Title: Genus Aedes, subgenus Aedimorphus Theobald in Southeast Asia
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Title: Genus Aedes, subgenus Aedimorphus Theobald in Southeast Asia
Physical Description: 287 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Reinert, John Francis, 1940-
Publication Date: 1971
Copyright Date: 1971
 Subjects
Subject: Diptera -- Asia, Southeastern   ( lcsh )
Mosquitoes -- Asia, Southeastern   ( lcsh )
Aedes   ( lcsh )
Entomology and Nematology thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Entomology and Nematology -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1971.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 273-285).
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by John Francis Reinert.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098205
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000431386
oclc - 37788067
notis - ACJ0808

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GEINUS AEDES, SUBGEI!US AEDIM~ORFHUjS THEOBALD
~I1 SOUTHEASTr ASIA








By
JOHN FRANCIS REINERT


A DISSERTATION PREJ-SEN~TED TO THE GRADUATE
COUNCIL OF THE UNIrVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IIN~ ARTIAL FULFICLLblENTT OF THE
REQUIREM;ENlTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PFHILOSOPHY















UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1971











ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Gratitude is expressed to the members of the writer's

committee Dr. D. H. Habeck, Dr. C. S. Lofgren, Dr. F. W.

Mead, Dr. A. Stone, Dr. S. G. Zam and especially to Dr.

F. S. Blanton, committee chairman, under whose valuable

guidance this study was initiated.
I wish to thank the Miedical Department, United States

Army, which afforded me the privilege of a University of
Florida assignment to work on a course of instruction lead-

ing to the Doctor of Philosophy degree and for financing a

trip to study type specimens in the British Museum (Natural

History).

Special acknowledgement is expressed to Dr. Botha de

Meillon, Responsible Investigator, Southeast Asia Mosquito

Project, for obtaining Aedimorphus specimens for me from

many areas in the Oriental and African regions. Sincere

thanks are given to Dr. P. F. Malttingly, British Museum

(Natural History) and Dr. A. Stone, United States National

Museum (Natural History), for kindly permitting me to ex-

amine types and other specimens.

I am particularly indebted to Lieutenant Colonel A. A.

Hubert, Chief, Department of Entomology, United States Army

406th M~edical Laboratory, Tokyo, Japan, and his artists

who prepared the illustrations.







I am especially appreciative to my wife, Mary Helen,

for her encouragement and understanding during this period

of study and for so graciously typing this dissertation,


iii

















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ii

vi

viii


ACKNOW"LEDGEMENTS .............

LIST OF TABiLES ..............

LIST OF FIGURES. .......

ABSTRACT * * * * * . . .

II;TRtO DUCTIO N * * * * * . .

GENdUS AEDES I.EIGEN, SUECEINUS AEDIM~ORPHUS

KlEYS TO 'THE SPECIES OF AEDES (AEDIMORFEUS)S

IN SOUTHEAST ASIA **........

KEY' TO TIHE ADULTS. ....

KEYI TO THE PUPAE ........

KEY TO THE FOURTH STAGE LARVAE .

DESCRIFTIONS OF THE SPECIES OCCURRING

IN SOUTHEAST ASIA ..........

alboscutellatus. ....

caucus * * * * . . .

culicinus* ******

lowisii. ** * . .. . *

mediolineatus* *****

nierostriatus..........

orbitae. . .. , , , ,

pallidostriatus. ........


. .

. .

. .


. xi

. 1

* 5




. 22

. 22

. 25

. 26




. 28

. 28

.~ .. 4

* * 5

* 59

* 65

, 74

r 79

. 89










camDanensis ...

piersalatu .

ounctieoifeors ..

taeniorh~nchoides.

vexans ......

vexans nipponii. .

wainwrighti. ...

APPENDIX (Figures 1-36). ..

APPENDIX (Tables 1-15) ...

REFERENCES CITED ......

EIOGRIAPHICAL SKETCH. ..


Page

. . . . 97

. . 107

. . . . 116

. . . . . 122

. . . . 129

. .. .. 146


. . . 155


. .


. .. .. 159

. .. .. 232

. .. . 273

. .. .. 286














LIST OF TABLES


Tabcle Page~

1. Record of th~e bcra~nching~ of" the setae

on the pupale of Aede~s (Ae~dim~oirphus)s

alboscu~tell atus . . . . . o 233

2. Record~ of the bcran-ch~ing of theF seta.e

on~ the pup~yae of Aiedes (Aed~imoiphuls)

cacuse a . .. . . . . . . 236

3. Record~ of th~e bran~ch~ing of the aet~ae

on the pupaFe of Aedes~ (Aedimorrchu~s)

culi inu . . . . . . . 231?

4. Rocor-d of~ the bcran-chino of thle setae

on the3 pupFaF- of A~edles (A~edS~~l~~imorphu

medliOli nelt atu . . . . 2?62

5. RecorLd of tIhe blran'Chinge of the Set'C

on' thie pupae of' Aedes (Aedimorphus)I~.~~

orbtita~e . . . 24~5

6, Record of the branching of the setae

on the llpupa of Aeds (A~edimo~rohus)

pa3.lidostriatus ........ 248

7. RecordZ of the bcran-chiing of -the setae

on the pupFac of Aedles (AoFdim~orr ohus)

pamonse sis . . . . 251







Table


Page


8. Record of the branching of the setae

on the pupae of Aedes (Aedimorphus)

pipersalatus. ........... ... 254

9. Record of the branching of the setae

on the pupae of Aedes (Aedimorphus)

vexans. ,. .. .. .. .. 257

10. Record of the branching of the setae

on the pupae of Aedes (Aedimorphus)

vexans nioponii . . . .. .. 260

11. Species of Aedes (Aedimorehus) occurring

in the Oriental Zoogeographical Region, 263

12. Species of Aede3 (Aedimorphus) occurring

in the Australian Zoogeographical

Region. . .. . .. .. 265

13, Species of Aedes (Aedimorphus) occurring

in the Palearctic Zoogeographical

Region. ,. . . .. . .. .. 266

14. Species of Aedes (Aedimorehus) occurring

in the Pacific Ocean Islands Region . 267

15. Species of Aedes (Aedimorphus) Occurring

in the I~earctic Zoogeographical

Region. . . . .. .. 268

1.Species of Aedes (Aedimorphus) occurring

in the Ethiopian Zoogeographical

Region. . . . . .. .. .. 269


vii














LIST OF FIGURES


Page


Figure

1. Aedes alboscutellatus

adult male and female

2. Aedes caecus

adult male and female

3, Aedes culicinus

adult male and female

4. Aedes low~isti

adult female habitus.

5. Aedes mediolineatus

adult male and female

6, Aedes orbitae

adult male and female

7. Aedes pallidostriatus

adult male and female

8. Aedes pampangensis

adult male and female

9. Aedes pipersalatus

adult male and female

10. Aedes ounctifemoris

adult male and female


habitus ,. . . 161



habitus . .. . 163



habitus . .. . 165



. 167



habitus . . .. 169



habitus . .. 171



habitus .. .. . 173



habitus . .. 175



habitus . . .. 177



habitus . 179


Viii









P'age


Figure

11.


Ae des 'teesn iorhyn-lch~o i d s


halbi tus




h-abi tu s




habituIs


adult mnale and female

12. Aedes vexans

adult maile and femasle

13. Aedes VeXans rQ~lOgggl

adult male and female

14e. Aedes albosc utella~tuls

male grenitali- .. .

15. Aledes caecu~s

male genitalia. ...

16, A ede- cs me di ol in e at usP

male grenitalia. ...

17. A~edes pall1i deas triatus

male genitalia. ...

18. Aedes pgmpanpensis

male genitalia. .

19. Aedes punctifemioris

male genitalia. ...

20. Aedes vexans

male genitalia. ...

21. Aedes alboscutellatus

pups. . . . .

22. Aedes caucus

pupa. . . . .

23, Aiedes culicinuss

pupa3. ...


. .


, 183




. . 185;


. . . . . 187




. . . . 189




. . . 191




. . . . . 193


. .. . 195


. . .


. . . . 197




. . . . . 1?9




. ... ~~. ** 201




. . . 203


205


. . . .


. *








Figure

24. Aedes mediolineatus

pupa, . . . .

25. Aedes orbitae

pupa. . . . .

26. Aedes Damoangensis

pupa. ....

27, Aedes vexans

pupa. ....

28. Aiedes albcoscutellatus

larva .. .... .

29. Aedes caecus

larva .......

30. Aedes- culicinus

larva ....

31. Aedes mediolineatus

larva ........

32. Aedes orbitae

larva ****....

33. Aiedes calidostriatus

larva .......

34. Aedes campangensis

larva .. .. .

35. Aedes pinersalatus

larva *****...

30. Aedes vexans

iarvra .,*.


Page


. 207




. 209



. 211




. 213




. 215




. 217




. 219




. 221




. 223




. 225


227




229




231


. . . .




. . . .




. . . .






Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the
Graduate Council of the University of Florida
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

GENiUS AEDES, SUBGENUS AED~cINOPHUS THEOBALD
IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

By
John Francis Reinert

August, 1971

Chairman Franklin S. Blanton
MVajor Departments Entomology

This paper is the first comprehensive revision of the

Aedes (Aedimorohus in Southeast Asia and deals with 14

species and 1 subspecies. These species are completely de-
scribed and compared with closely related forms occurring

in the Pacific Islands and Oriental Zoogeographical Regions.

Pupae of caecus, culicinus, mediolineatus, orbitae, pampan-

gensis and picersalatus and larvae of culicinus and orbitae
are described for the first time. Stages of the following

species are also illustrated for the first time: caecus

pupa; culicinus female, pupa and larva; mediolineatus pupas
orbitae female, male, pupa and larva; callidostriatus females

and pamoannensis female and pupa. Keys to the adults, pupae

and larvae of Southeast Asian species are given.

New synonymies in this paper areas lowrisii (= mindo-

roensis); pamoaneensis (= niveoscutellum); and vex-ans

(= nocturnus and stenostrus). Aedes nummnatus is transferred

from Aedimorphus to the subgenus Diceromyia of Aedes.













INTRODUCTION


The sub enus Aedimorphus was originally described by

Theobald (1903a: 290) as a distinct genus based on a single

African species, dome~sicus (Theobald). A number of Oriental

s ecies now included with~ Aecdimorphu were at various times

placed under other Benter~a and subgenera, Felt (190r4: 3910)l

er.ected a new! genus~, Eccuile,, for` the species vexansi (M~eigen))

(= sylvystri~s Tiheobald). The following year, Lcedlow (190,5:

94) described a new senus~ Reedrom ini for his now species

E2Z9023ngyns~F~~,is, Durine~ this sameIL year, Tiheobcald described 3

niew ncnera: Peco!T via (190r5a: 23 ) for taenriorhu;nchfoiie s

(= mculaa Thobal), Peudorabhmia 190c: 243) for

1i~orsalatue (= maculata. Theobaldc), and~ 4~Legidotomy_ia_~ (19~05b:

80,) for alboscutejllatus Thecobald, GaFitono1mvia,7 wa:s described

by Leicester (1908: 134~) for caecus (Theobald) and Lesl.ie-

gyl by Chr'istophers (1911l: 6)for h~is newu species
taen,,,~iorhynchoides;. Edwlardss (1913: 227) placed several of

the Oriental species in the genus Och3erotatus Lynch Airri-

balzaga but later (1922b: 466) transferred them to the

genus Aedes (rletigen)l subgenrus Ecculex.

Tw'ro Oriental species, albosc~utellatus and vecxans, wvere

moved by Ed::ards (1924: 372) to the subgenus Aedira~orphus

and -the next year (1925: 26,7) he synionymnized E~cculexl with

this subgenus. In the Gener~a Insecto~rum, Edwlardss (1932:







165) reviewed Aedimorohus from a worldwide standpoint and
divided it into 8 groups. The first comprehensive study of

the subgenus in the Oriental area was conducted by Earraud

(1928s 655) in India. He later (1934: 246) revised the

Indian species. Knight and Hurlbut (1949s 29) and Knight

and Hull (1951: 200) modified Edward's group classification

of the Aedimorphus.

This paper deals with 14 species and 1 subspecies from

Southeast Asia and compares them to closely related species

in the Oriental and Pacific Islands Zoogeographica;l Regions.

Pupae of caecus, culicinus, mediolineatus, orbitae, pam-
pangensis and pipersalatus and larvae of culicinus and

orbitae are described for the first time herein. Stages of
the following species are also illustrated for the first

time: caecus pupa; culicinus female, pupa and larva; medio-

lineatus pupar orbitae female, male, pupa and larva;

pallidostriatus females and pamoansensis female and pupa.

Keys to the adults, pupae and larvae of the Southeast Asian

species are given. For original descriptions of the Oriental
and Pacific Islands species not found in Southeast Asia sees

Theobald (1905bs 86) trimaculatus; Edwards (1914s 77)

jiamesi; Earraud (1928: 662) syntheticus (as fisheri; Stone
(1939s 163) oakleyig Carter and Wijesundara (1948: 139)

argentteoscutellatus; Knight and Hurlbut (1949r 27) senya-
vinensis; and Bohart (1956r 63) trukensis. For taxonomic

information on the African species check Edwards (1941) and

Hopkins (1952),








New synonymies in this paper areas lowisii (= mindoroen-

sis); pampangensis (= nivescutellum); and vexans (= nocturnus

and stenoetrus). Aedes nummatus Edwards is transferred from

Aedimorphus to the subgenus Diceromyia Theobald.

During the course of this revision, I examined all

specimens and types of Aedimorphus in the United States

National Mluseum (Natural History) and the British IMuseum

(Natural History) as well as specimens from numerous indi-
vidual and museum collections.

Abbreviations used in references to literature conform

to the W;orld List of Scientific Periodicals, 4th edition,

Butterworths, WI'ashington, 1963. In the synonymy sections,

an asterisk following the abbreviations used (A = adult,

F = female, M = male, P = pupa, L = larva, E = egg) indi-

cates that at least some portion of that sex or stage is

figured. Abbreviations used in the pupal descriptions,

tables and key areas C = cephalothorax; P = paddler and

I-VIII = abdominal segments 1 through 8. In larval descrip-

tions the range of hair branching is followed by the mode

branching in parentheses and the following abbreviations

signify A = antenna; C = head; M = mesothnorax; P = pro-

thorax: S = siphon; T = metathorax; and VIII, X = abdominal

segments 8 and 10. Distribution records are indicated as

follows: countries are in capital letters; where known,

administrative divisions are in italics; and place names

have the first letter capitalized.

The nomenclature and chaetotaxy used for females, males

and male genitalia follow Knight (1970) and Knight and







Laffoon (1970a, 1970b, 1971) and those for the pupa and

larva follow Bielkin (196~2). The terminology of the female

genitalia is taken from Coher (1948). In the pupal descrip-

tions, the number of branches on abdominal hair 1-I is

measured on the basal 0.33 of the hair.

Southeast Asia, in this study, is composed of southern

China, East Pakistan, Assam, Burma, Ilorth Vietnam, South

Vietnam, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Cambodia,

Thailand,.LMalaysia, Singapore, Andaman and Nicobar Islands,

Southern Ryukyus, Hainan and The Fescadores.













GENUS AEDES MEIGEN


SUBGENUS AEDIMORPHUS THEOBALD


Aedimorphus Theobald 1903, Monogr. Cul. 3: 290 (July).
Haplotype: Uranotaenia domestic Theobald.

Catageiomyia Theobald 1903, Mem. Lpool. Sch. trop. Med.
10 (App.)s i (Nov.). Haplotype: Catagfeiomyia
senegalensis Theobald.

Ecculex Felt 1904, Bull. N. Y. St. Mus. 78: 391c. Ortho-
ty ~e: Culex sylvrestris Theobald.

Reedomda Ludlow 1905, can. Ent. 37r 94. Haplotype:
Reedom-ryia campanesensis Ludlow.

Lenidotomlria Theobald 1905, Ann. M~us. nat. Hist. Hung. 3r
8 0. Haplo typFe Leoidotomvia alboscutellata Theobald.

Pecomyia Theobald 1905, J. econ. Biol. 1: 23. Haplotype:
Pecomyla maculata Theobald.

Polvlectimiomi 'Theobald 1905, cenera Insec., Fase. 26r 21.
Haplotype: Stegomvia albocephala Theobald.

Pseudoerabbamia Theobald 1905, J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc.
16: 243, Haplotype : Pse udoerabbamia.~-.. mac ula-ta
Theobald.

Duttonia INewatead 1907, in INewstead, Dutton and Todd, Ann.
*trop. Med. Parasit. 1: 17. Logotypes Duttonia
tarsalis INewstead.

Mimeteculex Theobald 1908, Rep. Wellcome trop. Res. Lab. 3s
258. Haplotype: IMimeteculex k~ingli Theobald.

Ceitonomyia Leicester 1908, Cul. M~alaya, p. 134. Haplotype s
Culex~ caecus Theobald.

My~xosquamus 'Theobald 1909, Colon. Rep. misc. Ser. N~o. 2371
7; TIheobald 1910, Mdonogr. Cul. 5: 225. Haplotype :
blyxosquamus confusus Theobald.

Stenoscutus Theobald 1909, Colon. Rep. misc. Ser. No. 237r
7; Theobald 1910, Monogr.. Cl. 5r 263. Haplotype s
Stenoscutus africanus Theobald.








Bathosomyia Thleob~ald 1909, Colon. Rep. milsc. Sor. lio. 237:
9; T'heoba.ld 1910, M~onogr. Cul. 5: 267. Haploty pe :
Bathosomvia abnormalia Thcobald.

leojpecompia TIheobaldl 19093, Coloni. Rep. miise. Ser. ilo. 237:
12; Theobald 1910, Mlonogr. Cul.. 5: 261. Haplotype:
INeop7ecomyiaa unirannulatatr Tiheoba;ld.

Leslie~omyga Chiristopher~s 1911, Paludism~ 2: 68. Hiaplotype:
Lesliconviai taeni o~rh\!ncholcjdes Christo~phere.


'FEMAJ~LE. Hea7d, Antenna brown, 0.87-1.14 len th of pzro-

boscis, p-edicel usually pale with a patch of short fine hairs,

scales or both mesally, flagellomere 1 pale withi a few~ small

scales; c~lypeus brown, bare; maxillary, palpuis 0.17-0.28f

length olf proboscis; pjrob~oscis usu~all;y brown writh pale ven-

tral markilngs, 0.98-1.33 length of femurr I; eyesr narr~owly

separated; interocular and ocular setae we.lll developed;

ocular line cover-2ed w;ith pale scales (purnclifem~oris has

broad coales on this area); vertiex with dorsu~m covered w~ith

narrowr documben~t scales except in pu~nctifomoric- and wvain-

w~rig~hti which have dorsum~ covered w~ith broad decum;-bentl scales;

numerous e~rec-t fork~ed scales on occipa~t and vertex ex:tending

anteriorly to ocular line (verte,: of wvain-uritghti without

erect forked scales). Thorax. Scutum covered writh narrow

curved scales (puncti~femoris also has small patchles of broad

scales), arrangement and color of scale patter-ns varies wiith

the species; sourtellumi with scales broad, n~arrow: or both;

median anterior pjromnontory, acrostichal (absent in wrain!-

wrighti), anterior and posterior dorsocontral (anteriolr ones

absent; in wa;inw~r~.ighti), scutal fossal, supra-alar, posterior

medial scutal, postalar cellular, and median and lateral








scutellar bristles well developed; antepronota widely

separated with narrow curved scales (culicinus, puncti-
femoris, vexans and wainwrrighti have some broad scales) and

several well developed bristles; postpronotum with narrow

curved scales (culicinus, vexans and vex~ans nipponii also

have a few broad ones and punctifemoris has only broad

scales) and 3-10 posterior bristles; propleuron with broad

scales (mediolineatus and pallidostriatus have narrow scales)

and several bristles; postspiracular area with broad or nar-

row~ scales (alboscutellatus, lowuisi i, orbitfae punch ti femoris

and wainwrichti without scales) and 4-11 bristles; sub-

spiracular area with~ 1 or 2 patches of scales (nieirostriatus
and orbitae have this area bare and alboscutellatus and

lowisii have a patch of short fine hairs); mesepisternum

with an upper and a posterior patch of broad scales and

several upper and posterior bristles, lower ones shorter

prealar knob without scales (mediolineatus, pallidostriatus,

taeniorhyncholdes, vexans and vexanis niDoonii have a few

scales) and several bristles; paratergite with scales

(low~isii without scales); m~esepime~ron with a patch of broad

scales and several bristles on upper area, lower area bare;

other pleural areas bare. Legs. Coxae I-III each with

several bristles and usually broad scales; trochaniters 1-

III with broad scales; femora I-III with various scale pat-

terns but usually each with a white dorsoapical spot, III

usually with mnost of anterior pale scaled; tibiae I-III with

various scale patterns; tarsi I-III w~ith basal bands, dorso-

basal pale spots or without ornamentation (lowvisii also has







apical pale scales on tarsomeres); posttarsi I-III each with

2 ungues, I-II each bearing a tooth and III usually simple

(may be toothed in namoaneensis and vexans). W'i ~. Dorsal

veins usually covered with moderately broad brown scales

with a small pale patch at base of costa, a few species with

pale scales intermixed; alula with narrow scales along fringes

remigium with 1-4 bristles, usually 2. Abdomen. Tergum I

with a rectangular patch of pale scales on laterotergites

terga with or without basal pale bands and usually with

lateral pale spots; sterna usually pale scaled wvith some

brown markings; terga and sterna with numerous golden bris-

tles, mostly along posterior margins. Genitalia. Segment

VIII distinctly bilobed ventroapically, usually retracted

into segment VII and not visible dorsally; tergum IX bilobed

with 3-16 short bristles on each lobe, lateral portions

lightly sclerotized and membranous mesally, entire surface

covered with tiny spicules; cerci usually completely ex-

tended and visible dorsally, each cercus long, flat with tips

sharply rounded, tergal surface covered with short bristles,

apical ones longer, entire tergal and sternal surfaces cov-

ered with tiny spicules; postgenital plate with a deep

median apical indentation, ii-10 bristles on each lobe, en-

tire surface covered with tiny spicules; cowrl membranous

IX sternum and sigma narrow and covered with minute spiculesr

atrial plate well developed; insula tongue-like, membranous

and covered with tiny spicules; 3 spermathecae, 1 large and

2 slightly smaller ones except in alboscutellatus, culicinus,








jiamesi, lowisii and oakleyi which have 1 large spermatheca

and 2 rudimentary ones.


MIALE. Similar to female in general habitus. Head.

Antenna plumose with hairs directed mainly dorsally and ven-

tra'lly; maxillary palpus with apical 2 segments short and

down-turned with numerous apical and ventrolateral bristles,

antepenultimate segment with apical portion somewhat swollen

anid with several ventrolateral bristles, longer than pro-

tbosci~s by 0.50~ to 1.00 length of apical segment. Legs.~

Positarsi I-III each with 2 ungues, I-II with ungues un-

equal, each bearing a tooth, III equal, simple (pallido-

striatus, oipersalatus, ounctifemroris and taenioch~ynchoides

have III unequal and simple). Genitalia. Tergum IX bilobed

with' 3-11 bristles on each lobe, entire surface covered with

minute spicules; gonocoxite moderately long to long and mod-

erately broad, dorsal surface usually covered with scattered

short bristles with longer ones at apex, lateral margin with

long stout bristles from base to apex, ventral surface usu-

ally with long stout bristles on distal 0.50, scattered

sc'ales on lateral and ventral surfaces; gonostylus usually

complex wyith apical portion expanded into a mesal lobe and
a lateral horn-like structure (gonostylus blade-like in

vexans and vexans nioponii), gonostyrlar claw attached mesally

near middle an~d usually 1 or more accessory claws at apex;

basal mesal lobe with 3-38 bristles and covered with short

hair-like spicules; proctiger short to long, paraproct smooth

and bluntly pointed or slender wyith a rounded apex and a








su~bapical t~humb-l/ike p~rocess~, cer`cal setae absent;; phallo-

some w~ith aedeagus w~ithi 2 lateral plates connected basally,

eachi plato with 4-7 teeth and covered by a dorsal flap, para-

mere lonlg; s~telrnumlr IX large wilth the entire surface covered

w~ith minute spicules and 2-15 blristles near center.

The genitalia of the Orciental species is divided into

2 types based on characteristics of the phallosome and

proctiger, Type I (Fig. 14) has the~ aedeagus divided into

2 lateral plates connected basally, each plate bears 4-7

short blu~nt lateral teeth;- on~1 distal 0.50 and is covered with

a pigmented dorsal flap wh:ilch is narrow distally and broadly

rounded proximally, The~ practiger Is short and the para-

pract is distal~ly sl.enderL and apically rounded with a sub-

apical thui~mb-lik~e process. The mal~jority of the Oriental

species havre type I geilitalia, Type II: (Fig., 20) has the

aedeagus divilded into 2 lateral plates connected basally,

each plate be~are 5-6- long, longitudinal lateral teeth with

tergally curvsed apices and Is cov~ered writh a pigmented dorsal

fl.ap which is narro:*: distallyr and tapers to a broad base.

The proctiger is long and the parapract is narrow writh a

bluntly pointed apex.


PUPA. The pupae of the species that occur in Southieast

Asia do not, at this time, present any clear-cut subgeneric

characters. The pupal. chaetataxsy is summarized as follows:

C~ephal.othora:. Hairs 1, 2-C with 2-8 branches; 3-C withl 2-5

branches; 4-C single to 8 branched; 5-C single to 9 branched;

6, 9-C single to I4 bran~ched; 7-C wilth 2-11 branches; 8-C wilth








2-9 branches. M~et~nctum. Hair 10-C with 4-33 branches; 11-

C single; 12-C single to 11 branched. Abdomen. Hairs 0-II-

VIII single; 1-I wij.th 16-46 branches, 1-II ~it~h 3-4~9 branches,

1-III with 3-18 branches, 1-IV with 2-13 branches, 1-V single

to 10 branched, 1-VI single to 13 branched, 1-VII single to

10 branched; 2-I-VII single or double; 3-I-1II single to

triple, 3-IV with 2-12 branches, 3-V single to 5 branched,

3-VI single tio ;- branchled, 3-'II with 2-16: bra~nches; 4-1 cith'


8 branchiid, Ii-IV sing-le to II branched~: 4-V' single to 164

brainched~, 4-VI. sinigle to 11 branche;d, II-VII single to 10

bran-ched;1 5-1 with~ 2-18: branches, 5-II with' 2-114 branches,

5-III wlitht 2-13 bran'cher;~, 5-Iv-V single to 5 branl-chled, 5-VIJ

single to 6 br~an-ch-edl, 5VIsnl o9bace;61 nl

to triplee, 6-II singIle to 5 bran-ch~ed, 6-III:-VI s-iiinge ~to 8

br~anch~ed, 6-VII ::ith- 3-1!: bran-ches; 7-1, IV' single to 6

branchedi, 7-II single to 10: bra-nchedi, 7-III wi!th 2-9? bran-

che~s, 7i-V' sinle~lc tj 11 br~anched,, 7-VI single to 4 branchedr~i,

7-VII sinle1- to 5 branched; 3-III, V/II singi~le to 7 bran~che~d,


bran-ches-, 9~-V'III w~iith~ 4-14! branches; 10-III single to 6

bratn c heSd, 10, VII Single to 5 branche~d, 10,-V singleli to 4

branchecd, 10-VIV single to triple; 1-I- ige 1V

sina~Ele or dlouble~, 11-VII sinele to 4 branched; 14c-1H-VIII

si l.Paddle.o Hair 1-P sin~gls to triple and short. Thre

respiratory crumpe:~t is mroderatelyr broad and usually m-oder-

ately, pigmlen'ted. TheF paddile is ovJoid, wlith tiny to minute







serrationis alon-g the basal~~ 0:.50: or~ ouer mnargin, ulsually

with tiny spicullos alo~ng apical marlgl'in, anld the m~idrib do~es

n~ot reach~ thel apex:.

LARV ia, larval chasetotaxy:; anrd featur-es of the Southi-

east A2sian- spcies are summlarize~d as f~lloiws: Hlead, Haiirs

1, 3-C cingle; 4-C w~ith 2-13 branch-es, usually with :-':

branlch-es;; 5-C sinplce to 3 branichedl, usually with ic-'7 b~rani-

chies; 6~-C single .lo c9 branch~ed~, us.ualllyr with 4-6~ branlch~es;

7-C with 4-16 bran~che1s, uIsua11,'ll ith 6-10) barnchec; 8, 9-C,

eing:le to 6 braniched, Iiusully withi 2-4 braniches; 10?-C c;ingle
to 1G branich~ed, usu~allyS double- or triple-; 1-ih21

branches, usualll:, wit~h 3--" bran~chles; 12-C w~ith! 3-10 b~ran~ches,

u~sually with 3-6j branches;; 13-C single to 9 b~ran-cheld, sll

wi~th 2-1i branch~es; 10-C single or double, usEuall: einglle;

15-C single to 7 branichedc, uisua.lly w:i-th 2-5 b~ran~ch!s; basal
max~illaryy hiair single; menltal plate~ w.ithi 22-36 tee~th.

Antenna. 1; Usalyoderatelyl p~igmentedd clightlyr inc urved

disalyusullyr numenrouse short st~out cpicules onlr ehaft;

hair 1-A w~ith 3-16 bran-ches, us~ually with 5-10 branlches,, in-

serted at 0.36-0.52 from b~ase; 2-A lon-g;; 3-A aproxrj;ima'ely

equal to or about o*50.10nigth~ of 2-A.r Thorax:. Hair 0-P with

3-21 branches, us~ually~ with 5-10 b~ranches; 1, 5, 6-P singiles

2,3, 9, 11-P slingle to 4 branlchedd, usually, double or triple;

4, 8-P Eingle to 7 branchecd, usually double or triple; ;-P

writhi 2-4 branchee,usually double or triple; 10, 12-P single

or double, ualyine;14-P single to triple, usually

single or doubC1E; le; 1- single to E! branched, usually with~ 3-5








branches; 2-I0 single to 5 branched, usually w7ith 2-4 branches;

3-M single to 5 branched, usually single to triple; 4-M with

2-9 branches, usually with 3-4 branches; 5-M single to triple,

usually single; 6-M w~ith 3-10 branches, usually wiith 4-6

branches; 7, 10, 12-Mi single; 8-Mi with 3-10 branches, usu-

ally with 5-8 branches; 9-M with 3-10 branches, usually writh

.6-9 branches: 11-M' single or double, usually single; 13-M

with 3-12 branches, usually with 5-8 branches: 14-M with 4-

11 branches, usually wiith 5-8 branches; 1-T single to 4

branched, usually single or double; 2-T with 2-13 branches,

usulally with 3-6 branches; 3-T wlith 2-28 branches, sll

witih 6-10 branches; 4-T1 Iith 2-6 branches, usually with 3-4

branclrhes; 5, 10-TI single; 6-T single 'to 5 branchied, usually

single ton triple; 7-T1 w~~it 5-14 branches, usually with 6-10

branches; 8-T1 w~ithi 3-12 branches, ulsuall~y w;ith 4-7 branches;

9-T withi 2-9 biran-ches, usua.llyr with 4-6 br~an-ches; 11-T single

or dobletl, ualysnl';1-T single to -t-riple, ually1911.

single or double; 3-T w:i'th L6-19 bi'anchles, usually w'ith 5-9

bran~ches. Abomn.Hirs 0 1-IIsnle -IIwt

3-12 branches, usually w:ith 4-9 branches; 2-VIII1 sing~le to

5 b~ranched, usu;allyr double or triple; 3-VIII w~ith 5-27

brance seea, usu~ally w.ithi 6-12 branches; 4-VIII single to 4

brachdusually doubjle or triple; :-VIII with L-10 bran-

c he s, ursual~ly wit-h 4~-7 branches~; comb of 7-32 scales, us u-

ally arrangedd in~ 2 irregulalr row;s; 1-:I single to 4 branichedi,

usually single to triple; 2-i: with 5-15 braznchles, usually

wilth 2-12 branches; 3-i: single; vrentral brush vazries from







8 hairs on grid and 4 precratal ones to 14 hairs on grid and

3 precratal ones; saddle usually moderately pigmented with

small spicules along posterior margin, incompletely rings

segment X; 4 anal gills usually moderately long to long and

slender. Siphon. Usually moderately pigmented; index 2.11-

9.00; pecten with 10-23 teeth, distal 2-4 teeth smooth and

wider spaced than remainder which have a slender attenuate

filament with 1-4 lateral denticles; hair 1-S with 3-7 bran-

ches,~ usually wvith 4-6 branches, inserted at 0.50-0.85 from

base.


EGG. The egg of only one species, vexans, has been

described. The following account is taken from Horsfall and

Craig' (1956r 370) and Kalpage and Earst (1968: 711).

Chorion. Distinct surface reticulation in reflected lights

pattern consists of axially linear cells, hexagonal and poly-

gonal in shape, 2.5-5 times as long as wide; cell wall with

chain-like appearance at 150-200 Xr magnification; cleared

chorion shows chain-like cell walls which appear to consist

of 2-3 beaded rows; cell walls more raised at anterior end

than elsewhere; 4-6 distinct circular bossed areas within

the cells; exochorion transparent and thin. Color. Shiny

bronze. Shape. Usually spindle-shaped wyith a distinct taper

at anterior end; greatest curvature on ventral side; greatest

diameter between anterior 0.33 and middle; occasionally eggs

appear bilaterally symmetrical. Size. Len th 630-756 mi-

crons and the dorsoventral diameter at the widest point is

167-216 microns.








The most s-trikting features of the egg are the bronze

coloring and linear appearance of the reticulation.


DISTRIBUTIONd. Species of Aedimorphus are confined to

the Ethiopian, Oriental, Pacific Islands and northern portion

of the Australian Zoogoographical Regions with the exceptions

of vex:ans~ which has a w~ide distribu~tion- anid is foundr in th-e

H~olairctic, Orien-ital, Pacific lelanids and~ Au~stralianl ZoogEo-

n:.!~hical Resion-s andl~ vex:ans n~~Pipponi which i- c~onfineld t'o

the easteirni ~ part of thei Palear~ctic Zoo,:e~ogi'Fr'iaphical ReiOon

Eigty-nesp3cies and 5 subspecies (Trable 16~) of Aedi-

morl-hus are en~demicl to the E-th-iopian~ Zoog~eog~aph-ical Riegiorn.

This area con-tains the largest numblter of species and shares

on-ly vexans~ with other regi~ons. The Orien-tal Zoogeogr-ap~hical1

Reg'ioni possessesr 18 species (Tablle 11) and shares~ 5 (Tab.le 12)
of these w:ith- thle Australlian2(Tbl 13_) withi the Palearc~tic,

3 (Table 14)j with the Pacific Islanids anid 1 (T.able 15) with

the Boarcsrtic Zoc~,ogeographical~ Resicns..

S .ecies orf Aedimorhus have b~een collected from eachl of

the corunri't'es in the Orienital and Ethiopian Zoogeogr~aphical

Regions.

TAiXOH~Oi.IC DISCUSSION,. The subgenus AEodimorphus pos-

se~ems a comlbina'tionn of chairacters that allows i~t to be

separated fr-om thei other sub~~ienera of AedeIiCs. The~ most dis-

tinctive features are exhibite~d by the male, these being:

antenna w~ith thie plume hairs~ directed mainly dorsally an~d







ventrally; maxillary palpus with the 2 apical segments short

and down-turned with numerous apical and ventrolateral bris-

tles, antepenultimate segment with apical 0.25 somewhat

swollen and with several ventrolateral bristles and longer

than proboscis by 0.50 to 1.00 length of apical segments

genitalia with gonostylus complex and usually expanded dis-

tally, proctiger short to long, paraproct smooth and bluntly

pointed or slender with apex rounded and a subapical thumb-
like process, cereal setae absent and the phallosome which

has the aedeagus composed of 2 lateral pigmented plates con-

nected basally, each plate with 4-7 short blunt lateral teeth

on distal 0.50 or 5-6 long, longitudinal lateral teethl with

tergally curved apices veganss and its allies) and covered

withi a pigmented dorsal flap; and tarsomere 5 of tarsus I

ventrally concaved with the base projecting posteroventrally

into a protuberance with 4 short stout curved spines at apex

and a pair of short bristles each arising from a conical

tubercle located near the middle of the ventral margin. A
similar maxillary palpus is also found in Ochlerotatus, and

some Finlaya Theobald and Chaetacruiomyia Theobald while the

antenna is typical of Diceromyia. The toothed aedeagus of

the vexans group is also similar to Dicerom~ia and Stegomyia

Theobald but is easily separated from the latter by the

presence of the dorsal flap and from the former by the flap

being pigmented and semirigid while in Diceromyia it is un-

pigmented and membranous (for a discussion of thle Diceromyia
see Reinedt 1970). The tarsomere 5 of Aedimorphus resembles








those of the tarsi I of Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy and

Culex Linnaeus. Aedimorphus males are easily separated from

Ochlerotatus, Finlaya and Chaetocruiomvia by the structure

of the aedeagus which is simple and nontoothed in the latter

3 subgenera. The structure of the maxillary palpus of

Stegomyia is markedly different from Aedimorphus.

Other important characteristics of the adults are: ver-

tex with narrow curved decumbent scales medially (puncti-

femoris and w~ainw.ri.Ehti w~ith vertex covered with broad

decumnbenit scales); erect fork~ed scales numerous on occiput

and vrertex extending anteriorly to ocular line (these scales

restricted to occiput in w~ainwrighti); female maxillary pal-

pus short, 0.17-1.33 length of proboscis; acrostichal and

dorsocentral bristles w~ell developed and numerous (acro-

stichal anid anterior dorsocentral bristles absent in wvain-

wrigti);scuturn covered wyith narrow curved scales (a few

patches of broad scales in punctifemoris); antepronotumn and

postpronotumr usually w~ith narrow~ curvled scales; scutellumr

with narrow, broad or both types of scales: and lower mese-

pimreron without bristles or scales.

The females have the following features: genitalia with

segment VIIII partially or completely retracted into segment

VII, cerci long, narrow~ and viisible dorsally, postgenital

plate w;ith a deep median apical indentation (moderately deep

in tse ni orhyrncho ide s) insula tong~ue-like and covered wuith

minute spicules, 3 spermathecae approximately equal in size

except for the alboscutellatus group which has 1 large and 2







rudimentary spermathecae; and posttarsi of legs 1-II with

ungues toothed and ungues of III usually simple. Ochlero-

tatus and INeomelaniconion Newstead have similar cerci but

can be easily separated by the former having bristles on the

insula and the latter with the postgenital plate without a

deep median apical indentation. The insula of Aedimorphus

resembles those of Stegomyia and Diceromyia but the cerci of

the latter 2 species are short and broad. Female specimens

usually can be separated from those of the other subgenera

of Aedes by a combination of the characters mentioned.

For a long time, Aedes _nummtu has been considered as

an aberrant Aedimoroh~us. It possesses some features of

Aedimorchus but contains a greater number of important char-

acters of Diceromrrvia, notably features of the male maxillary

palpus, male genitalia and female genitalia. I am therefore

transferring this species to the subgenus Diceromvia.

The pupae of the Oriental species are very similar,

especially in the chaetotaxy, chape of the respiratory

trumpet and structure of the paddle.
Aedimorohus larvae have a number of distinctive features

such ass antenna slightly incurved distally and with short

stout spicules on shaft, hair 1-A stellate with 3-16 bran-

ches; siphon with distal 2-4 teeth smooth and wider spaced

than remainder which have a slender attenuate filament with

1-4 lateral deniticles, pecten teeth on basal 0.50 of siphon

and hair tuft inserted on distal 0.50; ventral brush of ab-

dominal segment X varies from 8 hairs on grid and 4 precratal







ones to 14 hairs on grid and 3 precratal ones; and saddle and

siphon usually with an acus.

BIOLOGY AND MEDICAL IMPORTANCE. Females of many spe-

cies of Aedimorehus readily feed on man and, at times, may

be very serious pests. Some species such as taeniorhynchoi-

des (Aslamkhan and Salman 1969: 194) and pallidostriatus

prefer feeding on cattle rather than on man. Temples et al,

(1970: 339) summr~arized th~e feeding preferences of vexans in

the Hawaiian Islands as follows: man--2.4 percent, bovine--

50.7 percent, horse--37.2 percent, dog--4.7 percent, pig--

1.6 percent and unknown host--3.4 percent. In Gialaysia,
Standfast (1967: 193) found that vegans readily fed on man

between 18030 and 0600 hours wvith a peak in feeding around

2400 hours and a smaller one around 0500 hours.

In the United States, vexans has been found naturally

infected with western equine encephalitis virus (Burroughs

and Burroughs 1954: 33) and has experimentally transmitted

the virus of eastern encephalitis (Chamberlain et al. 1954r

280). Exrperimenltal transmission of fowvl pox virus to chickens

by vegans was demonstrated by Matheson, Brunett and Brody

(1931s 218); and Hu (1931: 628) and Yen (1938: 193) showed

experimentally that this species was a fairly good carrier of

Dirofilaria immitis Leidy. Aspock (1965= 767) and Mattingly

(1969: 79) report that verans is concerned in the trans-

mission of Tahyna virus in central Europe.

Aedes vegans _nippOni is suspected of being a vector of

Japanese B encephalitis virus in Japan (La Casse and Yama-

guti 194a: 104).







Hodes (1946: 358) experimentally transmitted this virus to

mice through the bite of vexans nipponii. This species of

mos uito is not believed to be a vector of Wucherecia ban-

crofti Cobbold since the larvae of this parasite died in the

body cavity of the mosquito as reported by Yamada (1927) and
Naewton, Wright and Pratt (19451 256).

In Africa, Middelburg virus has been isolated from the

following species of Aedimorphus: a~lbocephalu (Theobald)

(W~orth, Paterson and de Meillon 1961( 588), dentatus (Theo-

bald). leesoni Edw~ards and cumminsi (Theobald) (Robin et al.

19609: 11 ). The virus vector in Sene al seems to be com-

minsi and sheep apparently play a part in the maintenance of

the virus (Robin et al. 1969: 117). The latter found M~iddel-

burg virus primarily in cattle and rarely in man.
Smithburn and Haddow (1944s 265), while working in

Africa, isolated Semliki Forest virus from naturally in-

fected members of the abnormalis Theobald group. Rift Valley

fever virus was isolated from a pooled sample of 50 percent

albocephalus and 50 percent tarsalis (N~ewstead) in Africa by

Smithburn, Haddow and Gillett (1948: 117). The African

Bunyawrera virus was found in a pooled sample containing

5 subgenera of Aedes (8 species of Aedimorphus) by Smith-

burn, Haddow and Mahaffy (1946s( 190). In Tongaland, Union

of South Africa, Spondweni virus was isolated from cumminsi,

Wesselsbron virus from minutus (Theobald) and an unidentified








virus from marshallii (Theobald) by Worth, Paterson and de

Meillon (1961: 588).

Bauer (1928: 267), while working in Africa, experi-

mentally transmitted the yellow fever virus to monkeys by

the bite of stokesi Evans (recorded as apicoannulatus

Edwards).,

The typical breeding sites of Aedimorchus are temporary

and semipermanent fresh water ground pools. Some species

have been collected from other habitats such as artificial

containers, rockholes, etc., but usually on~ly wrhen their

normal breeding places had dried up. Aedes irritans and

vexans have been taken from brackish pools.

Eggs of vexans are deposited in shallow~l areas that are

subject to inundation. Horsfall (1956: 66) found that em-

bryonated eggs of vexans are able to withstand adversities

such as drought, cold and premature submersion often for

long periods of time. He also stated the basic hatching
stimulus for the eggs is a decrease in the content of dis-

solved oxygen in the water. Gjullin, Yates and Stage (1950:

268) reported that eggs in field cages showed little or no

mortality over 2 years, but for longer periods viability

rapidly decreased and less than 1 percent survived 4 years.

Eggs of vexans deposited 1 year may hatch throughout the fol-

lowing season but usually most eggs that survive the winter

hatch the following spring (Miller 1930 cited Horsfall 1955r

523). Horsfall (1955r 523) stated that eggs in natural

sites can withstand prolonged freezing without detrimental

effects.













KEYS TO THE SPECIES OF AEDES (AEDIll0RPHUS)


IN~ SOUTHEAST ASIA



KEY TO THE ADULTS


1. Head with only broad scales on vertex; ante-
pronotum with broad silvery scales,............. 2

Head with narrow scales mesally on vertext
antepronotum with narrow curved white or
golden scales, or if broad scales present
these are not silvery~..~.....~~................ 3


2(1). Vertex of head with erect forked scales;
postpronotumn with a few broad silvery
scales; tarsi dark..,.~........... puznctifemoris

Vertex of head without erect forked
scales; postpronotum bare; tarsi with
white bands~....~........~~.~......... wainw\rrighti


3(1). Tarsi II-III writh basal white bands or
dorsobasal white spots..........~~,~~........*** 4

Tarsi II-III without basal white bands
or spots (some species may have lateral
longitudinal white stripes),..~...~.~.~.~....... 10


4(3). Wing with dorsal veins brownm scaled or
with a small spot of white scales at
base of costa; femora I-II with anterior
brown.......... .......... .......... .......** 5

Wing with dorsal veins with white and
brown scales i~ntermixed or with a
number of white scales on posterior
margin of costa; femora I-II with a
large number of white scales inter-
mixed with brown ones.,..~.l~..~.~.............. 7





7(4). Wing brown with numerous white scales
(30:5 or more of scales white) inter-
mixed on all dorsal veins, including
anal vein.............,....,.................... 8

Wing without numerous white scales
intermixed on all dorsal veins, anal
vein brown scaled.................... ...,........ 9


8(7). Prealar knob with a few broad white
scales; scutellum with only narrow
curved white scales on midlobe... taeniorh:yncholdes

Prealar knob without scales; scutellum
with broad white scales and occasionally
a very few narrow curved ones on mid-
lobe .....,....,.... ................. pipersalatus


9(7). Abdomen with terga III-IV each with an
incomplete apical median longitudinal
white stripe which may or may not con-
nect with basal bands; lower sub-
spiracular scale patch connects, or
nearly so, with postspiracular scale
patch........................... vexans nipponii

Abdomen with terga III-IV without apical
median longitudinal white stripe; lower
subspiracular scale patch does not con-
nect writh postspiracular scale patch....... vexans


5(4). Scutellum with broad and narrow scales on
each lobe; tarsus III with a narrow basal
white band on tarsomere 5.............~....

Scutellum with broad silvery scales on
each lobes tarsus III with tarsomere 5
pale scaled............,.~............r...


6(5). Maxillary palpus brown scaled; tarsi I-II
each with tarsomere 5 pale scaled.........

Maxillary palpus with white scales
tarsi I-II each with tarsomere 5
brown scaled....................


caecus



.....6



lowisii



orbitae








10(3). Proplcuron- wijthh n-arrow; curved scales;
coutum w'ith 2-3S distinct; longitudinal
white stripes......l~cO....................... 11

Propleulron wnith broad scales; sou~tum
w~ith~out white s~tripes..........., r ...... o ........ 12


11(10), Ant~erior margi.n of w.ing~ pale scaled;
femnora II-III each bro;;rn with an
anterior median longitudinral white
stripe .... ..... ..., ..... .. .. .. ...O pallidostriatus

Anterior margin of w~ing br~ownm scaled;
fedora II-III without antesior longi-
tudin-al white stripe............... mediolinea-tus


12(10)). Scotial integument pale w~itlh a pair of
dark: stripes onl dorsocentral areas;
tarsi yellow: scaled............ ~ i .... nigros~triaztuss

Scutal in-tegument uniformly dark;t
tarsi brown scaledc.... .. ..... . .... ............ 13


13(12). Scutellumn wiith nar~ro:: curved wrhi~te
scales on each lobe; subspiracular
area wijth 2 pat~ches of broad nhi'te
scale s... ..... c c....... ro cc .. .. .. u...... c ulijc inus

Scotellum w;ith broad silvery-w~hite
scales on each lobe; sutbspiracularr
area w~ith 1 patch of' moder:ately broad
w~hi'te scales: or w~ith a patich of short
fine hairs and with~out scales..oo............... 14


14(13), Albdomen-~ with terga IJI-IV brown dorsally;
subspiracular area with a pa-tch of wrhi-te
scaleS.............r.r............... pampangensis

Abdome n ith terga 111-IV with dorso-
basal white bands; subspiraculp.r area
w~ith a patch of short finel halrs,,....,,...........
.... ... .... ... ... .... ... ... alboscu~tellat us





KEY TO THE PUPAE


1. ar4-I- iue.......... caecus

Hai baIIIV a sen ... ...... ... ...... ... 2


2(1). Ventral posterior margin of II with
spicules mesally; hair 10-1 short....... .vexags
vexans nipponzzr
Ventral posterior margin of II without
spicules mesally; hair 10-I absent........... 3


3(2). Hair 7-C with 8-11 branches; hair 6-VI
with 6-8 branch s.............,.. Dpampangensis

Hair 7-C with 2-6 branches; hair 6-VI
single to 4 branched.......................... 4


4(3). Hair 1-II with 3-7 branches..... alboscutellatus

Hair 1-II with 9-49 branches...**************** 5


5(4). Hair 10-c with 5-9 branches; hair
14-II minute......................,........,,, 6

Hair 10-C with 10-33 branches; bair
14-II absent.,.....................,,..,,,, 7


6(5). Hair 4-II with 2-5 branches......,...... culicinus

Hair 4-II with 7-16 brsnches........ picersalatus


7(5). Hair 8-C with 7-9 branches; meta-
n~otum with patch of spicules between
bases of hairs 12-C,...................... orbitae

Hair 8-C with 2-6 branches; metanotum
without spicules between bases of
hairs 12-C.............,,.,,,...,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 8


8(7). Hair 1-I with 17-30 branches..,... mediolineatus

Hair 1-I wvith 30-4c6 branches..... rDallidostriatus








K;EY TO THIE FOURTH STAGE LARiErlT


1. Siphon w~ith pat'ches of spicules, those
may be restricted to apox...........c.O.o~.... 2

Siphon~ wijthout spicules........... ..~.. .. ..... 3


2(1). Siphon with lateral patch of spicules
near middle; head hair 6-C with 6-9
branlchCSose.........,,,.oaooc.....,,...Oria

Siphon without lateral patch~ but
usually wiith a dorsal patch of
spicules; head hair 6-C wih -
branches...............,,,.....,,......... cacus


3(1). Iresothoracic nair 5-1: double or tr~iple;
siphon long, index 7.5j0-9,0. o....... pFLampansensa

Me~sothoracic hair 5-1 single; siphon
short to moderately longi, index: 2.11-7c.91.o, .. 4


LC(3). Comb scales sh~ort, without a long m redS~ia
spine but with lateral denticles.....G~....o.....c 5

Comb~ scales wiith a long stoult pointed
median spine andi short denticles along
lateral margins of baseO....(O.................. 6


5(Lc). Comb scales short with~~ a short stout
median spine and short denti~cles
along lateral mairgins; siph~on index
5.oo0-5.56.................. ... ....... pi persa~latu s

Comb scales short without s-tout median
spine, short denticles along margin
and apex; siphon index 3.00-14.08....... ....c.......
.. D......... ................. a OClboscelatus


6( 11). Abtdomin~al hairs 1p2-VIII aittlached to
a basal plate; head hair 6-C single to
double; head hair 8-C single.,........~....l vexans
vezans niDponi1

Abdominal hairs 1,2-VIII not on a
basal plate; head hair 6-C with 3-6
branches; head hair 8-C wvith 2-6
branches .... ~ ....~.... .... .. ...... *******




27


7(6). Prothoracic hair 7-P double; meta-
thoracic hair 7-T with 5-6 branches;
siphon index 3.88-4.50........~....... culicinus

Prothoracic hair 7-P triple; meta-
thoracic hair 7-T with 7-14 branches;
siphon index 5.93-7.91.........***************** 8


8(7). Prothoracic hair 0-P with 4-5 branches
metathoracic hair 1-M single..... pallidostriatus

Prothoracic hair 0-P with 6-12 branches;
metathoracic hair 1-M double to 5
branched.,...................... medioline~atus












DESCRIPTIONS OF THE SPECIES OCCURRING
IN SOUTHEAST ASIA



AEDES (AEDIMORPHUS) ALBOSCUTELLATUS (THEOBALD)


Lepidotomylra alboscutellata Theobald 1905, Ann. Mus.. nat.
Hung. 3: 80 (F*); Brunetti 1907, Rec. Indian Mus.
1s 339.

Lenidotomyia Alboscutellata Theobald, Leicester 1908, Cul.
iMalaya, p. 132 (M\,F).

Culex areentinotus Banks 1909, Philipp. J. Sci. 41 547
(M,F).

Reedomyia alboscutella Theobald, Theobald 1907, Monogr. Cul.
4: 26~1(F*); Theobald 1910, M~onogr. Cul. 5: 257.

Reedom~yia alboscutellata Theob., Brunetti 1912, Rec. Indian
Mlus. 4 48 7.

Ochlerotatus al~boscutellatus Theob., Brunetti 1920, Rec.
Indian Mus. 17: 139r Senior-white 1923, Cat. Indian
Insects, Cul., p. 76.

Aides 6murensis Yamada 1921, Annot. zool. jap. 10s 73

Aedes (Ecculex) alboscutellatus Theobald, Edwards 1922b,
Indian J. med. Ras. 10s 467.

Aides (Aidimorphas) alboscutellatus (Theo.), Edwards 1924,
Bull. ent. Res. -14: 372 (F;)i Barraud 1934, F~auna Brit.
India, Diptera 5r 250(M,)

Aides (A~dimorphus) alboscutellata Theobald, Dyar and Shannon
1925, Insecutor Inseit. menstr. 13: 76.

Aedes (Aedimorphus) alboscutellatus (Theobald), Barraud 1928,
Indiani J. med. Res, 15: -659 (M*,F)1 Bohart 1965.
Named. 580, p. 62; Hsiao and Bohart 1946, Nlaymed.
1095, p. 22; Pen~n 1949, nat. Hist. Mdisc. 40s 1 (P",
L"); La Casse and Yamaguti 1950, Mosquito Fauna Japan
and K~orea, p. 130 (M*,F*)i Knight and Hull 1953, Pacif.
Insects 7: 457 (N*I,F,L*); Stone et al. 1959, Thomas







Say Found. 6: 190; Belkin 1962, Mosquitoes S. Pacif.,
p. 425 (M*J.,P*,L"); Assam and Bonine-Wepster 1964, Zool.
Bijdr. 6: 96 (M,F,L"); Mohrig 1967, Angew. Parasit.
8: 80 (F#); Pao and Knight 1970, Mosquito Syst.
Newsletter 2: loS (L*).

Addes (A~dimorthus) alboscutellatus Theobald, Edwards 1932,
Genera Insec., Pasc. 19~4: 17

Aedes (Aedimorthus) alboscuitellatus Theobald, Bonne-Wepster
19i54, Dsc. med.d Geogr. Trop, 6s 236 (M\,F,L*).

FEMIALE (Fi 1). Head. Antenna dark brown, approxi-

mately 1.14 length of proboscis, pedicel pale with a few

small brown scales and a patch of short fine brown hairs

mesally, flagellomere 1 with basal 0.50 pale and with a few

small brown scales; clypeus dark, bare; maxillary palpus

brown scaled, approximately 0.17 length of proboscis; pro-

bccscis brown scaled with a ventral pale area from near base

to apical 0.25, approximately 1.12 length of femur I; vertex
with dorsumn covered with narrow decumbent scales arranged in

an anteromedian diamond-shaped brown group and the remainder

whitish; lateral surface covered with broad pale scales, an

anterodorsal dark patch and a dusky area anterior to ante-

pronotums numerous dark brown erect forked scales on occiput
and vertex extending snteriorly to ocular line. Thorax.

Scutal integument brown; scutum covered with narrow curved

reddish-black scales, narrow7 curved white scales forming

distinct spots on scutal fossal areas (lateral and posterior)

and supra-alar area at base of wing, indistinct spots on

anterior promontory area, anterior scutal fossal area and at

scutal angle, a few similar scales scattered on area mesally

to acrostichal setae and along lateral margins of prescutellar







space; scutellum with a patch of long, broad overlapping

silvery scales on each lobe; median anterior promontory,

acrostichal, dorsocentral (anterior and posterior), soutal

fossal (anterior, 2-3 lateral and 1-2 posterior), supra-alar,

several posterior medial scutal, 1 postalar cellular and

scutellar (lateral and median) bristles reddish-black and

well developed, others absentt pleural integument brown;

antepronotum with narrow curved and a few7 broad white scales,

several moderately long brown bristles; postpronotum with

narrow dark brown scales dorsally and a few white ones

posteroventrally. 4-5 dark posterior bristles; propleuron
w~ith a patch of broad silvrery-white scales, several dark

bristles; postspiracular area with 6-7 light brown bristles

subspiracular area w~ith a patch of short fine light brown

hairs; mesepisternum with an upper and a pos~terior patch of

broad silvery-wrhite scales, several upper and posterior brown

bristles, lower ones shorter prealar knob with several dark

brown bristles; paratergite with a few duskyr-w;hite scales

(these scales usually rubbed off); mesepimeron with a patch

of broad silvery-wrhite scales and several brown bristles on

upper area; other pleural areas bare. Legs. Coxae I-III
each with several brown bristles, I with anterior covered

with broad pale brownish scales and a small dorsal patch of

silvery-w~hite ones, II with an anterior patch of broad silvery-

white scales, III with a small anteroventral patch of silvery-

white scales; trochanters I-III with a few broad white scales

femora I-III brown, I with a few lateroapical white scales,







II-III each with a dorsoapical white spot, III with an

anteroventral longitudinal pale stripe, wide at base and

tapering at apex, I-III each with posterior with a longitu-
dinal pale stripe, wide at base and tapering to apex, stripe

dorsal on I and ventral on II-III; tibiae I-II brown, each

with a dorsoapical white scale patch and a posteroventral

longitudinal pale stripe, III brown with an apical white

band; t-orsi I-III brown; posttarsi I-III each wJith 2 ungues,

I-II equal, each bearing a tooth, III equal, simple. Wing.

Dorsal veins covered with moderately broad brown scales;

costa with a patch of white scales at base; ventral veins

brownm scaled alula w~ith narrow brown scales. along fringel

2 remigial bristles. Halter. Pedicel pale, capitellum brown

scaled. Abdomen. Tergum 1 brownm with a rectangular patch

of white scales on laterotergite; terga brown, III-VII each

with a few dorsobasal pale scales (pale scales occasionally

forming narrow indistinct bands), a fewJ dorsomedian pale

scales on VI in some specimens, II-VII each with a large

laterobcasal white spot; sterna white each with apical 0.25

brownm scaled, brownm apical bands broader on posterior sterna,

terga and sterna wlith numerous golden bristles, mostly along

posterior margins. Genitalia. Segmecnt VIII distinctly bi-

lobed ventroapically, retracted into segment VII; tergum IX

bilobed with 3-6 bristles on each lobes cercus long, com-

pletely extended and visible dorsally; postgenital plate

with a deep median apical indentation with 5-8 bristles on

each lobe; insula tongue-like, membranous, covered with tiny

spicules; 3 spermathecae, 1 large and 2 rudimentary ones.







NLrZE (Fig. 1). Similar to female in general habit1us,

H~ead. Mailr alpus bro~in, longer than proboscis by

lengthl of apical segment; vertex without a-nterodorsal~~. dark:

Patch~ on lateral surface, Thor'sx. Anteprono'tumr l wi'th a few~

broad pale scales; postpyronotumu w~ith foulr Ecales. Lgpgs.

Posttarsi I-III each~ with~ 2 unguies, I-II with~ LunguCS unelqual

eachi bearing a too~h, III equal, s simple. A bdomen~r. Tru

with a lateral band of white scales on lat;erotergite; targa

III-VIII each~ with a broad basal palo brind; stern~um VIII

white scaled. Genjtsola (;igr. th). Tergulm IX strongly bi-

lobed with 4-6 bristles on each lobe, entire surface covered

with minute spicules; gonocox;ite lony and moderately broad,

dorsal surface with short fine bristles forming an olongate

patch along terg6omsal m~ar in~ from apex to bas~e and extlendi.n,

over basal 0.25, long stout bristles along oulter lateral

margin from base to apox and on apical 0.35 of ventral sur-

face, scattered short to moderately long bristles mesally

on basal 0.65 of von~tral sujrlace, scattered scales on lateral

and ventral surfaces; gonostyluss with pedicel. narrow and

short, dist~al 0.50 greatly expanded writh a latoroapical horn-

lik~e flap bearingr a n~umber of moderaitely, longs fine halirs,

mesal margin of expanded portion with a moderately long flat-

tened, pigmented gronostylar claw. near base and 3 small and 1

mediuml-sized accessory claws distallyr, 3-L; moderate~ly long

fine chairs along apical margin and 9-16 short fine hairs

scattered over tergal surface of ex:panded area: basa.1 mesal

lobe short and rounded apically, distal 0.40 writh 3-4 short







bristles, entire surface covered with short hair-like

spicules; proctiger short, paraproct with a subapical thumb-

like process, cereal setae absent phallosome with aedeagus

of type I with 2 lateral plates connected basally, each plate

with 5-6 short, blunt, lateral teeth on distal 0.55 and

covered with a dorsal flap, p~aramere long, approximately 0.833

length of lateral plates sternum IX' large, entire surface

covered writh minute spicules, 3-5 bristles near center.


PUPA (Fig. 21). Chaetotaxy as figured and recorded in

Table 1. Cechalothora:.. Hair 5-C with 4-6 branches, 7-C

with 3-11 branches; 8-C with 5-9 branches. Respiratory

trumpet. I.Ioderately pigmented; wyith scattered minute spic-

ules on distal 0.65 of inner surface; index 3.50-4.50, average

3.87. Metanotum. Hair 10-C with 3-5 branches; 12-C with 4-7

branches. Abdomen. Hair 5-I with 6-11 branches: 1-II with

3-7 branches; 4-II writh 2-5 branches 1-III with 6-10 branches

6-VI with 2-4 branches 1-VII with 4-6 branches; 6-VII with

4-10 branches; 9-VII with 2-5 branches: 11-VII double or

triple. Paddle. Ovoid; w~ith very minute serrations along

basal 0.50 of outer margin; tiny spicules along apical o*50

of outer and apical 0.20 of inner margins; midrib does not

reach apex; hair 1-P short, double or triples index 1.09-

1.30, average 1.21.


LARVA (Fig. 28). Chaetotaxy as figured. Head. Hairs

1, 3-C single; 4-C wvith 3-5(3) branches; 5-c with 3-7(3)

branches 6-C with 2-5(3) branches; 7-C with 4-8(6) branches;







8-C with 2-4(4) branches; 9, 11-C with 3-6(4) branches; 10-C

double or triple (3); 12-C with 3-5(5) branches; 13-C double
or triple (2); 14-C single or double (1); 15-c with 3-7(4)
branches; basal maxillary hair single; mental plate with

32-36(34) teeth. Antennia. 'Lightly pigmented; numerous spic-
ules on basal 0.25 and a few scattered over remainder of
shaft; hair 1-A with 5-7(5) branches, inserted at 0.40-0.47
from base; 2-A long; 3-A approximately 0.34 length of 2-A.
Thorax. Hair 0-P with 6-11(10) branches; 1. 5, 6, 12-P

single; 2-P with 2-4(3) branches; 3-P with 3-L6(4) branches;
4-P with 3-7(4) branches; 7, 11-P w~ith 2-4(2) branches; 8,
10-P single or double (1); 9-P double or triple (3); 14-P

single to triple (2); 1-M with 3-7(4) branches; 2-M with 2-4
(2) branches: 3-M with 3-5(3) branches; 4-Ml with 6-9(5)
branches; 5. 7, lo, 12-M~ single; 6-t with 3-5(4) branches;
8-M with 5-7(6) branches; 9-M with 6-7(6) branches: 11-M

single or double (1); 13-M with 5-10(7) branches; 14-M with
4-10(8) branches; 1, 5, 10-T single; 2-T with 4-10(8)
branches 3-T with 7-12(11) branches; 4-T with 3-4(4)
branches; 6-T with 2-5(4) branches; 7-T with 5-7(6) branches
8-T with 5-12(7) branches; 9-T with 4-6(5) branches 11-T

single or double (2); 12-T single to triple (2); 13-T with
9-1 (14) branches. Abdomen. Hairs 0, 14-VIII single; 1-VIII
with 6-11(6) branches; 2-VIII with 2-4(3) branches; 3-VIII
with 6-16(9) branches; 4-VIII1 single or double (2); 5-VZIII
with 5-9(7) branches; comb with 17-25(19) scales arranged in

3 irregular row~s, scales each short and blunt with stout








denticles on margins and apex; 1-X double or triple (2); 2-X

with 7-12(11) branches; 3-X single; ventral brush varies from

9 hairs on grid and 3 precratal ones to 12 hairs on grid and

2 precratal ones, usually with 9 hairs on grid and 3 pre-

cratal ones; saddle moderately pigmented with minute ridges,

incompletely rings segment, with a few spicules along pos-

terior margin, acus present; 4 anal gills long, each with a

broad base and tapering to a pointed apex. Siahon. Moder-

ately pigmented with minute ridges over entire surface; acus

present; index 3.00-4.08, pecten with 15-20(17) teeth, apical

1-3 teeth smooth and wider spaced than remainder which have

a slender attenuate filament with 1-2 basal denticles; hair

1-S with 4-6(5) branches, inserted at 0.59-0.67 from base.


TYPE DjATA. Lepidotomyia alboscutellata Theobald, holo-

ty e female, Simbang, Huon Gulf, New Guinea, AUSTRALIA, July

1898, Biro, in Magyar N~emzeti Museum, Budapest, Hungary;
Clxargentinotus Bns syntypes male and female, Pinag-

salaan Well, Taytay, Rizal, Luzon, PHILIPPINES, 13-16 May

1909, C. S. Banks, types nonexistent (Stone et al. 1959r

190); Aedes omurensis Yamada, 4 female and 2 male syntypes,

5 female and 1 male paratypes, Omura, Kyushu, JAPAIJ, syntype

No. 35, in Mledicall Zoology Laboratory, Institute for In-

fesctious Diseases, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.


DISTiRIB UTION\. Specimens examined--145 males, 181 fe-
males, 156 p~upae, 78 larvae and 157 individual hearings (137
pupal, 20 larval) from the following locations: INDIA, Assam,
Colaghat; IN~DON;ESIA~, Ceram, Lisabata, W;ahari; Java, Rawaloh9
Tjibodas, FMt. Gode, Tijlatjap; H~ew Guinea, Tanah M~erah, Upper








Digul River; &uma~tra, Bengtoelemlen Blane Ked iij ercn, De LTrma n ,
Dramarjoo, BenkoleOIn, Eltta TIjan, Mdoora Torbo~; iMALAYSIA,
Pahane~-r, Cameron's Highlandls; Sc~arawal: Kuchin9; Selanea-;r,
K;uala Lumpur, Ulu Camnbokl; &eso abut; PHILIFFIDESS bat;7ngas
Pto. Tom~as; Leffe~, Jinamoc Is.; Le~on, La Union, Anastacio~,
Bacnotan; INindloro, Cam~~inawit; K:a~bak~an, &an Joc; Palawan,
Puerta P~rincisa; &arliar, San A~n'tonioi, Cala-~cca.d, Tawl' Tiarwi
Is.; SOLUiMONi~ I&LANdS~, Buna~ns ; Tew Ge-org-e Is,, M;und~a; SOUTH'i
VIETNAMli, Aln-Khle, Plei Ku; TIHAILAHDj, iEnon~ Kan L~ar~llane
M~aha Sarat~hamn; N9khon Riat-chas=~ima~; Ul~nn Iarathiv~!at; Sonakhla;
Ubon Thani; Talum~.l1 O the!r di s trib~~u t ion ADIRLT 15
(belk~in 1962: 427, le t15:0) UTAINrhr
Terr~itozry, Daly Riv~er, D~cto.lr's Gully (E~dwards- 1924: 372);
Queensland (Edw~ar'ds 19722b: 467); B~UMMAii (E~dwards 19i22b:
467); Bhamo (Barr~aud 19j34: 251); CEYLON,, iatatel- (SeJnior-
W'hite 1923: 76); YORK~ ISLAND (Tay;lor 1934: 2);IDA
Bomba~ Decc an?, T~avargatti; Upper Assan Valle (Darrau~Ld 192
65 ); Belgaum; Benea~l, SuLkna, Dar~ljeeling; _Eibar, Pusa.;J Asa
aS~ibsga (Barraud 1930 : 251); Poona ci-ty tuao~ and Rajiaeo
plan 1957: 10); IN!DOI:E~sIA, S~umlt-ra,, Atc~hin Eenkoe-lon,
Air Pri~cek~a; Diam-,bi, Hioeara Tebo~; Liampng Lampy~on~ (Brug~ c~nd
Edwards 1931: 25t:); Uew Cuine3a, Jnanw~atan, Hollandia, P.
Pam, Solkori Plain (A~ssaml and Eon-ne-W'epsterr 1964: 98);
M~orotai (Bonne- Wepster 195!0: 237); JAPANI, Omnura, K:iushu
(Yamada 1921: 76); H!Ei? ERTITyo 1::2)
GUINEA~~, Friedrich-W'ilhelmshafen7, Hua~n Colf, Simbang (Theobald
1905b: 51;PlIFHSZmona ettit Earrrack:s; Tin-
danao (Dyar and Shannon 1925:" F7;Rizal, Tal~ta::, Pinag-
salaan W~ell. (B~anks: 1909: 5L'8); Lacuna, Las Eano~s (Bo~harti
194-5: 63); Pa~lawan, Eacungan; &amar, Osmena; Zamboqanga,
Mercede~s, Zamnboanga City, (lnight an-d Hull 1953; 459);
SOLOMON0I ISAW~D3, Bouga:inville (Belk1in 196~2: 427);; TH~ILANrD,
Hak~hon Phano~lra (Parrish 190Bb: 2); EOUTiH V'IET'iAN~, Ph-,n~ RanG
(Parrish 196Sa: 3)0


TAX.OIOMIC DISCUSSION., Aede s albhos~cutellatusu is ver',

similar to the follow~ing Oriental and Facific~ Islands

species in th~e adult habitus: ,iamesi, lowisii, oak~leyi,

senyav.inlensis, culicinu~s and _t~rukns It can be easily se-

parated from the first 2 species by, the dark tarsi and from the

latter 3 species by the broad silvery scales on the scutellum.

Alboscutellatus differs from oakleyi by the following char-

acters: femora II-III each w;ith~ a. dorsoapical silvery, spot;








abdominal terga with very narrow basal white bands; and head

with an anterodorsal brown~ spot on lateral surface; while

oakleyi has: femora II-III each with a small lateroapical

white spot; abdominal terga with broad basal white bands;

and head entirely pale scaled.

In addition to the above features, alboscutellatus also

has. the subspiracular area with only short fine hairs and

the postspiracular area without scales. The female possesses

1 large and 2 rudimentary spermathecae and shares this fea-

ture w~ith culicinus, jiamesi, lowisii and oakleyi. The il-

lustration of the female genitalia of alboscutellatus by

Hara (1957: 91) sh~ows 1 large and 2 slightly smaller

spermathecae and therefore must belong to some other species.
The male genitalia of alboscutellatus is similar to

those of culicinusaei lisi oaklevi and sen ya_-

vinensis. The following character combination can be used

in separating alboscutellatus from the other related species

gonostylus with 9-16 short fine hairs scattered over tergal

surface of expanded area; gonostylar claw wJith spez pointers

3-1) accessory claws; aedeagus with 5-6 lateral teeth on each

plate; basal mesa1 lobe with 3-4 bristles: tergum IX with
4-6 bristles on each lobe; and sternum IX with 3-5 bristles

culicinus possesses: gonostylus with 17-24 short fine hairs

on tergal surface of expanded area; no accessory clawsr

aedeagus with 6-7 lateral teeth on each plate; basal mesal

lobe with 6-10 bristles; tergum IX3 with 4-8 bristles on each

lobe; and sternum Iv with 3-5 bristles; james possesses:








gonostyrlus with 23-26 short fine hairs on tergal surface of

expanded area; 2 accessory claws; aedeagus with 4-5 lateral

teeth on each plate; basal mesal lobe with 4-5 bristles

tergum IX with 5-7 bristles on each lobe; and sternum IX

with 3-4 bristles low~isii possesses: gonostylus with 1-8

short fine hairs on tergal surface of expanded area; 4-5

accessory claws; aedeagus with 6-7 lateral teeth on each

plate; tcasa~l mesal lobe with 4-5 bristles; tergum IX with

3-4 bristles on each lobe; and sternum IX with 6 bristles

oakleyi possesses: gonostylus w~ith 12-15 short fine hairs

on tergal surface of expanded area; goniostyrlar claw writh

apex blunt; 2 accessory claws; aedeagus writh 5 lateral teeth

on each plate; basal mesal lobe with 4 bristles; tergum IX

with 3-4 bristles on each lobes and sternum IX with 5-6

bristles; and senyravinensis possesses: g;onos3t;ylus with 31-

34 short fine hairs on tergal surf ace of expanded area; 2

accessory claws; aedeagus with 5-6 lateral teeth on each

plate; basal mesal lobe with 8 bristles tergum IX with 5-6
bristles on each lobe; and sternum IX with 8 bristles.

The larva of alboscutellatus is similar to pipersalatus

and can be recognized by a difference in the shape of the

comb scales and the siphon index which is 3.00-4.08 and in

pipersalatus is 5.00-5.56.

BIOLOGY, In the Philippines, immatures have been col-

lected from water in ground pools, foxholes and sunlit road-

side ponds; adults have been taken biting man and cattle and

resting in foxholes. Adults have also been collected feeding








on cattle and man in forests in Thailand, in the jungles of

Ceram in the afternoon and in Mvalaysia during the evening.

In Java, adults have been taken at an altitude of 4,000

feet. Immatures have been collected from.jungle pools in

Malaysia, from a road rut completely covered with grass in

New Guinea and from clear water in a primeval forest in

Sumatra.

Immatures have been found in flooded ~swmp areas, wood-

land pools, rockholes and potholes in a streambed while

adults we:re collected biting during the daytime in forested

areas of the Solomon Islands (Belkin 1962: 426). In

bialaysia, M:acdonald (1957: 21) states this species bites

man in inland forests and has been taken at treetop levels.

M~acdonald and Traub (1960: 100) also record the larvae in

ground pools in this country. Steffan (1966: 212) in New

Guinea found larvae in shallow pools at the edge of the

jungle, open areas, wheel ruts and had taken the adults in

carabao baited traps. In India, larvae were collected from

jungle pools (Barraud 1928: 659, 1934: 251) and adults

from indoor shelters (Rac and Rajagopalan 1957: 10). Penn

(1948: 245) made a larval collection in the Philippines

from a permanent ditch which contained clear, stagnant

water with a pH of 6.5. Females have been taken at a light

in Malaysia (Edwards 1928: 53).







AEDES (AEDIMdORPHUS) CAECUS (TREOBALD)


Culex: caecus Theobald 1901, Mronoogr. Cul. 1: L413 (F"): Giles
1902, Handb., 2nd. Ed., p. 415 (F); Blanchiard 1905,
Moust., p. 305 (F); Theobald 1905, Genera Insec., Fase.
26s 26 Brunetti 1907, Rec. Indian Mus. 1: 343.

Pecomy/ia caeca Theobald, Theobald 190J7, lMonogr. Cul. 4:268
(M',Fs); Theobald 1910, Monogr. Cul* 5: 260; Brunetti
1912, R~ec. Indian Mus. 4: 459.

Ceitonomyia Caecus (Theobald), Leicester 1908, Cul. Mlalaya,
p. 1314.
Ochlerotatus caecus Theob., Brunetti 1920, R~ec. Indian Mus.
17r 137.

Aedes (Ecculex) caecus Theo., Edw~ard-s 1922b, Indian JT. med.
Re3s. 10: 4I67.

A4edes (A d~imorohus) caecus Theo., Birug 1926, Bull. ent. Res.
14: 436 (L"); Borel 1930, Coll1. Soc. Path. exot.
M~on ogr 3: 271 (M*i,F,L*); Ed:.ards 1932, Genera Insec.,
Fasc. 19:170; Barraud 1934, Fauna Brit. India,
Diptera 5: 257 (TM ,F,L*).)

Aedes (Aledimorphus) caecus (Theo.), Biarrsud 1928, Indian
J. med. Res. 15: 03 (M*l,F); Stone et al. 1959,
Thomas Say Found.6:11

Aedes (Aedimorphus) caecus Theobald, Bonne-Wepster 1954, Doc.
med. Geogr. Trop. 6r 237 (Ma,F9,L*).


FEMALE (Fig. 2). Head. Antenna dark brown, approxi-

mately 1.10 of proboscis, pedicel pale with a few small pale

scales and a patch of short fine black hairs mesally, flagel-

lomere 1 pale with a few small brown scales: clypeus dark

brown, barer maxillary palpus brown scaled, approximately

0.18 length of proboscis proboscis brown scaled with pale

scales on lateral and ventral surfaces from near base to

distal 0.25, pale area somewhat broader basally, approxi-

mately 1.04 length of femuir lI vertex with dorsum covered

with narrow decumbent scales arranged in an anterior brown




~


patch and white scales laterally and posteriorly; lateral

surface covered with broad pale scales and an anterodorsal

dark patch; numerous dark brown erect forked scales on oc-

ciput and vertex extending anteriorly to ocular line.

Thorax. Scutal integument dark brownish-black; scutum

covered with narrow curved reddish-black scales, narrow

curved white scale patches on median anterior promontory

area, scutal fossal areas (extending from anterior area

along margin and onto lateral area), along scu-tal ridge from

soutal angle posteromesally onto dorsocentral setal line,

supra-alar area from base of wing posteromesally to dorso-

central setal line, posterior medial soutal area and along

margins of prescutellar space; soutellum with a patch of
narrow curved white scales and a few broad white ones on

each lobe, broad scales on lateral lobes longer than on

median lobe; median anterior promontory, acrostichal, dorso-

central (anterior and posterior), scutal fossal (anterior,

2-3 lateral and 1 posterior), supra-alar, several posterior

medial scutal, 1 postalar cellular and soutellar (lateral

and median) bristles reddish-black and w~ell developed, others

absent; pleural integume~nt dark brown; antepronotum with nar-

row curved wrhite scales, several long golden to brown

bristles; postpron~otum covered w~ith narrowv curved scales,

dark reddish-black ones anteriorly and dorsally, large lower

patch of white ones, 6-7 posterior brown bristles; pro-

pleuron with a patch of broad white scales, several golden

bristles; postspiracular area with a patch of broad white







scales and a few narrow covered ones anteriorly. 5-8 golden

bristles; subspiracular area with 2 patches of broad white

scales, lower one larger; mesepisternum with an upper and a

posterior patch of broad white scales, several upper and

posterior golden bristles, lower ones shorter; prealar knob

with several golden bristles; paratergite with a row of

moderately broad white scales on lateroventral margin; mese-

pimeron with a patch of broad white scales and several

golden bristles on upper area; other pleural areas bare.

Legs. Coxcae I-III each with several dark brown bristles,

I with anterior covered with broad white scales and a patch

of brown ones at about middle, II with anterior covered with

broad white scales, III with an anteroventral small patch of

broad white scales trochanters I-III each with a patch of

broad white scales; fedora I-III each with a dorsobasal

white spot and a few apical white scales on lateral surfaces,

I-II each wvith anterior brown and a few pale scales on

ventral surface, III with anterior and posterior brown with

a white stripe from base to near apex, stripe broad basally

and tapering to a point epically, I-II with posterior white

with a brownm stripe from base to apex, stripe ventral on I

and dorsal on II; tibiae I-III brown, I with a postero-

ventral longitudinal white stripe and a dorsoapical white

spot, II-III each with a posterior longitudinal white

stripe, a narrow basal white band and a few dorsoapical

white scales, stripe on III on apical 0.80s tarsi I-II

brown with tarsomreres 1-3 each with a dorsobasal white spots







tarsus III with tarsomeres 1-3 each with a narrow basal white

band, tarsomere 4 with a dorsobasal white spot; posttarsi I-

III each with 2 ungues, I-II equal, each bearing a tooth,

III equal, simple. Wing. Dorsal veins covered with moder-

ately broad brown scales; costa wBith a patch of broad white
scales at base; ventral veins brown scaled; alula with nar-

row brown scales along fringe; 2 remigial bristles. Halter.

Pedicel pale, capitellum white scaled with a few brown

scales mesally. Abdomen. Terga brown; tergum I with a few

basomedian pale scales and a rectangular patch of white

scales on lateratergite; terga II-VI each with a basal white

band, banids wider on III-V in Thailanid specimens; tergumn VII

with a few basomedian and apical wvhite scales; terga II-VII

each wvith a large laterobasal w~hite patch covering most of

lateral surface, a few brown scales forming anl indistinct

dark~ spot tow~ar~d the center of each white patch, on some

specimens w;hite patch reduced or absent on VII and brown
scales more numerous on lateral surfaces of III-VI; sterna

white scaled w~ith a narrowv posterior brown band onl III-IV

anid usually a few brown scales on posterior of V-VI; terga

and sternra with numerous golden bristles, mostly along

posterior margiins. Genitalia. Segment VIII distinctly bi-
lobed ventroapicallyc retracted into segment VJII; tergum IX

bilobed with 3-6 bristles on each lobe; cercus long, com-

pletely extended and visible dorsally; postgeniital plate
with a deep mediani apical indentation with 4-8 bristles on

each lobe; insula tongue-like, membranous, covered with tiny








spiculesr 3 spermathecae, 1 large and 2 slightly smaller

ones.

IdALE (Fig. 2). Similar to female in general habitus.

Head. MaxYillary palpus brown with segments 2-5 each with a

white basal band, longer than proboscis by 0.50 length of

apical segment; vertex with narrow scaled area reduced.

Legs. Posttarsi I-III each with 2 ungues, I-II with ungues

unequal, each bearing a tooth, III equal, simple. Abdomen.

Terga II-VII each with a narrow dorsobasal white band con-

nected to a laterobasal white patch; tergum VIII completely

white scaled; sterna III-VIII within a narrow posterior brown

band. Genitalia (Fig. 15). Tergum IX strongly bilobed with

4-8 bristles on each lobe, entire surface covered with minute

spicules; gonocoxite long and moderately broad, dorsal sur-

face covered with scattered short fine bristles and a few

moderately long ones on 0.30 of lateroapical margin, numer-

ous long stout bristles along lateral margin from base to

apex, ventral surface with long stout bristles on apical

0,25 and along distal 0.60 of sternomesal margin, a few

moderately long bristles below and mixed with long ones,

scattered scales on lateral and ventral surfaces; gono-

stylus with pedicel long and narrow, base somewhrlat broader,

distal 0.38 expanded into a mesal lobe and a lateral, nar-

row, apically rounded horn attached approximately 0.78 from

base with a short fine hair at apex, mesal expanded lobe

with a moderately long, somewhat flattened, apically pointed

gonostylar claw attached mosally near base, 3-5 short stout








bristles along apical margin, mesal one short and others

each increasing in length, 3 short fine hairs along mesal

margin of distal 0.50 of pedicel; basal mesal lobe short

and rounded apically, distal 0.25 with 5-8 short bristles,

entire surface covered w~ith short hair-like spicules;

proctiger short, paraproct with a subapical thumb-like

process, cereal setae absent; phallosome with aedeagus of

type I with 2 lateral plates connected basally, each plate
with 6-7 short blunt lateral teeth on distal 0.58 and

covered with a dorsal flap, paramere long, approximately

0.90 length of lateral plate; sternum IX: large, entire sur-

face covered w~ith minute spicuzles, 7-15 bristles near center.


PUPA (Fig. 22). Chaetotaxy as figured and recorded in

Table 2. Patches of spiculles on middorsal ridge of cephalo-

thorax extending to metanotum, on metanotum mesally between

hairs 10-C and on abdomen between hairs 1-I. A minute addi-

tional hair (4a) on III-V between bases of hairs 4) and 5.

Hair 5-C with 2-5 branches; 7-C with 2-4 branches; 8-C with

5-7 branches. Respiratoryr trumpet. Lightly pigmented; with

scattered minute spicules on distal 0.75 of inner surface

index 3.67-4.21, average 3.85. 1.1etanotum. Hair 10-c with

7-11 branches; 12-C with 5-Y branches. Abdomen. Hair 5-I

with 6-10 branches 1-II with 20-32 branches; 4-II with 2-5

branches; 1-III with 5-8 branches; 6-VI single or doubler

1-VII writh 2-5 branches; 6, 9-VII with 3-7 branches: 11-VII

single. Paddle. Ovoid- with very minute serrations along

basal 0.55 of outer margin; minute spicules on distal







dorsolateral 0.25 of outer surface; midrib does not reach

apex; hair 1-P short, single; index 1.14-1.47, average 1.25.

LARVA (Fig. 29). Chaetotaxiy as figured. Head. Hairs

1, 3, 14-C single; 4-C with 4-8(5) branches 5-C with 5-7

(5) branches; 6-C with 4-5(4) branches; 7-C with 7-11(9)
branches; 8, 10-C with 2-4(3) branches; 9-C with 3-4(3)

branches; 11-C with 4-10(6) branches; 12-C with 5-8(5)

branches 13-C with 5-7(6) branches; 15-c with 4-6(5)

branches; basal maxillary hair single; mental plate with

22-24(22) teeth. Antenna. Lightly pigmented; spicules

scattered over entire shaft, more numerous on basal 0.50;

hair 1-A writh 5-7(5) branches, inserted at 0.45-0.52 from

base; 2-A long; 3-A approximately 0.50 length of 2-A.

Thorax. Hair 0-P with 5-12(5) branches; 1, 5 6, 10 12-P

single; 2, 8-P double; 3-P withi 2-IC(3) branches; 4, 11-P

with 2-4(2) branches; 7-P double or triple (3); 9-P single

to triple (2); 14-P single to double (1); 1-M with 3-6(3)

branches; 2-M1 with 1-5(1) branches; 3, 11-M single to

double (1); 4-M with 3-7(3) branches; 5, 7, lo, 12-M single;

6-M~ with 4I-7(5) branches; 8, 9-M1 with 5-9(7) branches; 13-M

writh LI-10(8) branches; 14-Mr with 5-9(6) branches; 1, 12-T

single to triple (1); 2-T with 3-6(5) branches; 3-T with

6-16(9) branches; 4-T w~ith 3-5(4) branches; 5, 10-T single

6-T with 2-L1(3) branches; 7-T with 7-10(9) branches; 8-T

with 4-7(5) branches; 9-T with 5-8(7) branches: 11-T single

or double (1); 13-T with 6-9(6) branches. Abdomen. Hairs 0,

4, 14-VIII single; 1-VIII[ with 5-8(6) branches; 2-VIII with







2-4(3) branches; 3-VIII with 8-15(12) branches; 5-VIII with

4-7(5) branches; comb with 23-32(24) scales arranged in 3

irregular rows, scales short and bluntly rounded with short
stout denticles along lateral and apical margins; 1, 3-X

single; 2-X with 9-12(11) branches; ventral brush varies
from 9 hairs on grid and 2 precratal ones to 10 hairs on

grid and 2 precratal ones, usually with 10 hairs on grid and

1 precratal hair saddle lightly pigmented with minute rid-

ge s, incompletely rings segment, with a fewu spicules along

posterior margin, acus absent; 4 anal gills long, each with
a broad base and tampering to a pointed apex. Siphon.

Lighitlyr pigmnented with ridges over en~tire surface; 2-4 rows

of stout spicules circling apex; usually a dorsal and a

ventral patch of spicules at about middle of siphon, these

patches v~ary considerably from one to both absent to both
extending over 0,45 of the siphon; acu~s abosent; index 3.13-

3.47; pecten with 16-23(21) teeth, apical 2-3 teeth longer,

smooth and rider Epaced than remainder which h~ave a slender

attenuate filament w~ith 1-3 basal denticles; hair 1-S wvith

4-6(5) branches, inser~ted at 0.77-0.83 from base.

TYPE DATA. Culex caecus Theobald, holotype female,.

Klang I;iangrovse Sw~amp, Se'lanjior, I\LAY~iSIA, 28 October 1899,

A. L. Butler, in Eritishl Museum (.Natural History).

DISTRIBUTION.I Specimens ex:amined--398 males, 623 fe-
males, 346 pupae, 543 larvae and 5(j9 individual hearings
(31 upal, 228 larval) from the followings locations:
CAZ.1IEODIA, Ph~nom-Penh; CHIN'A, Shanghai, Yunznan; EAST PAKISTAN,
Chit~tagon Hill Tracts, Ran -amatti- IDIAoR Assam, Chabua~








Dibrugarb, Djoom D~ooma~i, Tempur; N~alabar Coast: IiDONESIA,
CeI-ra, 11atooinera;; Java, Ba~tavia, C;omnrony~~ Padah~erang,
Felaboeani Ratoe, Raw~allahl, Uod~jo:arna; Sumat (?),j Katta
TIjane; MA~LAYSIA,, Iedah, Chanelumn; Sintok F~. E.* JKelants.n
Ber'tamn; Pahang, Bt. BElong, Chegar, L~uala L~ipis, M~erap~oh,
Perah; Perlis~, Et. Bjntang F. R., Chior F. R.,i Kg. Gunong,
Kg, Prok: Ba.ah, GIarta Ayer, Tio'lKayaman~; Solaneior, Ampang F
H:., K;langr Mangroves, PuchonS, Seg~ambut, lGmbkUl
Kln;Te~au ul rnMrn;Segambut, Serdang~;
PHILIPPINESS Palavran, Paniitian:; S~IlAPOiRE: SOUTHl VIETljAM:i
An~-Khe, Bu Djop, Dju.c 11y, TIay IMinh; TiHAiILANlD, Chiane~ Mari*
h;anchanalburi: K~hon Kaen 128229&: I'ae Honeson: Haho
Ra tcha Sim~a; iakon Si Thammnarat; ian; ilara.thiwat; Phatingna;
Ranoz; on.khl; Tk. the dIlstribution. BUiRidA~ Ranaoni
(Earraud 1934: 256c); EAT;? PARiIS'TAMi, Ha.nourrna~il Chil;ttaroni
Hill Tracts (Ealrraud 19334: 2:58); IDI;TAi, Asse, uinapur;
Benal, Suknla; Colslghat (barrau~d 1931c: 2C58); .E. Himalayas
Theobiald 1910a: 21); Ii;DONlESIA, /ev C~uies;l Sumiatra
(MdcDonald 195~e7: 21); Sumaltral Atchin,~ K:otta Tjane*s Djaralbi,
IMoeara Tebo (B~rug an~d E~dwa~rds 1931; 5) AAsa

Gan~dak~i, Kaslki, Pokhasra (Joshi et al. 196~5;: 139); SOU'TH
VIETrihAM (Eorecl 1930l: 271); 'THAilILAND, Cheieng Wloe~ng (Causey
19137: 413),


TAXOOMICDISUSSIU ed~es caecus shares a number of

characters ~i~th ve:ans~ whichl became eviden~t durin- this

study whrien a numrber of adult female cs.ccus were found ini

several museum collections labeled as vexans., It crin be

separated from vlexens by the follow~ino~ features; femur II
w~ith anterior browdn scaled; soutum w!ith 3-4 bristles on

scutal fossal area.; scutellumi writh both nialrrow curvedd anid

broad white ncales on each lobe; postspiracular area wlith

5-6 bristles; pirealar kniob w~ithoult sCales; and female parlpus
brown while vle:ans h-as: femu~r II with white scales inter-

mixed w:ith brown ones on anterior; ccutlum w~ith 7-10 bristles

on soutal fossal area; soutellumi with narrow curved golden-

w~hite scales on each- lobe-; postspiracular area w;ithi 8-9

bristles; proalar knob wi!th a fewI broad white scales; and








female palpus with apex white scaled. Caecus also super-

ficially resembles culicinus from which it is easily dis-

tinguished by the banded tarsi.

The pupa is characterized by the following features

a large patch of spicules mesally between abdominal hairs

1-I; hairs 4a-111-V minute; hairs 10-V-VI long an~d single;

and hair 7-VI long and single.

The larval stage resembles orbitae and is discussed

under that species.

Edwards (1913: 228) synonymized Aedes suknaensis

Th!eobald w~ith Aedes im~r~im~ens i'alk;er but later (1934: 170)

he questionably included it w.ith caecus. Barraud (1928:

663) listed sukneensis as a synonym of imprimens but stated

that he thought suk~naensis and caecus wepre possibly con-

specific. In this same article (Plate 61, Fig. 1) he also

illustrated the male genitalia of caecus but mistakingly

called it imprimens. Later, Barraud (1934: 257) followed

Edw~ards an-d listed suknaensis as a synonym of caecus. I

have examined a cotype of suknaensis from Sukna, Inidia, in

the British Museum (iHatural History) and find it not to be

caecus but very similar to impriens It differs, however,

from implrimens in having denser patches of scales on the

pleural thoracic areas and scutellum and possessing a number

of short fine golden hairs mixed with the single patch of

broad white scales on th~e subspiracular area. Aedes

suknaensis belongs in the subgenus Edwrardsaedes Belkin and

may be a distinct Gpocies from imprimens, but since no males







have been found and the habitus of the adults are very

similar I am retaining it with imorimens for the present.

Aees caecus can be separated from imprimens by having

2 patches of scales on the subspiracular area.

BIOLOGY. In Thailand, immatures have been collected

from water in a rice paddy, ground pools, pits, puddles,

elephant tracks and a posthole. Larvae in South Vietnam
were taken from water in a tire, marshy depression, rock

pool, foxhole, ground pools, artificial container, pool in
a concrete piling and a jungle pool. In~ Java, larvae were

collected in wheel ruts and adults taken indoors. Adults

were collected biting cattle,anid larvae from hoof prints in

Malaysia. Larvae in India were found in muddy puddles and

a swamp.

Larvae w~ere collected from a buffalo wallowr on a high

plateau in Thailand (Causey 1937: 413); ground pools in
China (C~howr 1949: 129); and natural pools ini open jungle in

India (Barraud 1936: 258) and N~ew Guinea (Sjteffan 1966:

212), In Malaysia, adults readily fed on man and domestic

animals and immatures were collected from pools and earthen-

ware pots (Macdonald 1957r 21).

AEDES (AEDIMORPHUS) CULICINUS EDWARDS


Aedes (Ecculex) culicinus Edwards 1922a, Indian J. med. Res.
10: 271 (MM", F); Edw~ards 1922b, Indian J. med. Res.
10: 4I67.

Aedes (Aedimorohus) culicinus (Edw,), Barraud 1~92, Indian
J. mned. Res. 151 667 (iN*,F)*







Aedes (Aedimorahus) culicinus Edwards, Edwards 1932,
Genera Insec., Fasc. 194: 169; Barraud 1934, Fauna
Brit. India, Diptera 5: 252 (M*,F).

Aedes (AedimoEphus) culicinus Edwards, Stone et al. 1959,
Thomas Say Found. 6: 191.


FEMVALE (Fi 3). Head. Antenna dark brown, approxi-

mately equal in length to proboscis, pedicel dark with a

few small dusky scales and a patch of short fine brown hairs

mesally, flagellomere 1 with a few dusky scales; clypeus

dark, bare; maxillary palpus brown scaled, approximately

0.17 length~ of proboscis; proboscis brown scaled with a pale

ven~tral strips extending from neair base to distal 0.25, ap-

proximately 1.06 length of femur I; viertex w~ithl dorsum
covered with narrow decumbent scales arranged in an antero-

median diamond-shaped brown group and the remainder whiter

lateral surface covered with broad white scales, an antero-

dorsal dark patch and a dusky area anterior to the ante-

pron~otum; numerous dark brown erect forked scales on occiput
and vertex extending anteriorly to the ocular line. Thorax.

Scutal integu~ment dark: brown; scu-tum covered w~ith narrow

curvedl reddish~-brownl scales; narr~ow curved white scales

forming patches on anterior promontoryr area, scutal fossal

areas (one on anterior extending along margin onto lateral

area and a patch on posterior area), scutal angles, supra-

alar areas, posterior medial scutal area and along lateral

margins of prescutellar space; scutellum with a patch of
narrow curved white scales on each lobe; median anterior

promontory, acrostichal, dorsocentral (anterior and








posterior), scutal fossal anterioro, 3-4t lateral, ~1-2 median

and 1 posterior), suipra-alar, several posterior medial

sc utal 1 postalar cellular and scut~ellar laterall and

median) bristles reddiiish-black~ and wiell developed: pleural

integument brou~n: anteprtonotu~m with narrow.' curved whi-te

scales and somre moderately blroad ones, several long brown

bristles; postpronetum w:ith n-arrowv curved brow~n scales dor-

sally and white ones posterior'ly, a lo::er posterior pa-tchi

of broad white scales, 5-? postLerior browinish~ bristles;

propleuron withi a patch of broad wihite scales, several pale

br-istles; postspiracular area with a patch of broad white

scales, 5-7 goldenr bristles; subspiracular area wit~h 2

patches of broad white scales, lower one larger; mlese-

pisternum wlthh an upper and a posterior patchi of broad

white scales, several upper anid posterior pale bristles,

lower ones shorter; prealar k~nob wilth several pale brown

bristles; paratergite with a row of abroad whitec scales;;

mesepimeron w:ith a patch of broad white scales and several

pale bristles on upper area; other pleural areas bare.

LAe*S Coxae I-III each withi several pale bristles, I with

anterolateral white scales and a lateral brown patch, II

with anterior white scaled; trochianters 1-111 each w~ith a

patch of broad white scales; femrora I-III each w~ith a few!

pale lateral scales at aper, II-III each with an antero-

ventral white stripe, w~ide-r on III, I-III each wuith a

posterior broad white longitudinal stripe from base to ap-

proximately 0.75, stripe dorsal on I and ventral on 11-~III;







tibiae I-III with anterior brown, a few dorsal and lateral

pale scales at apices, posterior brown with a longitudinal

pale stripe, I with stripe posteroventral, II-III with stripe

posteromedian; tarsi I-III brown; posttarsi I-III each with

2 ungues, I-II equal, each bearing a tooth, III equal, sim-

ple. Wing., Dorsal veins covered with moderately broad

brown scales; costa wvith white scales at base and on poster-

ior at humeral cross vlein~; ventral veins brown scaled; alula

wvith narrow bt~rown scales along fringe; 2 remigial b~ristles.

Hal ter. Pedicel pale, capitellumn whi te scaled. Abdomen~.

Terga brown; tergum I w~ith a f"ew d~oi~'rsmediian white scales

and a rectang~ular patch of' white scales on laterotergite;

terga II-VI each~ w:ith a narrow darsobasal white band; tergum

VII with a triangular dorsobasal pale patch; terga II-VJI

each with: a large latera~bass l white spot, a few brownJi scales

in center of spots, VII wyith a fewy lateromedian white scales;

stern pale scaled w~ith lateromedia~n pale brown spots; terga

and sterna with numerous pale golden bristles, mostly along

post~erior margins. Genitalia. Segment V(III distinctly bi-

lobed ventroapically, retracted into segment VII; tergum IX

bilabed with 6~-10 bristles on each lobe; cercus long, 0.60

extended an~d partially visible dorsally; postgenital plate

with a deep median apical indentation w7ith L1-8 bristles on~

each lobe; insula tongule-lik~e, membranious, cov:ered with tiny

spicules; 3 spe~rmathecae, 1 large and 2 rudimrentary ones.

MArLE (Fig. 3). Similar to female in general habits.

Head. Miaxillary palpus w'ith dorsal p~ale scale patches on







middle of segments 2 and 3, longer than proboscis by length

of apical segment; vertex without anterodorsal dark scale

Patch on lateral surface. Lees. Posttarsi I-III each with

2 ungues, I-II with unguless unequal, each bearing a tooth,

III equal, simple. Kn.Dorsal veins completely brown

scaled. Abdomen. Trergum I with a lateral band of white

scales on laterotergite; terga II-VIII each with a narrow

dorsobasal white band, usually 2-4 white scales on latero-

median surfaces of II-VII. Genitalia. Tergum IX bilobed

with 4-8 bristles on each lobe, entire surface covered with

minute spicules; gonocoxite long and moderately broad, dorsal

surface with a large den~se patch of short bristles along

tergomesal margin from near base to distal 0.30, numerous

long stout bristles on lateral margin from base to apex,

ventral surface w;ith similar bristles on distal 0.25 wvith

moderately long and short ones proximally, scattered scales

on lateral and ventral surfaces; gonostylus with pedicel

short and broad, distal 0.50 greatly expanded with a latero-

targal horn-like flap covered with numerous long fine hairs

and terminating in an apical point, mesal margin of expanded

portion with a short flat curved pigmented gonostylar claw

mesally near middle, a patch of 6-13 fine hairs basal to claw

and a tergal patch of 5-9 similar ones, 8-11 fine hairs along

apical margin basal mesal lobe short and rounded apically,

distal 0.50 wvith 6-10 short bristles, entire surface covered

with short hair-like spicules; practiger short, parapract

with a subapical thumb-like process, cereal setae absent







phallosome with aedeagus of type I with 2 lateral plates
connected basally, each plate with 6-7 short, blunt, lateral

teeth on distal 0.54 and covered with a dorsal flap, para-

mere long, approximately 0.78 length of lateral plates ster-

num IX large, entire surface covered with minute spicules,

3-5 bristles near center.

PUPA (Fig. 23). Chaetotaxy as figured and recorded in

Table 3. Cephalothorax. Hair 5-C with 4-6 branches; 7-C

with 3-5 branches; 8-C with 5-9 branches. riesoiratory trum-

pe t. ;oderately pigment~ed; with scattered minute spicules
on distal 0.65 of inner surface; index 3.61-4.90, average

4.37. Netanotum. ;"air 10-C writh 6-9 branches; 12-C with

4-7 branches. Aboe.Hair 5-I with 7-12 branches; 1-II

with 14-20 branches; 4-II with 2-5 branches: 14-II single;

1-III with ?-13 branches; 6-VI double or triple; 1-VII with

5-8 branches; 6-VII writh 6-9 branches; 9-VII with 4-5 bran-

ches; 11-VII double. Paddle. Ovoid; with very minute ser-

rations along basal 0.55 of outer margin; tiny spicules

along apical 0.45 of outer and apical 0.30 of inner margins;
midrib does not reach apex; hair 1-P short, single or doubles

index 1.13-1.34, average 1.22.

LARiVA (F~ig. 30). Chiaetot~axy as figur~ed. Head. Hairs

1, 3, 14-C single; 4-C with 5-7(7) branches; 5-c with 3-4

(3) branches: 6-C triple; 7-C with 4-6(6) branches; 8-C

with 2-6(2) branches; 9-0 with 2-5(5) branches; 10-C single

or double (2); 11-0 with 2-5(3) branches: 12-C with 3-4(4)







branches; 13-C with 4 branches; 15-C double; basal mraxillary

hair single; mental plate wyith 23-25 teeth. An te nna iMode r-

ately pigmented; scattered stout spicu~les over entire shaft,

spicules somewhat longer past middle; hair 1-A with 5-8(7)
branches, inserted at 0.37-0.42 from base; 2-A long; 3-A ap-

proximately 0.96 length of 2-A. Thorax. Hair 0-P with 7-10
(8) branches 1. 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14-P single; 2, 7, 11-P

double; 3-P with 3-4(3) branches; 4-F double or triple (2);

9-P single or double (2); 1-Md with 3-8(4) branches; 2-M1" with

2-4(3) branches; 3-M"~ single or double (1); LC-b double or

triple (3); 5. 7, 10-12-Mi single; 6-lW withi 4-6(4s) branches;
8-Mr wuith 3-4.(4) branches; 9-I; w~ith 3-6(5) branches; 13-M

with 4-5(5) branches; 14-;1 writh 5-8(5) branches; 1-T single

to triple (3); 2-T with 4-13(6) branches; 3-T with 4-S(5)

branches; 4, 9-T wi-th 2-4(3) branches; 5, 10-12-T single

6-T single or double (2); 7-T with 5-6(5) branches; 8-T with

4-6(4) branches; 13-T with 4-7(5) branches. Abdomen. Hairs

0, 14-VIII single; 1-VIII w~ith 3-p(LC) branches; 2-VIII dou-

ble; 3-VIII with 7-10(8) branches; lc-VIII double or triple

(2)r 5-VIII wyith 5-7(5) branches; comb with 14-20(17) scales

arranged in 2 irregular rows, scales each with a long stout

pointed median spine and short denticles along lateral

margins of base; 1-X double or triple (2); 2-:1 wyith 8-10(8)
branches; 3-X single; ventral brush varies from 8 hairs on

grid and 4 precratal ones to 9 hairs on grid and 4 precratal

ones; saddle lightly pigmented, incompletelyr rings segment,

with a fewY spicules along posterior margin, acus absent; 4








anal gills long, tapering to a blunt apex. Siphon, Lightly

pigmented; acus absent; index 3.88-4.50, pecten with 11-14

(11) teeth, apical 2-3 teeth smooth and wider spaced than

remainder which have a-slender attenuate filament with 1-2

basal denticles; hair 1-S with 3-5(4) branches, inserted at

0.70-0.72 from base.


TYPE DATA. There has been some confusion about the

location of the types of Aedes (Ecculex) culicinus Edwards.

In? the original description of the species, Edw:ards (1922a:

272) states the holotype male and allotype femnale were col-

lelcted at Delhi, INIDIA, April 1911, M;ajor S. R. Christophers,

and deposited in the Central M:"alaria Bureau, Kasauli, and 1

paratype female from Amritsar, IDA pi 91 ao .R

Chhristophters, w~as deposited in the British r;useum. Barraud

(1928: 06t7) lists the holotype male in thie Central iralaria

Bureau and the allotype female and paratype female in the

British M'useumm but; in 1934 (page 252) he states all the

types are in the Britishi museum. Stone et al. (1959: 191)

lists the holotype male and allotype female in the M'alariaa

Institute of India, Delhi, India. I have examined the col-

lection in the~ British7 M~useulm (Nlatural History) and only the

paratype female from Amritsar Is there. The primary types
are in the collection at the Nastional Institute of Communi-

cable Diseases, Delhi, India, which received the collections

from thie Central M~alaria Bureau.








DISTRITEUTION~. Specimens examined--16 males, 101 females,,
100 pupae, 2 larvae, 100 individual rearings (100 pupal),
from the following locations: CAMdEODIA, K~irirom; INDIA,
Pun'ab, Amritsar* THAILAjD, Kanchanaburi; iKhon Eaen; WEST
PAKISTAN, West Pun~jab, Lahore. Other distribution. INDIA,
Delhi, Kasauli (Edwards 1922a: 272); Karnal (Barraud 1934s
252); W~EST PAK:ISTAN\, Lahore, Changa Idanga liational Forest
(Aslamkhan and Salman 1969: 193).

TAXONOMIC DISCUSSION. The adult habitus and female and

male genitalia of culicinus are similar to albosscutellatus

and are discussed under that species. The most distinctive

features of the adults are: scutellum with narrow white

curved scales on each lobe; postpronotum with a few posterior

broad white scales in addition to narroww curvJed on--s: tarsi

dark scaled; and female with 1 large and 2 rudimentary

spermathecae.
The most distinctive characters of the larvae are:

comb of 14-20 scales each of which has a long stout pointed

median spine and stout denticles along lateral margins of

the base; pecten of 11-14 teeth; siphon index of 3.88-4.50;

head hair 6-C, triple; and metathoracic hair 9-T double or triple.


EIOLOGY. Immatures were collected from ground pools

in Thailand and FMalaysia.

Alslamkhan and Salman (1969: 185, 186, 189, 193) in

Wecst Pakistan list culicinus as making up 7.58 percent of the

daytime and 12.4 percent of the nighttime human biting mosquito

collections. Th~is species, however, preferred to feed on cat-

tle to man at a ratio of 3:1 during nighttime tests. Adults

made up 31.6 percent of light trap mosquito collections.








The immatures are found in ground pools with grassy margins

and decomposing algae on the bottom. Aedes culicinus occurs

in West Pakistan throughout the year but the numbers increase

from April until a peak population is reached in July when

relative hulmidity is veryi high and breeding places are

abundant.


AEDES (AEDIMOiRPHUS) LOdlISII ('THE0EALD)


Reedomnia lowisi Theob~ald 1910, iMonogr. Cul. 5: 257
(leF ) Brneti 112,Rec. Indian Mui~s.. L: S?

Ojchlecotatus lowisi Trheob., Ernti1920, Re~c. Indian
IMu~s. 17: 140.

Aedes (Ecmu~lex) low~isi The~obald, Edwards 1922b, Indian J.
med. Res. 10: 466.

Ochilerotatus low~isi Theobald, Senior-White 1C923, Cat.
Indian Insects, Cul, p. 79.

Aedes (Aedimorohus)) lowisi (Theo.), Barrauid 19J28, Indian
J. med. Res. 15: 653(F); Stone et al. 1959, Thomas
Say Found. 6: 14

Aides (Ae'dimorohus) lowisi Theobald-, Edwards 1932, Genera
Insec., Fasc. 195. -168~; Barraud 1931c, Fauna Birit.
India, Diptera 5: 250 (;M,F).

Aedes (Aecdimorphus) mindoroensis Knigh~t and Hull 1951.
Pacif. Sci. 5: 1199 (bi,F)l; Knight and Hull 1953(
Pacif. Sci. ?: Lc59 (idF);; stone et al. 1959, Thomas
Say F~ound. 6: 194. ESYOYY


FEMAWLE (F~ig. 4). Head. Antenna dark brown, approxi-

mately 0.91 length of proboscis, pedicel brown with~ several

small pale scales and- a patch of short fine brown hairs

mesally, flagellomere 1 with a few small dark scales; cly-

peus dark, bare; maxillary palpus dark, brown scaled,

approximately 0.17 length of proboscis; proboscis dark







brown scaled wyith a pale ventral stripe extending from near

base to distal 0.25, pale area narrow basally becoming broad

distally, approximately 1.18 length of femur I; vertex with

dorsum covered w~ith narrow decumbent scales arranged in an

anteromedian diamond-shaped dark group and the remainder

golden; lateral surface covered with broad pale scales, an

anterodorsal dark patch and a dusky area anterior to ante-

pronotum; numerous long dark brown erect forked scales on

occiput and vertex extending anteriorly to ocular line.

Thorax. Scutal integument reddishi-browvn; scutum covered

with narrow curved reddish-black scales, scattered narrow

curved white scales forming ind~istlnct spots on anterior pro-

montory area, supra-alar areas, and posterior medial scutal

area, similar scales forming a distinct, pair of small cir-

cular patches on both anterior and posterior scutal fossal

areas; scutellum w~ith a patch of broad silvery scales on

each lobe; median anterior promontory, acrostichal, dorso-

central (anterior and posterior), scutazl fossal (anterior,

1 lateral and 1-2 median), supra-alar, several posterior

medial scutal, 1 post~alar cellular and scutellar (lateral

and median) bristles black and well developed, others absent

pleural integument dark brown; antepronotum w~ith a few nar-

row curved pale scales, several long dark bristles; post-

pronotum with scattered narrowu curved dark scales on dorsal

0.50, 5-6 posterior long browvnish-blacki bristles; propleuron

wvith a patch of broad pale scales, several short golden

bristles; postspiracular area wilth 5-7 brown or black bris-

tles; subspiracular area w7ith a few narrow brow~nish hair-like








scales; mesepisternum with an upper and a posterior patch of

broad silvery scales, several upper and posterior dark bris-

tles, lower ones shorter; prealar knob with several golden-

brown bristles; paratergite bare; mesepimeron with a patch

of broad silvery scales and several brown bristles on upper

area; other pleural areas bare. Legs, Coxae I-III each

with several golden bristles, I with anterior covered with

broad brownish scales and a small patch of broad white ones

dorsally and one ventrally, II with a patch of broad white

scales anteriorly, III with a fewY br-oad w;hite scales antero-

ventrally; trochanters7 1-III each w~ith a patch of broad white

scales; femur I with anl anterior and a posterior apical white

spot, II-III with a dorseapical white spot, I-11 with an-

terior brown, I with a posterior~ narrow dorsal pale line

from base to apex, pale area bro~ad basally and tapering

apically, I with a pcsteroventral white stripe, II w~ith a

posterodorsal white stripe; III brown w~ith anterior and pos-

terior ventrobasal wh,~ite areas, areas bro-ad boasallyr and'

tapering to a point at about 0.25 ftrom apexv; tibiae I-III

brownm, each with a dorseapical wlhite spot;; tarsi I-III

brown, I wilth tarsomlere 1 having a fewr dorsoapical yellow~ish

scales, tarsomnere 2-,- each with a few~ dorsob~asal and dorso-

apical yellowish scales, tarsomere 5 covered with yellowish

scales, II with tarsomere 1 having a few, dorsoapical yellowu-

ish scales, tarsomrere 2 within a few dorso'oasal and dorsoapical

ylellow:ishh scales, tarsome-re 3-I- each wvith a narr-ow basal

yellowrish band and a few, dorsoapical yellowish scales,








tarsomere 5 completely covered with yellowiish scales, III

with tarsomere 1 having a few dorsoapical pale scales,

tarsomeres 2-4 each with a narrow pale basal bt~and and a few

dorsoapical pale scales, tarsojmere 5 completely pale scaled.

Wine.Dorsal veins covered with moderately broad brown

scales; costa w~ith a patch of broad silvery scales at base;

ventral veins brownm scaled; alula wvith narrow brown scales

along fringe; 2 remigial bristles. Halter. Pedicel pale,

capitellum brown scaled. Abdomen. Terga brown with a few

dorsobasal pale scales forming narrow bands on III-VI, a

small triangular dorsobasal pale spot on VII; tergum I wyith

a rectangiular patch of white scales on laterotergite; terga

IlI-VII wvith~ large laterobasal white spots; st~erna with pale

basal scales and brown apical ones, apical brown band be-

comes broader on posterior sterna; terga and sterna with

numerous golden bristles, mostly along posterior margins.

Genitalia. Segment VIII distinctly bilobed ventroapically,

retracted into segment VII; tergum IX: bilobed w~ith 4-5 bris-

tles on each lobe; cercus long, 0.75 extended and visible

dorsally; postgenital plate wyith a deep median apical in-

dentaition with 4-6 bristles on each lobe; insula tongue-like,

membranous, covered with~ tiny spicules; 3 spermathecae, 1

large and 2 rudimentary ones.


MALE. Similar to female in ocneral h~abitus. Head.

Mdaxillary palpus brown, longer than proboscis by length of

apical segment. Tho~rax. A~nteproio'tum with a few broad

silvery scales. Legs. Posttarsi I-III each with 2 ungues,








I-II with ungues unequal, each bearing a tooth, III unequal,

simple. Abdomen. Tergum I wvith a lateral banid of silvery-

w~hite scales on laterotergite; terga III-VII with basal

bands of white scales; segment VIII removed wvith terminalia

and coloration lost. Genitalia. Tergumr IXr slightly bilobed

with 3-4 bristles on each lobe, entire surface covered with

minute spicules; gonocoxrite long and moderately broad with

short bristles scattered over dorsal surface, long stout

bristles along outer lateral margin from base to apex, ven-

tral surface w:ith long stout bristles on distal 0.55, mnost

numerous along sternomes~al margin, scattered short ones on

proximal 0.45, scattered scales on lateral and ven~tral sur-

faces; goniostylus with pedlicel narrowv to moderately broad,

distal 0.50 expanded w~ith a lateroapical horn-likre flap

bearing numerous short fine hairs, mesal margin of expanded

portion with a basal short, flattened pigmented gonostylar

clawv and 4-5 short stout accessory bristles, 6-7 short bris-

tles at apez, 1-2 short hairs on the tergal surface on'the

type of mnindoroen~sis and 7-8 on the type of lowisii; basal

mesal lobe short and rounded apically, apical 0.30 w~ith 4-5

short bristles, entire surf ace covered with short hair-like

spicules; proctiger short, paraproct with a small subapical

thumb-like process, cereal setae absent; phallosome with

aedeagus of type I with 2 lateral plates connected basally,

each plate with- 6-7 short blunt lateral teeth on distal 0.50

and covered with a dorsal flap, paramere long, approximately







0.90 length of lateral plates; sternum IX large, entire

surface covered witih minluto spicules, 6 bristles necar~ thle

center.


PUPA AND LA;RVA. H~ot k;nown.r


TYPE DAI~TA. Roedom:,ja lowlsil Theobald, syntyrpes female

anid male, Andaman _Islands, 3I1DIA, Lowiis, in Britishi TMuseum

(Ilatural His~tory); Aedi-s (Aedimocr~phus) mnindo~rcensis Knightt

and Hull, holotype male and 6 paratype females, Calapan

(e~rroneously printed "Calopan" on label), Wiindoro Island,

PH IL IPP~~IINiES, 1 F--ebruary c1916, Boutcherp in Eritish Museum

(N~atural History).


DISTRIBUTI'Oll. Specimens examined--3 males and 14 fe-
mnales from the follocing locations:IDIAdansln;
IN:DONESIA, Celbe, Paloe, Hasdjene; C. Sulawesi, Lamnbaro~se;
PHILIPPINES,, Calapon. O th er d is Lr i b u t i on. Il DO I ES IAi,
Molucca (S-tone et al. 1959: 1 1, Stef-~ fan 1966~: 2 12) ;
MALAYSIA, Sara:wak (M'oulton 19i16: 47),


TAXOIIOM;IC DIlSCUSSIOil. The adult hatbitus and female and

ma.le enita~lia of low~isii are very similar to albos~~cutellatus~u~

and are discussed under that species. The mo~st distinctive

features of the adults are: scutellum writh broad silvery

scales on each lobe; postspiracular area without coales; sub-

spiracular area w~ith onily short fine hairs; paratergite bare;

tarsi banded wilth pale scales, tarsomeres 5 yellow scaled;

and female writh 1 large and 2 rudimentary spermathecae.


BI~OLOGY. Larvae wrere collected i~n shallow~ w-t~er in a

primeval forest and adults we~re tak~en biting manl anid resting








in a cowshed in Celebes. Adults were also collected from a

Malaise trap in Indonesia.


AEDES (AEDIMORPHUS) M~EDIOLINEATUS (THEOBALD)


Culex: triline~atus Theobald 1901, GMonogcr. Cul. 2: 105 (F*);
Gil~e 1')02, Han~db. 2nd Ed., p. 464Li(F); Blsnchard 1905,
Mloust., p. 330(F); Theobald 1905, Genrera Insec., Fasc.
26: 27; Theobald 1910, M~onogr. Cul. 5: 359; Brunetti
1912, R~ec. Indian Mus. 4: 476.

Culex merdiolineatus Theobald 1901, i;onogr. Cul. 2: 113(F);
Giles 1902, Handb., 2nd Ed., p. 431(F); Blanchard 1905,
C;oust., p. 369(F); The~obald 1905, Genera Insec. Fasc.
26: 27; Brunatti 1907, R~ec. Indian M~us. 1: 349.

Ochlerotatus medjiolineatus Theo., Edwards 1913, Bull. ent.
R-es? 4 225; Bru~netti 1320, Rec. Indian !us, 17:
137; Senior~-\hite 1923, Cat. Indian Insects, Cul,,
p. 79.
Aedes (Ecculex) mediolineatus TIheobald, Edwards 1922b,
Indian J. med. Rfes. 10: 467.

Aedes (Aedimorchus) mediolineatus (Theo.), Barraud 1928,
Indian J. med. Re~s. 15: 665 (;l ,F).; Stone et al.
1959, Thomas Say Found. 6: 194.,

A des (A fimorptus) medioline~atus Theo., Borel 1930, Coll.
Soc. Path. exvot. Ilonogr. 3: 268 (M*",F,L*); Edwards
1932, Genera Insec., Fasc. 194: 171.

A ;3des (Aidimorchus) me~diolineatu~s (The~obald), Barraud 1934,
Fauna Brit. India, Diptera 5: 263 (M;*,F).


FEMA~LE (Fig. 5).- He'ad. Antenna 'dark brolin, aproxti-

mately 0.94 length of proboscis, medical pale with a few

small brown scales and a patch of short fine brown hairs

mesally, flagellomere 1 with a few small pale brown scales;

clypeus brown, bare; maxil~lary palpus golden~ scaled, approxi-

mately 0,22 length of proboscis; pro'ooscis golden scaled with

apical 0.25 dusky, approximately 1.22 length of femur I;
vertex with dorsum covered with nar~row curved decumbent








golden scale; lateral surface covered writh broad golden

scales, some splecimen~s also writh a smral~l anterod~orsal dark

spot; numerous golden-brow\' n erect for::ed; scales on occcipu't

and vertex ex:tending anteriorly. to ocular line, erect scales

s~omewrhat darker on lateral mar ins of occiput. Thorax.

Scutal integument reddish-brownrl; scutumn covered w~ith narrow

curved reddish-brownil scales, na~rrow: curved white scales

forming a pair of stripes on dorscentral areas extending

from anterior scutal fossal area to scutellum, similar scales

on supra-alar areas from soutal angle to posterior of wring

base and on anterior and lateral margins of prescutellar

space (scales nearly covering this area), narrow~ curved

golden scales, forming a stripe on aicrostichal. area extenrding

from median anterior promontory area to posterior medial

scutal area; scutellumr w~ith a patch of narrow currved golden

scales on each lobe; median anterior promontory, acrostichal,

dorsocentral (antorilor anid posterior), scotal fossal (an-~-

terior, 3-5 lateral, 2-3 mediani and 1-2 posterior), supra-

alar, several. posterior medial ecutal, 1 postalar cellular

and soutellar (lateral and median) bristles golden-brown and

w~ell developed; pleural integument light brown; anteproniotum

covered w~ith narrow7 curved golden-white scalSes several

golden bristles; postpronotum covered with narrowv curved

scales, a fewi reddish-brown ones dorsally and remainder

golden-wihite, 6-8 golden bristles; propleuron with long

moderately broad and narrowr goldeni-white scales, several

golden bristles; postspiracular area wiith a patch of narrow








curved and a few moderately broad golden-white scales, 7-10

golden bristles; subspiracular area with a small patch of

narrow curved golden-white scales; mesepisternum with an

upper and a posterior patch of broad golden-white scales,

several upper and posterior golden bristles, lower ones

shorter; prealar knob with a few narrow golden-white scales,

several golden bristles; paratergite covered with narrow

curved golden-white scales; mesepimeron with a patch of broad

golden-white scales and several golden bristles on upper areas

other pleural areas bare, Leggg Coxae I-III each with

several golden bristles; I-II each with anterior covered

with broad golden-white scales; III with a few anteroventral

golden-white scales; trochanters I-III each with broad white

scales; femora I-III each with a small dorsoapical spot of

white scales, I with anterior white with a few interm~ixed

light brown scales ventrally, II w~ith anterior brown with a

few white scales intermixed~ on apical 0.25, III wuith anterior

white with~ an anterodjorsal brlow~n stripe on distal 0.75,

stripe broader apically, I-III w~ith posterior white, I with

a ventral brown stripe from near base to apex., II with a few

pale brown scales on distal 0.25, Ill w~ith a triangular patch

of brown scales on d~orsoapical 0.20; tibiae 1-III white, I

w~ith a djorsoanterior lont;itudinal brown stri e, 11 writh a

ventral longitudinal brown stripe, III wiith a d~orsal and a

ventral longitudinal brownm stripe and a small d~orsoapical

white spot; tarsi I-III brown, I with an anterior anid a pos-

terior longitud-inal white stripe on tarsoneres 1-2 occasion-

allyr on 3, II w~ith tarsomere 1 w;ith numerous white scales








intermi-xed with brown? ones and a dorsobasal white spot,

tarsomere 2 wYith a fewx white scales intermixed w~ith brown

ones, tarsomneres 1-3 with a posterior longitudinal white

stripe and occasionally on tsrsomere 4, III with a dorso-

basal white spot on tarsomere 1, an anterior and a posterior

longitudinal white stripe on tarsomere 1 and basal 0.50 of

tarsom~ere 2; posttarsi I-III each with 2 ungues I-II equal,

each bearing a tooth, III equal, simple.(n, Dorsal

veins covered w~ith moderately broad brown scales; costa

with broad whitish scales along basal 0.33 of posterior

margin; dusky scales on subcosta; ventral veins brownl with

white scales along basal 0.33 of posterior margin of costa,

similar scales on basal 0.33 of subcosta; alula with narrow

brown scales along fringe; 2 remigial bristles. Halter.

Pedicel pale, capitellum golden-w~hite scaled. Abdomnen.

Tergum I covered with golden-white scales, laterotergite

with a rectangular patch of whitish scales; terga II-VI

light brown, each with a broad median longitudinal golden-

white stripe and a narrower longitudinal golden-w~hite stripe

on lateral margins, V-VI often with brown areas reduced;

tergumn VII covered with golden scales; sterna covered with

golden-white scales; terga and sterna with numerous golden

bristles, mostly along posterior margins. Genitalia. Seg-

ment VIII distinctly bilobed ventroapically, mostly retracted

into segment VII; tergum IXC bilobed with 7-16 bristles on

each lobe; cercus long, completely extended and visible

dorsally; postgonital plate with a deep median apical in-

dentation with 6-10 bristles on each lobe; insula tongue-like,








membranous, covered with tiny spicules; 3 spermathecae, 1

large and 2 slightly smaller ones.

MAiLE (Fig. 5). Similar to female in general habitus.

Head. Flaxillary palpus golden scaled, segments 2-5 each w~ith

a small dorsoapical brown spot, longer than proboscis by 0.50

length of apical segm~ent. Thorax. Postspiracular area wvith-

out scales; subspiracular area with a few broad white scales.

Legs. Posttarsi I-III each with 2 ungues, I-II with ungues

unequal, each bearing a tooth, III equal, simple. AbdomTen.

Tergum I. white with a meidian brown scale patch, laterotergite

with a patch of whitish scales; terga II-VII brownm each with

a dorsobasal triangular patch of golden-wchite scales on

lateral mTargins, reaching from base to apex, VII often nearly

entirely golden scaled; tergum VIII white scaled; sterna

golden-wrhite scaled, VIII wJith a mTedian patch of brown

scales. Genitalia (Fig. 16). Tergum IX strongly bilobed

writh 6-8 bristles on each lobe, entire surf ace covered with

m~inu~te spicules; gonocoxzite long and mrode2rately broad wvith

short bristles scattered over entire dorsal surface, lateral

surface w~ith long stout bristles from base to apex, ventral

surface with long; stout bristles on distal 0.45, scattered

moderately long bristles mesally below long; ones, somewhat

more numerous alon-g sternomesal margin, scattered scales on

lateral and ventral surfaces; gonostylus with pedicel moder-

ately broad, distal 0.j0 expanded with a lateroapical horn-

like flap bearing a short fine subterminal hair, mesal margin

of expanded portion with a moderately long, flattened,








pigmented gonostylar claw and a short fine hair near its
base, 3 short fine hairs along apex and 3-5 short fine hairs

scattered over tergal surface, a lateroapical thumb-like proc-

ess covered with numerous short fine hair-like spicules; basal

mesal lobe short and rounded apically, apical 0.50 with 4-6

short bristles, entire surface covered with short hair-like

spicules; practiger short, paraproct with a subapical thumb-

like process, cereal setae absent; phallosome with aedeagus

of type I with 2 lateral plates connected basally, each plate
with 6-_7 short blunt lateral teeth on distal 0.40 and covered

with a dorsal fl.ap, pa~aramere long, approximately 0.85 length

of lateral plate; sternum IX; large, entire surface covered

with minute spicules, 2-3 bristles near the center.


PUPA (Fig. 24). Chaetotaxy as figured and recorded in

Table 4. Cenhalothorax, Hair 5-C with 3-5 branches; 7-C=

with 2-5 branches* 8-C writh 2-6 branches. Respiratory trum-

pet. Moderately pigmented; with scattered minute spicules
on distal 0.90 of inner surface; index 3.74-4.56, average

4.25, Mletanotum. Hair 10-C with 11-24 branches; 12-C= with

4-5 branches. Abdomen. Hair 5-1 with 8-17 branches; 1-II

with 17-28 branches; 4-II writh 6-10 branches; 1-III with 7-18

branches; 6;-VI with 2-4 branches; 1-VII wuith 3-6 branches;

6-VII with 8-12 branches; 9-VII with 5-11 branches: 11-VII

single to triple. Paddle. Ovoid; with very minute secrations

along basal 0.55 of outer margin; midrib does not reach apexyr
hair 1-P short, single or doubles index 1.10-1.35, average

1,26,







LARVA (Fi 31). Chaetotaxy as figured. Head. Hairs

1, 3, 14-C single; 4, 12-C with 5-9(6) branches; 5, 6-C with

4-6(5) branches; 7-C with 8-11(10) branches; 8-C double or

triple (2); 9, 10-C double or triple (3); 11-c with 3-6(5)
branches; 13-C with 3-5(3) branches; 15-C with 2-5(3) bran-

ches; basal maxillary hair single; mental plate with 22-23

(2_3) teeth. Antenna. Heavily pigmented; numerous stout

spiculeqs scattered over shaft, longer at about middle; hair
1-A with 6-13(8) branches, inserted at 0.36-0.68 from base;

2-A long; 3-A approximately equal in length of 2-A. Thorax.

Hair 0-P with 6-12(7) branches; 1. 5, 6, 10, 12-P single;

2-P single or double (2); 5-P vith 3-4(1L) branches; 4, 8, 9-P

double: 7-P triple; 11-P double or triple (2); 14-P single or

doutble (1); 1-Md with 2-5 (2) branches; 2-Mi single or double

(2); 3, 11-M single or double (1); 4-M with 2-4(3) branches;

5. 7, 10, 12-Mv single; 6-M writh 5-10(8) branches; 8-51 with

6-12(7) branches; 9-M1 with 6-9(8) branches 13-M~ with 3-6(5)

branches; 14-M with 6-10(9) branches; 1-T single to triple

(1); 2-T w~ith 2-5(3) branches; ,3-T with 6-11(8) branches r

4C-T wqith 3-4(3) branches; 5, 10-T single; 6-T single or

double (2); 7-T with 9-14(11) branches; 8-T with 3-6(4) bran-

chess 9-T with 6-9(6) branches; 11, 12-T single or double (1);

13-T with 5-14(7) branches. Abdomen. Hairs 0, 14-VISI

single; 1-VIII w~ith 4-5)(5) branches; 2, 4-VIII double or

triple (2); 3-VIII with 8-18(15) branches; 5-VIII with 8-11

(10) braniches; comb with 9-19(15) scales arranged in 2 ir-

regular row~s, scales w4ith a long stout pointed median spine







and short denticles along lateral margins: 1-XC with 3-4(4)

branches; 2-X with 12-15(14) branches; 3-X. single; ventral

brush varies from 8 hairs on grid and 4 precratal ones to 9

hairs on grid and 3 precratal ones, usually with 8 hairs on

grid and 4 precratal ones; saddle moderately pigmented wvith

minute ridges, incompletely rings segment, with a few~ spic-

ules along posterior margin and small ridges over entire

saddle, acus present; 4 anal gills very long and slender.

Siphon. Moderately pigmented with minute ridges over entire

surface; acus present; index 5.93-7.01; pectin writh 10-14

(12) teeth, apical 3-4 teeth smooth and wider spaced than re-

mTainder which have a slender attenuate filam;ent w~ith 1-2

lateral denticles; hair 1-S wvith 5-7(5) branches, inserted

at 0.72-0.78 from base.


TYPE DATA. Culex mesdiolineatus Theobald holotype fe-

male, Thayetmyo, BiURbjA, August, E. Y. W'atson, 94-4 and Culex

trilineatus holotype female with same data as mediolineatus,

both in British Mruseum (Naatural History).


DISTRIBUTION. Specimens examined--70 males, 222 females,
79 pupae, 170 larvae and 82 individual hearings (47 pupal. 35
larval) from the following locations: BURMAi~, Thayetmyor
CAMbiODIA, Phnon-Penh; IMALA1YSIA, Perlis; Kedah; SOUTH VIETNAM~,
An-Kho, Ben Kay, Chu-Lai, Cu-Chi, Danang, Di An, Kon Tum,
Kon Tun, Long Van, Nha Trang, Phan Rang, Phnom-Penh, Pho Bai,
Phu-Loi, Phuoc Vinh, Qui-Nhon, Saigon, Tan San Nhut, Vinh
Thanh; THAILANDii, Ch~ian4 Mai; Chion Buri; Khon Kaen; Lampane;
Nakhon Ratch~asima; N\an; Surat Trhani; Udon Thani. Other dis-
tribution. CH~INA, Hainan Island (Chu 1957: 158 r 1958: 109) i
INJDONESIA; Sumatra, Djambi, IMoeara Tebo (Erug and Edwards
1931: 258); Java (Barraud 1934: 264); THAILAND, Nakhon
Phanom, Takhli, Ubon (Parrish 1968bs 2); SOUTH VIETNAM,
Borel 1930: 268); Phan Rang, Phu Cat, Pleiku (Parrish 1968as
3).








TAXONOMIC DISCUSSION. Aedes mediolineatus is similar

in the adult habitus to callidostriatus. It possesses the

follow.ing features: wing wvith anterior .margin of costa dark

brownm scaled; femar II w~ith anterior mainly dark scaled and

anterior of femur III mainly white scaled; abdomen 'ith

dorsolateral longitudinal brown ba~nds on terga II-IV; andl

postpronotum with 6-7 bristles, which distinguish it from

pallidostriatus which has:( wig ith anterior marg-in of
costa golden scaled; femora II-III each w~ith anterior brown

with a median longitu!dinal white stripe f'rom base to apex;

abdomen w~ith targa completely g~olden scaled. Th-e g-onostylus

of the male genitalia of mediolineatus is markedly different

from that of pallido~striatus.

The pup1Ia of meionetu has a very similar chaet~otaxy

to .lsl~lidostr-iatus~ and it is difficult to separate them.

They usually can be separated by abdominal hair 1-I which
has 17-30 branches in mediolineatus and 30-46 branches in

pallidostriatus.
The larva of medilineatu is also very similar to

callidostriau but can be separated from~ it by thioracic

hairs 0-P which has 6-12 branches and hair 1-Ml which has 2-5

branches, whr~ile Fa~llidostriatus has hair 0-P with 4-5 bran-

ches and hair 1-Mi single.

BIOLOGY. In Thailand, immatures wer-e collected from

ground pools, flood pools, grassy pool in vegetable garden,

Huey Keo city moat and a marsh and adults were taken biting

man, resting in a stable, in a house andl a light trap,








Larvae were collected from ground pools, tire, artificial

container, ditch, marshy depression, flood pools, swamp,

rock pools, wheel track, footprints and a rice paddy and

adults w~ere taken in light traps in South Vietnam.

IMacdonald (1957: 21) obtained specimens of medio-

lineatus that he identified as Aedes (Aedimorphus) near

pallidostr~iatus from human bait collections in Llalaysia.

Adults were collected in scrut or open forest at 1,000 feet

in Thailand (Scanlon and Esah 1965: 139, 143).


AEDES (AEDIIMORPHUS) blGROSTRIATUS (EARRA~UD)


A~dmorehus nierostriatus Earraud 1927, Indian J. med. Res.
1C: 5LC9 (i'l,,F).

Aedes (Aedimorphus) nigrostriatus.,. Earr,, Earraud 1928, Indian
J. med. Res. 15: 666 (ii;,F).

Aedes (Aidimorphus) nisrostriatuls Earraud, Edwards 1932,
Genera Insec., Fasc. 194: 171; Barraud 1934, F~auna
Brit. India, Diptera 5: 262 (M*,F).

Aedes (Aedimorphus) nierostriatus (Barraud), Stone et al.
1959, Thomas Say -Foun~d. 6a: 195.

FEMIALE, Head. Antenna brown, approximately 1.04

length of proboscis, pedicel pale with a few small yellow
scales and a patch of short fine brown hairs messlly, flagel-

lomere 1 pale with a few small yellow scales; clypeus light

brown, bare; maxillary palpus golden scaled, approximately

0.28 length of proboscis; proboscis golden scaled with a

small ventrobasal patch of brown scales, approximately 1.04

length of femur I; vertex with dorsum covered with narrow

curved decumbent yellow scales; lateral surface covered with







broad pale yellow scales; numerous light brown erect forked

scales on occiput and vertex extending anteriorly to ocular

line. Thorax. Soutal integument pale with dark reddish-brown

areas forming a pair of stripes on dorsocentral areas from

anterior margin to scutellum and a spot on supra-alar area

anterior to wing base; scutum covered with narrow curved

golden scales with narrow curved reddish-brown ones on dark

areas of integument; soutellum with a patch of narrow curved

golden scales on each lobe and a few reddish-brown ones on

laterobasal areas of median lobe; median anterior promon-

tory, acrostichal, dorsocentral (anterior and posterior),

scutal fossal (anterior. 4-5 lateral, 1-2 median and 2-3

posterior), supra-alar, several posterior medial scutal,

1 poctalar cellular and soutellar (lateral and median) bris-

tles pale brown and well developed; pleural integumentt light

brown; antepronotum wvith narro: curved golden scales, sevr-

eral golden-browvn bristles; p~ostpronotum with niarrow curved

golden scales, 3-5 golden-brow~n posterior bristles; pro-

pleuron with broad golden scales, several golden bristles;

postspiracular area with a few~ narrowv golden scales, 5-7

golden bristles mesepisternum with a small upper and a

posterior patch of broad golden scales, several upper and

posterior golden-browvn bristles, lower ones white and

shorter; preal~ar k~nob w~ith several golden bristles; para-

tergite wvith a few~ narrowy golden scales; mesecpimeron with

a patch of broad golden scales anld several golden bristles

on upper area; other pleural areas bare. Lggs. Coxa I-III

each w~ith several golden~-brow~n bristles, I-II each w~ith







anterior covered with broad golden scales, III with a small

anteroventral patch of similar scales; trochanters I-III

each with broad golden scales; femora I-III golden, I with

a narrow posteroventral longitudinal brown stripe from base

to near apex, II with a broad anterobasal longitudinal brown

stripe from base to apical 0.20 and a narrow anterior sub-

apical brown band, III with a narrow~ anterior and posterior

subapical brown band; tibiae I-III yellow, II with an in-

distinct anteroventral longitudinal brown stripe on basal

0.50; tarsi I-III yellow,; posttarsi I-III each with 2 ungues,

I-II equal, each wl'ith a tooth, III equal, simple. W'ine.9

Dorsal veins covered with moderately broad golden scales

except for the following brown~ scaled areas: apical 0.25

of costa pale brown; remigiumn and basal 0.50 of radius (a

few yellow scales on posterior margin), apical 0.50 of

radial sector, radius2 and basal 0.50 of radius ; media
from radiomedial crossvein to furcation, basal 0.60 of

medial, and cubitus; membrane darkened in region of cross-

veins; ventral veins with scaling similar to dorsal ones;

alula with narrow yellow~ scales along fringe; 1-2 remigial

setae. Halter. Pedicel pale, capitellum golden scaled.

Abdomen. Terg~a golden scaled, I with a rectangular patch

of white scales on laterotergite, II-VII each with a latero-

basal white scale patch; sterna golden scaled; terga and

sterna with numerous golden bristles, mostly along poster-

ior margins. Conitalia. Segment VIII distinctly bilobed

ventroapically, completely retracted into segment VIII








tergum IX bilobed with 7-13 bristles on each lobe; cercus

long, 0.75 extended and visible dorsally; postgenital plate

with a deep median apical indentation with 5-7 bristles on

each lobe; insula tongue-like, membranous, covered with

tiny spicules; 3 spermathecae, 1 large and 2 slightly
smaller ones.


MA.LE. Similar to female in general haboitus. Head.

Maxillary palpus golden with apical segment brown, segment

4 golden dorsally and brown laterally, segments 2-3 each

with a narrow apical brown band, longer than proboscis by

0.75 length~ of apical segment; p~roboscis golden wYith a

longitu~dinall bt~orow stripe on basal 0.40 of ventral surface,

Leg~s. Femar~ I also with an anteroventral brown stripe on

basal 0.50; tibia 111 with an indistinct dorsal brown

stripe; tarsus I w~ith a few~ light brown apical scab~s on

tarsomeres 3-lc; posttarsi I-111 each with 2 ungues, I-II

with ungues unequal, each bearing a tooth, III equal, simple.

Abdomecn. Terga yellowv scaled; sterna yellow scaled w~ith a

fewy brown scales on lateral surfaces of Ill-VI, a few~ brown

scales alon-g posterior margins of VI-VII. Geni-tali~a.

Tergumn IX bilobed with 5-7 bristles oni each lobe, entire

surface covered with~ minute spicules; gonocoxite long and

moderately broad, dorsal surface with scattered bristles,

lateral surface w~ith~ numerous long stout bristles from base

to apox, ventral surface with a number of moderately long

to long bristles and some short proximal ones, scattered

scales on lateral and ventral surfaces; gonostylus with








distal 0.62 expanded into a large mesal oblong-shaped lobe

and a lateral longer, narrow, strongly incurved, tapering

horn which bears a row of long thin hairs mesally near mid-

dle, mesal expanded lobe with a laterobasal short stout

bristle, a mesal protuberance with a curved pigmented claw

attached, 3 short fine hairs apically, a patch of long hair-

like spicules proximad of claw, and 7-12 short fine hairs

scattered over tergal surface; basal mesal lobe short and

rounded apically, distal 0.60 with several short bristles,

entire surface covered w~ith short hair-like sp~icules; proc-

tiger short, paraproct with a small subapical thumb-like

process, cercal setae absent; phallosome with aedeagus of

type I with 2 lateral plates connected basally, each plate

with 5-6 short blunt lateral teeth on distal 0.50 and cov-

ered with a dorsal flap, paramere long, approximately 0.82

length of lateral plate; sternun IX large, entire surface

covered with minute spicules, 3-4 bristles near center.


PUFA AlND LARVA. Not known.


TYPE DA3TA. Aedimorohus nigrostriatus Earraud, syrntypes

male and female, Colaghat, Assam, INDIA, 17 November 1925.

Capt. F. J. EIarraud, caught in jungle, in Eritish Museum

(Natural History); 1 paratype male and 1 paratype female,

with same data as syntypes, in Indian Museum, Calcutta.





DISTRIEUTION. Snecinens examined--2 males and 5 fe-

males from the following~ locations: EURM1A, Fegu, Rangoon;

INDIA, Asssm, Golaghat.


TA':ONOM'IC DISCUJSSION. Aedes n~ierostriatus resembles

Aedes trimaculatus but can be separated from this species by

the ornamentation- and integument color of th~e soutum. In

nierostriatus the scutal integument is pale with dark reddish-

brown areas forming a pair of stripes on the dorsocentral

areas and a circular spot on the supra-alar area anterior

to thep wing base, whlile ~trimaculatuls has the scutal integu-

ment reddish-bcrowvn with the scutal fossal areas an~d pro-

scutellar space pale. The color of the scutal scales is

the same as the underlyring integument on these 2 species.


BIOLOGY. Larvae w.ere collected from muddy pools

in India.


Females in a freshly-fed condition have been collected

from cowsh~eds in India (Barr~aud 1927: 551).


AEDEFS (A\ED3TIMORPHUS) ORBITAE E3WARD3S


Lepidotomvia Taeniata Leicester 1908, Cul. Mdalaya, p. 133
(M,F); Brunetti 1912, Rec. Indian Mus. 4: 459.

Och.lerotatus tosentatus Leices, cUrunetti 1920, Rec. Indian
MIus. 17: 140.

Aedes o~rbitae Edwrards 1922a (nom nov), Indian J. med. Res.
10s 260.

Aedes (Eccle) orbitae Edw~ards 1922b (nom nov for taentata
Leicester, non Wiedemiann 1928), Indian J. med. Res.
101 4666

Aides (A~dimocrphus)) orbita Edw,, Ed!-ards and Given 1928,
Bull. ent. Res. 18s 3411(L) ; Edwrards 1932, G~enera
Insec., Fasc. 194: 163; Edwrards in Barraud 1934,
Fnunl Av4+. Tndin n; nf-?r3 C. 3CA~Tra Cl







Aedes (Aedimorahus_) orbitae Edw~ards, Stone et al. 1959,
Thomas Say F~ound. 6: 195*


FEI-1ALE (Fig. 6). Head. Antenna dark brown, approxi-

mately 1.06 length of proboscis, pedicel pale brown with a

few small brown scales and a patch of short fine dark brown

hairs mesally, flagellomere 1 pale with a few small brown

scales; clypeus dark brown, bare; maxillary palpus dark

brown scaled with apex silvery-wvhite, occasionally a few

white scales on base of segment 4, approximately 0.19 length

of proboscis; proboscis dark brown scaled with a white ven-

tral spot extending onto lateral surfaces approximately 0.67

from base (occasionally this spot forms a complete band),

approximately 1.04 length of femur I ; vertex with dorsum

covered w~ith narrow curved decumbent scales arranged in an

anteromedian diamondl-shaped dark brown group and the re-

mainder gaolden-wvhite; lateral surface covered with broad

white scales, an anterodorsal black patch and a dark area

anterior to antepronotum; numerous b~-ron erect forked scales

on occiput andc vertex extending~ anteriorly to ocular line.

Thorax. Soutal integumenit brownm; scutum covered w~ith narrow

curved reddish-black scales, narrow curved white scale

patches on~ median anterior promontory area, soutal fossal

areas (extending from anterior area along margin and onto

lateral area), small circular patch on posterior soutal

fossal area, supra-alar area above posterior of paratergite,

similar scales along anterior margin of scutal ridge from

scutal angle posteromesally 0.50 to dorsocentral area and







scattered over area mesally to dorsocentral setae; scutellum

with a patch of broad overlappingi silvery-white scales on

each lobe; median anterior promron~toryr, acrostichal, dorso-

central (anterior and posterior), scutal fossal (anterior,

4-5 lateral and 1 posterior), supra-alar, several posterior

medial scutal, 1 postalar cellular and scutellar (lateral

and median) bristles reddish-black and well developed,

others absent; pleural integument dark brown; antepronotum

covered wuith narrow~ curved white scales, several dark bris-

tles; postpronotum sparsely covered with narrow~ curved

scales, reddish-black ones dorsally and a few posteriorly

with a patch of white ones mesally, 6j-7 posterior dark bris-

ties; propleuron w~ith a patch of broad silvery-w~hite scales,

several golden bristles; postspiracular area with 4-7 golden

bristles; n~esopisternum wlith an upper and a lower patch of

broad silvrery-white scales, several upper and posterior

golden bristles, lower ones shorter; prealar k~nob with

several golden-b~rown bristles; paratergite w~ith broad silvery-

w~hite scales on lateral surface: metsepimeron w~ith a patch of

broad silvery-white scales and golden bristles on upper area;

other pleural areas bare. Legs. Coxae I-III each with

several brown bristles, I with anterior and lateral surfaces

covered wyith broad brown scales w~ith a dorsal white patch,

II-III each wiith a patch of broad white scales on anterior

surface; trochanters 1-III each with broad white scales;

femnora I-III each brown, with a narrow basal white band and

a dorsoapical silvery-white spot, I with a narrow antero-

ventral white stripe on basal 0.33 in some specimens, III








wlithh an anteroven~tral longit~udinal wh~-ite stripe from base to

apex, I-III each writh posterior browyn, I w~ith a posterodorsal

white s~tripe frocm base to apex, II-III each with a postero-

ventral white stripe, broad bacally andl tapering to apex;

tIibiae I-III bCr:ron, each with a fewv ventrobasal pale scales,

I with: a dorsoap~ical silve~ry-w\hitt e spot, III with a few

lateroap~ical silvery-wh~it~e scales, I withl~ a posteroventral

longitu~dinal white stripe fromi base to ap~ex, II-III each

w~ith a posteromedian long~i'tudinall white stripe, II with

strip'e from base to near apex;, III w!ith st~ripe on apical

0.65 (strip-~e on III absent or reduced in some specimens);

tarsi I-III brownm, I writh~ tarsomeres 2-3 each with a dorso-

basal white spot, II wi~th tarsomneris 1-) each wuith a dor~so-

basal white spot, a few dor~seapical whlite scales on tarsomere

1, III with tarsomeres 1-4 each w~ith- a broad basal white

band, and a few~ dorsoapical. white scales, tarsomere 5 white

scaled; post'iarsi 1-III eachi within 2 ungu~es, I-II equal, each

bearing a tooth, III. equal, sim~ple, Wine. Dorsal veins

covered w~ith moderately~ broad brown scales; costa with a

patch~ of white scales at; base; ventral veins brown scaled;

alula with narrow~ brownr scales along fringe; 2 remigial

bristles. Halted. Fedicel pale, capitellum whi-ite scaled

writh a fewI brown scales at base. Abdom~en. Tergum I brown

with a rectangurlar patch of silvery-wrhite scales on latero-

tergite; tIerga II-VII brown da~rsally (a few basomedian pale

scales on II-IV in somne N~alayan specimrens), each w~ith a

lateromedian~ white scale patch, sometimes. extending to base







along lateral margins on III-VII; sterna white scaled with

a brown posterior band on sterna II-VI; terga and sterna

with numerous golden bristles, mostly along posterior mar-

gins. Gen~italia. Segment VIII distinctly bilobed ventro-

apically, usually retracted into segment VII; tergum IX

bilobed with 5-7 bristles on each lobe; cercus long, com-

pletely extended and visible dorsally; postgenital plate

with a deep median apical indentation with 5-7 bristles on

each lobe; insula tonigue-like, membranous, covered with

tiny spicules; 3 spermaithiecae, 1 large and 2 slightlyr
smaller ones.


|GAE (ig.6).Similar to female in general habitus.

Head. M~aXilla~ry palpus br~own~ with segments 3-5 each w7ith a

baeal white band, segment 2 wyith a dorsal white spot near

middle, longer than proboscis by length of apical segment;

proboscis with median white spot forming a band; vertex

with median narrow brown scaled stripe reduced. Legfs.

Tibia III without posteromedian white stripe; posttarsi' I-

III each wyith 2 ungues, I-II wvith ungues unequal, each

bearing a tooth, III equal, simple* boe. Terga III-VII

each w~ith a basomedian patch of white scales in addition to

lateromedian white patches (basomedian patches small in some

specimens), patch small on VII; tergum VIII and sternum VIII

completely white scaled. Genitalia. Tergumn I% strongly bi-
lobed writh 6-l1 bristles on each lobe, entire surface covered

with minute spicu~les; gonocoxite long and moderately broad,

dorsal surface with short fine hairs along tergomesall margin







and a fewl moderately long bristles at median forming somewhat

of a longitudinal line on basal 0.50, short bristles on re-

mainder of area, lateral margin with long stout bristles

from base to apex, ventral surface with long stout bristles

on distal 0.45, most numerous on sternomesal margin, scat-

tered short to moderately long bristles over remainder of

area, scattered scales on lateral and ventral areas; gono-

stylus with pedicel long, narrow and somewhat incurved,

distal 0.38 ex:panded into a mesal lobe anid a lateral, narrow,

incurved, apically pointed horn attached approximately 0.78

from base with a short fine hair at aper~, mesal expanded

lobe with a moderately long, flattened, curved, and epically

blunt gonostylar claw: attached mesally near middle, 3-5

long stout bristles along apical margin, mesal 1-2 bristles

shorter and others equal in length, 3 short fine hairs

along mesal margin of distal 0.30 of pedicel; basal mesal

lobe short and rounded apically, distal o*50 with 12-14

short bristles, entire surface covered with short hair-like

spicules; practiger short, paraproct with a subapical thumnb-

like process, cereal setae absent; pha'llosomei with aedeagus

of type I with 2 lateral plates conn~ectred basally, each

plate w~ith 4-5 short blunt lateral teeth on distal 0.60 antd

covered with a dorsal flap, paramere long, approximately 0.89

length of lateral plate; sternumn IX~ large, entire surface

covered with minute spicules, 5-10 bristles near center.


PUPA (Fig. 25). Chaetotaxy as figured and recorded

in Table 5. A patch of spicules on metanotum between hairs







12-C and 1 on abdomen between hairs 1-I. Cenhalothorax.

Hair 5-C with 3-6 branches; 7-C with 3-5 branches; 8-C with

7-9 branches. Respiratory trumpet. Lightly pigmented; with

scattered minute spicules on distal 0.65 of inner surfracet

index .,30-4.06, avera e 3.67. Metanotum._ Hair 10-C with

17-33 branches; 12-C with 5-10 branches. Abdomen. Hair 5-1

with 7-16 branches; 1-II with 32-49 branlches; 4-II with 3-6

branches; 1-III with 8-17 branches; 6-VI single; 1-VII with

3-6 branches; 6-VII with 6-11 branches; 9-VII w~ith 4-6 bran-

ches; 11--VII single. Paddle,~ Ovoid; w~ith ve~ry minute ser-

rations along~ basal 0.55 of outer margin; mi~drib does n~ot

reach spex; hair 1-P short, sig;inldex 1.05-1,32, average



LAR~VA (Fig 1). Chaetotax-c as figured. Headrl. me d ian

mouth brushes p~ctinate apically;r hairs 1, 3, 14-C single;

rc-C with 7-13(10) bran~ches; 5-c with 6-9(8) branches; 6, 13-

C w~ith 6-9(7) branches; 7-C w~ith 9-16(13) bran~ches; 8-C

dou~ble or triple (2); 9-C iwith 2-6(3) branches; 10-C double

or triple (3); 11-C writh 5-8(5) branches; 12-C with 5-10(8)

branches; 13-C with 6-9(7) branches; 15-c :Jith 3-5(4) bran-

ches; basal maxillary hair single; mental plate with 27-29

(28) teeth. Antenna, Lightlyr pigmen~iited; scattered small

spicule3 over entire shaft, more numerous on bjasal 0.50;
hair 1-A with 3-5(4) branches, inserted at 0.49-0.52 from

base; 2-AZ long; 3-A approxim~atelyr 0.34 length oft 2-A,

Thorax~. Hair 0-P with 10-21(15) branches; 1, 5, 6,10, 12-

P single; 2, 9, 11, 14-C double or triple (2); 3-P with







3-4(3) branches: 4-P single to triple (2); 7-P triples

8-P double or triple (3); 1-bi with 3-4.1(4) branches; 2-M~

single to triple (2); 3. 5, 7, 10, 12-M single; 4-M with

3-6(4) branches; t6-bM with 5-9(7) branches; 8-M with 7-10(8)
branches; 9, 14-I wVith t6-10(7) branches; 11-M single or

double (1); 13-14 with 5-10(6) branches; 1, 12-T single to

triple (1); 2-T w~ith 3-6(5) branches; 3-T with 8-18(11)
branches; 4-T writh 2-4(3) branches; 5, 10-T single; 6-T

double or triple (2); 7-T w~ith 8-13(10) branches; 8-T with

4-r8(6) branches; 9-T with 5-S(6) branches; 11-T single or
double (1); 13-T with 6-11(9) branches. Abdomen. Hairs 1,

2-VIII on common basal plate; hairs 0, 14-VIII single; 1-

VIII with 6-10(7) branches; 2-VJIII double or triple (3);

3-VIII writh 13-27(15) branches; 4-VIII single to triple (1);

5-VIII w;ith 6-10(9) branches; comb with 20-30(27) scales ar-

ranged in 3 irregular rows, scales moderately long and
rounded apically with stout denticles on lateral margins

and apex; 1, 3-X single; 2-X. with 8-12(9) branches; ventral

brush varies from 9 hairs on grid and 3 precratal ones to

10 hairs on grid and 2 precratal ones, usually with 10 hairs

on grid and 2 precratal ones; saddle moderately pigmented
with minute ridges, incompletely rings segment (covers ap-

proximately 0.50 of segment), ulth numerous spicules along

posterior margin and small ridges over entire saddle, acus
absent; 4 anal gills long and slender tapering to an apical

point. Siphon. Moderately pigmented w~ith minute ridges
over entire surface; with a small dorsoapical and v~entro-

apical patch of spicules (patches do not join on lateral





surface); a large patch of spicules on lateral surface near

middle; acus absent; index 3.40-4.67; pecten with 18-22(18)

teeth, apical 2-3 teeth smooth or with a very tiny median

denticle and wider spaced than remainder which have a slender

attenuate filament \cith 1-3 lateral denticles; hair 1-S with

4-7(5) branches, inserted 0,80-0.85 from base.

TYPE DATA. There are 2 male and 4 female syntypes of

Aedes orbitae in the British Mluseum (Nlatural History).

Lctot pe female of Aediec (Aedimorphl)s) orbitae is hereby

designated and bears the following data: LepFidotomyia
twieniata Leicester, EKuala Lumpur, FED. MALLAY STATES,

6 February 1903, Dr. G. F. Leicester, Culex; Alboscutellata

var. Annul, bred larvae from miuddy w~ater in rut made by

w7agon wheel in wagon track into jungle 5 3/4' miiles Pakang

Rd., Kuala Lumipur; allolectotype male is also herebyl desig-

nated and bears the following data: same as lectotype ex-

cept var. Annul absent and date is 25 February 1903; 1 para-

type male with same data as allolectotype; 2 parslectotype
fem~ales with same data as lectotype except one has date of

8 February 1903; and 1 paralectotype female with the following

data: Culex trifeliat, 31 January 1903, taken on wagon rd.,

high patch jungle Pahang R~d. 5 3/4 miles, remainder of data
same as lectotype.

DI STR I BUJTIO N. Specimetns examined--52 males, 58 fe~males,
75 pupae, 58 larvae and 75 individual hearings (ST pupal,
22 larval) from the following locations: MA~LAYSIA, Ilorth
Borneo, Forest Camp, K~alabak~an, Ta I9/aw; Pahang~, Chegar
Perahi, Gunong Benomn; Pernk, Chior F. R.,; Perlis, Et. Bin-
taneg F. R.; ~ Sea'r ota Belud, Kuala Lumpur, Sab~ak, Ulu







Gombak* SIN~GAPORE; THAILAND, INakon Si Thammarat; Ilarathiwat;
Ph~an-enpa; Prachinburi; Ranone;; Yala. Other distribution.
SIljGAPORE, Gunong Pulai(Edwiards 1928: 344c).


TAXON1OM~IC DISCUSSION., Aodes orbitae resembles jiamesi

and low~isii in the adult hzbitus. It can be easily dis-

tinguished from these species by the bare subspiracular area,

shape of the gonostylus of the male genitalia and presence of

1 large and 2 slightly smaller spermathecae in the female

genitalia. The male genitalia of orbitae is similar to caecus

and punctifemoris. It is easily separated from these two spe-

cies by haviing 12-14 bristles on the basal mesal lobe while

caeculs has 5-8 bristles and punctifemoris has 6-6 bristles.

Other distinctive features of the adults are: scutellum with

broad silvery scales on each lobe; postspiracular .acea with-

out scales; and. tarsi banded w~ith wvhitie scales;, tarsus III

with tarsomere 5 white scaled.

The pupa is characterized by the following features:

trumpet broad; hair 10-C with 17-33 branches; hair 1-II wuith

32-49 bran~lches; hair ?-V1 long and single; and hairs 10-IVJ-V

long and single.
The larva resembles caeu from which it can be separated

bys a lateral patch of spicules at about middle of siphon;

hairs 1, 2-VIII on common bcasal plate; and hair 6-c wyith 6-9

branches, while caucus has: a dorsal anid ventral patchi of

spicules near middle of siphon; hairs 1, 2-VIII not on a
plate; and hair 6-C wiith 4-5 branches. Other distinctive

features of orbitae are: hair Ir-C with 7-13 branches; hair

13-C with 6-9 branches; and comb with 20-30 scales.




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