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 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Research methodology
 Data analysis and interpretati...
 Summary and conclusions
 Appendices
 Bibliography
 Biographical sketch














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ent of Marketing in the College of


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, and was accepted as partia


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ment of the requirements for the


degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


August,


1971


ean, Graduate School














111




The impact of the acculturation process on consumer purchasing patterns
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 Material Information
Title: The impact of the acculturation process on consumer purchasing patterns
Physical Description: xii, 176 . : illus. ; 28cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hair, Joseph Franklin, 1944-
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainseville
Gainseville
Publication Date: 1971
Copyright Date: 1971
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Consumers   ( lcsh )
Social change   ( lcsh )
Marketing thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Marketing -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis - University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: . 168-175.
General Note: Manuscript copy.
General Note: Vita.
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oclc - 01862150
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
    List of Tables
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    Abstract
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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        Page 7
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        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Research methodology
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Data analysis and interpretation
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
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        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Appendices
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
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    Bibliography
        Page 168
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    Biographical sketch
        Page 176
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Full Text









THE IMPACT OF THE ACCULTURATION PROCESS
ON CONSUMER PURCHASING PATTERNS













By

JOSEPH FRANKLIN HAIR, JR.


A Dissertation Presented To The Graduate Council Of
The University Of Florida
In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements For The
Degree Of Doctor Of Philosophy


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1971






















































@ Copyright By
JOSEPH FRANKLIN HAIR, JR.
1972













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


This dissertation could not have been completed without the guidance and assistance

of many people. The author wishes to express sincere appreciation to the members of

his supervisory committee, Dr. J. D. Butterworth, Chairman, Dr. R. B. Settle, Dr.

A. A. Anderson, Dr. J. M. Perry, and Dr. J. H. James, for their direction and ad-

vice in this research. A special debt of gratitude is owed to Professor R. B. Settle for

the suggestions and insight he provided in planning the research methodology and the

statistical analysis.

Miss Linda Golden, a graduate student in Business Administration, deserves com-

mendation for the valuable time she so freely gave in researching the theoretical

acculturation framework adopted in this study, as well as in conducting the formal

investigation.

Mr. Bill Huitt, a fellow graduate student, should also be acknowledged for his

cooperation and assistance in completing the statistical analysis.













TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . .

LIST OF TABLES .

ABSTRACT . . . . . .


CHAPTER


I INTRODUCTION . .


Background of the Problem . . .
Statement of Purpose . . .
Significance of the Research . .
Relevance of the Literature .
Culture . .
Cultural Change . . .. .
Acculturation . . . .
Consumer Behavior . . .
Purchasing Patterns . .
Related Research . . .


Fong's study of the assimila
Weinstock's study of the acc
Hungarian refugees .
Hodges' study of acculturate


tion of Chinese in America
culturation process of


ion and product meaning .


Theoretical Framework . .
Research Hypotheses .
Hypothesis I . .
Hypothesis II . .
Hypothesis III .
Hypothesis IV .

II RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .

The Questionnaire .


17
18
19
21
21
21
21
21

22


- r -- __~-P-I --~-- IIIl~--~-C-~-C--- -3111 ---~


1







Global Acculturation Tests . . . . 23
Stick Figures Test . . . . 23
Campisi Scale . . . . . 24
Consumer Acculturation Test . . . . 26
Construction of the preliminary CAT . . 27
Revision of the CAT .. . . .. 29
Construction of the final CAT . . .. 30
Demographic Data Sheet . . .. 32
Integration of the Four Research Instruments 33
Pre-testing the Final Standardized Questionnaire. 35
The Respondents . . . . .. 35
Field Procedure . . . . . . 36

III DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION . . .. 38

Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis . . .. 39
Tests of the Research Hypotheses . . .. 40
Hypothesis I . . . . ... 44
Hypothesis II 45
Hypothesis III . 46
Hypothesis IV . . . . . 46
Multiple Factor Analysis . . . .. 47
Interpretation of MCS and CAT Factors . .. 49
Canonical Correlation Analysis . . .. 60
Results of the Canonical Analysis . . .. 61

IV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . .. 67

Summary ....... ........ 68
Conclusions and Implications . . .. 70
Final Comments . . . . .. 77

APPENDICES ..... .. . ..... .. 79

APPENDIX A Data Concerning Construction of the Consumer
Acculturation Test . . . . 80
APPENDIX B The Standardized Questionnaire . .. 121
APPENDIX C- Supplementary Data From the Statistical
Analyses .......... 145
BIBLIOGRAPHY . . ...... . . . . 168

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . .. 176
V













LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 SUMMARY OF STEPWISE MULTIPLE REGRESSIONS USING
THE CAT AS THE DEPENDENT CRITERION VARIABLE 41

2 SUMMARY OF STEPWISE MULTIPLE REGRESSION USING
THE SFT AS THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE . . .. 42

3 SUMMARY OF STEPWISE MULTIPLE REGRESSION USING
THE MCS AS THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE . . .. 43

4 ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS
FOR FACTOR ONE ON THE MODIFIED CAMPISI SCALE 51

5 ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS
FOR FACTOR TWO ON THE MODIFIED CAMPISI SCALE 51

6 ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS
FOR FACTOR THREE ON THE MODIFIED CAMPISI SCALE 52

7 ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS
FOR FACTOR FOUR ON THE MODIFIED CAMPISI SCALE 52

8 ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS
FOR FACTOR FIVE ON THE MODIFIED CAMPISI SCALE 52

9 ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS
FOR FACTOR SIX ON THE MODIFIED CAMPISI SCALE 53

10 INTERCORRELATIONS OF OBLIQUE REFERENCE FACTORS
FOR THE MODIFIED CAMPISI SCALE . . .. 53

11 ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS
FOR FACTOR ONE ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION
TEST . . . . . . . 54

12 ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS
FOR FACTOR TWO ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION
TEST . . . . . . . 54







Table Page
13 ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS
FOR FACTOR THREE ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION
TEST. ................ 55

14 ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS
FOR FACTOR FOUR ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION
TEST. . . . . . . . ... 55

15 ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS
FOR FACTOR FIVE ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION
TEST . . . . . . . . 56

16 ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS
FOR FACTOR SIX ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION
TEST. ................ 56

17 ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS
FOR FACTOR SEVEN.ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION
TEST . . . . . . . . 56

18 ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS
FOR FACTOR EIGHT ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION
TEST . . . . . . ... 57

19 ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS
FOR FACTOR NINE ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION
TEST .................. 57

20 ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS
FOR FACTOR TEN ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION
TEST . . ..... . . . 57

21 ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS
FOR FACTOR ELEVEN ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION
TEST . . . . . . ... 58

22 INTERCORRELATIONS OF OBLIQUE REFERENCE FACTORS FOR
THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION TEST . . .. .59

23 CANONICAL ROOTS, CANONICAL R'S, CHI SQUARE
VALUES, DEGREES OF FREEDOM, AND PROBABILITY
LEVELS FOR CANONICAL FUNCTIONS . . .. 62

24 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VARIABLES AND CANONICAL
FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . 63






Table Page
A-1 ACCULTURATION FACTORS IDENTIFIED IN LITERATURE
SEARCH. . . . . . . ... 81

A-2 ACCULTURATION FACTORS OBTAINED FROM PERSONAL
INTERVIEWS . . . . . 82

A-3 COMPOSITE ACCULTURATION FACTORS . . . 83

A-4 MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL ITEMS
BY ACCULTURATION FACTOR OF PRELIMINARY FORM OF
THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION TEST . . .. 84

A-5 ITEM ANALYSIS PROCEDURE: INDEX OF DISCRIMINATION
OF INDIVIDUAL ITEMS BY ACCULTURATION FACTOR FOR
REVISED FORM OF THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION TEST 91

C-1 ORTHOGONAL FACTOR MATRIX ROTATED TO VARIMAX
CRITERION FOR THE MODIFIED CAMPISI SCALE . . 146

C-2 ORTHOGONAL FACTOR MATRIX ROTATED TO VARIMAX
CRITERION FOR THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION TEST 147

C-3 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR THE MODIFIED CAMPISI SCALE
WITH SQUARED MULTIPLE R'S AS COMMUNALITY
ESTIMATES . ... . . . . 149

C-4 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION
TEST WITH SQUARED MULTIPLE R'S AS COMMUNALITY
ESTIMATES . . . . . .. 154

C-5 MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE THREE
DEPENDENT CRITERION VARIABLES INCLUDED IN THE
STEPWISE MULTIPLE REGRESSIONS . . . .. 160

C-6 MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE FOURTEEN
INDEPENDENT PREDICTOR VARIABLES INCLUDED IN THE
CANONICAL CORRELATION ANALYSIS AND THE STEP-
WISE MULTIPLE REGRESSIONS . . . .. 160

C-7 MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE EIGHTEEN
DEPENDENT CRITERION VARIABLES INCLUDED IN THE
CANONICAL CORRELATION ANALYSIS . . .. 161

C-8 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR STEPWISE MULTIPLE
REGRESSION ANALYSIS. . . . . ... 162







Table Page
C-9 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR FOURTEEN PREDICTOR
VARIABLES INCLUDED IN THE CANONICAL ANALYSIS 164

C-10 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR EIGHTEEN CRITERION
VARIABLES INCLUDED IN THE CANONICAL ANALYSIS 165

C-11 INTERCORRELATION MATRIX OF FOURTEEN PREDICTOR
AND EIGHTEEN CRITERION VARIABLES INCLUDED IN
THE CANONICAL ANALYSIS . . . .. 167







Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of the
University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


THE IMPACT OF THE ACCULTURATION PROCESS
ON CONSUMER PURCHASING PATTERNS

By
Joseph Franklin Hair, Jr.

August, 1971

Chairman: Dr. J. D. Butterworth
Major Department: Marketing

The purpose of this exploratory research was to identify and examine, in a

dynamic setting, the purchasing patterns of a group of foreign students at the

University of Florida; to derive implications and draw inferences, and to reach

conclusions regarding relationships which may exist between culture, acculturation,

and consumer behavior.

Concepts from cultural anthropology (acculturation) and marketing (consumer

behavior) provided the theoretical framework for this investigation. A standardized

questionnaire consisting of two recognized measures of global acculturation, and

two research instruments constructed especially for this study, was used to obtain

empirical data for exploring the relationships between acculturation and consumer

behavior. The two measures of global acculturation were the Stick Figures Test

and the Campisi Scale. Item analysis procedures were employed in constructing a

reliable and valid instrument for measuring the degree of consumer acculturation.

A second research instrument was developed to collect demographic data for comparing






and contrasting the sample respondents. The four research instruments were integrated

into a single standardized questionnaire to facilitate field research among foreign

and American students at the University of Florida.

Three statistical procedures were employed in analyzing and interpreting the

data. Preliminary analysis of the data using stepwise multiple regression methods

indicated that acculturation, consumer purchasing patterns, and demographic

characteristics were systematically related. The findings of the preliminary analysis

were valuable not only in testing the hypotheses, but also in suggesting the methods

as well as the direction for further analysis.

A more extensive investigation of fundamental cultural and behavioral con-

structs was carried out during the second and third phases of the analysis of data.

First, factor analytic techniques were employed to identify and define the under-

lying global and consumer acculturation dimensions. Then, a profile consisting of

total score on the Stick Figures Test and factor scores on the Modified Campisi Scale

and the Consumer Acculturation Test was obtained for each subject, along with a

profile of demographic characteristics. In the third phase canonical correlation

analysis was used to examine and assess the nature as well as the strength of the

relationships between demographic variables and underlying global and/or consumer

acculturation dimensions.

The final interpretation of the results of the study indicated that consumer be-

havior, as a subset of the multidimensional totality of human behavior, was clearly

related to the acculturation process. The findings suggested that cultural background

was the most important variable influencing the extent of acculturation. Other

significant indices of the degree of acculturation were environmental background


-L- -~C~-C- III~--~-- IC II ~-II~






(urban or rural), time in the U.S., age, religion, geographic mobility, and father's

occupation. The results of the study also indicated that factor analytic techniques

can be used to derive and define fundamental and meaningful dimensions of the

multivariate domain of culturally determined consumer behavior. Furthermore, it

appeared that statistical analyses relating behavioral constructs to other appropriate

variables might be helpful in comprehending which cultural elements, i.e., pur-

chasing patterns, marketing methods, are accepted most easily, and why.


I II --' - I -- --'













CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


Since the advent of the marketing concept in the early 1950's, marketing

academicians and practitioners have been exhibiting an increasing interest in the

consumer and his behavior. As a result, marketers have turned to the social sciences

for concepts, theories, and methodologies to employ in studying consumer behavior.

In an effort to implement the marketing concept, marketing management has

placed increased emphasis on research into the behavior of consumers. However,

additional progress must be made in pragmatically carrying out the marketing concept,

both in the United States as well as abroad. For example, marketing on an inter-

national or global scale generates situations in which American firms must develop an

ever-increasing sensitivity to the needs, wants, desires and capabilities of the foreign

consumer. The following quotation is indicative of the difficulties which U.S.

companies may encounter in attempting to penetrate a foreign market where cultural

qualities common in the U.S. are not present.

The local African government had been buying from Corporation X,
an American firm, hand-operated dusters for use in distributing
pesticides in the cotton fields. The dusters were loaned to indi-
vidual Negro farmers. The duster supplied by the corporation was
a finely-machined device requiring regular oiling and good care.

But the fact that this duster turned more easily than any other
duster on the market was relatively unimportant to the native
farmers. Furthermore, the requirement for careful oiling and care







simply
broke.


meant that in a relatively short time the machines froze up and


The result?


The local government went back to the older


type French duster which was heavy, turned with difficulty, and gave
a poorer distribution of dust, but which lasted longer in that it re-


quired less care and lubricuation (Robinson,


1961).


This situation, faced by an American firm in


Africa,


is evidence that greater insight


into the


international consumer is essential.


resume purchasing the


The African government was forced to


inferior French duster and this had definite cultural


implications;


the lack of high standards of personal discipline,


responsibility, and throughness was


an obstacle to educating the farmers regarding effective maintenance of equipment.


Thus, to be successful, marketing men must be more astute


in developing appropriate


products,


as well as strategies,


for markets with which they are not familiar.


As American firms have rapidly expanded abroad and encountered new cultures,


the need for additional knowledge about the cultural variable


in consumer behavior has


increased considerably.


Greater understanding about the


influence of cultural


nomena on consumer behavior would be valuable


in developing marketing strategies


to penetrate foreign markets,


but it would also provide numerous cultural impli


cations


relevant to the domestic market.


Engle,


Kollat, and Blackwell (1968)


express


view as follows:


Marketing strategy can be significantly influenced by a cross-


cultural approach to the understanding of markets.


yet an underdeveloped field in


Although as


its applications to marketing,


cross-cultural analysis and other anthropological approaches offer
much potential both in understanding consumer behavior in inter-


national markets and consumer behavior within


important subcultures


of the domestic market (Engle,


Kollat, and Blackwell,


1968,


p. 261).


One implication derived from a better comprehension of the culture of the United


States


is that it is the product of a number of sub-cultures.


Hence,


by properly delineating


the similarities and differences of the various sub-cultures, marketing strategies can be


phe-


this







devised that are compatible with the specific characteristics of each sub-culture.

"Culture is a variable that pervades all stages of consumer decision-making and

one under which many other variables may be subsumed" (Engle, Kollat, and Blackwell,


1968, p. 261).


Marketing management must be able to come to grips with the complex


consumer problems which are predicated on cultural phenomena.


The capacity of


marketing practitioners and scholars to identify, analyze, understand and predict

consumer behavior can be facilitated through increased conceptualization and empirical

research in the field of cultural anthropology.


Background of the Problem

During the past twenty years, marketing scholars and practitioners in the United

States have turned to the social sciences in general, and to the behavioral sciences

more specifically, in an effort to comprehend an increasingly complex nation of con-


summers.


Since consumer behavior is often viewed as risk-taking (Bauer, 1960), it is


essential that marketing theorists and practitioners endeavor to explore every available

avenue to improve expertise and understanding of the consumer and his (or her) behavior.

The social sciences represent one such avenue and marketing men increasingly have


adopted relevant concepts, theories and methods from these areas.


Most of the present


adaptations of the social sciences by marketers are concentrated in the disciplines of

economics, psychology and sociology, while anthropology is excluded generally from


marketing thought and practice.


Winick acknowledges this in his comment that,


the social sciences which deal with man and society, only economics, psychology, and


sociology have been widely used in marketing.


Economics is at the core of much of the


content of marketing; psychology has yielded a variety of interviewing and projective


testing procedures; sociology has contributed concepts like social class.


"Of


Marketers





4

have been relatively slow in using anthropological insights and approaches, even though

anthropology is also concerned with man and society" (Winick, 1961).

The relatively small amount of research conducted by marketing people in the field

of cultural anthropology does not necessarily mean, however, that an anthropological

approach cannot be meaningfully applied in the study of consumer behavior. On the

contrary, as Sheldon maintains, "It goes without saying that culture affects our be-

havior as consumers. The cultural anthropologist is in a position, therefore, to give us

insights into consumer behavior" (Sheldon, 1958). Since anthropology does represent

a meaningful approach to the study of consumer behavior and, because it has been

employed very little, the direction in which this dissertation proceeds will be into the

field of cultural anthropology as it relates to marketing, with predominant emphasis

placed on the acculturation process.

J. S. Duesenberry was one of the earliest writers to focus attention on the role

culture plays for the individual in his social environment. In his book, Income, Saving

and the Theory of Consumer Behavior, he postulated that,

In addition to knowing that certain goods are purchased to
maintain physical existence and comfort it is also known that
certain activities are an essential part of the culture, . in
every case the kinds of activities in which people engage are
culturally determined and constitute only a small subset of the
possible actions in which people might participate (Duesenberry,
1949, p. 53).

Support for Duesenberry's postulate is evidenced by Tucker (1964) in his discussion

of the individual's purchasing behavior. He pointed out that often what one assumes to

be human nature is in fact the influence of culture. He said:

Culture is, naturally, a major influence in economic
decisions, since it not only forms the broad base of the value
system but also provides a misleading account of human nature.
When someone makes an economic decision, he often bases it






on his concept of human nature. And often he makes the mistake
of thinking, "This is what people are like," rather than "This is
what people are like now in this culture" (Tucker, 1964, p. 23).

In recent years a number of authors have exhibited an increasing interest in the

relationships which exist between culture, sub-cultures, and consumer (or buyer) be-

havior. Wasson and McConaughy (1968, p. 145), in their discussion of sub-cultural

market segmentation, assert that purchasing patterns can be clearly identified for

regional sub-cultures. For example, rural sub-cultures tend to place less value on the

quality of shelter and more emphasis on home furnishings and equipment, clothing and

personal care. Furthermore, both rural nonfarm and farm households place more

emphasis on the amount of food and less on variety. In contrast, urban families tend to

eat a greater variety of types of meat, and to use more of their fruits and vegetables in

processed form and less in their fresh state, than do rural families.

Distinctive consumption patterns have been reported for ethnic sub-cultures as well.

Bauer (1966) found that Negroes save more money than whites of equivalent incomes,

have more careful purchasing habits, and take the purchase of products more seriously

than equivalent whites. Furthermore, Negro women are more likely to shop with other

women than with their husbands, in contrast to white patterns where women tend to

shop with their husbands. Davis (1959, p. 6) states that Negroes appear to be more

brand loyal than equivalent whites, and Bullock (1959, 1961) points out that Negroes

tend to purchase more luxury items than white consumers of the same income levels.

Marketing people have also examined the purchasing patterns of sub-cultures

delineated on the basis of age and social class. McNeal (1969) has identified cultural

traits which influence the buying behavior of a child sub-culture, while Wells and

Gubar (1966) and Smith (1961) have examined merchandising techniques appropriate




6

for the teen-age sub-culture. Tate (1970) has compared the buying behavior of younger,

middle-aged, and older housewives, each of which constitute a separate sub-culture.

Mayer (1957) has explored how the unique needs and desires of the growing senior

citizens sub-culture may influence their purchasing behavior.

Although studies such as the preceding do provide some insight into the cultural

aspects of consumer behavior, their usefulness is limited because an intensive rather than

a comparative approach is employed. In other words, such an approach enables one to

describe the different consumer behavior patterns characteristic of each culture, or

sub-culture, but comprehension of the relationships which exist between a culture and

the purchasing behavior of its members is not possible.

Given that purchasing patterns (i.e., consumer behavior) are related in general

to an individual's culture, and more specifically to his sub-culture, and with the

realization that there are meaningful cultural differences, be they predicated on

ethnic, geographical, social class or other environmental factors which differentiate

people's patterns of behavior, then a cultural anthropological concept relevant to the

present research can be considered. The term "acculturation," as used in the be-

havioral sciences, refers to "the process of learning a culture different from the one in

which a person was originally raised" (Berelson and Steiner, 1964, p. 646). Implicit

in this concept is the overlaying of a new and different culture on the individual's

heritage culture. If, as Duesenberry (1949), Tucker (1964), and others point out, the

buying behavior of an individual is influenced by his cultural heritage, then what is

the impact of acculturation on an individual's purchasing patterns? One would

anticipate that the purchasing patterns of a less acculturated individual would more

closely resemble those which are characteristic of a member of his heritage culture,


- ~ ---- -F- --- -- --C_ lllC-31 I~ II YCI







whereas the purchasing patterns of a more occulturated individual would display a

greater similarity to those which are characteristic of a member of the new, or dominant,

host culture.


Statement of Purpose

Research into the behavior of consumers has uncovered evidence relevant to this

study in that it suggests that persons from a foreign culture do not behave as we do in

the marketplace; that part of the acculturation process involves adopting and learning

new modes of behavior in the market; and that this change in the individual includes

new attitudes, values, and habits which are closely interlaced with an integrated

configuration of other non-marketing and non-consumer type mental constructs. How-

ever, explicit techniques of studying consumer behavior within a cultural context are

not articulated.

The purpose of this exploratory research is to identify and examine, in a dynamic

setting, the purchasing patterns of a group of foreign students at the University of

Florida; to derive implications and draw inferences, and to reach conclusions regard-

ing relationships which may exist between culture, acculturation, and consumer

behavior.


Significance of the Research

Winick, writing in the Journal of Marketing, asserts that "There are at least

three kinds of situations in which the knowledge of the anthropologist has been employed

in marketing: specific knowledge; awareness of themes of a culture; (and) sensitivity

to taboos" (Winick, 1961). Winick proceeds to outline briefly the use of anthropology

in marketing research studies and the resulting contributions. Despite these efforts







to apply anthropological concepts and methodologies in marketing, little socio-

anthropological theory is available to marketing people to facilitate additional

scientific approaches to consumer behavior. This exploratory study is an attempt to

partially fill this empirical vacuum by utilizing the acculturation process as a

theoretical tool of analysis to study consumer behavior.

The rapid expansion of interest and research in consumer behavior has inspired

several attempts to formulate general theoretical frameworks which integrate the be-

havioral sciences and buying behavior. Among the most notable are those by Nicosia

(1966), Engle, Kollat, and Blackwell (1968), and Howard and Sheth (1969). Al-

though reference is made in all of the preceding models regarding the importance of

the cultural variable, none treat the concept in detail due to the general nature of

their approach.

Summarily, the present study attempts to integrate concepts from two disciplines,

cultural anthropology and marketing, into a research method for the exploration and

description of an empirical situation. This study also attempts to provide additional

theory and research designs for future behavioral investigations of marketing problems.

Finally, by undertaking our study in a dynamic setting where the foreigners are be-

coming acculturated, we can better identify and highlight what aspects of our own

behavior, as well as that of others (i.e., foreigners), are cultural in nature.


Relevance of the Literature

A search of the literature indicated that marketing, as a field of study, is be-

ginning to recognize the importance of culture's influence on consumer behavior and

decision-making. However, the relationships which exist between acculturation and

purchasing patterns have not been treated. The following section reviews the







literature relative to an understanding of these relationships. Relevant aspects of

culture, cultural change, acculturation, and consumer behavior are considered.


Culture

Among the many complex factors which affect consumer attitudes and behavior is

that of culture. Knowledge and understanding of the intricacies of the cultural

dimension are thus important to the marketer in developing successful strategies.

What is culture? Definitions are numerous. Some anthropologists think of culture

as communicable knowledge, while others refer to it as the sum of historical achieve-

ments produced by man's social life. Kroeber and Kluckhohn (1952) list over one

hundred and sixty formal delimitations of the term. Most concepts of culture include

three keynotes: "First, that culture is transmitted, it constitutes a heritage or a social

tradition; secondly, that it is learned, it is not a manifestation . of man's genetic

constitution; and third, that it is shared" (Parsons, 1951, p. 15).

Culture is the "distinctive way of life of a group of people, their complete design

for living" (Kluckhohn, 1951). The manner in which man consumes, the priority of

the needs and wants he attempts to satisfy, and the manner in which he satisfies them

are manifestations of his culture which, among other things, temper, mold, and dictate

his style of living. Kluckhohn points out the influence of culture upon behavior when

he states that "culture . regulates our lives at every turn. From the moment we are

born until we die there is constant conscious or unconscious pressure upon us to follow

certain types of behavior that other men have created for us" (Kluckhohn, 1962).

Culture is "the man-made part of man's environment -- the sum total of man's knowledge,

beliefs, art,morals, laws, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by

man as a member of society" (Herskovits, 1964, p. 17).





10


Culture is applicable to all human behavior.


However, we do not see culture but


observe manifestations of it; culture is an abstraction from behavior. Thus, it is

important to distinguish between the explicit and the implicit culture. The explicit

culture consists of directly observable regularities in the verbal and nonverbal be-


havior of the typical or modal member of the society.


The implicit culture consists of


concepts (e.g., norms, beliefs, values, etc.) which are used to explain the observed

regularities of behavior or, in effect, the explicit culture (Berelson and Steiner, 1964,


p. 644).


The explicit culture is obvious to everyone, whereas the implicit is known


only to those who seek it.

Within the complex, heterogeneous culture of a society, group or nation, a


number of sub-cultures may be identified.


These sub-cultures are predicated upon


recognition of distinguishable features, such as language, racial origin, age, or social


class, which typically lead to unique patterns of behavior and ways of living.


Hence,


a sub-culture refers to "a distinguishable entity within a larger culture or to the

clustered cultural traits shared by certain entities in differing cultures" (Wadia, 1965).

To develop successful marketing strategies, a complex environment must be con-


sidered.


An understanding of culture can help marketing men in their efforts to cope


with the environment.


So many aspects of marketing are affected by culture that,


as Wadia posits,


"Marketing is culture bound" (Wadia, 1965).


Indeed, for the field


of marketing, especially in its international aspects, the impact of culture appears


endless.


Credence is given to this observation by Hess and Cateora, who assert that "a


complete and thorough appreciation of the dimensions of culture may well be the

single most important gain . in the preparation of marketing plans and strategies"

(Hess and Cateora, 1966, pp. 105-6).






Cultural Change

A fundamental characteristic of human culture is that it is dynamic. People's

habits, tastes, styles, behavior, and values are not constant but are continually

changing. While culture may appear to be static, the component parts are in a

constant state of flux. Building upon the customs and traditions of the society, new

modes of behavior, better solutions to problems, improved tools and weapons, and

foods are incorporated into the existing culture. Once these adopted patterns become

common place, they are passed on as cultural heritage.

The degree of resistance to cultural change tends to vary; in some situations new

elements are accepted completely and rapidly, and in others resistance is so strong

that acceptance is never forthcoming or, at least, is very slow. Cultural change is

particularly characteristic of modern society, where such things as the industrial

revolution, automation, and communications developments, have caused dramatic

cultural shifts. Just as the industrial revolution led to greater urban concentrations,

different working environments, and diverse consumption patterns, so now automation,

communications, and numerous other developments are having their effects (Heilbroner,

1962, p. 44).

The norm of change, however, is not prevalent everywhere; some areas of the

world, as well as some sub-cultures, still favor traditional norms. As Inkeles has

noted, industrialized countries are likely to be more receptive to changes while non-

industrialized countries have a great tendency to resist changes (Inkeles, 1960). In

addition, Bose (1962) found that people with rural-oriented values are more resistant

to change than people with urban-oriented values, and Rogers (1962) notes that rural

sociologists have demonstrated that the rate of acceptance of new farm technology


IPYCYUa~U'-"~~~~B-~----lls~----L --r~-- I--------,,







depends on whether the norms of the community are modern or traditional.

Summarily, cultural change is the process by which a society, or group, improves

or revises its adjustment to its environment, through questioning traditional solutions

and establishing new ways of living. This process may evolve either from within a

culture, or sub-culture, or between cultures. When it occurs between cultures, it is

usually referred to as cultural borrowing. The present research is concerned with an

instance of culture borrowing in which a minority sub-culture (foreign students in the

U.S.) adjusts its heritage purchasing patterns to a new cultural environment.


Acculturation

To a great extent, consumer decision-making is influenced by cultural inputs

received over time from the individual's environment. Thus in attempting to under-

stand tastes, product preferences, and purchasing patterns, it is necessary to under-

stand the culture which the individual has absorbed. The process of learning one's

first culture is called enculturation, or socialization; when a person learns a new

culture other than the one in which he was raised, the process is referred to as

acculturation.

For the purpose of this study, acculturation refers to the process of learning a

culture different from the one in which a person was originally raised. Implicit in this

concept is the overlaying of a new and different culture on the individual's heritage

culture. More simply, it may be described as the process of becoming more American-

like, as manifested in one's behavior as a consumer.

The subcommittee on Acculturation of the Social Science Research Council has

defined acculturation as: . (T)hose phenomena which result when groups of






individuals having different cultures come into first hand contact, with subsequent

changes in the original patterns of either or both groups" (Redfield, Linton, and

Herskovits, 1936). Of particular importance is that acculturation refers specifically

to changes in culture, i.e., in behavior and knowledge. Furthermore, the accul-

turation process is facilitated by interaction among cultures. The greater the contact

among cultures, the more the diffusion of common traits and the more alike the

cultures tend to become. This is not to say they become exactly alike -- only more

alike (Berelson and Steiner, 1964, p. 653).

The term acculturation does not imply that cultures in contact are to be distin-

guished as "higher" or "more advanced," or as having a greater "content of civili-

zation," or that they differ in any hierarchical manner. Rather, evidence shows that

the transmission of culture, a process of cultural change of which acculturation is but

one expression, occurs when any two peoples are in historic contact. Whatever the

nature of the contact, mutual borrowing and subsequent revision of cultural elements

seem to result (Herskovits, 1964, p. 170).

Acculturation is a process, not an isolated event. Just as cultures are in a con-

stant state of flux, so is acculturation a dynamic process. Acculturation, however,

does not necessarily mean the adaptation of one culture to another; the process can

be either uni-directional or bi-directional, but is generally the latter. Even though

one culture may be stronger than another, there are counterbalancing powers (i.e.,

customs, norms, and values) in the cultures which result in degrees of states conditions

prevailing within the cultures.

Weinstock in his studies of the acculturation process, emphasized that for research

purposes the immigrant should be perceived of as in the process of change, while the


LLIISI-I---I- -IIC-~ICr~--I 1 1






dominant, (or host) culture is perceived as static (Weinstock, 1964). Acculturation,

then, may be considered as a process whereby an individual moves along a theoretical

continuum, with the extremes being defined as "completely unacculturated" and

"completely acculturated. Viewing the process in this manner enables one to assess

both the degree and rate of acculturation.

In this study, attention is focused on the movement of foreign students along a

theoretical acculturation continuum, from the unacculturated extreme where heritage

purchasing patterns prevail, toward the opposite acculturated extreme where the

purchasing patterns of the host culture have been adopted.


Consumer Behavior

Like many of the previous terms herein discussed, consumer behavior is often con-

fused and misinterpreted, and is seldom sharply defined. Instead, efforts are made to

present distinctions of various types, such as intermediate and final consumers and the

reasons why consumer behavior is studied. The predominant view of consumer behavior,

until recently, has been concerned with the economic decision-making of the consumer

in the market for goods and services. For example, demographic studies have been

conducted to investigate the consumer in terms of geographic location, age, income,

size of family, education, occupation, and similar data. Macro-economic approaches,

emphasizing national product and income, transfer payment, the consumption function,

and related phenomena, have also provided valuable insights. Conceding that

economic decision-making is an important facet of consumer behavior, it must be

recognized, nevertheless, that consumer behavior requires a more extensive inter-

pretation.

In the words of Duesenberry,


~--~ -------------~-- _~ rd






A real understanding of . consumer behavior must begin with
a full recognition of the social character of consumption patterns.
We know, of course, that certain goods are purchased to maintain
physical existence or physical comfort. We also know that certain
activities are an essential part of our culture, or, at least, of parts
of it. Others are required to maintain social status. Still others
are undertaken merely for pleasure. But in every case the kinds of
activities in which people engage are culturally determined and
constitute only a small subset of the possible actions in which people
might participate. Nearly all purchases of goods are made, ostensibly
at least, either to provide physical comfort or to implement the
activities which make up the life of our culture (Duesenberry, 1949,
pp. 19-20).

Although few individuals are likely to adhere to identical tendencies or

characteristics in their consumer behavior, there appear to be various economic, social,

and cultural considerations which tend to mold the potentially infinite variety of

purchase and consumption patterns.

Glock and Nicosia, purporting to use a sociological approach to consumption be-

havior, define consumer behavior in terms of "the decision processes of the individual

consumer or consuming unit, such as the family. It includes all the efforts to describe

and explain one or more acts of choice either at a given time or over a period of

time. It concerns the consumer's investment of money and personal labor in goods,

services, and leisure pursuits; or his decisions with respect to saving and assets; or his

'purchase' of ideas" (Glock and Nicosia, 1964).

The interpretation of consumer behavior inherent in this study will encompass facets

of human behavior other than solely rational economic choice. Thus, consumer be-

havior will be defined more in a behavioral science context than a purely economic

framework. Furthermore, although it would be meaningful to attempt to encompass

the full spectrum of behavior of the consumer, i.e., anthropological, psychological,

sociological, and economic, in this research, the predominant emphasis will be on the


....iii i... k-. _i- i- i .i __ A








phenomena of cultural anthropological aspects of consumer behavior. In effect, this

study stresses variables and parameters of culture and acculturation as they relate to

consumer behavior and as manifested specifically in purchasing patterns.

The rationale underlying this interpretation of consumer behavior is that behavior

is initially and continually a function of man's culture. Although there are changing

conditions within which man consumes, his cultural involvement is present and felt at

all times, from the time of birth, until death.

For this study, the definition of consumer behavior involves those covert and overt

actions, as affected primarily by cultural influences, but also by individual and social

stimuli, that people undertake over a period of time in an effort to obtain the want-

satisfying properties inherent in goods and services.

Purchasing Patterns. Purchasing patterns represent complex systems of intricate,

interrelated habits, customs, and values of various cultures. Whereas historical and

anthropological studies reveal the origins of these customs, habits and values, the basic

factors upon which these phenomena are founded tend to be socio-economic in nature.

Resource endowment of the nation, location and climate, international trade relations,

biological composition of the inhabitants, national character and other facets histor-

ically have been parameters upon which purchasing patterns have been predicated.

Rather than undertake an investigation of the origins of purchasing patterns, this study

will concentrate on the existence of patterns and the influence of the acculturation

process.

The purpose of the present study is to show the relationships between purchasing

patterns and the acculturation process. As used here, purchasing patterns are considered

a subset of consumer behavior and refer to the actions of individuals directly involved






17


in purchasing goods and services and the decision processes that determine these actions.


Related Research

Reviewing the literature revealed three studies closely related to the present


research.


These studies provide insight into both the research methodology and the


relationships expected between the acculturation process and consumer behavior.


Fong's study of the assimilation of Chinese in America.


Fong (1965) studied the


assimilation orientation and social perception of Chinese college students, all living


in America.


Each subject received three forms, consisting of a personal data sheet, an


Assimilation-Orientation Inventory, and a Stick Figures Test.


These forms were filled


out anonymously and returned by mail; seventy-five percent of the questionnaires were

returned.

The sociological indices of progressive removal included in Fong's Assimilation-

Orientation Inventory and the Stick Figures Test are the following: generation level,


parents' citizenship status, area of residence, and ethnicity of

Using the Kruskal-Wallis H test, Fong found significant results


one's intimate friends.

for all of these dimen-


sions.

The psychometric findings of Fong's research supported his thesis that as Chinese

become progressively removed from their ancestral culture and in greater contact with

the dominant American culture, they show a concurrent increase in their assimilation

orientation and in their internalization of American perceptual norms.


Weinstock's study of the acculturation process of Hungarian refugees.


Weinstock


(1964) studied the factors that retarded or accelerated the rate of acculturation of


Hungarian immigrants.

of personality measures.


Fifty-three respondents were interviewed and given a number

Two measures of acculturation were used; the Campisi Scale






and an Information Scale developed by the author. The two measures were combined

to form a single index of acculturation.

The conclusions reached in Weinstock's study, which are pertinent to this research,

were that Hungarian refugees who cling to traditional foods and methods are less

acculturated than their contemporaries who have adopted foods and methods of the

dominant culture; that refugees who have close friendships among Americans acculturate

faster; that no significant difference existed between males and females with regard to

acculturation; and that the amount of time spent in the United States does not signifi-

cantly influence the degree of acculturation (only one year elapsed between the time

of interview of the first and the last respondent). He also noted the existence of a

strong positive relationship between acculturation, higher social status, and social

mobility.

Hodges' study of acculturation and product meaning. Hodges (1969) conducted

personal interviews with two groups of Mexican-American housewives living in San

Antonio, Texas. Subjects were selected so that each group represented a different

socio-economic stratum. One hundred interviews were completed, equally divided

among the two groups.

Two research instruments were used: a family data sheet and the Q-sort instrument.

The family data sheet provided a data base for comparing and contrasting the two sub-

ject groups; a thirty-eight-item Q-sort instrument was used to obtain product meaning

profiles. The low socio-economic subject group performed the Q-sort twice, once for

self and once for a description of a low-income Anglo-American housewife. The

medium socio-economic subjects performed three Q-sorts, one for self and one for a

low- and one for a medium-income Anglo-American housewife.







The analysis of the data indicated that the subject groups were able to agree on

what products meant, both for self and for the described Anglo housewives. However,

differences existed between: (1) the self product perceptions of the low-acculturated

subjects and the self product perceptions of the medium-acculturated subjects; and (2)

the self product perceptions of the low-acculturated subjects and the low-acculturated

subjects' perceptions of the way a low-income Anglo housewife perceived products.

No differences were found between the self product perceptions of the medium-

acculturated subjects and their perceptions of product meaning for either the low- or

the medium-income Anglo housewife. In short, the low-acculturated subjects per-

ceived product meanings differently from the dominant culture, whereas, the medium-

acculturated subject group perceived the meanings of the product set like members of

the dominant culture.


Theoretical Framework

The material reviewed in the previous sections provides little insight into the

relationships which might be found in a study of consumer behavior, as affected by the

acculturation process. However, it does provide sufficient evidence to suggest certain

relationships which might be tested in the present investigation.

Anthropologists have long recognized that when individuals having different cultures

come into contact, the result is a process of mutual adaptation and subsequent revision

of cultural elements. More recently, a number of marketing scholars have noted the

influence of culture on our behavior as consumers, while others have examined inter-

cultural differences in consumer behavior. Conceding the broad role that culture

plays in determining consumer behavior, and recognizing that cultural elements do

change when two diverse cultures come into contact, affords a basis for examination of






possible relationships between culture, acculturation, and consumer behavior.

A global acculturation test administered to a sample composed of subjects having

diverse cultural backgrounds would be expected to show differences in their degree of

acculturation. At the same time, a consumer acculturation test administered to the

identical sample would be expected to show differences in the extent of their con-

sumer acculturation. Thus, we would anticipate that less acculturated persons, as

demonstrated by the global acculturation test and the consumer acculturation test,

would exhibit behavior as consumers which is somewhat influenced by their cultural

heritage; whereas, more acculturated persons would be expected to exhibit consumer

behavior more like members of the dominant, American culture.

To this end, the following questions are considered in the present research:

(1) Does the acculturation process have any effect on consumer purchasing

patterns?

(2) Does the acculturation process for persons from progressive countries, where

Western influence has made deep inroads, differ significantly from the acculturation

process for persons from less progressive, traditionally oriented countries?

(3) If the acculturation process for persons from progressive countries does tend

to differ significantly from the acculturation process for persons from less progressive

countries, then do these same people also tend to exhibit significantly different

patterns in their behavior as consumers?

(4) To what extent can demographic variables such as age, sex, marital status,

and time, be used as indices of differences in the acculturation process in general,

and the consumer acculturation process in specific?

1 For this study, global acculturation is a comprehensive term, referring to overall
acculturation in the individual's total style of living, i.e., acculturation with regard
to all types of human behavior, consumer or otherwise.



Ilr1 It .... --- I I- ----






Research Hypotheses

Four hypotheses are treated in this investigation. They are stated below in null

form.


Hypothesis I

Consumer behavior is not affected significantly by the acculturation process.


Hypothesis II

The acculturation process for persons from progressive countries does not differ

significantly from the acculturation process for persons from less progressive countries.


Hypothesis III

The purchasing patterns (consumer behavior) of persons from progressive countries

do not differ significantly from the purchasing patterns of persons from less progressive

countries.


Hypothesis IV

Demographic variables such as age, sex, marital status, and time, cannot be

used as indicators of differences in the acculturation process in general, or of the

consumer acculturation process in specific.


~p~--c-r~---WROM EPS"MAN ~-U- ICw~--ftY 1I












CHAPTER II
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


Testing the hypotheses required measurement of the relationship between the degree

of acculturation and purchasing patterns. To accomplish this, the author first selected

two recognized measures of global acculturation, which had been used in anthropology

and social psychology, and modified them to fit the objectives of this study. Then,

two other research instruments were constructed especially for this study. One of the

research instruments was designed to measure consumer acculturation, the other was

developed to obtain demographic data about the respondents. The four research in-

struments were integrated into a single, standardized questionnaire, to facilitate speed

and accuracy in data collection, and to ensure that information obtained in the field-

work would be comparable. After pre-testing the questionnaire under field conditions,

it was administered to a sample of both foreign and native students at the University

of Florida.


The Questionnaire

The fundamental objective of the questionnaire was to obtain the data necessary

for testing the research hypotheses. Construction of the questionnaire involved five

principal tasks: (1) selection and preparation of the global acculturation measures,

(2) construction of the consumer acculturation test, (3) construction of the demo-

graphic data sheet, (4) integration of the four research instruments into a single,


.'~ '~b~





23

standardized questionnaire, and (5) pre-testing the questionnaire under field conditions,

and making the desired improvements.


Global Acculturation Tests

Two recognized measures of global acculturation were selected from the litera-

ture -- the Stick Figures Test (Sarbin and Hardyck, 1955) and the Campisi Scale

(Campisi, 1947). Both measures were critically examined to determine their suit-

ability for this study. The complete Stick Figures Test was retained, but several modi-

fications were necessary before the Campisi Scale could be used.

Stick Figures Test. The Stick Figures Test (SFT) was selected as a recognition

test of the expressive modes of the American culture. The SFT consists of a series of

forty-three simple line drawings of human-like stick figures, drawn to represent a

wide range of expressive and attitudinal states. The figures were constructed in a

manner that offers no cues for interpretation other than gestures or posture.

For each figure in the SFT, the respondent is instructed to select one of five ad-

jectives which best describes his judgement of the emotion or attitude being ex-

pressed. A blank space is also provided for each stick figure, to be filled in by the

subject when none of the adjectives adequately describes his impressions.2

Fong (1965) explored the possibility that a low score on the SFT was a result of

the respondent's limited English vocabulary, and not of low familiarity with Western

expressive norms. His results indicated that scores on the SFT were not confounded by

a vocabulary factor.

1 Appendix B contains several examples of items from the Stick Figures Test.
2A Stick Figures Test answer sheet giving the adjectives corresponding to each of
the stick figures is shown in Appendix B.





24


Published validity and reliability figures were examined when considering the


appropriateness of the SFT for this study.


Sarbin and Hardyck (1955) empirically vali-


dated the SFT as a measure of conformance in perceptual


responses,


against two external


criteria -- the California Psychological


Inventory and the Minnesota Multiphasic


Personality Inventory.


A validity coefficient of


.81 (Spearman rho) was obtained


when scores on the SFT were correlated with those on the California Psychological


Inventory.


When the SFT was correlated (Pearson product-moment) with the Minnesota


Multiphasic Personality Inventory, a validity coefficient of .51 was obtained.


addition,


Fong (1965) found that Chinese college students who had been in the


Un ited


States longer tended to score higher on the SFT than did those who had been


U.S. a shorter length of time.

The reliability of the SFT


half procedures.


in the


was measured by Sarbin and Hardyck (1955) using split-


A reliability coefficient of .50 was obtained, but they suggested


that refinement of the test by item analysis would doubtless


increase


its reliability.


Campisi Scale.


The Campisi Scale (Campisi,


1947) is a self-descriptive


inventory


which attempts to measure two things:


(1) the


to certain aspects of American culture, and (2)

vidual has retained certain aspects of his own,


degree to which a person has conformed

the degree to which that same indi-


or his ancestor's,


non-American way


of life.


It is not concerned with measuring the component dimensions of the American,


or the ethnic culture, but simply the degree of


conformity to the former.


The original Campisi Scale consisted of ten separate sections, each of which was


designed to gather information on a different aspect of acculturation.

demographic data was also collected to facilitate cross-classifications.


Supplementary

The areas


recreation and entertainment,


covered by the Scale were:


customs and usages, social





25


interaction,


place of residence,


language usage, foods and food seasonings, sentiments


and feelings, nationality background of relatives,

wishes and aspirations, and basic cultural traits.


friends, and acquaintances,


hopes,


Five of the sections contained


multiple-choice questions designed to obtain objective measurements regarding the

above areas, and the other five included questions on which the respondent was re-


quired to make a subjective judgement for himself,


using a five-point Likert-type scale.


Campisi assessed the validity of the Scale by using the method of contrasted


groups.


Significant differences (critical ratio statistic) were observed between the


mean scores of the


"old line" American sample, and those from the sample of recent


immigrants (Campisi,


1947,


p.


194). Hence,


the validity of the


instrument was


established by demonstrating its ability to differentiate between two groups --


line" Americans who supposedly were acculturated,


and recent immigrants who were


not as acculturated.


An estimate of the reliability of the Scale was also computed by Campisi.

the split-halves method, a reliability coefficient of .98 was obtained (Campisi,


Using

1947,


p. 192).

Campisi's primary purpose for constructing the Scale was to develop a quantita-

tive instrument that would provide reliable and valid measurements of the extent of


acculturation among immigrants and ethnic minority groups.


The questions considered


for use in the Campisi Scale were formulated, empirically tested, and then either

eliminated, or modified on the basis of their suitability for use with groups of immi-


grants.


In contrast,


the present study was concerned with developing an


instrument to


be used with a group of foreign students.


For this reason,


much of the content of the


Scale was not appropriate for our purposes.


"old


Campisi





26


Several modifications were necessary before the Campisi Scale could be used.

Only two sections of the original Scale were retained; one was a measure of how fre-

quently certain foods and food seasonings are eaten, and the other was a measure of

the individual's sentiments and feelings toward a variety of factors, such as enter-


tainment, social interaction, and place of residence.


Twenty-nine of the original


thirty-six questions in these two sections were included in the modified Scale. In

addition, the format of the instrument was changed to facilitate administration with


the other scales.


The five-point Likert-type scale was retained, but the points were


renumbered for the subject's convenience and for coding.3


Consumer Acculturation Test


From the moment work was begun on developing the consumer acculturation test,

it was realized that constructing an instrument which would measure the complex


totality of consumer acculturation would be clearly impossible.


The taxonomic and


methodological constraints preclude a precise statement, not only of the cultural

aspects of the American consumer, but of the cultural aspects of the various groups of


foreign students as well.


In fact, neither anthropologists nor marketers are able to


agree on an explicit description of a typical American consumer.


Since a detailed


investigation and analysis of the over-all impact of acculturation on consumer be-

havior was beyond the scope of this study, it was decided to limit the measurement of


consumer acculturation to two important facets:


(1) those factors related to marketing


institutions and practices, and (2) those factors related to product attributes.

The function of the Consumer Acculturation Test (CAT) was to measure the

3The difiedCampisi Scale (MCS) is shown in Appendix B.
The Modified-Campisi Scale (MCS) is shown in Appendix B.





27


attitudes of the sample subjects toward typical American products and marketing


practices, i.e., to measure the extent of consumer acculturation.

CAT involved three principal phases: (1) construction and testing

forms of the CAT, (2) revision of the research instrument, and (3)


final standardized form of the CAT.

Construction of the preliminary CAT.


Development of the

of the preliminary

construction of the


The first step in constructing the prelimi-


nary form of the CAT was to identify and evaluate a number of acculturation factors,

i.e., factors that could be used as indicators of the degree of consumer acculturation.


Two categories of acculturation factors were examined:


institutional factors and


product attribute factors.

The acculturation factors were selected from a search of the literature, as well as


through a series of intensive interviews.


The literature search was conducted first to


gain familiarity with the various acculturation factors.


A large number of books and


periodicals were reviewed, and each acculturation factor and its source was listed. In

addition, the rationale underlying each of the factors was briefly summarized so that it

could be referred to later in designing the items for the CAT.

A sample of 25 foreign students from 10 countries was interviewed to supplement


the information found in the literature search.


Interviews were also conducted with


several anthropologists, sociologists, economists, and marketing scholars.


Fifty-two separate acculturation factors were identified.4


An examination of


these factors showed that many of them were related, and thus logically could be com-


bined into a number of composite acculturation factors.


Five institutional factors,


4An outline of thee acculturation factor i given in Appendix A.
An outline of these acculturation factors is given in Appendix A.


--- -





28


five product attribute factors, and three factors which represented both institutional


and product attribute factors, were distilled from


the original


list of acculturation


factors.5


Using the composite acculturation factors as

and seventy-five items were composed, and then


a guide,


approximately one hundred


critically reviewed by a small sample


of foreign students.


In this way the apparent ambiguities,


errors and obviously weak


items were eliminated quickly without recourse to empirical analysis.


time,


several


At the same


changes were made to improve the clarity and appropriateness of other


items.

Test items were carefully edited and selected based on their relevance and signifi-


chance to the acculturation process and consumer purchasing patterns.


A total of one


hundred and forty-nine statements was included in the preliminary form of the CAT.

These items were about equally divided among each of the thirteen acculturation


factors to ensure the validity of the ins

were included, and in some instances,


trument. Both positive and negative statements

two different wordings of the same statement


were designed to examine what effect a particular wording had on the results.

Two different rating scales were constructed to measure the respondent's attitudes


on the preliminary form of the CAT.


Both were five-point,


each employed different descriptive adjectives.


The first


Likert-type scales,


but


129 statements were evaluated


using almost always, often, occasionally, rarely, and almost never,


whereas the last


20 items were evaluated using strongly agree, agree,


no preference, disagree, and


strongly disagree.


5 These composite factors are listed in Appendix A.
6 A copy of the preliminary form of the CAT is included in Appendix A.





29


The preliminary form of the CAT was administered to a sample of both American


and foreign students at the University of Florida.


The American sample consisted of 43


undergraduates, who were asked to indicate how they felt about the statements by


placing a check mark under the appropriate descriptive adjective.


A small sample of


foreign students was asked to make comments and criticisms about the preliminary form

of the CAT.


Revision of the CAT.


Using the pre-test data, the means and standard deviations


were calculated for each of the items, and then two criteria were set up as a basis


for eliminating the poorly designed items.


< 1.20, and a mean of < 2.5, or> 3.5, were retained.


Only items with a standard deviation of


Thus, only items which were


moderately positive or moderately negative, and had a small standard deviation, were

included in the revised CAT.


One exception to the above procedure should be noted.


Six out of a total of


seven items describing one of the acculturation factors (credit) were eliminated by


these criteria.


It was felt that several items for each acculturation factor should be


included to preserve the validity of the instrument.


were written for the credit factor.


For this reason, three new items


The revised form of the CAT contained 86 items.


In response to comments from sample subjects, several changes were made in the


revised CAT.


The format of the questionnaire was modified to make it easier for the


subjects to follow the sequence of the statements.


Items were rearranged so that con-


secutive statements did not refer to the same acculturation factor, and definitions


were included with those items that contained marketing-related concepts.


A new, and


more sensitive, rating scale was also constructed to measure the respondent's attitudes.

The new scale was a seven-point, horizontal linear rating scale, with the extremes





30


labeled agree and disagree. The intermediate steps were numbered for the subjects

convenience and for coding purposes. Finally, a more complete set of instructions was

written for the revised CAT, and an example was given to show how a person might

mark the new rating scale.7

The revised form of the CAT was reproduced and administered to a sample of

both American and foreign students. The American sample contained 65 subjects,

approximately one third being graduate students. Twenty-one subjects were included


in the sample of foreign students.


The sample used in this phase of test construction


was chosen so that it would be similar to the one studied with the final instrument.

Few foreign students were used, however, so that most of the limited population


available could be included in the final sample.


The test conditions in this phase


were similar to those in which the final instrument was used.


Construction of the final CAT.


Both the validity and the reliability of any test


depend ultimately on the characteristics of its items.

be built into a test in advance through item analysis.


High reliability and validity can

In short, item analysis enables


the researcher to select the most discriminating items and, at the same time, to in-

crease the validity and reliability of the test (Anastasi, 1968, p. 158).

Data obtained in the pre-test of the revised CAT, on the American sample, were


used to perform item analysis.


Although several procedures can be employed in item


analysis, the index of discrimination was chosen because it was particularly suitable


for use with small groups.


As Anastasi notes, an index of discrimination can be inter-


preted independently of the size of the particular sample in which it was obtained and,

despite its simplicity, it has been shown to agree quite closely with other more


7 A copy of the revised CAT is found in Appendix A.





31


elaborate measures (Anastasi, 1968, p. 172).

In calculating the index of discrimination, the first step involved tabulating a

frequency distribution of the responses on each of the test items, for use in devising a

scoring procedure. After examining the frequency distributions, a decision was made

to accept a modal response, as well as a response which was within one point on

either side of the modal response, as correct; all other answers were to be considered


incorrect.


For example, if the modal response on an item was five, then a four, a


five, or a six was scored as correct, and a one, two, three, or seven was scored as

incorrect.

A total test score was calculated for each subject, and the sample was divided into


three groups:


highest third, middle third, and lower third.


The numbers of persons


passing each item in the upper and lower criterion groups were expressed as proportions,

and the difference between these two proportions was calculated to obtain an index of

discrimination for each of the 86 items on the revised form of the CAT.

To maintain the validity of the final form of the CAT, an approximately equal


number of items was selected from each of the 13 composite acculturation factors.


Those


items with the highest index of discrimination were chosen from each of the composite


acculturation factors.


When summative scales are used in constructing tests, it usually requires a minimum

of 20 statements to obtain an acceptable reliability coefficient (Nunnally, 1967, p.


533).


Thirty-one items, 15 positive and 16 negative, were chosen on a trial basis.


Then, Kuder-Richardson formula 20 (coefficient alpha) was used to compute a pre-

liminary estimate of reliability. A reliability coefficient of .778 was obtained for the

8
8A table showing the index of discrimination for each item is contained in
Appendix A.





32


31 items.

Although a reliability coefficient of this size would have been acceptable, a some-


what higher level of reliability was desired.


The Spearman-Brown formula was used to


estimate the number of additional items that would have to be included in the final

form of the CAT to obtain a reliability coefficient above .80 (Anastasi, 1968, p. 83).

The result indicated that a reliability coefficient of .80 could be achieved by adding


five more items to the 31 already selected.


This level of reliability for the final form


of the CAT was considered quite acceptable, particularly in view of the fact that

internal-consistency formulas tend to underestimate the reliability of a test (Guilford,


1965, p. 461).


Three more positive statements, and two more negative ones, were


chosen in the same manner as the first 31 items.


The final form of the CAT consisted


of 36 items.


An undergraduate sociology class was solicited for use in finding the test-retest


reliability of the final instrument.

administrations of the test. The sc


Two weeks elapsed between the first and second

:ores obtained by the same 30 respondents,on the two


administrations of the final form of the CAT, were correlated and a test-retest reli-

ability coefficient of .757 was obtained.


Demographic Data Sheet

The second research instrument designed especially for this study was the demo-


graphic data sheet (DDS).


Just as the exploratory interviews facilitated the con-


struction of the CAT, they also provided information valuable in developing the DDS.

In addition, framing of the specific questions, and developing the final format, was


SA copy of the final CAT is contained in Appendix B.





33


aided by reference to previous studies, social science research reference books, market

research questionnaires, personal consultation and critical analysis.

In general, the purpose of the DDS was to collect data on the personal charac-


teristics of the respondents.


Data such as age, sex, religion, marital status, length


of time in the United States, nationality, and similar characteristics were requested


to facilitate cross-classifications.


Most of the questions in the DDS were presented


in either dichotomous or multiple-choice form, for the subject's convenience and for

coding purposes. 10

When a preliminary form of the DDS was completed, it was pre-tested under field


conditions.


A small sample of both American and foreign students was interviewed


to assess their reactions, and obtain comments regarding specific aspects of the in-


strument.


Upon completion of the pre-test, several small changes and additions were


made to improve the content and format of the DDS.


Integration of. thea Four Research Instruments


The physical layout and reproduction of a questionnaire can influence its effec-

tiveness in data collection, as well as the problems encountered in analyzing the


data .


Two major points were considered in integrating the four research instruments


into a single, standardized questionnaire: (1) securing the cooperation of the

respondents, and (2) making it easy to handle and control the questionnaires.

To solicit the respondent's cooperation, a brief introduction was prepared.

Respondents were informed that it was a consumer opinion survey, that their opinions

would make a valuable contribution, and that the results would be grouped so that

10 A copy of the DDS is found in Appendix B.








no individual would be identifiable.


Respondents were also asked to complete the


questionnaire in the proper sequence, beginning with part I, and ending with part IV.

To prevent the possibility of biased answers, the specific purpose of the study was not

given.

The sequence in which the four instruments were presented was designed to capture


the respondent's interest, and to increase the accuracy of the answers.


The Stick


Figures Test was presented first, because it was easy to understand, and would arouse


the curiosity of the respondent.


The CAT was presented second because it required no


specific knowledge, and made no reference to the subject's particular style of living;


it merely measured his attitude toward a number of consumer related topics.


Since


several questions of a more personal nature were included in both the MCS and the

DDS, they were placed third and fourth, respectively, so the respondent would en-

counter them toward the end of the time in which he was completing the questionnaire.

It was felt that the respondent would be more willing to answer these questions at the

end. Also, if these questions had been placed at the beginning of the questionnaire,

they might have biased the subjects' later answers, or resulted in his refusal to fill out


the rest of the questionnaire.


Finally, the questionnaire included a short transitional


statement between each of the four instruments, to point out the change in topics and

thus avoid confusing the respondent.


The final format of the standardized questionnaire consisted of four parts: (1)


the


SFT answer sheet, (2) the CAT, (3) the MCS, and (4) the DDS.


In addition, there


was a separate booklet containing the stick figures for the SFT answer sheet. 11


To


control the questionnaires in the field operation, as well as in editing and tabulating


The first few pages of the Stick Figures Booklet are included in Appendix B.


34





35


procedures, the questionnaires were numbered serially.


Pre-testing the Final Standardized Questionnaire


The final standardized questionnaire was pre-tested under field conditions.


Personal


interviews were conducted with a small sample of both American and foreign students.

Since no major weaknesses were uncovered in the pre-test, the questionnaire was re-

produced and, along with the Stick Figures Booklet, placed in a large manila envelope

to facilitate data collection procedures.


The Respondents


The respondents included in the formal investigation were

graduate students at the University of Florida, in Gainesville.


200 undergraduate and

The number of foreign


students in the sample was 116; the number of American students was 84.


The foreign


students were chosen from a list of the foreign students enrolled at the University.


foreign student sample included: 31 Indians, 23 Chinese, 16 Canadians,


10 Colombians,


9 Venezuelans, 9 Dutch, 7 Germans, 5 British, 3 French, 2 Italians, and 1 Belgian.

The sampling technique was to contact as many of the students as possible in each of

the above nationalities, who had not been included in any of the various pre-tests.

Therefore, the total number of foreign students representing each nationality, both in

the pre-tests and the formal investigation, was in direct proportion to the number en-

rolled at the University of Florida.

The sample of American students was selected after most of the data had already


been collected from the foreign student sample.


A preliminary frequency distribution


was tabulated for the demographic characteristics of the foreign students.


Then, using


this information, the American sample was chosen so that it would resemble, as closely


The





36


as possible, the demographic characteristics of the foreign sample.


In other words, the


breakdown of graduates and undergraduates, males end females, married and unmarried,

and other demographic characteristics, was approximately the same for the two samples.


Field Procedure


A two-hour training session was held with the eleven interviewers.


The inter-


viewing team was composed of eight undergraduate marketing research students, and


three graduate students in business administration.


During the training session, the


plan of the research, the questionnaire, and the procedure for contacting the re-

spondents were carefully presented.

Interviewers were instructed to telephone each student on their list and set up a


time to deliver the questionnaire to the respondent's home.


This procedure would


verify the address and prevent the interviewer from attempting to deliver the survey


when the respondent was not at home.


Generally speaking, there were very few re-


fusals, and no exceptional circumstances were encountered in the collection of data.

Respondents, particularly foreign students, were very cooperative and sometimes


enthusiastic about filling out the questionnaire


Collection procedures were consistent


throughout, and only 5 questionnaires were eliminated during the editing phase.

When delivering a questionnaire, the interviewers were asked to spend about five

minutes with each respondent explaining the procedure for completing each part of


the questionnaire.


They were urged to emphasize the valuable contribution the re-


spondent would be making and the importance of completing the entire questionnaire


accurately, without suggestions from others.


The interviewers were further cautioned


not to identify the purpose of the survey, but rather to stress the fact that the re-

spondents could obtain a summary of the final results, if they wished it. About 60






37

percent of the sample requested a summary. The complete questionnaire, with the

Stick Figures Booklet and instructions, was left with the respondents to fill out at their

convenience. The interviewer made an appointment to pick up the questionnaire at

the respondent's home within 2 or 3 days. The interviews were made between April

20 and May 25, 1971.













CHAPTER III
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


The purpose of Chapter II was to describe the methodology involved in pre-

paring the research questionnaire, and the conditions under which the survey was

conducted. In this chapter, the results that were obtained in the empirical in-

vestigation of acculturation and consumer purchasing patterns are presented,

analyzed, and interpreted.

Three statistical procedures were employed to facilitate analysis and inter-

pretation of the data. First, stepwise multiple regression was used to determine

whether or not statistically significant relationships existed between culture,

acculturation, and consumer behavior. The findings of this preliminary analysis

were valuable not only in testing the hypotheses, but also in suggesting the methods

as well as the direction for further analysis. Accordingly, the SFT, the MCS, and

the CAT were factor analyzed to determine if a number of underlying common

dimensions (factors) were being measured by the research instruments. Finally,

scores on the MCS and CAT factors were combined with the total scores for the SFT,

and a canonical analysis was performed to investigate the nature of the relationships

between the acculturation constructs identified in the factor analysis, and the

demographic variables.







Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis

Multiple regression analysis involves inserting values of predictor (independent)

variables into a regression equation to obtain an estimate of the value of a single

criterion (dependent) variable. The strength of the relationship that exists between

the criterion variable and the several predictor variables is measured by the multiple

correlation coefficient (R). When squared, this correlation coefficient may be

interpreted as the proportion of the variance of the criterion variable accounted for

by the predictor variables in the regression equation.

Stepwise multiple regression, a special case of the general multiple regression

model, was chosen for this phase of the study because it enabled the researcher to

assess the relative contribution of each of the independent variables toward pre-

diction of the criterion variable. In short, the procedure involved adding one

independent variable at a time to the prediction equation; thus providing a number

of intermediate regression equations as well as the complete equation. Variables

were added or dropped according to the statistical significance of their contribution

to the prediction of the dependent variable (Frank, Kuehn and Massey, 1962, p.

93).

The results of the stepwise regression analysis which was performed on the 116

foreign respondents, are presented in Tables 1, 2, and 3. The dependent (criterion)

variables for these regressions were total score on either the SFT, the MCS, or the

CAT. Fourteen demographic characteristics, devised from the data collected with

the DDS, were used as independent variables. 1 In addition, total scores on the

1Among the assumptions of the multiple linear regression model are dichotomous
or intervally scaled variables, linear relationships between the variables, homo-
scedasticity, multivariate normality, and individual errors that are statistically in-
dependent of each other, as well as uncorrelated with the independent variables




4U

SFT, the MCS or the CAT were included as independent variables in several instances,

to assess the extent to which performance on one or more of these acculturation

measures could be used to predict performance on another.

The regression analysis permitted conclusions as to whether there were systematic

relationships os opposed to mere chance variation. Table 1 shows that several

statistically significant relationships were found between performance on the CAT

(dependent variable) and the various independent variables. A number of similar

relationships also were found for the SFT and MCS, and are presented in Tables 2

and 3, respectively. Thus, evidence of a strong interaction between culture,

acculturation and consumer purchasing patterns, which was required for rejecting the

null hypotheses, appeared to be present.


Tests of the Research Hypotheses

It was pointed out in Chapter I that the concept of culture is applicable to all

human behavior; that the way in which man consumes, the priority of the needs and

wants he attempts to satisfy, and the manner in which he satisfies them are mani-

festations of his culture. At the same time, it was noted that behavioral patterns

are influenced, to a great extent, by cultural inputs received over time from the

individual's environment. Thus in attempting to understand attitudes and preferences,

it is necessary to understand the cultural customs and traditions which the individual

has absorbed. The process of acquiring a culture different from the one in which a



in the regression equation (Frank, Kuehn and Massey, 1962, p. 97). Based on these
assumptions several demographic variables were eliminated and others were combined
into new, composite variables. The fourteen independent (predictor) variables re-
tained for use in this study are listed in Appendix C.


IIIIm W...... ............ ....






TABLE 1
SUMMARY OF STEPWISE MULTIPLE REGRESSIONS USING THE CAT AS THE
DEPENDENT CRITERION VARIABLE

Independent Variable SFT
Independent 2 Increase Degrees of
Variable R R in R Freedom F-Ratio
SFT 0.447 0.200 0.200 1/114 28.414a


Independent Variable = MCS

Independent Increase Degrees of
Variable R R2 in R2 Freedom F-Ratio

MCS 0.608 0.369 0.369 1/114 66.671a


Independent Variable = SFT and MCS

Independent Increase Degrees of
Variable R R2 in R2 Freedom F-Ratio
MCS 0.608 0.369 0.369 1/114 66.671a
SFT 0.635 0.403 0.034 2/113 6.4750


Independent Variables = Demographic Data

Independent Increase Degrees of
Variable R R2 in R2 Freedom F-Ratio


Progressive
Country
Age
Expresses
Christian ity
Mobility
Time in U.S.
American
Roommate
American
Spouse
Urban
Background
Brothers and
Sisters


0.613
0.716

0.736
0.757
0.770

0.776

0.780

0.783

0.786


0.376
0.512

0.541
0.574
0.594

0.602

0.608

0.613

0.617


0.376
0.136

0.029
0.033
0.020

0.009

0.006

0.005

0.004


1/114
2/113

3/112
4/111
5/110

6/109

7/108

8/107

9/106


68.658a
31.5220

7.025a
8.5070
5.4090

2.388b

1.771c

1.358d

1.332d


.e ~~TI-. K. w.. .








Table


Continued


Independent Increase Degrees of
Variable R R2 in R2 Freedom F-Ratio
Television 0.788 0.622 0.004 10/105 1. 150
Father White
Collar 0.789 0.623 0.001 11/104 0.330
Remain in U.S. 0.790 0.624 0.001 12/103 0.230
Sex 0.790 0.624 0.000 13/102 0.093
First Born 0.790 0.624 0.000 14/101 0.083
a Significant beyond the 0.01 level.
b Significant above the 0.05 level.
c Significant above the 0.10 level.
d Significant above the 0.25 level.


TABLE 2
SUMMARY OF STEPWISE MULTIPLE REGRESSION USING THE SFT AS THE
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
Independent Variables = Demographic Data
Independent Increase Degrees of
Variable R R2 in R2 Freedom F-Ratio


Progressive
Country
Time in U.S.
Father White
Collar


First Born


American
Spouse
Mobility
American
Roommate
Urban
Background
Brothers and


Sisters


Television


0.461
0.556


0.572
0.586


0.602
0.615


0.625


0.633


0.639
0.643


0.212
0.309


0.327
0.344


0.362
0.378


0.390


0.400


0.408


0.212
0.097


0.018
0.016


0.018
0.016


0.013


0.010


0.007


0.414 0.006


1/114
2/113

3/112
4/111

5/110
6/109

7/108

8/107


9/106
10/105


30.711a
15.910a

2.981b
2.765b


3.175a
2.721b

2.264b1


1. 783c

1. 299d
1.036


42







Table 2 Continued

Independent Increase Degrees of
Variable R R2 in R2 Freedom F-Ratio
Remain in U.S. 0.645 0.417 0.003 11/104 0.550
Expresses
Christianity 0.648 0.420 0.003 12/103 0.546
Age 0.649 0.421 0.001 13/102 0.214

a Significant beyond the 0.01 level.
b Significant above the 0.05 level.
c Significant above the 0.10 level.
d Significant above the 0.25 level.


TABLE 3
SUMMARY OF STEPWISE MULTIPLE REGRESSION USING THE MCS AS THE
DEPENDENT VARIABLE

Independent Variables = Demographic Data
Independent In crease Degrees of
Variable R R2 in R2 Freedom F-Ratio
Progressive
Country 0.623 0.388 0.388 1/114 72.197a
Time in U.S. 0.663 0.439 0.052 2/113 10.412a
American
Roommate 0.688 0.474 0.034 3/112 7.309a
Expresses
Christianity 0.709 0.503 0.029 4/111 6.469a
Remain in U.S. 0.721 0.520 0.017 5/110 3.940a
Mobility 0.725 0.525 0.005 6/109 1.155d
First Born 0.728 0.530 0.005 7/108 1.147d
Brothers and
Sisters 0.731 0.534 0.004 8/107 0.929
Sex 0.735 0.540 0.006 9/106 1.476d
American
Spouse 0.736 0.542 0.002 10/105 0.462

a Significant beyond the 0.01 level.
b Significant above the 0.05 level.
c Significant above the 0.01 level.
d Significant above the 0.25 level.








person was originally raised has been referred to as acculturation. Implicit in this

concept is the overlaying of new and different cultural patterns on the individual's

heritage culture.

In this study, acculturation referred to the process of adopting American

attitudes and behavioral patterns. Specifically, attention was focused on the move-

ment of foreign students at the University of Florida along a theoretical acculturation

continuum from the unacculturated extreme where heritage traditions and customs

prevailed, toward the opposite acculturated extreme where American attitudes and

behavior patterns had been adopted.

A global acculturation test administered to a group of respondents with diverse

cultural backgrounds was expected to demonstrate differences in their degree of

acculturation. At the same time, a test of consumer acculturation administered to

the identical sample was expected to show differences in the extent of their accultu-

ration as consumers. Thus, it was anticipated that less acculturated persons, as

demonstrated by the measures of global acculturation and consumer acculturation,

would exhibit behavior somewhat influenced by their cultural heritage, whereas more

acculturated persons would exhibit behavior more like members of the dominant,

American culture. Four research hypotheses dealing with these relationships were

examined and evaluated in this investigation. The tests of these hypotheses are

presented in the following paragraphs.

Hypothesis I. Consumer behavior is not affected significantly by the accultu-

ration process.

To test this hypothesis, it was necessary to examine the relationship between the

global acculturation process, as measured by the SFT and MCS, and the extent of






consumer acculturation, as measured by the CAT. If a systematic relationship could

be demonstrated between consumer acculturation, i.e., patterns of consumer be-

havior, and global acculturation, then the null hypothesis would have to be rejected

and the alternative hypothesis accepted.

Reference to Table 1 indicates that a systematic relationship was found between

the SFT, the MCS and the CAT. The SFT accounted for 20 percent (R2= 0.20) of -'

the variance in the CAT while the MCS accounted for 36.9 percent (R2= Q.369) of

the variance. Moreover, when combined the global acculturation measures ex-

plained 40.3 percent of the variance in the CAT. Since all of these relationships

were statistically significant beyond the 0.01 level, the null hypothesis was rejected

and the alternative accepted.

Hypothesis II. The acculturation process for persons from progressive countries2

does not differ significantly from the acculturation process for persons from less

progressive countries.

Hypothesis II tested the relationship between the global acculturation process for

persons from progressive countries, and that for persons from less progressive countries.

If a systematic relationship could be demonstrated between the global acculturation

process, as measured by the SFT and the MCS, and whether respondents were from a

progressive or non-progressive country, then the null hypothesis would have to be

rejected and the alternative hypothesis accepted.

Inspection of Tables 2 and 3 shows that a systematic relationship was identified


2 For this study, India, the Republic of China, Columbia and Venezuela were
classified as non-progressive countries, whereas Canada, Britain, France, Germany,
Holland, Belgium and Italy were considered progressive countries.


_ __l~ql~ 1_1_ I I







between performance on the two global acculturation measures and whether a

respondent was from a progressive or non-progressive country. Table 2 indicates that

knowledge of this relationship explained 21.2 percent of the variance on the SFT.

An even stronger relationship was discovered for the other global acculturation

measure. Table 3 shows that 38.8 percent of the variance in the MCS was accounted

for by knowing a respondent's native country. Both of these relationships were

statistically significant beyond the 0.01 level. Therefore, the null hypothesis was

rejected and the alternative accepted.

Hypothesis III. The purchasing patterns (consumer behavior) of persons from

progressive countries do not differ significantly from the purchasing patterns of persons

from less progressive countries.

To test the third hypothesis, it was necessary to examine the relationship between

the extent of consumer acculturation, as measured by the CAT, and whether respond-

ents were from progressive or non-progressive countries. The presence of a systematic

relationship between the extent of acculturation and a respondent's native country

would necessitate rejecting the null hypothesis and accepting the alternative hypo-

thesis.

From an examination of Table 1, it is evident that a systematic relationship was

found between the degree of consumer acculturation and the type of country. By

knowing whether a respondent was from a progressive or non-progressive country, it

was possible to account for 37.6 percent of the variance in the CAT. This relation-

ship was statistically significant above the 0.01 level. On the basis of these empirical

findings, the null hypothesis was rejected and the alternative accepted.

Hypothesis IV. Demographic variables such as age, sex, marital status, and






time, cannot be used as indicators of differences in the acculturation process in

general, or of the consumer acculturation process in specific.

Testing hypothesis IV required an examination not only of the relationship between

the global acculturation measures and the demographic variables, but also between

the consumer acculturation test and the demographic variables. If a systematic

relationship could be identified between the demographic variables and the three

acculturation measures, then the null hypothesis would have to be rejected and the

alternative accepted.

Reference to Tables 1, 2, and 3 shows that a systematic relationship was found

between the three acculturation measures and the demographic variables. Table 1

reveals that the relationships for four demographic variables--age, expresses

Christianity, mobility, and time in the U.S.--accounted for 21.8 percent of the

variance in the CAT, and were statistically significant above the 0.Q1 level. Re-

lationships between the CAT and two other variables--American roommate and

American spouse--explained an additional 1.4 percent of the variance, and were

significant at the 0.05 and 0.10 levels, respectively. Reference to Tables 2 and 3

indicates that a number of similar relationships were identified between demo-

graphic variables and the SFT and the MCS. Several of these relationships were

statistically significant beyond the 0.01 level, and others were significant at the

0.05, 0.10, and 0.25 levels.

From the empirical results, the null statement of hypothesis IV was rejected and

the alternative hypothesis accepted.


Multiple Factor Analysis3
While the data presented in the preceding section provided considerable
3The factor analysis procedures employed in this section of the study were



~ I119







insight into several important relationships between acculturation and consumer pur-

chasing patterns, additional information would contribute much toward further ex-

plaining the many facets of the cultural variable, and how it relates to the accultu-

ration process and consumer behavior. The three aggregate measures (total test

scores) of acculturation were appropriate for use in the stepwise multiple regression

analysis. However, to carry out a more extensive analysis of the fundamental

cultural and behavioral constructs, it was necessary to separate the aggregate

acculturation measures into a number of distinct, but related factors. In short, factor

analytic techniques were used to systematically identify and define the underlying

dimensions (factors) of the MCS and the CAT.4

Multiple factor analysis is a statistical technique for analyzing the interre-

lationships between a large number of variables (questions), and then explaining

these variables in terms of their common, underlying dimensions (factors). For ex-

ample, a hypothetical consumer survey may consist of 100 questions; but since not all

of the questions are identical, they do not all measure the basic underlying dimensions

to the same extent. By using factor analysis, the researcher can identify the separate

dimensions (factors) being measured with the survey, and determine a factor loading

for each item (question) on each factor.

All techniques of factor analysis begin with a complete table of the inter-

correlations (correlation matrix) among the test items. The correlation matrix is then

rotated to obtain a factor matrix, i.e., a table showing the factor loadings of all

based primarily on those presented in the text Introduction to Modern Factor Analysis,
byW. H. Guertin and J. P. Bailey, Jr., 1970.
4Several trial factor rotations were also performed on the SFT, but the amount
of total score variance which could be accounted for was insufficient to justify factor
analysis procedures. The DDS was not submitted to factor analysis either, because
only 14 items were retained for the final analysis.





49

the test questions on each of the factors. The relationship between the factors in any

factor matrix may be orthogonal (at right angles to each other) or oblique. However,

orthogonal solutions seldom describe realistic situations, and to represent underlying

traits properly, it is necessary to employ oblique factor solutions. In fact, any care-

ful work should employ an oblique solution; the only justification for using an ortho-

gonal solution is mathematical convenience (Guertin and Bailey, 1970, p. 123).


Interpretation of MCS and CAT Factors

Both orthogonal and oblique V-factor solutions were computed for the Modified

Campisi Scale and the Consumer Acculturation Test. The MCS and CAT factor

matrices presented in this chapter were adapted from the oblique V-factor solutions.5

Tables 4 through 9 represent the six factors chosen from the factor analysis of the MCS;

and tables 11 through 21 are the eleven factors obtained by factor analyzing the CAT.

An examination of Table 4 will serve to illustrate some basic concepts and clarify

several additional terms.

To understand the nature of a particular factor, it is necessary to examine the

items with high loadings on that factor. A factor loading is the correlation between

an item and its factor; the squared factor loading (coefficient of determination) gives

the percentage of the variance of a particular item which may be predicted by a

particular factor. For example, the Your Neighborhood variable has a loading of

0.63 on the Cultural Life Style factor from the MCS; thus 0.6322. .397, or 39.7

percent of the variance in scores on the Your Neighborhood variable may be


The corresponding orthogonal factor solutions for the MCS and the CAT are
contained in Appendix C. These orthogonal factor solutions were used in computing
factor scores for the MCS and CAT factors included in the canonical correlation
analysis.






predicted from this single factor. In practical work with factor analysis, loadings

below 0.20 are not usually considered significant; loadings between 0.30 and 0.40

may be important; if the loadings are 0.40 to 0.50, they are considered significant;

and loadings over 0.50 are considered quite strong (Frank, Kuehn, and Massey,

1962, p. 432). In short, then, the higher the factor loading the more a particular

question defines the basic dimension being measured. For the present research a

loading of 0.30 was adopted as the minimum acceptable.

The process of giving a name to a dimension derived through factor analysis is

a rather subjective proposition. In essence, the researcher simply examines the items

which are loading high on a particular factor and tries to determine the underlying

characteristics they have in common. Thus, the more items with high loadings on a

given factor, the easier it should be to clearly define the nature of the factor. For

example, looking at the first six items on factor one for the MCS (Cultural Life

Style), it can be seen that all have loadings of 0.49 or higher; and there is a rather

consistent cultural expression and life style dimension associated with them. Further-

more, these dimensions are not violated by the other items with lower loadings; in-

stead the other items lend additional support to the name chosen for this factor.

Tables 4 through 9 and 11 through 21 show the factors obtained in the study.

In each case only those items with a loading of> 0.30 were included. Generally

speaking, each of the factors was assigned a name in accordance with the procedures

outlined in the preceding paragraph.

One final aspect should be mentioned regarding the interpretation of the factors

presented in this chapter. Since the MCS and CAT factors were adapted from

oblique V-factor solutions, the intercorrelations between the oblique reference


~P"I~llll~l-sl-llls~lil~~ k~ ~C --- I --I~







TABLE 4
ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS FOR FACTOR ONE
ON THE MODIFIED CAMPISI SCALE

FACTOR ONE: CULTURAL LIFE STYLE

Item Item Factor
Number Topica Loading
14 Your Neighborhood 0.63
22 Gestures Used In Talking 0.55
16 Clubs And Societies 0.55
15 Language 0.53
21 Etiquette And Good Manners 0.52
13 Holidays 0.49
29 Celebrating Family Occasions 0.42
28 Family Behavior Toward Each Other 0.40
25 Celebrating Holidays 0.39

SA complete statement of each item is found in Appendix B.


TABLE 5
ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS FOR FACTOR TWO
ON THE MODIFIED CAMPISI SCALE

FACTOR TWO: FOREIGN FOOD FACTOR

Item Item Factor
Number Topic Loading
2 Foreign Salads 0.81
8 Foreign Vegetables 0.77
4 Foreign Meats 0.75
5 Foreign Desserts 0.68







TABLE 6
ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS FOR FACTOR THREE
ON THE MODIFIED CAMPISI SCALE

FACTOR THREE: AMERICAN FOOD FACTOR

Item Item Factor
Number Topic Loading
7 American Vegetables 0.63
3 American-style Meats 0.59
1 American Salads 0.58
10 Food 0.44
11 Food Seasonings 0.30



TABLE 7
ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS FOR FACTOR FOUR
ON THE MODIFIED CAMPISI SCALE


FACTOR FOUR: PERSONAL EXPRESSION

Item Item Factor
Number Topic Loading
24 Ways Of Having Fun 0.64
23 Ways Of Teasing And Joking 0.51
22 Gestures Used In Talking 0.30



TABLE 8
ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS FOR FACTOR FIVE
ON THE MODIFIED CAMPISI SCALE

FACTOR FIVE: LEISURE TIME

Item Item Factor
Number Topic Loading
17 Songs 0.65
18 Dances 0.60
19 Book And Magazines 0.52
20 Radio Programs 0.51
12 Games Of All Kinds 0.36








TABLE 9
ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS FOR FACTOR SIX
ON THE MODIFIED CAMPISI SCALE


FACTOR SIX: UNDEFINED

Item
Number
6 Americar
27 Ways Of
26 First Nor


Topic
n Breakfasts
Courtship
lme


Factor
Loading
0.46
0.44
0.42


factors should be examined for pertinent relationships. Tables 10 and 22 present

the intercorrelation matrices for the MCS and the CAT. A couple of interesting

aspects pointed out by the MCS matrix were, for example, that factor one,


TABLE 10
INTERCORRELATIONS OF OBLIQUE REFERENCE FACTORS FOR THE MODIFIED
CAMPISI SCALE

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 1.000 0.141 -0.038 -0.469 -0.094 -0.161
2 0.141 1.000 -0.285 -0.095 -0.035 -0.103
3 -0.038 -0.285 1.000 -0.201 0.024 0.222
4 -0.469 -0.095 -0.201 1.000 -0.066 -0.088
5 -0.094 -0.035 0.024 -0.066 1.000 0.005
6 -0.161 -0.103 0.222 -0.088 0.005 1.000


-----------






TABLE 11
ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS FOR FACTOR ONE
ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION TEST


FACTOR ONE: ASSORTMENT

Item Item Factor
Number Topica Loading
21 Brand Variety 0.66
14 Product Variety 0.65
7 Merchandise Variety 0.62
16 Product Size And Weight Variety 0.58
25 Product Name Variety 0.48
33 Package Size Variety 0.35

a A complete statement of each item is found in Appendix B.


TABLE 12
ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS FOR FACTOR TWO
ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION TEST


FACTOR TWO: LABOR-SAVING

Item Item Factor
Number Topic Loading
11 Labor-Saving 0.83
17 Labor-Saving 0.82
4 Labor-Saving 0.34


-- -~-----~-- _-L~







TABLE 13
ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS FOR FACTOR THREE
ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION TEST

FACTOR THREE: GENERAL

Item Item Factor
Number Topic Loading
31 Eating Habits 0.68
36 Store Procedures 0.58
34 Type Of Food Eaten 0.54
32 Type Of Outlet 0.38
30 Cinema Advertisements 0.37



TABLE 14
ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS FOR FACTOR FOUR
ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION TEST

FACTOR FOUR: TYPE OF OUTLET

Item Item Factor
Number Topic Loading
20 Type Of Outlet 0.62
1 Type Of Outlet 0.55
27 Type Of Outlet 0.54
13 Store Procedures 0.50
19 Type Of Outlet 0.43
32 Type Of Outlet 0.30







TABLE 15
ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS FOR FACTOR FIVE
ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION TEST


FACTOR FIVE: PURCHASING EFFORT


Item
Number
6
10


Factor
Loading
0.68
0.68


Purchasing Effort
Purchasing Effort


TABLE 16
ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS FOR FACTOR SIX
ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION TEST


FACTOR SIX: ACCULTURATED CONSUMER

Item Item Factor
Number Topic Loading
5 Do-It-Yourself Kits 0.52
12 Modern, Stylish Packages 0.41
19 Enjoys Self-Service Stores 0.36
29 Prefers Metric System -0.31



TABLE 17
ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS FOR FACTOR SEVEN
ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION TEST


FACTOR SEVEN: BRANDING
Item
Number
28 Branding
35 Branding


Item
Topic


Factor
Loading
0.73
0.71


----








TABLE 18
ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS FOR FACTOR EIGHT
ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION TEST

FACTOR EIGHT: UNACCULTURATED CONSUMER
Item Item Factor
Number Topic Loading
23 Frequent Changes Seem Strange 0.56
26 Car Ownership Seems Strange 0.51
22 Men Are Most Important Purchasing Agent 0.49


TABLE 19
ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS FOR FACTOR NINE
ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION TEST


FACTOR NINE: UNDEFINED
Item Item
Number Topic

2 Purchasing With Credit Seems Strange
25 Many Similar Product Names Confusing


Factor
Loading

0.43
-0.40


TABLE 20
ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS FOR FACTOR TEN
ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION TEST

FACTOR TEN: MERCHANDISING

Item Item Factor
Number Topic Loading
9 Trading Stamps 0.59
24 Sales, Contests, Coupons 0.40
8 Credit 0.40







TABLE 21
ITEM NUMBERS, ITEM TOPICS, AND FACTOR LOADINGS FOR FACTOR ELEVEN
ON THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION TEST

FACTOR ELEVEN: SHOPPING HABITS

Item Item Factor
Number Topic Loading
18 Product Choice Based On Convenience 0.47
3 Large Amounts Of Food Purchased -0.41



Cultural Life Style, was positively correlated (0.141) with factor number two, the

Foreign Food factor. Furthermore, it can be seen that factor two (Foreign Food) was

negatively correlated (-0.285) with factor three, the American Food factor. The

CAT intercorrelation matrix also provided insight into a couple of more detailed

aspects of the consumer behavior dimension. For example, factor one (Assortment)

was negatively correlated (-0.343) with factor eight (Unacculturated Consumer).

Thus, persons who scored high on the Assortment dimension showed a tendency to

score low on factor eight, the Unacculturated Consumer dimension. At the same

time, factor one was positively correlated (0.142) with factor two. This showed

that persons who scored high on the Assortment dimension also had a tendency to

score high on the Labor-Saving dimension.







TABLE 22
INTERCORRELATIONS OF OBLIQUE REFERENCE FACTORS FOR THE CONSUMER ACCULTURATION TEST


1

1.000

0.142

-0.101

-0.193

-0.131

-0.093

0.044

-0.343

-0.122

-0.073


2

0.142

1.000

-0.118

-0.055

-0.030

-0.094

-0.136

-0.057

-0.090

0.081


5

-0.131

-0.030

-0.156

0.003

1.000

-0.062

-0.079

-0.035


6

-0.093

-0.094

U.009

0.020

-0.062

1.000

-0.089

0.085


3

-0.101

-0.118

1.000

-0.064

-0. 156

0.009

0.160

-0.183

0.029

-0.120


4

-0.193

-0.055

-0.064

1.000CO

0.003

0.020

0.002

-0.088

0.071

0.058


7

0.044

-0.136

0.160

0.002

-0.079

-0.089

1.000

0.017

-0.099

-0.041


8

-0.343

-0.057

-0.183

-0.088

-0.035

0.085

0.017

1.000

0.013

-0.032


9

-0.122

-0.090

0.290

0.071

-0.049

0.033

-0.099

0.013

1.000

0.059


10

-0.078

0.081

-0.120

0.058

0.166

-0.102

-0.041

-0.032

0.059

1.000


11 -0.036 -0.026 0.064 0.190 -0.008 0.036 0.041 -0.094 -0.020 -0.073 1.000


-0.049 0.033

0.166 -0.102


11

-0.036

-0.026

0.064

0.190

-0.3008

0.036

0.041

-0.094

-0.020

-0.073


rra-----~-----~







Canonical Correlation Analysis

The existence of several statistically significant relationships between culture,

acculturation, and consumer behavior was confirmed in the first phase of data

analysis. During the second phase, a number of underlying, behavioral dimensions

were identified using factor analytic techniques. Then a profile consisting of total

score on the SFT and factor scores on the MCS and CAT was obtained for each sub-

ject, along with a profile of demographic characteristics. For the third phase of

the analysis of data, a multivariate statistical model designed to explore the nature

as well as the magnitude of the relationships between multiple criterion and pre-

dictor variables was needed. Accordingly, canonical correlation analysis was

chosen.

Canonical correlation analysis is a multivariate correlational model which en-

ables the researcher to study the interrelations among sets of multiple criterion

variables and multiple predictor variables. In general, the goal of canonical analysis

is to define the primary independent dimensions which relate one set of variables to

another set of variables (Veldman, 1967, p. 282). By using this technique, it is

possible to develop a number of independent orthogonall) canonical functions that

maximize the correlation between the criterion and predictor variables.6 To measure

the overall correlation between the two sets of variables, a canonical correlation

(multiple R) is computed for each canonical function. Each function is derived in

descending order and successive canonical correlations are smaller as each additional

Function is extracted. Canonical roots (R2), or squared canonical correlations,

6 The maximum number of independent multivariate relationships which can be
defined between the two sets of original variables is equal in number to the smaller
:f the two sets.






61

provide an estimate of the proportion of the total variance in the criterion variables

that can be explained from the known variance in the predictor variables.

To understand the nature of the relationships which are defined by the canonical

functions, it is necessary to compute the correlation coefficients between the

original variables and the canonical variates.7 Such coefficients are indicative

of the relative contributions of variables to each independent canonical function,

and can be interpreted like factor loadings. Therefore, original variables with

large coefficients on a particular canonical function are used in defining the nature

of the composite dimensions (Veldman, 1967, p. 288).


Results of the Canonical Analysis

A canonical correlation analysis was performed using fourteen predictor vari-

ables (demographic data) and eighteen criterion variables (MCS and CAT factor

scores, and total score on'SFT). Fourteen canonical functions were extracted (as

many as the number of predictor variables), of which five had canonical correlation

coefficients statistically significant above the 0.052 level. These five functions are

illustrated in Tables 23 and 24.

As can be observed from Table 23, the strength of the association (R) between

the sets of variables ranged from 0.840 for the first canonical function, to 0.551 for

the fifth function. The corresponding canonical roots (R2) ranged from 0.710 on

the first function, to 0.311 on the fifth. Since canonical roots reflect the amount


7 Canonical variates are the composite variables derived by assigning weights
to each set of criterion and predictor variables. Each canonical function has two
separate canonical variates, one for the original criterion variables, and one for
the original predictor variables.





62


TABLE 23


CANONICAL ROOTS, CANONICAL R'S,


CHI SQUARE


VALUES,


DEGREES OF


FREEDOM, AND PROBABILITY


LEVELS


FOR CANONICAL FUNCTIONS


Canonical Functions

I II III IV V
III I II I | Rl IJlI iI LI I - I- I I


Canonical

Canonical


Chi Square


Roots


(R2)


0.710

0.840


R's


Values


120.733

31.000


Degrees of Freedom


Probability


Levels


0.000


0.482

0.696

64.205

29.000

0.000


0.391

0.625

48.516

27.000

0.008


0.380

0.614

46.974

25.000

0.006


0.311

0.551


35.255

23.000


0.052


of shared variance among the


two sets of variables,


the findings show that a number


of relatively strong systematic relationships were identified between culture, accultu-


ration,


consumer purchasing patterns, and demographic characteristics.8


The nature of the relationships between the variables and the canonical functions


are revealed


in Table 24.


The correlation coefficients between the original variables


and the canonical variables are given for each separate canonical function (column).


These coefficients provide


insight regarding the relative contributions of variables to


each independent canonical relationship, and can be


interpreted like factor loadings.


Each canonical function should be viewed as an independent relationship,


and


examined for clusters of variables on both sides of the relationship that have high


8 It should be noted that because canonical correlations are maximal,


canonical relationships between sets are invariably overstated.


Therefore,


the
in assess-


ing how strongly the two sets of variables are related in a practical sense, the sti
of the association (R) between the sets of variables should be deflated somewhat.


rength


-








TABLE 24
RELATIONSHIPSa BETWEEN VARIABLES AND CANONICAL FUNCTIONS

Canonical Functions
Variable
Variables Number I II III IV V

Criterion Set (Acculturation Measures)

Factors from the Consumer Acculturation Test


Assortment
Labor-Saving
General
Type of Outlet
Purchasing Effort
Acculturated Consumer
Branding
Unacculturated Consumer
Undefined
Merchandising
Shopping Habits


Stick Figures Test, Total Score


I 0.46b 0.00
2 0.04 -0.25
3 0.25 0.36
4 0.23 -0.20
5 0.10 -0.58
6 -0.00 0.09
7 -0.40 0.26
8 -0.34 0.24
9 -0.18 -0.16
10 0.37 -0.08
11 0.20 0.10


12 0.70 -0.17


0.15
-0.14
0.28
0.08
0.24
0.27
-0.09
-0.02
0.04
-0.15
-0.37


-0.21 -0.25
0.46 -0.14
0.39 0.16
-0.06 0.06
0.19 0.27
0.68 -0.17
0.03 -0.06
0.03 0.32
-0.08 -0.11
0.30 0.01
-0.09 -0.12


-0.09 -0.05 -0.30


Factors from the Modified Campisi Scale


Cultural Life Style
Foreign Food
American Food
Personal Expression
Leisure Time
Undefined


13 -0.22 0.16 -0.72
14 0.74 0.30 0.07
15 0.25 -0.57 0.10
16 -0.02 -0.09 -0.07
17 0.08 -0.14 -0.12
18 -0.19 -0.13 -0.11


0.10 0.04
0.19 -0.02
-0.15 0.01
-0.02 0.43
-0.17 0.15
0.21 -0.29







Table 24 Continued

Canonical Functions
Variable
Variables Number I 11 III IV V


Predictor Set (Demographic Data) c

Age
Sex
American Roommate
Expresses Christianity
American Spouse
Mobility
Urban Background
Remain in U.S.
Father White Collar
Brothers and Sisters
First Born
Time in U.S.
Progressive Country
Television


1 -0.23 0.54 0.17 -0.12 0.03
2 0.21 0.02 -0.12 -0.01 0.12
3 0.26 0.27 0.22 0.20 0.33
4 0.50 0.38 -0.28 -0.08 -0.01
5 0.17 -0.01 0.17 0.03 -0.09
6 0.42 -0.20 0.19 0.50 0.06
7 0.24 0.02 -0.36 0.26 0.21
8 0.45 -0.15 -0.27 -0.25 0.08
9 -0.10 0.14 -0.01 0.03 0.80
10 -0.15 0.33 0.60 0.01 0.14
11 0.00 -0.14 0.35 -0.20 0.16
12 0.62 -0.52 -0.15 -0.07 0.19
13 0.86 0.03 0.06 -0.16 -0.01
14 0.24 0.08 -0.36 0.40 0.31


a The values included in this table represent the correlation coefficients between the
original variables and the canonical variables; large coefficients for a particular
canonical function (column) can be interpreted like factor loadings, in terms of the
names of the original variables, as suggesting the content of the composite dimension.

bAll correlation coefficients > 0.30 are underlined to indicate those variables con-
tributing most to each of the composite dimensions.

c In general, independent (predictor) variables were identified and coded in a positive,
dichotomous manner. For example, respondents with an American roommate were
coded 1, those without were coded 0. Sex was coded 1 for males, 0 for females.
Coding for age and time in U.S. ranged from 1 to 6; younger respondents and shorter
time in U.S. corresponded to the lower end of the range. Higher scores on the SFT,
MCS and CAT indicated a respondent was more acculturated; thus a positive corre-
lation between, for example, Mobility and the Assortment factor (CAT), showed that
mobile respondents tended to be more acculturated in terms of Assortment.






loadings (large coefficients). In this study, only variables with a loading of

> 0.30 (underlined) on a particular function were considered in interpreting the

nature of the relationships.

To clarify the procedure for interpreting the findings presented in Table 24,

several examples of the identified relationships will be discussed. An examination

of the variables loading on the first canonical function shows that being from a

progressive country, having been in the U.S. for a longer period of time, ex-

pressing a desire to remain in the U.S. (become a citizen), having lived in a

number of different countries (Mobility), and expressing a preference for Chris-

tianity, were all positively related to the Assortment and Merchandising factors

from the CAT, as well as to the SFT and the Foreign Food factor from the MCS.

In contrast, these same demographic variables were negatively related to the

Branding and Unacculturated Consumer factors from the CAT. These relationships

indicate, therefore, that respondents exhibiting one or more of the above mentioned

demographic characteristics, for example, being from a progressive country, tended

to score higher9 on the Assortment, Merchandising, and Foreign Food factors, and

on the SFT as well. At the same time, they tended to score lower on the Branding

and Unacculturated Consumer factors.

The relationship defined by the variables loading high on the second canonical

function demonstrated that being older, expressing a preference for Christianity,

and having brothers and sisters, were positively related to the General factor from

the CAT and the Foreign Food factor from the MCS. The same demographic

9 The scoring procedure for the SFT, the MCS, and the CAT was designed so
that a higher score indicated that a respondent was more acculturated.







variables were negatively related to the Purchasing Effort factor on the CAT and

the American Food factor on the MCS. In addition, having been in the U.S. for

a longer period of time was positively related to the American Food factor (MCS)

and the Purchasing Effort factor, and negatively related to the Foreign Food

and General factors. Looking only at the predictor variables, it is evident also

that having been in the U.S. for a longer period of time was negatively related

to being older, expressing Christianity, and having brothers and sisters.

Summarily, then, the foregoing examples illustrate the manner in which the

canonical functions were interpreted. In general, the results of the canonical

analysis provided additional support for the relationships demonstrated by the

stepwise multiple regressions. However, even more important were the numerous

insights gained regarding the MCS and CAT factors and their interrelations with

the demographic variables.















CHAPTER IV
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


The purpose of this investigation was to formulate a cultural anthropological

approach to the study of consumer behavior, and to further conceptualize a theoretical

tool, the acculturation process, by which the purchasing patterns of foreign students

at the University of Florida (or others undergoing acculturation) could be studied.

Theoretical and behavioral constructs involved in this exploratory study were so com-

plex and interrelated, that the researcher cannot claim to have completely assessed

the impact of the acculturation process on consumer behavior. However, a number of

pertinent observations and conclusions can be made regarding the underlying relation-

ships among culture, acculturation, consumer behavior, and demographic character-

istics.

This final chapter consists of three sections. The first section briefly summarizes

the research methodology and the major findings in order to show succinctly the more

important developments of the study. The second section presents the conclusions

and implications that appear relevant to marketing, and the third contains the author's

finall comments concerning both the significance of the research and the areas that

warrant further examination, but which were beyond the scope of the present investi-

altion.








Summary

Concepts from cultural anthropology (acculturation) and marketing (consumer

behavior) provided the theoretical framework for this investigation. A standardized

questionnaire consisting of two recognized measures of global acculturation, and two

research instruments constructed especially for this study, was used to obtain empirical

data for exploring the relationships between acculturation and consumer behavior.

The two measures of global acculturation were the Stick Figures Test (Sarbin and

Hardyck, 1955) and the Modified Campisi Scale (Campisi, 1947). Item analysis

procedures were employed in developing a reliable and valid instrument for measuring

the degree of consumer acculturation. The final form of the Consumer Acculturation

Test contained 36 items and had a reliability coefficient of 0.80 (internal-consistency).

A second research instrument developed especially for this investigation was the

Demographic Data Sheet. The DDS provided a data base for comparing and con-

strasting the sample respondents. The four research instruments were integrated into

a single standardized questionnaire to facilitate field research among foreign and

American students at the University of Florida.

Three statistical procedures were employed in analyzing and interpreting the

data. Preliminary analysis of the data using stepwise multiple regression methods

indicated that acculturation, consumer purchasing patterns, and demographic

characteristics'were systematically related. Statistically significant relationships

were found between the degree of global acculturation and the degree of consumer

acculturation. Similar relationships also were found between several demographic

variables and the extent of global and/or consumer acculturation. For example,

use of the two measures of global acculturation (SFT and MCS) as predictor variables





69


for the CAT (criterion variable) resulted in a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.635


(R2 0.403), significant above the 0.01 level.


Moreover, type of country (pro-


gressive or nonprogressive) was a strong predictor variable for the CAT (R2 = 0.376)

and the MCS (R2 = 0.388), and fairly good for the SFT (R2 = 0.212); the three


relationships were significant beyond the 0.01 level.


Other useful predictor vari-


ables were length of time in the U.S., age, expressing Christianity, geographic

mobility, and having an American roommate.

A more extensive investigation of fundamental cultural and behavioral constructs


was carried out during the second and third phases of the analysis of data.


First,


factor analytic techniques were employed to identify and define the underlying


global and consumer acculturation dimensions.


Identification of these dimensions


not only enabled a more meaningful interpretation, it also served to highlight the

culturally determined behavioral patterns.

In the third phase canonical correlation was used to examine and assess the nature

as well as the strength of the relationships between demographic characteristics

(predictor variables) and underlying global and/or consumer acculturation dimensions


(criterion variables).


Five statistically significant canonical functions (above 0.052)


were extracted; the canonical roots (R2) ranged from 0.71 (first function) to 0.31


(fifth function).


When the nature of the relationships was examined, it was apparent


that type of country (progressive or nonprogressive), length of time in the U.S.,

father's occupation (white collar or blue collar), and whether respondents had

brothers and/or sisters were strong predictor variables (loading > 0.60); while age,


religion, and mobility were good predictor variables (loading > 0.50).


Other fairly


good predictor variables were urban background, having an American roommate,





70


expecting to remain in the U.S. indefinitely, first born, and frequent exposure to


television (loading > 0.33).


At the same time, the acculturation dimensions


(criterion variables) most sensitive to these predictor variables were the Stick Figures

Test, and the Foreign Food, Cultural Life Style and Acculturated Consumer factors


(loading > 0.68).


The American Food and Purchasing Effort factors were fairly


sensitive (loading > 0.57); while the Assortment, Labor-Saving, Unacculturated

Consumer, Shopping Habits, Merchandising, Branding, General, and Personal Ex-

pression factors were somewhat sensitive (loading > 0.34).

In summary, the over-all findings of the multiple factor analysis and the

canonical correlation were consistent with those demonstrated by the stepwise re-

gressions. Additionally, the results provided further insight into the complex,

multi-dimensional relationships between acculturation and consumer behavior.


Conclusions and Implications

The acculturation process involves numerous cultural as well as socio-psycho-


logical transformations.


Some of the changes in attitudes, behavioral patterns


(consumer or otherwise), and perceptual norms were empirically explored in this

investigation; the findings suggest a number of conclusions and implications relevant

to marketing.


Culture is an evolutionary, adaptive process.


When changes occur in the


physical and social environment within which culture operates and has contact, it

can be expected that cultural values, and hence culturally determined behavioral


patterns, will also change.


The process of cultural change, of which acculturation


is but one expression, involves the transmission of cultural elements, and occurs when

any two peoples are in historic contact (Herskovits, 1964, p. 174). Acculturation is





71


thus a complex, dynamic process during which the cultural configuration and be-

havior patterns of those undergoing acculturation are in a constant state of flux.

At the individual level, culture refers to attitudes, values, beliefs, and

customary patterns of behavior; acculturation implies that the individual acquires

new cultural elements (eog., attitudes, values) which he integrates into his existing


ones, the result being a new cultural configuration.


Moreover, while cultural


traits and patterns exist very plainly, individuals undergoing acculturation are

selective in that they may accept completely, accept partially, or reject entirely

these new forms of behavior.

A major objective of the present investigation was to explore the process of


acculturation and its impact on consumer purchasing patterns.


The final interpretation


of the results of the study indicatesthat consumer behavior, as a subset of the multi-

dimensional totality of human behavior, is clearly related to the acculturation pro-

cess. It appears that global acculturation and consumer acculturation are parallel

processes; however, it was not possible to determine conclusively whether the

respondents were more acculturated globally, or in their behavior as consumers.

There was some indication that the process of acquiring American perceptual modes,

i.e., a predisposition to perceive the expressive and attitudinal stQtes of others as

Americans do, was somewhat slower than for other aspects of global and consumer


acculturation.


But it follows that this should be so since material objects generally


are taken over earlier than nonmaterial characteristics (Berelson and Steiner, 1964,

p. 652).

The findings suggest that cultural background was the most important variable


influencing the degree of acculturation.


Respondents from progressive countries,





72


cultures,


tended to be more acculturated in their overall


behavior, as well as


in their consumer behavior.


Several other significant indices of the extent of


acculturation were environmental background (urban or rural),


length of time


in the


U.S.,


age, religion, geographic mobility, and father's occupation (white collar or


blue collar).


It should be emphasized that statements concerning the extent of


acculturation are relative only to the framework employed in the present study.


Therefore,


in concluding that, for example, respondents from progressive cultures


were more acculturated,

less progressive cultures,


this refers only to how they compared with respondents from

and does not represent an absolute measure of the degree


of acculturation.


Indeed,


insights gained from the fieldwork indicated that even


respondents from progressive cultures were not highly acculturated.


Evaluative behavior,


i.e., selectivity,


of each culture and their configuration.


is influenced by the distinctive values


Indeed,


according to Herskovits (1964,


p. 179), "selectivity accounts for the great variation


in the degree to which peoples


undergoing contact ...


take over elements of each other's culture."


present study cannot be considered an end i


n itself,


While the


it appears reasonable to con-


clude that the relationships found between culture, acculturation, and consumer


purchasing patterns


can provide some insight, and perhaps suggest the direction for


future research,


into the problem of selectivity and its


influence on consumer be-


havior.


The results indicate further that willingness to accept change,


selectivity,


is influenced not only by a distinctive cultural


heritage,


but also by


certain


identifiable


individual


characteristics, such as religion, environmental


background (urban or rural),


and geographic mobility.


It was illuminating that no


significant difference was found between males and females.


i.e.,


i.e.,


This may have been






73


a result of the makeup of the sample (68 percent males), or since education is an

important influence on the rate of acculturation (Weinstock, 1964), the fact that all

respondents were at the university level may have mitigated significant differences


predicated on sex.


Finally, there may have been other underlying influences


unique to the sample used in this study that were responsible for this finding.

Cross-cultural studies have shown that the problems of people in varied cultures


are quite similar.


Therefore, it ought to be possible to find universals in dealing


with consumption patterns (Engle, Kollat, and Blackwell, 1968, p. 255).


While


the consumer behavior dimensions identified in this study may not represent true

cultural universals, it seems reasonable to conclude that a number of cultural con-

structs or common dimensions of consumer purchasing patterns were found which


characterized a rather heterogeneous group of foreign students.


The underlying


covariance of many items around their respective acculturation factors, which was

demonstrated by the factor analysis, provided preliminary evidence of the validity


of these common dimensions.


Additional support was gained through the canonical


analysis, which indicated that some of the dimensions were useful in predicting the

extent of acculturation.

As was expected, a number of these constructs were considerably stronger than


others.


For example, the Assortment, Labor-Saving, General, Purchasing Effort,


and Acculturated Consumer factors from the CAT were all quite good; while the


Branding, Merchandising, and Shopping Habits factors were fairly good.


One of the


rather surprising outcomes was that no systematic relationships were found with factor


four--Type of Outlet.


Although its factor structure was strong and clearly defined,


it was not associated with any of the demographic variables included in the canonical







analysis.


One explanation is that factor four was an invalid factor; another is that


some variable other than those included in the present study may be related to this


factor.


It is also possible, however, that factor four was valid and the fact that no


systematic relationships were found may mean simply that none (or all) of the

respondents had difficulty adjusting to this dimension.

Another rather surprising result was that dimensions (factors) concerning credit


and bargaining were not derived by the factor analysis.


In the personal interviews


with foreign students, as well as in the literature search, two of the most frequently

mentioned differences between American and foreign marketing methods were those


of credit and bargaining.


An explanation for not finding differences regarding credit


and bargaining may be that the questions included on the CAT concerning these two


topics were invalid. 1


Another possibility is that attitudes regarding credit and


bargaining cannot be assessed by direct questioning.


Future research will have to


answer this question, perhaps by using a somewhat different approach.

It may be useful to explore in more detail the implications of the relationships

found between the demographic characteristics and the factor analytically derived


and defined behavioral constructs (factors).


The results showed that there were


certain global and/or consumer dimensions on which different types of respondents


displayed varying degrees of acculturation.


For example, respondents with pre-


dominantly rural backgrounds, who were the first born child, and had brothers and/or

sisters, tended to express a greater preference for a life style more similar to that of


their heritage culture.


In contrast, respondents with American roommates, who


1 As mentioned in Chapter II, difficulties with the topic of credit were en-
countered early, and entirely new credit questions had to be written for the revised
CAT.


74






75


were frequently exposed to television programs and whose father's occupation was

white collar, appeared to show a greater preference for American ways of having

fun. Findings such as these suggest that a better understanding of the intricacies of

global behavior, i.e., those common behavioral dimensions in which cultures are

most receptive to change, would enable marketing men to make better decisions

regarding which foreign markets can be most easily penetrated, and with what

types of products.

The implications of the common constructs associated with consumer behavior


also should be considered.


First, the fact that a number of fundamental and meaning-


ful dimensions of consumer purchasing patterns were identified indicates that the


concept of cultural selectivity is applicable to consumer behavior.


In other words,


it suggests that the purchasing patterns of those individuals undergoing acculturation

can be delineated on the basis of a number of common behavioral dimensions, each

of which will differ in terms of the consumer's propensity to accept or reject


different cultural patterns relative to a particular dimension.


Furthermore,


assuming that the concept of selectivity can be applied to these underlying con-

sumer cultural patterns, then it would appear fruitful to identify the common be-

havioral constructs, and then to study the consumer's degree of resistance to change


on each of these constructs.


For example, the results of the present investigation


seem to show that younger respondents from progressive countries (cultures) were

least resistant to, or had less difficulty in adjusting to, changes in assortment,

merchandising, and food habits, while they were more resistant to changes in aspects


such as branding.


There also seems to be some indication that older persons were


more resistant to cultural changes, particularly in the types of food they ate.





76


The problem of cultural selectivity is present in every attempt to introduce, in


a foreign market, a new idea, a new technique, or a new kind of product.


In fact,


this problem presents itself every time any new product is placed on the market; and

marketing surveys represent an attempt to study the problem of selectivity, i.e.,


acceptance or rejection of changes (Herskovits, 1964, p. 194).


The results of this


study indicate that factor analytic techniques can be used to derive and define

fundamental and meaningful dimensions of the multivariate domain of culturally


determined consumer behavior.


Furthermore, it appears that statistical analyses re-


lating the identified behavioral constructs to other appropriate variables might be

helpful in comprehending which cultural elements, i.e., purchasing patterns,


marketing methods, are accepted most easily, and why.


In short, a better under-


standing of selectivity and its impact on the transmission of cultural elements,

between different national cultures as well as among subcultures within the same


country, would be an important tool of competitive marketing.


Knowledge of the


basic differences, as well as similarities in the process of selectivity, as it relates

to consumer behavior, would enable marketing men to develop more appropriate

marketing mixes, and to devise specific marketing strategies to effectively meet the

needs of a particular market segment, whether foreign or domestic.

The identification and interpretation of culturally determined consumer be-


havior patterns would be a valuable asset to the field of marketing.


The present


investigation represents only a beginning, however, and further research is

necessary to more precisely define the common cultural dimensions of consumer be-

havior, and to facilitate empirical validation of these cultural constructs.





77


Final Comments


This study has attempted to integrate concepts from two disciplines, cultural


anthropology and marketing.


The vastness and complexity of these two fields re-


quired that selective limitations be imposed on the scope of the study. A

theoretical construct of cultural anthropology, the acculturation process, was


abstracted for conceptualization and analysis.


In addition, purchasing patterns


were abstracted from the complex totality of consumer behavior to facilitate an


operational empirical study.


Since no unified theory of acculturation or purchasing


patterns existed, normative judgements were made as to the relevancy of several


multidisciplinary constructs.


some problems.


Taxonomic and methodological constraints also posed


Notwithstanding its inherent limitations, the author believes that


this empirical investigation constitutes an original and stimulating contribution to

the burgeoning literature on marketing in general, and the cultural anthropological

aspects of consumer behavior in particular.

Other avenues of research are suggested by the concepts and methods used in


this study.


Traditionally, consumer behavior generally was restricted to the economic


activities of the consumer.


More recently, marketing academicians and practitioners


have turned to the behavioral sciences for concepts, theories, and methodologies to


employ in studying consumer behavior.


The present investigation emphasizes pre-


dominantly cultural anthropological parameters of consumer behavior, as manifested


specifically in purchasing patterns.


But additional areas of both domestic and


international marketing, which might be improved by future cultural anthropological

research, are product research and development programs, pricing policies, pro-

motional campaigns, and distribution channels.






Perhaps he rr.t logical exicnion_of ihe present research would be t~u be

Consumer Acculturation Test under different circumstances. For example, a possible

application of the CAT is with domestic ethnic groups, or sub-cultures. Among the

most familiar sub-cultures in the U.S. is that of the Negro -- living primarily in

ghetto, using a dialect, having definite black cultural traits, and being exposed

through mass media to the dominant white American middle class culture. Con-

:eptually speaking, the increasing number of Negroes moving from the ghettos into

bhe middle class American society are undergoing cultural changes, i.e., accultu-

ation. Thus, the CAT might be used to investigate this particular situation. Another

possibilityy would be to use the CAT for studying the acculturation process of Cuban

immigrants. In addition to using the CAT with domestic sub-cultures, additional

ests should be made with foreign cultural groups, to facilitate improvements in the

instrument as well as to further validate the common cultural constructs which

haracterize consumer behavior.

In summary, then, culture and acculturation represent fundamental constructs

levant to marketing and consumer behavior; i.e., man's cultural involvement is

resent and felt at all times, therefore, to a great extent, his behavior as a con-

imer is initially and continually a function of cultural phenomena. Although many

gnificont aspects have been dealt with in this study, numerous other cultural and

ihavioral facets of the total consumer behavior dimension deserve an equal amount

attention.


11 0C-F-~----
































APPENDICES

































APPENDIX A

DATA CONCERNING CONSTRUCTION

OF THE

CONSUMER ACCULTURATION TEST


_ _









TABLE A-I
ACCULTURATION FACTORS IDENTIFIED IN LITERATURE SEARCH


Institutional Factors

(1) credit

(2) bargaining

(3) type of outlet

(4) store image

(5) store services

(6) terms of sale

(7) purchasing agent

(8) standardization

(9) advertising

(10) pricing

(11) frequent changes

(12) convenience


Product Attribute Factors

(1) traditional product use

(2) product taste

(3) product type

(4) labor-saving

(5) national origin of product

(6) product warranties

(7) packaging

(8) product quality & durability

(9) unique product feature

(10) prestige of product

(11) product standardization

(12) product brand

(13) product name

(14) product color

(15) stylish products

(16) product size






Table A-5 Continued

Kill. General

Proportion of
Correct Responses
Upper Lower Index
Item Number, Criterion Criterion of Item Number,
Revised CAT Group Group Discrimination Final CAT

8 0.30 0.55 -0.25 Eliminated
14 0.85 0.75 0.10 Eliminated
21 0.95 0.90 0.05 Eliminated
43 0.75 0.55 0.20 Eliminated
55 1.00 1.00 0.00 Eliminated
68 0.85 0.60 0.25 31
73 0.85 0.75 0.10 Eliminated
76 0.95 0.70 0.25 34
86 0.95 0.70 0.25 36


The index of discrimination is obtained by calculating the difference between the
proportion of correct responses in the upper criterion group, and the proportion
of correct responses in the lower criterion group.

These items were added to the original 31 to increase the total number of test
items to 36.

These are the new credit items which were written to replace those eliminated
in the pre-test of the preliminary CAT.









TABLE A-2
ACCULTURATION FACTORS OBTAINED FROM PERSONAL INTERVIEWS


Institutional Factors

(1) shopping frequency

(2) merchandise assortment

(3) shopping enjoyment

(4) store displays

(5) special sales & promotions

(6) sources of information

(7) store procedures

(8) number of eating places

(9) one-stop shopping

(10) peddlers (door-to-door salesmen)

(11) trading stamps

(12) store hours


Product Attribute Factors

(1) length expects to use product

(2) beverages consumed

(3) pre-packaging

(4) product maintenance

(5) package sizes

(6) ready-made vs. tailored clothes

(7) car ownership and use

(8) private brands

(9) foods eaten

(10) artificial vs. real fibers

(11) product prices

(12) availability of products









TABLE A-3
COMPOSITE ACCULTURATION FACTORS


Institutional Factors

(1) Type of Outlet

(2) Store Procedures
(bargaining & credit)

(3) Merchandise Assortment

(4) Shopping Habits

(5) Promotional & Merchandising
Techniques


Product Attribute Factors

(1) Labor-saving & Convenience

(2) Packaging


Product Type

Product Characteristics

Product Names


Combined Institutional and Product Attribute Factors

(1) Branding

(2) Standardization

(3) General








TABLE A-4
MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL ITEMS BY
ACCULTURATION FACTOR OF PRELIMINARY FORM OF THE
CONSUMER ACCULTURATION TEST


Institutional Factors

I. Type of Outlet

Item Number, Standard Item Number,
Preliminary CAT Mean Deviation Revised CAT
1 3.95 0.759 1
6 2.80 1.005 Eliminatedb
14 2.45 0.945 48
19 4.60 0.821 25
27 3.50 0.827 69
52 3.15 0.671 Eliminated
66 2.80 0.696 Eliminated
69 4.20 0.696 79
120 3.20 1.197 Eliminated
2a 3.50 0.889 Eliminated

II. Store Procedures (bargaining and credit)

Item Number, Standard Item Number,
Preliminary CAT Mean Deviation Revised CAT


3.70
4.00
3.95
3.30
3.70
3.80
2.40
3.35
3.55
3.25
3.90
1.80


1.031
1.338
1.050
1.559
0.923
1.281
1.501
1.497
0.999
0.911
1.200
1.252


15
Eliminated
37
Eliminated
62
Eliminated
Eliminated
Eliminated
80
Eliminated
28
Eliminated








Table A-4 Continued

Ill. Merchandise Assortment

Item Number, Standard Item Number,
Preliminary CAT Mean Deviation Revised CAT

3 3.30 0.979 Eliminated
16 2.30 1.081 16
29 3.75 0.911 26
32 1.85 0.933 49
42 3.90 1.334 Eliminated
60 4.15 0.671 81
5 3.70 1.031 2
6a 3.65 1.137 38
10a 3.80 0.768 63

V. Shopping Habits

Item Number, Standard Item Number,
Preliminary CAT Mean Deviation Revised CAT


5
11
18
24
31
37
39
41
47
51
57
58
64
75
9a
13a
14a
16a


3.75
4.40
2.20
2.90
1.85
3.75
3.70
4.00
2.25
3.50
3.40
3.20
3.54
3.40
1.80
4.30
2.75
2.85


1.251
1.188
1.436
1.373
1.349
0.967
0.657
1.686
0.716
0.827
0.599
1.005
0.605
0.821
1.056
0.733
1.251
1.226


Eliminated
29
Eliminated
Eliminated
Eliminated
52
32
Eliminated
71
18
Eliminated
Eliminated
83
Eliminated
5
65
Eliminated
Eliminated








Table A-4 Continued

V. Promotional and Merchandising Techniques
Item Number, Standard Item Number,
Preliminary CAT Mean Deviation Revised CAT
9 2.15 0.587 7
10 2.70 1.081 Eliminated
22 2.75 0.786 Eliminated
23 3.35 1.424 Eliminated
35 2.80 0.696 Eliminated
36 3.75 0.786 54
45 1.50 0.688 20
46 1.65 0.671 72
55 1.90 0.788 31
56 2.95 0.887 Eliminated
63 2.00 0.726 85
71 2.65 0.875 Eliminated
123 3.30 0.923 Eliminated
124 2.95 1.468 Eliminated
125 3.70 1.174 42
129 4.50 1.192 67
13a 2.10 0.852 Eliminated

Product Attribute Factors
/I. Labor Saving and Convenience

Item Number, Standard Item Number,
Preliminary CAT Mean Deviation Revised CAT
79 2.50 1.000 9
85 2.15 0.745 33
91 3.40 1.353 Eliminated
97 2.50 0.946 44
101 2.85 1.040 Eliminated
17a 2.60 1.095 Eliminated
18a 3.35 1.349 Eliminated
19a 2.50 0.759 56
20a 2.35 1.200 74






Table A-4 Continued

VII. Packaging

Item Number, Standard Item Number,
Preliminary CAT Mean Deviation Revised CAT
80 2.40 1.143 10
86 2.65 0.988 Eliminated
92 3.55 1.146 22
98 2.30 0.801 34
102 2.40 0.681 45
105 2.20 0.894 57
108 2.60 1.095 Eliminated
113 3.50 0.889 75

VIII. Product Types

Item Number, Standard Item Number,
Preliminary CAT Mean Deviation Revised CAT


1.65
1.75
1.65
2.95
2.25
2.35
2.90
3.20
1.75
2.55
3.40
2.20
4.05


0.671
0.639
0.745
1.538
0.786
0.813
0.852
1.399
0.786
1.099
1.188
1.473
1.572


40
11
23
Eliminated
46
35
Eliminated
Eliminated
58
Eliminated
Eliminated
Eliminated
Eliminated


Ilr~a~Aa~l a-~--a lL -Y