital in discovering and bringing g into activity private agencies
\Wliic li Ca; ll Ihelp t I nC) l liipli I li i' -;llin lipill'|))' A IIIl11 Ct l' o L citizcni.,
of tile .-taitt'. ti r;iilroidal'. milid t1h (';illii.. ( 'oi onr;ioatiin ol" N \\ Yorlk
line l colli'il)litl ed Io it., sti. i S ill'l. 1lI Iolic'i ., lilti.lii 1() 10 dtI e tler-
n iilled lb% ;1 dollar rrlrO ,-, il iii il- ; l ll,- iiiijor iil-,rsls or <';>liforlii on
whlii cl li Ia~ l t 1)ii Uii' ill i l I ', l I nii ll i ll ili. t 1t IIt' e I r 'llrt-' ll il '.'Cs.


EVENING HIGH SCHOOLS
:. "p l 1il c l 1; ;1 l,1 id \' cliil "i cl-; s- for ;i l Iis li;i\'_ loin ,, Ibc i ;i pilrt
of tlie publllic sclioAl .s.tNtii of C'alifornia. Thlis l 'rogram' has bien
organiized within r iegardl to lhii.lily sspeciallized, needs of adultss \\ith little
attention to Ihe integration of these special service<. In a;l attempt to
coordinate tiose eclun;itioniil activities so thliat adiilts i; iglit have th sami e
Opportullnity to pillrSIe l a IWrol,2'rll of ct(.li tioil ;i i s oflleredl lo tho-e
\who enroll in other edlluectiona;l institutions, l(1 1.931 Legisliatuire pro-
vidi l ['or tilh ,s. l;il)li-in e ln't o ;ili ev'nini"; hih1 st.-'li l in ]oo-nil districts
whore ti 7.l size o 1' lir ] ''ll ;i i llr) i1 ftlc an llq l ilhl-, of ;il,0 ll ts woni ltl w1 ilrra it
uilc'll i Oll orli;ilz ilto l. It i-4 i' \\ po"-il)le' I'or aililts to .phii ti, il follow





1930-31, thle prinlcipls' Octollhr reports indicatall that 112,6.'7 adults
wore (iinrolldl in eveninli'g- cl;is,'.e only. In 1i;32, this numiiiber increased
to 123.7f."T. Tlic total ei irolliI lnt ill all dlily ;inid o\'tiing special classes
ldurilng thne iiiliithl orf 1(t"lcber iicr'a.tsed from 143,291 in 1931 to '11,34"1
in 1 12 idlspite thele fact llih t l ;i lair'c nll ll-ii.i r of .Is ai ller co illininities
were cOtliipell bJe l local iilnditioins to discotiltlille enltirey their utlult
progranln,. A better llte;iS.ire of tlie volliume of work being carried onl is
the aiiiiial report onl ;avertl'ac daily attendnllle. In 1931 all school
districts reported 22,02( units of A.D.A. while in 1932 this increased to
24,639. or a prowthl or a;pproxiinately 7 pier cent.

IMMIGRANT EDUCATION
Iliii.l'rillilt duei tc;itiiiil iin Califlornia i lines lield its (i\\v- Iluring tl-
aist biiltt ili i dlspile t\(o ilisi lur ing- I'cttiirs. viz: (1) exodus of
thousands o' mlexican lailui'rers who ol'ored wide field for ;ietivities of
Shis pli;ise of eciealuion; (2) few recruits due to restricted immigration.


DIVISION <>[,' AI)I'I.T .\N.l IP 'ONTIN i',\TIO.N I:I>I".'\TION







DEPARTSIl'NT il' IDl[I'.\'I 1i N. I ll:NNl.\l, ILI'EilTr


Attendance has b t-in caldy in Icalitiesi where forigners actually
live and are a part of tA-i comiiinnit.i ;and hereue iinligriiant educatiion
has been organized through tl, s:pprti,-ii" intere-t of( school author-
ities, or the townspeople, or both. IIl:I easel enrollent in naturaliza-
tion classes has balanced loss in English classes.
Where the foreiii pIuillationi is purely transient as ill certain
farming regions prodiin_ rcitiilon. vn*etailes aind fruit. interest lins
never been strong andl \what little' iltit'.It ti' \\'was. ftr tile most part.
has steadily dwindled.
There is yet a widcli ivlrsi\it rl ,,piniiol ocn tlll. part of ei iplhlyers
as to the value of \liiiri.aliii- atioi, ." Ill ,_':-neral, it in;lvy hl) said, a
broader viewpoint exist riii tilei plrt it i plloyerl' in 1tI oulien'l Cali-
fornia, especially aim oni t t(" l .itr iiis : r',, r r \\W11i lee i \'l t Iil;ilI reaction
() school work on their \VikIli'oll. The Afexiaii.s \Vwho ai e 1-r 'lIliar
attendants at school are tiilit to Ihlui/,. tlii einiloyers say, and are
(cnseC(lnently better \\-ork ll l'l Tn tIh c..lnttoll ailind \'e-l;tall fields, the
(mn)loyers seem to be Iess open-mindled. Their I \oricers "i-ed to )e
mere antomatons. In these lo.caliti-s, .lonselilently, thiire is usually
active or passive resistanrl t to tlic( t;illis in, ent olf il.Ias '. W here
there is a degree of r.opi -ati.in illn siie localities on tl, part of
( I l)loyers, a difficulty i-. lr,, itld1 i4j si iriili ws iltal)l tlb*a*ll-iv s to go
lo the rallll or camp ela,>ss.
Older )e')ole are l ; -ipa 'ili' 'ii o 1ll iitrtlire. T'1'e ipri l, ,i. illore aliid
mlOlre from now on1, will olcl i'r'l \ ite iti tlle cliild r i of lore-i-'.ll-boui
parents, young people wh\\'1,'se r.-21nlr NClIini ediul:tiion ihas I)teen arrested
or neglected, and with Ainerica'l -ll or1 a;111nlts \\'1ho \\isil tro il:,ltillie
school work.
With many of thlie '-il )-. Eni' lli-l as ; aliiiilli'- t-, he l ea rned is
not tlhe problem, but l,(//, r Ei'nl-lish il ,tl her liib.iectS:( or c, urses
planned for special na-c a, ll, dre, the problems. to be \%orked
out by the schools.
Though there eolntinies l Ie, inI fOr a I;lssi imn certainn ,i ut-otof-tli'-
way localities, in general, it inuy I' statedd lhit a;I Al. ass, car s's,. are
offered in the state wherl-'\l. snlh \\orkl is feasilhe. Ilie feasibility ibcing
determined by (1) labir c.iinditiolls sichll s lonr- IiOr., o(,f lairy
workers; seasonal labor, as i I tl i \c .1italdl, fruit. and cotton industries:
(2) sufficiency of u11111111Ir- toi .iInstil'y .IlI( y iiic.'i t ot' Icachit.r.
There is m11111 t lie lisilr.ic, inll :ir.lail Ic:;ilitis ill tilt \\;iy' ii'
interest ill, and a seil '.. ,l I vr in1-, 1 lii ility m tl, 1 1;irt li,' i'io- l i a tl lo i-
ties toward Foreign-,il1)Iri \\ lil; is i,,l IrdE. ,I \'- i la \\ lI hE. l rl.I' lig, l'ls
live in anlly consi Ierol)e I.,ll In lb.'rs,. i)d1 1lld t it is 'c.r\\' lK'. .l xe'C l)t tilet
northern andl (astern InIIII 1;(1'\ :, till ,s ;: In ;1 f,,e\\ htlier's: Ijake,. (_l'o iil.
G(iIcii i ill t whole-li irltd'il iilltE 'i i (ol' ; p1ii -'i1, pr ferally l a W\oliailI.
trained in the methods of adult education, who will develop the field.









III t )o, li1;111l .' p l;ac 's. I; lbri l' .sl;ill lli i ., i s i. .l dl I,\" lli .iiill s.cl: i.;: l p rill-
ii ;ils Illi o lltl l 1l 1l i It '. N ):i11,' T ., (i 1 tlll. t-\w is,' ;nilll()i Ilt .itI I i;il ;I :l;Il s-
will lit, .larled "if i ll 'r is dl u.i itd Il' Ioft'd flor itl. Tolo nilly of 1.lie
;adillt \\ho 'l s11 111i 1 I re t.irlt, dli ( I l t i rrogilli Il ir in'l l or ilf i c. 1' do.
li\ve iIVt 1 1,io fill eti live ioIlllit' tIl ril 1r oI ;I al ;.s. Ill sr\t';\ill i lj its,. io\\--
\'e r. the f 'oi)r1 'id.. o l rl- i <;i .p i y'l'., dii ; r, .rl llI Ii ofpli lin d 1 1 I.l fdlini lill
an ld ,Iht lliiti.' il.
To, 1ol1011 ti,1l' c f;.-l I IIt, .stilldy I l'l F i .isll i.- tillii'd ov'.r Ito a
lii' li s.-' l .1,3,I .i i r ,\'lioi 1 i iI To, W ;iy lil' til I I l it tI I ,, 'I I 'I;IV 1;,l 1,i, 1 Ir ill'.

IrIl' li' I't'si, i l I 'I I j i l i 1 Imll l 11 'i t ll\ i li : Ii ll l t.;. i'T lill ; i l '1 1 ilit i

I(l() 1 1111t )"'1;I.'- ct l' ';li i ,I'.,] I r \ .l ,; lilr ,.~ lI~(ll II\\ (. l'c 1" IIH 11J 1';lli ;lli(l lI ;Ill 'I
lilt) hlf l l l ,l.ll li' Illa*lid 1,0 l to 11ii i ll:n1t ill,,i .s io | l.i|;l \\ i'o_1 I.-, llir' d




iiil1 'l t il l .i t 1 ;11 I t ;iI s 'll i ls i II;ii 'i.ai (o t 'I r.i gp l .l it 11i 1 \\ li ilt tillden ll
',r i11l Is llTr li's.s Is ll" .ioi ll\ ii n l it i ;ll lll'; i/; .il l I I i.li; i. r ll IIr liy-.

Ilo II t o i jiy vi i. tsits 1 li 1 i i ttI' s to 1()i 1 I' rtll I its I' r iiit I t i ls i ilio I ; I II

a nd li.d si l s lited i llI 111 li ll, "o" lis., I'| lIi ii ', a nidli i ld ill,.t
li i llit. ll ~ 111 ol lif illt sItud Itllis a;r1 no1 .ii ll i ll y i llii s tleI1 d. i.








I hl_ Icil'li iirs a "n m llilt 1 1 i n" tline lirll.'ia sI rnl.', ". ,,, 1 to uit'C iltlt't inll
T h'lll\ i ll OC- ti'\ fi l illli. il ii i l io li i l ii i i Iiin. hlei l ll'e l -1t" lii i e
l'ri tnl' i|il; s il. 1 1 i ll t';i -ll ',s I ll ch llir 1 illt' 'iri ill r l l111. \\wiho ;i l i ll' o tlnl ;





I i lt l ;h 1,r tIil )r l .li)il\ I 'lr for I.ll ill iir. I' il 'i i ir ii1t ,,lv' lild io l tlltl i
.ps rial w' ork i1d i I aw lin lo Iil- l it rs Alrth hod-s 11' T ,iitliuir Ealt i -li. l to (lfidl-
sl l'Ittindt oi til.i
li ii t'Iil ll- Id thi itil .the -itS i 1(ell d fori ; -l lia i li tv inlis f l.tl \\;i s ill

lt I lih's l .I:ifi Itillt Ai ll",t' l lirgin tli e l ;ii iu 1 tilic ioffrlitel, (io t i
dleip rtiti .nt e l ihi ve bieen dill rcted I nt-i rd I e intiTiei intrs theL classes al\reiiady
cs.il ilisl e' 11 lit' li l \\'.i vi .li iiitl. I liliit.ori ilis; ti ll ; i it liy i l roi for-





,l. h'tii', t ile ll i i.'lii;I t't'. t r ilii li' calilivi-' \'i;es thiNt ln iiir,' iill'ir t
1l lo ;il prot ,'" lil (" 1w) ltI s ',L i" ll h.stito s ; i t o .l l\a"til- li ll o lf rcl i, Il-.






i ;lid iill ;ilnd ol iti lay i'oo ia in (2 by detai'iled con-
side'~i l atio ll l e g ill l ; lll to-li i 1., ili ll;. i l/.re wil l l esoll iil orilld
I iIl111i.iit. .d ililcil l i is d fc linih *%'l ill 1 a .*l.il l"Vory 0ll i t oly its o\\n.
th it hl(pl| is 1t c ;isily griv ln, ;]s in 's(11c otiher liolds. y1 c*orr ysionii nc.
l lvp inosI spi-cific;illyk nII'd d I'romi this lbirrian is bjY thoso isolated. one-
Il HOlirr J "ilm s 110t in 1ottell \illl lI er h.'.ic l's or1t [) er linis. Adctit jilitll

;ably, IIIt In IllII individual I tr ali lis. i lln mo i \df i oro> disto>llvo offl' r a
difl itl ild y .si t-c Illiv r l i le ol' li th hlels is dvilc rinli od lin v II i t
plrrsllllI Hil III| -II[I f |i s (1. .s. lio II l rondill illo :111n l s i|) ;Illd ;i111.i' ;il.
Y aI vilab l e l o:Ikc -n lii ..r ii ta i-f ill .
F Too ilillly fothri--S ar ;l fo .ti ld to I,44 thlr books ;if Ill) ( i] lr f nllilds
al* noat available for Ill,\\' aind np-lto-da1iv Inliafliill. llcli ill s ooll pnn-
dil1iis can1 host he given on lA" s|)ot.


I[\visl I.' >>' .1' 1'1.'1' .\.T N D i().N Ir I'.\'1 (" IIN i 'C'.'I' .N







DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, IIENNIAI. REPOrI'T


On the other hand, cities and towns with an established, prol'ram
need little or no personal help from this bur(ealu -ine, ill all .ases, the
programs are under trained and experienced dIirectors with a trained
corps of workers.


PARENT EDUCATION
The period covered by this report is the tif'th ;l1 dixth, years of
work in parent education. During the preceding f',ii y-'ars the expel'i-
mental organization of discussion classes was slpplrted by ; grant frol'm
the Spelman Fund of the Rockefeller Foundation. 'iniencing .uly
1, 1931, the State Department of Education assiitimed thl, burning of
support which had been carried by the foundation aind tlhus rei'cornized
('hild Study and Parent Education as an inti'grial portion of t lhl ('ali-
'ornia public school system program of adult eduat in.
As for the three preceding years, the bure;,n stal't :'cosisted' of a
chief of the bureau and two part-time assistants. Th'e bIUnreau chief
devoted only a part of his time to the work of the burea u-undertaking
the general supervision of the program in California and carrying "n
promotion and leadership training in the San Franciseor ;, y di-tri.t:
one assistant with headquarters in Los Angeles ,.irtri'l on promotion,
and supervision in southern California; the ,other, workiii-, from tlie
Sacramento office, was charged with a similar resp lllibility for ti '
extensive geographic area included inl tlie Sacvranoillto l d Sa;l Ianilalin
Valleys and in the north coast district.
In the organization and maintenance of thlle diseli sion class,,s lhe
California Congress of Parents and Teachers las heen quite as
important as the bureau, and the great majority of ,lisussioin e'roups
have arisen within local parent-teacher associations. This, i in -,cord-
ance with the accepted policy of the state in relati',i to adult ednlcation.
The reports from local school districts shiw\\ Ilhat dirini.- tle first
year of the biennium, tlere were 288 discussion classes unlder tile guid-
ance of 72 leaders with an enrollment of 11.l4414. l)irii_ the .second
year of the biennium the number of classes was rellieed to 242 while
the enrollment increased to 12,640.
It is a significant commentary llupon the effl'e,-tiv\'-,e given by the parent-teacher associations and npon llte quality of tlhe
leaders chosen that only in a few instances have classes been abandoned
before ilhe contemplated lnumbler- of sessions had 1i.,.n kl,']. Althioughil
objective proof is lacking, it is the opinion of till stat st;,t' that in all
sections of the state, from Ilkiah and Chico in Hle i rii, 11, I San DI I)ie.o
in the south, interest in these discussion cl;e.ses has Iibeen well lmainlainllel
and the quality of leadership definitely iimproveil during thie biennium.
The conditions of economic depression and unemployment with their






DIVI'IlN 01' A1.l'lT/ .\NI' (ONTINIT1'ATION EDUCATION


Il Ceri ll.. llSti. s ill i t Jchool and llicile life lave itadtl parelits pJ)eclliarly alert
tlilnl sclsilivec to problems of growth andi devel(]opillent, particullarly ill
relalioil to tile volatiolial giidantce o'lf their children.
The problem f .fildingi'n suitable lea';Iders i.,, not pIelialr to any
i.slion of tli stale, liut for obvious reasons ile selection is more dilli-
nllt iln tile smaller eL mini nliities alndt most ihllin.r, inl the frankly rIrll;al
dli.stric s. Ill l s Angeles an tll San il'raiisc S Day (listriel., those
inlfresteti ini le:ildrslip n;itnirlly gravita;il towv;rd tie (denlistrithin
'las.s.-I.- i. '.lirll :I'il \ Iblloil l .l'.s d l ( h" e )llO)t ilir ; l sti 'l'f. Ill tlile' i ,-.sVly
sc'tllel li.stlricj of ti "'rllI c it interior v'all Cvs. thl y nll, llt 11 ( 11s11od loili.l
-ptili lit I lie illt'st pal I heir wo\ rk ha lnu sat )ist ;.ictor l *. Thlei lit'iir i lit.I ctll-
lilli l if., |i li l *lcy III i 1-,I.i ll y i f -ll- 1in ,' p, orlt'.,sio al l ;ad lers w hlio
coill (1"c- ;i Ilgirc 1llii1 l' i l ass' s. W ith few ,x, eolplio lns, till ];i : .s lold
pI r leader li;.4s I elln tliro(., or' less.
In only iiV I i't (citi,,s ili thil si te hit avI' s lpm e r\ isors ofi p ieit l'lluli-
li, i .l cl;iSs,'es I c2 n a I pp inl(t d Iby t li locrl sc:liorI l ; itlt ritit ir This
:;iTll;il 'lillel t. li;is (l,t;l ili(d1 ill IP'is.;Idl na; alti [.tllg t i:]l for o, v'ril
Y a;Ii.s. I11 '.)n ikl litl ,iltriln -' tili: pi st y ', r thi i teres ini g texl'rlinent liais
lie.n collino lledii or o.(,f1iilii ll ilc sl .'iic s oi f th |, ;I' rc ell i ild n ti< ll anlld
ollill ;-ll l.;ii l 'y h lli.-s,'s ill t e halnt I s (i ipl f trs. ii ,ill lifidi l I 10 apl il \villi ,]'n li
tit,: ;1i., (ets : t ol d ll l e .t(illii. ti lli.
( o r' 1a i tll:i(-.illy, i);l 1' 11 r l illclle ion, like L i ll o itt ;ispt'jc ts ot( ailiilt
ediuca tiio. is cnctiir;iated in the larger centers of popIilIitiii. Thli.
sniill tww\i"s ;ilnld Ioil dlistri-ets of entlral anid iiortliherni Clifornia (coll-
. litutc ;in liidievelofed iel fl Ior fllrt her endeavor. PIrore.tss in these
oiillyint. dis2 rict. \\-ill .be slow ;im ] thle illi inlt ii:lnt ce olf sizv 1iIl clai.-sses
I il i ;li i l ills i]' I l'.. e I lliti elit .
T hel pdpioil lti ll i -l li ;l' il.ts, lintl I 1 li'bini ; d. l'll il'n a.nd:>.ll 1iite>.
;li ilift lcv'el l tip fie lt ;i a ill'rlil'iilt orl. r. Somie plrogrt ss hl;i.S .e n lillintdl
in illit.r slinili" lil ill lhe this.i.SSi. in of 'lrobleli-.s of pdl'r ilitlo'i dt par-
tinilairly in tilte Snll Francisco Biay distriel, tlhrouili the ralpid'ly
devel opini g f' ilThrs' (l2,ulNl. Thit there will ever be as many fathers as
intollihrs e'irllerl is not likely, bIit defnito progress toward this ideal
iaiy lie conlidl,:ntly eCxp'ectled.
On tlie basis oi, a still dit'er iln elassiiicealiont Ilite ilothers of
eliildlrcn til rlitctl.i iol :ia inliy i .li .'lid ti, )lSillsti ttt a field for future
(til.'v lopill,,Ill. I id i'r' Itie ii li .ir 1s i tlic parenli-t'':iclitr iass 'oi;iio s aldit
\vi lli l Ih operatiolii 1, Ili.ose who maiiilaiii \\ell-baiby cliniic-s, a 'greater
ii iiilit .ie f t1 .,.s y- lllir,,i IInl, 1li1 r. w as ,ii ll ,,il d11 -i1'_ llic I he . I veair
iihall ill ail y ll"-vioi s C'lorrlI's|(iiild i.i period.
A nll ither ipr icali: Il l iintilled fi'Ild whiu-lu ishiouhlt( l iii,'ntioncd is
thlie large p tpniation otl jniiior college students, many of whom stand
Ii-gg o






DEPAWlI'MTENT OF EDUCATION, I'INNI.AI, I 1:I'OUT


upon the threshold of domestic experience wit I little or no organized
knowledge of even the simplest principles of child nurture and guidlauce.
Any attempt on the part of a state staff of three persons to carry
on adequate inspection of the hundreds of classes would preclude the
more essential promotional and teacher-trainin funIctions which have
been stressed by the bureau. Incidental inspect i11 has. of curle, taken
place and many of the individual conferences wit l Ihnaders miilghit be
classed as inspection. It is impossible, how\.-v r, t n.i r .1ii tili in sia-
l istieal form.
W wherever demonstration classes or reg'la- r ciilr f're iI,..- w\il\; leadhers-
on lithe job have been carried on, their obj-,tive hiis I,,l the imlprove-
ment. of local programs.
Since no criteria exist for judging tile actual Isucc.ess of this or any
educational program under the public school system, it is difficult to
make concrete suggestions regarding methods for im proving tle service.
Obviously, there can be no increase in personnel and probably none in
funds devoted to the promotion of parent education, even if such
increase were to be considered as an improvement. The gradual
assumption of supervision by the local school authoritie- of the larger
cities will no doubt take place within the next few years, ibut probably
not in 1932-33. This increase in supervision by l,,;I'l units is of course
desirable, provided suitable supervisors can be f,'iind andi elmpillyed.
During the year 1932-33 the bureau staff proposes to limit lte time
devoted to demonstration classes in any one ci.iwInillity to ;I period of
six months. In this way it is hoped that a larger number of untouched
communities may be reached. It goes witli'ut -aying that the attempt
to reach fathers, junior college students, and the mothers of preschool
children will be continued.


CONTINUATION EDUCATION
Continuation education, by virtue of tlie age ,of the pupils, is a
part of the secondary school program. Dealiii prim;irily \ith
employed youth, continuation education is cloI.ely related to, if not an
integral part of, the vocational education progr-am. Moreover, tlhe
pupils of the continuation school, by the very f;at otr their leaving the
regular school and entering upon elmployllmenlt ;nd self-suIport, have
passed the most significant barrier seplariitiii cllidlllnd froii adult-
hood; hence, their edu a tiin is essentially i'las-e |of a idilt e.Iuca;tion.
The work ol' the continual ion school is ,l, l-, eirdiniiated \\witli the
daily working life of the A close rolafionii:li exists htee the
teachers in the continuation school and I Ie eiipllyversI of the com-
munity. This same type of relationship exists betwceni employers and
those concerned in the vocational pirogriiii of the public schools. Hence,






Il lisiON fill .11)II''r ANID 'ONTINIT.ATION I:)I'Ac.\I'IN.\' 7'

t lie proI' ''; IlS f vO' cai; ll ll om IIId U011innit ti onll 1 1 11iiialll arn I lsely (011-
1ine:t" iin organization a;s well ias in pllurpose.
Th'le C;(lif'irillit In ril iii ol coiltiilitio e ii itiol CIlln-tioll is coliurlnic l
With tlhe. older groiip of miinor.-s (11 to 18 years of age) innlly of whom
are employed in occlll tions o ri life o ios il lie otiona.l possibilities. 'Th:l
shelool hn.s assisted tlie youth in making tile most ol' these possibilities
itirouhli its Ipr0;-1iill or inistrnction. There cal be no excuse for ;iny
oniltilllii;tion sellnd ll i l llais still oll'erilL pliilils simply l"m o e ol' IIi,
s1aint ji'ro.(' riiii. ;111l l'nilin i provide tlie tralnii g wl'iic1l is ne,1,111 l.
('itinl III;il ion dl~M1 ili m ii i.. w\ell il,.eril e 'l ;is I li' first iilig' ni Il I'
i(ld d r o' f aI t IIlll nlicail io Fort Ii ile nl d e111 1 fc e t I viu. i, th t ciil r l iIllu -
tioni seliul llie plwilhiu l \lI 'li li iiorniiilly lim.s lir-'l l ly froiii its ,.lis.- ><
to d(elj)irtiiiciils olf lthe sei,. ol I)rogr';lii or I mdiilts. lie school systeiii
hias all interest in all g'rops wvlicli do not elect the regiil.ir school
progra;i ;na nattempi t to ;irti(enl;ote the adult, conitiiiition, :iidl voen-
tional (ducention programiiii. T'1le in('nsii to this en.d has varied e;iorliii
to the chlir; ter and size oi. eclih continuallion school, and to tihe orgaiiii-
zntion of tlie system of wlichl it is a part.
In a Inrge system, tlie articuilation Ihas come either through ;llminiiiis-
trative organization or through regularly establisl1ed chainnaels 'nr
conferences between administrative otfieers who are eli;irged with Illi.
respo ni.ilbilitie.s for these difl'erent plias's of' educal ion. T'liroiigli -Il
COlifercI ees ;i worklinir- relationisll ip ;nild Ilim tu ll uill'er.st; ll dinm l' ',n111i-
Inon or \'Cverlp)ping problems is developed, resulting il ;n gpr.illy
improved programii in all three phases ol cdn.a;tion.
In a small school sy.stein, it has been ndilvantageois to have tin"
Coi1ti1iinia1ii cduc111ntionll classes aiiliinisterlil and111 taullt hy t lie swille
peC~'O s vl \\lo coii icilt c itlhlr tile o- v :c tiolnl or iilnlt progralim., or' boll.
Involved in thei thre'u progra;iin is a si1iliirrity of social ontloonk, of
methods of instruction largelyy individiul in chlinacter), and of free-
om I'n from tradlition which makes suchl a plan feasible.
Many conitiniitlion school s anepeplt nAldlts ini tlhir dlytime classes
when tlie o pportiunilies olffred p;irnllel the evening school progrraiim,
or are othei'\ise suitable to thle needs of ;anllts. Thlis inliltration of
adults coimiiionly li;hs resulted iI an improved spirit of industry in the
eoutiiuation classes, inl served anetnally to improve tlie effectiveness
of the training reccivef ly thlv ie iniiors.
A grl dual l d e.-r'aise in (elrolli,,nt in tlhe -ointini;llion schools of the
state has ltilko'i pl;ic since llit la.t l ienit: iinl. In 1929-:10 there was a
ii;a iniiiiii enrollmonit of 2l.18 1)During 1l:0-:' 1 llis; w\;.s redi cd to
22,999 aind in 19.l;1-:12 it \ is 'irllher rdlinril io 21,671. Thllis is
eeoullnted for in two ways: First, thiI reduction of employment due to
economic conditions resulted in tile isnliall~e 1of fe \ working permits.
With little or no opportunity for employment, students remained in






r)EP.ARTMENT OF EDUCATION, IENNIMAL REPORT


the full-time high schools; secondly, lite a- niendnient to the Continuation
Education Act which required for the first time this biennium that all
unemployed minors between 16 and 18 years of age who had not com-
pleted high school remain in school at least half time. In some cities
these students were given the choice of attending the regular high school
or the continuation classes. In 1otlhers, notably Los Angeles, they were
not allowed to leavee the fll-timne lhig'h school unless they hald first
secured em ploy lmenlt.
Seven schools whliicli iepolted contioation classes in 190-31
reported no enrollinents in 1931-32: twno selool.s wh\icl were previously
reimbursed for coordination service firoi state and federal funds were
not reiminuhirsed in 1031-32; but niine schools which were not reimbl)ursed
in 1930-:1 ha]ve becmere standard schools and received reimbursement
for coordination in 1931-32. TheI ise are Glendale, Alliamnbra, Biurbank,
Compton, FiilleIrton, Santa Paula, Bedlindo Beach, La Verne, and
Carpinteria.
The total enrollinent for nll contintiunation schools is 1:2S less than
for last year, although 20 schools sliow\ed a slilghit increase in enroll-
ment. The average nuilbei of hours \\liicll each lipupil attended the
continuation school each week \was a little ]e, tihanl tlilree andl one-half
hours which, witli thie decrea.i.-d eiinrollment, indiilete-s tt hat there were
fewer unenemployed Ipupils leaving tlie full-time school.
The coordination service iii tlie various continuation schools has
decreased only a little with thie decrease in tlie lumber of firms who
are employing junior workers. The number of visits per pupil, how-
ever, shows an increase.
Placements have decreased -about 60 per cent since tile reports of
the year 192-:- 0, sniome lihoolos lepor~itin l, no placements whatever this
year.
The reduction in teachinl g ;i litas not kept up witli tile decrease
in attendance in tite conltiinuation schools for tie .state as a whole, and
classes have consequently lint beeii increa-sed in .size and tihe subjects
of instruction show a wider spl:read, \which is, no doubt, an attempt to
meet more fully the individual needs of the 21,000 pupils who attended
the continuation schools of the state in 1931-32.
Vocational -and( educational pgid;lace continues to be onie of tile
major fuintions of the conttilnuatioln school. This lias been broadtelned
to include ircrea-tional, stcial, eivic, ad hlealtl guildance. Training.
however, lias been limited in meaningii to )prepiarai-tion for' eCiploymient,
preferably for imnimedliate ellmploymeiint, through inlstrlci-~ti inl the .skills
of an occupation oir in tlite related technial iuiforimatioin. Placement
work in the contiltinua tion selool inclle le nolt lly thie v'arefi'l selection
of applicants for the jobs wliichi ar' a\vail;ible, butt ;ilso tlie constant
search for suitable additional jobs illn liichi youling people can be placed.








T'I' lilull ,crilerioI ll 11l',c1 i\v .in.~ iI conil tilial ioln school work is the
degree. t \\'hicli (11 i tpils ;ir ecalibl.Id to secure profitable employment
and to adjust hlleiiselv\sc to ;a w-oril while occupational and social life.
An agg rssive progi'rain o' pilancement is lpurslud by every continuation
school. Follo\-upi, delined as thle ma intlaining of contact with pupils
wIlile Illcy are; attending tihe conittiuation school and for some time
afler. ,has aided tih l .tndentis in iii aking necessary adjustments in
cipl)oynelnt ;ml l 1 I.i' slioo i in checking tlhe results of its program.
Since the best approai Ito the ednlcation of the average continua-
tion-seliool pupil is through lire cxpeienice,, the guidaiec and training
prograin of tlie state has:
1. Utilize-1 e1nployinel experiences and problems to aid in occu-
pational guidance ande to increase occupational efficiency.
2. Utilized tlie pupils' economic problems to help them in the best
possible use of their incomes.
:i. Utilized the pupils' civic and social experiences to develop eon-
struetive and coopel)ralive action in ,-ivie( anl social matters.
4. Utilized suchl lioiin priobleis ;,i occur to increase the under-
standiiln' of iholile making iand of happy lioe1 relationships.
5. Utilize.d recrea.tiLonl problems to increase the use of whole-
sril~. e recrLalionial f;acitlties in tie coii m unily.
(;. Utilized hli;iltl proble))1ms to ii>nlch.ale health standards and to
(hdvlop proper health habits.
7. Utilized opporluniiies to ,exend tile pupils' general information
and ippr'ri;iti'nii ol' tlie airis. aind develop) tlieir desire for a broader
Cu tliture.


DIVISION 1' AD1111' AMNI) (cONTINUIJ'ION I.:I)CATION












Division of Elementary Education and Rural

Schools

HELEN HEFFERNAN, Chief

IMPORTANCE OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION
California's elementary schoollls enroll a ,g-reater niiumber of pupils
than any other division of the public school system. The elementary
school is important also because in it every child of the state must
obtain his preparation for lighli slchool and college. Upon the thorough-
ness of his preparation depends the qualityy of his achievement on the
higher educational l.evels. Ap ain, tlie eliemntar y, school is sign ificant to
the whole social fabric for lle reason that mian.y il.lre'n obtain all their
school trainine- in it.
Every community shouldd be watct-hful that its elementary school
program is not sli llted. The young child in the most formative years
of his development is in need of as effective a school environment, as
well prepared a teacher, a. ld as ritc]l an educational program as any
pupil in the entire school system. Tlihe ,-'reat difference between the
per capital cost of the edu latition of anl elementary school pupil and a
high school pupjil in the 1aie couIInImunityv ilditicate- that too frequently
the superst.lci lct r e is i.m'I ll'lI al ed at tile Cex p se of a 'iproper and fitting'
foundation in til e edi -atin'u'al :edifice.
The state, too, should take proper ecginizance of the importance of
elementary educati,,n ;ind .see that this division of the school system
is properly filaiinctd before tutIlnle expansion in the field of higher
education is undl ertakenl at the expen se of an adelquiate basie pl-rovision
for elementary schools.

AIMS OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION
Elemenlllary e'nlcationi lhas pa-sed1 thiriiogh treimendio-ios changes in
Iasic philosophy. b,,. s, 1 of, lle ai pplicalion of thle laws ,of psychology
to the teaching- pirnrss. Il.I wtili;ization o' llie s. ieoltific n ethod ; tlihe
provisionI fol' prol'e.s.-siiiiliI I 'a vi sliij' til i ru'll, 1 siil ervi-isiol ; andl tlhe rei'I-
ganization of a;l liniiistra ive practices. A new statement of basic prin-
ciples for eleentia t'ryi edlitcation is urgently needed. Tlse priiples
are tentatively suggested.






IPVISION oi' i:I. I:I.\I.NTA ':V i:[:I'A.\'I'ON .\AN > I!I;A1 ,, i 1' 001.s 77

II is lle 1'I, lilnl i ,l l' ti t' Ir enltlll'allrY school Io Cell, eaj ch child to:
1. l)evelop ;1 Solliud )ill. norial mel ie t al attitudes, and1 con-
trilled I .'ll)lionill Ireactions
2. Understandi social relationshlils and participate in them in
w\\iys co.nd liive to thle progress of society
3. Develop eaIc individual 's potentialities as completely as
possible
4. Cultivate habits oi) critical thinking
.". Appreciate 1an1d wish to participate in worth while cultural
activities
(i. .\cquIireC conlitand ot tlhe cnnoiion kinowledges andi skills essetn-
l ial lo effeel ive living

All of the ac tivities of tihe Division of Elementary Education
and;111 1 l Schools have cenilered around an attempt to interpret these
liasic princi1l.es of )parents, teachers, supervisors, anid administrators.
I'il priniiples have profound si-'nificanee in school procedure. They
iiIi r'or..'allnizing thle schools so that cliildren muay have an oppor-
hinily to exercise desirable social relationships; to develop powers of
thinking through problems; to cultivate individual interests and apti-
I it Iles. They iimply an emph asis on that subject matter and those
e.XpeH'rines. whlidi make living a riLc. colorful, cultural adventure in
I le realmnis oI art, mulisic. science, aind literature. They imply a watch-
tillness over every enviiiimeIntal influence which night be subversive
Oc' Collm lete pily.sicail. Il~ital, a; nl emotional realization.

IMPROVEMENT OF SCHOOL PLANTS
'ThI iIpllrill llc( il "a )pro(~ I sr1001 virolllll en t i'llcn t Ii '.I be Over-
,lllplhasized if I llse goals for elementary education are to be achieved.
The minimum aeceltalle state standard is that all schools shall be safe,
sIInitiry. andl ceducvtionailly serviccabIc. In addition, if they can be
aiirtnrtirc. beautified by trees, shrubbery, and flowers, the dividends in
,.liilI develolupjnit will far exceel the effort to create a suitable school
e11 Vi'Ollillnent.
Much progress l;is been made in school plants and equipment
it rougihot tle stale. Most of the elementary school children have
I-oil'o;rtable. attractive, and fairly well equipped schools. The division
lia.s ellcourage.id ounltiet.s to make saniitary surveys of local conditions
anid has given gu"idai;n-ce in working out. survey forms and techniques.
Thie making of county scnre cards for school buildings has been encour-
aged in order that small communities imay make their schools the best
possible agency for educating their children. Such -a "measuring
stikI" hlas proved a great incentive in the improvement of the school






DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BIENNIAL REPORT


plant and its equipment in that the community may see its school in
relation to others of the county.

NORTHERN CALIFORNIA CURRICULUM STUDY
In the spring of 1930, the county boards of education ill 17
of California's northern counties1 agreed to cooperate in the cocnstruc-
tion of courses of study to be used in the participating counties. These
counties represented similar educational situations in that they all had
many small rural schools, none were financially able to employ cur-
riculum experts to direct the preparation of courses of study, and all
realized the inadequacy of a course of study prepared by the county
board of education in the few days which could be spared from the
full-time educational responsibilities which most of the members had
in addition to their county board activities.
In undertaking a cooperative enterprise of this kind, the danger
of dividing the work into subject matter fields was recognized. Com-
plete integration of subject matter around large centers of interest was
the accepted ideal. However, some division of assignment was essential.
County responsibility was assumed in the large subject matter divisions
of health, social studies, science, arithmetic, language arts, reading', and
literature. Such an organization did not preclude integra;tiol. Tile
various curriculum groups were free to indicate activities which
involved other fields than those of their immediate responsibility. The
emphasis of each group was on developmental experiences rather than
upon the acquisition of facts in the separate subject matter fields.
Teacher participation was secured in the preparation of all the cur-
riculuim material. No units were introduced which lhad not been
worked out in a practical classroom situation.
This cooperative curriculum endeavor was carried oil under the
direction of the Division of Elementary Education and Rur:al Schools.
It represents activities on the part of educators in an area of 46.376
square miles, or approximately as large as the state of New York. The
actual participation of teachers, principals, supervisors, district super-
intendents, county superintendents, and county boards of education ill
tie construction of the curriculum doubtless represented intangible
values in terms of growth in professional skill. This vitalization of'
elementary school instruction far outweighs in significance tlie printed
courses which have already been distributed to the counties for use in
the school year 1932-1933.
1 Amador, Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Glenn, Lake, Lassen, Modoc, Nevada, Placer.
Plumas, Shasta, Siskiyou, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba.






DIVISION O1P' I-:I,-:.\11:N'I',I1"V 1:11U1 NATIONON ANID RURAL SCH1OOIiS


'I'e II'llowinlg materials inave Ieen prepared and pllans for the
coniilinutiil n o'f llie North:ern Calil'ornia Ciurriculumn Studly are being
made with Iunabatedi enthusiasm:
Suggested Course of Study in Science for Elementary Schools
Suggested Course of Study in leading and Literature for Elemen-
tary Schools
Suggested Course o" Study in Social Studies for Elementary
Sellhool s
Thie oultstalling results oC tlie study are (1) it. secured the coopera-
tion of representatives eduentors froni nearly every school district in
tlie area, a nd (2) it insured a course of study in harmony with the best
teaching practices of the rural schools of northern California.

RURAL SCHOOL SUPERVISION
'l'le progress of rural schools in California during the past decade
can be attributed to California's nationally recognized program of
rural .ul-,Iol supervision. luiiral supervision was introduced in Cali-
fornia to equalize the opportunity of the rural school child. City
school systems had long enjoyed tlie guidance and leadership provided
by professionally qualified educational experts who brought to the
difiicillt problems. of cliild development superior training and a richer
experience than thle classroom teacher ordinarily possesses. The rural
suellrvisor serves. to improve tlie instruction of teachers who, in general,
liive mincl less t raining and experience lthan teachers in city systems
;ind1 who are in greater need of' the services of a well (qualified expert
to meet the dif'licullics inli'her. nt in the iiulti-grad' d heterogeneous
rural siicool.
Thlie county chliool superintendent could not give tlie rural schools
close supervision unless lie were free to devote all his time to super-
visory duties and unless lie were a trained supervisor. Every legisla-
tive session imposes so many and such a variety of essential duties
uplon tlie county superintendent t that lie can not. spend the necessary
timle supervi.sing the work (done in the schools. II rural schools are to
approximate tie efeetivelnss of city schools, if country children
are to enjoy as valuable an educative experience as urban children,
lInI th e provision for expirl direction of 'rural education must. be
equivalent to the expert supervision provided for schools in populous"
areas.
In one rural county of California, tile results of children in school
accomplishmient as shown by standard tests has been kept. from the
beginning of the supervisory program.







(O DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, I:IINNlAI, IHPO1RT

The rcsiilts of these tests show that marked progress \vs madee by
the pupils after the program of supervisionI was a ilnaugurated. Data
showing the school achievement of the eighth grrade pupils as measured
by the Stanford Achievement Test before supervision, after the first
year of supervision, and after five years of supervisioni are presented
herewith
1 ?.5-?G 1 .,'-?' 1.930-31
Number of pupils------------------------------ 212 2312 215
Number of years of supervision----------------- 0 1 5

PUPIL ACHIEVEMENT
Median
Test score----------------------------------- 7 74 4
Educational age------------------------- 11 y-.. 11 yr., 14 yr.
90 no.. 10 n,... S ins.
First Quartile
Test score----------------------------------- 4
Educational age----------------------- 11 yri., 11 .,r-.. 12 yrs.
1 in .'. "' in'I-. 11 IIIi .
Third Quartile
Test score-- ----0--1 -------------------- .
Educational age-- ----------------- 12 yrs., 12 yr., 15 yrs.
It mnos. 7 inoC. 90 nos.

Iligl score ---------------------- ----_-------- i 11:3

This division has aided in incri'asinli the effe:-tiveness of tlhe
county progranis of supervision by:
Visiting teachers with the supervisors
Discussing the work of teacher and llpervisor
Participating in teachers' meetings hl,_d by "siipervi Arallging for supervisors to see andi ov'alin;it til' work inl the
state (lemollstration rural sc:Ihools
Coiidicling quarterly sectional conl'ererines o)I rriiil sipeii.,r5s
a id annual state-wide conference
Conducting summer session classes, iii tc-cliii(i.s icS o .ll.iilty Super-
vision and on problems of supervision
Preparing bulletins for the use of supervisors and teachers
Distributing many integrated units .,I' work 1i6itable for use in
rural schools
Evaluating for each supervisor tlih slluperisor(y acc.,in1plishlieiit
ol each year and in offering :o:liistriiictie nsu-g!--estions fl' tlie
proposed prograili for the. coiling school .Iyear" hs-_ u n the
supervisor's annual report
It hias been the purpose of the division:
To maintain efficiency in supervision by encouraglinig a unification
and coordination of the efforts of every individual engaged
inl the work of supervision









.To preservcI~ C ;t i illiirlO ;tg'll litIII (llii li ;ill(1 inill i i ve OIa le ol v
Siipervisnr
T dissenil in e ill 'iiililli ti k.i collti 'iiiig thie O xcellCient acl O lii. Il-
men0is o r' vliriOils supervisory progralis throughout t tlhe state.


THE PROGRAM OF THE STATE DEMONSTRATION
RURAL SCHOOLS
'1I'.i lcsignaiionl or,!' certain .schools as State Demonstration Rural
Schools Ii:hs been for tlie purpose of providing educational situations
ill \hicll. sqilJ0ri'ilt(llilde si supervisor. rs, andl teachers miglit have the
opportunity of obs.cr'vi n ic\\ ;ia)pproacili o the old. goals of education
andi to see in operation a plan looking to tlie better and fuller develop-
ment of chlild.lren.
Tlie programs in tlie various schools are not identical althiougli they
a;re based upon a common guiding philosophy and educational phi;n.
The unique personality of each school is maintained. The needs of tih
community constitute Ite liprimllry determinant of what activities are to
(ei ll miaiii d major attention.

The Guiding Philosophy
One familiar with nimodern educational theory and practice would
find iiothiii .sta;tli-im-ly new or rmdical in the state demonstration
i iiril .lihools. The.'y repire. nit lln attempt to adapt lo ruiirail conditions
tlile best of ll I ne~\w iictlinet s of education \vlile retainiiie tlie best of
tlie old.
Il tllh. prIog'' aiii ol the d(olionistrationi sc.liils, cqual empliiiasis is to
be placed on i/tc indi'iduaIl n'eds of hic child and his social dcuclop-
iront. hec fiiniiment;il iiiurposcs of the schools are to train for indi-
Aidual rc.sponsibiliy, inii.ti ie, cooperation, independent thinking, and
social living. Ideally, tlie schools ninm to give the child an educative
experience which will result in his balanced and harmonious develop-
mient. Thle schools aimn for growth in vision, self-direction, self-
;lpp)rais;il. sell'-collrol, li(and sell-xpresioii. Growth in character is an
iiiill;i I le oi lh Oill ,e.
D)CLelopment from wrilliin rather tlia h111 ie mere ;nelli4iiiOli of
knowledge an ] skill is tlie COmiIprlehensive aii of education. Cretli.'.
uctivitiCs ;arIe alliedd more thilai those thllt merely conform to exi.tiii_
patterns. Responsibility for tli school is shared by tlie teacher and tie
children.
Tlie developmennt of c.ich individual child is valued above all. It is
rializ l tilz l h liil lid rc diflY r si cmiiplletly in physical, meniall, social,
and educational ciap)ailics, expri xpi'iie ac. ;hievements, ii(nd rates of


DIVISION OlP' 1I.I:M.1: T.I;1 :lilli'ATION AND I JIAI, SCI(1OOLS)







DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BIENNIAL REPORT


growth that no mechanistic organization of education alone will .erve
to develop the distinctive personality of each child.
Variety in human beings is expected. Each pupil is studied to
learn what he really is and needs. He differs physically, mentally,
and temperamentally from all other children. He differs in social
background. Education selects its aims from the variety of individual
human wants. Education fits its means and methods to the variety
of individual interests and capacities.

The Educational Program
The school should aim to contribute to a realization of the greatest
development of the fourfold nature of the child : physical, mental,
social, and emotional.

Physical Development
The physical development of the child is fostered through
The physical education program
The nutrition program
Health supervision
Health instruction

The physical education program. "The first duty of mnIjU is to be ;i
good animal," said Herbert Spencer. A sound body is fu indaiiental to
any program of education. The school contributes most to this objective
through a well organized and vigorous physical education program.
Every child participates in some playground activity suited to his
particular need during each intermission. Folk dancing and posture
work are especially stressed.

The nlirilion program. The serving of food to school children, espe-
cially during the lunch period, is an important factor in any school or
community program for the betterment of chiild health.
Studies and investigations of health conditions among school chil-
dren indicate that the percentage of undernourished children in rural
communities is higher than that existing in larger communities. This
difference is largely due to unsound eating iablits and to the lack of a
variety of foods in the diet.
Supplemental food in the form of a hot lunch is provided with
very little equipment, expense, and work and w\ith no sacrifice of school
time. Such an activity becomes a valuable educational project as
important as any other educational activity carried on in the school.
The children are carefully supervised during the twenty-minute lunch
period at noon. They sit down and spend this time, eating lunch.






DIVISION 01' E:liMEN'TA\R EDUCATION ANDr RURALr SCHOOLS 83

Parents iand school authorities coo'peraltively assume tihe responsi-
bility for training children in the selection of an adequate diet, in the
establishment ol' desirable eating habits, and in thle acquisition of good
table manners.

Health supervision. Physical examinations are made and eases in need
of medical attention are reported to the parents. Through the coopera-
lion of loCIal social welfare agencies, needy children are given remedial
treatment.

Health. inlsruclion. Health falks, charts, plays, posters, and clubs are
means by which health lihlaits are incunleated.

Mental Development
'The old education emphasized the acquisition of knowledge and
skill. ]t depelnded upon drill to fix habits, it deliberately set out to
imakle tlie inew generation conform to the pattern of tlie old. In our
complex modern life, it is evident tt tat knowledge and skill, as such,
though highily desirable are not so important as the development of
an adequate physical equipment, proper social attitudes and ideals, and
stable emotional responses.
There is no desire in the demonstration schools to minimize the
child's mental development, but rather to consider it in relation to the
harmonious general development which is also lhe function of the school.
The classroom work is organized around large units of interest.
These large units provide a curricula um of life activities so representa-
tive of life in general that children passing through the school find
situations in which they may grow and exercise their creative ability.
School ac;'itievitie as 'ar as poIssib)le re the outrovwtil of problems to be
solved.
The old type recitation method is replaced by class discussions,
socialized recitations, reports, an d dramatizations centering around or
growing out of large units of work. These methods permit of adjust-
Uent to individual differences. The outstanding contribution of the
new psychology to edueIation is the fact that children differ. lThe
psychologist hIas proved that these liffterenees are wide, varied, and
persistent. To a large degree. sitccess in training children depends
upon the extent to which traiining is adjusted to these differences.
Tlhe individual method is used almost entirely inl grades three to
cight, in ariit metic. 'This is supplemented by group instruction when-
ever an economy of time can he effected in presenting new principles.
Spelling and writing are individualized. Enach child is allowed to
grow in his oin waUy and /por/rrs.s a(t his own rate and toward his own
goals.









Thc social actliilt f are carried.1 onl by Yl'rolps. Among these may
be mientine: till : SMp. tsclijil i ardlel.ns folk dancing and galnes, civics
c'lub, hgood book ciu 11bs, at ud i torim ti I activities.
Mental and achievement tesis :re give pupils tn determine apti-
tude.s, interests, ablilities, imlproveient, aind for diagnostic purposes.
The individual needs of the chill are determined as scientifically as
possilbh. and these are satisfied either liy individual or group activity.
TI,, In r | .-ip s1* p|laii 0ol i 'ir i te' li i il. rcf'irrI.' to a. ; I lf'v ',! if p it in
wl 1ic(h tillO ,ocial IC' tivilis ;,re (-: ilrrild on in ll -C i;l _'. oups and tle 1
iL'cC.essiarI v klin, i'Ig s I ,lii .1 skill i arl'' ;i.liii \'vcd li :I; i n ldivi ll '/jcil
proc1 0 IIlre..

Social Development
A conscious ellort i inmade to provide a social situation in the school!
in which children may learn to live together as normally as possible.
1The "lock-step" is eliniminated inl tI sdchoI iimiinagenet. School life
is made as nearly like the life situation in which the child will later
find hiiiself a s is possible. Children should acquire habits of social
.behavior tlhroI(ugh1 opportunity to participate in the social relationships
of tlie scllool.
1'ie social development of tile chlil is lprovided for through play-
ground activities: club activities sulch as the civics, health, and agri-
cultl 1're clubs; tlhrouligh coillllittees Witl reslponnsil)ilities for eiuilpient,
library, yard, milk, and tlie like; through tlie large units of work in
science, social studies, and literature; thiro)ghl the school gardening;
through ,auditorium activities anl thiroun si.eialized classroom activ-
ities. The Achools constantly strive for greater social awareness and
Iespo)OlSO.

Emotional Development
The eimotii.ial (ldevlolil let -I.f tlie chlild is the outcome of every-
th!ing he does and everything with which Ie comes in contact. A whole-
some happy school atmno.-lpliere plI'\revelntS tliei development of emotional
maladhjustment.
It is thie constant n.leavor in tlie demonstration school to keep
tlhe children happily blvy in activilis oft interest to them. Our best,
assurance of a healthy mental life and nbjective-mindedness is valuable
inllteresting occipatiiin Every ;ictiV iy initione,.d under social devel-
Opll llit .'-lit rilliti'.s t o l 'i ii: 'l ,ti iit lil aI l.iil.istiii lnt. T hl e ms l:ools
kieep in e",ii-istlaiit ci itl;rt with HIPi' li111111' IL -lii" I co'il, l'roeilces with tile
parents and parent anid t'l.itcler dlisuti.s-ioll .rlnlips.
A direct effort is made(.1i tllhroil h mli"sic, writing of original poetry
and plays, picture study, art, dancing, and literature, to find avenues


DEPI'.I'TMAI.LNT il"' 1:)IT *.1TI \ N, !II:NNIAL.\ IE[:['ORT









Il'hruoiu which the child may eXpre?.ss his emiitionill life. The c iild'.s
Fe;iClii'L! is ircl'lllly (lieeted l so tllit 1ie niavy hIave1 (ll Stinl ullitiol i a; i(
'lguidaiice tlat co(011 froin good literatluri. Nature stutldy and science
make their contribution to the child's appreciation of his plnce in the
ilniverLISse.


LIST OF STATE DEMONSTRATION RURAL SCHOOLS


I lliull ----. -- --- -- -----_ -- -te~acJller
\\'Vali( 1 t---------------- -- 1-I0ac(1l0 r



l.iv rI II------- -------- .-- -tea er
. 1n in.s0 nil\'i lq, 1 -1000 ii1r




T'la lhoe I mLa Ice- ----------------] teaelier
Slieridanl ------------- -- 2-teac ir'
SiIioods-; ----- ___ )-t c;i e Ir
li1st;--------------------------taclher
Arnlt-tg ii0i(e C' reek -------- ---- -teOaIdI(.
lWI ...---------------- -----t-;i-i'i"
P.eI\\ iis_______ __________ -------.-telalii'r
IhlJs n Inl inn ___ '______________i I;-tean li<:r
I'[leas. iiil \'a; lley. C';aniiii .ll .... ----7-1c,; i.-Iirr


S-,liool--_____--_ 1 ilt t(

sllool --------Ii t Ilc

sciiool ----- _- Placer
sclo ol _______1; -ce

' elio, I --_____ asti11




50liO 100l-------- ;iS
.selc 1 .- -- O 1c r



Sc1iool-----__Plalom
SCoo I_______ ShIlSta


se lilnl -__ _. I_ S lt li l in
sc ol 0 . ---V ,Il ilI';


THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALSHIP

There are ili California 740 supervisin- princi pals or district super-
intendents and 1600 teaching principals.
It was w. ith 111(0 p1 ll-'pose o' IllIetil- ll ure I' .sely this I;ll'rP' IIIill).-r
01o educators in tlhe slate that the series of eleienitary sellool principals'
cOlifeelnce.s w\\1 planned by the division. These conferences \\ere held
as follows:
hico-----------------------------_March 5
'Freslio ------------------------- _____ pril 2
N.iklalndl ---------------------------- \ april i13
;l"Icrai elto___--------____ __________ April 30
ledtllands__--------------------___- ____ 21

\W itli Ili gr lics 1 i i ll. sl"ijol 1 1s., sil1ilit I (I stii iil I l, ;k Ilid pro ilote
,i prl',,r -.sivo I 'iirn rili ,"I *,rwrllril 'y --1l- o*( itin \\'lilrlf will I insurlle thile
-ll-llll- r l d dil'i\' ilii'lit c '. .vv v vlild. 11 is Is i' .-lw'l I lr ii'o- tol.s Iof
eleiililliarl eul C' atio( l tlh t thle (diVisill pl'ropoo.s I) reach ti le elassroomr
..lill nllonl ;landh keep on. to that ilil iillil)(11 iil 111 1 ;il. ,,fio ii| fi ac' ;ilie il l'd
puliil. 01ril\ I iroil-0 i ll iri* cooperation Il(1 adl e'rship (-. li) i tll. state
]iPiogriiiiii of C(licati llln i ocnil inle mot elLetelve.


Conlllty
(-oI lit \"

( 'oI tlllt
(-.outll.v
0._j I1 t N-
County
County
C01111ty

oUiiity

oillity
(Oilh.\'

Sou1ntv


I)IVII)N Dl' I-JU, M IN'I',I\" 11)IUCAT'I'ON ANI) I'IIH AI. ScIllOl.,-







DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BIENNIAL RI:PORT


The high school principals have assembled for a number of years
to discuss their common problems; other professional groups have had
similar gatherings to promote growth and educational leadership. The
advancement of numerous phases of educational endeavor can be traced
to the solidarity of the group immediately in charge.
A conference of elementary school principals has. long been a part
of the State Department of Education plan, a ndI th1e large attendance e at
each such conference gave evidence of the interest and need felt for
such a conference. The individual contributions made at the con-
ferences were of such a quality as to create most optimistic i lnti :iptinl
of the results of frtler opportunities for con ference.
The outgrowth of this series of five eonf'rences of eleiiet.it;ary
school principals and district superinenlde s constitutes the material
of the first issue of a new publication to be issu.ed quarterly by the Stati.
Department of Education and to be called ti:he (.',;lifri,.;, .Jiiuri,,nl (of
Elementary Education. It is planned to devote thle liajor portion of
each issue to articles dealing with several plhrses of one 'of thle larg':er
problems of elementary education. The articles tof the first itiiuiiiI' will
be devoted to the topic, "Responsibilities ,of the Elementiry S Wchool
Principal." Future issues will treat other mnijor problemls of ele-
mentary education. The purpose of this journal i, to provideI a new
service 'for California educators charged witli the: responsibilities of
administration and supervision of instruction in the elelmentary school
and through this means aid in furthering tlie pro'-ess nf elementary
education in the state.

HEALTH PROGRAM FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
The preparation olf a Teachers' Guide to :II:Ilth Instirlmetion inl tlie
Elementary Shool has been undertaken j-lintly by tlie Division of
Elementary E(ducation alnd Rural RScools adl the D1)ivisini of' Hiealth
and Physical Education.
Con] fre'(' ces were hi'l(l in I os Aingeles. So. r;- liin it", 1, Oaklandl
(during the fall of0 19)31 to disculss what al .leiiielItlrliry c illd l'iuli
know about hIealth.I Invitations to represe:nt;-itkiVes to attend these
conferences were sent to city, county, and districtt superint:endlents .of
schools; city, county, and state departments i, public l.ahlt ; state and
county imedlical associations: tlhe California ti, w c' rss oif I'ar,-i ts aid
Teachers; universities and colleges; and to addll iii'l;)n l i,-''.,sn .'i,-'i;illy
ilitere'stedl ill beh Ili e(dlica ion.
A\s Ia Iestlt ( 1' hiese liIt're c l ((1'e Is li*,. i.,Inll' iii 1 tlil ,.ill ij.: l
1ai ler fielf d was esla )lishei Twi'l I liajor ili' iiii \vI' ;,ir .'e, d i tlp ii.
Teachers and mlpevwisOrs thrll'ougiout Ilie s t.e wure askel lo sulb-
mit excellent units of work in health instrutel ion under one of these






DIVISION OF' I:II:.ENTARV I.:.DIm NATION N AND RURAL SCI(OOLS


Ill ior headliln .. Th'le c [IIil*l. Wvlre ;1 Iei: rId ,'f w Wrk \'whic'l had l l ell
iat ,lillally e;I t'd4I l 11ll la. II s ,si ll ii tal l', il i sl'. T hi. llm lte lri l is. lll -pro essu.s..
ii' beingii. edit,,lI at the present time and will be available for distribution
(1111i-ii' tle c, iling, 'ear.
The division hi s dire.c- ted n stulldy in the1 e'valluaitionl of health text-
Ibioks wliielt i;i. ,oon .ibtillted ;it insi;l, ler'- thlesis nt Stnniford Uni-
V ',rsil '. T hI c le(< l ll i l,. iii f i v lIll.ition w ill Ihe 11-ed ill .oi'i 111iii win 1101
hibli, 'r:ipili1 I'for lite Iii,',-.1 I le tlill PI 'ro-griiii ', r .l'ilil'ornia E'le-
III nli ,i. S ,:|l ii l' .


WASHINGTON BICENTENNIAL CELEBRATION
A\ bulletin \. ;s prodI.lc'l to einlloII'a~ toa;I'l':rs to use tlie occasion
ol llt, hl)icenteiiliill ccleblrll ioll -s ;111 Oppinrfu ll it y Ii climallmleir education.
''i nlObservace of tile WV.isliiiigton licheitenniiial 1i!d tilhe appear-
iiice O l' teli y.vearbook pillli,-ntion ofl the Depl;irtintlilt of Superintenldence
of tlihe N;itioni)l E'diientinn A,.,sdciiation upon thle subieet of character
clli;itillo \Wins dI liippIV oin.i- eiiclie Tle lriVll lndots I'ecip]rocal possi-
bilitis, w\er'? iillnn ldiiitely ;ilppllr'entt ti edlliuentor's ilnni ln a "sincere,
iiil,.lliitciit. ;illd oll'l. cOlls ilPi-pl'oi:li t to L,.? ri'e;il probl]inl of livill ''
Ilirii',Ili l |11 l lllI i.,is Oil chli.li'ieltr .t' c l0 1 ,n11elit. Is tli l folu il lation of tlhe
s Ihol pro)g;iil. Activitic, ill tlii' s(13(l ecnltCred arollllnd till, study of
0i IlliIII of greata t lmbility o" .lilaracter, whose reoi'00l oid servicee to tlie
.,illet, of (devotion to i111111n \\.11i falr, of perSOliti self-s~;lcrifie for the
i;li l' ood1 is I31 l1i|'p;issedl il i ill t i i innal. -i o uf r natillion, provide living'
,xeiiiliilil, alinii n ;i l.l. Irso l ity \worthiil of e1 ul; itioii.
A l,.sti'Nii t ,liialities o. f ,:li, ii'icter ;11" ill ii' iiiin 'le.s to ,.liild rin. T raits
:illd iuileils lhvc(Jic Vit illy sillnifieit to til'ill wlien atthelled to a donli-
imIll alid l iiicile p)ersonilitv. "I'eople inmklk m1orte appealing standards
1i1ii d11 ;il>iastraetils. Tlhey lihave tlhe firtlher Ir't illvi'litage of
iliril',.riilil ', ,I' lil lilli siz/l tie ill f linlitie' tli; I arc so ri'id
IIII ill;dll '11:1t10e m e til ,v. linv'e 1een 11 iii(l i lie o lifeless s .ilt"^ n'oS. O ne
iil' ltie he.st ail.s\w .s to I lie ( cli;ariT'ii".' is to ii;lie ;t ialf doz/.on ierF.on.s who ar'e distiln listed from
I ll ordl'tiliaI. I'tili by their exeeIlelle e 'I cllariicter. Tills 11am counts to
salyinlt liat the personal a:ii appraisal is priminary, tlie 1 raits or definitions
a: e Seco :lli iv.


PUBLIC RELATIONS ACTIVITIES
Tile division lIas ;icepted responsibility 1o, aid il informing tlhe
pulliIic ri'gardill.iig eilltc;ilimilal Ir'CeIns tHlll t .Olnlilin iti.iis ill y lllder-
stainlL the ecll ntional ileelds of Iboy and girls.
I Drpairlif'ent of .Supl/rilntrudi' ni". Tcnilth YrerbooI. CLharu rlrr f 'Ed uration, \VWash-
ing on, D. C.: National E-i ;l.Iition Association, 19332.
-Sl I S






DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, BIENNIAL REPORT


Excellent eooperativ. roila iionships lis\e l vIwl maintained with the
California Congress of Pa'ints a nd Tetacihe'rs and local parent-teacher
associations. Tihe division has bIeen called upon for advisory service,
addresses, and magazine articles for the state publication of the
orga nizat ion.
The Daughters of the Amerie;n Revolution lhaive operated with
the division in studying problems related to tlie eduention of migratory
selhool liil (ldrel', Ii(dianjs. andl proviilin funds for various types of relief
work in rural schools.
Ili 1930 and 19!31. the division directed the preparation of brief
bulletins appearing under the title, "Suggestions for Publie Schools
Week. These bulletins have been designed mprim arily to encourage as
effective an obWervance of Public School Week ii the rurural ,communities
of tlhe state as hlas been established in urban areas.
lAmerilan pi 'nts hliav'- h illays Ibel iiievl l led ill ed ulilitil o j)l i ilirtunity
for tliir onsi ;ain lll iig lterl'. The ilte 4f thli typiVi il f;inily rlevolvt 'e
a around plati foi tp ,i i, 'u1 ; d t itinl of its -.iliiliili. Thie s;icritiri s of illli-
\'idtliil illi tii .., ; ilil .t, t il' (1*i.l l ii tiol;il l i''i-',ie .S of their chilldr' l
;1'1, to(o ili l I IIc i llit i t I i ll IIlllio l eX IW,, i:'ti,,ri:0 1,, It' lIil': c 1iiiio lim e t. Ill it a
w\ id Oel iis ii, l 1ii, i\' i tedl l t lie .;I" I1111 li r',-liil jIi I 1 c(*oml in it i,~.s
I lave soii-ult ,t s;ifegi i ,t II, I ilntII i 'ility o' i (L t -. inifl iistll tiliitiolls ill i(l
liiro\ii~:' for th- e ad lvii i '.iii t ofl thli''i .iti.,'iis I thi' kI s .di .-ti' iio il
(ipllortuilit*y ;t II c' i 111111id l iat] wit tlIIir their, ki iowledge. T rI,,'
lo';i lier is 'e.-,pji ilIl.I for scl;vi;il ';. n iil tlir'lii '-i hl .er\s ic
iii thil cAi.s ri iioll, hl t 1;as :i iit'r1't' (l'i t 1irW\\- tell i, 'li i's- ili d, l ;i-
li on. Mlod,'I'ln *d',ii itio ill I-s\ c.liil gV Ih;is 1l' lllit :1t i l 1t a trt nsiti,,n ill
seilinp proi)0:O i'u'.s. MAlod.'n (.-It ll ihilln iniitio-n Iia\',i:' r;il ,I l Ia r''c-istilg"
of curriculum ilto fit younli people for it v\. rti i l.tl i:', in ;ll oan er : ililg-
iiv (:i ii/.atill ,i. T l 1 .. m liiili'.'', d( "i'i ii.i iiit.rp rett' l ii liy tilt, |i'rol'..s-
.,if ili ,oi l .\ ] I-t 1 11:' I l i 'y l il lli.I i tl ail iiIlilil t ii-o.;ll illi lli ll .it l ii o r'l
,.sse, i iti;il to ,lliemtl' li it ll ; Il illlc 'l ilt l is I', I .- 11 hii.-\Ve l.
li filO t ii '-11l -I -onirr1n itin y, tilt i,'' I' .o sile, li ilforiii;itiori is .tic i,".
Too l im il1y l aillll i'oll ii t iitl .., ;iri' ;il ipithetil. ;ill iil flil r't1crli i ll to t i needs
of tlieiir scliools atI re' tl ll itirle'ly iriniiinuirI ofil lf Ithe rih I l nca!.il. inl I
Opportulllnity1 e -ll s l)plied (pto ]ll 'r ',l'liil-ltu ? i l re',1 \\ li h;ilpll,.'o ti
live inl ; n;iearb ti\\w (ii Iity. ''T e 1rur.;il te;aie lr.r inllt I)b tli,, initel rprute
Of iiln (li'lii i:lll't;it in 11(1 la Illit ui I' thl' l tiiall ioial lead 'r lii) tl illp I t wilI
resist in ;i n a a \ ailened i:oninini tYh interest in ilil i,:ne''d.'s of t eli: s lehool.