Group Title: relationship between perceptual characteristics and counselor effectiveness ratings of counselor trainees
Title: The Relationship between perceptual characteristics and counselor effectiveness ratings of counselor trainees
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Title: The Relationship between perceptual characteristics and counselor effectiveness ratings of counselor trainees
Physical Description: xii, 135 leaves. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Swanson, John LeRoy, 1945-
Publication Date: 1975
Copyright Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Perception   ( lcsh )
Student counselors -- Training of   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 122-131.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by John LeRoy.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098160
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000869061
notis - AEG6081
oclc - 014230888

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEPTUAL
CHARACTERISTICS AND COUNSELOR EFFECTIVENESS RATINGS
OF COUNSELOR TRAINEES










By
JOHN LeROY SWANSON












A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OP
THE UNIVERSITY OP FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILIJENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1975










ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I want to thank all of those who helped me in my

work on this dissertation. In particular, I want to thank:

Dr. David Lane, friend and chairman of my

supervisory committee, for being so understanding and help-

ful, always supportive, never interfering;.a great person

to work with.

The other members of my supervisory committee,

Dr. Arthur W. Combs, Dr. Richard Haynes, and Dr. Richard

Johnson for their helpful suggestions and positive support

of my efforts. And, Dr. Franz Epting who served on my

committee until a trip to Europe necessitated his with-

drawal.

Pat Korb and George Deitz, fellow doctoral

students, for serving as raters of the perceptual dimensions.

Howard Devine, Rick Hufford, Richard Pyle,

Dolories Smith, and Gary Wilkinson for serving as judges.

The students in Dr. Landsman's and Dr. Sieler's

Counseling Theory and Laboratory courses who served as

subjects for this study.

My parents for their encouragement and support.

Jeanne M. Holmes for her special love energy.









TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .. .... .. .. . ... ii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . vii

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . ix

CHAPTER I. PROBLEM AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY .. 1
Purpose of the Study ..... . .
Statement of the Problem . . .. 1
The Perceptual Approach . . 3
The Development of the Perceptual
Dimensions . . .. . . .. 7
Synopsis of the Study . . . . 10
Questions Posed for the Study . . 11

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ... . . 12
Introduction. . . . . .... 12
Counselor Effectiveness Ratings . 12
Introduction.. ........ . .. 12
Staff Ratings-.... . . .. 13
Peer Ratings . . . .. . . 14
Combination of Peer and Staff
Ratings . . . .. . . 14
Client Ratings . . . . . 15
Coached Client Ratings .. . . 16
Counselor Self Ratings .. . . 17
Summary . .. . .. . . 19
Outside Judge Ratings of Videotaped
Segments of Counseling .... 19
Characteristics of Effective
Counselors . . . . .. . 21
Academic Measures . . ... . 21
Personality, Interest, and Attitude
Measures . . . . . . 22
The Perceptual Approach to Counselor
Effectiveness .. . ... . .. 23
A Review of the Research on the
Perceptual Dimensions Selected
for Use in this Study . . . 29
Internal-External . . . . 29
Able-Unable . . . 30
With People-Apart from People . 30
Holistic-Detailed . . . 32











CHAPTER III.




















CHAPTER IV.


Perceptual Research on Counselor
Effectiveness . .... . .
Summary ..............

DESIGN OF THE STUDY .... .. .
Introduction .. .. . ...
The Perceptual Dimensions . .
Theoretical Support for the
Perceptual Dimensions as Part of
the Intuitive Process .. . .
Formal Statement of the Hypotheses .
Inferred Perceptual Data . . .
Previous Methods of Obtaining
Protocol Data . . . . .
A New Method for Obtaining
Protocol Data . . . . .
Scoring the Perceptual Dimensions.
Self-Anchoring Scale of Counselor
Effectiveness . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . .
The Sample. . . . . . .
Administration and Scoring of the
Research Instruments . ..
Preparation of the Data for
Statistical Analysis . .
Statistical Treatment of the
Data . . . . . . .

ANALYSIS OF THE DATA . .. . .
Introduction . . . . . .
Analysis of Measures . . . .
Self-Anchoring Scale . . . .
Interrater Reliability Data for
the Perceptual Dimension Scores .
The Relationship Between the
Perceptual Data as Inferred
from the Rogers Film Protocols
and the Jourard Film Protocols 0
Results . . . . . .
Question #1, Hypothesis #1 . .
The Relationship Between the
Perceptual Data as Inferred
from the Rogers Film and
Outside Judge Ratings of
Counselor Effectiveness . .
The Relationship Between the
Perceptual Data as Inferred
from the Jourard Film and
Outside Judge Ratings of
Counselor Effectiveness .


33
39

41
.41
42

46
51
52

52

53
56

59
62
62

63

66

67

68
68
69
69

70


75
78
78



78



80








Question #2 . . . .
Multiple Stepwise Regression
Correlations for the Seven
Perceptual Dimensions as
Inferred from the Rogers
Film Protocols . . . .
Multiple Stepwise Regression
Correlations for the Seven
Perceptual Dimensions as
Inferred from the Jourard
Film Protocols . . . .
Question #3, Hypothesis #2
The Relationship Between
the Client and Outside
Judge Ratings of Counselor
Effectiveness . . . .
Question #4, Hypothesis #3
The Relationship Between
the Peer and Outside
Judge Ratings of Counselor
Effectiveness . .. .
Question #5 ..... . .
The Interrelationships
Between the Seven Perceptual
Dimensions as Inferred from
the Rogers Film
Protocols . . . . .
The Interrelationships
Between the Seven Perceptual
Dimensions as Inferred from
the Jourard Film
Protocols . . . . .

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS ..
Introduction . . . . .
An Evaluation of the Seven
Perceptual Dimensions . . .
Internal-External . . . .
Grounded-Ungrounded . .
Process-Content . .. . .
Depth-Surface . . . . .
Holistic-Detailed . . . .
Able-Unable . . . . .
With People-Apart from People .
The Interrelationships Between
the Seven Perceptual
Dimensions . . . . . .
Client, Peer, and Outside
Judge Ratings of Counselor
Effectiveness on the SAS . .


CHAPTER V.















APPENDIX A


APPENDIX B


APPENDIX C


APPENDIX D


Interrater Reliability of the
Perceptual Dimensions . . .
The Use of Counseling Films in
the Generation of Protocol
Data . . . . . .
Summary .. .... . . .

- THE STOPPING PLACES FOR THE JOURARD
AND ROGERS FILMS. . . . . .

- INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN TO SUBJECTS IN
PRESENTING THE. COUNSELING FILMS . .

- SAMPLE PERCEPTUAL DIMENSION
SCORESHEET . .. . .. .

- SELF-ANCHORING SCALE . . . .


BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . .. .

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . .. . . . .









LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1-A An Examination of the Perceptual Dimensions
Utilized-in Ten Previous Studies. Category 1:
General Frame of Reference . . . . .. 25

1-B An Examination of the Perceptual Dimensions
Utilized in Ten Previous Studies. Category 2:
Perceptions of Others .. . . . . 26

1-0 An Examination of the Perceptual Dimensions
Utilized in Ten Previous Studies. Category 3:
Perceptions of Self ... .. . . .. . 27

1-D An Examination of the Perceptual Dimensions
Utilized in Ten Previous Studies. Category 4:
Perception of Purpose . . . . . .. 28

2 Interrater Reliabilities, Means, Standard
Deviations, and Ranges of Outside Judge
Scores on the SAS . . . . . .... 71

3 Mean, Standard Deviation, and Range of
Client and Peer Scores on the SAS . . . 72

4 Interrater Reliability Data of the
Perceptual Judging . . . . ... . .. 73

5 Pearson Coefficients of Correlation Between
the Perceptual Data as Inferred from the
Rogers Film Protocols and the Perceptual
Data Inferred from the Jourard Film Protocols 77

6 Pearson Coefficients of Correlation Between
Perceptual Data as Inferred from the Rogers
Film and Outside Judge Ratings of Counselor
Effectiveness on the SAS ... ....... 79

7 Pearson Coefficients of Correlation Between
Perceptual Data as Inferred from the Jourard
Film and Outside Judge Ratings of Counselor
Effectiveness on the SAS . . . . .. 81








8 Multiple Stepwise Regression Correlations
Between Perceptual Data as Inferred from the
Rogers Film Protocols and the Combined Scores
of the Outside Judge Counselor Effectiveness
Ratings on the SAS . . ... . .. . 83

9 Multiple Stepwise Regression Correlations
Between Perceptual Data as Inferred from the
Jourard Film Protocols and the Combined Scores
of the Outside Judge Counselor Effectiveness
Ratings on the SAS ..... .. .. . 86

10 Matrix of Intercorrelation Coefficients for
the Seven Perceptual Dimensions as Inferred
by Trained Judges from the Rogers Film
Protocols . . . ... .. . . . 89

11 Matrix of Intercorrelation Coefficients for
the Seven Perceptual Dimensions as Inferred
by Trained Judges from the Jourard Film
Protocols . . . . . ... . . 91

12 Mean Number of Effectiveness Criteria Listed
on the SAS Anchorings . . . . . . 103


viii










Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the
Graduate Council of the University of Florida
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEPTUAL
CHARACTERISTICS AND COUNSELOR EFFECTIVENESS RATINGS
OF COUNSELOR TRAINEES

By
John LeRoy Swanson

March, 1975

Chairman: David Lane
Major Department: Counselor Education

In this study, the relationship between the ways that

counselor trainees organize their perceptions of the coun-

seling relationship and their counselor effectiveness

ratings by outside judges was examined. Also, client and

peer effectiveness ratings were compared with outside

judge ratings.

Perceptual psychology provides the theoretical frame-

work for this study. This view holds that the internal

perceptions of the individual provide a viable perspective

from which to study helper effectiveness.

The subjects were twenty-five graduate students at

the University of Florida enrolled in the Counselor

Education Department's Counseling Theory and Laboratory








course. They were shown two films of actual counseling
sessions to which they made written responses describing
what they were "experiencing in the counseling relation-
ship." Three trained judges inferred the perceptual
characteristics of the counselor trainees from their
responses to the counseling films on seven perceptual
dimensions, three of which were developed by this writer.
Five outside judges who viewed two four-minute video-

taped segments of each of the trainee's counseling rated
the counselor effectiveness of the trainees on the
Self-Anchoring Scale (SAS). In one section of the course,
undergraduate students rated the counselor effectiveness
of the trainees on the SAS after each of the students had
been a client with a trainee for a thirty-minute session.
In the other section, members of the lab training groups
rated each other on the SAS.
It was hypothesized that trainees rated more effective
would be judged on the perceptual dimensions as: (1) having
a more internal frame of reference; (2) perceiving others
as more able; (3) perceiving themselves as more identified
with people; (4) perceiving in a more holistic way;

(5) being more grounded in their perceptions; and focusing
more on the (6) process, and (7) depth aspects of their

experiencing.







Results


This study provides some support for the idea that

the perceptual characteristics of counselor trainees are

related to ratings of their counselor effectiveness. For

one set of film data, the scores on three of the seven

dimensions were found to be significantly correlated with

the outside judge counselor effectiveness ratings.

Trainees rated more effective were judged on the perceptual

dimensions as (5) being more grounded in their perceptions,

and focusing more on the (6) process and (7) depth aspects

of their experiencing. For the other set of film data, no

significant relationships with the effectiveness ratings

were found. Thus, the two films differed in their ability

to yield dimension scores which were significantly corre-

lated with the effectiveness ratings. Possible expla-

nations for these mixed results were suggested.

The multiple regression analysis results showed that

the single best predictor of the effectiveness ratings

was the Grounded-Ungrounded dimension. In agreement with

previous perceptual research, the dimensions were found to

be significantly intercorrelated. Theoretical support was

presented for the idea that the intuitive process might be

composed of a constellation of five perceptual dimensions

Grounded-Ungrounded, Content-Process, Depth-Surface,
Holistic-Detailed, and Internal-External. Initial empiri-

cal support for this idea was found in the high positive
xi








intercorrelations among these five dimensions. The SAS

results indicated that outside judges could discriminate

among the levels of counselor effectiveness with a high

degree of interrater agreement. The outside judges were

found to make more discriminating and critical ratings

of the trainees than were the clients or peers. The client

ratings were correlated .37 with the outside judge ratings.

The clients rated most of the trainees highly which indi-

cates that "error of leniency" may have affected these

scores. The peer and outside judge ratings were correlated

.85 indicating agreement in their effectiveness ratings

of counselor trainees.









CHAPTER I


PROBLEM AND PURPOSE OP THE STUDY


Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship

between effectiveness ratings of counselor trainees and their

characteristic ways of perceiving counseling. Most generally,

this study investigates the theory that the ways in which a

person characteristically perceives the helping relationship

are related to his level of effectiveness as a helping

person. As such, it is an extension of a body of perceptual

research on the helping professions (Combs 1969). More

specifically, this study is an attempt to further specify

measurable criteria by which effective counselor trainees
can be distinguished from ineffective ones.


Statement of the Problem

The field of counseling, despite a great deal of

research effort, has so far been unable to develop speci-
fiable criteria which clearly distinguish between effective

and ineffective counselors. Attempts to distinguish
effective from ineffective counselors on the basis of










academic measures; personality, interest, and attitude

measures; and various behavioral measures have all failed
to produce clear and consistent results. However, it is

generally believed that competent professionals in the field

can and do distinguish between the bunglers and the experts,

but this is usually as far as the agreement goes. While

experts can agree on whether a counselor or counselor

trainee has got "it," i.e., the makings of a good counselor,

or not; they do not agree on what "it" is. The differences

do exist, but research attempts to pinpoint the character-

istics which differentiate between effective and ineffective

counselors have so far been unable to specify the desired

objective criteria. Until these criteria are specified, the

profession must fall back on the subjective judgment of its

experts.

Stefflre, King, and Leafgren (1962) state that this

lack of criteria presents a problem for the counseling

profession. "Given the realization that we cannot defin-

itely identify good counselors and given the societal obli-

gation to select and educate as if we did know, then how to

proceed?" The long range way out of this dilemma is for the

counseling profession to develop and verify through research

the criteria by which we can definitely identify good
counselors.

There is a great need for new research on counselor

effectiveness which would provide specifiable and workable











criteria for the selection, training, and evaluation of

counselors. Stablein (1962) points to this need in the

area of evaluation.

The need for evaluation should be of para-
mount concern to counselors and guidance
workers, and the obligation of the people
in the field to participate in enlightening
studies should be inculcated at all levels.
(p.66)
Stefflre, King, and Leafgren (1962) point to this need in

the areas of selection and training.

Until we have some idea of who is a good
counselor and who is a poor one, we may
have difficulty in both choosing candi-
dates for counselor education and in
shaping a curriculum to move them toward
desired behavior. (p.335)

Thus, the discovery and development of effectiveness cri-

teria will have far reaching beneficial effects on the

selection, training, and evaluation of counselors. The

present study is an attempt to move in this direction.


The Perceptual Approach

Perceptual psychology provides the basic theoretical

framework for this study. This view, as expressed in the

theory and research of Dr. Arthur Combs and his colleagues
at the University of Florida, holds that the internal per-

ceptions and perceptual organization of the individual

provide a viable perspective from which to study effective

counseling and other helping relationships. The










fundamental assumption behind this body of research in

perceptual psychology is that:

Persons who have learned to use themselves
as effective instruments in the production
of helping relationships can be dis-
tinguished from those who are ineffective
on the basis of their characteristic per-
ceptual organizations. (Combs 1969, p.14)
The perceptual approach may be contrasted with the more
behavioristic approaches which try to distinguish between

effective and ineffective helpers on the basis of their

differences in emitting certain specifiable behaviors.
According to perceptual psychology, behavior is a

function of an individual's "perceptual field." Perceptual

field is defined as the individual's unique perceptions of
himself and the world in which he lives. In the words of
Combs, Avila, and Purkey:

The individual's behavior is a function
of all those perceptions existing for
him at a given moment. The word "per-
ception" is used by psychologists in
this persuasion to mean more than "see-
ing." It refers to "meaning," the
peculiar significance of an event for
the person experiencing it. In this
sense, the behavior of a person at any
moment is understood as the direct con-
sequence of the field of meanings
existing for him at that instant.
(1971, p.25)
The perceptual approach, which emphasizes the need to
understand a person's perception of events, can be dis-

tinguished from the behavioral approach, which emphasizes

the need to focus on a persons overt observable behaviors.
In the behavioral approach, the focus is on man's motoric










system, the ways in which man expresses himself. The per-

oeptual approach, on the other hand, is concerned with man's

ways of perceiving; in other words, the ways in which man
is impressed with the world. The behaviorist is concerned

with man's expressions, while the perceptual psychologist

is concerned with man's.impressions. For the perceptual
psychologist, it is not the specific behaviors that make a
professional effective, but rather the perceptions behind
those behaviors.

The perceptual approach can also be distinguished from
the behavioral approach based on the differing points of

view from which their proponents approach themselves and the

world. The perceptual psychologist approaches himself and
the world from an internal, first person point of view.
With this emphasis on the first person perspective, per-

oeptual psychology joins hands with other phenomenological
approaches. In the words of Donald Snygg:

For whatever purpose behavior is to be
studied, it must be observed from one of
two distinct points of view. It may be
studied objectively, as by an outside
observer or it may be studied phenomeno-
logically, from the point of view of the
behaving organism itself. The facts
derived from these two points of view
are non-identical and are often com-
pletely contradictory. (1941, p.406)
This emphasis on the internal point of view can be seen in
the definition of one of perceptual psychology's basic
constructs, the "perceptual field." Perceptual field is

defined as, "The entire universe, including himself, as it










is experienced by the individual at the instant of action"

(Combs and Snygg, 1959, p.20) (emphasis added).

On the other hand, behavior observed from an external

point of view is seen by the perceptual psychologist as

merely a symptom of the dynamic elements of the individual's

perceptual organization. In the words of Combs and Snyggs

Behavior we observe in others, like the
symptoms of disease or the rumble of
thunder in a storm, are but the external
manifestations of dynamic processes with-
in the system we are observing. Some-
times, it will be enough to deal with
such surface indications. For deeper and
more precise understanding, however, it
will be necessary for us to penetrate
behind the behavior trait to more dynamic
factors in the unique character ofthe
individual's personal self and the goals,
techniques, and values through which this
self is expressed. (p.121)

Thus, rather than merely observe external behavior, the

perceptual psychologist "reads behavior backwards;" that

is, he makes inferences from a person's external behavior

back to the internal organization of the person's per-

ceptions.(p.35)..

To summarize, there are two basic concerns which

distinguish the perceptual approach from the behavioral

approach: (1) perceptual psychology is primarily concerned

with perceptual organization (impressions) rather than overt

behavior (expressions). And, (2) perceptual psychology is

primarily concerned with the first person internal point of

view rather than with the third person external point of

view.










The Development of the Perceptual Dimensions

The possibility of investigating effective helping
relationships from an internal point of view was the moti-
vating force behind a graduate seminar in 1959 at the
University of Florida. This seminar began the work of
identifying perceptual characteristics which its members
hypothesized would be significant in determining the effect-
iveness of helping professionals. Participants in the
seminar speculated that effective helpers could be described

in terms of their perceptions in five major areas: (1) the
general frame of reference from which the helper approached
his situation, (2) the ways in which the helper perceived
other people, (3) the ways in which the helper perceived
himself, (4) the ways in which the helper perceived the task
with which he was confronted, and (5) the ways in which the
helper perceived appropriate methods for carrying out his
purposes. The participants in the seminar came up with over
forty dichotomies which they hypothesized would be sig-
nificant in distinguishing effective from ineffective
helpers. These original perceptual dichotomies are listed
below and on the following pages with the characteristics
listed on the left applying to effective helpers and those
on the right to ineffective helpers.

(1) General Frame of Reference
Internal External
Growth Orientation Fencing in or Controlling
Perceptual Meanings Facts, Events











People
Hopeful
Causation Oriented


Things
Despairing
Mechanics Oriented


(2) Perceptions of Other People Sees others as:


Capable
Trustworthy
Helpful
Unthreatening
Respectable
Worthy


Incapable
Untrustworthy
Hindering
Threatening
No Account
Unworthy.


(3) Perceptions of Self Sees self as:


Identified with People
Enough
Trustworthy
Liked
Wanted
Accepted
Feels Certain, Sure
Peels Aware
Self-Revealing

(4) The Helping Task and I


Apart from People
Wanting
Untrustworthy
Not Liked
Not Wanted
Not Accepted
Doubt
Unaware
Self-Concealing

ts Problems


Purpose is
Helping
larger Meanings
Altruistic
Understanding
Accepting
Valuing Integrity

Approach to problem is
Positive
Open to Experience
Process Oriented
Relaxed
Awareness of Complexity
Tolerant of Ambiguity


Dominating
Smaller Meanings
Narcissistic
Condemning
Rejecting
Violating Integrity

Negative
Closed to Experience
Ends Oriented
Compulsion to Change Other
Oversimplification
Intolerant of Ambiguity


(5) Perceptions of Methods Sees appropriate methods as:


Helping
Cooperation
Acceptance
Acceptance
Permissive


Manipulating
Competition
Appeasing
Rejecting (Attacking)
Authoritarian


o_ .._












Open Communication Closed Communication
Giving Withholding
Vital Lifeless

(Combs, 1961, pp.56-57)
Since the 1959 seminar, over fifty dichotomies of

effective and ineffective helpers have been suggested.
These dichotomies are used as the anchoring points of seven
point continue called perceptual dimensions. In the re-
search studies that followed the 1959 seminar, trained
raters, using various samples of the behavior of helpers,
measured the perceptual characteristics of professional
helpers on over thirty of these perceptual dimensions. This
approach has been used to obtain measures of the perceptions
of counselors, elementary teachers, secondary teachers,
community college teachers, professors, nurses, and pastors.
These studies have been carried out at the University of
Florida, University of Northern Colorado, and Wayne State
University. Significant correlations between various per-
ceptual dimensions and criterion measures of effectiveness
have been found (Combs and Soper 1963; Gooding 1964; Benton

1964; Usher 1966; Vonk 1970; Brown 1970; Dellow 1971;
Rotter 1971; Dedrick 1972; and Jennings 1973). These
studies form a body of research giving strong support to
the perceptual approach as a method of identifying and
specifying characteristics of effective helpers.










Synopsis of the Study

The subjects for this study were graduate students in

counseling at the University of Florida enrolled in two

sections of the Counselor Education Department's Counseling
Theory and Laboratory course. During the class, the stu-
dents were shown films of two actual counseling sessions to

which they made written responses describing what they were

"experiencing in the counseling relationship" at seven

preselected stopping points. Three trained judges made

inferences from these written responses to the counseling
films in order to obtain measures of the perceptual charact-

eristics of the counselor trainees on seven selected
perceptual dimensions. Three of the seven dimensions were

developed by the writer and are investigated for the first

time in this study. Outside judges who viewed two

four-minute videotaped segments of each of the trainee's

counseling rated the counselor effectiveness of the

trainees on an adapted version of the Self-Anchoring Scale.
In one of the two sections of the course, the researcher

obtained client ratings of counselor effectiveness. Under-

graduate students rated the counselor trainees on the
Self-Anchoring Scale after each of the students bad been

a client with a trainee for a thirty-minute counseling
session. In the other section, the researcher obtained

peer ratings of counselor effectiveness. The trainees who
were members of the same lab training groups rated each










other on the Self-Anchoring Scale. They rated each other
twice: once after having served as a client with the
trainee and a second time at the end of the course for a
summary rating.
The relationships between the perceptual dimension
ratings and the counselor effectiveness ratings by the
outside judges were measured by use of Pearson product-
moment correlations. A multiple regression analysis was
also used to see what combinations of the perceptual
dimensions might be the best predictors of the outside
judge counselor effectiveness ratings. In addition, the
relationships between the client ratings and outside judge
ratings, and between the peer ratings and outside judge
ratings were examined by use of Pearson correlations.


Questions Posed for the Study

The questions posed for this study are

(1) What is the relationship between the inferred
perceptual characteristics of counselor trainees and
outside judge ratings of counselor effectiveness?
(2) What combinations of perceptual dimensions have
the highest predictive power in determining the outside
judge counselor effectiveness ratings?

(3) What is the relationship between the outside
judge and the client ratings of counselor effectiveness?

(4) What is the relationship between the outside
judge and the peer ratings of counselor effectiveness?

(5) What are the interrelationships between the
perceptual dimensions?









CHAPTER II


REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


Introduction

This chapter includes a review of the literature on:

(1) Global ratings as criteria for counselor effectiveness
as produced by staff (instructors and supervisors), peers,
a combination of peers and staff, clients, coached clients,
and the counselors themselves; (2) Outside judges' ratings
of videotaped segments of counseling; (3) Characteristics

of effective counselors as assessed by academic measures and
by personality, interest, and attitude measures; (4) An
overview of perceptual research studies; (5) A table
summarizing the results of ten studies of the relationship
between perceptual dimensions and various criteria of
helper effectiveness; and (6) A review of the perceptual
studies most relevant to the present.study.


Counselor Effectiveness Eatings

Introduction
Walton and Sweeney (1969), in their review of counselor

effectiveness research, point out that global effectiveness
12









ratings have enjoyed widespread use as criteria in counseling
studies. Support for this approach is given by Russo, Kelz,,
and Hudson (1964), Combs and Soper (1963), and Stefflre,
King, and Leafgren (1962). Among the more common methods
of evaluating the effectiveness of counselor trainees are:
peer judgments, supervisory judgments, "neutral" expert
judgments, and a combination of peer and supervisory judg-
ments (Engle and Bets 1971). Client and coached client
ratings are also being used in research to evaluate coun-
selor effectiveness (Grigg and Goodstein 1957, 1959;
Mollvaine 1972). A review of the literature on the use
of staff ratings, peer ratings, a combination of peer and
staff ratings, client ratings, coached-client ratings, and.
counselor self ratings is presented below.

Staff Eatings
Staff (instructor and supervisor) ratings have been
used as a criterion measure of counselor effectiveness in
studies by Combs and Soper (1963), Demos and Zuwaylif (1966),
Wioas and Mahan (1966), Milliken and Paterson (1967), Gade
(1967), Watley (1967), Allen (1967), Brown and Cannaday
(1969), and numerous others. In general, these studies
report adequate interrater reliabilities. For example, the
five staff members in Gade's study achieved an interstaff
ranking reliability of .796 as computed by the coefficient
of concordance statistical formula. Watley (1967) found
adequate interrater agreement in a study which had three









supervisors rate fourteen counselors on a 1-14 likert scale.

Paulkenberry (1968) comparing the evaluation of counselor
effectiveness by supervisor, peer, role player, and self
ratings concludes that in overall evaluation and in specific

items relating to the effective dynamics of the inter-
personal relationship, supervisors were found to have
greater agreement-in evaluation than other groups of raters.

Peer Ratings

More recently, much attention has been given to the

use of peer judgments in rating counselor effectiveness.
High interrater reliabilities among peers have been reported.

Stefflre, King, and Leafgren (1962) reported a peer agree-
ment correlation of .96 as computed by the Kuder-Richardson
formula. Priesan and Dunning (1973) reported a peer
reliability measure of .90. In addition to this high

reliability, they found that'students tended to rate their
peers more favorably than did supervisors. Thus, there
may be some tendency for peer ratings to be affected by
"error of leniency" (Guilford, 1954, p.278). Although
fewer research studies have been carried out with peer
ratings than supervisor ratings, a review of the literature
lends encouraging support to the use and development of
peer ratings of counselor effectiveness.

Combination of Peer and Staff Ratings
Researchers have also used a combination of staff and
peer ratings in evaluating counselor effectiveness (Wicas










and Mahan 1966; Kagan and Krathwohl 1967; McWhirter and
Marks 1972). Studies comparing peer judgments with super-
visor ratings found correlations which were positive, sig-
nificant, and of the magnitude of .60 to .90 (MoDougal and
Reitan 1961; Steffler, King, and Leafgren 1962; and Dilley
1964). Mendoza (1968) found that peer group rankings of
counselor effectiveness were predictive of supervisor
rankings of effectiveness after an introductory counseling
practicum. Wicas and Mahan (1966) found in their study
that only one ranking of effectiveness would have changed
by shifting from professional leader to peer rankings.
Engle and Betz (1971) concluded that in general peer ratings
showed more promise than standardized tests, academic per-
formance, and other measures of prediction. They warned,
however, that peer ratings in educational institutes tend
to correlate higher with supervisor ratings than peer
ratings in regular educational programs.

Client Ratings
In the field of counseling, many authors agree that
one valid way to evaluate the effectiveness of counseling
is through the perceptions of the client (Shoben 1953;
Arbuckle 1956; Patterson 1958; Goodstein and Grigg 1957,

1959; Pohlman and Robinson 1960; Grigg 1961; Pohlman 1961;
Mueller, Gatsch, and Ralston 1963; Severinsen 1966; Rosen
1967; and Thompson and Miller 1970).










Grigg and Goodstein (1957) succinctly state the case
for the use of clients in evaluating counselor effective-
ness. They contend that:
Some appraisal of the client's reaction
to the counselor and to counseling should
be obtained before we can say that we
have any comprehensive understanding of
who makes a good counselor . a success-
ful practitioner, among other things, is
one who elicits favorable reactions from
the recipients of his services. (p.31)
When used for the evaluation of counseling, clients can be
viewed as "a pool of independent observers of a fairly well
delineated job performance" (p.31).
Brown and Cannaday (1969) reported significant positive
correlations between client and supervisor rankings of
counselor effectiveness. Studies using client ratings on
the Counselor Evaluation Inventory (CEI) (Linden, Shertzer,
and Stone 1965) have reported that these client ratings
correlate highly with supervisor ratings of counselor
effectiveness (Anderson and Anderson 1962; Correll 1956;
and Poole 1957). These studies provide encouraging support
for the use of client ratings of counselor effectiveness.

Coached Client Ratings
Most professional criticism of client ratings has

centered around their subjectivity and their propensity
for various kinds of bias (Pohlman 1961, 1964; Patterson

1958; and Rosen 1967). The removal of the subjectivity and
bias attributed to client ratings has been one of the










motivating forces in the development of coached-client
ratings. Many authors have pointed to the potential uses
of coached clients in counselor training and research
(Heller, Myer, and Kline 1963; Keltz 1966; Miller and Befus
1968; Whiteleyand Sprandal 1969; Whiteleyand Jakubowski

1969; and Mollvaine 1972). In a study by Mcllvaine, clients
were trained in objective rating techniques. These coached
clients were found to be more consistent and in agreement
with the criterion measure (effectiveness ratings of
practicum supervisors) than non-coached clients when
evaluating the counseling effectiveness of counselor
trainees. Whitely and Jakubowski have contended.that the
coached client may be a very valuable resource in counselor
education programs, especially in evaluating the inter-
personal skills of counselor trainees.

Counselor Self Ratings
When counselors rate their own effectiveness, the
ratings have tended to be consistently uncorrelated with
other counselor effectiveness measures. Paulkenberry (1968)
compared supervisor, peer, and self ratings of videotaped
counseling sessions. On the measure of overall effective-
ness, self ratings of effectiveness were not in agreement
with the supervisor and peer ratings as computed by the
Pearson product-moment correlation statistical technique.
In a study by Brams (1961), supervisor, peer, and self
ratings of counselor trainees on the Communication Rating












Scale (ORS) were used as criterion measures. Pearson
product-moment correlations were computed among these
criterion measures. Peer ratings correlated .73 with

supervisor ratings. Self ratings correlated .22 with the
supervisor ratings and .21 with peer ratings. Brams con-
oludes that self ratings do not appear to be an accurate
measure-of effectiveness since the trainees rated them-
selves consistently high. A study by Brown and Cannaday

(1968) examined the extent of agreement between counselor,
counselee, and supervisor ratings of overall counseling
effectiveness. Upon completion of a counseling session,
both counselor and counselee filled out the Counseling
Evaluation Inventory (CEI). The correlations among coun-
selor self ratings and those of oounselee and supervisor
ratings were very low and not significant. The correlation
between counselees' ratings and those of supervisors was
.81, significant beyond the .01 level. In contrast with
Brans' findings, only one counselor trainee rated himself
higher than his counselee and supervisor ratings, and three
rated themselves much lower. These findings which con-
sistently show a lack of correlation between self ratings
and other measures of counselor effectiveness indicate that
self ratings may not provide a viable approach to the
measurement of counselor effectiveness.










Summary

In conclusion, a review of the research literature

tends to support the use of global ratings of counselor
effectiveness by peers. Interrater reliabilities and
correlations between peer and staff measures of counselor

effectiveness tend to be positive and of sufficient mag-

nitude to support their continued use in counseling research

There is also support in the literature for the use of
client and coached-client ratings in the evaluation of

counselor effectiveness. Counselor self ratings, however,

do not appear to provide a viable approach for the eval-
uation of counselor effectiveness.


Outside Judge Ratings of Videotaped Segments
of Counseling

Rogers and Dymond (1954) report some of the first
research to use judges' blind ratings of clinical material.

In the years following these beginning research efforts,

there has been a rapid expansion of this type of process
research. Students of Rogers, especially Truax and Carkhuff

(1967), have generated a great deal of process research
using judges' ratings of audiotaped counseling sessions. As
improved audiovisual technology became more available, more

research began using videotaped material as a data source.
Kagan and Krathwohl (1967) have done much research using

videotaped samples of counseling in the evaluation of their










Interpersonal Process Recall (IPR) technique. Shapiro
(1966), Kagan and Krathwohl (1967), and Carkhuff (1969)
have expressed a preference for audiovisual over audio
recordings of counseling because the audiovisual record
includes the nonverbal aspects of the interaction.
Previous research with audio and videotaped material
has resulted in the development of guidelines for the
selection of the length and location of videotaped samples
extracted from counseling sessions. Research has also been
carried out giving empirical support to these selection
guidelines. Kiesler, Mathieu, and Klein (1964) had judges
rate two, four, eight, and sixteen-minute segments of
counseling on Gendlin's Experiencing Scale. They reported
that rater reliabilities, scale range, and relative ordering
of individuals were unrelated to segment length. Hart (1961)
suggests that the four-minute segment is as reliable a
sample for rating as any other time unit. Ivey et.al..

(1968) report several research studies on the use of micro-
counseling in counselor training programs. In their
research, five-minute videotaped segments were rated by
outside judges. Kiesler (1965) did a study on the problem
of segment location. Forty-minute therapy sessions were
divided into five eight-minute segments which were rated on
Gendlin's Experiencing Scale. Higher discrimination were
made in the later portions of the sessions. Kiesler concludes
that segments taken from the final portion of the interview










are superior to segments in earlier portions. Kagan and

Krathwohl suggest rating the middle segment of the coun-

seling session. Kiesler warns of the susceptibility of

random selection of segments to bias when the number of
observations is small. After a review of the relevant

literature in this area, Carkhuff offers the following

guidelines for the selection of counseling segments for
rating:

a. It is usually most efficient to
employ samples of the briefest duration
(approximately 2 minutes), except in
certain cases such as experimental studies.

b. Random or predesignated means of
sampling or a combination of both (for ex-
ample, random selections within designated
periods) will increase the probability of
securing representative excerpts.

o. Excerpts from late within the
individual session as well as from later
sessions within the total counseling
program should be included if at all
possible.

d. Excerpts should include at a
minimum a helpee-helper-helpee inter-
action.
(Carkhuff, 1969, p.228)


Characteristics of Effective Counselors

Academic Measures

The traditional criteria of academic test scores and
grade point averages have been shown to have little or no
correlation with measures of counselor effectiveness.









Walton and Sweeney (1969) summarize their review of the
research by stating that "academic ability and achievement
are rather poor predictors of counselor effectiveness"
(Walton and Sweeney, 1969, p.33). Studies by Wittmer and
Lister (1971), Abeles (1958), Blocker (1963), McGreevy
(1967), Arbuckle (1968), Myrick and Kelly (1971), and
Anthony, Gormally, and Miller (1974) have all found little
or no correlation between academic ability and counselor
effectiveness.

Personality, Interest, and Attitude Measures
Surveys of the research literature by Stripling and
Lister (1963), Hill and Green (1960), Patterson (1967),
Cottle (1953), Dole (1964), Walton and Sweeney (1969),
Jennings (1973), Linden, Stone, and Shertzer (1965), and
Heikkinen and Wegner (1973) point out the many inadequacies,
inconsistencies, and the inconclusiveness of the research
in which personality, interest, and attitude measures have
been used in attempts to discriminate between effective and
ineffective counselors. Personality characteristics, while
considered important, were found to be very difficult to
measure (Stripling and Lister 1963). Dole (1964) found
that researchers tend to be skeptical about their ability
to develop adequate instruments for measuring nonintellect-
ive differences.
Of the many instruments reviewed, the Rokeach Dogmatism
Scale appeared to show the most promise, while the MMPI






































U3 J2ER0i8 5F 7tORiDA
Ill ll l 6llIIIIIIIIIIII l l l l I
3 1262 08552 7629









appeared to show the least promise (Walton and Sweeney 1969;
Heikkinen and Wegner 1973).
In general, a review of the literature on personality,
interest, and attitude measures of counselor effectiveness
reveals that (1) a great deal of research has been done in
this area; and that (2) there is a great diversity of
opinion on the results of this research.


The Perceptual Approach to Counselor Effectiveness

According to the proponents of the perceptual approach,
as outlined in Chapter I, effective helping persons can be
distinguished from ineffective helping persons on the basis
of their characteristic perceptual organization. Over fifty
perceptual dichotomies have been proposed for the develop-
ment of perceptual dimensions which will distinguish between
the characteristic perceptual organizations of effective and
ineffective helpers. Much research has been carried out to
test these hypotheses that various perceptual dimensions can
make statistically significant discrimination between
effective and ineffective helpers.
To date, over twenty studies have been completed which
have used various perceptual dimensions to measure the
perceptual organizations of counselor trainees (Combs and
Soper 1963), counselors (Rotter 1971), residence assistants
(Jennings 1973), elementary teachers (Gooding 1964),
secondary school teachers (Brown 1970), junior college


















teachers (Dedrick 1972), college professors (Usher 1966,
Choy 1969, and Doyle 1969), nurses (Dickman 1967), and
priests (Benton 1964). These studies have been carried
out at the University of Florida, the University of Northern
Colorado, and Wayne State University. These studies form
a body of research which gives strong support to the per-
ceptual approach as a viable way of identifying and speci-
fying measurable characteristics of effective helpers.
An examination of ten of these studies which have
revealed significant correlations between perceptual
dimensions and various criterion measures of professional
helper effectiveness provides an impressive overview of
the consistently significant research:findings. An
examination of the results also shows which of the
dimensions have been examined more thoroughly than others
(see Tables 1-A, 1-B, 1-C, and 1-D on pp.25-28).







TABLE 1-A

An Examination of the Perceptual Dimensions Utilised in Ten Previous Studies

Category 1i General Frame of Reference


Previous Research Studies
Combe &. Gooding Benton Doyle Vonk Brown Jennings Dedrick
Perceptual Dimensions Soper (Elem (Prie- (Coll (Tchre) (OYE (Resident (Jr Coll
(Cnels) Tchre) eto) Tchre) Tchra) Assists) Tcbrs)


People-Things 8 S S -

Internal-External 3 S S S

Perceptual-Pacts S -

Immediate-Historical 8 -

Openness-Closedness 8 S -
(to experience)

Hopeful-Despairing -


S Significant Differences
NS Not Significant
- Not Measured


1Vonk
"Disoovering Meaning-Giving Information"


*Selected for Use in the
Present Study


ru
. ro








TAMB 1-B

An Examination of the Perceptual Dimensions Utilised in Ten Previous Studies
Category 2t Peroeptions of Others


Previous Research Studies
Combs & Gooding Benton Usher Brown Jenninge Choy Dedriok
Perceptual Dimensions Soper (Elem (Prie- (Profs) (OYE (Resident (Tohre) (Jr Coll
(Cnile) Tchre) ate) Tchrs) Assists) Tchre)


Able-Unable 8 S .8 8
Dapendable-Undepandable 8 8 -

Priendly-Unfrienly 8 8 -
Worthy-Unworthy 8 8 8 8 8 8
Internnl-E.tsrnal S 8 -
Helpful-Hindering S -

Threatnig-Untreatenin 8 -


8 Significant Differences
NS Not Significant
- Not Measured


*
Selected for Use in the
Present Study














Perceptual Dimensions


1'


Identified-Unidentified1 8

Able-Unable2 S

Dependable-Undependable

Worthy-Unworthy

Wanted-Unwanted

Well Informed-Ignorant

Certain-Doubting

Positive Self-Negative Self -


Combs & Gooding Benton Usher Doyle Vonk Brown Jennings Choy Dedrick
Soper (Elem (Prie- (Profe) (Coll (Tchre) (OYE (Resident (Coll (Jr Coll
(Cnsle) Tchre) ate) Tchre) Tobre) Assists) Tcbre) chbr) .


S

S


S
s


S


S


- S

- S


ENS -

- 8 -


- -


- S S


S -

S


S a Significant Differenoee Dedrick, Jenninge, and Brown
S8 HNot Significant "With People-Apart from People
- Not Measured 2Dedriok, Jennlngs
"Adequate-Inadequate"


Selected for Uce in thn
Present Study


__ __ I







TABEI 1-D


An Exannination of the Pi-oeptual Dimensions Utilised in Ten Previoue Studies

Category 4t Perdeption of Purpose


Previous Research Studies
Oombe & Gooding Benton Usher Vonk Brown Jennings Dedrick
Perceptual Dimensions Soper (Elem (Prie- (Profs) (Tohre) (OYE (Resident (Jr Coll
.(Cnole) Tohra) ate) Echre) Asoiets) (chra)


Self Revealing-Concealing S 8 -
Preeing-Controlling1'2 S 8 NS S 8 8
Altruistic-Narciasistic 8 -- - -

Larger Goale-Smaller Goals 8 8 1S 3 S S -
Involved-Uninvolved S -
Process-Gcals S -
Active Methode-Paeeive Methods -


I -- a


S Significant Differences
NS Not Significant
- a Not Measured


Brown "Faoilitator-Evaluator"
2Von "Uniqueness-Conformity"
'Vonk "Seeking Student Ends-Seeking Own
Enda"
4Brown, Vonk "Broad Purposee-Narrow Purposee"


Adapted for Use in.the
Present Study
"Holistic-Detailed"










A Review of the Research on the Perceptual Dimensions
Selected for Use in this Study

Internal-External

Combs and Soper (1963) found that this dimension as
inferred from critical incidents was significantly-related
to supervisors' rankings of counselor trainee effectiveness.
Jennings (1973) found that student ratings of the effective-

ness of residence hall assistants on the Self-Anchoring
Scale (SAS) were significantly related to this dimension.
Gooding (1964) reported that this dimension discriminated
effective teachers from less effective teachers when the
dimensions were inferred from classroom observations but not

when they were inferred from personal interviews. In a
study of teacher effectiveness by Dellow (1971), this
dimension was significantly related to measures of empathy
and positive regard but not to congruence. Dedrick (1972)

reported that this dimension, when inferred from TAT
responses, was correlated significantly with student
ratings of community college instructor effectiveness on
the SAS but not with student ratings on the Purdue

Instructor Performance Indicator (PIPI). Dedrick also
found that when this dimension was inferred from critical
incidents, it was not correlated with student ratings on
the SAS or PIPI. All of the five studies cited above
found significant correlations between this dimension and
measures of helping effectiveness.










Able-Unable
This dimension was found to be significantly related
to measures of helper effectiveness in the studies by Combs
and Soper (1963), Jennings (1973), and Gooding (1964) as
was the case with the Internal-External dimension. However,
Dellow (1971) found that this dimension was not related to
measures of empathy, positive regard, or congruence.
Dedrick (1972) reported that this dimension, when inferred
from TAT responses, was correlated significantly with
student ratings on the SAS; but as was the case with the
Internal-External dimension, no other significant correla-
tions were reported. In addition, Benton (1964) reported
that when this dimension was inferred from a combination of
TAT responses, critical incidents, and problem responses,
it was significantly correlated with bishops' ratings of
their priests' counselor effectiveness. Usher (1966) found
that this dimension was significantly correlated with stu-
dent ratings of university professor effectiveness but not
with department head ratings, number of research publi-
cations or amount of professional activity. Six of the
seven studies cited above found this dimension to be sig-
nificantly correlated with measures of helper effectiveness.

With People-Apart from People
As was the case with the Internal-External and Able-

Unable dimensions, this dimension was found to be signifi-
cantly related to measures of helper effectiveness in the










studies by Combs and Soper (1963), Jennings (1973), and
Gooding (1964). Also, Benton (1964) found that this dimen-
sion was significantly related to bishops' ratings of their
priests' counseling effectiveness. Dedrick (1972) reported
that this dimension, when inferred from TAT responses, was
correlated significantly with student ratings on the SAS;
but as was the case with the Internal-External and Able-
Unable dimensions, no other significant correlations were
reported. Dellow (1971) found that this dimension was not
related to measures of empathy, positive regard, or con-
gruence. Usher (1966) did not find significant results
when he correlated this dimension with measures of uni-
versity professor effectiveness.
In addition, Doyle (1969), Brown (1970), and Vonk (1970)
all reported that this dimension was significantly related
to teacher effectiveness. In the study by Doyle (1969),
global effectiveness ratings of college teachers by admini-
strators, colleagues, and students were significantly
related to this dimension as inferred from the perceptions
of trained classroom observers. In Brown's (1970) study,
this dimension was inferred from an instrument containing
questions on classroom management, instructional objectives
and procedures, and self evaluations. This dimension
discriminated significantly at the .0005 level between a
group of finalists in the United States Jaycee Outstanding
Young Educator Award Program and a group of randomly












selected teacher graduate students. Vonk (1970) found that
this dimension when inferred from critical teaching inci-
dents was significantly correlated with pupil ratings of
teacher effectiveness on the SAS.
Of the ten studies using this dimension, seven reported
significant correlations with measures of helper effective-
ness, two reported no significant correlations, and one
study reported significance on one of its measures.

Holistic-Detailed
In previous research, this dimension was referred to
as "Larger Meanings-Smaller Meanings" and in studies by
Brown (1970) and Vonk (1970) as "Broad Purposes-Narrow
Purposes." As was the case with the three dimensions re-
viewed above, this dimension was found to be significantly
related to measures of helper effectiveness in the studies
by Combs and Soper (1963), Jennings (1973), and Gooding

(1964). Also, studies by Brown (1970) and Vonk (1970) both
reported that this dimension was significantly related to
measures of teacher effectiveness. However, Usher (1966)
did not find significant correlations between this dimension
and measures of university professor effectiveness. Of the
six studies using this dimension, five reported significant
correlations with measures of helper effectiveness.











Perceptual Research on Counselor Effectiveness

The first study to test some of the hypothesized per-
ceptual dimensions was undertaken by Combs and Soper (1963).
Twenty-nine counselors in training, enrolled in a year-long
NDEA Guidance Institute, comprised the sample of subjects

used in the study. The counselors in training were asked
to write four Human Relations Incidents. In this critical
incident technique, subjects report human relations inoi-
dents in which they were personally involved in their
helping role with one or more other people. In a blind
analysis of these incidents, four judges rated the per-
ceptual characteristics of the counselors in training on
twelve of the original forty-one dimensions. The twelve
dimensions were as follows:

(I) General Frame of Reference .
1. Internal External
2. People Things
(II) Perceptions of Other People .
3. Able Unable
4. Dependable Undependable
5. Friendly Unfriendly
6. Worthy Unworthy
(III) Perceptions of Self .
7. With.People Apart from People
8. Self-Revealing Self-Concealing
9. Enough Wanting
(IV) Perceptions of Purpose
10. Larger Meanings Smaller Meanings
11. Freeing Controlling
12. Altruistically Narcissistically
Dimensions replicated in the present study










The criterion measure of effectiveness in.this study was a

composite of faculty rankings of the NDEA counselor trainees
at the end of the institute. The trainees were ranked in
terms of their promise as counselors. Rank order correla-

tions were computed between each perceptual variable and

the 'counselor effectiveness rankings. The resulting rho

correlations ranged from .40 to .65 in magnitude. All but

two (Enough-Wanting and Self Revealing-Self Concealing) of

the perceptual dimensions were effective discriminators,
significant at the .01 level. All twelve dimensions were

significant at the .05 level. Walton and Sweeney (1969),

in their review of the research on counselor effectiveness,
point to the Combs and Soper study as one of the more pro-

mising approaches to the study of counselor effectiveness.

The Combs and Soper study provides support for the

proposition that the perceptual organization of the helper
is of major importance in the helping relationship, yet this

study has never been replicated&-with counselor trainees.

The present study is closely related to this study by Combs
and Soper and can be viewed as a partial replication and
extension of this initial work.

Jennings (1973) investigated the perceptual character-
istics of effective and ineffective university housing
paraprofessional residence assistants. Dormitory students
rated the effectiveness of their residence assistants on
the Self-Anchoring Scale (Kilpatrick and Cantril 1960).










Prom the original group of forty-five residence assistants,

the fifteen with the highest student ratings were selected
as effective, and the fifteen with the lowest student ratings
were selected as ineffective. The residence assistants
were asked to complete three Human Relations Incidents, each
about a significant past event or problem situation which
involved them in their role as residence assistant with one
or more other persons. From these Human Relations Inci-
dents, three trained judges inferred the perceptual charac-
teristics of the residence assistants. Six perceptual
dimensions were selected and tested.

(I) General Prame of Reference .
1. Internal External
(II) Perceptions of Other People .
2. Able Unable
(III) Perceptions of Self a
3. With People Apart from People
4. Adequate Inadequate
(IV) Perceptions of the Helping Relationship
5. Larger Goals Smaller Goals
6. Freeing Controlling
Dimensions replicated in the present study
Jennings, using multivariate analysis, found five of the
six dimensions to be significant at the .01 level. One
dimension (Adequate-Inadequate) was significant at the .05
level. These results indicate that the scores on the
perceptual dimension scales can be used with high predict-
ive power in rating the effectiveness of residence assist-
ants.










Benton (1964) examined the perceptual characteristics of
Episcopal pastors rated effective and ineffective by their
bishops. Three bishops rated a sample of thirty-two pastors
in their diocese as effective or ineffective with respect to
their counseling abilities. Seventeen were rated effective
and-fifteen were rated ineffective. Three projective instru-
ments were administered to the pastors: (1) responses to ten
pastoral problems asked in an interview; (2) responses to
card 13MF of the Thematic Apperception Test; and (3) re-
sponses to three freely chosen personal pastoral incidents.
All three responses were tape recorded and comprised a
single protocol from which ratings on five perceptual dimen-
sions were made by three trained judges. The five per-
ceptual dimensions selected for study were
(I) Perceptions of Self *
1. With People Apart from People
(II) Perceptions of Other People ,
2. Able Unable
3. Persons Objects
(III) Perceptions-of Role and Task
4. Involved Uninvolved
5. Freeing Controlling
Dimensions replicated in the present study
Three of the dimensions (With People-Apart from People;
Able-Unable; Freeing-Controlling) were found to be signifi-
cant beyond the .005 level. Two of the dimensions (Persons-
Objects; Involved-Uninvolved) were found to be significant
beyond the .05 level. These results indicate.that effective
and ineffective pastoral counselors as judged by their










bishops can be distinguished on the basis of their differing

perceptual characteristics.

Dellow (1971) examined the relationship between two
different approaches to studying the effectiveness of pro-

fessional helpers: (1) the perceptual approach of Combs,

and (2) the facilitating conditions of Rogers. The two
approaches were examined by investigating the relationship

between selected perceptual characteristics of teachers and

their classroom conditions of empathy, congruence, and

positive regard as perceived by trained judges. The sample

consisted of thirty-four female elementary school teachers

of first, second, third, and fourth grades from various
counties in Florida. Each teacher completed two Human

Relations Incidents from their experiences with others as

a teacher. Trained judges inferred from these Human
Relations Incidents the perceptual characteristics of the

teachers on seven selected perceptual dimensions. Each

teacher taped a classroom reading lesson that was from 45

to 60 minutes in length. These tapes were rated by a
second set of trained judges using the Carkhuff scales for
the facilitating conditions of empathy, congruence, and

positive regard. The two sets of measures were found to
have low positive correlations. Dellow suggests that these
two approaches may be measuring different facets of teacher

behavior. The author also reported a high degree of

intercorrelation among the perceptual variables which









corroborate the observations of Combs that the perceptual

organization is holistic in nature.
Rotter (1971) examined the perceptual characteristics

of practicing elementary, secondary, and community college

counselors. Fifteen counselors in each setting were se-
lected for study. The counselors were asked to write a

Human Relations Incident from which two trained judges

inferred their perceptual characteristics. The data,
analyzed by use of one-way analysis of variance, revealed

no significant differences in perceptual characteristics
among the counselors within the study. There were no

significant differences among counselors in any one setting,

between settings, or among the total group of forty-five

counselors. The generally high perceptual ratings reported
indicate that the practicing counselors selected for this

study tended to have positive perceptual organizations. To

date, this is the only study which has measured the per-
ceptual characteristics of practicing counselors.

Sohoch (1965) rated the first and last counseling

interviews of twenty-three counselor trainees, using the

twelve perceptual dimensions previously examined by Combs
and Soper. Three trained judges rated the tapes of the
counseling sessions. The counselor trainees were in an
eleven-week program, and there was a four- to six-week

period between pre-and post-testing. Results of the study
showed change in the direction describing the perceptual
characteristics of effective helpers. The four categories










(General Frame of Reference, Perceptions of Other Persons,

Perceptions of Self, and Perceptions of Purpose) were

examined. The resulting t ratios were all significant at

the .01 level. Eighteen of the twenty-three subjects

showed some improvement on Category I, twenty on Category II,
twenty-one on Category III, and twenty-two of the twenty-
three on Category IV. Changes on the twelve individual
dimensions were not analysed. To date, this is the only

study which attempts to assess the effects of training on

the perceptual characteristics of counselor trainees.


Summary

This chapter reviewed the literature relevant to the

evaluation of counselor effectiveness. A review of the
literature on the use of global effectiveness ratings

supported their continued use as criteria in future research.
Staff, peer, client, and coached-client ratings showed

promise as ways of evaluating counselor effectiveness. The

research on counselor self ratings, however, indicated that

this method did not show promise as a way of evaluating
counselor effectiveness.
A review of the research using outside judges' ratings

of videotaped segments of counseling revealed guidelines for
the selection of segment length and location.
A review of the research on the characteristics of
effective counselors revealed that most of the previous





















research has sought to find the modal aptitude, interests,

attitudes, or personality characteristics of effective

counselors. The results of these many research efforts are,
by and large, inconsistent, contradictory, and, therefore,

inconclusive.

A review of the research studies using the perceptual

approach provides substantial support for further research

in this area. Effectiveness, as defined by various criteria,
was found to have positive and significant correlations with

the perceptual characteristics of numerous populations of
professional helpers. These positive findings were reported

both for professional helpers in general and for counselors
in particular.










CHAPTER III


DESIGN OF THE STUDY


Introduction

The present study is an extension of the perceptual

research on the characteristics of effective professional

helpers. It is also a partial replication of the original

Combs and Soper study. This study and the Combs and Soper

study both examine the relationship between the perceptual

characteristics and effectiveness ratings of counselor
trainees. Four of the twelve dimensions used by Combs and

Soper are examined again in this study.

Several additions and refinements were made for the

present study. Effectiveness ratings on the Self-Anchoring
Scale replaced the staff rankings used in the Combs and

Soper study. This enabled the gathering of interval data
instead of rank order data. Outside judge ratings instead
of instructor rankings were used as measures of counselor

effectiveness. The relationship between peer and outside
judge ratings, and between client and outside judge ratings
of effectiveness were also examined. A new method which

uses written responses to films of actual counseling
41










sessions was developed to generate the protocol data for

the rating of the perceptual dimensions. Three new dimen-
sions were developed for investigation. Five of the seven

dimensions used in the present study have been theoretically

linked to the intuitive process. This study also used a
multiple stepwise regression technique to examine what
combinations.of perceptual dimensions might have the high-

est predictive power in estimating the counselor effective-
ness ratings. These and other aspects of the research de-
sign are described on the pages that follow.


The Perceptual Dimensions

Seven perceptual dimensions were investigated in this

study. Over fifty perceptual dimensions have been suggested
for research in the helping professions. The original list

of proposed dimensions was presented in Chapter II (see

pp.7-9). This study used four of these original dimensions,
one from each of four categories.

The dimensions were selected on the basis of the number

of studies in which they have demonstrated significant
relationships with measures of helper effectiveness. Thus,
they are among the most promising and widely explored of

the perceptual dimensions in each of the four categories.
A partial replication of the Combs and Soper study is made
possible by the selection of four of the dimensions used
in their initial study:











I. General Frame of Reference

Internal External

Internal: The counselor trainee is sensitive
to and concerned with how things seem to others.
This sensitivity to and concern for the per-
ceptions (thoughts, values, feelings) of others
serves as a basis for understanding the behavior
of others.

Eternal: The counselor trainee is insensitive
to and unconcerned with how things seem to
others. Rather than be concerned with the
perceptions (thoughts, values, feelings) of
others, the counselor trainee is concerned
primarily with external behavior.

II. Perceptions of Other Persons

Able Unable
Able: The counselor trainee sees others as
having the necessary capacities to deal
effectively with their problems. He trusts
their ability to make their own decisions,
handle crises, and run their own lives. He
notices the strengths as well as the weak-
nesses in others and focuses in on the use
of their strengths to overcome weaknesses
and bring about positive changes.
Unable The counselor trainee sees others
as lacking the necessary capacities to deal
effectively with their problems. He doubts
their ability to make their own decisions,
handle crises, and run their own lives. He
focuses on the weaknesses of others; over-
looking their strengths, he doubts their
capacity to make positive changes.
III. Perceptions of Self
With People Apart from People

With People: The counselor trainee sees
himself as a part of mankind, as identified
with people and with groups. He perceives
himself as deeply and meaningfully related
to diverse persons and groups.










Apart from People: The counselor trainee
sees himself as apart, removed, withdrawn,
or alienated from other people. He per-
ceives himself as not deeply identified or
involved with diverse groups or persons.

IV. Perceptions of Purposes
Holistic Detailed
(Terminology used by Combs & Soper: Larger
Meanings-Smaller Meanings)

Holistic: The counselor trainee is sensitive
to and concerned with the overriding themes
and framework of his experiences. He takes
a broad synthesizing approach, looking at
connections and tying things together. He
seeks a grasp of the whole from which the
details are organized in order better to
understand situations. He is concerned with
the larger meanings in his experiencing.

Detailed: The counselor trainee is concerned
with details and specifics. He takes an
analytically atomistic approach, focusing
on isolated units and subparts. Taking a
narrow approach to experience, he is con-
cerned with the smaller meanings in his
experiencing.

The New Dimensions

Three new perceptual dimensions were developed by

the writer for the present study and for future research.
In the opinion of this writer, the three new dimensions

are best categorized under the heading of General Frame of
Reference. They are defined on the following pages.
Grounded Ungrounded

Grounded: The counselor trainee makes simple
and tentative hunches which follow directly
from and are closely tied to his direct
experiencing of himself and the world. He
focuses more on following the emerging data
rather than on abstract theorizing. Theorizing
is kept subordinate to experience.












Ungrounded: The counselor trainee engages
primarily in abstract theoretical elabor-
ations leaving the direct experiencing of
himself and the world far behind. He spends
most of his time categorizing and building
constructs, logical fitting games that are
not closely tied to his experiencing. He
structures his experiencing around his
theorizing, adopting complex theories on
the basis of little or no data.

Process Content

Process: The counselor trainee has a dynamic
rather than a static approach to his exper-
iencing. He is primarily concerned with
understanding his experiencing within the
context and sequence in which it occurs
rather than in the abstract. He is con-
cerned with the transitional aspects of
experience, with the "how" rather than
the "why" aspects of his experiencing.

Content: The counselor trainee has a static
rather than a dynamic approach to his ex-
periencing. He is primarily concerned with
analyzing his experiencing into fixed bits
of information. In his approach, interpre-
tations are abstracted out so that the
sequential and immediate aspects of his
experiencing are lost. The counselor
trainee is primarily concerned with the
"why" rather than the "how" aspects of his
experiencing.

Depth Surface

Depth: The counselor trainee moves deeply into
unknown areas and explores the subtle, vague,
implicit aspects of his experiencing in order
to gain a clearer and more thorough understand-
ing of his experience.

Surface: The counselor trainee remains within
the clear, distinct, factual, and explicit as-
pects of his experience. The vague and unknown
are left out so that his experiences can be
kept within the bounds of a pre-set system.










Theoretical Support for the Perceptual Dimensions
as Part of the Intuitive Process

This study is an outgrowth of an extended investigation

that began with a year-long exploration of the concept of

intuition. Intuition was explored because the writer felt

that the intuitive process was one of the keys to under-

standing effective helping relationships. Support for this

position was found in the writings of Allport (1929, 1961);
Board (1958); Gitelson (1942); Berne (1949, 1955, 1957,

1962); and others. The literature on intuition was found

to complement and support the use of many of the perceptual

dimensions. This writer's investigation into the nature of

intuition provided the basic insights necessary for the

development of the three new dimensions examined in this

study (Grounded-Ungrounded, Process-Content, Depth-Surface).

The investigation also brought about the modification of an

earlier dimension "Larger Meanings-Smaller Meanings" into

its present "Holistic-Detailed" form.

To provide a detailed presentation of the extensive

theoretical research into the nature of the intuitive

process is beyond the scope of this dissertation. However,
this writer believes that a brief outline of some of the

key concepts and writings is appropriate. Five of the
seven dimensions used in this study are given theoretical

support in the literature on intuition.
Internal-External: Theoretical support is found in

the literature on intuition for the use of the Internal-










External dimension in counseling research. The word
"intuition" itself comes from a Latin word meaning "to
enter inside" (Ornstein 1972). For Bergson intuition was
"knowledge from within" which could be gained by the powers
of "sympathy" (Luce 1922). In contemporary literature,
this process of acquiring "knowledge from within" is
referred to by the term "empathy." Empathy, as originally
proposed by Titchener, meant "feeling oneself into"
(Allport 1961). This term has gained widespread use through
the writings of Rogers, Truax, Carkhuff, and others

(Rogers 1958). Cohn (1968) believes that intuition, in
order to be accurate, requires empathy. These and other
writers all point to the internal rather than external
nature of-the intuitive process.
Holistic-Detailed: Theoretical support is also found
in the literature on intuition for the use of the Holistic-

Detailed dimension. For VanDerHoop (1937), intuition
involves seeing connections, the grasping of new relation-
ships. According to Hartmann (1931), the responses to
relations dominate over the responses to elements in the
intuitive state. For Allport (1961), intuition involves
"grasping the pattern" of events. Jung describes intuition
as the perception of wholes at the expense of details
(Westcott 1968). Intuition, according to Stocks (1939),
always "keeps the whole in mind." For Price (1933),
intuitive consciousness is totalisticc" and not










"progressive" or "additive" in nature. More recently,

Ornatein (1972) in his exploration of the nature of con-

sciousness, has contrasted the analytic with the holistic

functions of the brain. In these and other writings, the

intuitive process is characterized by a holistic rather

than a detailed approach to experience.

Grounded-Ungrounded: Theoretical support is found in

the literature on intuition for the proposition that re-

maining anchored in one's perceptions, being grounded rather

than ungrounded, is an important aspect of the intuitive

process. Frederick Perls in Gestalt Therapy Verbatim

speaks of establishing what he calls the "continuum of

awareness." This involves being more and more in touch

with oneself and the world instead of only being in touch

with one's fantasies, prejudices, intellectualizations,

apprehensions, and so on (1969, pp.50-51). For Board

(1958), intuition is facilitated by an "evenly hovering
attention." In the words of G. W. Allport:

Our perception of the stimulus-person is
the continuing and controlling factor in
our chain of inferences. We require a
powerful orientation to the other in order
to keep our chain of inferences anchored
to him. (1961, p.529)

Being ungrounded, on the other hand, is "when observations

and appraisals are narrowed to meet the demands of logical
categories" (Berne, 1962, p.298). When this occurs,

according to Berne, one's intuitive powers are limited.

These writers point to the importance of remaining grounded










in one's perceptions if an accurate 'and full understanding

of others is to be obtained. Being grounded aids the

intuitive process while being ungrounded limits it.

Process-Content: Bergson contrasts analysis with

intuition. For Bergson, analysis "freezes certain element-

ary relationships" while intuition "binds related aspects

in their continuous development" (Luce 1922). For Bergson,

then, analysis is static while intuition is dynamic in

nature. Both Bergson and Whitehead emphasize the important

role of the process aspects of experience in the functioning

of intuition (Johnson 1947).

The study of personality through a cross sectioning

or trait-factor approach puts the emphasis on content

rather than process. It is not surprising then to find

that Allport, who advocated the study of man through

intuition which he later referred to as "patterned per-

ception," expressed a preference for "studying longitud-

inally the life process of the individual" and not studying

man through a cross sectioning or trait-factor approach.

Focusing on process rather than content is important

in the context of the counseling situation itself. In

describing the role of the counselor or therapist, Gendlin (1961).

states that:

Instead of concerning oneself with content,
one asks, "What larger inward process is
this bit of verbalization coming from?"
One answer to this question will be some-
thing felt, a conceptually vague felt
meaning which the client feels and thinks,
and which the therapist can only imagine. (p.9)










A survey of the literature on intuition indicates that:

(1) focusing on the process rather than the content as-

pects of experience is important for the functioning of

the intuitive process, that.(2) this intuitive process is

important in the study of personality, and that (3) in-

tuition is important in the counseling process itself.

Depth-Surface: The therapist must use his intuition

in order to be skillfull in detecting latent rather than

merely manifest communications (Berne 1949). Intuition,

then, is important in the therapy process since it facili-

tates an in-depth understanding of the client. Gitelson

(1942) emphasizes the importance of intuitive awareness
for psychiatry

Psychiatry has no place for a crude
empiricism which takes symptoms at their
face value and deals with them according
to a rule of thumb therapy. The
psychiatrist, operating from a thorough
knowledge of the laws of interpersonal
experience and behavior, must quickly
penetrate the overt symptoms to a
realization of what they imply. By
such an intuitive awareness of the
basic realities of the patient's problem,
the likelihood of positive outcome is
increased. (p.185)
Laura Newman (1968) writes that "an understanding of the

client which goes deeper than mere external observations

seems essential for counseling gains." The perceptual
approach also emphasizes the need for a depth rather than

a surface understanding of others (see quote by Combs and

Snygg on p.6 of this dissertation).










These and other writers suggest that an in-depth rather

than a surface understanding of the client is important for

successful client growth whether it be through a counselor,

a therapist, or a psychiatrist. These writers also suggest

that it is the intuitive process which is important in

gaining this kind of in-depth understanding.

In conclusion, a review of the theoretical literature

on the nature of intuition provides substantial support for

the use of these five dimensions in counseling research..
In the literature, the intuitive process is often character-

ized by: an internal rather than an external frame of

reference; a holistic rather than detailed focus to

experience; a grounded rather than ungrounded approach to

experience; a concern with the process rather than the
content aspects of experience; and a focus on the depth

rather than the surface aspects of experience.


Formal Statement of Rypotheses

(1) There will be a significant positive relationship
between the trained raters' scores on the perceptual

dimensions and the outside judge ratings of counselor
effectiveness as measured on the Self-Anchoring Scale.
Counselor trainees rated more effective on the Self-
Anchoring Scale by outside judges who have viewed video-

taped segments of the trainees' counseling will be charao-

terized by trained raters on the perceptual dimensions as:










(a) having more of an internal rather than an
external frame of reference.

(b) being more grounded rather than ungrounded
in their perceptions.

(c) focussing more on the process rather than
the content aspects of experience.

(d) being more concerned with and exploring
more the depth rather than the surface
aspects of experience.

(e) perceiving the helping relationship in
a more holistic rather than detailed way.

(f) perceiving other people as more able than
unable.

(g) perceiving themselves as more identified
with people than apart from people.

(2) There will be a significant positive relationship

between outside judge ratings and client ratings of

counselor effectiveness as measured on the Self-Anchoring

Scale.

(3) There will be a significant positive relationship
between outside judge ratings and peer ratings of

counselor effectiveness as measured on the Self-Anchoring

Scale.


Inferred Perceptual Data

Previous Methods of Obtaining Protocol Data

In previous perceptual research studies, various

methods have been used to gather samples of helper responses

from which trained raters oan infer the perceptual organi-
zation of subjects. For example, the following methods









have been used previously: observations of classroom

behavior (Gooding 1964, Usher 1966, and Doyle 1969); inter-
views (Gooding 1964); critical human relations incidents

(Combs and Soper 1963, Vonk 1970, Dellow 1971, and Jennings

1973); questionnaires of classroom management, objectives
and procedures, and self evaluations (Brown 1970); and the
Thematic Apperception Test (Benton 1964, Dedrick 1972).
In these methods, trained judges rated the subjects on the

various perceptual dimensions by reading written protocols

or by listening to audiotaped interview protocols.

A New Method for Obtaining Protocol Data

For this study, a new method of collecting protocol
data was developed. Central to this study is the idea

that effective counselor trainees can be distinguished
from ineffective counselor trainees on the basis of their

characteristic ways of perceiving the helping relationship,
most specifically their ways of perceiving counseling
relationships. In order to collect data most relevant to

this idea, the writer decided to ask the subjects to

respond in writing to films of actual counseling sessions.
Two films were selected for this purpose (Lane, David,
"Counselor Education Film Series #2," University of Florida

Films, 1967; and Rogers, Carl, "Three Approaches to Psycho-
therapy, Part I," Psychological Films, Santa Ana, California,

1965). Both films are of actual counseling sessions, one
in which Sidney Jourard counsels with an adult male and






54



the other in which Carl Rogers counsels with an adult

female. As shown to the subjects, the films were not

introduced or interrupted by any analysis, interpretation,
or evaluation of the counseling. Seven stopping places in

each film were selected by this writer and two other

counselor educators as key points in each of the counseling

sessions. (See Appendix A for a listing of the stopping

places.) The films were shown to the subjects who were

asked to write for two and one-half minutes at each

stopping point on "what they were experiencing in the

counseling at that point." At the end of each film, the

subjects were asked to imagine that they had just finished

counseling with the client and to write some case notes
which would include: (1) their assessment of the client,

(2) the crux of the counseling problem as they experienced

it, and (3) their ideas for helping the client in future
sessions. (See Appendix B for the instructions for the

film responses given to the subjects.)

A similar procedure for collecting data was developed

by Strupp (1960) and used by Allen (1967) in a study of

counselor trainee effectiveness. Counselor trainees made
written responses to a film of. an actual counseling session
which was interrupted in twenty-eight places. The task

given to subjects differs from the task given to subjects

in the present study. In the Allen study, subjects were

asked to write down the response they would make to the










client were they the counselor. In this.study, subjects

were asked to report their perceptions of the helping

relationship.

A pilot study was carried out by this writer in the

Winter Quarter of 1974 at the University of Florida. The

Jourard counseling film was used to generate the written

protocols. The students in two sections of the Counseling

Theory and Laboratory course were used as subjects for the

study. Each class was treated as a separate sample so

that the study contained a built-in replication. Ratings

on ten perceptual dimensions, including those developed

by the writer, yielded two and five significant Spearman

rho correlations with instructor ratings of counselor

effectiveness as measured on the Self-Anchoring Scale. The

positive findings seemed to indicate that judges' scores

of the perceptual dimensions, when inferred from the

protocols generated from counseling films, are, in at least

some cases, significantly related to counselor effectiveness

ratings. Further exploration of the film protocol method

seemed warranted.

In this study two films were used in order to obtain

some between-film reliability data from which to examine

the possibility that the perceptual dimension ratings might

be different when protocols were generated from different

counseling films. Specific film content might intervene

in ways that change the perceptual dimension ratings.










A Pearson product-moment correlation was computed between
the two sets of film protocol scores for this purpose.
This newly developed method for obtaining protocol

data seemed to have, in the opinion of this writer, advan-

tages over previously used methods because: (1) it is
more clearly and directly related to the problem being

explored; and (2) all subjects respond to the same stimulus.
This is not the case with the critical incident technique.

Scoring the Perceptual Dimensions
The author and two other trained judges scored the

protocols on the seven selected perceptual dimensions.

The judges were doctoral students in Counselor Education,
selected on the basis of their previous experience and

background in the theory and research of perceptual

psychology. All three of the judges had completed all

of their practicum and internship experiences and were in

the final stages of their doctoral programs. All three

were currently working on dissertations involving the use
of the perceptual dimensions.
The training of the judges took place over a two

month period and followed the basic training pattern
established in previous perceptual research (Dedrick 1972,
Jennings 1973). The training-included five phases:
Phase I: The training began with a general review
and discussion of perceptual psychology. The process of
inferring the perceptual characteristics of the subjects









from their written protocols was emphasized and discussed as

an approach to scoring the dimensions. The judges were

taught to "read behavior backwards." The goal of this phase

of training was to ensure that the judges obtained a common

frame of reference from which to operate in their scoring

of the dimensions.

Phase II: The seven perceptual dimensions to be

examined in the study were presented and their definitions

discussed. Judges were presented with scoresheets for

each of the dimensions. (See Appendix C for a copy of the

perceptual dimension scoresheets.) The goal of this

phase of the training was for the judges to obtain a clear

and common understanding of the meaning of each of the

perceptual dimensions. The judges were given a copy of

the instructions presented to the subjects along with two

sample protocols and shown the Jourard film so they could

get an idea of how the protocol data were generated.

Phase III: Sample protocols, collected by this

writer in a Fall 1973 pilot study, were presented and

discussed to illustrate a range of scores on each of the

seven dimensions. The purpose of this phase of training

was to help the judges apply their understanding of the

dimensions to actual samples of protocol data.
Phase IVs In this phase, judges independently scored

sample protocols on each of the seven dimensions. After

the scores were tabulated, the judges explained and dis-

cussed their ratings. A person who had served as a judge






58



of perceptual dimensions in previous perceptual research
studies also attended two of the meetings to compare and
discuss his ratings with the judges. The interrater
reliability of the three judges' ratings was computed by
Guilford's (1973) analysis of variance technique. This
method of computation was also used by Jennings (1973).
The formula for this method is


(r (MS)r (MS)
(MS),

Phase IV meetings were discontinued when the trained judges
reached an interrater reliability coefficient of .75 or
higher on each of the seven dimensions.
Phase V: An additional phase of training was added

for this study. In this phase each of the three judges
was given a pre-reliability sample of six protocols to
rate on the seven dimensions. This phase provided an "out-
side of training" test of rater reliability. In the first
pre-reliability test only two of the seven dimensions were
found to have interrater agreement above the desired .75
level as measured by the Guilford formula. After additional
training, the judges were given a second pre-reliability
sample. of five protocols. Interrater reliabilities for four
of the remaining five dimensions were then found to be at
the .75 level. At this point the training was stopped.










Self-Anchoring Scale of Counselor Effectiveness


This study used the Self-Anchoring Scale (SAS) as de-

veloped by Kilpatrick and Cantril as the instrument for

obtaining measures of counselor effectiveness. As defined

by Kilpatrick and Cantril, "A self-anchoring scale is

simply one in which each respondent is asked to describe,

in terms of his own perceptions, goals, and values, the

top and bottom, or anchoring points of the dimension on

which scale measurement is desired, and then to employ this

self-defined continuum as a measuring device" (Kilpatrick

and Cantril, 1960, p.158). The Self-Anchoring Scale was

developed in order to avoid the rigidly predetermined

dimensions and fixed categories of response employed by

many instruments that attempt to measure subjective

appraisals.

The theory underlying the development of the Self-

Anchoring Scale is almost identical to the perceptual

theory of Snygg and Combs. In the words of Kilpatrick and

Cantril,

Its key point for our purpose is that each
of us lives and operates in the world and
through the self, both as perceived. .
Since each of us behaves in terms of hie
"reality world," the only world he knows,
it follows that the key to an understand-
ing of human behavior is to take into
account the unique reality world of the
individual. This we have characterized
as adopting the first-person point of view,
as opposed to the third-person point of
view-which assumes an objectively defin-
able reality which, except for error, is
the same for all. (1960, p.158)









Following this theory, Kilpatrick and Cantril developed

this self-anchoring measurement technique which allows the

individual to interpret his own unique reality world while

still providing data for comparisons between individuals

and groups.

This Self-Anchoring Scale was adapted by the writer

to measure the counselor effectiveness of counselor

trainees. First, outside judge, peer, and client raters

-were asked to imagine and list the personal qualities and

characteristics of counselor trainees that would make the

trainees most effective as practicing counselors. They

were then asked to imagine and list the personal qualities

and characteristics of counselor trainees that would make

them least effective as practicing counselors. In this

way, the two self-defined anchoring points of the scale

were obtained for a continuum delineated by an eleven step

ladder. In the second phase of thetechnique, the raters

were asked to rate the counselor trainees by assigning each

of them the number of a step on the ladder that best fit

the trainee's present level of counselor effectiveness.

(See Appendix D for a copy of the instrument and the

instructions for its use.)

Researchers have used the Self-Anchoring Scale in various

cross cultural studies where individuals evaluated their own

ways of life (Cantril and Free 1962; Kilpatrick and Cantril

1960; and Cantril 1963). Previous perceptual research studies

by Jennings (1973), Dedrick (1972), and Vonk (1970) have










adapted the SAS for use in measuring the effectiveness of

university housing residence assistants, community college

instructors, and high school teachers respectively. Vonk

reported that students' ratings of elementary teachers on

the SAS were significantly related to all eight of the
perceptual dimensions investigated., Dedrick reported that

students' ratings of community college teachers on the SAS

were significantly related to four of the twelve dimensions

investigated. Jennings reported that SAS ratings of resi-

dence hall assistants by students were significantly related
to all six of the perceptual dimensions investigated. In

the study by Jennings a test-retest reliability of .913
was obtained for a one month interval. Dedrick and Vonk

reported test-retest reliabilities for the SAS of .880 and

.827 respectively.
In the Spring Quarter of 1974 at the University of

Florida, this writer conducted a pilot study in which the

instructor and graduate assistant for the Counseling Theory
and Laboratory course evaluated the counselor trainees on
their counselor effectiveness as measured on the SAS.

Interrater agreement between the instructor and the grad-
uate assistant on the SAS was .781 as computed by the

Guilford technique.
The previous use of the SAS as a measure of effective-

ness in three perceptual research studies and the test-
retest reliability coefficients reported above provide













adequate support for the use of this measurement instrument

in the present research study.


Procedure

The Sample

The subjects in this study were twenty-five graduate

students in counseling at the University of Florida. They

were enrolled in the two sections of the Counseling Theory

and Laboratory course offered by the Counselor Education

Department in the Fall Quarter of 1974. Fifteen of the

subjects were in "Section #1" and ten of the subjects were

in "Section #2" of the course. Eighteen of the subjects

were students in the Counselor Education Department. Five

of the subjects were in the Rehabilitation Counseling

Department. One subject was in Psychology, and one was in

Curriculum and Instruction. This course is offered to

students early in their programs as a prerequisite to any

practicum or internship experiences. Most of the subjects

(19) were taking this course in the second or third quarter
of their respective programs. The subjects ranged in age

from 22 to 41 years with a mean age of 2617 years and a

median age of 24 years. There were 14 females and 11 males

in the sample.










Administration and Scoring of the Research Instruments

During the second week of the quarter, the writer

visited the two Counseling Theory and Laboratory classes

in order to explain the purpose of the research and to

solicit student cooperation in the project. Next, during

the second and third weeks of class, the two counseling

films were shown to both classes. The student written

responses to the two films were collected and put in a

manila envelope. A clerk replaced student names with

coded identification numbers.

Three complete sets of the protocol data were typed,

one set for each of the trained judges. There were two

protocols for each subject, one for each of the two films.

The Jourard film protocols were given to the judges upon

completion of their training. Instructions included having

the judges rate both the dimensions and the protocols in

a predetermined random order, different for each of the

three judges. In order to limit the possibility of a halo

effect, judges were instructed to rate the protocols on

only one dimension in any one sitting. In order to avoid

the effects of rater fatigue, judges were instructed to

rate for only two hours in any one sitting and for no more

than four hours per day. Upon completion of the Jourard

film protocols, the judges viewed the Rogers film with a

sample protocol to refer to. Then they were given the

Rogers protocols for rating.










A procedure for the administration and collection of

the client SAS ratings was worked out with the instructor

of "Section #1" of the course. In this section of the

course, students in an undergraduate course in Education

were recruited to serve as clients with the counselor

trainees for thirty-minute counseling sessions. These

undergraduate students rated the fifteen counselor trainees

on the SAS immediately after completing their counseling

session. Each trainee completed two separate counseling

sessions which were rated by these student clients. Each

client was counseled by and rated only one trainee. These

ratings were given coded identification numbers and kept

in a manila envelope.

A procedure for the administration and collection of

the peer SAS ratings was worked out with the instructor of

"Section #2" of the course. In this section, ten subjects

were divided into three small laboratory training groups,

two with three trainees and one with four trainees. The

peers in these groups served as clients for their fellow

students. They also evaluated each other's counseling-in

these groups. This grouping procedure was adopted in order

to ensure that the ratings by peers were based on an

adequate sampling of their fellow students' counseling.

The peers rated their fellow students twice on the SAS:

once immediately after having been a client with the stu-

dent, and a second time for an overall rating at the end












of the quarter. These ratings were kept in a manila

envelope. Student names were replaced by coded identi-

fication numbers.

For the laboratory part of the course, each of the

trainees made fifteen-minute videotaped counseling sessions.

Four-minute excerpts beginning at the ninth minute of each

session were extracted from the students' first two video-

taping sessions and transferred to sixty-minute videotapes

for rating. The segments were coded for the outside judge

ratings.

Five advanced doctoral students in Counselor Education

were recruited to be the outside judges for this part of

the study. All five had completed most of their five

pra-cticum and three internship experiences. In addition,

all five had considerable professional counseling and

supervisory experiences over periods ranging from one to

six years. The writer was fortunate to have available

five judges who all had much valuable prior experience in

evaluating the effectiveness of counselors.

These five judges independently rated each of the

four-minute videotape segments on the SAS. Each of the

subjects was rated twice by the five judges, once for each

of the two four-minute segments. The ratings were coded

and kept in a manila envelope.










Preparation of the Data for Statistical Analysis


After the data had been collected, coded, and scored,

the outside judge ratings were computed for each subject

by obtaining an average of the five scores on the SAS for

Tape Series #1 and then for Tape Series #2. A combined

effectiveness score was obtained by averaging together all

ten ratings for both sets of videotaped segments. Client

effectiveness ratings were computed by obtaining an average

of the two undergraduate student ratings on the SAS. Peer

effectiveness ratings were computed by obtaining an average

of the peer ratings on the SAS. The perceptual dimension

scores for each subject were obtained by computing the

mean of the three trained judges' perceptual dimension

ratings. This was done for both the Jourard and the Rogers

film ratings.

The writer obtained and prepared the data for

statistical analysis as described above. The data

included:

(1) Perceptual dimension scores on .the seven
dimensions for each of the two counseling
films.

(2) Tape Series #1, Tape Series #2, and Combined
outside judge counselor effectiveness ratings
on the SAS.

(3) Client counselor effectiveness ratings on the
SAS of the fifteen trainees in Section #1 of
the course.

(4) Peer counselor effectiveness ratings on the
SAS of the ten trainees in Section #2 of
the course..










Statistical Treatment of the Data

This study investigated the relationship between seven

perceptual dimensions as inferred by trained judges from

written responses to films of two actual counseling sessions,

and outside judge ratings of counselor effectiveness as

measured on the Self-Anchoring Scale. The statistical tool

chosen to analyze the relationship between the perceptual

data and effectiveness ratings was the Pearson product-

moment correlation. Pearson product-moment correlations

were also used to examine the degree of relationship between

the client ratings and the outside judge ratings, and the

peer ratings and the outside judge ratings of counselor

effectiveness. This statistic was also used to examine

the degrees of interrelationship among the seven perceptual

dimensions.

In order to determine the combinations of perceptual

dimensions that might best predict the counselor effective-

ness ratings, a multiple stepwise regression statistical

technique was used. It is called a stepwise regression

analysis because the procedure involves adding one variable

for each step in the analysis and then calculating a

regression equation for that step (Dubois 1965).

The computer program used for multiple stepwise

regression correlation was BMD02R (Dixon 1968). The

computations of this investigation were performed with an

IBM 360, model 40 computer at the University of Florida

Computer Center.










CHAPTER IV


ANALYSIS OF THE DATA


Introduction

The data were gathered according to the procedure

described in Chapter III. The subjects viewed two films

of actual counseling sessions to which they made written

responses. Twenty-two of the subjects viewed the Jourard

film, and all twenty-five of the subjects viewed the Rogers

film. The written protocols generated from the showing of

these two films were rated by three trained judges who

inferred from these protocols the perceptual characteristics

of the subjects on seven perceptual dimensions. The re-

sulting perceptual dimension scores were punched onto IBM

cards. Five outside judges rated the counselor effective-

ness of the subjects on the Self-Anchoring Scale on the

basis of viewing two five-minute videotaped segments of

each of the subject's counseling. The resulting outside

judge effectiveness scores for Videotape Series #1,

Videotape Series #2, and a combined score were punched

onto IBM cards. This completed the preparation of the data

for computer processing. Client ratings were obtained for











the fifteen trainees in Section #1 of the course. Peer

ratings were obtained for the ten trainees in Section #2

of the course. Electronic calculators were used in the

computation of the Pearson correlations between the client

and outside judge ratings, and the peer and outside judge

ratings of counselor effectiveness on the SAS.

This chapter begins with an analysis of the measures

used in this study: the Self-Anchoring Scale ratings of

counselor effectiveness, and the perceptual dimension

scores. Then, the results of the study are presented. The

results are organized around the five questions posed for

the study (see p.11) and the hypotheses tested to explore

these questions (see pp.51-52).


Analysis of Measures

Self-Anchoring Scale

Five outside judges used the Self-Anchoring Scale to

rate the counselor effectiveness of the subjects in this

study. The judges rated two separate sets of five-minute

videotaped samples of each of the subject's counseling.

The Guilford (1973) analysis of variance formula was used

to compute the interrater agreement among the five judges.

In rating Tape Series #1, the five judges agreed with an

interrater reliability of .884. In rating Tape Series #2,

the judges agreed with an interrater reliability of .787.









Thus, high levels of interrater agreement were obtained on

the SAS when outside judges rated videotaped segments of

the subjects' counseling. The means, standard deviations,

and ranges of the scores for the outside judge ratings on

the SAS are reported in Table 2. The means, standard

deviations, and ranges of the scores for the client and

peer ratings on the SAS are reported in Table 3. The

correlation coefficient between the outside judge ratings

of the subjects on Tape Series #1 and Tape Series #2 was

.313. This positive but relatively low correlation

coefficient indicates that the effectiveness levels of

counselor trainees do fluctuate from session to session.

The implications of these findings are discussed in

Chapter 5.

Interrater Reliability Data for the
Perceptual Dimension Scores

After the initial phase of training, the perceptual

dimension scores on all but two of the dimensions had an

interrater agreement of .75 or higher when computed by

the Guilford formula(see Table 4). After the second phase

of training, the scores on the remaining Depth-Surface and

Holistic-Detailed dimensions were found to have an inter-

rater agreement above the .75 level. In the first-

pre-reliability test, however, the scores on only two

of the seven dimensions, Depth-Surface and Able-Unable,

were found to have an interrater agreement above the .75

level. In the second pre-reliability test, scores on four






















TABLE 2



Interrater Reliabilities, Means, Standard Deviations, and
Ranges of Outside Judge Scores on the
Self-Anchoring Scale


Descriptive Videotape Videotape
Statistic Series #1 Series #2



Interrater Reliability .884 .787

Mean 5.48 5.87

Standard Deviation 2.15 1.59

Range 1.8 to 9.4 2.0 to 8.8





















TABLE 3



Mean, Standard Deviation, and Range of Client and Peer Scores
on the Self-Anchoring Scale


Descriptive Client Ratings Peer Ratings
Statistic Section #1 Section #2
(N=15) (N=10)



Mean 9.80 8.17
Standard Deviation 1.14 1.33
Range 4.8 to 10.25 5.0 to 11.0













TABLE 4



Interrater Reliability Data
of the Perceptual Judging


Pre-
Training Reliability Study
Dimensions Reliability Test Reliability

Phase Phase Phase Phase Jourard Rogers
#1 #2 #1 #2 Film Film

Internal- .77 .47 .96 .81 .78
External

Grounded- .97 .69 .94 .73 .90
Ungrounded

Process- .84 .30 .84 .73 .62
Content

Depth- .19 .82 .83 .79 .61
Surface

Holistio- .52 .81 -.27 .14 .76 .80
Detailed

Able- .94 .86 .72 .75
Unable

With People- .96 .52 .77 .88 .91
Apart from
People



Interrater agreements computed using Guilford's (1973)
Analysis of Variance technique. See p.58 for formula.










of the remaining five dimensions had reached sufficient

levels of interrater agreement. The Depth-Surface dimension

with an interrater agreement of only .14 was still well

below the desired .75 level. The writer decided to go ahead

with the study and to include the Depth-Surface dimension

since inspection of the data showed that in five of the six

ratings the three raters were in agreement within a one-

point interval. The low reliability coefficient appeared

to be a function of a narrow range of scores rather than a

function of a serious disagreement among raters. This

hunch was supported when the Holistic-Detailed dimension

was found to have obtained sufficient interrater agreement

in the study itself for both sets of film protocol data.

The Jourard film ratings were all found to have

relatively high interrater agreement. However, the scores

on the Grounded-Ungrounded, Process-Content, and Able-Unable

dimensions fell slightly below the .75 level. Por the

Rogers film data, all but two of the dimensions were found

to have interrater agreement of .75 or higher. The inter-

rater reliability coefficients of the Process-Content and

Depth-Surface dimensions were at the .62 and .61 levels

respectively. Since these levels of agreement are below

the desired .75 level, the reader in interpreting the

results of this study should place less confidence in the

positive correlations with the effectiveness ratings on

these two dimensions. These results indicate that it may










be more difficult to train judges to rate the Holistic-

Detailed, Depth-Surface, and Process-Content dimensions

with consistently high interrater reliability.

The Relationship Between the Perceptual Data as
Inferred from the Rogers Film Protocols and
the Jourard Film Protocols

The correlation coefficients between the ratings of

the perceptual dimensions on the Rogers and Jourard film

sets of protocol data were positive but generally low.

These coefficients are reported in Table 5. The highest

and only significant correlation coefficient was .47 on

the Holistic-Detailed dimension. The lowest correlation

coefficient was -.24 on the Able-Unable dimension. These

results suggest that the content of the films used in

obtaining the.protocol data from the subjects is a signifi-

cant intervening variable which changes the measurement

of the subjects' perceptual fields.

However, looking at the amount of discrepance between

the pairs of scores reveals more encouraging results. Two

dimensions, Holistic-Detailed and Internal-External, were

in agreement within a one-point interval in 77 percent of

the cases. The With People-Apart from People, Grounded-

Ungrounded, and Process-Content dimensions were in agree-

ment 73 percent of the time. Depth-Surface was in agree-

ment 59 percent of the time; and Able-Unable, which

correlated -.24, was within the one-point limit 50 percent

of the time, and within a 1*-point limit in 77 percent of
















the cases. Further examination of the data suggests that

the drop in correlation coefficients is, at least in part,

a function of a narrowing of the range of the distributions.

The two lowest correlated dimensions, Able-Unable and

Process-Content, both had the two lowest standard deviations

for both films.

In conclusion,,it appears that in the use of the

perceptual dimension scales very little discrepance between

scores must be maintained in order to achieve significant

correlation coefficients between measures. Secondly, a

narrow distribution of perceptual dimension scores will

make the achievement of significant correlation coefficients

more difficult. While an examination of the discrepance

scores suggests that the two films are yielding similar

scores on the perceptual dimensions, these differences are

still too great to be of statistical significance in this

research study. Furthermore, these differences were of

sufficient magnitude to wipe out any significant correlations

between the Jourard film perceptual dimension scores and

the counselor effectiveness criteria.















TABLE 5



Pearson Coefficients of Correlation Between the
Perceptual Data as Inferred from
the Rogers Film Protocols and
the Perceptual Data Inferred
from the Jourard Film
Protocols


Pearson Percentage of
Perceptual Dimensions Correlations Agreement
Between Films (Within a 1-
point interval)


Internal-External .37 77%

Grounded-Ungrounded .39 73%

Process-Content .15 73%

Depth-Surface .30 594
Holistic-Detailed .47* 779

Able-Unable -.24 50%
With People-Apart from .28 73%
People



SSignificant at the .05 level of confidence













Results



Question #1

What is.the relationship between the inferred
perceptual characteristics of counselor trainees
and outside judge ratings of counselor effectiveness?

Hypothesis #1

There will be a significant positive relation-
ship between the trained raters' scores on the per-
ceptual dimensions and the outside judge ratings of
counselor effectiveness as measured on the Self-
Anchoring Scale.


The Relationship Between the Perceptual Data as
Inferred from the Rogers Film and Outside;Judge
Ratings of Counselor Effectiveness on the
Self-Anchoring Scale

An examination of the correlation coefficients between

the perceptual dimension ratings as inferred by trained

judges from the Rogers film protocols and outside judge

ratings of counselor effectiveness on the SAS shows that

three of the seven perceptual dimensions were found to be

significantly related to the criterion measures of effect-

iveness. The correlation coefficients are presented in

Table 6. The scores on the Grounded-Ungrounded dimension

were found to be significantly related to all three

measures of effectiveness at the .01 level of confidence.

The scores on the Process-Content dimension were found to














.TABLE 6


Pearson Coefficients of Correlation Between Perceptual Data
as Inferred from the Rogers Film and Outside Judge
Ratings of Counselor Effectiveness on
the Self-Anchoring Scale




Pearson Correlations with
Perceptual Data Outside Judge Effectiveness
from Ratings
the Rogers Film
Videotape Videotape Combined
Series #1 Series #2 Ratings


General Frame of Reference

Internal-External .003 .374 .201
Grounded-Ungrounded .490** .489** .609**
Process-Content .390* .379 .479*
Depth-Surface .332 .307 .399*

Perceptions of Purpose

Holistic-Detailed .310 .260 .358

Perceptions of Other Persons

Able-Unable -.098 .024 -.056

Perceptions of Self

With People-Apart from .237 .264 .309
People

* Significant at the .05 level
**Significant at the .01 level











be significantly related to the effectiveness ratings on

Videotape Series #1 and the Combined effectiveness ratings

at the .05 level of confidence. The scores on the Depth-

Surface dimension were found to be significantly related

to the Combined effectiveness ratings at the .05 level of

confidence. Hypothesis 1 was supported for the Grounded-

Ungrounded, Process-Content, and Depth-Surface dimensions

by the Rogers film data. Hypothesis 1 was not supported

for the remaining four dimensions although there was a

positive trend in the data for all but the Able-Unable

dimension which correlated negatively on two of the three

criterion measures.

The Relationship Between the Perceptual Data as
Inferred from the Jourard Film and Outside
Judge Ratings of Counselor Effectiveness
on the Self-Anchoring Scale

An examination of the correlation coefficients between

the perceptual dimension scores as inferred from the Jourard

film protocols and the outside judge ratings of counselor

effectiveness on the SAS shows that none of the seven

perceptual dimensions were found to be significantly re-

lated to the critereon measures of effectiveness. These

results are presented in Table 7. Hypothesis 1 was not

supported by the Jourard film data. The correlation

coefficients ranged from -.135 on the Depth-Surface

dimension as correlated with the effectiveness ratings on

Videotape Series #2 to .320 on the With People-Apart from















TABLE 7



Pearson Coefficients of Correlation Between Perceptual Data
as Inferred from the Jourard Film and Outside Judge
Ratings of Counselor Effectiveness on
the Self-Anchoring Scale





Pearson Correlations with
Perceptual Data Outside Judge Effectiveness
from the Ratings
Jourard Film
Videotape Videotape Combined
Series #1 Series #2 Ratings


General Frame of Reference

Internal-External -.044 -.098 -.083
Grounded-Ungrounded .076 -.026 .036
Process-Content -.118 -.041 -.100
Depth-Surface .242 -.135 .084

Perceptions of Purpose
Holistic-Detailed .096 .019 .073

Perceptions of Other Persons

Able-Unable .177 -.074 .075

Perceptions of Self

With People-Apart from .237 .264 .309
People











People dimension as correlated with the effectiveness

ratings on Videotape Series #1. The low correlation

coefficients, both positive and negative, strongly suggest

that no relationship exists between the effectiveness

criteria and the perceptual dimensions as.measured by

inferences made from the Jourard film protocols.


Question #2

What combination of perceptual dimensions
has the highest predictive power in determining
the outside judge counselor effectiveness ratings?

Multiple Stepwise Regression Correlations for the
Seven Perceptual Dimensions as Inferred
from the Rogers Film Protocols

The multiple stepwise correlations between the scores

on the seven perceptual dimensions as inferred by trained

judges from the Rogers film protocols and the Combined out-

side judge counselor effectiveness ratings on the SAS are

presented in Table 8. The strongest predictor was the

Grounded-Ungrounded dimension, at .609. This was signifi-

cant at the .01 level of confidence. "RSQ" indicates the

degree of variation in the critereon accounted for by the

predictor and each subsequent combined score. In this case,

the Grounded-Ungrounded dimension accounted for approxi-

mately 37 percent of the total possible variance. The

addition of the Able-Unable dimension increased the

multiple R to .629 which was still significant at the .01














TABLE 8



Multiple Stepwise Regression Correlations Between
Perceptual Data as Inferred from the Rogers Film
Protocols and the Combined Scores of the
Outside Judge Counselor Effectiveness Ratings
on the Self-Anchoring Scale


R RSQ Inor- P Ratio P Ratio
Step Variable ease (Test (Test
# Entered R) new
vari-
able)


1 Grounded-
Ungrounded .609 .371 .371 13.567** 13.567**

2 Able-
Unable .629 .395 .024 7.186** .880

3 Process-
Content .641 .411 .016 4.887* .571

4 Internal-
External .648 .420 .008 3.613* .288

5 Holistic-
Detailed .657 .431 .012 2.879* .386

6 Depth-
Surface .658 .433 .002 2.288 .052


* Significant at the .05 level of confidence
**Significant at the .01 level of confidence












level of confidence. RSQ indicates that these two

dimensions accounted for approximately 40 percent of

the total possible variance. The increase in RSQ-accounted

for by the addition of the Able-Unable dimension was 2.4

percent of the variance which was not significant. The

addition of the Process-Content dimension resulted in a

multiple R of .641, accounting for approximately 41 percent

of the variance, and significant at the .05 level. The

increase in variation of 1.6 percent was not significant.

With the addition of the Internal-External and the Holistic-

Detailed dimensions, the multiple R for this combination

of five predictors was .657, accounting for 43 percent of

the variance, and significant at the .05 level. With the

addition of the sixth variable, Depth-Surface, the multiple

R was no longer significant.

The results of the multiple regression analysis show

that the only variable that can be considered a significant

predictor of the counselor effectiveness ratings is the

Grounded-Ungrounded dimension. With the addition of the

other dimensions, in no case was there a corresponding

significant increase in RSQ.

Multiple Stepwise Regression Correlations for the
Seven Perceptual Dimensions as Inferred from
the Jourard Film Protocols

The multiple stepwise regression correlations between

the scores on the seven perceptual dimensions as inferred










by trained judges from the Jourard film protocols and the

Combined outside judge counselor effectiveness ratings on

the SAS are presented in Table 9. The strongest predictor

was the With People-Apart from People dimension which

correlated .275 with the criterion variable. This corre-

lation coefficient was not significant. The addition of

five additional dimensions'increased the multiple R to

.435 which accounts for approximately 19 percent of the

total possible variance. None of these correlations

were significant. The results of the multiple regression

analysis suggest that perceptual dimension scores as

inferred from the Jourard film protocols on these seven

dimensions are not significant predictors of the counselor

effectiveness ratings by outside judges on the SAS.



Question #3

What is the relationship between the outside
judge and the client ratings of counselor effect-
iveness?

Hypothesis #2

There will be a significant positive relation-
ship between outside judge ratings and client
ratings of counselor effectiveness as measured on
the Self-Anchoring Scale.

The Relationship Between the Client and Outside Judge
Ratings of Counselor Effectiveness on the
Self-Anchoring Scale

The correlation coefficient between the client and

outside judge ratings of counselor effectiveness was .37















TABLE 9



Multiple Stepwise Regression Correlations Between
Perceptual Data as Inferred from the Jourard Film
Protocols and the Combined Scores of the
Outside Judge Counselor Effectiveness Ratings
on the Self-Anchoring Scale





R RSQ Incr- F Ratio P Ratio
Step Variable ease (Test (Test
# Entered R) new
vari-
able)


1 With People-Apart
from People .275 .076 .076 1.642 1.642
2 Internal-
External .369 .136 .061 1.500 1.332

3 Process-
Content .397 .158 .021 1.121 .451

4 Depth-
Surface .426 .182 .024 .943 .502

5 Grounded-
Ungrounded .432 .186 .005 .732 .089

6 Able-
Unable .435 .189 .003 .583 .053










which is not significant at the .05 level of confidence.

Hypothesis 2, that there will be a significant positive

relationship between outside judge ratings and client

ratings of counselor effectiveness as measured on the SAS,

is not supported by this research study. The clients rated

the trainees much higher on the SAS than did the outside

judges. The client mean effectiveness rating was 9.8

while the outside judge mean rating for these same fifteen

subjects was 6.0. Of the fifteen subjects being rated by

clients, only three were rated below nine. On the other

hand, none of the Combined effectiveness scores by the

outside judges were above nine. The client ratings seem

to have been affected by "error of leniency."



Question #4

What is the relationship between the outside
judge and the peer ratings of counselor effectiveness?


Hypothesis #3

There will be a significant positive relation-
ship between outside judge ratings and peer ratings
of counselor effectiveness as measured on the Self-
Anchoring Scale.

The Relationship Between the Peer and Outside Judge
Ratings of Counselor Effectiveness on the
Self-Anchoring Scale

The correlation coefficient between the peer and out-

side judge ratings of counselor effectiveness was .85,

statistically significant at the .01 level of confidence.




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