ROBERT SWAIN PE AUG Iff-OF PEABODY AND STEARNS ARCHITECTS
David S*j Signey AE 682
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Biographical Chronolog/ Building list \
Family Influence / ,.. **\
Educational BaQkg^ouridj -ff v >
Early professional and Philosophical Development
Professional and PMT&eophical Development after 1890
Slide list ^v**'
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/ BIOGRAPHICAL CHRONOLOGY
Robert Swain Peabody borii;February 22, 1845,'in New Bedford, Mass. to Ephraim and Mary Jane (Derby) Peabody. His father was Minister of Kings Chapel, Boston, 1346-1856 and founded the Boston Provident Society. Robert S.'Peabody remained a life long member of the Unitarian Church.
He received, his primary and secondary education at Mr. Dixwell' School in Boston, and at the Boston Latin School. 1866 Received his B.A. at Harvard -1866-1868 SlJ^dt'e^Srdniteclnxre'Tn Boston
1868-1870i-c &tfdi0 Arphiteetu^e a^ftfe^cole des Beaux-Arts in Paris and had his first experience with European Architecture first hand / \
1870 Received his liA.. at Harvard
1870 Joined with Jbhn G. ^e^rns to establish the firm Peabody
1871 On June 8, parried Annie Putnam in Boston Their Children: "'^thearte^Putnam
1877-1878 R. S. Peabody wrote a series of letters on the revival and preservation of colonial architecture. These were published those years in the "American Architect'? Volume 2 and 3
1888-1889 Appointed member of the Board of Over-seers at Harvard
1892 Appointed member of the Design Commission for the Columbian Exposition in Chicago
1900-1901 President of the A. I. A.
1902-1905 President of the Boston Society of Architects
1906 Appointed Chairman of the Committee to consider improvements for Boston Harbor. He and the other committee members toured harbors in: Hamburg, Germany.; London, England;? Holland and Belgium, "A Holiday Study of Cities and Ports" reported the committee's findings.
1907 Served as Advisory Architect to the Jamestown Exposition 1907-1912 Re-appointed member of the Board of Over-seers at
Re-elected President of the Boston Society of Architects I909-I917 Served as Chairman of the Boston Park Commission I9IO Served as an Associate National Academician of the Fational Academy of Design
1912 ^Publication-of "An Architect \s Sketch Book"
1913 Second marriage ta _Hele Lea on January 25, in Washington, D. In addition^tO' the awbve "Ctndate'd credits "'are :
a member of the Corporation, of M. I, T. ;.
warden of King's Chapel, Boston
a member of the American Institute of Art and Letters
registration as a pOl^tica^a independent 1917 Publication of? "Hospital^-Sketches" .:.
1917 Robert Swain Bgahody die.4r<>n^eptember 23
BUILDING- LIST PEABODY AND STEARNS,. ARC "ITEC Building Location Status
1872 v -1
lathews.. Hall.at Harvard Cambridge, Mass., extant 1874
.Brunswick Hotel Boston, Mass., demolished 1876
Building in-Liberty Square Boston, Mass., ? Building oh'federal St. Boston, Mass., ?
1877 ; ;' Library Woburn, Mass., design ',
Gardner Brewer store Boston, Mass., ? R.H. White Dry goods store Boston, Jfa^ss.,,,,?. House Medford, Masl.^ f i }u'^ ;"\ru j lj MaeKay house Cambridge, Mass., ? '
College building^!*''A^ ?
1878 .*>"'' ** **' * "" Dickinson School Deerfield, Mass., demolished House Brush'Hill, Mass., ? / \
Barrett house Concord, Mass/, ? \
Pierre loriliard house Newport, R.'I., demolished
Mutual Life Insurance Building, Boston, Mass., ?
1879 / -v ,
union League Club House .-,'Ke.f xomc' w.y,, ?
1880 ; L Church of the Messiah St. Louis, Mo., ?
Hemenway Gym at Harvard -% C.a^Ji.dse<-i|as;s., demolished
i ...* \ i'~"J
leal v.";~j. -
Museum of Pine Arts St. Loui-g^ Ko*-, ? United Bank Building New York,""f.Y., ?
U.S. Signal Station (Tip-top house) Pike's Peak, Colorado 1883
2nd R.H. White Co. Drygoods Store Boston, Mass., ? 1885'
Guild house Nahant, Mass.,.-?
Kragsyde"., G.N. Black house Manchester-by-the-Sea, Mass
1886 "'. .
House at 246 Beacon St.- Boston, Mass., extant
Gardner house Newport, R.I. ? House - Nahant, Mass. ?
Cathedral of St. John the Divine New York, N.Y., project
Piske Building Boston, Mass., demolished
Central Railroad of New Jersey- New York, N.Y.,demolished C.T. White house Boston, Mass., ? Exchange Building -, Boston, Mass., ?
rious^;"at 175 Commonwealth -. Boston, Mass., extant
1892 "-pope .Building Boston, Mass., ?
C.J.^Morse house Kansas City, Mo., ?
2 Houses in Charlesgate,, Boston, Mass., ?
1893 : > ' Colonnade at the Columbian Exp.oChicago, 111., demolished-*
Machinery Hall at the Columbian Expo Chicago, 111., demolished
Massachusetts. State Building-:.-at the Columbian Expo Chicago^, 111. ,
Memorial Monument at the Columbian Expo Chicago, HI., demolished
sTaEe-.Mutual life Insurance Building Worcester, Mass. ? ;
1897 \ , :: %7
Chamber.'', of Cq. :merce: -'Cle^l^^d^^hio, ? '' ;,,..^|
1899 Sears house Boston, Grot on School Grot on, Mass.,- ? Sloane' house Lenox, ?. Mass., ?
1900 .'>.. " .-, V*1 = / "Dorchester--Heights Mon^raSnt i\(Boston, Mass., ?
: \ i ^ '
1901 "** ./ ':,
Albany Building Boston;, Mass.,.A Chl'ekerlng Hall Boston,\Mass., ? ,. ,>
House at 409 Commonwealth Boston, Mass., demolished
"Wheatleigh" Af.jS. C6'dk h^iise r l^nox^M^s'.v, ?
City Hall tclfrfce,3er,| Ma^k.^M'^;r^>H. TUi
W. D. Sloane house Lenox, Mass., ? .-f'5.4'-.
Moorfield Storey fi^,us|r7^ jjBQston,;-*!^^
Robert S. Peabody- hkufeg w Bosiiohy lldWty ?
Savings 'Institution, Boston, Mass., ? .. ,
Wsl Point Chapel West Point, N.Y., project ..
Cunard Building. Boston, Mass.., ?.';,''
Monk's Building Boston, Mass., ?
H, G.' Howe house longwood, Mass.., ?
Head-master's house, Mlddle-sex School Concord, Mass., ? Bryant-Payne Hall, Middle-sex Hall Concord, Mass., ? Heath St. School Brookline, Mass., ? Simmons College Boston, Mass., partially extant
Industrial School for crippled and deformed children, Boston, Mass. 1905
Percival Roberts house Barbeth, Pa,, ?
Norfolk County Registry of Leeds Ledham, Mass., ?
Chandler and Co. Store i>oston, Mass.,?
1907 i V: -V \ \ i rlfs
Civic Center Spring*!eld,'Mass*.*, ?
Normal and Latin School Group, Boston, Mass., ?
In collaboration with: Coolid'ge aSad Carlson, and Maginnis, Walsh,
and Sullivan \
Slater house Newport, R.I., ? \
1909 / -A
Boston College Boston, Ma&&. ,:-pai;t4.-^lIy extant
1^10 .. JA i .
City Hall Chelsea, Mass*, ?
i"-'-':- *' ''''
Count de Heredia house Lenox, .Mass., ? 1915
Addition to U.S. Customs House Boston, Mass., extant
PEABODY, STEARNS, AND PURBER, ARCHITECTS
Security Building- St. Louis, Mo., ? 1894
2-Residences St. Luis, Mo., ? Manson house St. Louis, Mo., ? Dyer house St. Louis, Mo., ?
UNDATED BUILDINGS Building Location Status
T. Howard house St. Louis, Mo,, ? St. Louis Club Hi|Ae';i-i.S^J-jLottisyij*oir<, v?
Weld Boat Hqirfc^ et^Hs^art^^atolarl^ge-',!.^^3* ? Boston-Providence Railroad Station Boston, Mass., demoxished F.W. Vanderbilt house Nfwpo^t, R.I., ? /Town Hall \- Clinton, Mass..,;? \
Charles River Bridge -/'Boston, Mags., extant (1889?)
Churoh of St. Mary of the.*4ssurriptit>n Brookline, Mass., ?
John Peabody house 1Boston, Mas's. ?
Judge Lambert Tree' s-house -.-.Chicago, 111., ?
Joseph H. White house Bfoo^line, Mass., ?
Saltonstall house Boston, Mass., ?
House on Berkley St. Boston, Mass., ?
Turner Building St. Louis, Mo,, ?
FAMILY INFLUENCE Slide key
While there appears to be no documentation of Robert Swain Peabody's early family life there are several conclusions that can -cbe drawn in retrospect. While his father died when Robert :was only eleven years old, his role as a Unitarian minister and the single minded focus of that faith appear to have had a profound effect on young^Pethody. The ''senW" df*intense loyalty developed in his ear^ylyefeTs 'aTe reflfcte'dhis/-marriage to wife, partner and profession in later years. His intense dedication to the re-
birth of the architecture' of ".olonial America may also be a result <. of this loyalty,-a manifestation.; of -patriotism through the art he knew best, architecture. '>. -..
' Edug atmaIj background
Peabody attended Harvard cj$?ng the early 1860'sr receiving his B.a. in 1866. The awar%'of the Bachelor ofArts degree pre-eludes Engineering as his*'ms4
It is probable that the majority of Peabody's first experiences : in architecture carne from outside the walls of Harvard. In 1865, William Robert Ware, not to be confused with a relative, William Rotch Ware, was hired to organize a professional school of
architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. During this organ!zat|L^^^'^^^p-^^ti the commencement of the program in 1868, Ware was^inyolYed^in an intensive study of the colon-ial archlt^dttfJae; of B#fcoii.'** Sfeteral -years later in 1876,. this program of pre^rvation^a^ documentation resulted in the salvation of Old South Church in ^oston. While there is no specific documentation of Peabody1s rQl\: in this pre-1870 drive in the pre-servation of coloni'ai^arohiteQt^re, it would explain the fervor of
his later efforts ltyi;ii&> area. -Association with Ware during' the
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period 1865-1868 \foud also prsqvj.de an explanation for Peabody1 s
decision to attend the*jBe^3le*des Beaux-Arts.
While Ware did n.pt^attend the. Eeole des Beaux-Arts, he was.; influenced by this/school through: Richard Morris Hunt, the first 1 American architecture student to complete the formal pr.ogreBn at the Ecole. After graduation from Harvard in 1852, and completing his post-graduate study in engineering at the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard, Ware- went on to study ^architecture in the New York atelier of Hunt, It should be noted that William Robert Ware was a major force in the development of architectural education in the United States.
In 1868, Peabody left the U.S. to study architecture at the, Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. While Peabody remained;in Europe until early 1970* it is not clear how jnuch of the-last two years of his stay were devoted to study at the Ecple, Aocording to J. A..-Schweinfurth in his 1926, tribute to Peabody, sketches from the 1869-1870 travels in Europe' were published in 1873, under the title. "Note Book Sketches", but I have; found no evidence of this publication. Considering Peabody's lack of formal education.in architecture prior to his-itripitp:Europe a"hd the relative brevity
of his stay, it Is improbable that he', wan formally admitted to the Ecole a&ft';j|feb;i|: j^j^s&^tfaait .1$'l|efIw^sy'. he did not complete the entire c^^e ,of, study^% Moj:e. ll&elyj'eabody attached himself to one of th^at#-M**8ii an&f eentinneM' in Hhat manner until he was sat-' isfied'-with hi%v-own"progr*e^s. .A. '''
Peabody* s attendance',at\the Ecole came shortly after its separation from the .Jrench Academy and. reorganization as a separate entity under VlMi.e^^^'fxie 'in 1864. Fortunately for Peabody, this re organization vresu||$
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that will decline rapidly in the >later years of this school's existence. Unfortunatel^rjS^e struggle between the "Old School" classicists and the romaSftlc rationalism of the Gothic revival led by Violet-le-Duc resulted in eclectic attitudes' that will haunt the' students of this institute well into the twentieth century.
A development that occurred throughout Peabody'sedttcition should be noted at this point.. The nature of Peabody's rendering technique is of a painterly quality rather that the sharp line technique generally associated with the students of the Ecole. This quality will follow Peabody throughout,his'career, emphasizing his love of the picturesque, an attitude that is reflected in many of his designs, throughout his career. A- number of sketches of European architecture -that influenced PeabO'^'s design'-is well as1 v re flee ting this pecturesque style of rendering 'are published in "An ArcJ&'f&Sia(Sketch Book". ''The'sketches were made during Peabody visits to Europe throughout his lifetime. His prepohderance:/r:with the domestic ..architecture of England and Prance is reflective .of the importance it. playe'd in his career.
Apparently, the result of his work in Europe was impressive. Upon presentation of the work and study accomplished while at the Ecoledes Beaux-Arts and during his first tour of Europe .Peabody was awarded the Master of Arts degree at Harvard in 1870.
, EARLY PROFESSIONAL 'AND pfe&SOPHICAL DEVELOPMENT Immedir$dly .upon,- receipt-of ,his 'M,A.: from Harvard in 1870, Peabid^r' joined with John G.Stearns to establish the firm Peabody and Stearns of Boston. Schweinfurth in his 1926 tribute to Peabody describes his role in the firm a that of the Captain of a ship. Peabody was the principal des^ner\ throughout the firm's career.; Knowledgeable in the fwriti'Sg,,of .specifications, Peabody was the
firms guiding force. In the aforementioned tribute Schweinfurth
related an interesting indication" of Peabody's persuasive powers, when dealing with a client.'' Ste-arns' part in the firm, in addition to counsel and criticism, related primarily to the realization of Peabody's designs. Later references to Stearns' extraordinary competence in the superintendence of construction lead me to be-lieve that he probably played a major role in the preparation ajad content of specifications for the firm's commissions.
In his tribute to Peabody Schweinfurth mentions several individuals associated with Peabody and steams, either as employees, or as contractors. These individuals were Orlando W. Norcross, Neil McNeil, Joseph Wells, and,George A. Puller. Joseph Wells, later a partner of McKira, Meade and White was a student of the Renaissance and may have contributed to the classical tendencies in Peabody's early designs that were primarily gothic in character. George A, Puller, a chief draftsman in the early years of the firm, went on to establish the George A. Puller Company in,'
Chicago. Thisjicfcitf^ a .major,--cole in rebuilding
Chic ago f|l*|PLJpB fjartf'^ff^^W <*. is credited with bulled
ing caae.;.^pf the first two steel skyscrapers the Tacoma 3uilding. Puller's Few York office;' or%ned in 1890. Among its credits were Penn Station, Hotel Plaza and .the Platiron Building.
Orlando W. Norqross was undoubtedly one of the most notable of the contractors associated wi^h the firm of Peabody and Stearns early in their career. Norcross'was associated with his brother, James: A. Norcross in-- the corrstrttc'tion firm, Norcross Brothers,
i jf .. **
Contractors and Buildi^'gs,'v',fir^t in Salem, Massachusetts, later in Worcester, Massachusetts, during the period 1864 to 1897. After James' retirement, Orlando headed the firm until his death in 1920, Orlando W. Norcross, a carpenter by trade is credited with the invention of flat-plate, reinforced concrete construction, lis contractor was associated with the firm of Peabody and Stearns throughout their career, having the honor of being the prime contractor on Peabody's last design, the Custom House Tower. It is' probable that the aforementioned contractors contributed a great deal to the national recognition of the firm Peabody and Stearns.
The early publication of numerous letters and speeches by Peabody in the Atlantic Monthly, Harper's and the American Architect were largely responsible for the widespread repute of peabody and-Stearns. It was in the papers published by the American. Architect that Peabody' a early philosophy, or perhaps "non-philosophy" is most evident. In "A Talk About Queen Anne", a speech presented to, the Boston Society of Architects Peabody reveals his pleasure in the eclecticism of the Queen Anne revival as it applies to domestic architecture in the U.S. In this imported style Peabody
sees the extraneous in fluences of the Orient and India as well as the 18th century domestic architecture of England and loves it.
The implications of the philosophical conflicts in the devel-opment of America's late lgth century domestic architecture are many and just as.r. JB^fiisfmg>-.s -huiffier4ott's'',Teahody revels in this hodgepodge. !The.-e1si^|E''?style*-Sp'6|ci^yi|i|.^3tt'^i*iJB*domestic architecture orig-inates is a remnant of the mid-century romantic rationalism of the
gothic movement. Applied to this are the classical tendencies Of
the Queen Anne, and the American Expressionism of the Shingle Style is in part the result/ Peabody/ a^d those in agreement with him*add the element of Colonial/revivalism^ This element of awareness of 7
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America's architectural past, no matter how misdirected, was neces- 8 sary for the synthesis--of a unl^ueiy American architecture, a pro-posal that Peabody oppose5>vohemntly.
During the early years of Peabody's association with colonial revival movement the term "Georgian" was applied to examples of colonial architecture that did not reflect the neo-olassicism- that is associated with Georgian Architecture today, in Peabody's case the simpler, less academic examples of colonial architecture strongly influenced the form of his own architecture, especially during the 9 1870's. An example of this early colonial architecture which influenced not only Peabody but all the architects associated, with the colonial revival movement was the Fairbanks house."in:Dedhara, which was then and is still the oldest extant example of colonial architecture in the immediate vicinity of Boston. The Fairbanks house dates from 1636.
In an 1877 publication in the American Architect, "Georgian Homes of New England", Peabody shows where his heart really is.
After making r|^h$||cej;sS6^t)^JiJjrjtLoJ Richard Norman Shaw and drawing a :'par ail alt & -the Quew-Ame^fDOvemeffb to his own colonial revival, Pe%hodV1 concludes/^'Pyut' ish,:6 our liking reason enough? For once let us reason like1 our clients."
Scully'3-comment on page 45 of The Shingle Style seems most
appropriate here; "The architect at this moment emerges as a man
^ ^ '>-*
who, having grown upTi-"a'demanding atmosphere of ethical princi-pies, comes under the' 's'edu'ctive influence f "the Queen Anne and is directed from that JtG^hs*,&m' ol:onial. He then rejects his prin-ciples and with a kind irresponsibility and satiric joy proceeds to. imagine picturesque compositions, flowing in space and fluid in mass, which may resemble his inspirations only in details but which grow from a pictorial re-experience of their qualities. He feels himself freed, and he lays about him, sometimes daring to mock:; old", gods." The old god in this case was Ruskin, taken-to-task by -Peabody in "The Doctrinaire in Art" published in the December 22, 1877, issue of the American Architect. Peabody disputes the idea that the Gothicists of mid-century have supplied the answer to the "architectural problem".
Interestingly enough Peabody's early designs are decidely gothic in character for the most part. It would seem that Peabody. rejected the confinement of a rigid philosophy, not the creative potential of the ideas within that philosophy.
It seems that Peabody accepted a purist gothic approach in only one category of buildings churches. This appears to be one point that remains constant in Peabody's philosophy of design. -Probably the most notable of his church designs was that "for the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York, 1889. Decidely of
French influence, this high gothic example with its twin frontal towers is a monuent to God and builder, with no trace of deviance 11 from the, spirit of its medieval precedents, likewise the othei* churches designed .-by, Peabody reflect-this tie of associative value between the fchurchy function and the, gothic architectural form,"
PerhapWthe ^arehitecture, for-which Peabody was most appreciated, was the creation of that period when this architect was tangled in the conflicting philosophies that produced the "Shingle Style". As previously; mentioned "the Queen Anne, the colonial revival,, and the neo-gethie s%^ei |tyle all interacted In the creation of the shingil Isttyiel. v^Durr man Peabody was Involved In all these to one degree or another.^ The house at MedfOrd, Massa- 12
chusetts is an early example '"of the Queen Anne dating to 1877,
with considerable Japanese-influence. The Pierre lorillard House, -13
1878, was Peabody and. Stearns first important commission in Newport, 14 Rhode Island, This example, exhibiting an over-lap of the stick style and,a repressed Queen Anne style, shows the folly of attempts;; 15 at grandiose design in these sytles. On the other hand the house at Brush Hill, Massachusetts with its masterful balance epitomizes all that Peabody loves in the Queen Anne and Colonial revival, styles.;. 16 In "Kragsyde", .house for G. N. Black at Manchester-by-the-Sea, Massachusetts, 1884, Peabody finds his closest link with the.men developing the basis for a modern, uniquely American architecture. This design in masonry and shingle ranks with most developed examples of "shingle style" at this time. On par with Riohardson's design for the Ames Gate lodge, 1881, Peabody will never again come 17 so close to a modern architecture.
The majority, of the firm's earliest commissions in public architecture reflects some of the picturesque quality Of their domestic 18
.architecture^ _' The^ deaigji^for. th$... Town ..Library for Woburn,. Massa-\ 19 chusetts^ alth'cto^hs^ymiaetricar-'ln plah-*reflects the dominance of v the gothic in its picturesque composition. The Dickinson School, 20 1878. at Deer field, Massachusetts is somewhat reminiscent of R. N. 21 Shaw's Lowther Lodge,/ a main stay of the English Queen Anne movement.
The Hemenway Gymnasium' at......f$pvar$., one of the first if not the first ..
college gym in the jUnited States,- 1780, indicates the direction in .'... which the public architecture,;: of peabody and Stearns is moving.
While retaining the basic forms of the Queen Anne style, the cbmpo-
; % \ :
sitioh leans toward Georgian classicism and much of the detailing
is decidedly inspired by academic classicism, pointing up the trend
for the future,
Peabody's second publication under the title "The Georgian Homes of New England", American Architiect, Volume 3, 1878, raising the banner for colonial revivalism unwittingly sets the stage for a decline in creativity in this movement. In his reference to the use of the pattern books published during the 18th century a tie to academic cribbing is at least implied. In the following statement Peabody establishes the precedent for the future for himself and his firm, "All these are based on the classic orders, and therefore correct!', Peabody is by no means alone in this self-entrapment.' He..is crusading side-by-side with such notables as Henry Hudson Holly, Charles McKim, J. Cleveland Cady and A. P. Oakey, In his chapter on "Design and Theory", In The Shingle Style, Scully goes to considerable length in documentation of the development of the academic tendencies and the association of good breeding with colonial revival during the late 1870's and early 1880's. This development may well have struck home in Peabody's Case, since his family was deeply entrenched in the development of colonial New England. .
Reflective of; this developing tendency toward the use/ of t#e ,22 classical forms of the Georgian colonial architecture are several 23 commercial buildings designed by Peabody early in his career. The 24 two primary examples'are the R.^H.^WKite Drygoods Store and the Gardner Brewe$ *gtre? Both\wq|ref^uili li Boston in 1877 and have'' since been demolished. Both are classical in their symmetry of facade and to a degree in the&r detailing, but as architectural.::. 25 compositions must be called eclectic. The building for the New. York Mutual life Insurance Cpmjpsify. completed in Boston in 1878 V represents the largest i3pmftii5Si|to for the firm at this early point in their career. It is also the best example of the conflicts taking place within Peab^ocly-1 s developing philosophy. Very formal v>'26 in plan and detail, the' edlectidlsm is the most prominent feature 27 of this building. As occurs at various points in ?eabody' s career 28 he cannot resist the urge to combine gothic towers with academic-, 29 classicism. Strangely enough these towers were the feature of Peabody's designs that Schweinfurth appreciated most in his 1926 ,. tribute -"Robert. Swain Peabody Tower Builder!'.
PROFESSIONAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL DEVELOPMENT AFTER 1890
One associate of the firm-not previously mentioned was Mr, P. P, Furber. His earliest association with Peabody end-Steams positively known to this writer was in the commission for the Pike's Peak'Signal Station for the U.S. government, 1882. Furber represented the firm of Peabody and Stearns in the design and execution of this building.- ; This simple building was constructed of granite rubble from the peak. Materials' for mortar and roof framing along with all other miscellaneous construction materials had to be packed by mules up the mountains!de. The building time was a; little over two months at ;, "
a cost of'-$5^.0@0|.v|lt is p'eJsTble *bh^g -yjirber was involved in the commission for the college buildings, nicknamed'the "Antlers", at Colorado Springs, Colorado In 1877. In 1890, Furbers name appeared with those of Peabody and Stearns on the commission for the Security 30 Building in St. Louis. Again in 1894. Peabody, Stearns and Purber, Architects graced th^i dobjttjoehts for four residences in St. Lduis? J. -NV 'Dyer house, ;A. Manson house, two unidentified houses; Beyond -these examples the ex^ntv'^of Purber1s association with the.firming., not known. It is possi^le^that Purber was involved in all of the firm's Mid-West commissions in the 1880's and 1890's.
By the 1890's Peabody's architecture had pretty well eaugirfr 31 up with the antiquarian, academicist point of view he was express-** ing as early as 1878. At this mid-point in*this architect's career 32 the table has turned one hundred and eighty degrees from his starting point. The general character of the firm's architecture"! 3 33 classical, Georgian if you will, by this time. The eclectic char* "34 aoter in the more monumental examples results from the combination 35 of details developed during the Renaissance in the various European 36 centers of culture,, This does not preclude the use of oriental 37 "elements but they were uncommon in the works Of the latter part ," 38 o tlM's firm's career. 3"
Peabody continued to associate the academic character of his later designs with the Georgian architecture of Colonial Amerioa. In truth many of the details he considered Georgian were those of,.; the European Renaissance and the early 19th century European Ueo- 39 classicism. Peabody's design for the Machinery Building for the;- 40 Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893> is an excellent example of*-\ -;41 the eclectic use of classical details developed in the manner of 42
the late Renaissance. In fact his use of classical forms combined 4.3
in new and "inventive" ways is like a re-creation of the Renaissance 44
and is consider|^ fby ;the modern-- arehi&ect to he the pit fall of the 45 Beaux--Arts eclecticism. It would seem that Peabody has by.* this time come hoidejjto', b3t's edncatie-hV
While Peabody was prone to use the term Georgian loosely.', as 46
it referred to colonial architecture, that is not to say that he 47
was not involved extensively in "^colonial revival all along. A long list of buildings exe^^^d/^ Peabody and Stearns were de-4 signed in a fairly eo>rebiCi|pfelf-cation of colonial Georgian. Just as many were designed in a style, we can more closely associate with the post-revolution Pe'def al^tyle. It is not clear-whether or not Peabody distinguished the -4ajflB*):cr considered the two styles as one.*-.',-The H. S. Howe house in Longwood, Massachusetts completed in 1904 is perhaps the best exajnple of an archeological correct application of colonial Georgian. Its rusticated stone!; work and relatively 48
simplified detail could quite easily be mistaken for a work of 49
the late 18th century in New England. Simmons College and the 50
buildings added to Middle-sex School, in 1903 and 1904 are perhaps 51 the best imitations of the more refined Federal style. ,'".*' 52
With the development of modern building technology it became 53 necessary for Peabody to rationalize an application of classical principles more meaningful than the frivolous applique of details.' The Georgian concepts of proportion and balance were not easily applied to the skyscraper of the 20th century. A limite'd explan-. ation of. a relatively abstract concept of classical order is offered in An, Architect' s Sketch Book under the Heading Mfhe4Pive Orders of Architecture.", It is' based on a balance of the parts in
much the same way as a column is ordered base, shaft and capital* With this in mind a number of Peabody's designs reflected this less-: confining "order'' and a new express! oftism not unlike that of the Chicago SofTool,. :Tb| bidding; for-the" Ciiafd Steamship Company and. 54 the Monks building, both built in Boston in 1903, are the best 55
examples of this development''^ It cannot be denied that Peabody < has developed a highly refined -fense of proportion and balance, best displayed in these late,works. It is only this artistic touch that provide s/redei^tiongf or many of-the buildings executed by Peabody and Stearns. The Cunard Steamship Building is a good example: of Peabody^^^^^J^'jik^o-ge architecturally with the de-sign of high-rise buildings.. "While this building is by no means a skyscraper it exhibits proportion of the parts or elements using classical detail only to express the upper element of the; arohitee- 56 tural compositi on. ;
Peabody's final design, the tower addition to the U. S, Custom 157 House at Boston, completed in 1915 is a final exhibition of Peabody's architectural dream, one last tower, a fitting conclusion to the career of an architect of Peabody's stature-eclectic, and yet gracefulj a gothic spire, and yet Boston's first skyscraper.
1. Cathredal at- Stanwyck (sketch), AN ARCHITECT'S SKETCH BOOK,, p 35
2. Queen Anne cottage at Seven Oaks-(sketch), AN ARCHITECT'S SKETCH BOOK, p 86
3. Santa Maria -della Salute at Venice (sketch), AN ARCHITECT'S SKETCH BOOK, p 6 >
4. '2 Italianate villas at Florence (sketch), AN ARCHITECT'S SKETCH BOOK, p 21
5. Chateau de langeais at Touraine (sketch), AN ARCHITECT'S SKETCH BOOK, p 80 x**^-*-.
6. Chateau de Blois at Toufcaijie (sketch), AN ARCHITECT'S SKETCH BOOK, p 84 -~^
7. MaoKay house, Cambridge,. Mass.AMERICAN ARCHITECT( 113-1877) p 13
8. Barrett house, Coneo^tf^'KSfss..4,^A;KERICAN ARCHITECT( J 1^-2-3^187$) ,:;p 172
9. Fairbanks- house, oldest extant house in Boston area, THE SHINGLE STYLE, pi 30
10. Design-Cathredal of St. -John the Divine, New York, AMERICAN ARCHITECT(10-19-1889), pi 721'
11. Church of the Messiah, St. Louis, AMERICAN ARC-!l^ECT(4-24-1880)
Pi 226 n;3nu .4^ r: rr>. -
12. House at edford, Mass., THE SHINGLE STYLE, pi 22
13. House at Brush Hill, :Mass. (top)j' Fi-erre Lori 11 ard house, Newport, R.I:, (bottom) ,, THE SHINGLE'STYLE, pi 41-2
14. Details, Pierre.. Lori Hard house, AMERICAN ARC HI TEC T( 7-6-1878.) p 4
15. Details, House at Brush Hill, Mass., AMERICAN ARCHITECT'
:,v-;; (2-16-1878), p 56 ;
16. Kragsyde, Manchester-by-the-Sea, Mass*,THE SHINGLE STYLE, pi 61-3
17. Elberon Casino, Elberon, N.J., THE SHINGLE STYLE, pi 64
18. 1st Design-Woburn Library, Woburn, Mass., AMERICAN ARCHITECT (3-31-1877), p 101
19. 2nd Design- Library, Woburn, Mass., AMERICAN ARC ITECT(3-31-1877) p 101
20. Dickinson School, Deerfield, Mass.,': AMERICAN ARCHITECT(4-27-1878) P 145
V ;' ?:7- 77
21. Design "for building at Washington Uni^ei?sity, St. louis,, AMERICAN ARCHITECT(9h6-1879) Pi 193 .7l.:7'^7 "t-i
22. R.H. White"-:^re^. Boston, Alffi^CAN:VARt3H11?ECT(5-12-1877')V-^i^l/i^
23. Details,:^H^-wiite store, Boston, AMERICAS ARCHITECT(^^;^liS77) p 148 >" 7: \\
24.: Gardner Brewer<'/s store, Boston, AMERICA1| ARC HI TEC 1(8-^^^'.;^ 248
25.' Mutual life-insurance Co. building, Boston..'.AMERICAN ARCHITECT1 '
(3-9-1878):, p 84 77. 77^% \
26. Security Building, St. Louis,. AMERICAN ARQHl;TECT( 5-lO-189i0)^^;^:;^G
27.;, Union League 4i&*r]House, New York, AMERlCANxARCHITECT9^20^1^?9")
pi 195 '7^'' :7 : 7^: .. .77i v;1&
28. Museum of ;Fi^Ar^; St. Louis, AMERICAN AR^HITECT(9-3-1881]^;pl-297 29.: Section, Museum of Fine Arts, St. Loui^. AMERICAN ARCHITET<^3-1881)
. pi 297 ... > 7;:, >
30. 2n4 I.H.. Whiter,ator:e> Boston,, ^AME^IG^ 403
31.": Station for Central Railroad oS New Jersey, N#w.vYork, AMERICAN. ... ARCHITECT(5-31-i8iG)', pi 753 I ; A 7.."
32. Norfolk County Registry of Dee d&,>& Abut* Masfs. ,AMERICAN ARCHITECT (3-11-1905), pi 1524 \- ; / :. ; ^ ;;, ^HV
33.^ CUT. White house, Boston, AMERICAN ARCHITEGTT(8-2.3-i@9Q) , pi5#6-5: '.
34. 409/Commonwealth, Boston, AMERICAN JsfiCHliPECT^5-31-1902), pi'1379,.'
''"%.V-.''' ;':? \ ,-. .;;5'-
35. Chandler and GO. store, Boston, AMERICAN ARCHITECT(4-21-190$)'., /i. pi 1582 f a -h r ?^ ? r* r : ? f H ::^VV
36. Institute for Savings ita'Rc&bury, BdafewftjT'AMEIftC'W'-lajJHHBCT"i
(12-13-1902), pi 1407 .. ,r .. : ,777
31s City JHall, Worcester, Mass.T AMERICAN ARCHITECT(12^^^902) ;.p:i'1408
38. Dorchester Heights.-/Jlonument, South Boston, AMERICAN ARCIilTECT (2-14-1^03), i)114l6 ....
39. Colonnade at Columbtran Expo,' Chicago, AMEElANA ARC HI TEC T( 11-11-189?)
pl 933 " " ;.;:.,;:,: ,; '7- ": :
40., Nprmal and Latin School Group, Boston,. AMERICAN ARCHITECT
' (7-22^1908), pl 1700 ''777
41. ^Normal and Latin School GrCttp, Boston, -AJ'/ERICAN ARCHITECT 1 : (7-22-1908) pl 1700 W
42. R.S. Peabody'house, Boston, AMERICAN ARC HI TEC I( 2-8-1902), pi 1363
43. Moorfield Storey house, Boston, AMERICAN ARC HITECT(125-1902)
pi 1361 : ... .
44. H.H. Cook house, Ienox, Mass., AMERICAN ARCHITECT(4-5-1902}'- ': V Pi 1371
45. Douglas- Steward house, Pittsburg, AMERICAN ARCHITECT(9-2841907) pi 16574
46. Industrial SGfeb&l^lft de-formed-and crippled children, -oston AMERICAN ARCHITECT(7-16-1904), pi 1490
Wk: ^tfe^tk>Sc%'4it^ox^rypfcffiS,Orf&B AN ARCHITECT(10-15-1904) pi- 1503"
48. H,S. Howe house, Longwood,\Mass., AMERICAN ARC HI TEC T (7- 21904) pi 1488 / \ "
49. Simmon's .College, Boston, AMERICAN ARCHITECT( 0-17-1903), pi 1451
50. Simmons'College, ^astoa^^^B^AN ARC HI TEC T( 10-15-1904), pi 1503
51. Middle-sex School,ChpadHWasirer'Is house, Concord, Mass., AMERICAN ; ARCHITECT(10-1-1904), pi 151
. \ <
52. Middle-sex School;- Bryant-pmne" Hall, Concord, Mass., AMERICAN ARC HI TEC T (10-1-1904 \ pi- 1501"
53. Nathaniel Holmes housed Pittsburg, AMERICAN ARC HITEC T( 6-15-1907) pi 1642 ;\'
54. City Hall, Chelsea, Mass., AiiRICAN ARCHITECT( 12-21-1910), pi 1826
55. Cunard Building, Boston,-: AMERIC AN ARC ?:ITECT( 5-16-1903), pi 1429*''
5,6* Monk's Building, Boston, AMERICAN ARCHITECT(2-28-1903), pi 1418
57;.. Coast of Marble-head, Mass. (sketch), AN ARCHITECT'S SKETCH BOOK, p
58, Addition to U.S. Custom House, Boston, AMERICAN ARC HITEC T(6-21915) pi 2058
GREAT AMERICAN ARCHITECT SERIES, 6 vol., The Architectural Record CO. New York, 1895-9.
THE NATIONAL CYCLOPEDIA OP AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY, James T. White and Co., vol. 51, p 206, New York, 1969. ; ?; -
PEABODY^ ROBERT SWAIN, Averv Index to Architectural Periodicals* ; vol. 9, P 216, G. K. Hall" and Co., Boston, 1963. ALSO SEE TOPIC: Peabody and Stearns, vol, 9, PP 216-9.
Peabody, Stearns, and Furber, vol. 9, 219.
Peabody, Robert S., THE DOCTRINAIRE IN ART, The American Architect, Deo. 22, 1877, pp 407-8,
Peabody-, Robert S. GEORGIAN HOUSES OF NEW ENGLAND, The American Architect, Oct. 20, 1877, PP 338-9.
Peabody, Robert S.* :QpQWTiti<%fi^& NEW ENGLAND. II, The American-Architect, Feb. X6", 1878, pp 54-5.
Peabody, Robert\ E%a ihrtPre-gUdlntW Addsfsti Jg.I. A. (1900) The American Architect, Dec. 22, 1900, pp 91-4.
Peabody, Robert S., The Presi'deht's Address, A, I, A. (1901), The American Architect, Oct, 1*2, 19^1, pp 11-3.
Peabody, Robert Si, A TALK ABOUT "QUEEN ANNE", The American Architect Apr, 28, 1577, PP 133-4.
Peabody,,, Robert S. AN ARCB;OTC^T, S'"BI
Peabody, Robert S. LECTURES N WTCIPAL IMPROVEMENTS;, Architectural Quarterly of Harvard, Sep, "19D.2-,**i5p 84-104.
Schweinfurth, J. A., ROBERT S^IN'SlkBODY TOWER BUILDER, American Architect, Sep 5, 1926, pp 181-91.
Scully, Vincent J., THE SHINGLE STYLE, Vail Ballou Press, Inc. Binghamton, K.Y,, 1955. / V
Weatherhead, .Arthur C., THE HISTORY OF COLLEGIATE EDUCATION IN ARCHITECTURE IN THE UNITED STATES, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, Jan. 1941.
The Boston Society of Architects, BOSTON ARCHITECTURE, The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, 1970
Hitchcock, Henry -Russell,A GUIDE TO BOSTON ARCHITECTURE, 1637-1954, Reinhold Publishing Corp. New York, 1957. %
1. ROBERT SWAIN PEABODY TO'VER BUILDER, J.A, Schweinfurth, American Architect (9-5-1926)
m-fV* /; ": f fit*.
2. THE PRESIDENT'S-'ADDRESS, A.I. A, (1901), Robert S. Peabody, American. Architect 10-12-1901)
\\fl V-i H V.i.. j
3. Minutes of April 18-77 meetings American Institute of Architects,
American Architect (4-28-1877) .- .
'y jx *->.. ;
4. A TALK ABOUT QUEEN AfcKE ' Robert S. Peabody, American Architect
.. / ; ...
5. GEORGIAN HOUSES OP NEW ENGLAND, Robert S, Peabody, American Architect (10-20rj-877)
6. THE DOCTRINAIRE'IN ART,' Robert s. Peabody, American Architect (12-22-1877) j = ? A
7. THE GEORGIAN HOUSES OP NEW ENGLAND II, Robert S. Peabody, American Architect (2^$6^l87&j
8. The Pairbanks House,.'-16,36V*Dedham, Mass., American Architect (11-26-1881) *-
9. U.S. Signal station, Pike's Peak, Colo., American Architect (8-18-1883)
10. AVERY INDEX TO ARCHITECTURAL PERIODICALS
Topics: Peabody, Robert Swain ':'..;'
Peabody and Stearns Peabody, Stearns and Furber