Group Title: impact of desegregation on the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Achievement Test scores of black and white students in a rural and an urban Florida county
Title: The impact of desegregation on the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Achievement Test scores of black and white students in a rural and an urban Florida county
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Title: The impact of desegregation on the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Achievement Test scores of black and white students in a rural and an urban Florida county
Physical Description: x, 81 leaves : ; 28cm.
Language: English
Creator: Smith, Annie Delories, 1944-
Copyright Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: School integration -- Florida   ( lcsh )
High school seniors -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Academic achievement   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: by Annie Delories Smith.
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 77-80.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
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Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000162934
oclc - 02727874
notis - AAS9284

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THE IMPACT OF DESEGREGATION ON THE FLORIDA STATEWIDE
TWELFTH GRADE ACHIEVEMENT TEST SCORES OF BLACK AND
WHITE STUDENTS IN A RURAL AND AN URBAN FLORIDA COUNTY












By

ANNIE DELORIES SMITH


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA.


1975





























To my datheA

for hi, asi.atance, encouAagement and inspiration

















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The writer wishes to express sincere gratitude to

her committee chairman, Dr. Ted Landsman. His thought-

provoking questions and motivation were appreciated. He

gave unselfishly of his time and-was always available when

needed. Special thanks to her other committee members:

Dr. Simon Johnson, Dr. Harold Riker, and Dr. C. Lee Eggert.

A special thanks to Dr. Rod McDavis. No words can

express the debt owed him.

To her mother, Lucy Gainous, without whose encour-

agement, assistance and faith in her this would not have been

possible, and toher sisters, Sharon and Beatrice, a very

special thanks.

To her son, Tarrence, who never quite understood

why mama had to study so much and why he had to sacrifice

many experiences with her, special recognition for his love

offered.

To Pierre who offered daily encouragement and

reminded her that behind every dark cloud silver linings

appear, a special thanks.












To Robert Feinberg and his staff who gave her

invaluable assistance and without whose help this study

would have been almost impossible.

To Dr. Nancy T. Baldwin who gave her words of

encouragement continuously, a special thanks.

Finally, to Gail and Gilda who were "substitute

mothers" for her son many days and nights in order to

enable her to study.


















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . .

LIST OF TABLES . . . .. . . . . .

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . .


Page

iii

vii

ix


CHAPTER


I PROBLEM AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY .

Introduction . . . ..
Purpose . . . . . .
Statement of the Problem . .
Questions to be Answered . .
Definition of Terms. . . .
Limitations of the Study . .
Organization of the Remainder of
Study . . . . . .


. 1

. 1
S 3
S 4
. 4
. 5
S 6

. 6


II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . . . . . .

Education, Desegregation and the Supreme
Court . . . . . . . . .
Race, Intelligence and Academic Achieve-
ment . . . . . . . .
Segregation, Desegregation and Academic
Achievement . . . . . . .

III DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY . . . . . .


7


Design . . .
Sample . . .
Setting. . . .
Instrumentation. .
Scoring Procedures
Analysis. . .
Data Collection. .
Data Analysis. .
Hypotheses . ..


Statistical











TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)


CHAPTER Page

IV FINDINGS . . . . . . . . ... 37

Discussion of Findings . . . . .66

V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . .72

Conclusions. . . . . . . .. .73
Recommendations. . . . . . .. .75

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . .. 77

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . .. 81

















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Composition of the Test Battery. . . . .. .30

2 Statewide Norms, 1973. . . . . . ... 31

3 Hypotheses Testing . . . . . .... 36

4 Comparison of Means of Black-White, Urban-Rural
and Segregated-Desegregated Students' Scores on
the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Test . . 40

5 Summary of Three-Way Analyses of Variance of
Black-White, Urban-Rural and Segregated-
Desegregated Students' Scores on the Florida
Statewide Twelfth Grade Test . . . ... .45

6 Statistical Analysis of Data for Segregated and
Desegregated Groups on the Social Science and
Natural Science Subtests of the Florida State-
wide Twelfth Grade Test. . . . . . ... 47

7 Summary of One-Way Analyses of Variance of Black
Segregated and Desegregated Students' Scores on
the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Test . . 48

8 Cell Means for Urban and Rural Desegregated
Black Students' Scores on the Florida Statewide
Twelfth Grade Test . . . . . . ... .50

9 Summary of One-Way Analyses of Variance of Urban
and Rural Desegregated Black Students' Scores on
the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Test . . 51

10 Summary of One-Way Analyses of Variance of
Desegregated and Segregated White Students'
Scores on the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade
Test . . . . . . . . . . . 53

11 Cell Means for Urban and Rural Desegregated
White Students' Scores on the Florida Statewide
Twelfth Grade Test . . . . . . ... .54












LIST OF TABLES (continued)

Table Page

12 Summary of One-Way Analyses of Variance of
White Desegregated Urban and Rural Students'
Scores on the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade
Test . . . . . . . . . . 56

13 Cell Means for Urban Black Desegregated Stu-
dents' Scores and Urban White Desegregated
Students' Scores on the Florida Statewide
Twelfth Grade Test . . . . . ... 57

14 Summary of One-Way Analyses of Variance of
Urban Desegregated Black and White Students'
Scores on the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade
Test . . .. . . . . . . 59

15 Cell Means for Rural Black Desegregated Stu-
dents' Scores and Rural White Desegregated
Students' Scores on the Florida Statewide
Twelfth Grade Test . . . . . ... 60

16 Summary of One-Way Analyses of Variance of
Rural Desegregated Black and White Students'
Scores on the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade
Test . . . . . . . . .... .. 62

17 Summary of One-Way Analyses of Variance of
Black Desegregated Students' Scores and White
Desegregated Students' Scores on the Florida
Statewide Tewelfth Grade Test. . . . ... 63

18 Summary of One-Way Analyses of Variance of
Black Segregated Students' Scores and White
Desegregated Students' Scores on the Florida
Statewide Twelfth Grade Test . . . ... 65


viii












Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE IMPACT OF DESEGREGATION ON THE FLORIDA STATEWIDE
TWELFTH GRADE ACHIEVEMENT TEST SCORES OF BLACK AND
WHITE STUDENTS IN A RURAL AND AN URBAN FLORIDA COUNTY

By

Annie Delories Smith

August, 1975

Chairman: Dr. Ted Landsman
Major Department: Counselor Education

A major purpose of this study was to investigate

the impact of desegregation on the Florida Statewide Twelfth

Grade Achievement Test scores of black and white high school

seniors in a rural and an urban Florida county.

One thousand, four hundred sixteen students, all

high school seniors, were divided into eight groups for

this study. The groups were based on race, residence and

school type. Group I consisted of 37 rural black segre-

gated senior high school students; Group II included 151

rural white segregated senior high school students; Group

III included 127 urban black segregated senior high school

students; Group IV included 493 urban white segregated

students; Group V consisted of 93 urban black desegregated

students; Group VI included 52 rural black desegregated

students; Group VII included 334 urban white desegregated

senior high school students and Group VIII included 129

rural white desegregated senior high school students.












The schools were divided into four categories:

(1) urban segregated, (2) rural segregated, (3) urban

desegregated and (4) rural desegregated. The desegregated

rural and urban schools were selected from schools that

were segregated during 1962 but were desegregated in 1970.

School A was a rural black segregated school. School B

was a rural white segregated school. School C was an urban

black segregated school and School D was an urban white

segregated school. Schools B and D were desegregated in

1970 and were used for the 1973 data.

Analyses of variance of the data revealed signifi-

cant differences between black and white students' test

scores, urban and rural students' test scores and segre-

gated and desegregated students' test scores. The differ-

ences were favorable toward white urban desegregated stu-

dents' test scores.

















CHAPTER I

PROBLEM AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY



Introduction


Frequently, when a group gathers and discussions

arise relative to current events, queries come to the

forefront concerning desegregation and its effect on

children. Blacks or other minorities discuss the issue

as it affects members of their community and whites con-

template the degree of affect on white children. Some

members of each group might raise the issue as it deals

with either blacks or whites or both. Some would debate

the issue of scholastic standards being lowered in for-

merly all white schools. Others might question whether

or not blacks will be able to achieve at higher levels.

St. John (1975) asked the question: What does desegre-

gation do for and to children? Researchers have ques-

tioned whether students educationally disadvantaged as

a result of segregated schools would or could.benefit

from desegregation.

Educators and sociologists argue the validity of

the parameters used to denote cultural and socioeconomic











backgrounds of the citizenry. Some contend that socio-

economic lags are reflected in achievement and not race.

Of the varying opinions that are discussed relative to

the lack of economic and social advantages enjoyed by

blacks over a period of time, the central question asked

is, will these deficiencies effect black students' achieve-

ment when they are placed in predominantly white cultural

education centers?

Many individuals discuss argumentatively whether

or not there exists a genetic basis for differences in

intelligence between the races which thereby effects

academic achievement (Horton and Leslie, 1970; Jensen,

1969; Councilof the Society for the Psychological Study

of Social Issues, 1969; Stodolsky and Lesser, 1967).

The May, 1954 Supreme Court decision prohibiting

legally enforced segregation has given rise to many doubts,

anxieties and apprehensions in members of both races. De-

segregationists argue for desegregation and contend that

segregation violates human values. Segregationists on

the other hand would contend just the opposite. What

really happens to academic achievement of students when

blacks and whites are educated together?











Purpose


There has been a tremendous amount of specula-

tion surrounding the affect of desegregating public

schools. Twenty-one years have passed, since the United

States Supreme Court's decision in Brown vs. Board of

Education. Many school districts desegregated reluc-

tantly, and many others desegregated due to court orders.

Coleman (1975) stated, "I do not think it is appropriate

to impose on school systems the requirement for a particu-

lar racial composition of schools simply because of the

fact that it increased blacks' achievement" (p. 20-A).

Jencks et al. (1972) stated that theories can be construc-

ted to show that desegregation will make things better or

that it will make them worse. Social scientists and law-

yers have argued forcefully for legal desegregation. But

will desegregation alone raise the educational achievement

level of black students? Will desegregation alone lower

the educational level of white students?

There is a need for more information on the black-

white gap in achievement. Has the achievement level of

black students increased since desegregation? Has the

achievement level of white students decreased since de-

segregation? Because possible differences in academic

achievement between segregated and desegregated black

and white students is one of the problem areas in











desegregated education, this study joins the many re-

search efforts which have already contributed valuable

information in seeking to present some facts in this

area.

The purpose of this study will be to ascertain

differences in academic achievement between black and

white, black and black, and white and white students dur-

ing and after segregation.



Statement of the Problem -'


This study investigated the impact of desegrega-

tion on the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Achievement

Test scores of black and white students in a rural and an

urban Florida county.



Questions to be Answered.


The following set of questions provides a summary

of the problems that were investigated:

1. Are there significant differences between-

the achievement test scores of black stu-

dents who attended predominantly black-

schools and black students'who attended-,-

desegregated schools?

2. Are there significant differences between

the achievement test scores of white students











who attended predominantly white schools

and white students who attended desegregated

schools?

3. Are there significant differences between

achievement test scores of rural and urban

black and white students?



Definition of Terms


Academic Achievement.-As used in this study, the

knowledge attained in school subjects designated by scores

on the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Achievement Test

scores.

Desegregation.-The process which results in com-

bining a minimum of 15 percent black students and 85 per-

cent white students in the same school.

Race.--As used in this study, refers to blacks

and whites only.

Residence.-The county where the students actually

lived during their senior year of high school.

Rural Population.-As defined for the United

States Census of 1970, includes all persons residing in

rural territory of less than 2,500 population.

Urban Population.-As defined for the United

States Census of 1970, includes all persons residing in

incorporated or unincorporated places of 2,500 or above.











Limitations of the Study


This study was limited to twelfth grade students

in an urban and a rural Florida county.

Another limitation of the study was differences

in the Florida Statewide Achievement Test administered in

1962 and 1973. Although differences exist in the Florida

Statewide Twelfth Grade Test for 1962 and 1973, the scores

are consistent and comparable. The mean for 45,260 seniors

who took the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Test in 1962

is 253 and the standard deviation is 129.51. The mean for

78,467 seniors who took the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade

test in 1973 is 253.19 and the standard deviation is 129.51.



Organization of the Remainder of the Study


Chapter II is a review of literature and includes

the following sections: Education, Desegregation and the

Supreme Court; Race, Intelligence and Academic Achievement;

and Segregation, Desegregation and Academic Achievement..

Chapter III contains Design and Methodology, plus a de-

scription of the Sample, Data Collection, Data Analysis,

Hypotheses and a Comparison Chart for Hypotheses Testing.

Chapter IV includes Findings and tables describing the

findings. Chapter V contains the Summary, Conclusions, and

Recommendations of the Study.

















CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE



This study investigated the impact of desegre-

gation on the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Achievement

Test scores of black and white students in a rural and an

urban Florida county.

Due to the diversity of the related literature,

the present chapter is divided into three sections:

1. Education, Desegregation and the Supreme Court

2. Race, Intelligence and Academic Achievement

3. Segregation, Desegregation and Academic Achieve-

ment



Education, Desegregation and the Supreme Court


There has been a great deal of speculation on the

effects of desegregating public schools. Twenty-one years

have passed since the United States Supreme Court's ruling

in Brown vs. Board of Education which outlawed separate

but equal facilities.

Leflar and Davis (1954) stated that the Supreme

Court's views on racial segregation in public schools began











with Plessy vs. Ferguson in 1896. The Court upheld a

Louisiana statute requiring separate railroad accommoda-

tions for blacks and whites and referred to the pre-

vailing practice of public school segregation as support-

ing that conclusion. The Gong v. Rice decision in 1927

also upheld the theory of separate but equal. This de-

cision maintained that a child of Chinese ancestry could

be required to attend schools established for the minority

race in Mississippi without being denied equal protection

of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment.

Beginning in 1939, "separate but equal" began

undergoing attrition in higher education. In the Missouri

ex. rel. v. Gaines case the Court held that the Equal

Protection Clause gave to the plaintiff, a black man, a

right to require the State of Missouri to furnish him

facilities for legal education equal to those which the

state furnished for persons of the white race. This de-

cision was interpreted to permit a separate law school for

blacks in Missouri. Another decision, Sipuel v. Board of.

Regents in 1948, was essentially the same, but Oklahoma

complied by admitting the black applicant to the existent

white school at the University of Oklahoma. Two years

later (1950) in Sweatt v. Painter the Court held that a

makeshift separate law school for blacks begun by the State

of Texas did not offer "substantial equality" in legal











educational opportunities for the black plaintiff when

compared with facilities available to white students at

the University of Texas Law School. In the case, McLaurin

v. Oklahoma State Regents, 1950, the Court made the de-

cision that the plaintiff, a black graduate student in

education already admitted to the University of Oklahoma,

was being denied equal educational opportunities by a

system devised to keep him away from his fellow classmates

while he was in the same rooms and classes with them.

Nevertheless, the Court did not say that segregation was

inequality.

In December, 1952, four public school segregation

cases were argued and submitted to the Supreme Court.

These cases came from the States of Kansas, South Carolina,

Delaware and the District of Columbia. Even though the

cases had different facts they all had a common legal

question which was whether a state could exclude children

from public schools just on the basis that they were

black. When Chief Justice Warren delivered his opinion

to the Court on May 17, 1954, he stated,

In approaching this problem, we cannot turn
the clock back to 1868 when the Amendment
was adopted, or even to 1896 when Plessy v.
Ferguson was written. We must consider
public education in the light of its full
development and its present place in Ameri-
can life throughout the Nation. Only in
this way can it be determined if segregation
in public schools deprives these plaintiffs
of equal protection of the laws.











Today, education is perhaps the most
important function of state and local gov-
ernments. Compulsory school attendance
laws and the great expenditures for edu-
cation both demonstrate our recognition
of the importance of education to our demo-
cratic society. It is required in the
performance of our most basic public re-
sponsibilities, even service in the armed
forces. It is the very foundation of good
citizenship. Today, it is a principal in-
strumentin awakening the child to cultural
values, in preparing him for later pro- c<-
fessional training, and in helping him to
adjust normally to his environment. In
these days, it is doubtful that any child
may reasonably be expected-to succeed in
life if he is denied the opportunity of an
education! Such an opportunity, where the
state had undertaken to provide it is a
right which must be made available to all
on equal terms.
We come then to the question presented:
Does segregation of children in public
schools solely on the basis of race, .even
though the physical facilities and other
"tangible factors" may be equal, deprive
the children of the minority group of
equal educational opportunities? We be-
lieve that it does.

The Court not only laid down a rule of law; it altered

an American way of life. Much has happened to blacks and

whites and to education as a result of the Brown decision.

This decision ranks as one of the most socially signifi-

cant pieces of legislation in the history of America (Suchman,

Dean and Williams, 1958). But as Askew (1972) stated,

"It is time we forget the issues of the past and begin

working together for a healthy system of public schools,

one which provides each child not only with an 'equal' edu-

cation-but with a quality education" (p. 5).











In conclusion, the Supreme Court's 1954 decision

stressed the symbolic message that segregation conveyed

the fact that segregation had been a symbol to the black

child that equal treatment could not be expected. De-

segregation stressed just the opposite. St. John (1975)

stated "the desegregated school symbolized the victory of

the black community in winning equal protection of the

law. The black child in this school should therefore

develop a stronger belief in his ability to control his

environment" (p. 89).


Race, Intelligence and Academic Achievement


There are some social scientists and educators who

claim that there are inherent ability differences between

blacks and whites which thereby affect academic achievement.

Horton and Leslie (1970) rejected this claim and stated

that,"All important differences in personality, behavior

and achievement are purely a result of environmental fac-

tors" (p. 352). Jensen (1969) argued that the heritability

of intelligence is quite high and environmental factors

are not nearly as important as genetic factors in deter-

mining the intelligence quotient of children. Jensen

(1969) also suggested that "social class and racial vari-

ations in intelligence cannot be accounted for by differ-

ences in environment but must be attributed partially to











genetic differences" (p. 2). The Council of the Society

for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (1969) issued

the following statement on race and intelligence

As behavioral scientists, we believe that
statements specifying the hereditary com-
ponents of intelligence are unwarranted by
the present state of scientific knowledge.

. There are marked differences in
intelligence test scores when one compares
a random sample of whites and Negroes.
What is equally clear is that little defini-
tive evidence exists that leads to the con-
clusion that such differences are innate.
The evidence points overwhelmingly to the
fact that when one compares Negroes and
whites of comparable cultural and educa-
tional background, differences in intelli-
gence scores diminish markedly; the more
comparable the background, the less dif-
ference. There is no direct evidence that
supports the view that there is an innate
difference between members of different
racial groups. .. .(p. 1)

As early as 1934 Wilkerson studied the achievement

differences between blacks and whites in three states using

the Stanford Achievement Test. The findings showed that in

all school systems studied, the general achievement level

of black children tended to be lower than that of white

children,and academic achievement differed widely between

rural and urban schools in the same state. Stodolsky and

Lesser (1967) pointed out that black and white intelligence

differences lessen when the variables of sex, age, grade,

socioeconomic status and years in school were controlled

in black and white students.






13


Ginzberg (1956) stated,

The achievement of Negro children during
the elementary.grades is low because they
bring to school the handicaps growing out
of a childhood characterized by poverty,
family instability, inferior social status,
-and isolation from the white community.
There is evidence that the intellectual
potential of Negro children growing up in
deprived neighborhoods is already seriously
stunted well before they reach school age.
(p. 113)

In conclusion, the research has shown that when

major variables are controlled there is little difference

in intelligence and academic scores of children. There

is little evidence to show that there are inherent ability

differences between black and white children.



Segregation, Desegregation and Academic Achievement


Implementation of desegration must be aimed at many

segments of the American community. The issue of voluntary

segregation poses a problem that deters desegregation.

Carmichael and Hamilton (1967) argued that when black par-

ents allow their children to attend majority white schools

in white neighborhoods they are acting on the assumption

that there is little of value existing in black communities.

In order for black children to receive quality education,

blacks must either move into white neighborhoods or send

their children to predominantly white schools. Changes

would occur in the lifestyles of blacks if school desegre-

gation would succeed in raising the occupational level of











the black people. But the closing of black schools in

the South has been accompanied by demotion of black per-

sonnel. According to Hall (1974) "the problem of the

displaced Black educator is one that has exacted a heavy

toll in the ranks of Black principals, who have long been

symbols of attainment, authority and respect in Southern

Black communities" (p. 7). Poussaint (1970) stated that

since integration is nearly always a one-
way street that blacks travel to a white
institution, then an implied inferiority -
of the black man is inherent in the situ-
ation, because it is he who must seek out
whites to better his position. This im-
plies that only he can benefit and learn;
that he has nothing to offer whites; that
blacks have nothing to offer whites; that
whites have nothing to learn from his pres-
ence. (p. 13)

Crain (1971) stated:

some proponents favor desegregation in order
to improve education for Negroes; others
favor it despite their belief that it is
irrelevant to the actual formal education
of the Negro; still others feel that any
effort.to integrate schools is time wasted
in a fruitless effort to obtain a symbolic
victory and urge that the same energies be
transferred to improving the quality of -
education in Negro schools. (p. 1)

One of the basic beliefs in American public edu-

cation is that all children should have an equal opportun-

ity to attain an equal education. Educational opportuni-

ties for students differ widely from rural to urban com-

munities and from lower income communities and families

to affluent communities and families. Differences in











educational opportunities create differences in academic

achievement when measured by standardized instruments.

One of the major reasons for the creation and existence

of public schools has been to teach children skills such

as reading, writing, addition, subtraction and specific

concepts necessary for survival in society.

One way of assessing how well students have learned

these skills is by using achievement tests to measure

their performance in these areas. Tests are-being used

more and more in America today. Tests are required in

order to gaih employment, entrance to college and even to

the armed services. Even though students enter first

grade with different levels of skills and some leave

twelfth grade better equipped than others they are usu-

ally given identical standardized tests to measure Eheir

achievement. The jobs acquired, colleges entered and at-

tainment of other goals are usually partially accomplished

based on standardized achievement test scores. Coleman

et al. (1966) stated that there is probably a great dif-

ference in the validity of achievement tests as predictors

of future success in life for students in urban and rural

environments. There is probably a great difference in the

validity of achievement tests as predictors of future suc-

cess in life for minority and majority students. Fitz-

Gibbons (undated pamphlet) stated that "until fairly











recently, most standardized tests were constructed by

white middle-class people, who sometimes clumsily violate

the feelings of the test-taker without even knowing it.

In a way, one could say that we have been not so much

culture biased as we have been culture blind" (pp. 2-3).

Clark and Plotkin (1963) studied the academic

records of more that 500 black students that attended in-

tegrated colleges from 1952 through 1956. The aptitude

scores of the black students, as measured by the Scholastic

Achievement Test, were below the average of the national

college population. Yet, significantly more of them com-

pleted college with at least average grades than did the

total general population. Clark and Plotkin (1963) pointed

out that the performance of the students was far greater

than standardized tests had predicted.

Coleman et al. (1966) compared the achievement

levels of segregated and desegregated students. The re-

sults of the study in summary form were:

1. The proportion of white students in a school

had a positive relationship toward students'

performance, however the effect appeared to

be less than, and largely accounted for, by

characteristics of the student body other

than racial composition.











2. The earlier black students began attending

schools with white students the higher black

students' achievement.

3. The majority of American children attend

schools that are segregated. Among the

minority groups, blacks are by far the most

segregated.

4. Desegregation on the basis of race and socio-

economic class improves student achievement

undercertain conditions and lowers achievement

under certain conditions. Educational achieve-

ment for both minorities and whites begins to

improve when schools are 50 percent white or

higher, and 50 percent middle class or above.

Both blacks and whites suffer in achievement

when the racial or class percentage drops

below 50 percent for either group.

5. White students' achievement is less affected

by school facilities, curriculum and teachers

than minority students' achievement.

6. The quality of the school attended by the

average black is lower than that attended

by the average white, but the difference is

less than generally assumed.

According to Jencks et al., the average white child

scores at least 15 points higher on most standardized tests










than the average black child. This is apparent among stu-

dents when they enter school and it persists throughout

school and college. Coleman et al. (1966) confirmed this

when they stated,"For example, Negroes in the metropolitan

Northeast are about 1.1 standard deviations below whites

in the same region at grades 6, 9 and 12. But atgrade 6

this represents 1.6 years behind; at grade 9, 2.4 years;

and at grade 12, 3.3 years" (p. 21). It was further stated

that few opportunities are provided in schools for blacks

to overcome this difference in achievement test scores.

" .. .In fact they fall farther behind the white majority

in the development of several skills which are critical

to making a living and participating fully in modern

society"(p. 21).

Armor (1972) in a reanalysis of the Coleman (1966)

data found black.schools were more disadvantaged than

white schools with respect to verbal achievement. The

findings are summarized as follows:

1. In the first grades average black achievement

in black schools is far behind white achieve-

ment in white schools, approaching 1.5 stan-

dard deviations in many regions.

2. In the sixth grades, the national averages

show that black achievement is two standard

deviations below white achievement.











3. The sixth grade black achievement within the

majority white schools is higher than black

achievement in majority black schools, but it

is still almost 1.5 standard deviations below

white achievement.

4. Although there are few whites in majority-

black schools, they show the lowest achievement

of any group. They have scores over 3 standard-

deviations lower than whites in majority-white

schools.

It is apparent from the findings of this study that black-

students lag behind whites in achievement even before they

start school. It seems they start school at a disadvantage.

Subsequest analysis of the Coleman Report by McPart-

land (1969) lends support to the conclusions regarding the

relationship between classroom composition and achievement.

McPartland (1969) found that school desegregation is

associated with higher achievement for black students if

they are in predominantly white classrooms. Subsequenfto the

findings of McPartland (1969), Cohen et al. (1972) -

suggested that desegregation where minority group stu--

dents were not a majority appeared to improve the level of

achievement for minorities. In both Pittsburg and Boston

St. John and Smith (1970), St. John and Lewis.(1971)

found arithmetic achievement related to the total number

of whites who had attended the school rather than the

current percent white.











Students of high ability level are generally more

ready to benefit from desegregation. According to Katz

(1964) a desegregated classroom is socially facilitating

to high achievers but threatening to low achievers, whose

probability of success is apt to be low and who often

fear failure. When studying the effects of integration

for previously segregated children,Denmark (1970) found

that segregated black children do not achieve academically

at the same level as white children and earlier desegre-

gation is more beneficial in improving test scores than

that which occurs in later school years. It was also

found that black females improve more than black males

in the integrated setting. Crain (1971), in a survey of

1,600 adult blacks living in the metropolitan Northeast,

found that the effects of integration are stronger for men

than for women. The northern and southern segregated

schools show that females have attained higher levels of

education than'males. There was also a large difference

between the test scores of desegregated and segregated

females. Females in desegregated schools have a ten-

dency to attend school longer and learn "more" while they

are there.

Alan Luneman (1973) in a cross-sectional and.semi-

longitudinal study in a Berkeley, California, community

that desegregated voluntarily, found that ethnic groups

showed gains in achievement ranging from 1.6 to 5.3 points











on standardized achievement tests over a two-year period.

These gains are equivalent in grade placement of one to

four months. Black students who remained in the district

for the three-year period tended to score slightly higher

in the successive years of desegregation.

Two studies frequently referred to as evidence of

the beneficial effect of the desegregated school system

are Hansen's (1960) study in Washington, D.C., and Stalling's

(1959) study in Louisville. Hansen (1960) reported-that

after five years of desegregation, median:city-wide-achieve-

ment improved at all grade levels and in most subject

areas for black children. White students also scored-as

well as they had scored under segregated conditions; -

Stallings (1959) in his report on academic achievement-of

black and white students both before and after desegre- --

gation found that the achievement of both groups was

significantly higher after desegregation than before and

that black students made greater gains than white students.

Justin and Thabit (1974) conducted a study on achievement

of black and white pupils before and after desegregation

in Broward County, Florida. Their findings showed that

the scholastic achievement of black and white pupils de-

clined slightly initially but the decline was about the -

same for blacks and whites and was noted as insignificant.

Samuels (1958) conducted a study-in Indiana

which sought to determine if learning proceeded at











comparable rates for black and white children when they

were first desegregated in junior high schools and when

black students in desegregated schools were compared with

those in segregated schools. Samuels attempted to con-

trol the variables of socioeconomic status and intelli-

gence. It was found that after two years of desegrega-

tion, the achievement gap between black and white stu-

dents had been reduced significantly. This finding was

attributed directly to desegregation.

Maynor and Katzenmeyer (1974) conducted a study

in Hoke County, North Carolina. The California Achieve-.

ment Test was administered in grades six through 12 in

order to provide baseline data. The California Achieve-

ment'Test and the California Test of Mental Maturity were

administered as posttest measures. The findings showed

that black students performed better after desegregation

than they did before desegregation.

Faulk (1972) reported that when desegregation took

place in McKeesport, Pennsylvania, in Shaw Elementary School

the black students at the desegregated school had an

average achievement gain, as measured by the Iowa Test of

Basic Skills, of nine months in a school year as compared

to an average achievement gain of six months in a school

year at the predominantly black school. These data tend

to support the premise that achievement of black students

becomes higher in a desegregated school. As reported in











Racial Isolation in the Public Schools (1967) Wilson con-

ducted a study on the relationship between a student's

social class and school achievement. Wilson (1967) found

that social class was a major factor related to the aca-

demic achievement of children in elementary grades and

children from poorer backgrounds are less likely than

children from affluent backgrounds to have concrete plans

for college. The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (1967)

pointed out that these results suggest that, "on the

average, the social class of a student has a strong re-

lationship to his academic success and aspirations"

(p. 81).

Taken together these studies seem quite consis-

tent. If desegregation over any length of time raises

black students' scores slightly perhaps the scores of

black students are continuing improving. Many of the

studies showed that desegregation is associated with

higher achievement test scores only if it involves socio-

economic as well as racial desegregation. There is

little evidence to show that black students' test scores

improve when the whites are as low on the socioeconomic

scale as blacks. Even though the academic achievement of

the black students is likely to improve when they attend

desegregated schools this has not eliminated the achieve-

ment gap.

















CHAPTER III

DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY



Design


This study investigated the impact of desegre-

gation on the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Achievement

Test scores of black and white students in a rural and an

urban Florida county.

The study does not lend itself to experimental

investigation; therefore, it is ex post facto. Kerlinger

(1964) defines ex post facto research as a systematic

empirical inquiry in which the researcher has no direct

control of independent variables because their evidence

has already occurred. In an ex post facto study neither

experimental manipulation nor random assignment is pos-

sible.

There are eight groups in this study. Groups I

through IV, who were selected from rural and urban segre-

gated schools in 1962, will be compared with Groups V

through VIII, who were selected from rural and urban

desegregated schools in 1973. The year 1962 was chosen

because this was the last year that Florida Statewide










Twelfth Grade Achievement Test results were reported on

a segregated school basis. The year 1973 was selected

because this was the first year since 1962 that race of

the students was recorded along with test results.

There are three major types of comparison of the

Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Achievement Test in this

study. The first type of comparison involves black stu-

dents only. The second type of comparison involves white

students only and the third type of comparison involves

black and white students.


Sample


This study involved a total of 1416 twelfth grade

students from four Florida high schools in two counties.

The schools were subdivided into four categories: (1)

urban segregated, (2) rural segregated, (3) urbande-

segregated and (4) rural desegregated. The segregated

rural and urban schools were selected from schools that

were segregated during 1962. Of the four schools selected

the two black segregated schools were no longer in exis-

tence as senior high schools. This means that the only

schools used during 1973 were the white segregated schools

that-have since become desegregated.

A group of 37 black students and 151 white stu-

dents who had attended rural segregated high schools in











1962 were selected from two schools in the same county

based on the county's population. Then a group of 127

black students and 493 white students who attended urban

segregated schools in 1962 were selected from two schools

in the same county based on the county's population.

The next four groups were selected in much the

same manner as the first four,with the major differences

being the time of attendance, 1973, and both black and

white students attended the same-desegregated schools.

The 37 black students that comprise Group I

were seniors in school A, a rural black segregated school

in 1962. The 151 white students who comprise Group II

were seniors in school B, a rural white segregated school

in 1962. The 127 black students that make up Group III

were seniors at school C, an urban black segregated school

in 1962. The 493 white students that are in Group IV

were seniors at school D, an urban white segregated school

in 1962. The 37 black students in Group I and the 151

white students in Group II are from schools A and B lo-

cated within the same county. The 127 black students in

Group III and the 493 white students in Group IV are from

schools C and D, located within the same county.

Group V consists of 93 black students in school D,

a previously segregated white urban school that is pres-

ently desegregated. Group VI consists of 52 black students

in school B, a formerly white rural segregated school











that is presently desegregated. Group VII is made up of

334 white students in school D, a previously white,

urban segregated school that is presently desegregated.

Group VIII consists of 129 white students in school B, a

previously segregated white rural school that is presently

desegregated. The black students in Group V and the white

students in Group VII are from school D, the same urban

desegregated school. The black students in Group VI and

the white students in Group VIII are from school B, the

same rural desegregated school.

In testing the eight groups for differences the

results from the 1962 and 1973 Florida Statewide Twelfth

Grade Test were used.


Setting


School D is an urban desegregated high school that

has a total population of 1,800 students in grades 10

through 12. The school was constructed in the early 1900's

and was attended by predominantly upper middle class whites

until 1970 when the school desegregated in compliance with

a court order. School D is presently 17 percent black

and 83 percent white. This percentage reflects the black-

white ratio of the community. The students who attend

this high school come from four desegregated junior high

schools.











School B is a rural desegregated high school which

has a total population of 1100 students in grades nine

through 12. The school was constructed in the early 1900's

and served the entire white county high school population

until 1970 when a court order forced the school to desegre-

gate. The school is presently 22 percent black and 78

percent white. The students who attend this high school

come from desegregated junior high schools.


Instrumentation


The instrument chosen for use in the present study

was inaugurated in Florida in 1935 and since 1940 has been

sponsored and conducted by the Board of University Exami-

ners. During 1962 the A.C.E. Psychological Examination,

1953 High School Edition; Cooperative English B2, Effec-

tiveness of Expression, Form Y; Cooperative General -

Achievement, Form YZ-Social Studies, Natural Sciences

and Mathematics tests were used. These instruments were

validated by commercial testing companies and approved by';

the Board of University Examiners.- Since 1963, Educational

Testing Service of Princeton, New Jersey has prepared and

validated special tests for the Florida program, ;.. _-

The Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Testing Pro-

gram is conducted in all Florida high schools each fall to

provide comparable ability and achievement data on all











seniors. The test is administered by the pupil personnel

staff in the schools. Florida seniors must attain a score

of 300 or above on the test in order to attend a state

university.

The complete battery consists of two booklets, in-

cluding tests in five areas and the questionnaire. Table

1 shows the composition of each booklet, an indication of

the test content, the number of items for each tests, and

the time necessary to administer each section. However,

after 1970 the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Achievement

Test became optional rather than required for students.

Therefore, some students choose not to take the test

based on their future plans.



Scoring Procedures and Statistical Analysis


The answer sheets are processed at the University

of Florida campus. All the tests are scored on a "Rights

Only" basis-that is, an individual gets one point for

each item answered correctly. There are eight scores

derived from the test battery. These are: Verbal Apti---

tude, Quantitative Aptitude, Total Aptitude, English,

Mathematics, Natural Sciences,_and Social Studies. In

addition, a Reading Index is computed by combining the

score on the Verbal Aptitude test plus one-half the scores

obtained on the English and Social Studies tests.












Table 1

Composition of the Test Battery


Title Content Items Time


Student Questionnaire 73 20 min.

Aptitude Test Verbal Analogies 50 20 min.
Math Comparison 50 20 min.

English Composition Usage 35 15 min.
Capitalization
and punctuation 20 10 min.
Effectiveness of
Expression 30 15 min.

Mathematics Arithmetic
Algebra, Geometry 60 40 min.

Natural Sciences Biology, Chemistry
Earth Science,
Physics 60 40 min.

Social Studies American History,
Western Civiliza-
tion, Geography,
Sociology 60 40 min.






The statewide norm for the 1973 administration of

the battery is found in Table 2. The information included

in Tables 1 and 2 is based on the 1973 Florida Statewide

Twelfth Grade Achievement Test. The same kind of infor-

mation is not available for the 1962 Florida Statewide

Twelfth Grade Achievement Test.















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Data Collection


The Board of University Examiners at the Uni-

versity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida is responsible

for disseminating, scoring, collecting and storing data

for the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Testing Program.

The data were collected from the test record books and

computer tapes stored by the Board of University Exami-

ners, Room 408, Seagle Building, Gainesville, Florida.

The data for this study were obtained from the

test results of the senior high school students who

comprise the eight designated groups. Data were se-

lected based on county and school area population in 1962

and the number of black and.white students who attended

county schools in 1962. Any county with a school popula-

tion of less than 30 black or white students in the county

or in one school was excluded from selection. Based

on county and school population two counties and four

schools were selected by chance. Data from students

with less than five complete test scores was not used.


Data Analysis


The results of the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade

Achievement Test were used as a basis for determining

and comparing the impact of desegregationon achievement.

A percentile rank based on the raw score was recorded for











the five separate subtests from which a total composite

score was computed for each student.

The nine hypotheses are the result of taking all

possible combinations of race, residence and school type.

A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial analysis of variance design was

used to compare and assess all of the variables and inter-

actions simultaneously. This design makes it possible to

assess the main effects of race, residence and school type

on the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Achievement Test

and it will also give information about interactions be-

tween race, residence and school type. The design will

answer the following questions: What is the main effect

of achievement scores of segregated and desegregated stu-

dents? what is the main effect on achievement scores of

rural and urban students? What is the main effect on

achievement scores of black and white students?

When the three independent variables: race, resi-

dence and school type interact in their "effect" on achieve-

ment this is called interaction. The design answers

the following questions regarding interaction: What is

the interaction effect of race and residence on achievement

test scores? What is the interaction effect of residence

and school type on achievement test scores? What is the

interaction effect of race, residence and school type on

achievement test scores? The level of significance

is set at .05.











Hypotheses


This study tested nine specific null hypotheses

related to the impact of desegregation on achievement

test scores as measured by the Florida Statewide Twelfth

Grade Achievement Test. The following hypotheses are based

on the students who were attending segregated schools in

1962 and desegregated schools in 1973. The following

subtests are included: English, social studies, natural

science and mathematical science. The hypotheses are:

1. There are no significant differences in stu-

dents' achievement test scores related to race

(black and white), residence (rural and urban)

and school type (segregated and desegregated).

2. There will be no significant difference in

achievement test scores between segregated

and desegregated black students.

3. There will be no significant difference in

achievement test scores between urban and

rural desegregated black students.

4. There will be no significant difference in

achievement test scores between desegregated

and segregated white students.

5. There will be no significant difference in

achievement test scores between urban and

rural desegregated white students.











6. There will be no significant difference in

achievement test scores between urban desegre-

gated black and white students.

7. There will be no significant difference in

achievement test scores between rural desegre-

gated black and white students.

8. There will be no significant difference in

achievement test scores between desegregated

black and white students.

9. There will be no significant difference in

achievement test scores between segregated

black and white students.











Table 3

Hypotheses Testing


Group Residence Race School Type School Name


I Rural Black Segregated A

II Rural White Segregated B

III Urban Black Segregated C

IV Urban White Segregated D

V Urban Black Desegregated D

VI Rural Black Desegregated B

VII Urban White Desegregated D

VIII Rural White Desegregated B



Key for Hypotheses Testing



Hypotheses Number Group


2 I,III vs. V,VI

3 V vs. VI

4 VII,VIII vs. V,IV

5 VII vs. VIII

6 V vs. VII

7 VI vs. VIII

8 V,VI vs. VII,VIII

9 I,III vs. II,IV
















CHAPTER IV

FINDINGS



A major purpose of this study was to investigate

the impact of desegregation on the Florida Statewide

Twelfth Grade Achievement Test scores of black and white

students in a rural and an urban Florida county.


Setting


School D is an urban desegregated high school that

has a total population of approximately 1,800 students

in grades 10 through 12. The school was constructed in

the early 1900's and was attended by predominantly upper

middle class whites until 1970 when the school desegregated

in compliance with a court order. School D is presently

17 percent black and 83 percent white. This percentage

reflects the black-white ratio of the community. The

students who attend this high school come from four

desegregated junior high schools.

School B is a rural desegregated high school which

has.a total population of 1,100 students in grades 9

through 12. The school was constructed in the early 1900's










and served the entire white county high school population

until 1970 when a court order forced the school to

desegregate. The school is presently 22 percent black and

78 percent white. The students who attend this high

school come from desegregated junior high schools.

The nine hypotheses tested in this study are

listed below:

1. There are no significant differences in

students' achievement test scores related

to race (black and white), residence (rural

and urban) and school type (segregated and

desegregated).

2. There are no significant differences in:-

achievement test scores between segregated

and desegregated black students.----------

3. There are no significant differences in

achievement test scores between urban and

rural desegregated black students.

4. There are no significant differences-in ---

achievement test scores between desegregated

and segregated white students.

5. There are no significant differences in

achievement test scores between urban and

rural desegregated white students.











6. There are no significant differences in

achievement test scores between urban

desegregated black and white students.

7. There are no significant differences in

achievement test scores between rural

desegregated black and white students.

8. There are no significant differences in

achievement test scores between desegregated

black and white students.

9. There are no significant differences in

achievement test scores between segregated

black and white students.


Hypothesis i


There are no significant differences in achievement

test scores related to race (black and white), residence

(urban and rural) and school type (segregated and

desegregated).

Table 4 provides a comparison of mean scores for

students who took the battery of achievement tests in their

senior year (1962) after a segregated high school career

as compared to those taking the battery of achievement

tests in their senior year (1973) after a desegregated

high school career. Race, residence and school type are

indicated. The table includes the total test scores and the



















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following subtests: English, social science, natural

science and mathematics.

Both black and white students' scores (rural and

urban) showed significant increases in total scores after

desegregation. Black students' scores increased on all

subtests except natural science where the scores decreased

2.t points and social science where the scores decreased

.4 points. The total score increased 19.5 points. White

students' scores increased on the English and mathematics

subtests but decreased in the areas of natural science

and social science. However, the total score increased

15.6 points. Rural students' scores increased on all

subtests except natural science and the scores decreased

4.5 points. The total score increased 16.4 points.

Urban students' scores increased on all subtests but

natural science and social science. Social science scores

decreased 2.6 points and natural science scores decreased

4.6 points. The total score increased 15.8 points.

For comparisons between segregated students and

desegregated students, the English score increased 17.7

points, the mathematics score increased 3.6 points and

the total score increased 14.4 points. The social

science score decreased 2.1 and the natural science score

decreased 4.8 points. The null hypothesis is therefore

largely rejected.











Three-way analyses of variance showed race, resi-

dence and school type were significant at the p<.05 or

better (all but one at p<.001) level on all subtests and

the total test score.. This is presented in Table 5.

Because of the decreases on the natural science

and social science subtests "t" tests were performed to

determine if these decreases between 1962 and 1973 in

the areas of social science and natural science were

statistically significant.

The "t" tests showed that the decreases on the

natural science and social science scores were statisti-

cally significant at the p<.01 level for all groups but

the black students' decrease in social science. This

is presented in Table 6.


Hypothesis 2


There are no significant differences in achieve-

ment test scores between segregated and desegregated

black students.

Table 7 provides analyses of variance of Groups I

(rural black segregated) and III (urban black segregated)

combined and Groups V (urban black desegregated) and VI

(rural black Segregated) combined. The analyses of vari-

ance were significant at the .05 level on the total test

scores and all subtests except social science. There














Table 5

Summary of Three-Way Analyses of Variance of Black-White,
Urban-Rural and Segregated-Desegregated Students' Scores
on the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Test
(Race x Residence x School Type)


Sum of Mean
Test Source Squares DF Square F

English Main Effects 213007 3 71002 456*

Race 86538 1 86538 556*

Residence 15330 1 15330 98*

School Type 122747 1 122747 789*

Total 432231 1415 305


Social
Science


Main Effects

Race

Residence

School Type

Total


64541

49253

12269

435

22601


3

1

1

1

1415


21513

49253

12269

435


189*

434*

108*

3**


Natural Main Effects 48804 1 16268 211*
Science
Race 35293 1 35293 458*

Residence 4535 1 4535 58*

School Type 5960 1 5960 77*

Total 157958 1415 111











(completed)


Sum of Mean
Test Source Squares DF Square F

Mathematics Main Effects 42223 3 14081 149'

Race 33120 1 33120 251*

Residence 3850 1 3850 40*

School Type 6332 1 6332 67*

Total 175515 1415 124


Total Main Effects 1009693 3 336564 262*

Race 784930 1 784930 612*

Residence 132484 1 132484 103*

School Type 110123 1 110123 85*

Total 2819569 1415 1992



*Significance of F p<.001
**Significance of F p<.047


Table 5







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Table 7


Summary of One-Way Analyses
and Desegregated Students'
Twelfth Grade Test


of Variance of Black Segregated
Scores on the Florida Statewide
(Black x School Type)


Sum of Mean
Test Source Squares DF Square F

English Main Effects 25024 1 25024 197*

School Type 25024 1 25024 197*

Total 63899 308 '207


Social Main Effects 14 1 14 164"
Science
School Type 14 1 14 164*

Total 26846 308- 87


Natural
Science


Main Effects

School Type

Total


512

512

15287


10**

10 *


Mathematics Main Effects 1023 1 1023 261

School Type 1023 1 1023 26*

Total 13011 308- 42


Total Main Effects 29355 1 29355 35*

School Type 29355 1 29355 35*

Total 282145 308 916

black segregated N=164; black desegregated N=145
*significant at p<.001
**significant at p<.999
***significant at p<.002











were no significant differences between black segregated

and black desegregated students on the social science

test. Except for the social science test the null

hypothesis is therefore rejected.


Hypothesis 3


There are no significant differences in achieve-

ment test Scores between urban and rural desegregated

black students.

Table 8 provides a comparison of means between

Group V (urban desegregated blacks) and Group VI (rural

desegregated blacks). When comparing the means of urban

desegregated blacks with rural desegregated blacks the

black urban students' scores were higher on all subtests

and the total test score was higher.

Table 9 provides analyses of variance of urban and

rural desegregated black students' scores. The analyses

of variance showed that there were significant differ-

ences between rural black desegregated students' scores and

urban black desegregated students' scores on all tests

except natural science. The analysis of variance on the

natural science test did not quite meet the p<.05 level

of significance. Except for the natural science test the

null hypothesis is therefore rejected.




















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Table 9

Summary of One-Way Analyses of Variance of Urban and Rural
Desegregated Black Students' Scores on the Florida State-
wide Twelfth Grade Test (Black Desegregated Residence)


Sum of Mean
Test Source Squares DF Square F

English Main Effects 1362 1 1362 9*

Residence 1362 1 1362 9*

Total 21592 144 149


Social Main Effects 422 -1 422 6**
Science
Residence 422 1 422 6**

Total 10185 144 70


Natural Main Effects 136 1 136 3***
Science
Residence 136 1 136 3***

Total 5651 144 39


Mathematics Main Effects 471 1 471 11****

Residence 471 1 471 11****

Totai 6353 -144 44


Total


Main Effects


Residence

Total

*Significance of F .003
**Significance of F .013
***Significance of F .059
****Significance of F .001
*****Significance of F .002


8252

8252

117856


8252

8252

818


10i****

1i****


-~----~-~-~-











Hypothesis 4


There are no significant differences in achieve-

ment'test scores between desegregated and segregated

white students.

Table 10 provides analyses of variance on the

English, social science, natural science and mathematics

subtests and the total test score between Groups VII (urban

white desegregated) and VIII (rural white desegregated)

combined and Groups II (rural white segregated) and IV

(urban white segregated) combined. The results were

significant at the p<.05 level on each subtest and the

total test scores therefore the null hypothesis is

rejected.


Hypothesis 5


There are no significant differences in achieve-

ment test scores between urban and rural desegregated white

students.

Table 11 provides cell means for white urban and

rural desegregated students' scores. When comparing the

mean scores between Group VII (urban white desegregated)

and Group VIII (rural white desegregated) urban white

desegregated students' scores were higher on each of the

subtests and the total test scores. The differences











Table 10

Summary of One-Way Analyses of Variance of Desegregated and
Segregated White.Students' Scores on the Florida Statewide
Twelfth Grade Test (White x School Type)

Sum of Mean
Test Source Squares DF Square F*

English Main Effects 92174 1 92174 520
School Type 92164 1 92174 520

Total 287849 1106


Social Main Effects 1212 1 1212 9
Science
School Type 1212 1 1212 9

Tdtal 147745 1106 133


Natural Main Effects 6590 1 6590 73
Science
School Type 6590 1 6590 73

Total 105183 1106 95


Mathematics Main Effects 4662 1 4662 41
School Type 4662 1 4662 41

Total 129788 1106 117


Total Main Effects 65472 1 65472 42
School Type 65472 1 65472 42

Total 1754321 1106 1581


*Significance of F p<..001







54





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in the means were: English, 6.7 points; social science,

4.7 points; natural science, 4.2 points; mathematics,

5.4 points and the total score was 21.1 points higher

for urban whites.

Table 12 provides one-way analyses of variance

between Urban white desegregated students and rural white

desegregated students on the English, social science,

natural science and mathematics subtests and the total

test.score. The results were significant on each of the

subtests and the total score at the .05 level. The null

hypothesis is therefore rejected.


Hypothesis 6


There are no significant differences in achieve-

ment'test scores between urban desegregated black and

white students.

Table 13 provides a comparison of mean scores be-

tween Group V (urban black desegregated) and Group VII

(urban white desegregated). When comparing the mean

scores between urban black desegregated students and urbAd

white desegregated students the means scores for urban

white students were higher in the following areas: English,

19.0 points higher; social science, 13.2 higher; natural

science, 11.4 points higher; mathematics, 12.3 points

higher and the total test score was 55.9 points higher.











Table 12

Summary of One-Way Analyses of Variance of White Desegregated
Urban and Rural Students' Scores on the Florida Statewide
Twelfth Grade Test (White x Residence)

Sum of Mean
Test Source. Squares DF Square F*

English Main Effects 4250 1 4250 24
Residence 4250 1 4250 24

Total 83482 462 180


Social Main Effects 1997 1 1997 17
Science
Residence 1997 1 1997 17

Total 54352 462 117


Natural Main Effects 1655 1 1655 23
Science
Residence 1655 1 1655 23

Total 34178 462 73


Mathematics Main Effects 2725 1 2725 35

Residence 2725 1 2725 35

Total 38524 462 83


Total Main Effects 41122 1 4i122 33

Residence 41122 1 41122 33

Total 610423 462 1321


*Significance of F p<.001


















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Table 14 shows analyses of variance between urban

black desegregated students' scores and urban white

desegregated students' scores on each subtest and the

total test score. The analyses of variance showed that

there were significant differences between the groups at

the p<.05 level on each test. Therefore the null

hypothesis is rejected.


Hypothesis 7


There are no significant differences in achieve-

ment test scores between rural desegregated black and

white students.

Table 15 provides a comparison of mean scores on

each subtest between Group VI (rural black desegregated)

and Group VIII (rural white desegregated). When comparing

the mean test scores between rural black desegregated

students and rural white desegregated students the mean

scores for Group VIII are higher on each of the subtests

the total test score. The differences in means were:

English, 18.7 points higher; social science, 11.9 points

higher; natural science, 9.2 points higher; mathematics,

10.6 points higher and the total test score was 50.5

points higher for rural desegregated whites than for rural

desegregated blacks. The null hypothesis is rejected.










Table 14

Summary of One-Way Analyses of Variance of Urban Desegregated
Black and White Students' Scores on the Florida Statewide
Twelfth Grade Test (Urban, Desegregated x Race)

Sum of Mean
Test Source Squares DF Square F*

English Main Effects 26358 1 26358 163

Race 26358 1 26358 163

Total 94965 426 222


Social Main Effects 12566 1 12566 127
Science
Race 12566 1 12566 127

Total 54596 426 54596


Natural Main Effects 9456 1 9456 152
Science
Race 9456 1 9456 152

Total 54596 426 128


Mathematics Main Effects 10975 1 10975 155

Race 10975 1 10975 155

Total 40923 426 96


Total Main Effects 22701 1 22701

Race 22701 1 22701 210

Total 684522 426 1606


*Significance of F p<.001




















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Table 16 provides one-way analyses of variance

between Group VI (rural black desegregated) and Group VIII

(rural white desegregated) on each of the subtests and the

total test score. The analyses of variance showed that

there were significant differences between rural black

desegregated students' scores and rural white desegregated

students' scores at the p<.05 level. The null hypothesis

is rejected.


Hypothesis 8

There are no significant differences in achievement

test scores between desegregated black and white students.

Table 17 provides analyses of variance between

Groups V (urban black desegregated) and VI (black rural

desegregated) combined and Groups VII (urban white desegre-

gated) and VIII (rural white desegregated) combined on the

English, social science, natural science and mathematics

subtests and the total test score. The analyses of vari-

ance showed that there were significant differences between

desegregated black students' scores and desegregated white

students' scores. The differences between the test scores

of desegregated black students and desegregated white

students were significant at the p<.05 level. Therefore

the null hypothesis is rejected.










Table 16

Summary of One-Way Analyses of Variance of Rural Desegregated
Black and White Students' Scores on the Florida Statewide
Twelfth Grade Test (Rural, Desegregated x Race)

Sum of Mean
Test Source Squares DF Square F*

English Main Effects 12917 1 12917 74
Race 12917 1 12917 74

Total 43771 180 243


Social Main Effects 5397 1 5397 48
Science
Race 5397 1 5397 48

Total 25485 180 141


Natural Main Effects 3140 1 3140 48
Science
Race 3140 1 3140 48

Total 14832 180 82


Mathematics Main Effects 4187 1 4187 63
Race 4187 1 4187 63

Total 15919 180 88


Total Main Effects 94784 1 94784 76
Race 94784 1 94784 76

Total 316184 180 1756


*Significance of F p<.001











Table 17

Summary of One-Way Analyses of Variance of Black Desegregated
Students' Scores and White Desegregated Students' Scores on the
Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Test (Desegregation x Race)

Sum of Mean
Test Source Squares DF Square F*

English Main Effects 41749 1 41749 240
Race 41749 1 41749 240

Total 146817 607 241


Social Main Effects 19031 1 19031 178
Science
Race 19031 1 19031 178

Total 83565 607 137


Natural Main Effects 13242 1 13242 201
Science
Race 13242 1 13242 201

Total 53071 607 87


Mathematics Main Effects 16228 1 16228 219
Race 16228 1 16228 219

Total 61106 607 100


Total Main Effects 341934 1 341934 284
Race 341934 1 341934 284

Total 1070206 607 1763


*Significance of F p<.001











Hypothesis 9


There are no significant differences in achieve-

ment-test scores between segregated black and white

students.

Table 18 provides analyses of variance between

Groups I (rural black segregated) and III (urban black

segregated) combined, and Groups II (white rural segregated)

and IV (white urban segregated) combined on the English,

social science, natural science and mathematics subtests

and the total test score. The analyses of variance showed

that there were significant differences between segregated

black and white students' test scores at the p<.05 level.

Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected.


Summary


Analysis of this data showed that there are sig-

nificant statistical differences in achievement test scores

between race, residence and school type. Statistical

analysis further revealed that there are significant

differences in achievement test scores between segregated

and desegregated black students' scores on each test except

social science and between urban and rural black students

on each test except natural science. There are significant

statistical differences in achievement test scores between

urban and rural desegregated white students and between











Table 18

Summary of One-Way Analyses of Variance of Black Segregated
Students' Scores and White Desegregated Students' Scores on
the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Test (Segregated x Race)

Sum of Mean
Test Source Squares DF Square F*

English Main Effects 47081 1 47081 293
Race 47081 1 47081 293

Total 176561 807 218


Social Main Effects 32144 1 32144 238
Science
Race 32144 1 32144 238

Total 140977 807 174


Natural Main Effects 23182 1 23182 254
Science
Race 23182 1 23182 254

Total 96725 807 119


Mathematics Main Effects 17619 1 17619 153
Race 17619 1 17619 153

Total 109864 807 136


Total Main Effects 464120 1 464120 308
Race 464120 1 464120 308

Total 1677559 806 2078


*Significance of F p<.001











desegregated black and white students. Further analysis

also revealed that there are significant statistical

differences in achievement test scores between segregated

black and white students.


Discussion of Findings


Race, Residence and School Type


There were significant differences on each of

the subtests and the total test score between race,

residence and school type. The means revealed were in

favor of white, urban, desegregated students on the English

and mathematics subtests and the total test score. The

segregated students scored better than desegregated students

in the areas of social science and natural science. This

could possibly be accounted for due to the changes in

the social science and natural science curricula. Between

1962 and 1973 the social science curriculum was broadened

in many senior high schools to include psychology and

sociology courses along with history courses. The number

of required high school units in social science also

decreased. Since the number of units decreased many

students may have elected not to enroll in social science

courses after they had fulfilled their high school gradu-

ation requirements in this area.











The natural science curriculum was altered between

1962 and 1973. Students who were classified as "high

achievers" were encouraged to enroll in new and different

science courses suchas biology (BSCS), physical science

(PSCS), and chemistry study wherein average students were

usually encouraged to enroll in general biology. Along

with the new courses came changes in teaching methods.

The traditional lecture plus experimentation method was

abandoned and the new inquiry plus experimentation method

was in vogue .. ...


Black Segregated-Black Desegregated


..Black students' scores increased on each.of the

subtests except social science and natural science. The

social science score decreased by only .4 points-but ..

the natural science score decreased 2.5 points. However

the total score increased by 19.5 points. The statistical

analyses do not answer causative questions for the differ-

ences in achievement between black segregated and black

desegregated students' scores but it appears that the ---

findings of this study corroborate the findings of the

Coleman Report (19661 which concluded that desegregation

raised-the achievement level of black students and that the

proportion of white students in a school has a positive -

relationship toward students' performance. Crain (1971)










found that black students who attended desegregated

schools scored higher on achievement tests than those who

attended segregated schools. Coleman (1966) stated that

a higher percentage of the achievement test scores of

blacks in the South is associated with the particular

school they attend. Therefore the average black student's

scores could suffer more in a school of low quality. Each

group of black students was transferred from a segregated

school with a lower budget, fewer facilities and a narrower

range of course offerings to a previously all white school

with a higher budget, more facilities and a broader range

of course offerings. This corroborates another of Cole-

man's (1966) findings that variations in the facilities

and curricula of the schools make more difference in black

students' achievement.


Urban and Rural Desegregated
Black and White

Urban-desegregated white students' mean score for

the total test was 55.9 points higher than urban black

students' mean score. Even though this represents a large

gap between the achievement of black and white students,

it is smaller than the difference between urban segregated

whites and urban segregated blacks The total score for

urban white segregated students was 59.0 points higher

than the total score for black urban segregated students. The

total score increased for blacks since 1962 but there is still a











large gap to close before the total score for blacks

equals the total score for whites. This small increase

in the total score could possibly be attributed to the

fact that many blacks were not guided into a college

preparatory curriculum during the early years of school

desegregation and probably did not enroll in many

major Academic courses other than required courses. Also

they came from schools that were less well equipped.

Another factor which could have made some difference is

the fact that even though schools were desegregated defacto

segregation took place and many black students were tracked,

grouped and placed in the same segregated situation.-

The analyses of variance were significant on each

of the tests except social science. Again, this exception

could be attributed to the decrease in the number of high

school units required in this area and broadening the

offerings in this area.

Hansen (1960) found that after five years of de-

segregation, median city-wide achievement improved at all

grade levels and in most subject areas for black children.

Stallings (1959) reported that achievement for black and

white groups was significantly higher after desegregation

than before and that black students made greater gains than

white students. Jencks (1972) states that the average.

white student scores at least 15 points higher than the











average black student on standardized tests. Fitzgibbon

(undated pamphlet) states that standardized test makers are

white middle class people who have been culturally blind

and this could be a disadvantage for black students. Cole-

man (1966) however insists that standardized tests are not

"nor are they intended to be 'culture free'" (p. 20).


White Urban-White Rural Desegregated

Urban white desegregated students' scores were

higher on each of the subtests and the total test score.

This result could be attributed to the limited number of

course offerings in rural schools and the vast number of

different educational experiences that urban schools offer

their students. Coleman (1966) states that there is

probably a great difference in the validity of achievement

test scores as predictors of future success in life for

students in urban and rural environments. Differences in

educational opportunities create differences in academic

achievement when measured by standardized instruments.


White Segregated-White Desegregated

White desegregated students' scores increased 18.5

points in English, 4.1 points in mathematics and 15.6

points on the total score. This increase coincides with

Stallings' (1959) findings that achievement scores for






71




whites increased after desegregation. The scores decreased

in social science 2.1 points and natural science 4.9

points. Again this result could possibly be attributed ,

to the difference in curriculum changes and teaching

methods in the schools. Also the Florida Statewide Twelfth

Grade Test has not been mandatory for all seniors since

1970 and there is a possibility that low achieving, non-

college bound students elected not to take the test.


I















CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS



The purpose of this study was to ascertain differ-

ences in achievement test scores between black and white,

urban and rural and segregated and desegregated senior

high school students.

One thousand, four hundred sixteen students, all

high school seniors, were divided into eight groups for

this study. The groups were based on race, residence and

school type. Group I consisted of 37 rural black segre-

gated senior high school students; Group II included 151

rural white segregated senior high school students;

Group III included 127 urban black segregated senior high

school students; Group IV included 493 urban white segre-

gated students; Group V consisted of 93 urban black de-

segregated students; Group VI included 52 rural black

desegregated students; Group VII included 334 urban white

desegregated senior high school students and Group VIII

included 129 rural white desegregated senior high school

students.

The schools were divided into four categories:

(1) urban segregated, (2) rural segregated, (3) urban










desegregated and (4) rural desegregated. The desegre-

gated rural and urban schools were selected from schools

that,were segregated during 1962. The schools used during

1973 were white segregated schools that became desegregated

in 1969. School A was a rural black segregated school.

School B was a rural white segregated school. School C

was an urban black segregated school and School D was an

urban white segregated school. Schools B and D were used

for 1913 data.

Analyses of variance of the data revealed signifi-

cant differences between black and white students' test

scores, urban and rural students''test scores and segre-

gated and desegregates students' test scores. The differ-

ences were favorable toward white urban desegregated stu-

dents' scores.


*- .Conclusions ---- ---- .


A major conclusion reached as a result of the find-

ings of this study is that desegregation has not had a neg-

ative effect on total test scores for black and white stu-

dents and urban and rural students. It is recognized that

several other factors could have caused changes in the

Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Test scores but since de-

segregation a greater number of blacks have obtained higher

test scores.

On the basis of the findings of this study, 10

other conclusions are offered:











1. There was a significant difference between

black segregated students' total test score and black desegregated

students' total test score. The score was higher for black

desegregated students.

2. There was a significant difference in test

scores between urban and rural desegregated black students.

The scores were higher for urban desegregated black Stu-

dents.

3. There was a significant difference in test -_

scores between segregated and desegregated white students

on the total test. The test score was higher for desegre-

gated white students.

4. There was a significant difference in test .

scores between urban and rural desegregated white students.

The test scores were higher for urban desegregated white

students.

5. There was a significant difference in achieve-

ment test scores between urban segregated black and urban

desegregated white students. The scores were higher for .

urban desegregated white students.

6. There was a significant difference in achieve-

ment test scores between rural desegregated black and rural

desegregated white students. The scores were higher for

rural desegregated white students.











7. There was a significant difference in achieve-

ment test scores between desegregated black and white

students. The scores were higher for desegregated white

students.

8. There was a significant difference in achieve-

ment test scores between segregated black and white

students. The scores were higher for segregated white

students.

9. Black, white, urban and segregated students

performed better on the social science test during segre-

gation than during desegregation. Rural students' test

scores increased not significantly in social science.

S10. Black, white, urban and rural students had

higher mean scores on the natural science subtest during

segregation than during desegregation.


Recommendations


It is felt that this study would have been stronger

had socioeconomic factors been taken into account. It is

an established fact that socioeconomic factors have some

relationship to achievement. A study similar to this

one wherein socioeconomic factors are controlled would be

enlightening.

These findings have shown that the achievement

of black and white students increased after four years











of desegregation. Nevertheless, white students' achieve-

ment test scores are higher than those of black student'

achievement test scores. A study in which-black and white

students have been desegregated for 12 consecutive school

years before taking the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade

Test is recommended.

An investigation of changes in the social science

and natural science curricula and an item analysis of the

Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Test in the areas of social

science and natural science are advocated.

The present curricula in natural science and social

science should be re-evaluated by educators in the Florida

school system.

The fact that the differences in achievement test

scores are much greater for white students than for black

students could possibly indicate the need for more educa-

tional support services for black students. The differ-

ence between scores for black students and white students

indicates a need for continuing the present special programs

in the state universities that allow black students and

other minority students to gain admission to state universi-

ties with less than the required entrance score of 300 on

the Florida Statewide Twelfth Grade Test.















BIBLIOGRAPHY


Armor, David J. School and family effects on black and
white achievement: A reexamination of the USOE
data. In F. Mosteller and D. Moynihan (Eds.),
On Equality of Educational Opportunity. New York:
Vantage Books, 1972.

Askew, Reubin O'D. Temporary hardship or continuing in-
justice? Integrated Education, 1972, 10 (1),
3-6.

Board of University Examiners. The Florida Statewide
Twelfth Grade Achievement Test. Gainesville:
University of Florida Press.

Brown v. Board of Education, 347, 483 (1955).

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka et al. 349 U.S.
294 (1955).

Carmichael, Stokeley and Hamilton, Charles. Black Power.
New York: Vintage Books, 1967.

Clark,Kenneth B. and Plotkin, Lawrence. The Negro Student
at Integrated Colleges. New York: National Schol-
arship Service Fund for Negro Students, 1963.

Cohen, David; Pettigrew, Thomas F.; and Riley, Robert.
Race and the outcomes of schooling. In F. Mosteller
and D. Moynihan (Eds.), On Equality of Educational
Opportunity. New York: Vantage Books, 1972.

Coleman, James S.; Campbell, Ernest Q.; Hobson, Carol J.;
McPartland, James; Mood, Alexander; Weinfeld,
Frederic D.; and York, Robert L. Equality of
Educational Opportunity. U. S. Department of
Health, Education and Welfare. Washington, D. C.:
United States Government Printing Office, 1966.

Coleman, James S. Courts may create segregation. Miami
Herald, June 1, 1975.












Crain, Robert L. School integration and the academic
achievement of Negroes. Sociology of Education,
1971, 44, 1-26.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Annie Delories Smith was born in Tallahassee,

Florida, on July 3, 1944. She attended Florida A and M

University and received a Bachelor of Science degree in

history in 1964 and a Master's of Education degree in

Guidance and Counseling in 1969. She received a Specialist

in Education degree from the Univeristy of Florida in 1974.

She taught social studies in Broward County,

Florida, from 1964 until 1967 and was a counselor in Dade

County, Florida, from 1968 through 1973. She was a gradu-

ate assistant in pupil personnel services at P. K. Yonge

Laboratory School from 1973 until 1975.

She is the mother of a seven-year-old son, Tarrence.

She is a member of the American Personnel and Guidance

Association, American School Counselor's Association and

the Elementary School Guidance and Counseling Association.











I certify that I have read this study and that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



Theodore LandE -f, Chairman
Professor of Eaucation and
Psychology



I certify that I have read this study and-that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



Simon Johnson
Assistant Professor of
Education



I certify that I have read this study and that-in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



Harold C. Riker
Professor of Education




I certify that I have read this study and that in
my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctqr of Philosophy.














This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of the College of Education and to the Graduate Council,
and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the require-
ments for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

August, 1975




Dean, College of Jducation






Dean, Graduate School




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