Group Title: relationship between self-concept and academic achievement among gifted elementary school students
Title: The Relationship between self-concept and academic achievement among gifted elementary school students
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 Material Information
Title: The Relationship between self-concept and academic achievement among gifted elementary school students
Physical Description: xii, 110 leaves. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Yates, Philip Randolph, 1946-
Publication Date: 1975
Copyright Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Gifted children   ( lcsh )
Self-perception   ( lcsh )
Academic achievement   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 100-110.
Statement of Responsibility: by Philip Randolph Yates.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098166
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000869013
notis - AEG6033
oclc - 014227400

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
SELF-CONCEPT AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
AMONG GIFTED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

















By

PHILIP RANDOLPH YATES
















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1975


































TO LAUREN








ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my appreciation to the people

who have assisted me in the development and completion of

this study:

David Lane, chairperson of the doctoral committee, whose

critical and scholarly reviews of this study have

been invaluable in guiding me to its completion;

E. L. Tolbert, committee member, who, in his quiet manner,

has been a strong source of support and inspiration;

J. Milan Kolarik, committee member, whose incisive and

erudite observations I tremendously respect and value;

Tom, John, Bill, Jackie, and Judy, my colleagues, who provided

support and data;

The children and school personnel who cooperated in this study;

My wife, Lauren, with whom I have learned the meaning of

strength and the path to wisdom; who has shed light

when all I saw was darkness; and who loves me yet

to infinity.









TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER Page

I INTRODUCTION . . .... . . . 1

Purpose of the Study . . . . 7
Operational Definitions . . . 7
Hypotheses. . . . . ... .. 8

II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . . . .. 12

The Self-Concept. . . . . ... 12
Definitions of Giftedness . . .. 16
Intellective Characteristics
of Gifted Children. . . . ... 20
Academic Achievement of
Gifted Children . . . ... 22
General Personality Factors
Affecting Achievement
Among Students. . . . . ... 24
The Relationship Between
Self-Concept and Achievement
In Gifted Persons . . . ... 31
Identification of
Gifted Students . . . . .. 35
Validity and Reliability
of the Wechsler Intelligence
C Scale for Children Revised. ... 39
Validity and Reliability
of the Wide Range Achievement
Test . . . . . . . 42
Validity and Reliability
of the Piers-Harris Children's
Self-Concept Scale. . . . ... 43
Summary . . . . . . . . 48

III DESIGN OF THE STUDY. . . . ... . 51

Sample. . . . . . . .. 52
Nomination procedure. . . ... 52
Screening Procedure ....... 53
Final Selection Procedure ... 53
Instrumentation . . . . .. 53
Data Collection . . . ... 55
Treatment of Data . . . ... 55
Analysis of Data. . . . . ... 56










ANALYSIS OF THE DATA . . . . . .


Results. . . . .
Hypotheses Tested . .
Summary. . . . .
Discussion of Results. .
Limitations. . . .

SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS. .

Summary . ....
Implications . ...
Suggestions for Further


Research. .


MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS, AND RANGES OF
THE PIERS-HARRIS CHILDREN'S SELF-CONCEPT
SCALE TOTAL SCORE . . . . . . .

MEANS FOR OVERALL AND SUBJECT AREA ACADEMIC
FUNCTIONING AS MEASURED BY THE WIDE RANGE
ACHIEVEMENT TEST . . . . . . .

MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF THE
WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN -
REVISED SCALE I. Q.'S BY SEX/GRADE/
ACHIEVEMENT . . . . . . . .

MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE
WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN -
REVISED SUBTEST INFORMATION BY GRADE/
SEX/ACHIEVEMENT . . . . . . .

MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE
WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN -
REVISED SUBTEST COMPREHENSION BY GRADE/
SEX/ACHIEVEMENT . . . . . . .

MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE
WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN -
REVISED SUBTEST ARITHMETIC BY GRADE/
SEX/ACHIEVEMENT . . . . . . .

MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE
WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN -
REVISED SUBTEST SIMILARITIES BY GRADE/
SEX/ACHIEVEMENT . . . . . . .


CHAPTER

IV


APPENDICES

I



II



III




IV




V




VI




VII


Page

57

57
58
70
70
76

78

78
80
83





84



85




86-87




88




89




90




91








APPENDICES,

VIII




IX






XI




XII




XIII




XIV




XV


XV


Page


MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE
WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN -
REVISED SUBTEST VOCABULARY BY GRADE/
SEX/ACHIEVEMENT. . . . . . . .

MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE
WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN -
REVISED SUBTEST DIGIT SPAN BY GRADE/
SEX/ACHIEVEMENT . . . . . ..

MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE
WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN -
REVISED SUBTEST PICTURE COMPLETION BY
GRADE/SEX/ACHIEVEMENT. . . . . . .

MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE
WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN -
REVISED SUBTEST PICTURE ARRANGEMENT BY
GRADE/SEX/ACHIEVEMENT . . . . .

MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE
WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN -
REVISED SUBTEST BLOCK DESIGN BY GRADE/
SEX/ACHIEVEMENT . . . . . . .

MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE
WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN -
REVISED SUBTEST OBJECT ASSEMBLY BY
GRADE/SEX/ACHIEVEMENT. . . . . . .

MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE
WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN -
REVISED SUBTEST CODING BY GRADE/SEX/
ACHIEVEMENT . . . . . . . .

PEARSON r 's BETWEEN WECHSLER
xy
INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN REVISED
VERBAL, PERFORMANCE, AND FULL I. Q.
SCALES AND WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST
AVERAGED ACHIEVEMENT, SPELLING ACHIEVEMENT,
READING ACHIEVEMENT, AND ARITHMETIC
ACHIEVEMENT . . . . . . . .

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . .








LIST OF TABLES


TABLE Page

1 Effectiveness of Different Measures
Of Identification of Gifted Children
In a Junior High School . . . .. . . 36

2 Coefficients of Correlation of
I. Q.'s on the Wechsler Intelligence
Scale for Children Revised with the
Stanford-Binet (L-M) (1972 Norms) . . .. 40

3 Reliability Coefficients for the
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for
Children Revised I. Q. Scales
By Age. . . . . . . . .... . 41

4 Stability Coefficients of
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for
Children Revised I. Q.'s for two
Groups of Children Tested Twice . . ... 42

5 Concurrent Validity Coefficients for
The Wide Range Achievement Test . . ... 42

6 Split-Half Reliability Coefficients
For Wide Range Achievement Test Reading,
Spelling, and Arithmetic. . . . . .. 43

7 Concurrent Validity Coefficients for
The Piers-Harris Children's Self-
Concept Scale . . . . . . . ... 45

8 N's and Mean Ages by Sex/Achievement/
Grade Groupings . . . . . . .. 57

9 Analysis of Variance. . . . . . ... 62

10 Scheffe's F Values for Grades . . . ... 65

11 Scheffe's F Values for Interaction of
Achievement and Sex . . . . . ... 65

12 Scheffe's F Values for Interaction of Grade
and Achievement . . . . . . . .. 66




vii









TABLE Page

13 Scheffe's F Values for Interaction of
Sex and Grade. . . . . . . . .. 67

14 Scheffe's F Values for Interaction of
Grade, Sex, and Achievement. . . . ... ..' 69


viii










LIST OF FIGURES


FIGURE Pag

1 Equalization Procedure of Wide Range
Achievement Test Scores . . . . ... 56









ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
SELF-CONCEPT AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
AMONG GIFTED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

By

PHILIP R. YATES

MARCH, 1975

Chairman: David Lane
Major Department: Counselor Education

The purpose of this study was to investigate the rela-

tionship between self-concept and academic achievement in

third, fourth, and fifth grade public school gifted child-

ren. The data were also analyzed to test for significant

differences between self-concept scores by achievers-under-

achievers, males-females, grade levels, and interactions.

The sample consisted of 153 children in a North Central

Florida school district. They were identified as gifted

through individual administration of the Wechsler Intelligence

Scale for Children Revised (Wechsler, 1974). Criterion

level was set at Full Scale I. Q. equal to or greater than

125. Achievement was measured by individual administration

of the Wide Range Achievement Test (Jastak and Jastak, 1965).

Gifted children obtaining averaged academic achievement two

years above grade level expectations on this measure were

defined as achievers. Gifted children obtaining averaged

academic achievement not over two years above grade level








expectations were defined as underachievers. Self-concept

was measured by the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept

Scale (Piers, 1969).

Pearson's product-moment correlational technique was

used to test for relationships between the variables inves-

tigated. A 3 x 2 x 2 analysis of variance was used to test

for differences in self-concept scores by Achievement/Sex/

Grade. Scheffe's A Posteriori test of pairwise comparisons

for unequal N's was used to determine the location of signi-

ficant differences between means. Level of significance

was set at .05.

Significant positive relationships were found to exist

between self-concept scores and averaged academic achieve-

ment for the total sample, females, and achieving females.

When differences between group means of self-concept

scores were examined, it was found that achievers, regardless

of sex or grade, obtained significantly greater self-concept

scores than did underachievers. No significant differences

in self-concept scores were found to exist between sexes.

However, achieving females' self-concept scores were con-

sistently greater than those of all other groups. The

self-concept scores of underachieving females were consis-

tently lower than those of all other groups. Further, a

general trend was observed in the direction of decreasing

self-concept scores among fifth grade subjects.









Among achieving subjects, as grade level increased,

mean norm-referenced reading and spelling achievement levels

increased proportionately. This was not true for mean

arithmetic achievement levels among achieving subjects.

Among underachieving subjects, no increase in mean norm-

referenced grade level functioning was observed for any of

the three subject areas measured.

The implications of these results are discussed with

respect to the roles of school psychologists, elementary

school counselors, and teachers of gifted elementary school

children. Limitations of the study and suggestions for

further research are indicated.












CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


Published knowledge thus far has failed to demonstrate

conclusively a relationship between academic achievement

and self-concept among gifted elementary school children

(Department of Special Services, 1961; Culbertson, 1972).

The bulk of research in this area has investigated the

relationship between underachievement and personality and

intellective variables in high school and college age pop-

ulations of normal and gifted intelligence (Gough, 1949);

Shaw and Grubb, 1958; Pierce, 1961; Wylie, 1961; Fink, 1962;

Norfleet, 1968). In gifted adolescent populations, signi-

ficantly positive relationships have been reported between

underachievement and lack of motivation (Bish, 1963);

desire for peer acceptance (Sumption and Luecking, 1960);

excessive authoritarianism in school (Applebaum, 1959);

poor teaching (French, 1959); and a complex of personality

characteristics as measured by the California Personality

Inventory (Gallagher, 1964). In an APGA publication

(1961) underachievement among groups of gifted adolescents

has been shown to be related to parental overprotection,

authoritarianism, permissiveness, and large families.

Among bright male elementary school children, Walsh

(1956) using the Driscoll Playkit, and Bruck and Bodwin

(1962) using the Draw-a-Person Test found underachievement









to be related to projected weaknesses in adaptive behaviors.

Additionally, in elementary schc'; age populations of

average intelligence, investigators have demonstrated a

significantly positive relationship between attitudes toward

school and achievement as measured by teacher grading (Bar-

rett, 1957) and level of aspiration and academic achieve-

ment as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (Caplin,

1966).

Several investigators have researched the relationship

between academic achievement and self-concept. Among a

college age population, Jervis (1959) failed to demonstrate

a relationship between self-concept and actual or predicted

achievement, or between self-concept and attitudes toward

others. Research on 223 elementary school males of 120+

I. Q. (Revised Stanford-Binet, L-M)' by the Department of

Special Services Staff, Champaign, Illinois (1961) failed

to find self-concept to be related to school achievement.

Moreover, the research concerning underachieving females

regardless of intellectual ability, is vague and inconsistent

(Fink, 1962; Campbell, 1965; Bledsoe, 1967; Baum et al.,

1968; Mehta, 1968).

The outcome of these varied researches largely has been

the stimulation of programs designed for the remediation

of affective and academic difficulties. However, these

special treatments have been reported to have varied effects

on the variables investigated.









Mallinson (1963) reported on the effect of three types

of treatment on improving personal adjustment and school

achievement among intermediate grade gifted underachievers.

The subjects had been determined gifted by previous group

tests, and their underachievement was determined through

the use of teachers' grades. The three treatments provided

were: (1) a human relations group which discussed feelings

and interpersonal dynamics (N=10); (2) an academic group

which focused on discussion and presentation of academic

material (N=11); (3) individual counseling which focused

on personal feelings and peer relations (N=8); (4) a con-

trol group which received no treatment (N=8). Treatment

groups one and two met weekly for 1-1/2 hours through the

year. The individual counseling group received one hour

per week individual counseling sessions throughout the

year. No specific counseling technique or orientation

was used. At the end of the year, groups one and two

made significant gains on personal adjustment indices.

No groups exhibited significant academic improvement.

Mallinson (1964) followed his original study with a post-

treatment evaluation one year after the conclusion of

the original treatment period. He reported that the human

relations group (group one) had continued to gain in

personal adjustment, and had made significant academic

gains over the other three groups. Mallinson fails to

report whether the original groups were equalized for

intellectual ability.








The effects of similar treatment upon adolescent

populations have been investigated. Finney and Van Dalsem

(1969) sought to ascertain the outcome of group counseling

on gifted underachieving high school sophomores. The

experimental group (N=69) participated in weekly group

meetings over four semesters. The groups discussed per-

sonal and academic difficulties encountered in their daily

lives. A control group (N=85) received no treatment for

the duration of the investigation. The students were deter-

mined gifted on the basis of a score at or above the 75th

percentile in Verbal and Numerical reasoning on the

Differential Aptitude Test Battery. Underachievers were

identified on the basis of teachers' grades. Grade Point

Average and scores on the College Study Methods Survey

were examined pre- and post-treatment. The authors

reported no statistically significant differences were

detected on the measures used.

Culbertson (1972) compared the effects of individual

versus group counseling on the attitudes of gifted ele-

mentary school children. The investigation was designed

to detect changes in attitudes toward self and school

as a function of the treatment offered. Ninety fourth,

fifth, and sixth grade gifted children were divided into

three groups. Group one received individual counseling;

group two received group counseling; group three served

as controls. The experimental groups received treatment

once a week for a period of eight weeks. Burks' School








Attitude Survey and the Piers-Harris Children's Self-

Concept Scale were administered as pre- and post-tests.

Culbertson reports that no statistically significant

differences were demonstrated. Criteria for group selec-

tion were not included. Overall, the data gathered to

date regarding the relationship between self-concept and

academic achievement among gifted students are inconclusive.

While these findings are equivocal, theoretical bases are

extant which provide heuristic value.

Brookover's (1967) longitudinal research, conducted

over six years, followed a population of 1000 students

from the seventh to the twelfth grade. The most salient

feature of his research indicates that a student's self-

attitudes can limit the level of his or her achievement

in school. This follows Lecky's theory of self-consistency

(1945): all behavior represents the attempts) by the

organism to maintain its own organization. Cognitive

dissonance, as presented by Festinger (1958), may act

as a motivating force wherein reality, value, and possibility

assumptions contradictory to those held by an individual

result in anxiety until reconciliation of differences

occurs. An individual perceives, feels, and behaves in a

manner consonant with the self-concept (Rogers, 1947;

Combs & Snygg, 1959). In the words of Anastasi (1968),

... the self-concept operates as a sort of private self-

fulfilling prophecy" (p. 577).









On the basis of the above discussion, it appears

appropriate to hypothesize that primarily non-intellective

variables are responsible for discrepancies between levels

of ability and demonstrated academic achievement. Further,!

since previous studies in the area have failed to demon-

strate significant findings, the methodology of these

studies has been examined. Teachers' grades to deter-

mine achievement, and group tests of intelligence to

determine giftedness have been used as methods of identi-

fication and selection of sample populations. As theory

and research indicate, the hypothetical construct of

self-concept may be the controlling variable in school

achievement among average intelligence populations.

The present research investigates the degree to which

the relationship between self-concept and academic achieve-

ment is observable among a population of gifted elementary

school children. This research uses an individually ad-

ministered measure of intelligence to define the population.

A cut-off point was established to include the upper 5%

of the elementary school population (one and two-thirds

standard deviations above the mean). Levels of academic

achievement were assessed through individual examination

instead of teachers' grades or group achievement tests.

Definitions of achieving and underachieving gifted ele-

mentary children based on previous research findings are

included as well as an operational definition of self-

concept.








Purpose of the Study

The purposes of this study were to: (1) investigate the

relationship between the self-concept and academic achieve-

ment in 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade public school gifted child-

ren; and (2) compare the self-concept of achievers and

underachievers overall and by grade and sex.


Operational Definitions

1. Gifted Child: a third, fourth, or fifth grade child

who is enrolled in a public school and whose Full

Scale I. Q. (as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence

Scale for Children Revised) equals or exceeds 125.

2. Gifted Achieving Child: A third, fourth, or fifth

grade child whose Full Scale I. Q. (as measured by

the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revi-

sed) equals or exceeds 125 and whose averaged

academic performance (as measured by the Wide Range

Achievement Test) is at a level two years beyond

indicated grade level expectations (Terman, 1926;

Durr, 1960; Namy, 1967; Renz, 1968; Osen, 1973).

3. Gifted Underachieving Child: A third, fourth, or

fifth grade child whose Full Scale I. Q. (as measur-

ed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -

Revised) equals or exceeds 125 and whose averaged

academic performance (as measured by the Wide Range

Achievement Test) does not exceed two years beyond

indicated grade level expectations (Shaw, 1959;

Kincaid, 1969).








4. Self-Concept: Expressed evaluative perceptions of the

self by a child with respect to behavior at home

and school, feelings of intellectual and school

status, feelings about physical appearance and

attributes, expressions of anxiety, popularity

among peer groups, and general feelings of happiness

and satisfaction as measured by the Piers-Harris

Children's Self-Concept Scale (Piers, 1969).


Hypotheses

SThere is no significant relationship between self-

concept as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale and averaged academic achievement

as measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test among

third, fourth, and fifth grade public school gifted

children.

2. There is no significant relationship between self-

concept as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale and averaged academic achievement

as measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test among

third, fourth, and fifth grade public school gifted

males.

3. There is no significant relationship between self-

concept as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale and averaged academic achievement

as measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test among

third, fourth, and fifth grade public school gifted

females.








4. There is no significant relationship between self-

concept as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale and averaged academic achievement

as measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test among

third, fourth, and fifth grade public school gifted

underachieving children.

5. There is no significant relationship between self-

concept as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale and averaged academic achievement

as measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test among

third, fourth, and fifth grade public school gifted

underachieving females.

6. There is no significant relationship between self-

concept as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale and averaged academic achievement

as measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test among

third, fourth, and fifth grade public school gifted

underachieving males.

7. There is no significant relationship between self-

concept as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale and averaged academic achievement

as measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test among

third, fourth, and fifth grade public school gifted

achieving children.

8. There is no significant relationship between self-

concept as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale and averaged academic achievement









as measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test among

third, fourth, and fifth grade public school gifted

achieving females.

9. There is no significant relationship between self-

concept as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale and averaged academic achievement

as measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test among

third, fourth, and fifth grade public school gifted

achieving males.

10. There are no significant differences in third, fourth,

and fifth grade gifted children's self-concepts as

measured by the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept

Scale with respect to achievement.

11. There are no significant differences in third, fourth,

and fifth grade gifted children's self-concepts as

measured by the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept

Scale with respect to sex.

12. There are no significant differences in third,

fourth, and fifth grade gifted children's self-

concepts as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale with respect to grade.

13. There are no significant differences in third,

fourth, and fifth grade gifted children's self-

concepts as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale with respect to the interactions

of achievement and sex.








14. There are no significant differences in third,

fourth, and fifth grade gifted children's self-

concepts as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale with respect to the interactions

of achievement and grade.

15. There are no significant differences in third,

fourth, and fifth grade gifted children's self-

concepts as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale with respect to the interactions

of sex and grade.

16. There are no significant differences in third,

fourth, and fifth grade gifted children's self-

concepts as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale with respect to the interactions

of achievement, sex, and grade.













CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


Germinal to this review are studies which have sought

to define "giftedness" and self-concept, and those which

have sought to demonstrate the relationship between ach-

ievement and non-intellective variables among gifted popu-

lations. The literature reviewed pertains to research

within the parameters of the "intra-personal educational

environment" (Tuel and Wursten, 1965), conceptualized as

"those personality traits influencing learning which an

individual brings to the educational setting" (p. 59). In

addition, literature relevant to the validity and reliability

of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised,

the Wide Range Achievement Test, and the Piers-Harris

Children's Self-Concept Scale is discussed.


The Self-Concept

The concept of "self" has received a plethora of

definitions and meanings. From the time of Homer (Wylie,

1961) a dichotomy has been expressed in terms of the body

and the "psyche" or soul (Diggory, 1966). It appears

that Freud's "Ich" or ego (1953) was the premier appear-

ance of a psychological construct of an awareness of the

self as subject and object.








Allport (1943) has listed eight ways in which "self"

has been conceptualized: (1) as knower; (2) as object of

knowledge; (3) as primordial selfishness; (4) as dominator;

(5) as passive organizer and rationalizer; (6) as a fighter

for ends; (7) as one segregated behavioral system among

others; (8) as a subjective patterning of cultural values.

An overview of current "self" definitions yields the

observation that most theorists see the "self" as a group

of psychological processes governing behavior and adjust-

ment, and/or as an organized collection of attitudes,

beliefs and feelings referent to the self. Hall and

Lindzey (1970) term the first meaning of "Self" as the

"Self-in-Process." That is, the self is a "doer, in the

sense that it consists of an active group of processes

such as thinking, remembering, and perceiving" (Hall and

Lindzey, 1970, p. 516).

James' (1961) "I" (the self as knower) and the "Me"

(the self as known) was a repetition of the usual

dichotomization of the global concept of Self that had

its historical precedents in the writings of Descartes

and Kant. James further developed the "Me" into the

material me (possessions), the social me (esteem from

others), and the spiritual me (active-feeling state of

consciousness)(James, 1961, pp. 43-48). The "I" consisted

of "that which at any given moment is conscious" (p. 62).

Here, James elaborated the conceptualization of the self

into parts, known today in current psychological construct

vernacular as "self-concept."








Freud's "Ego" construct closely parallels what is

presently thought of as self. The ego is the "who-I-am",

"what-I-am-doing" aspect of the personality (Freud, 1933).

Jung's concept of "Self" (1945, p. 219) was presented as

a motivator and constantly developing process. Neo-

Freudian psychologists (Adler, 1927; Homey, 1945; Sulli-

van, 1953) at times equate "Ego" with self, but the term

yet retains the "Self-in-Process" conceptualization (Hart-

mann, 1964, p.287).

A second definition of the self is the "Self-as-

Object" (Hall and Lindzey, 1970, p. 516). This denotes a

person's feelings, perceptions, attitudes, and evaluations

of the self as an object. This is what the person thinks

of himself. The term "Self-Concept" (Raimy, 1948) as used

in this study, is pertinent to this definition. James'

"Me" (1961, p.43), Jung's "Conscious Ideal" (1945, p. 219),

Adler's "Self Ideal" (1927), and Sullivan's "Personifica-

tion" (1953) may be subsumed under the "Self-as-Object"

or "Self-Concept" definition.

Raimy's (1948) work contained the first appearance

of the term "Self-Concept" in reference to clinical

processes. The term was referred to as the "map which

each person consults in order to understand himself,

especially during moments of crisis or choice" (p. 155).

Raimy's definition for this term was "the more or less

organized perceptual object resulting from present and

past self-observation" (1948, p. 154).








In the phenomenological-perceptual sc. ol of thought

the self-concept is seen as the "Self-as-Object" (Combs

and Snygg, 1959; Rogers, 1951). That is to say, "Self-

Concept" (as a body of perceptions, role definitions and

self-descriptions) and "Self-Esteem" (pertaining to the

valences placed on the self perceptions by the individual)

are subsumed under the general term "Self-Concept." This

may be seen in the following definition of self-concept:

An organized configuration of perceptions of
the self which are admissible to awareness.
It is composed of such elements such as the
perceptions of one's characteristics and
abilities; the percepts and concepts of the
self in relation to others and to the en-
vironment; the value qualities which are per-
ceived as associated with experiences and
objects; and goals and ideals which are per-
ceived as having positive or negative valence.
(Rogers, 1951, p. 21)

Other writers suggest alternate definitions of the

self. Bills et al., (1951, p. 257) defined the self-

concept as "the traits and values which the individual

has accepted as definitive of himself." Jersild (1952,

p. 51) writes of the self as a "composite of thoughts

and feelings which constitute a person's awareness of

his individual existence; his conception of who and what

he is."

Strong and Feder (1961) have stated that "every

evaluative statement that a person makes concerning him-

self can be considered a sample of his self-concept,

from which inferences may then be made about the various








properties of that self-concept" (p. 170). Finally, Kinch

(1963) defines the self-concept as "that organization of

qualities that the individual attributes to himself" (p. 481).

He defines "qualities" as roles and the individual's

evaluation of those self roles.

Thus, as the above cited authors assert, the generic

term "self-concept" involves aspects of self-description

and self-evaluation -- both the denotative and connota-

tive aspects of meaning. Additionally, as Rentz and White

(1967) report, as a result of a factor analytic study of

variables, the dichotomy of self-as-process and self-as-

object may not be appropriate. Their findings do not sup-

port the orthogonality of the constructs. Therefore, as

the research cited above indicates, the separation of

terms into self-as-process and self-as-object may be more

a result of academic polemicism than operational reality.


Definitions of Giftedness

It becomes evident that each study in the area utili-

zes its own concept of what is a "gifted" child or person.

Most studies rely on an intelligence quotient derived by

ratio or deviation methodology. Several writers have

attempted to provide an underlying rationale for use of

the term "gifted."

Historically, the distinction between genius and

giftedness has centered on superior intellect versus a

constellation of superior abilities. The period of major








interest in the study of genius (superior intellect) was

prior to 1945. Since that time, articles have begun to deal

with creative and otherwise gifted persons (Albert, 1969).

It appears that an author's philosophical and ex-

periential background strongly affects the definition of

gifted that is applied as criterion. Scheifele (1953),

whose field is the education of exceptional children, wrote

that "creativity, or originality, is the distinguishing

characteristic of the work and behavior of the truly gifted

child" (p. 2). Smaltz and Mathisen (1963) regard gifted

students as the upper fifteen percent of the school popu-

lation with respect to intellect, talent, physical or

mechanical skills, and leadership ability. More recently,

several writers have provided broader definitions of the

term "gifted." Examples of this are Witty's (1953)

definition: "A child (may) be referred to as 'gifted' when

his performance in a worth-while type of human endeavor

is constantly remarkable" (p. 312). Otto (1957) proposed

defining the gifted child as "... any child with an I. Q. of

120 or over whose performance is constantly outstanding and

having a potential value to the welfare of society" (p. 3).

Renz (1968) writes that giftedness is a combination of "task

proficiency" and "innovative behavior" and that the latter

is based on the former. Gowan (Gowan and Demos, 1964)

states that "an able or gifted child is one whose rate of

development, with respect to time, on some personality

variable of agreed social value is significantly larger








than the generality" (p. 7). Here, it seems, Gowan is

subsuming cognitive and intellectual abilities under per-

sonality variables. Thus, although there is no single,

widely accepted definition of what "giftedness" is, as

Passow indicated was the case nearly 20 years ago (1956),

the trend is toward a more inclusive interpretation of the

term. However, in practice, the emphasis is still on the

intellectually able.

Terman (1926), in his massive longitudinal study of

genius, used the Stanford-Binet intelligence quotient of

130 or above (137+ on the 1937 Revision of the Stanford-

Binet Scale) to define his final population of 643. Many

other factors were found to be typical of this population

and have been used as criteria for the identification of

gifted persons. Several of these are maturity of interests,

academic achievement well above grade level, and effective

use of native abilities in varying situations.

Newland in 1959 called for a nationally recognized

Binet cut-off point for the use of the term "gifted",

while the same year, Fliegler and Blish (1959) were pro-

mulgating the view that I. Q. in itself was too narrow a

definition of giftedness. In 1961 Newland made his earlier

(1959) position more specific and suggested that gifted

criterion be set at 120-125 I. Q. and above on the

1960 Stanford-Binet, or on the Verbal portion of the

Wechsler scales. Newland later expanded his conceptuali-

zation to include creativity and high academic achievement,








and called for better descriptions of terms, sounder theory,

and more cogent reporting of results (1963). A definition

that appears to be directed toward intellectual and school

performance has been offered by French (1966): "... the

term gifted and talented (should) refer to those with in-

tellectual or academic capabilities that exceed a majority

of their age mates" (p. 4). The State of Florida's

Department of Education encourages each school district

to formulate and submit for approval district procedures

for the selection of gifted children. A majority of

district procedures state that a gifted child is one who

has superior intellectual development or outstanding talent

and is capable of high performance,including those students

with demonstrated achievement or potential ability.

Guilford's theoretical structure of intellect (1956,

1959) has produced a model of intellect having three di-

mensions: operations, contents, and products. Opera-

tions are the major kinds of intellectual processes, and

are presented below. The first type of operation, cognition,

includes discovery, awareness, recognition, comprehension,

or understanding. The second, memory, refers to retention

of information, and the degree of availability of that

information. The following two types of operations are

produced from what has been cognized or memorized. Diver-

gent productive thinking is the generation of new information

based on previous information, when the emphasis is on

variety and quantity of output. Convergent productive







thinking is the generation of information from given

information where emphasis is placed upon achieving either

unique or conventionally accepted outcomes (solutions).

The fifth operation, evaluation, involves making decisions

or judgments concerning the adequacy and appropriateness

of information in terms of identity, consistency, and goal

satisfaction. These five operations act on each of the

contents of thinking (figural, symbolic, semantic, and

behavioral) and on the products of thinking (units, classes,

systems, transformations, and implications).

Bonsall and Meeker (1964) applied Guilford's theore-

tical model to an analysis of each item of each subtest on

the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. They report

that each item is described by at least one factor, and

in some cases, by as many as three Guilford factors. An

excellent presentation of their work may be found in

Glasser and Zimmerman's work, Clinical Interpretation of

the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (1967). Thus,

in this study, giftedness refers to those children, third

through fifth grades, who manifest the above factors of

intellect outlined by Guilford, at or above one and two-

thirds standard deviations above the mean, as demonstrated

on and measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for

Children Revised.


Intellective Characteristics of Gifted Children

Several investigators have sought to determine subtest

patterns of gifted children on intelligence tests. Thompson









(1963) studied a population of 151 ten-year-old children

with respect to their profiles on the Wechsler Intelli-

gence Scale for Children. The criterion for giftedness

was established a priori at 125 or more Full Scale I. Q.

Results demonstrated that the children included in the

study were consistently high in Information, Similarities,

Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, and Block Design

subtests. Further, those five subtests were found to be

significantly correlated (r = +.84) with the Full Scale

I. Q. Lucito and Gallagher (1960) investigated a sample

of 50 second through fifth grade children having a pre-

vious Stanford-Binet (L-M) I. Q. of 150+. The Wechsler

Intelligence Scale for Children was again used to identify

particular subtest patterns. The authors report that

all scaled scores were one standard deviation above the

mean. Highest mean scores were on Similarities, Block

Design, Information, and Vocabulary; lowest mean scores

among the group were observed on the Picture Arrangement

and Picture Completion subtests.

After studying 64 children nominated for gifted

programs, Namy (1967) reports several interesting find-

ings. Namy's procedure was to divide the population into

32 "gifted" children (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for

Children Full Scale I. Q. of 130 or above) and 32 "pseudo-

gifted" children (below Wechsler Intelligence Scale for

Children Full Scale I. Q. of 130). The mean I. Q. of

gifted children was 126.49, mean I. Q. of pseudo-gifted









children was 110.28. Namy's data reflected teacher mis-

diagnosis of gifted children in 50% of the initial sample,

replicating findings of Terman (1926), Pegnato and Birch

(1959) and Weise et al. (1965). Namy further reports

that pseudo-gifted children rely on memory to attain

knowledge, while the gifted group relies on superior

memory and higher cognitive processes to attain knowledge.

This observation essentially replicates Thompson's 1963

study. In related investigations, House (1971), Golden

(1970), Alam (1969), and Ripple (1961) analyzed acceler-

ated and regular classrooms with respect to discussion

content. In all studies, higher cognitive processes

(ability to see abstract relationships and similarities,

and to draw inferences from these) were observed in ac-

celerated classes more than in regular classes.


Academic Achievement of Gifted Children

Terman's (1926) gifted group was found to be function-

ing from one and one-half to four years above expected

chronological age tasks. Additionally, he reports:

The accomplishment quotients of a considerable
number of gifted children are higher than the
teachers' marks given on the basis of daily
performance in the classroom would lead one to
expect. Presumably, in such cases the teacher
has either under-estimated the child's accom-
plishment or has given low marks as a penalty
to lack of application to the set tasks of the
school. (p. 306)

In order to study the effects of accelerating gifted

second grade age children to fourth grade placement,








Ripple (1961) made placement on the basis of achievement

scores at two or more grade levels above chronological grade

level expectations according to teachers' grades. He reports

that the accelerated subjects continued to achieve two

years beyond their chronological age after placement was

effected. The accelerated subjects were also significantly

higher than the third grade control group in the areas of

arithmetic computation, problem-solving, and understanding

of concepts. Lightfoot (1951), Hildreth (1954), Witty and

Commer (1955), Witty and Blumenthal (1957), Klausmeier (1958),

and Durr (1960) all report that the average general achieve-

ment of children with above average intelligence exceeded

the average general achievement of randomly selected groups

by two or more grade levels. In these studies however, the

authors relied on teacher nomination of children for inclu-

sion in their studies. Judging from previous research

citing teacher misdiagnosis of gifted children in up to 50%

of nominated cases (Terman, 1926; Pegnato and Birch, 1959;

Weise et al., 1965; Namy, 1967) possibly half of the

available gifted children were not included in the studies,

presumably because their grades were not outstanding.

Therefore, the optimum academic achievement level at

which gifted children may be expected to function is at

least two years beyond chronological grade level.

Krause (1962), in an eight-year longitudinal study,

found gifted children to exhibit language development

significantly earlier than children of average intelligence.








Most recently, Osen (1973) examined .he relative pre-

dictive validity of three reading expectancy formulas.

In addition to determining the Harris formula (1970)

to be the best predicted, he found that the gifted sub-

jects (identified by intelligence tests) in his study were

from two to four years above grade level in reading

achievement as measured by the Comprehensive Test of

Basic Skills.


General Personality Factors
Affecting Achievement Among Students

In reviews of research concerning the academic achieve-

ment of gifted persons, both Miller (1961) and Anderson

(1961) conclude that personality factors play an inte-

gral role in underachievement and low achievement at

upper levels of schooling. As Terman (1926) observed:

At a given age there is practically no correla-
tion between educational accomplishment and the
number of terms the gifted child has attended
school. The causes of school success and of
school failure lie deeper. (p. 306)

To date, causality has not been determined. However a

possible reciprocal relationship has been demonstrated

by Gibby and Gibby (1967).

These authors were investigating the hypothesis that

a student would suffer a loss of self esteem if he or she

failed to meet personal expectations, in this case in an

academic setting. Sixty subjects in two seventh grade

classes were used. The classes had been established for

bright and academically superior white children. All








subjects had experienced successful academic endeavors

and were aware of the special placement. One classroom

was used as a control group, the other as an experimental

group. Both groups received a pre-treatment test battery

which included an English grammar test, the Gibby Intelli-

gence Rating Scale, and a word fluency test. After three

days, both groups received the word fluency test again.

However, prior to the second administration, the experi-

mental group members were informed that they had done quite

poorly on the test battery. The results revealed that the

experimental group performed significantly less effectively

than the control group. The authors inferred that this

resulted from perceived loss of esteem, both self-esteem

and esteem of self by others.

Additional research information has indicated that

feelings of inadequacy among bright underachieving child-

ren act as depressors, causing them to withdraw and refuse

further participation in challenging activities (Barrett,

1957). The effect of feelings of inadequacy on academic

achievement was not examined in Barrett's study.

Fink (1962) studied two ninth grade groups of

students with average intelligence. The groups were

paired with respect to specific I. Q., race, and sex.

One group had exhibited academic achievement, the other

group had exhibited academic underachievement, as measured

by teachers' grades. The self-concept was measured through

the use of the California Personality Inventory, the








Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, the Draw-A-Person
/
Test, the Gough Adjective Checklist, a personal data

sheet, and a student written essay titled "What I will

be in 20 years." All data were submitted to three psy-

chologists, who, independently of one another, inferred

from the data an adequate or inadequate self-concept.

Significant differences were demonstrated between the

self-concepts of achievers and underachievers, in that

adequate self-concepts were significantly associated

with achieving students and inadequate self-concepts

were associated with underachieving students. The

relationship was significant among males but not among

females. Irwin (1967) reports a study investigating the

relationship between inferred self-concept and scholastic

achievement among freshmen college students. Subjects

were requested to take a sentence completion test, from

which self-concept was inferred by judges. These data

were then correlated with subjects' grade point averages.

A significantly positive correlation was demonstrated.

Irwin states:"It may well be that a positive conception

of one's self as a person is not only more important than

striving to get ahead and enthusiasm for studying and

going to school, but that it is a central factor when

considering optimal scholastic performances" (p. 271).

Other investigators have reported that the self-

concept of male students is a more potent predictor of

achievement than is I. Q. (Haarer, 1964). Still others








have demonstrated this to be true regardless of race

(Morse, 1963; Caplin, 1966). However, these results

were gleaned from populations of eighth and ninth grade

children. Is there a relationship between an elementary

school child's self-concept and achievement?

Wattenberg and Clifford (1964) examined a group of

kindergarten children to attempt to answer this question.

The self-concept was inferred by recording verbalizations

made by the children as they drew pictures of their

families and responded to self referent statements. The

statements were judged to be high or low on feelings of

"competence" and "goodness." The authors then measured

the reading achievement of the children when they were in

the second grade and correlated this with the children'

feelings about themselves recorded in kindergarten.

There was a significantly positive correlation observed

between the two variables.

Using the same age group, but different data gather-

ing techniques, Lamy (1965) investigated the relationship

between children's perceptions of the self and world while

in kindergarten, and subsequent reading achievement in

the first grade. The self perceptions were inferred by

trained observers with respect to feelings of competency

and mastery of environment. When the data were analyzed,

the self perceptions were equal in potency to the use of

intelligence quotients as predictors of achievement.

When I. Q. and self-evaluative statements were combined,








the predictive value of these two factors in relation to

reading achievement was even stronger.

Is a high I. Q. predictive of a positive self- L

concept? Coopersmith (1967) concludes that it is not.

Using the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory, Coopersmith

reports that bright children found to be low in self

esteem but held in high esteem by others, apparently

disregard feedback disconsonant with their self-concept.

He reports a coefficient of correlation of +.28 between

subjective self esteem and intelligence.

Numerous writers have investigated high intelligence

populations which were not achieving at a level commensurate

with their abilities or even at grade level (Gough, 1949;

Walsh, 1956; Barrett, 1957; Shaw and Grubb, 1958; Jervis,

1959; Sumption and Luecking, 1960; Pierce, 1961; Boris-

low, 1962; Miller, 1962; Bish, 1963; Combs, 1964; Buch-

in, 1966; Irwin, 1967; Norfleet, 1968; Seiden, 1969;

Culbertson, 1972). The findings reported are not homo-

logous since different specific personality characteristics

have been used as dependent variables.

Basic descriptive research has, however, provided

descriptors common to all research populations. Among

gifted adolescents, underachievers are characteristi-

cally represented by high ability scores and low grades

(Cutts and Woseley, 1957; Shaw, 1959; Gallagher, 1964).

This phenomenon appears to be related to a host of









personality variables. Gough (1949) and Shaw and Grubb

(1958) examined bright high school students seeking to find

a common denominator indigenous to those who "underachieved."

After administering a battery of personality inventories

to achievers and underachievers, similar conclusions were

reached. A personality trait which was termed "hostility"

was characteristic of bright underachieving students when

compared with bright achieving students.

Non-intellective variables have produced the most

salient discriminants among adolescents in investigating

the difference between achievers and underachievers.

Norfleet (1968) reports data gleaned from an examination

of gifted high and low achieving women. The population,

high school seniors, was selected on the basis of School

and College Ability Test scores of 60 or better. Grade

point average was computed to determine high and low

achievers. The California Personality Inventory and the

Gough Adjective Check List were then administered. Sig-

nificant differences were detected on CPI scales of

Responsibility, Socialization, T61erance, and Achieve-

ment, high achievers scoring higher on these scales than

low achievers.

Pierce (1961) studied 104 superior ability high

school males in grades ten and twelve. School grades

were averaged and high and low achievers were thus

determined. The Parental Attitudes Research Instrument,









McClellands Projective Test of Achievement Motivation

and the California Personality Inventory were used to

investigate differences in personological variables between

high and low achievers. Overall, Pierce reports that

high achievers have more school related interests, re-

flect greater independence in life style, score higher

on positive aspects of the CPI, and are more academically

motivated than are low achievers.

Bish (1963) found underachievement and lack of

motivation to be significantly correlated among under-

achieving gifted adolescents. The desire for peer ac-

ceptance also appears to mitigate against effective use

of abilities among high ability adolescents, as Sumption

and Luecking (1960) report. Seiden (1969) used a popula-

tion of 132 male and 109 female high school students

scoring in the top 15% on an intelligence test to

investigate this point. The criterion for dividing these

high ability students into high and low achievement groups

was mean grades earned over one and one-half years of

school (grades 10-11.5). Regardless of sex, members of the

low achievement group generally avoided independent partici-

pation in intellectual activities, appeared disinterested

in performing or studying, and avoided participation in

student government. Further, Seiden reports that male

low achievers used inner resources for problem-solving

more than the members of other groups examined. He con-

cludes that non-intellective factors such as study methods









and activity participation are the most reliable predictors

of achievement among the population investigated.

In a study of 32 gifted elementary school children,

Barrett (1957) used a 130+ I. Q. on the Henman-Nelson

Advanced Test to identify the sample. It was determined

that underachieving gifted children have negative atti-

tudes toward school, and that those who did poorly in elem-

entary school performed even worse in secondary school.

Walsh (1956) examined the differential adaptive behaviors

among 40 bright second, third, fourth, and fifth grade

males. Twenty of these children were classified as low

achievers and twenty as adequate achievers on the basis of

classroom grades. The Driscoll Playkit was used to examine

the different modes of play in the two groups. Walsh

reports that low achievers used significantly more inef-

fective adaptive modes in play while achievers employed

significantly more effective modes in the same activities.


The Relationship Between
Self-Concept and Achievement in Gifted Persons

Most investigations dealing with the relationship of

academic achievement to self-concept in gifted students

have been conducted on adolescent or older populations.

Significant findings tend to be confined to high school

populations. For example, Jervis (1959) studied a college

age sample and reported no significant correlation between

self-concept and actual or predicted grades. Neither was

there a relationship demonstrated between self-concept and

attitude toward others.








After an investigation of achieving and underach-

ieving college freshmen, Borislow (1962) reports that there

were no significant differences between the two groups

with respect to general self-evaluation. Further, among

175 college freshman and 167 college seniors Buchin (1966)

reports no direct relationship between academic potential,

college achievement, and self-concept. It should be noted

that because of college selection procedures at their

institutions, the authors mentioned above believe that

identification of gifted students would be superfluous.

Studies involving bright high school students report

more findings of a significant nature than do studies

employing college age populations. Miller (1962) found

that among superior ability high school students, under-

achievers were more negative in their attitudes toward self

and others than were achievers. In order to examine the

relationship between achievers and self perception, Combs

(1964) selected a sample of 50 high school students whose

I. Q. exceeded 115 as measured by the Wechsler Adult

Intelligence Scale. He then divided the group into

achievers and underachievers through the use of school

grades. Students above the third quartile were classified

as achievers, those below the first quartile were classified

as underachievers. The Thematic Apperception Test and the

Combs' School Apperception Test were administered to all

subjects. Combs reports that underachievers saw themselves

as less adequate than others and less acceptable to others.








He also observes that underachievers use inefficient ap-

proaches to problem-solving and exhibit less freedom and

adequacy of emotional expression.

Mehta (1968) reports an investigation of bright

male high school students in India. It was hypothe-

sized that achievers and underachievers would differ

with respect to self-concept. Subjects scoring above

the 75th percentile of Jalota's Group Test of General

Mental Ability were selected for participation in the

study. The sample was then divided into achievers-

underachievers on the basis of performance on a general

school examination. A self-concept inventory was then

administered. After the data were analyzed, it was found

that achievers were characterized by positive aspects of

the self-concept, and underachievers by negative aspects

of the self-concept.

Studies involving the variables of self-concept and

achievement among gifted elementary school children are

not unequivocal. The Department of Special Services

Staff in Champaign, Illinois (1961) studied a population

of second, third, fourth, and fifth graders, all with a

Revised Stanford-Binet (L) I. Q. of 120 or above. Teacher's

grades were criteria. Forty-one female and male under-

achievers and overachievers were identified. Rogers'

scale of Personal Adjustment was then administered. No

significant differences were found.








Culbertson (1972) reports a study involving 90

gifted fourth, fifth, and sixth grade elementary school

children. The study was designed to measure the effect

of individual and group counseling on perceptions toward

self and school. Burks' School Attitude Survey, and the

Piers-Harris Childrens' Self-Concept Scale were adminis-

tered pre- and post-treatment. Although no significant

differences between the treatment groups were demon-

strated, Culbertson relates several conclusions based on

data gleaned from the two inventories. The gifted child-

ren in his sample exhibited negative feelings regarding

their intellectual and school status, had a high level of

anxiety, and held a high opinion of their physical

appearance and attributes. Further, he reports that when

the self-concept was strong, attitudes toward school were

negative. The relationship between self-concept and

achievement was not investigated.

Thus, although research on the interdependence between

self-concept and academic achievement among adolescent

populations has demonstrated significant relationships,

the literature concerning the dimensions of self-concept

and achievement among gifted elementary school children

is sparse and inconclusive. Teachers' grades have been

the criterion for definition of achieving and underachiev-

ing groups in a majority of these studies. Lack of relia-

bility and validity data on this method of classification

of groups may explain, in part, the results reported.








Identification of Gifted Students

This section will review methods of identification

of gifted students used in investigations discussed in this

chapter. Additional data will be presented on the rela-

tive efficacy of these methods and conclusions concerning

effective selection procedures will be made.

Five major methods of identification may be seen from

the studies reviewed. They are presented below with

approximate percentages of studies cited employing these

methods: (1) Teacher Judgment: 42%; (2) Group Intelli-

gence Tests: 25%; (3) Individual Intelligence Tests: 21%;

(4) Honor Roll Grades: 8%; (5) Group Achievement Tests:

4%. The method of teacher judgment holds a clear majority

over the other methods. The question remains, is this the

most effective and reliable way to identify gifted students

in schools? Hill, Lauff, and Young (1957) investigated the

relative discriminatory power of teacher judgment, cumu-

lative grade averages, and individual I. Q. test scores

in identifying gifted students. The authors report that

of the 24 subjects included in their final sample, 90%

would have been identified by teacher judgment alone.

However, in 1959, Pegnato and Birch presented data that

reflect different findings. The authors evaluated the

relative efficacy of teacher judgment, group achievement

tests, honor roll membership, and group intelligence tests

as compared with the use of the Stanford-Binet intelligence

test. "Gifted" criterion was set at 136+ I. Q. points.









All of the nearly 1400 children in a junior high school

were administered the Stanford-Binet. Ninety-one children

reached the 136+ I. Q. criterion. Teachers were then ask-

ed to prepare a list of students that the teachers consider-

ed gifted. Data on the other three measures being compared

were obtained from school records. The results are present-

ed in Table 1.


Table 1

Effectiveness of Different Measures of
Identification of Gifted Children In
A Junior High School

Method Criterion Number Correctly Mis- Over-
Identified Identified Identified Looked

Teacher Mentally 154 41 113 50
Judgment Gifted

Group Three 335 72 263 19
Achieve- grades
ment over grade
Tests placement

Honor B Average 371 67 304 24
Roll or better

Group Otis-B,I.Q.
Intell- 115+ 450 84 366 7
igence 120+ 240 65 175 26
,Tests 130+ 36 20 ,16 71


(Pegnato and Birch, 1959)

These data reflect teacher misdiagnosis in 50 of 91 cases.

In comparison, group achievement and intelligence tests

identified a much higher percentage of the group than did

either honor roll membership or teacher judgment. These

findings are in close agreement with those of Terman (1926)

and, as mentioned earlier, with those of Weise et al. (1965)

and Namy (1967).








The use of the Slosson Intelligence Test for identi-

fying gifted persons has been examined by Machen (1972).

Machen randomly selected 75 gifted children, ages 9 to

11 (25 in each age level) from a pool of 224 gifted

students. All were previously identified as having a

125 Full Scale I. Q. on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale

for Children. The SIT was then administered to the sample

of 75. Machen reports that a significantly positive

correlation between WISC Full Scale I. Q. and SIT I. Q.

was found only at the nine year old level. At all age

levels, significant mean differences of 15 points were

shown to exist between all WISC Scale I. Q.'s and the SIT

I. Q., with the SIT I. Q. higher than the WISC Scale I. Q.'s.

Machen concludes that in light of the heavy emphasis on

language skills and the discrepancies noted above, caution

should be used with the interpretation of SIT I. Q. scores

when attempts are made to identify elementary age gifted

children.

The Research and Guidance Laboratory for Superior

Students Staff at the University of Wisconsin (Rothney,

1967) encourages high school personnel in the area to rely

on teacher nomination, teacher checklists of students,

tests of mental ability and achievement, and honor roll

membership to identify superior high school students.

Dunlap (1967) presents essentially the same outline of pro-

cedures but has found that during individual testing, at

the elementary school level, a useful procedure is to get









judgments of classmates for nomination of other children.

On the basis of experiential data, he reasons that bright

children themselves are usually aware of the abilities of

their classmates.

Personnel in Florida school districts that have a pro-

gram for gifted children employ a variety of techniques and

methods to identify their population. Generally, these

include teacher nomination, counselor nomination, princi-

pal nomination, parent nomination, review of past individual

or group intelligence and achievement tests, a screening

test (academic achievement or intelligence) and an indi-

vidually administered battery of tests, including an

intelligence test and an achievement test (State of Florida

Department of Education, 1973, 1974).

It appears that a combination of procedures, using

teacher, counselor, principal, and parent nomination,

along with group tests or screening tests of intelligence,

as well as early indicators of high ability such as

readiness tests of basic skills are useful in identifying

possible gifted students. Final determination should be

made on the basis of individually administered intelligence

scales such as the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of

Intelligence, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -

Revised, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, or the

Stanford-Binet (L-M).




39


Validity and Reliability of the
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised

For the purposes of this study, the Wechsler Intelli-

gence Scale for Children Revised is the test of choice

as opposed to the Stanford-Binet (L-M) for several reasons.

An analysis of items on the Stanford-Binet (L-M) reveals

an uneven distribution of performance items from one year

to another. Therefore, in scoring the protocol, the basal

and ceiling ages are doubled for performance items. This

procedure spuriously inflates the obtained intelligence

quotient. Additionally, there is a marked verbal-academic

bias among Stanford-Binet (L-M) items. The above observa-

tions may in part explain why some investigators employ

the Stanford-Binet (L-M) 150+ I. Q. as criteria for

giftedness, as opposed to the Wechsler Intelligence Scale

for Children Revised 125-130 Full Scale I. Q. gifted

criteria. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -

Revised weights verbal and performance items quite evenly

and, aside from yielding subtest and scale analysis of

cognitive-perceptual functioning, affords a more accurate

estimate of the intellectual ability of those individuals

not blessed with a rich environment through the inclusion

of the performance scale items. New normative data, in-

cluding black and other non-white groups according to 1970

United States Census Bureau statistics, makes the norms of

the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised

more representative than those of the 1949 Wechsler

Intelligence Scale for Children edition.







The validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for

Children Revised is not discussed in the manual per se.

Correlations of the 1949 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for

Children with the Stanford-Binet have been found to cluster

around +.80 (Reger, 1962; Sonneman, 1963; Tutt, 1964;

Webb, 1964; Birkemeyer, 1965; Cordiner, 1965; Estes, 1965).

Wechsler has calculated coefficients of correlation be-

tween the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised

and the Stanford-Binet (L-M)(1972 norms). These are pre-

sented in Table 2.


Table 2

Coefficients of Correlation of I. Q.'s on
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -
Revised with the Stanford-Binet (L-M)
(1972 norms)

Full Scale Verbal Scale Performance Scale
I. Q. I. Q. I. Q.
6 +.82 +.77 +.74
AGES 9-1/2 +.69 +.64 +.57
12-1/2 +.63 +.66 +.51


Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised
administered first, Stanford-Binet (L-M)administered
second.

(Wechsler, 1974, p. 52)


Reliability for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Child-

ren Revised is included in the Wechsler Intelligence

Scale for Children Revised manual (Wechsler, 1974).

Reliability coefficients for six age groups are reproduced

in Table 3. The coefficients of the I. Q. scales were









obtained from the formula for the reliability of a com-

posite group of tests (Guilford, 1954, p. 393).


Table 3

Reliability Coefficients for the
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -
Revised I. Q. Scales by Age


AGE GROUP

6 7 8 9 10 11
Verbal Scale I.Q. .91 .92 .92 .94 .93 .95
Performance Scale I.Q. .91 .90 .91 .91 .89 .91
Full Scale I.Q. .95 .95 .95 .96 .95 .96

N = 200 for each age group

(Wechsler, 1974, p. 28)


A four-year follow-up study indicates that the

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children I. Q. is about

as stable as Stanford-Binet I. Q.'s over the same period of

time. The Stanford-Binet I. Q. test retest reliability

coefficient was +.78, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for

Children Full Scale I. Q.: +.77; Verbal Scale I. Q.: +.77;

Performance Scale I. Q.: +.74 (Gehman and Matyas, 1956).

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised test -

retest reliability coefficients are presented in Table 4.








Table 4

Stability Coefficients of Wechsler Intelligence
Scale for Children Revised I. Q.'s for
Two Groups of Children Tested Twice

Verbal Performance Full
Scale Scale Scale
I.Q. I.Q. I.Q.

6 -
7 +.87 +.88 +.92
AGES (N=97)
10 -
11 +.93 +.88 +.95
(N=102)

The time interval between first and second
testing ranged from three to five weeks
for nearly all children

(Wechsler, 1974, p. 32)


Validity and Reliability of the
Wide Range Achievement Test

The Wide Range Achievement Test (Jastak and Jastak,

1965) is a brief instrument useful in obtaining accurate

estimates of individual achievement in the academic areas

of spelling, reading, and arithmetic. Concurrent validity

coefficients have been established by Jastak and Jastak

(1946). These are presented in Table 5.


Table 5

Concurrent Validity Coefficients for
the Wide Range Achievement Test

Measures
WRAT Reading VS New Stanford Paragraph Reading
WRAT Reading VS New Stanford Word Reading
WRAT Spelling VS New Stanford Dictation Test
WRAT Arithmetic VS New Stanford Arithmetic
(Jastak,. 1965, p. 16)


Validity Coefficient
+.81
+.84
+.93
+.91







Split-half reliability coefficients are reported in

the 1965 manual for each of the three subtests. Coeffi-

cients of correlation for each area computed for ages 5

to 12 are report .. in Table 6.


Table 6

Split-Hplf Reliability Coefficients for
WRAT Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic

AREA SPLIT-HALF RELIABILITY COEFFICIENT
Reading +.98
Spelling +.96
Arithmetic +.95
(Jastak and Jastak, 1965, pp. 13-14)


Validity and Reliability of the
Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale

The Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale was

developed from a pool of children' statements about what

they liked and disliked about themselves (Jersild, 1952;

Piers and Harris, 1964). A preliminary pool of 164 state-

ments was administered to 90 third, fourth, and sixth grade

children. Items which were answered by fewer than 10%

or more than 90% of the sample were dropped. Thus, 140

items remained, including a Lie scale. This revised

scale was then administered to four third grade classes,

four sixth grade classes, and four tenth grade classes.

The elementary classes were chosen to represent a cross

section of socioeconomic levels in the community. As a

result of this administration, the Lie scale was dropped

when no significant discriminatory function was demon-

strated.








The present scale was derived from an analysis of

127 sixth graders' scores. The 30 highest and 30 low-

est scores were identified, and Cureton's Chi Test (Lind-

quist, 1951) was computed on each item to determine sig-

nificant discriminatory powers. Additionally, items

answered in the expected direction by at least half of

the high group were included, which yielded the 80-item

force choice scale.

Scores on this instrument from a population of 1183

fourth, sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade children

were used to establish norms. The mean of the normative

sample is 51.84, standard deviation 13.87. The median

is 53.43. The manual includes other normative data based

on smaller groups.

Initially, the authors report that content validity

was to be built into the scale. This was to have been

done by defining the universe according to children'

self-likes and self-dislikes as reported by Jersild (1952)

But because of the subsequent dropping of non-discrimina-

tory items, this was not feasible. Therefore, concurrent

validity and rating correspondence coefficients are

reported in the manual. These are presented in Table 7.








Table 7

Concurrent Validity Coefficients for the
Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale


Measure


Pearson r with the
P-H CSCS Total Score


Reference


Lipsitt
Children' +.68 (p<.01) Mayer, 1968
Self-Concept
Scale

Health -.48 (p<.01) Cox, 1966
Problems

Big Problems
on SRA -.64 (p<.01) Cox, 1966
Junior
Inventory

Teacher Ratings
Boys +.06 (Not Significant) Piers, 1965
Girls +.41 (p<.01) Piers, 1965
Peer Ratings
Boys +.26 (Not Significant) Piers, 1965
Girls +.41 (p<.01) Piers, 1965

Socially
Effective
Behavior
Teacher Rating +.43 (p<.01) Cox, 1966
Peer Rating +.31 (p<.01) Cox, 1966

Superego
Strength
Teacher Rating +.40 (p<.01) Cox, 1966
Peer Rating +.42 (p<.01) Cox, 1966

(Piers, 1969, p. 7)

A two and four month test retest reliability co-

efficient is reported by Wing (1966) to be +.77. This

was computed on responses gleaned from 244 male and

female fifth graders. Piers and Harris (1964) report

K-R 21 reliability coefficients of +.90 and +.93 for

third grade females and males, respectively.








The authors of the scale investigated its structure

by means of a multiple-factor analysis. Responses from

a sample of 457 sixth grade children were intercorrelated.

Six interpretable factors emerged, accounting for 42 per

cent of the variance. Labeling of the factors presented

below in order of size was accomplished by considering

the content of the items. I. Behavior (18 items); II.

Intellectual and School Status (18 items); III. Physical

Appearance and Attributes (12 items); IV. Anxiety (12

items); V. Popularity (12 items); VI. Happiness and

Satisfaction (8 items). The sums of these items checked

by a respondent yields a "Cluster Score." Thus far, only

tentative data exist on the use of these cluster scores.

Piers reports in the manual (Piers, 1969) that among a

fourth and sixth grade population, boys rated themselves

significantly lower on Anxiety (denial of feelings of

anxiety) and Behavior scales than did girls. The author

indicates that further research utilizing the cluster

scores is desirable.

The available research evidence does not support

the assumption that children of low economic status will

have lower self-concepts than children of higher socio-

economic status. Carter (1968) investigated possible

differences in self-concept as measured by a five-point

semantic differential. The subjects were all ninth graders,

190 Mexican-Americans and 90 Anglos. Analysis of the data








failed to show significant differences in self-concept

between the two groups. Soares and Soares (1969) com-

pleted a comparative study of the self perceptions of

229 disadvantaged and 285 advantaged elementary school

children. A twenty-adjective semantic differential was

employed. The subjects responded to the items five

different ways: (1) as self-concept; (2) as ideal self-

concept; (3) self as seen by classmates; (4) self as seen

by teachers; and (5) self as seen by parents. The results

indicate that the disadvantaged student held more positive

perceptions of the self than did the advantaged subjects.

No statistically significant differences were observed

between sexes. Kerensky (1967) reports similar results

to those of Carter. Four hundred and fifty-two third

through sixth grade inner-city children were administered

the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory. The subjects were

randomly selected from schools in low socioeconomic areas

in Flint, Michigan. The self esteem scores were compared

with those provided by Coopersmith (1959). Kerensky

reports the inner-city populations' scores were not

significantly different from the normative scores. The

Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale was used by

Sisenwein (1970) to test for differences in self-concept

scores between races. Two hundred and ninety-four white

and one hundred black fifth and sixth graders served as

the sample population. All subjects attended the same

school. No significant differences in mean self-concept

scores were observed between the two groups.








Summary of the Literature

1. The volume of published studies concerning the rela-

tionship between self-concept and achievement among

gifted elementary school children has declined since

1968. Judging from the available literature, writers

have turned their attentions toward designing and

implementing educational prescriptions and special

curricula for gifted students, as federal, state, and

local funding has become available for such programs.

2. Very few operational definitions of gifted children

are present in the literature. A rationale for an

operational definition of giftedness based on

Guilford's structure of intellect as measured by

the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -

Revised is presented in Chapter II.

3. Methods used to identify gifted students vary with

respect to validity and reliability. Suggestions

regarding thorough procedures for identifying

gifted persons have been presented.

4. Intellectually, gifted children exhibit superior

abilities in auditory and visual memory, figure-ground

configuration, sequencing and interpretation of

visual stimuli, three-dimensional visual closure

and spatiality, concept formation, and high level

cognitive-reasoning capability.








5. Under optimal learning conditions, gifted children may

be anticipated to be performing academically at a

level two years above chronological age expectations.

6. The self-concept is postulated as a functional vari-

able in academic achievement.

7. Numerous non-intellective factors and specific

aspects of the personality have been associated

with underachievement, primarily in gifted adoles-

cents. Among gifted elementary school children,

variables tangential to the self-concept have been

demonstrated among underachievers.

8. The literature cited indicates that a significant

positive relationship may exist between a poor

self-concept and academic underachievement among

adolescents. The literature concerning the dimen-

sions of self-concept and achievement among elem-

entary school gifted children is inconclusive.

9. There has not been established a significant positive

relationship between underachievement and poor

self-concept among a population of gifted elementary

children. Among studies reported, the majority

employ teachers' grades as achievement criteria.

Teachers' grades may not be consistent form teacher

to teacher, or possibly from grading period to

grading period. Group tests of intelligence are

commonly reported as measures to identify the




50



population with regard to intellect. Primarily

white male sample populations have been used to

investigate the question of the relationship

between self-concept and achievement.














CHAPTER III

DESIGN OF THE STUDY


The phenomenological school of psychology as repre-

sented by Rogers (1947, 1951, 1962) and Combs and Snygg

(1959) provided the theoretical bases underlying this

study. Self-concept is operationally defined as expres-

sed evaluative perceptions of the self by a child with

respect to behavior at home and school, feelings of

intellectual and school status, feelings about physical

appearance and attributes, expressions of anxiety, popu-

larity among peers, and general feelings of happiness

and satisfaction, as measured by the Piers-Harris Child-

ren's Self-Concept Scale (Piers, 1969).

The basic assumption of this study is that academic

achievement may be a function not only of intellective

variables, but of non-intellective variables, specifically

the self-concept, as well (Terman, 1926; Tuel and Wursten,

1965; Anderson, 1961; Miller, 1961; Brookover, 1967).

This study investigates the relationship between self-

concept and academic achievement in the gifted elementary

school child.








Sample

Third through fifth grade elementary school children

in a north central Florida school district comprised the

sample pool. The children were drawn from the 21 elemen-

tary schools in the district. The schools were representa-

tive of the general population with respect to demographic

variables of socio-economic status and urban rural

location. Eleven schools were of low socio-economic

status (average family income reported below $4,000.00

per year). Six schools were of middle socio-economic

status (average family income reported between $4,001.00

and $7,500.00 per year). Four schools were of high

socio-economic status (average family income above

$7,500.00 per year)(Income classifications as used by the

school district, based on 1960 U. S. Census Bureau

statistics). Seven of the low socio-economic status

schools were in rural areas and 4 were in an urban area.

Two middle socio-economic status schools were in rural

areas, and 4 were in urban areas. Three upper socio-

economic status schools were in urban areas, and 1 was in

a rural area.


Nomination Procedure: Children were nominated for the

sample pool through the following procedures: (1) teacher

nomination; (2) counselor nomination; (3) school principal

nomination; (4) parent nomination; (5) examination of pre-

vious school district-wide test data (OLMAT I. Q. scores

of 115 or above; scores above the 85th percentile on the








Metropolitan Readiness Test. administered in September

of the first grade; scores above the 85th percental on

the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, administered in

April of the second grade). Additionally, all school

counselors were instructed to ask children tested (see

screening procedure) if they knew of a classmate or peer

who might do as well on the test as they did (Dunlap, 1967).

Screening Procedure: The Slosson Intelligence Test (Slos-

son, 1963) was employed to screen "false positives."

This screening instrument was individually administered

to all children in the nominated pool by certified

elementary school counselors. Children who scored at

or above 140 ratio I. Q. on the Slosson Intelligence Test

were administered the battery of tests outlined in the

Instruments section according to the procedures in the Data

Collection section.

Final Selection Procedure: Children who reached the

criterion on the previous measure were administered the

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised. Those

who obtained a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -

Revised Full Scale I. Q. equal to or better than 125 were

included in the final sample.


Instrumentation

The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised

(Wechsler, 1974) yields three intelligence deviation

scores: Verbal Scale I. Q., Performance Scale I. Q.,








and Full Scale I. Q. There are twelve subtests, two of

which are optional. These subtests are listed by Scale.

Verbal Scale: Information, Similarities, Arithmetic,

Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Digit Span (optional).

Performance Scale: Picture Completion, Picture Arrange-

ment, Block Design, Object Assembly, Coding A and B, and

Mazes (optional). All subtests were administered to the

subjects with the exception of Mazes.

The Wide Range Achievement Test (Jastak and Jastak,

1965) is a brief, individually administered test that

provides a quick estimate of an individual's general

level of academic achievement. Three "grade level

equivalent" scores are derived: Reading (reading and

pronouncing words correctly); Spelling (spelling words

on the test form that are read aloud to the testee); and

Arithmetic (pencil-and-paper arithmetic and algebraic

computation). There are two levels, Level I for ages

5 through 11 years, and Level II for ages 12 and over.

The Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (Piers,

1969) is an 80-item forced choice paper-and-pencil inven-

tory. The sentences are simple declarative statements,

44 of the items worded negatively (e. g., "I behave badly

at home"), 36 items worded positively (e. g., "I am a

happy person"). Scoring is designed in such a manner so

that high scores indicate positive self-concepts, low

scores indicate negative self-concepts.









Data Collection

Children reaching the criterion were formally referred

to the Department of Psychological Services of the school

district. Each child was then tested by a certified

school psychologist or school psychometrist assigned to

the school from which the referral originated. Each child

tested was administered the three instruments (Wechsler

Intelligence Scale for Children Revised, Wide Range

Achievement Test, Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept

Scale) in one testing interview.


Treatment of the Data

Since testing of different subjects necessarily

occurred on different days, the grade level equivalent

scores on the Wide Range Achievement Test were equalized

for grade level and date of testing.

The Wide Range Achievement Test norms yield scores

expressed in grades, and assuming 10 months in the school

year, tenths (Examples: 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, ... 5.9, 6.0).

Equalization of Wide Range Achievement Test scores occurred

through averaging the three area grade level scores and

subtracting the grade level and month during which testing

took place from the averaged score. See Figure 1 for an

example of this procedure:


__








Figure 1

Equalization Procedure of Wide Range
Achievement Test Scores


Grade level Averaged Academic
WRAT Scores Average and month functioning beyond
when tested grade level

Spelling: 6.2
Reading: 6.2 6.0 3rd grade, 2.9
1st month
Arithmetic: 5.6


Analysis of the Data

Pearson's product-moment correlational technique was

applied to the data to test hypotheses one through nine.

Hypotheses ten through sixteen were analyzed by means of

a 3 x 2 x 2 analysis of variance procedure. These

analyses were done to ascertain whether the total self-

concept score on the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept

Scale discriminated to a significant degree among the

groupings. The level of significance was set at .05 for

these statistical procedures.












CHAPTER IV
ANALYSIS OF THE DATA


The data presented below have been analyzed in accor-

dance with statistical procedures outlined in Chapter III.


Results

One hundred and fifty-three subjects were identified

according to procedures outlined in Chapter III. The N's and

mean ages for each grouping are presented below in Table 8.


Table 8
N's and Mean Ages
B Sex/Ac=evement7/Grade Groupings

Grouping N Mean Age
Total :153 9.51 yrs.
Female '0 70 9.51 yrs.
Male 83 9.52 yrs.
Achievers 80 9.62 yrs.
Underachievers 73 9.41 yrs.
Female Achievers 37 9.59 yrs.
Male Achievers 43 9.65 yrs.
Female Underachievers 33 9.43 yrs.
Male Underachievers 40 9.39 yrs.
3rd Grade Male 21 8.15 yrs.
Achievers
3rd Grade Female 18 8.40 yrs.
Achievers
3rd Grade Male 17 8.40 yrs.
Underachievers
3rd Grade Female 18 8.39 yrs.
Underachievers








Table 8 (Continued)

Grouping N Mean Age
4th Grade Male 11 9.49 yrs.
Achievers
4th Grade Female 9 9.83 yrs.
Achievers
4th Grade Male 13 9.47 yrs.
Underachievers
4th Grade Female 7 9.50 yrs.
Underachievers
5th Grade Male 11 11.32 yrs.
Achievers
5th Grade Female 10 10.56 yrs.
Achievers
5th Grade Male 10 10.30 yrs.
Underachievers
5th Grade Female 8 10.33 yrs.
Underachievers


Hypotheses Tested

The null hypotheses tested and the outcomes of the

analyses are as follows:

HO1: There is no significant relationship between self-

concept as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale and averaged academic achieve-

ment as measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test

among third, fourth, and fifth grade public school

gifted children.

The Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlation

of +.38 is statistically significant (p<.05). Therefore

the null hypothesis is rejected.








HO2: There is no significant relationship between self-

concept as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale and averaged academic achievement

as measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test among

third, fourth, and fifth grade public school gifted

males.

The Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlation

of +.19 is not statistically significant. Therefore the

null hypothesis is not rejected.



HO3: There is no significant relationship between self-

concept as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale and averaged academic achievement

as measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test among

third, fourth, and fifth grade public school gifted

females.

The Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlation

of +.63 is statistically significant (p<.05). Therefore,

the null hypothesis is rejected.



HO4: There is no significant relationship between self-

concept as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale and averaged academic achievement

as measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test among

third, fourth, and fifth grade public school gifted

underachieving children.








The Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlation

of +.11 is not statistically significant. Therefore the

null hypothesis is not rejected.



HO5: There is no significant relationship between self-

concept as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale and averaged academic achieve-

ment as measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test

among third, fourth, and fifth grade public school

gifted underachieving females.

The Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlation

of +.01 is not statistically significant. Therefore the

null hypothesis is not rejected.



HO6: There is no significant relationship between self-

concept as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale and averaged academic achievement

as measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test

among third, fourth, and fifth grade public school

gifted underachieving males.

The Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlation

of +.21 is not statistically significant. Therefore the

null hypothesis is not rejected.



HO7: There is no significant relationship between self-

concept as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale and averaged academic achievement








as measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test

among third, fourth, and fifth grade public school

gifted achieving children.

The Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlation

of +.07 is not statistically significant. Therefore the

null hypothesis is not rejected.



HO8: There is no significant relationship between self-

concept as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale and averaged academic achieve-

ment as measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test

among third, fourth, and fifth grade public school

gifted achieving females.

The Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlation

of +.47 is statistically significant (p<.05). Therefore,

the null hypothesis is rejected.



HOg: There is no significant relationship between self-

concept as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's

Self-Concept Scale and averaged academic achieve-

ment as measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test

among third, fourth, and fifth grade public school

gifted achieving males.

The Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlation

of +.28 is not statistically significant. Therefore the

null hypothesis is not rejected.








Hypotheses 10

3 x 2 x 2 analysis

this procedure are


through 16 were analyzed by means of a

of variance procedure. The results of

presented in Table 9.


Table
Analysis of

Sum of
Souares


9
Variance

Degrees
Freedom


Mean F
Square Value


Achievement 3430.32 1 3430.32 1284.76*
Sex 7.61 1 7.61 2.85
Grade 312.84 2 156.42 58.58*
Achievement x
Sex x Grade 4966.76 2 2483.38 930.10*
Achievement x
Sex 3663.17 1 3663.17 1371.90*
Achievement x
Grade 3970.63 2 1985.31 743.56*
Sex x Grade 1014.19 2 507.10 189.93*
Error 376.73 141 2.67
Total 17742.25 152
*Statistically significant (p<.05)



HO10: There are no significant differences in gifted

children's self-concepts as measured by the Piers-

Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale with respect

to achievement.

Inspection of Table 9 (page 62) indicates that the

F value of 1284.76 is statistically significant (p<.05).

Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected.



HOl1: There are no significant differences in gifted

children's self-concepts as measured by the


62


Source of
Variation








Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale with

respect to sex.

Inspection of Table 9 (page 62) indicates that the

F value of 2.85 is not statistically significant. There-

fore the null hypothesis is not rejected.



HO12: There are no significant differences in gifted

children's self-concepts as measured by the Piers-

Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale with respect

to grade.

Inspection of Table 9 (page 62) indicates that the

F value of 58.58 is statistically significant (p<.05).

Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected.



HO13: There are no significant differences in gifted

children's self-concepts as measured by the Piers-

Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale with respect

to the interactions of achievement and sex.

Inspection of Table 9 (page 62) indicates that the

F value of 1371.97 is statistically significant (p<.05).

Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected.



HO14: There are no significant differences in gifted

children's self-concepts as measured by the Piers-

Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale with respect

to the interactions of achievement and grade.

Inspection of Table 9 (page 62) indicates that the

F value of 743.56 is statistically significant (p<.05).








Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected.



HOI5: There are no significant differences in gifted

children's self-concepts as measured by the Piers-

Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale with respect

to the interactions of sex and grade.

Inspection of Table 9 (page 62) indicates that the

F value of 189.93 is statistically significant (p<.05).

Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected.



HO16: There are no significant differences in gifted

children's self-concepts as measured by the Piers-

Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale with respect

to the interactions of achievement, sex, and grade.

Inspection of Table 9 (page 62) indicates that the

F value of 930.1 is statistically significant (p<.05).

Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected.

Scheffe's A Posteriori test of pairwise comparisons

for unequal N's was used to determine the location of

significant differences between means. Level of significance

for this test was set at .05. F values are presented in

tabular form for each set of calculations. Group means

are presented in increasing size to facilitate interpreta-

tion of the tables.








Table 10
Scheffe's F Values

Grade
5


for Grades

Grade
3


Grade
4


(Means) 59.18 62.34 62.65
Grade
5 59.18 18.91* 20.04*
Grade
3 62.34 0.184
Grade
4 62.65 --
*Statistically Significant (p<.05), F>F' = 6.14

Inspection of Table 10 indicates that the self-concept

scores of third and fourth graders were significantly greater

than those of fifth graders. The self-concept scores of

third and fourth graders were not significantly different.


Table 11
Scheffe's F Values for Interaction
of AEhievement and Sex

Under- Under- Achieving
achieving achieving Males
Females Males


Achieving
Females


(Means) 54.95 58.05 65.33 67.08
Under-
achieving
Females 54.95 -- 15.22* 174.35* 230.19*
Under-
achieving
Males 58.05 -- -- 90.22* 132.78*
Achieving
Males 65.33 -- -- -- 22.82*
Achieving
Females 67.08 -- -- -- --
*Statistically Significant (p<.05), F>F' = 8.04





66


Inspection of Table 11 (page 65) indicates that the

self-concept scores of achieving females were significantly

greater than self-concept scores of all other groupings.

Conversely, the self-concept scores of all groupings were

significantly greater than those of underachieving females.

The self-concept scores of achieving males were significantly

greater than those of all underachievers regardless of sex.


Table 12
Scheffe's F Values for Interaction
of Grade and Achievement

5 UA 4 UA 3 UA 5 A 3 A 4 A
(Means) 52.67 57.05 58.49 64.76 65.8 68.25
5 UA
52.67 -- 22.11* 44.05* 171.1* 227.35* 280.59*
4 UA
57.05 -- -- 2.77 71.35* 104.27* 47.07*
3 UA
58.49 -- -- -- 53.34* 85.9* 127.42*
5A
64.76 -- -- -- -- 1.49 14.62*
3A
65.8 -- -- -- -- -- 8.17
4A
68.25 -- -- -- -- -- --
*Statistically Significant (p<.05), F>F' = 11.45

A Achiever
UA Underachiever

Inspection of Table 12 indicates that the self-concept

scores of achieving.fourth graders were significantly greater

than those of all underachievers, as well as achieving fifth

graders. Third and fifth grade achievers' self-concept

scores were significantly greater than those of under-

achievers. Both third and fourth grade underachievers'








self-concept scores were greater than those of fifth grade

underachievers' self-concept scores.


Table 13
Scheffe's F Values for Interaction of Sex and Grade

Male Female Male Female Female Male
5th 3rd 4th 5th 4th 3rd
(Means) 56.81 59.94 61.79 61.94 63.94 64.60
Male
5th -- 13.37* 31.02* 30.71* 57.35* 83.55*
56.81
Female
3rd -- 4.85 5.18 19.91* 34.90*
59.94
Male
4th -- -- 0.027 5.36 11.47*
61.79
Female
5th -- -- 4.36 9.26
61.94
Female
4th -- -- -- 0.55
63.94
Male
3rd -- -- -- -- -- --
64.60
*Statistically Significant (p<.05), F>F' = 11.45


Inspection of Table 13 indicates that the self-concept

scores of all groups were significantly greater than those

of fifth grade males. The self-concept scores of third

grade males were significantly greater than those of third

grade females. Additionally, the self-concept scores of

fourth grade females were significantly greater than those

of third grade females.

Inspection of Table 14 (page 69) indicates that the

self-concept scores of all groups were significantly greater








than those of fifth grade males. The self-concept scores

of third grade males were significantly greater than those

of third grade females. Additionally, the self-concept

scores of fourth grade females were significantly greater

than those of third grade females.

Inspection of Table 14 (page 69) indicates that

overall, self-concept scores of achievers were signifi-

cantly greater than those of all underachievers with the

exception of male third grade underachievers' self-concept

scores. The self-concept scores of achieving fourth

grade females were significantly greater than those of all

groupings with the exception of achieving female fifth and

male fourth graders. Among underachievers, male third

graders' self-concept scores were significantly greater

than those of all other underachievers regardless of sex

or grade. Self-concept scores of underachieving female

third and male fifth graders were significantly lower

than all other groupings.













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Summary

The sample was composed of 153 third, fourth, and

fifth grade public school gifted children. The Wechsler

Intelligence Scale for Children Revised, the Wide Range

Achievement Test, and the Piers-Harris Children's Self-

Concept Scale were administered to each subject. Pearson's

product-moment correlational technique was used to analyze

the data for relationships between achievement self-

concept scores for the Total and by Sex/Achievement

groupings. A 3 x 2 x 2 analysis of variance was used to

test for differences in self-concept scores between and

within Achievement/Sex/Grade groupings. Scheffe's A

Posteriori test of pairwise comparisons for unequal N's

was used to determine the location of significant differences

between means. Level of significance for all statistical

procedures was set at .05.


Discussion of Results

Statistically significant positive relationships

(p<.05) were found to exist between self-concept scores on

the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale and averaged

academic achievement as measured by the Wide Range Achieve-

ment Test for the total sample, females, and achieving

females.

The analysis of variance revealed significant dif-

ferences between all groupings examined with the exception

of between sexes (Table 9, page 62). The Scheffe's tests








revealed that, overall, achievers obtained significantly

greater self-concept scores than did underachievers

regardless of grade (Table 12, page 66). Third and fourth

graders obtained significantly greater self-concept scores

than did fifth graders (Table 12, page 66).

Among Achievement/Sex groupings, (Table 11, page 65),

the self-concept scores of achieving females were found to

be significantly greater than those of other groups.

Self-concept scores of achieving males were significantly

greater than those of underachievers, regardless of sex.

The self-concept scores of all groups were found to be

significantly greater than those of underachieving females.

Among Achievement/Grade groupings (Table 12, page 66),

the self-concept scores of third, fourth, and fifth grade

achievers all were significantly greater than those of

fifth grade underachievers.

Among Sex/Grade groupings (Table 13, page 67), self-

concept scores of third grade males were significantly

greater than those of third grade females, and fourth and

fifth grade males. The self-concept scores of all groupings

in this interaction were significantly greater than those

of fifth grade males.

Among the interaction of Achievement/Sex/Grade (Table

14, page 69), achieving female fourth graders' self-concept

scores were significantly greater than those of all other

groupings with the exception of achieving fifth grade females








and achieving fourth grade males. All groupings in the

interactions of Achievement/Sex/Grade obtained signifi-

cantly greater self-concept scores than did under-

achieving female third and male fifth graders. Overall,

the self-concept scores of achievers were significantly

greater than those of all underachievers with the exception

of male third grade underachievers' self-concept scores.

The results of this study indicate that gifted

achievers obtained significantly greater self-concept

scores than did gifted underachievers. These significant

differences have been demonstrated to extend beyond sex/

grade groupings as well. A causative factor in these

differences between mean self-concept scores may be that

early academic success inculcates a strong self-concept

for gifted children. Research reported by Gibby and

Gibby (1967) supports this view; however, these data

were observed among seventh grade age gifted children.

Equally tenable is the assertion that a strong self-

concept may ensure high levels of academic achievement for

gifted children. Findings reported by Wattenberg and

Clifford (1964) and Lamy (1965) support this view. These

investigators demonstrated self-concept scores to be

significantly related to reading achievement scores among

average intelligence kindergarten age children. Although

the question of causality is not resolved, the author

concludes that high levels of intelligence alone do not

ensure accelerated academic achievement. A powerful








reciprocal relationship between self-concept and achieve-

ment for gifted children may be in evidence.

Overall, differences in mean self-concept scores

based solely on sex were not found to be significant.

Other investigators report similar findings for average

intelligence populations (Piers and Harris, 1964; Farls,

1967; Piers, 1969). Thus, one may infer that this research

population of gifted children is not appreciably different

from similarly aged, average intelligence populations in

this regard.

In considering the interaction of sex and achievement,

however, statistically significant differences emerge. The

data presented in Table 11 indicate that gifted achieving

females obtained the greatest mean self-concept score, and

underachieving females obtained the lowest mean self-

concept score. Further, a significant positive relation-

ship between self-concept scores and averaged academic

achievement was found to exist for gifted females but.not

for gifted males in this sample population.

The Department of Special Services Staff (1961)

reports that among a population of similarly aged, superior

intellect children, no significant relationships between

self-concept and achievement were found. The author

posits that a major factor in the discrepancy between

these results is the use of teacher grades versus demon-

strated achievement on an individually administered mea-

sure as the dependent variable.








The results of this study suggest that for gifted

females of third through fifth grade age, academic achieve-

ment is a more acceptable means of winning approval from

the self and others than it is for gifted males of these

ages. Therefore, success in academic areas may be a more

central component in forming a strong self-concept for

gifted females than for gifted males of third, fourth, or

fifth grade age. However, Fink (1962), Haarer (1964),

and Mehta (1968) report that for high school age students,

significant positive relationships between self-concept

and achievement were found to exist for males but not for

females. This observation suggests that the function of

academic achievement as a central component in self-concept

may shift in sex relatedness with increasing age. Haarer

(1964) suggests that this shift is observable in the

eighth grade. However, inspection of Table 14 indicates

that this shift in sex relatedness may begin as early as

the fifth grade, as evidenced by the mean self-concept

score of gifted underachieving fifth grade males.

Additionally, this research has demonstrated that the

mean self-concept scores of gifted children in grades

three and four are significantly greater than the mean

self-concept score of gifted children in grade five.

This difference in mean self-concept score among gifted

children in these grades has also been observed among

samples of children with average intelligence (Piers and

Harris, 1964; Piers, 1969). Morse, (1963), Brookover








et al. (1957), and Yamamoto et al. (1969) have concluded

that the decline in self-concept scores may be a result of

exposure to punitive and threatening school environments.

For whatever explanation posited, this phenomenon appears

to exist notwithstanding differences in intelligence.

Correlational data presented in Appendix XV is a

summation of an investigation into the relationship between

WISC-R I. Q. scales and averaged WRAT and specific subject

area academic achievement. Perhaps the most salient feature

of these findings is the inconsistency evidenced. This

suggests that the relationship between these variables is

complex and warrants further investigation.








Limitations

1) The possibility exists that all gifted public school

children in the grades examined were not identified as a

result of the preliminary nomination procedures. Of the

children included in the study, about 65% (100 subjects)

of the sample were referred by teachers, principals, or

counselors specifically for intelligence testing. Twelve

percent of the sample identified (18 subjects) were referred

for behavior problems. Among these subjects, 13 were defined

as underachievers. The remaining 23% of the sample (35

subjects) were not primarily identified by school personnel,

but were nominated for testing through inspection of county-

wide group testing data. Thus, gifted children who are

inordinately quiet and undemonstrative or children who

exhibit classroom behavior problems may be ignored by

teaching personnel or misidentified as emotionally or

behaviorally disturbed.

An additional factor mitigating against identification

of all gifted students may have been differences in levels

of teacher interest in nominating gifted students. Judging

from the number of children identified by grade (third

grade 74 subjects; fourth grade 40 subjects; fifth

grade 39 subjects) it appears that third grade

teachers were more highly motivated and/or informed about

characteristics of the gifted child than were teachers

in fourth and fifth grades. Additionally, in:several

schools fourth and fifth grades are taught by team








-eaching. The resulting inference is that a teacher may

not have enough exposure to a student in order to adequately

become familiar with that student's full range of abilities.

2) Because fairly large differences existed between num-

bers of subjects identified by grade, the sizes of the

cells analyzed varied considerably. Thus, the experimenter

feels that the differences between means where small N's

are observed may not be fully representative of population

differences. Additionally, equivalently sized cells would

have allowed the use of Tukey's HSD test, a less conserva-

tive test than is the Scheffe's test.

3) Finally, this study was associational in design, and

offered no treatments to the sample studied. Thus, no

statements may be made concerning causality among the

variables investigated.













CHAPTER V
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


Summary

The purpose of this study was to investigate the

relationship between self-concept and academic achievement

in third, fourth, and fifth grade public school gifted

children. The data were further analyzed to test for

significant differences between self-concept scores by

achievers-underachievers, males-females, grades, and

interactions.

The sample consisted of 153 children in a North

Central Florida school district. They were identified

as gifted through individual administration of the Wechsler

Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (Wechsler, 1974).

The criterion level was set at Full Scale I. Q. equal to or

greater than 125. Achievement was measured through indivi-

dual administration of the Wide Range Achievement Test

(Jastak and Jastak, 1965). Gifted children obtaining

averaged academic achievement two years above grade level

expectations on this measure were defined as achievers.

Gifted children not obtaining averaged academic achievement

two years above grade level expectations were defined

as underachievers. Self-concept was measured by the

Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (Piers, 1969).








Pearson's E oduct-moment correlational technique was

used to test for relationships between the variables

investigated. A 3 x 2 x 2 analysis of variance was used

to test for differences in self-concept scores by Achieve-

ment/Sex/Grade. Scheffe's A Posteriori test of pairwise

comparisons for unequal N's was used to determine the

location of significant differences between means. Level

of significance was set at .05.

Statistically significant positive relationships

(p<.05) were found to exist between self-concept scores

and averaged academic achievement for the total sample,

females and achieving females. When differences between

group means of self-concept scores were examined, it was

found that achievers, regardless of sex or grade, obtained

significantly greater self-concept scores than under-

achievers. In general, achieving females' self-concept

scores were consistently greater than those of all other

groups. The self-concept scores of underachieving females

were consistently lower than those of all other groups.

Further, a general trend was observed in the direction of

decreasing self-concept scores for fifth grade subjects.








Implications

The most consistently significant results of this

investigation have special application for school psycho-

logists and elementary school counselors.

The results of this study suggest that significant

differences in self-concept scores exist between gifted

children who are performing at high levels of academic

achievement and those who are not performing at high

levels of academic achievement. Thus, when the results

of a psycho-educational evaluation for a particular student

indicate high intelligence scores and low achievement

levels, an educational prescription should include

further investigation of that student's self-concept.

The practitioner may expect that gifted students in the

fifth grade will obtain a somewhat lower score on a self-

concept inventory than gifted students in the third or

fourth grades.

The statement may also be made that, in general, a

gifted child who is achieving consistently well above grade

level may be expected to score high on a self-concept scale.

The predictive validity of this finding is attenuated for

male fifth grade gifted students. For female gifted stu-

dents, achievement levels at or slightly above grade level

expectations may be predictive of low scores on a self-

concept scale. Conversely, a female gifted student who

exhibits achievement levels two or more years beyond grade

level expectations may also be expected to obtain a high

score on a self-concept scale.








The results of this study also indicate that the mean

self-concept score of fifth grade gifted children is

significantly lower than the mean self-concept scores of

third and fourth grade gifted children. Additionally, it

appears that the decline in mean self-concept score is

more pronounced for underachieving fifth graders than for

achieving fifth graders. Further, the decline in mean

self-concept scores among gifted underachieving fifth

grade students is more pronounced for males than for

females. It would appear then, that various counseling

approaches and classroom reinforcement techniques for this

population should be examined, and if found effective,

should be implemented.

These data also have significance for coordinators

of programs for gifted students. The data gathered suggest

that exposure to structured academic situations is bene-

ficial in varying degrees for gifted third, fourth, and

fifth grade children. Inspection of Appendix II indicates

that for gifted achieving subjects, as grade level increased,

the mean reading and spelling achievement level increased

proportionately. To illustrate, for achieving third graders,

mean years of academic achievement above grade placement for

spelling was 3.32; for reading, 4.05. For achieving

fourth graders, mean years of academic achievement above

grade placement for spelling was 3.63; for reading, 4.71.

For achieving fifth graders, mean years of academic achieve-

ment above grade placement for spelling was 4.75; for








reading, 5,52. This increase was not true, however, for

arithmetic achievement levels.

The increase in academic achievement with increased

exposure to structured academic situations was not observed

among underachieving subjects. In fact, mean years of

academic achievement above grade level decreased for

spelling (3rd graders: 1.31 years; 4th graders: 1.23 years;

5th graders: 0.96 years), while the mean years above grade

level for reading achievement were varied (3rd graders:

1.86 years; 4th graders: 2.11 years; 5th graders: 2.04

years).

These raw data illustrate several points. First,

procedures to identify the gifted child that are based

solely on teacher grades or on demonstrated competencies

on individual or group achievement tests may not identify

all gifted students, and may potentially ignore those

gifted students most in need of special tuition or atten-

tion. Second, all students with superior intellect have

not benefited to similar degrees from the academic situa-

tions to which they have been exposed. Investigation into

alternative learning situations for these gifted students

appears to be necessary.

These findings indicate the existence of significant

differences between self-concept scores of gifted achievers

and underachievers. The results suggest that curriculum

planning to meet the needs of gifted students should include

consideration of both the affective and cognitive domains.








A "team approach" to curriculum planning may be helpful in

accomplishing this end. The teacher, school counselor,

school psychologist, consultant for gifted child education,

parents, and the gifted child should play an active role

in determining appropriate designs.


Suggestions for Further Research

1) Continued use of the instruments and criteria employed

in this study is recommended. Thus, standardization

of selection procedure could be approximated, which

would enhance the generalizability of findings

reported.


2) Familiarization of referring personnel with character-

istics of gifted children would be helpful to ensure

the identification of a complete sample of gifted

students.


3) Investigation of the relative efficacy of various

intervention plans should now be conducted. Several

specific recommendations include manipulation of

parent expectations, employment of teacher classroom

guidance, and direct individual and/or group counseling

of gifted students by elementary school counselors.


4) If pre-tests measuring self-concept and achievement

are to be administered, the investigator should consider

the use of an analysis of covariance in treating the

data. This would control for the effect of testing

on the treatments being offered.








APPENDIX I


Means, Standard Deviations, and Ranges
Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale


Groupings
Total
Female
Male
Achievers
Underachievers
Female Achievers
Male Achievers
Female Underachievers
Male Underachievers


N
153
70
83
80
73
37
43
33
40


61.6
61.4
61.8
66.1
56.7
67.1
65.3
54.9
58.1


S.D.
10.8
10.3
11.2
9.2
10.3
8.8
9.5
7.8
11 8


of the
Total Score


Range
32-79
32-78
33-79
44-79
32-79
44-78
45-79
32-70
31-79


3rd Grade
Male Achievers 21 65.9 9.5 47-79
3rd Grade
Female Achievers 18 65.7 10.6 44-77
3rd Grade
Male Underachievers 17 63.0 11.3 48-79
3rd Grade
Female Underachievers 18 54.2 9.3 32-70
4th Grade
Male Achievers 11 66.5 9.6 45-77
4th Grade
Female Achievers 9 70.3 8.3 51-78
4th Grade
Male Underachievers 13 57.8 11.5 34-75
4th Grade
Female Underachievers 7 55.7 6.5 47-62
5th Grade
Male Achievers 11 63.0 9.9 47-77
5th Grade
Female Achievers 10 66.7 5.2 60-75
5th Grade
Male Underachievers 10 50.0 8.5 33-61
5th Grade
Female Underachievers 8 56.0 5.7 42-59








APPENDIX II


Means For Overall And Subject Area Academic
Functioning As Measured By The Wide Range Achievement Test


Grouping
Total
Female


153


Overall
2.34
2.50


Spelling
2.52
2.71


Reading
3.34
3.48


Arithmetic
1.14
1.27


Male 83 2.21 2.36 3.23 1.02
Achievers 80 3.35 3.75 4.59 1.68
Underachievers 73 1.24 1.18 1.98 0.54
Female Achievers 37 3.54 3.92 4.81 1.83
Male Achievers 43 3.19 3.60 4.40 1.55
Female
Underachievers 33 1.34 1.35 1.99 0.65
Male
Underachievers 40 1.15 1.03 1.96 0.46
3rd Grade
Male Achievers 21 2.84 3.22 3.78 1.51
3rd Grade
Female Achievers 18 3.21 3.41 4.32 1.82
3rd Grade Male
Underachievers 17 1.09 0.98 1.88 0.36
3rd Grade Female
Underachievers 18 1.42 1.63 1.84 0.76
4th Grade
Male Achievers 11 3.5 3.85 4.81 1.85
4th Grade
Female Achievers 9 3.14 3.41 4.6 1.4
4th Grade Male
Underachievers 13 1.32 1.36 2.05 0.54
4th Grade Female
Underachievers 7 1.29 1.09 2.17 0.59
5th Grade
Male Achievers 11 2.91 4.1 5.18 1.33
5th Grade
Female Achievers 10 4.5 5.39 5.86 2.24
5th Grade Male
Underachievers 10 1.03 0.93 1.90 0.50
5th Grade Female
Underachievers 8 1.20 0.98 2.18 0.45
NOTE: The values in this table reflect achievement grade
levels beyond present grade placement.


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