• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Review of related literature
 Design and procedure
 Results and analysis
 Discussion
 Summary
 Reference
 Biographical sketch














Group Title: longitudinal study of the belief systems of elementary teachers
Title: A longitudinal study of the belief systems of elementary teachers
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 Material Information
Title: A longitudinal study of the belief systems of elementary teachers trained under two different programs
Alternate Title: Belief systems of elementary teachers
Physical Description: ix, 86 leaves : ill. ; 28cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hertzog, Julian Arthur, 1948-
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publication Date: 1975
Copyright Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Elementary school teachers -- Training of -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Belief and doubt   ( lcsh )
Foundations of Education thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Foundations of Education -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 82-85.
Statement of Responsibility: by Julian Arthur Hertzog.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098141
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000163326
oclc - 02745535
notis - AAS9678

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page i-a
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
    Abstract
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Review of related literature
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Design and procedure
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Results and analysis
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Discussion
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Summary
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Reference
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Biographical sketch
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
Full Text













A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF THE BELIEF SYSTEMS
OF ELEMENTARY TEACHERS TRAINED UNDER TWO DIFFERENT PROGRAMS











By

JULIAN ARTHUR HERTZOG


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN .PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1975






















































UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


3 1262 08552 7702
















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The author is deeply indebted to his chairman,

Dr. John Newell, who is largely responsible for develop-

ment of this dissertation. Dr. Newell provided the motiva-

tion and guidance, and took the time and effort to make the

author a better educator.

The author is also indebted to Dr. Betty Siegel

whose inspiration and psychological support was so great it

is difficult to express not only in regard to this disser-

tation but also during-his whole graduate career.

The assistance of the other members of the supervisory

committee was indeed invaluable. For their warmth, empathy,

and constructive suggestions, special appreciation is expressed

to Dr. Joe Wittmer, Dr. Walt Busby, and especially to Dr.

Hannelore Wass.

Appreciation is also extended to the following for

their assistance: to Dr. William Ware, whose advisement on

the design, computation, and analysis of data, was indeed

helpful; to the members of the Foundations of Education

Department, who provided the atmosphere for one to grow,

discover and create; to Kati for her love, care and under-

standing, and to Weatherspoon Grier for his friendship,









both of whom made Gainesville a beautiful place to learn.

Finally, special thanks to my parents to whom this work is

dedicated. Without their constant support, a dream could

not have been fulfilled.


















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . .

ABSTRACT . . . . . . .

CHAPTERS

I. INTRODUCTION . . . . .

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE .

III. DESIGN AND PROCEDURE . . .

Hypotheses to be Tested

Data . . . . . .

Sample . . . . .

Instruments . . . .

Data Collection and Scoring

Testing Procedures . .

Statistical Design . ..

IV. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS . . .

Results . . . . .

V. DISCUSSION . . . . .

Limitations . . . .


Recommendations for Further Research . . 74


Page

ii

vi













VI. SUMMARY . . . .

Related Literature

Design of the Study

Sample . . .

Instruments . .

Testing Procedures

Statistical Design

Results, Discussion
Future Research .

REFERENCES . . . . .

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . .


Page

75

76

77

78

78

78

79


79

82

86


. .. . .






. . . .






Suggestions
. . . .










Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF THE BELIEF SYSTEMS
OF ELEMENTARY TEACHERS TRAINED UNDER TWO DIFFERENT PROGRAMS


By

Julian Arthur Hertzog

August, 1975


Chairman: Dr. John M. Newell
Major Department: Foundations of Education


This study dealt with the evaluation of two dif-

ferent teacher training programs. It examined the belief

systems of elementary teachers at the University of Florida

exposed to either the perceptual-humanistic Childhood Edu-

cation Program (CEP) or the traditional elementary education

program by their performance on three instruments designed

to sample attitudes and beliefs.

CEP represents an alternative model to the tra-

ditional, behavioristically oriented classroom procedure

found in many colleges and universities. The humanistic

view of the development of a teacher, according to CEP

followers, is a highly complex, ongoing process of learning

or the personal discovery of meaning and of one's own best

ways of professional functioning.










Perceptualists believe that teachers must make

decisions concerning what and how to teach, and that these

decisions are determined by their belief systems. Belief

systems, in this study, were defined by the Personal Beliefs

Inventory (PBI), the Teacher Practices Inventory (TPI), and

Personal Opinion Questionnaire (POQ). These instruments

are designed so that beliefs and attitudes are defined as

being in a continuum of greater to less agreement with the

experimentalist philosophy of John Dewey.

The review of related literature was undertaken with

te intention of examining the theoretical positions of CEP,

and its influence on the beliefs systems of elementary

teachers.

Three hypotheses of this longitudinal design were

formulated and tested:

1. There will be no significant differences in

comparison of CEP to the traditional group

on scores for the Personal Beliefs Inventory

(PBI), Teacher Practices Inventory (TPI), and

Personal Opinion Questionnaire (POQ).

2. There will be no significant differences

between pre- and posttest scores for the PBI,

TPI, and POQ for the CEP and the traditional

groups.

3. For the CEP group, there will be no signifi-

cant differences between scores on the PBI,

TPI, and POQ for the three test times.

vii










The two sample groups contained 25 subjects each.

The subjects were elementary teachers tested at the pre-

service and inservice levels. They were tested in 1969-

70 while enrolled in either the CEP or traditional program

at the University of Florida, and again three to four years

later while employed in the public school system.

The three hypotheses were tested by a 2 x 2 repeated

measures design and a 3 x 1 test over time design, both using

an one-way analysis of variance and a test of simple effects,

pre vs. post.

The results indicated that the exposure to the CEP

program did indeed have an effect on the openness of the

student's personal beliefs, but little evidence that this

openness was reflected in actual teaching practices was seen.

It was found that the decline in the TPI scores

with the nondecline in the PBI scores indicated that the

theory practice dilemma had an effect on CEP-trained teachers

as well as traditionally trained ones.

The results indicated that the effects of academic

and teaching experiences had a stronger effect on teacher

practices than personal beliefs with CEP subjects. This

is due in part because personal beliefs do not appear to

be nearly as amenable to change as educational beliefs.

Since these findings on the self-report data were

not congruent with some of the findings of observational


viii










research, it was suggested that research using observational

data be used to verify the self-report data on teachers'

belief systems. The major limitations of this study were

that it was run on a small scale, and was restricted in the

number of teachers and in its instrumentation.
















CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION



An area of investigation where "hard" data are

needed concerns innovations in teacher education. Accord-

ing to Wass and Combs, "if we do not change teachers, it

is highly unlikely that we can bring significant changes

in our schools" (1973, p. 1). In an effort to bring about

these changes, the Departments of Childhood Education and

Foundations of Education, University of Florida, instituted

a teacher preparation program which focused upon the self-

concept of the teacher trainee. The Childhood Education

Program (CEP) began in the winter of 1969 and developed

into an ongoing program based on a perceptual-humanistic

theory rather than a traditional behavioristic psychology

where the teachers are responsible for presenting standard

curriculum and students are evaluated according to a scale

of relative performance.

It is Combs' belief that there has been a misplaced

emphasis on the purely cognitive approaches to teacher edu-

cation, and he proposed that ". . teacher education is

not a question of learning 'how to teach' but a matter of

personal discovery, of learning how to use one's self and










surroundings to assist other persons to learn"(Wass et al.,

1974, Preface). The humanistic view of the development of

a teacher, according to Wass et al. is a highly complex,

ongoing process of learning or the personal discovery of

meaning and of one's own best ways of professional func-

tioning. This theory was evaluated experimentally and com-

pared with the existing traditional program. "It [CEP]

represents an alternative model to the traditional, behav-

ioristically oriented thinking currently in fashion in

many colleges and state and federal agencies" (Preface).

The purpose of this study was to examine the per-

formance of several students at the University of Florida

exposed to either the Childhood Education Program (CEP) or

the traditional elementary teacher preparation program on

three instruments designed to sample attitudes and beliefs.

This dissertation, longitudinal in design, examined

educational and personal beliefs of two defined groups of

teachers, namely, those trained in CEP and those trained

in the traditional program. These two groups of teachers

were tested as students at the University of Florida and

as inservice teachers. The attitude measures employed in

this study were the Personal Beliefs Inventory (PBI), the

Teacher Practices Inventory (TPI), and the Personal Opinion

Questionnaire (POQ) (Brown, 1968).
















CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE



To evaluate the overall effectiveness of teacher

education programs, one needs to answer the question-what

makes an effective teacher? While this question has been

asked for years, no one has provided a viable solution. A

study by the National Educational Association, where all

of the research on good and poor teaching was reviewed,

failed to find any method of teaching which was clearly

superior to all others. "There is no method of teaching

which can be clearly shown to be associated with either

good or poor teaching" (Lindsey, 1961, p. 1). Combs

states, "it is a notorious and maddening fact that despite

three generations of careful research we are still unable

to define good teaching in terms of any specific informa-

tion or behavior which can be clearly shown to be always

associated with either good or poor teaching" (Wass et al.,

1974, p. 1).

Studies on specific methods or traits failed also

to produce such answers because education continually fol-

lowed the prescribed steps of an established method and

continually imposed a general method for all alike (Wingo,










1960, Biddle and Ellena, 1964). According to Sarason

et al.,(1962) teachers handle children in the same way

that they were handled in the course of their professional

training.

In addition, a comprehensive review between 1950-

1960 on teacher personality and characteristics, listing

some 800 references,concluded: "despite the critical

importance and half a century of prodigious research ef-

forts, very little is known for certain about the rela-

tion between teacher personality and teaching effective-

ness" (Getzels and Jackson, 1963, p. 212). According to

Wass and Combs (1973) the main reason for this state of

confusion is that teacher effectiveness has been studied

often without reference to educational or psychological

theory. The Committee on the Criteria of Teacher Effec-

tiveness on the American Educational Research Association

charged that research in this field is performed in a

theoretical vacuum which leads to inadequate methodology

and meaningless conclusions (Remmers, 1952).

At the same time, while people were examining the

nature of effective teaching, psychologists were examining

what makes an effective helping relationship, and they

found a high degree of similarity. For example, Fiedler

(1950) asked several psychotherapists from different

schools of thought to describe the elements of an ideal

therapeutic relationship. He concluded that experienced










therapists from different schools of psychological thought

were in greater agreement about the nature of the helping

relationship, than were beginning and expert therapists of

the same psychological school. Apparently, no matter what

the school of thought from which these psychotherapists

began their work, as they became more experienced they

recognized the helping relationship in highly similar

terms. When Fiedler asked "the man on the street" to

describe the nature of a good helping relationship, he

found surprisingly that the ordinary citizen described it

about as well as the experts.

The Fiedler study was the foundation for much of

the early research performed a decade later by Combs and

Soper on the helping relationship. Soper and Combs (1962)

converted these same ideas to an educational setting by

asking if the helping relationship as seen by good teachers

would agree with the relationship as seen by expert psy-

chotherapists in the Fiedler study. They administered

Fiedler's helping relationship Q-sort to a group of expert

classroom teachers from the faculty of the P.K. Yonge

Laboratory School at the University of Florida, after modi-

fying the Q-sort for educators. They found that good

teachers agreed (r=.809) with the expert therapists about

what constitutes a helping relationship.

Combs and Soper (1963a) next applied the composite

Q-sort to 64 "very good" and 48 "very poor" teachers










selected by students and supervisors. Combs and Soper

expected good teachers to know more about the nature of

an ideal helping relationship than poor ones. However,

they concluded that both groups could accurately describe

the ideal helping relationship. There were no signifi-

cant differences between the subject matter of the help-

ing relationship for the two categories of teachers.

Combs and Soper felt that the distinguishing factor was

not what teachers know but whether they actually put this

knowledge into practice.

Combs and Soper felt that the helper's system of

beliefs might provide a more fruitful approach to under-

standing the differences between good and poor helpers.

They first tested these ideas in "the Perceptual Organi-

zation of Effective and Ineffective Counselors" (1963b).

From this study, Combs and Soper reported that there were

clear perceptual differences between good and poor practi-

tioners. They concluded that the helpers who are open to

experience, have self-acceptance and empathy, and who

therefore assist their clients in finding meaning and

identity, can be described in terms of their perceptions

in five major areas:

1. the general frame of reference from which
the helper approaches the problem. Good
helpers seem always concerned with how
things look to the person with whom they
are working while poor ones believe the
important data are how things look to
themselves. That is, good helpers seem










to be phenomenologically or perceptually,
rather than behavioristically oriented.

2. the ways in which the helper perceived him-
self. Good teachers tend to see themselves
in positive ways while poor ones see them-
selves in negative ways.

3. the ways in which the helper perceives
other people. Good teachers tend to see
other people in positive ways: friendly,
able, trustworthy, etc., while poor teachers
suffer doubts about the nature and capacity
of the persons with whom they are working.

4. the ways in which the helper perceives the
task with which he is confronted. The pur-
poses of effective helpers tend to be free-
ing, opening and expanding, while their in-
effective counterparts have narrowning,
controlling, and directing goals.

5. the ways in which the helper perceives ap-
propriate methods for carrying out his
purposes. This is a personal matter deal-
ing with the helper's discovery of the
peculiar methods that he uses to accom-
plish his own and society's purposes.(Combs,
1965, p. 15)

Additional support comes from Rogers (1958), Rogers

and Dymond (1959), and Homles (1963). They reported that

the person who is effective in the helping relationship

believes in himself and his theory, known as the "self as

instrument" concept. The success of professional helpers

will depend on how well they have learned to use them-

selves as effective instruments as helpers. This theory

no matter what it is, from grassroots witchcraft to

Rogerian client-centered therapy, will work as long as it

is believed completely by the helper. Rogers stated that

helpful relationships have different characteristics from










those that are unhelpful. These characteristics deal pri-

marily with the attitudes of the helping person on the one

hand, and with the perception of the relationship by the

"helpee" on the other. Rogers and Dymond observed that it

did not make much difference how the helper behaved if his

"intent" was to be helpful. Homles indicated that although

the helper could not explain the basis of his successful

therapy, he continued to practice it, whatever it was.

These psychologists were unable to define the ef-

fective helping relationship on the basis of specific

things which helpers do. If the results of these studies

are correct, the key to effective teaching cannot be found

in what the helper knows or in the method he uses. The

key element is the "self as instrument" concept. By the

"self as instrument" concept, Combs meant that the out-

standing fact about the helping professions was the use

of the helper's self in the process, "the peculiar way in

which he is able to combine his knowledge and understand-

ing with his own unique ways of putting it into operation,

in such a fashion as to be helpful to others" (Combs et al.,

1974, p. 8).

This idea originated from Combs (1969), who stud-

ied various helping professions including teaching, social

work, counseling, pastoral care, nursing, and psychother-

apy. "The common characteristic of all helping profes-

sions seems to be differentiated from more mechanical










operations in the immediacy of response required of the

helper" (Wass et al., 1974, p. 1). Professional helpers

must be thinking, problem-solving people; the primary

tool of their work is themselves-knows as the "self as

instrument" concept.

The findings of these earlier studies have since

been corroborated in further studies on good and poor

teachers at the University of Florida under the direction

of Combs and at the University of Northern Colorado under

the direction of Usher (Wass et al., 1974).

In the book, The Professional Education of Teach-

ers: A Perceptual View of Teacher Education, Combs (1965)

summarized perceptual psychology-the "third force psy-

chology" as a great new humanistic force, a new psychology

deeply concerned with people values, perceptions, and man's

eternal search for being and becoming. He hailed it as

the alternative to the Freudian and stimulus-response

theories which dominated educational thought for years.

With thisin mind, Combs studiedprofessional aspects of under-

graduate, preservice teacher education through the ideas

of perceptual psychology. Combs stated three basic prin-

ciples of perceptual psychology which had far reaching im-

plication for teacher education and became the guidelines

for the Childhood Education Program (CEP).

1. All behavior of an individual is the direct

result of his field of perception at the

moment of his behaving.









2. The most important perceptions of an indi-

vidual are those of himself. The self-concept

is the most important single influence affect-

ing an individual's behavior.

3. All individuals have a basic need for personal

adequacy. We all behave in ways which will

lead to our self-enhancement.

In the past, people examined the problem of the

helping professions from an objective frame of reference

in the manner traditional to external approaches in psy-

chological investigation. In the Florida Studies in the

Helping Professions, Combs (1969) approached the problem

from a phenomenological orientation, analyzing is perceptu-

ally with those principles presented in 1965.

Combs concluded that one can distinguish good and

poor helpers on the basis of their perceptions. He looked

at the belief systems of the helper in order to discover

the important difference between good and poor helpers.

He stated that helpers can be distinguished from nonhelpers

on the basis of their belief systems. Their characteristic

ways of perceiving are:

1. an internal rather than an external frame of
reference.

2. concern with people rather than things.

3. concern with perceptual meanings rather than
facts and events.

4. an immediate rather than a historical view
of cause of behavior. (Combs, 1969, p. 32)










Therefore, Combs proposed an educational setting

with a psychosocial climate of perceptual psychology, one

which has a perceptual curriculum which directs itself to

such problems-the meaning, existence, value of one's life

and the "self as instrument" concept. A perceptual cur-

riculum is where:

1. people behave according to choices available

at the moment of behavior.

2. learning has two aspects: a) acquiring new

information and, b) discovering the personal

meaning of that information which Brown (1968)

recognizes as the definition of belief. In-

formation is useless, only when individuals

relate specific information to their lives

are they able to use it.

3. it is more appropriate for people to learn a

few concepts than many facts.

4. learning is more efficient if one first de-

sires to know what is to be learned.

5. people learn and grow faster if they are not

afraid to make mistakes.

6. teachers teach the way they have been taught

not the way they have been taught to teach.

7. teaching is a freeing helping relationship

rather than a controlled command relation-

ship.










Because these findings suggest strongly the impor-

tance of a perceptual approach to teacher education pro-

grams, various members of the College of Education at the

University of Florida decided to build a new Childhood

Education Program (CEP) to accelerate change and narrow

the gap between theory and practice. Instead of gradu-

ally modifying the existing traditional program, the

faculty members developed the CEP program based on the

research and theoretical position of Combs.

The four major prinicples underlying the organi-

zation of the new program (CEP) were:

1. One learns best when learning is made per-
sonally meaningful and relevant.

2. One learns best when learning is adjusted
to the rate and need of the individual.

3. One learns best when there is a great deal
of self-direction.

4. One learns best when there is a close rela-
tionship between theory and practice.(Avila
et al., 1972, p. 149)

Traditional teacher education programs have been

criticized because, ". . contents and procedures of

teacher education frequently have no demonstrable rele-

vance to the actual teaching tasks" (Sarason, Davidson, and

Blatt, 1962, p. viii). Combs felt that the traditional

University of Florida professional elementary teacher

preparation program has failed to provide the beginning

teacher with the knowledge, theory, concepts and under-

standing of self, and these are what the beginning teacher

really needs.










Whatever research defines as characteristic of

good teachers also defines the objectives of teacher edu-

cation programs. "With those objectives established the

next question becomes: How shall a teacher education

program be designed to produce teachers who perceive

themselves as their tasks in such fashion" (Wass et al.,

1974, p. 4). A series of basic assumptions was developed

to serve as guidelines for an effective teacher education

program. Since these assumptions formed the basis for

the present CEP program under investigation each of these

assumptions will be discussed in some detail.

(1) The development of an effective teacher is a

process of becoming.

Webb and Guinagh (1975) stated the key to any edu-

cational program is the quality of its faculty and the

leadership it provides. The humanistic philosophy of the

CEP program calls for a new type of teacher. According

to CEP founders, "the purpose of teaching is service; its

primary goal is the growth of self in the student, not the

teacher" (Webb and Guinagh, 1975, p. 9). This is a goal

often missed, particularly by traditional college teachers.

Perceptual educators see the "self as instrument"

concept as a problem in becoming. Becoming a teacher is

not matter of learning how to teach, now will knowledge

about good teaching insure superior performance. It is a

personal discovery of learning how to use one's self well.










To lead students to such learning experiences, the

CEP program has adopted an attitude towards teaching that

is rare in traditional education programs. For the basic

requisite of such a curriculum is a teacher,

with a questioning, probing, inquiring mind,
one who sees the exploration of questions as
far more important than the dispensing of in-
formation. It demands a teacher who has no
firm and fixed answers and who thus expects
none from the students, who lacks the courage
of his convictions because he has few con-
victions and has learned instead to rely on
the courage of his confusion, who is willing,
indeed eager, to learn with and from the young
people with whom he shares a classroom. (Daigon
and LaConte, 1971, p. 55)

(2) The process of becoming must begin from a

feeling of security and acceptance.

"Since feelings of self-acceptance and security

are essential conditions for personal discovery, teacher

education programs must begin from an acceptance of stu-

dents where they are, followed by a maximum diet of suc-

cess and a minimum experience of failure" (Wass et al.,

1974, p. 5). For the future teacher to strive for self-

actualization, first he must have basic physical and

psychological security. In a humanistic-helping relation-

ship educational environment, such as CEP, theoretically

the student can find his identity, his worth, and gain

insight and understanding of his own behavior. The per-

ceptual educator understands that the teacher has the

power to either hinder or promote the psychosocial growth










and development of the student. Maslow summed up this per-

ceptual point beautifully,

Let people realize clearly that every time
they threaten someone or humiliate or hurt
unnecessarily or dominate or reject another
human being, they become forces for the
creation of psychopathology, even if these
be small forces. Let them recognize that
every man who is kind, helpful, decent, psy-
chologically democratic, affectionate, and
warm, is a psychotherapeutic force even though
a small one. (Maslow, 1954, Preface)

This is the main reason why programs like CEP,

created by Combs, are developed to teach, train, and

facilitate teachers to elicit humanistic helping rela-

tionship environments in their future classrooms so growth

towards self-actualization by the student can be accom-

plished.

(3) Teacher education programs must concentrate

on personal meanings rather than behavior.

Behavior is only symptom; the causes of behavior

lie in meanings, the person's perceptions and beliefs

about himself and his world. The perceptual frame of

reference attempts to understand behavior from the point

of view of the behaver, himself, rather than viewing it

as an external observer. To paraphase Combs in Individual

Behavior (1959), the true reality of the student lies in

his perceptual field. Behavior is always in response to

the reality as perceived by the individual. For behavior

is a function of the perceptual field. Thus, "the crucial










question for teacher education is not which behavior to

teach its students but how to bring about appropriate

shifts in perception" (Wass et al., 1974, p. 7).

(4) To deal effectively with meaning, teacher

education programs must emphasize the sub-

jective aspects of human experience.

If it is true that human behavior is a function

of perception, the problem of behavior change must be

recognized as fundamentally subjective, having to do with

the person's belief system-his feelings, attitudes and

beliefs.

The humanistic educator does not see the future

teacher's behavior from without but rather tries to view

him from within-from the student's own perceptual field.

This is the only way of knowing, understanding, and gain-

ing insight about the future teacher. The way a student

defines his situation constitutes reality for him. Thus,

the only reality a student can know is his own subjective

experience.

(5) An individualized program aimed at personal

discovery and meaning callsforan open sys-

tem of thinking.

Rousseau, (Dewey, 1916) some 200 years ago, had

the magnificent insight to know what a curriculum, employ-

ing such subject matter techniques can do to the individ-

ual. "Each individual is born with a distinctive tempera-

ment We indiscriminately employ children of different










bents on the same exercises; their education destroys the

special bent and leaves a dull uniformity. Therefore,

after we have wasted our efforts in stunting the true

gifts of nature we see the short-lived and illusory brilli-

ance we have substituted die away, while the natural

abilities we have crushed do notrevive." (Dewey, 1916, p. 116).

"The advantages of an open system of thinking

extend beyond the fact that it is likely to result in

more personalized and effective learning. In an open

system the relationships between teachers and students

are also likely to be much improved, for a problems ap-

proach makes teacher and student partners in a common

project rather than separate or antagonistic participants"

(Wass et al., 1974, p. 7).

CEP educators stated that they can no longer be

held accountable for educating large masses of students

by the assembly line process. From John Dewey, to Arthur

Combs and Carl Rogers, it has been emphasized, over and

over again, that we need to educate the future teacher in

light of his own peculiar and unique needs. Carl Rogers

contends in Freedom to Learn that a society's goals should

be concerned primarily with the process of man 'Becoming,'

achieving worth and dignity, being creative, self-actual-

izing. This calls for student centered teaching and a

philosophy of teaching focused on self-discovered learn-

ing. The CEP program claims to have this.










(6) The dynamic importance of need in learning

must be fully exploited.

Learning is likely to be effective only in the

degree to which material is related to the need of the

learner. A teacher education program, therefore, must

provide maximum adaptation to students' needs on the one

hand and the creative discovery of new needs to know on

the other. It is the CEP assumption according to Webb

and Guinagh, that ideas remain inviting and educationally

worthwhile only in the presence of a student's perceived

need to know. Combs has said: "Psychologists do not

know much about learning but one thing they do know:

that people learn best when they have a need to know"

(Wass et al., 1974, p. 6). The idea seems to be that

unless a student perceives a need for the information

being offered he will gain little from his classroom ex-

perience beyond ritualistically going through the paces.

But once a need to know is established it is believed

that "people do not need to be rewarded, cajoled or pun-

ished to deal with matters that affect them in important.

and immediate ways" (p. 6). Combs quoted Snygg as saying.

"The trouble with American education is that we are all

trying to provide students with answers to problems they

haven't got yet" (p. 6.).

(7) A program based upon effective discovery of

personal meaning must actively seek for stu-

dent involvement.










Since the person's self is his very own private

possession it cannot be effectively changed without coop-

eration of the student.

Yet, the only way to center teaching on the indi-

vidual student is to know a great deal about him and his

perceptions. To recognize his uniqueness and give him the

responsibility of his own behavior are also necessities

for the perceptually orientated educator. The perceptual

teacher relates to the student as if he "were an unique,

living human being possessing uniquely human capacities

and meaningful experiences; a being having feelings that

are important; an individual striving toward goals; a

being in process of being; dynamic and creative" (Combs,

1969, p. 11).

Still, teachers from all schools of educational

psychology realize sooner or later that the student, him-

self, must make some decisions, he must learn to take some

responsibility for himself and his behavior, but the theory

and the technique of most nonoriented perceptual teachers,

unfortunately, tends to be built on the opposite. The

modern student in his class so often has the conviction

that even if he did exert his will and capacity for de-

cision, it would not make any difference.

Preparation for adequate teacher personalities of

the future must be founded on the ability to function ef-

fectively in solving immediate problems and needs. There-

fore, the importance of what Carl Rogers says about the









curriculum being in real contact with the relevant prob-

lems of the student's experience must be considered. Un-

fortunately, the subject matter taught today in schools,

without a perceptual outlook, appears to many students as

being unreal. It does not possess for the future teacher

the kind of reality which the subject matter of their

vital experiences possess.

"They learn not to expect that sort of reality of

it. They become habituated to treating it as having real-

ity for the purposes of recitations, lessons and examina-

tions. That it should remain inert for the experiences of

daily life is more or less of a matter of course" (Dewey,

1916, p. 161). He then would become a spectator in the educa-

tional process instead of the participant. The perceptual

psychologist recognizes what many educators have not, that

the student alone has the capacity to choose his behavior,

hence shape his essence and establish the meaning of his

own life. "Learning to be self directive can be a painful

experience" (Wass et al., 1974, p. 9).

(8) If the self-concept is as important a deter-

miner of behavior as research suggests,

teacher education must actively apply what

is known about it.

Teacher education must produce teachers who see

themselves in positive ways. Therefore, we need to im-

prove educational practices and produce teachers with

positive views of self. In light of this principle, a










curriculum should be developed where the subject matter

presented takes into consideration the student's point of

view. CEP education must deal with the whole phenomenal

field of the student, in order to change his perceptions

of himself (his self-concept) as well as his perceptions

of the environment. If the student sees himself as worth-

less, having no identity, that is the role he will play.

And the opposite is also true, if he sees himself as

having worth, being able and having an identity, this is

the role he will play. So the humanistic educator at-

tempts to lead the future teacher to a path of self-

actualization and on a course that some day will end in

self-identity and a fully functioning person.

(9) Since methods of teaching are personal ways

of using self, they cannot be given; they

must be discovered.

"This calls for the cafeteria approach to methods

in which students are given wide opportunities to con-

front all kinds of possible methods and are encouraged

and assisted to try out and modify teaching techniques to

fit the peculiar combination of characteristic of self,

students, surroundings in which they may find themselves"

(Wass et al., 1974, p. 9).

The future teacher's perceptual field and his per-

ceptual organization are being recognized in the total

process of education as being just as important or even










more important that his intellectual mind and those organ-

ized bodies of information and skills known as knowledge.

The student has faults, limitations, yet he also has cre-

ativeness, self-expression, capacities and most important

potential-growth potential. This growth potential as

seen in Bruner and Dewey's states of immaturity, can be

realized in the right educational environment. The per-

ceptual educator understands what Dewey (1916) meant when

he said, "while a careful study of the native aptitudes

and deficiencies of an individual is always a preliminary

necessity, the subsequent and important step is to furnish

an environment which will adequately function whatever ac-

tivities are present . the educator is concerned with

making the best use of what is there, putting it at work

under the most favorable conditions"(1916, p. 74).

(10) Since students come to teacher education

programs from a wide variety of backgrounds

and experience, professional education must

allow for the widest possible flexibility

for adjustment to such diverse needs.

"Teacher education programs which require all stu-

dents to move through the same sequence of experience in

the same time periods do violence to everything we know

about the unique nature of persons" (Wass et al., 1974,p. 9).

A program of maximum flexibility is needed because

students come to the College of Education with varying










backgrounds, experience and widely divergent needs for

help in becoming effective teachers. Teacher education

programs must, therefore, contain maximum flexibility to

adjust to such needs and permit wide variations in in-

structional programs and in rate of progress. CEP is de-

signed in ways it is hoped will maximize the opportunity

for students to ferret out relevant questions regarding

education. "The student has the advantage of attending

only the workshops he needs and has chosen, and this ele-

ment of choice leads to more positive experiences on the

part of both the instructor and the student. . .

The importance of the student's right to choose his learn-

ing activity, according to Blume, cannot be overemphasized.

When students choose to study a particular topic, they in-

volve themsleves more completely than they do when the

task is assigned by the instructor" (Wass et al., pp. 9,19).

(11) Since people learn most effectively from

their own experience, teacher education

programs must demonstrate in their phi-

losophy, practices, and human relationships

a wide variety of models.

Beyond the traditional role of the teacher as

bearer of information the CEP program demanded two other

roles less frequently seen in the past.

One of these is the role of teacher as facili-
tator. It calls for teachers whose primary
focus is on the creation of effective proces-
ses of learning, teachers who know how to










facilitate, help, aid, and assist students in a
problems approach to education. The other role
is the teacher as a consultant. This is the role
demanded of teachers when students are actively
engaged in the search for their own development
or in the pursuit of their own special needs.
(Wass et al., 1974, p. 10)

The role of a teacher as a facilitator and a con-

sultant means that the traditional social distance between

professors and students must somehow be broken down. Stu-

dents would have to find professors more approachable,

easier to communicate with and more aware of their needs

than is found in the traditional program. Busby defines

this type of teacher as one

who has learned how to use himself and his
knowledge of children and subject matter to
accomplish the purposes of schooling. The
task of the college is not to teach right ways
to teach; rather, it is to help the student
discover his own best ways of operating in
whatever school setting he may find. (Busby
et al., 1974, p. 2)

For we know that

No teachers' college can make a teacher. The best
it can do is provide students with problems,
resources, information, and opportunities to ex-
plore what they mean. Beyond that the student is
his own pilot and must find his own best ways of
working. He must make a commitment to the pro-
cess of learning. After all, the self is un-
likely to change if it is not permitted to 'get
in the act'. (Combs et al., 1974, p. 8)

In summary, as one of the basic tenets of Combs is

that the development of an effective teacher is a process

of becoming, then it may be said that the development of

an effective teacher education program is a process of be-


coming.










These principles mentioned by Combs (Wass et al.,

1974) are valid for humanistic education at any level ac-

cording to Blume. He hoped that CEP could introduce them

into elementary classrooms by preparing teachers in ways

that are consistent with these principles. Education must

include more that the acquisition of a few more facts and

a faster reading rate. Blume stated that, "we must also

help our young to develop compassion, concern for others,

faith in themselves, the ability to think critically, the.

ability to love, the ability to cooperate with others, the

ability to maintain good health, and above all, the ability

to remain open to other people and new experiences. This

is humanistic education!" (Blume, 1971, p. 411). Blume

feels that whether students learn as much about teaching

at the University of Florida in CEP as they would in a

more traditional program will have to determined by the

research which is under way.

The question of whether or not attitudes, beliefs,

and values are changed by exposure to a teacher education

program has been raised by a number of researchers (Brown,

1968; Gallup, 1970).

In the light of the close relationship between be-

havior and beliefs, Combs (1969) discovered that studying

the beliefs (highly meaningful perceptions) of the differ-

ent helpers provided the knowledge to understand the help-

ing relationships. Brown (1968) used this same premise










in studying teaching beliefs and practices in The Experi-

mental Mind in Education. Brown states, "teachers behave

according to the facts as they see them. What governs

behavior of the individual are his unique perceptions of

himself and the world in which he lives, the personal

meaning things have for him" (Brown, 1968, p. 10). What

a person perceives will be affected by what he already be-

lieves, and what he believes will be affected by all of

the variables of the perceptual process in his perceptual

field. Brown also states that for some perceptual psy-

chologists the term belief is synonymous with "perception."

But Brown defines "belief" as the evaluation of perception.

He suggests that beliefs may be thought of as predisposi-

tions for action. But remember Brown views beliefs as

some sort of evaluation of what is perceived.

Those people who see themselves as undesirable,

worthless, or "bad" tend to act accordingly. Those who

have highly unrealistic concept of self tend to approach

life and other people in unrealistic ways. Therefore,

the individual's concept of himself has been demonstrated

to be highly influential in much of his behavior. So

Brown advocates that teacher preparation programs should

attempt to help future teachers to bring their personal

beliefs to a "conscious level"-value clarification if you

will.

According to Brown, however, this "consistency"

may be very hard to teach. "Failure to make the vital










connection between theory and practice is a glaring weak-

ness in American education" (1968, p. 12).

Brown was concerned in The Experimental Mind in

Education (1968), with the congruence or incongruence be-

tween what teachers believe and actually practice.

Brown indicated that decisions on what and how to

teach by teachers are determined by certain fundamental

principles. If these are incongruent, then the teacher

is exhibiting what Brown calls the theory-practice dilemma.

This is the discrepancy between what teachers say they

know and believe in theory and how they teach or fail to

teach in practice.

This theory-practice dilemma is evident when a

teacher says that what he learned in college does not

always work in actual teaching. Because, according to

Brown, teachers in training are likely to discover a per-

plexing lack of agreement between the theory advocated by

their professors of education and the practices demanded

of them by the cooperating teachers selected by colleges

of education to direct their student teaching experiences.

What is reality in the college classroom is not always

reality in the actual classroom!

So, what teachers believe and do about educational

problems in the classroom depends to a considerable extent

upon their fundamental beliefs about:

1. people and why they behave as they do,

2. reality, or the world in which people live,










3. knowledge, its nature and relationship to
what people do. (Brown, 1968, p. 1)

Brown believes that teaching practices are based on these

fundamental beliefs, whether the individual is conscious

of them or not. In addition, these nonexperimental basic

philosophic beliefs of the teacher often contradict his

experimental educational beliefs. And when this contra-

diction occurs, the observed classroom practices of the

teacher tends to be pulled in the direction of the under-

lying philosophic beliefs and often leads to behavior in

the opposite direction from which the teacher says he

wants to go.

In addition, Brown has stated that "examination of

intercorrleations among specific items on the three mea-

surements of experimentalism, (PBI, TPI, and the POQ) pro-

vided evidence that fundamental philosophic beliefs are

more consistently related to teacher practices than are

educational beliefs" (1968, p. 3).

One of the instruments used to measure the direc-

tion of the teachers' underlying philosophic belief system

is the Personal Opinion Questionnaire, which is a vari-

ation of the Rokeach Dogmatic Scale. The primary purpose

of the Rokeach Sacle and the POQ is to measure individual

differences in openness or closeness of belief systems.

Rokeach (1960) in his study of The Open and Closed

Mind, according to Lindzey and Aronson (1968), stresses










the role of an enduring state of threat in creating the

closed mind; his view of the origins of the closed mind

is similar to their view of the origin of the authoritar-

ian personality. Rokeach's central thesis is that we

organize the world of ideas, people, and authority basi-

cally along the lines of belief congruence, liking those

with similar beliefs and disliking those with dissimilar

beliefs. There are individual differences in the abso-

lute extent to which different people are willing to

accept or reject others on this basis; these differences

reflect the structurall openness" or "closeness" of the

belief system.

A system is open to the extent that the person

can receive, evaluate, and act on relevant information

from the outside of its own intrinsic merits. Struc-

turally the "closed mind" as compared with the open one,

is characterized by less differentiation of its belief

systems (particularly its disbelief systems), a narrower

time perspective and more dependence on external authority

for the specific content of the beliefs and disbeliefs.

It is assumed that the more closed the system, the

more will the content of such beliefs be to the effect

that we live alone, isolated, and helpless in a friendless

world; that we live in a world wherein the future is un-

certain that the self is fundamentally unworthy and inade-

quate to cope alone with this friendless world and that










the way to overcome such feelings is by a self-aggrandizing

and self-righteous identification with a cause, a concern

with power and status, and by a compulsive self-proselyti-

zation about the justness of such a cause.

The more closed the belief-disbelief system, the

more will authority be seen as absolute, and the more will

people be accepted and rejected because they agree or

disagree with one's belief-disbelief system. Therefore,

an open system is more in line with the theoretical posi-

tions of Dewey, Combs and the CEP.

In addition to the POQ, Brown, in an effort to

measure both the degree to which an individual agrees with

the theoretical position of Dewey and his experimental

mind, developed the PBI and the TPI. Brown developed the

Personal Beliefs Inventory (PBI) to measure basic philo-

sophical or personal beliefs and the Teacher Practices In-

ventory (TPI) to measure educational beliefs, what a per-

son believes is "good teaching." In the development of

these instruments, Brown tested the gambit from future

teachers to school administrators.

His findings indicated that the teacher's basic

beliefs were not consistent with his educational beliefs.

As a matter of fact, Brown reported that observed class-

room practices are more consistent with a teacher's per-

sonal beliefs (PBI) than with his educational beliefs

(TPI). Therefore, Brown concluded that the theory prac-

tice dilemma is alive and well.










Gallup (1970) reported basically the same results

in a cross sectional study on the evaluation of the teacher

training program at the University of Florida-the effects

of academic preparation and/or teaching experience on the

educational and philosophical beliefs of female elementary

education teachers. His work was based on the work done

by Brown (1969) in The Experimental Mind in Education.

Gallup's study used a cross-sectional design with

four different groups of teachers, at the preservice level,

using the PBI, TPI, and the POQ as attitude measures. The

four groups were beginning students (BS), finishing stu-

dents (FS), beginning teachers (BT), and experienced teach-

ers (ET).

His findings indicated that the largest theory

practice dilemma appeared with the finishing students.

There was an increase in the beliefs of teaching prac-

tices from beginning students to finishing students but

a decline from then on. As a matter of fact, the BS

group's mean scores were higher than the ET group's mean

scores on educational beliefs, while all the time the PBI

scores declined from BS to ET, yet none were significantly

different. The more teaching experience, the more the

decline in the TPI mean scores. Therefore, academic and

teaching experiences effect educational beliefs more than

personal beliefs. These data follow the ideas laid down

by Festinger (1957) and cognitivedissonance plus self-concept










theory-stable personal beliefs are a better indicator of

behavior,and personal basic beliefs are less amendable to

change.

Students ideas change on what is good teaching-

become less like Dewey's beliefs with more teaching ex-

perience. All that is learned in school is wasted accord-

ing to Brown. "Experienced teachers held about the same

eduactional beliefs as the beginning student groups"

(Gallup, 1970, p. 45). Therefore, observed classroom

parctices may be the same for both. If this is the case

the teacher might teach according to beliefs obtained

prior to the experience of a teacher education program or

classroom teaching, then why have teacher preparation at

all!

A possible explanation of the increase in educa-

tion beliefs with "academic experience" was made by Eson

(1958). While reporting significant increases, he con-

cluded that these increases in educational beliefs are

a "result of learning the desired responses rather than

a genuine change in attitude." Also, Brown and Gallup

point out that the actual teacher losses the effect of

reinforcement by grades and instructor's social approval

to keep these educational beliefs. So therefore, public

school teaching situations might not be reinforcing the

same choices or beliefs the teacher education program

did.










Gallup states, "in order to have an important

effect on a prospective teacher's future classroom prac-

tices, the teacher training program needs to deal with

the personal beliefs or basic philosophical assumptions

of each student. A program which attempts this might bet-

ter insure that educational experiences become personal

and meaningful to the student" (Ibid.). So, while the

personal beliefs of the traditional and the CEP students

and teachers are probably the same, one who believes in

the doctrine of the CEP will expect significant differ-

ences between the two groups in educational beliefs with

the CEP students and teachers having more consistency.

This study will attempt to determine this.

The results reported by both Gallup and Brown

suggest that exposure to a teacher education program does

indeed change reports of attitudes and beliefs. Since

one of the major goals of the CEP program was also to

change attitudes and beliefs, studies relating to this

area are of importance to the present study.

Busby et al. (1974) compared a group of 51 CEP

students to 64 traditionally trained students at the

University of Florida. The instruments used to measure

the differences between the two groups consisted of basi-

cally the same teast used by Gallup (1970) and Brown

(1968)--the PBI, TPI, and the POQ.

In general, the results indicated that the CEP ap-

peared to be successful in producing a different kind of










teacher. This teacher seems to be more flexible and self-

confident. The CEP student appears to have different

perceptions about the nature of the educational process.

He believes inan active problem centered, experimental

classroom. He also sees motivation as primarily intrinsic

rather extrinsic (Busby et al.). However, of the 29

measures Busby tested, these three measures were the only

ones significant at the .05 level of confidence.

Later, Busby et al. (In Press) did a follow-up

study to see what happened to these students as they at-

tempted to put their educational beliefs and perceptions

into practice. After the graduates had completed their

first year of teaching, this study was conducted to deter-

mine if any significant differences existed between the

two groups of graduates. Their sample consisted of 40

students from the traditional trained group and 35 from

the CEP.

Two different instruments were used to collect

data on the two groups. The first was the Florida Teacher

Rating Scale (FTRS) which was develop by Busby et al. (In

Press) for this study. This scale, which was answered by

principals, consisted of a series of teacher effectiveness

in ten different categories. Principals were asked to

compare the graduates to the best and worst teachers they

have known by placing a mark on a continuum for each cate-

gory. The second instrument was a questionnaire completed










by the graduates themselves. It used the Guttman tech-

nique in which a series of statements representing a con-

tinuum are presented to the subject, and he chooses the

one which most nearly represents his own beliefs.

The results of the comparison of the graduates on

how they view their teacher education program were much

like Brown's (1968) and Gallup's (1970). The graduates

of the CEP program perceived their program to provide

more adequate preparation for the teaching profession.

They perceived themselves to be more confident, self-

initiating and skillful in helping others grow. Like

Gallup discovered, there was no significant differences

in the educational beliefs of the finishing student and

the beginning teacher. This data indicated that "aca-

demic experience" still had effect on the CEP beginning

teacher though not that much difference from the tradi-

tional beginning teacher. The real question is what will

happen with additional teacher experience-a decline like

found in Brown and Gallup or will the perceptions of the

CEP teacher truly become teaching practices?

Wass and Combs (1973) did a similar study except

they used systematic observations of teacher behaviors in

the classroom to test teaching practices. The following

measures were used to carry out the teacher evaluations

of the two groups:










1. Teacher Practices Observation Record (TPOR).

2. Reciprocal Category System (RCS), a modifi-
cation of the Flanders System.

3. Perceptual Dimensions Scale (PDS).

The sample consisted of 35 CEP teachers and 30

teachers how had participated in the traditional program.

The feedback research done on the experimental program

sought to measure "the effectiveness of CEP teachers in

the classroom" (Wass et al., 1974, p. 30). This research

yielded generally positive results. The results indicated

that the CEP teachers' practices were more in line with

Dewey's experimentalism. The CEP teachers were also less

teacher oriented, right answer oriented than the tradi-

tional group. In agreement with past Combian research,

most of the comparisons from a strictly behavioral point

of view showed no major differences. However, as Combs

stated in the research of 1965 and 1969, comparisons

examined from a perceptual orientation things appear dif-

ferently. The CEP teachers were much more clearly dif-

ferentiated with respect to their perceptions about them-

selves, about others, and with respect to the purposes

they were attempting to carry out.

Finally, Webb and Guinagh (1975) did a study of

the students' perceptions of the childhood education pro-

gram. Rather than attempting an investigation into the

validity of the theoretical assumptions upon which the CEP










was based, as did Busby, Wass and Combs, the Webb and

Guinagh study attempted to investigate the degree to which

this program in teacher preparation lived up to its theo-

retical assumptions. "This study differs from previous

research in two ways: First, it is a descriptive study

rather than a comparative evaluation, and second, it

studies the program as it is viewed by students while

they are immersed within it. In effect, this is an exam-

ination of how closely the program, as presently imple-

mented, matches its own theoretical underpinnings" (Webb

and Guinagh, 1975, p. 2). Using volunteer CEP students,

Webb and Guinagh developed, after four revisions, a ques-

tionnaire on the CEP. This questionnaire was given in a

group setting within selected seminars in the spring of

1974. The questionnaire was comprised of mostly questions

which directed the CEP into its component parts so that

various elements of the program could be viewed indivu-

ally, yet some questions were asked which pertained to

the program as a whole. In all, 204 questionnaires col-

lected anonymously were completed.

Webb and Guinagh reported that: only two out of

three students believed they were getting a good education;

four outof tenwould prefer a more traditional program if

teaching experience was included; over half felt that they

were forced into nonmeaningful learning activities; and three

out of five found it difficult to find and talk with the










faculty. However, they reported that the CEP had these

advantages over the traditional program; three out of four

found the seminars helpful, three out of five found that

the CEP helped them with their self-concept, four out of

five indicated never having to cheat, and four out of five

believed the CEP helped them to learn to accept responsi-

bility.

Overall, it is evident there are strengths as well

as weaknesses in the CEP program. Webband Guinagh's data,

like the previous studies, give us no clear cut evidence

as to which teacher preparation program is significantly

better. What is needed is further research in this area

so that some "hard data can be collected in order to make

some positive assertions about teacher education.

Is the theory practice dilemma smaller in the CEP

than in the traditionally trained teacher? Are the CEP

teachers' basic philosophical beliefs consistent with

their educational beliefs? The CEP follower would say,

"yes!" But according to Hedges, "All is not well with the

CEP" (Webb and Guinagh, 1975, Forward). The question

arises as to whether the tremendous expenditure of energy

and time in the CEP is justified by the results. Would

a more traditional teacher education program be more

efficient? This study is an attempt to begin the process

of making such a determination.
















CHAPTER III

DESIGN AND PROCEDURE



"An innovative program aims to offer something dif-

ferent and, hopefully, better than conventional programs;

in other words, some of its purposes and objectives are at

variance with traditional ones" (Wass et al., 1974, p. 32).

The purpose of this study was to examine the difference be-

tween elementary teachers trained in the CEP program as

compared to the traditional program of teacher preparation,

as measured by the Personal Beliefs Inventory (PBI), the

Teacher Practices Inventory (TPI), and the Personal Opin-

ion Questionnaire (POQ). Changes on these three instru-

ments were measured over time using the responses of the

same subjects in the two groups.


Hypotheses to be Tested


Based on the conditions which characterize CEP

teachers cited by Combs et al. (1974), the following ques-

tions may be raised. Using three measures of beliefs, are

there differences in the scores for the two groups? Using

measures of beliefs, are there changes over time as deter-

mined by repeated measures? Questions about group differences










are examined by the first hypothesis while questions about

changes in beliefs over time are examined in hypothesis two

and three. Stated in null form, the hypotheses for this

study were:

1. There will be no significant differences in

comparison of the CEP to the traditional group

on/scores for the Personal Beliefs Inventory

(PBI), Teacher Practices Inventory (TPI), and

Personal Opinion Questionnaire (POQ).

2. There will be no significant differences between

pre- and posttest scores for the PBI, TPI, and

POQ.

3. For the CEP group, there will be no significant

differences between scores on the PBI, TPI, and

POQ for the three test times.


Data


The data to be analyzed were collected from two

data pools. The pretest information was gathered by Busby

et al., 1974, who collected data from both students in the

CEP and the existing traditional program. The CEP students

were tested twice; first in the beginning of their senior

year (CEP 1) and again after they had completed their field

experience or internship (CEP 2). Unfortunately, the tra-

ditional group was only tested once, after they had com-

pleted their field experience or internship. The second









data pool is information collected by Wass. This posttest

data was gathered by Wass on inservice teachers using the

same subjects from both the CEP (CEP 3) and traditional

groups and using three of the same measures employed by

Busby et al. (1974), the PBI, TPI, and POQ.



Table 1
Test Times for CEP and Traditional Groups


CEP



TRAD


Senior Students Internship 3-4 years In-
Service Teachers

Busby Busby Wass
(CEP I) (CEP II) (CEP III)


Busby (Pre) Wass (Post)
X X


Sample


Busby et al. collected the predata in the Winter

quarter of 1969 and the Fall Quarter of 1970. Ninety stu-

dents were selected randomly from approximately 250 stu-

dents entering the Child Education Program. As students

graduated or dropped out, Busby randomly replaced them to

maintain the original size of each seminar. The final

experimental group (CEP) for Busby consisted of 51 out of

58 students. Seven students were not tested because they

were not available or they refused to participate in the

testing program.










The traditional trained subjects (the control

group) for Busby consisted of 64 out of 86 students ran-

domly selected from the total of 206 students enrolled in

a senior seminar in the traditional program. Twenty-two

students were either not available or refused to partici-

pate. Therefore, the original sample used by Busby con-

sisted of 51 CEP students and 64 traditional students who

had completed their field experience or internship and were

in their "graduating" quarter when tested.

The postdatawere collected by Wass and consisted

of 65 students from the original Busby sample who were now

(inservice) teachers. Thirty-five teachers who had gradu-

ated in 1970-1971, who participated in CEP and the Busby

et al., study comprised the experimental group. The control

group was comprised of 30 (inservice) teachers who had

graduated in 1970-71, were also in the Busby et al., study

but who had participated in the traditional program.

Since this a longitudinal study, it was necessary

to identify subjects in both the CEP and traditional groups

where complete data was available. Out of Busby and Wass'

samples, a total of 50 subjects, 25 CEP and 25 traditional

were identified and constituted the data sample for this

study.









Instruments


From the battery of instruments used by both Busby

and Wass, there were three common instruments which are

employed in this study. There are:

Personal Beliefs Inventory
Teacher Practices Inventory
Personal Opinion Questionnaire

The Personal Beliefs Inventory (PBI), the Teacher

Practices Inventory (TBI), and the Personal Opinion Ques-

tionnaire (POQ), were all instruments designed by Brown

(1968) concerning the measurement of personal and educa-

tional beliefs and practices. "These scales were developed

for the primary purpose of measuring individual differences

in agreement or disagreement with John Dewey's philoso-

phy" (Brown, 1968, p. 80).

Classroom practices are related to teacher's be-

liefs according to Brown (1968), Combs (1969), and others.

What teachers do in a most general sense depends almost

completely upon their beliefs about themselves, their ac-

tions and their students. "The behavior of a person is

a result of what he believes about himself, what he be-

lieves about the situation in which he is involved, and the

interaction of the two" (Brown, 1968, p.26).

"While the behavioral approach is most appropri-

ate for assessing the possession of knowledge and skills,

it is inappropriate for assessing perceptions simply be-

cause perceptions, beliefs, values-all matters of personal










meaning-lie inside persons and are not open to inspec-

tion. They require a more complex technique than simple

behavioral measurement. They call for indirect measure-

ment by inference" (Wass et al., 1974, p. 33). With this

in mind, Brown developed these three beliefs and attitudes

inventories, the Personal Beliefs Inventory (PBI), the Teach-

ers Practices Inventory (TPI), and the Personal Opinion

Questionnaire (POQ).

What teachers believe about basic philosophical

questions (as measured by the PBI) is hypothesized to make

a difference in how teachers instruct in the classroom

(e.g., students as participants, not just spectators).

The Personal Beliefs Inventory form used in the Busby (1974)

and Wass studies was the fifth revision, subform A-B which

is described by Brown, 1968, pp. 78-98).

What teachers believe about educational practices,

what a person believes is good teaching (as measured by

the TPI), is hypothesized to make a difference in how they

actually teach in the classroom (e.g., direct rather than

vicarious experience). The items in the Teacher Practices

Inventory were grouped according to the seven categories

in relation to the educational beliefs of John Dewey, and

two categories in relation to the "evils of education" (the

isolation of method of subject matter) as seen by John

Dewey. The TPI form used in this study was also the fifth

revision, subform A-B which is described by (Ibid). The










PBI and the TPI both have 40 items, take approximately 15

minutes to complete and were designed to measure the "ex-

perimental-mindedness" of a person.

The instrument used to measure the direction of

the teachers' underlying philosophic belief system was the

Personal Opinion Questionnaire (POQ). The POQ has 66 items

and takes approximately 30 minutes to complete. The POQ

is a variation of the Rokeach Dogmatic Scale (Form E-40)

with the scoring categories reversed. The primary pur-

pose of the Rokeach Dogmatic Scale and the Personal Opin-

ion Questionnaire is to measure individual differences in

openness or closeness of belief systems, what the general

public thinks and feels about a number of important social

and personal questions-to serve to measure general author-

itarianism and general intolerance.

What teachers believe about a number of important

social and personal questions (as measured by the POQ)

is hypothesized to make a difference in how teachers in-

struct in the classroom (e.g. that teaching can make a

difference). Therefore, Brown believes that knowing a

future teacher's beliefs could lead to a good prediction

of how he will behave in the classroom.

Brown reported that reliability data were collected

on these three scales from 1961 to 1965 from populations

including students in educational pyschology, professors,

supervisors, teachers and public school administrators who










participated in the student teaching program at the Univer-

sity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.

Four types of reliabilities were computed: split-

halves, test-retest, reliability of comparable forms and

Hoyt Internal Consistency Reliability Coefficients. They

ranged from .55 to .78 on the PBI and .56 to .94 for the

TPI. Rokeach reported that the reliabilities on the Dog-

matic Scale, of which the POQ is a variation, ranged from

.68 to .93 with an average of .75. Brown stated that these

reliability measures should be "considered quite satis-

factory because a reliability score of .80 is usually de-

manded for tests of achievement or mental ability, but that

measures of attitudes, personality or values are given

more latitude" (Bronw, 1968, p. 96).

Brown reported on developing content validity by

using judges, who were members of the faculty at.the Uni-

versity of Wisconsin, Madison campus, to decide which of

the 272 statements given to them by Brown, were in agree-

ment with Dewey, in disagreement, or did not relate. A

statement were accepted if it were rated either inconsis-

tent or consistent with Dewey by five out of six judges.

If the statement were accepted and it concerned

basic philosophic beliefs with "the relationship of know-

ledge to action," then it became part of the Personal Be-

liefs Inventory. If the statement were accepted and it

concerned "the relationship of subject matter to method,"










then it eventually became part of the Teacher Practices

Inventory.


Data Collection and Scoring


All three inventories were administered together,

the PBI first, then the TPI, and finally the POQ. For all

insturments, the subject marked a number in the left hand

margin according to how much he agreed or disagreed with

each statement. The statements can be marked from "1"

(agreed very much) to "6" (disagreed very much). A total

score on the PBI and TPI was developed according to the

scoring procedure described by Brown (1968, pp. 82-83).

The higher the score the greater in agreement with "experi-

mentalism" as reflected by Dewey's position, and greater

in agreement with the theoretical positions of Combs and the

CEP.

The total score on the POQ is, also, the sum of

scores obtained on all items. However, the POQ in actual-

ity is a reversal in scoring of the Rokeach Dogmatism

Scale. The lowest score on the Rokeach scale is the most

favorable. Brown reversed this procedure in order to match

the scoring on the PBI and TPI. In other words, the higher

the subject's score on the POQ, the more open and the more

in agreement he is with the theoretical position of the CEP.










Testing Procedures


The initial research plan for this study included

a prepost test using students in the experimental program

and in the traditional program. All students completed

the three inventories concurrently. Each student was ad-

ministered the three attitude measures in 1969-70 (Busby

et al.), while enrolled in the College of Education at

the University of Florida in either the experimental or

the traditional program and again by Wass three to four

years later, when they were inservice teachers. However,

for CEP subjects only, additional data on the three measures

were obtained in the beginning of the CEP students senior

year.


Statistical Design


Formal assessment of outcomes typically follows

a pretest-posttest design and uses a control group when

possible. "The most common approach in educational research

is to examine mean differences between pre-post measures

in the experimental group preferably in comparison with a

control group" (Wass et al., 1974, p. 36). Therefore, the

null hypotheses were tested by a 2 x 2 repeated measures de-

sign using a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) between

mean differences for each sample group on each instrument.

If a significant F ratio was obtained, then a test of





49




simple effects pre vs post was performed to detect statis-

tically significant differences between means.

The second analysis was a 3 x 1 tests over time for

the experimental group using a one way analysis of variance

(ANOVA) between mean differences for each insturment.

The results of this study are considered in the

next chapter. Discussion of the results follow.

















CHAPTER IV

RESULTS AND ANALYSES



The statistical procedures used in this study were

a 2 x2 repeated measures design, a 3 x 1 test over time design

both using a one way analysis of variance and a test of

simple effects, pre vs post. Data analysis was done by

the IBM 360 system, Model 65 at the University of Florida

using the BIOMED program BMDO8V (Dixon, 1971).

Since each of the hypotheses presented in Chapter

III refer to the data from three different measures, the

Personal Beliefs Inventory, the Teachers Practice Inven-

tory, and the Personal Opinion Questionnaire, the analysis

of each measure will be presented as it relates to each of

the hypotheses.


Results


The first set of analyses focused on the pre-post

differences on the PBI, the TPI, and the POQ. Hypothesis

1 deals with comparisons on each of these instruments be-

tween the CEP and the traditional group while hypothesis

2 focused on pre-post test differences for the three meas-

ures. Data from each of the three measures were analyzed










separately and the results of these analyses are presented

in Tables 3-5. The means and standard deviations for each

of the three measures are summarized in Table 2.



Table 2
Means and Standard Deviations for the CEP and
Traditional Groups on the Three Belief Instruments


PBI TPI POQ
x a x a x a
Pre 159.32 14.93 198.56 16.38 164.80 19.289
Exp.
Post 159.24 17.54 190.88 21.01 168.16 12.87

Pre 149.72 15.65 19.20 13.95 151.48 19.41
Control
Post 148.68 18.16 182.32 18.04 165.58 15.40




Hypothesis 1 states that there will be no signi-

ficant differences in comparing the CEP to the traditional

groups on scores for the PBI, the TPI, and the POQ. An

examination of the F ratios presented in Tables 3-5 for

groups indicates that only for the PBI was an F signifi-

cant at the .05 level (F = 518453) found. The F ratios

for groups for both the TPI and the POQ failed to reach the

.05 level of significance. The first hypothesis for no

significant differences between groups is rejected for the

PBI but not for the TPI or the POQ. Hypothesis 2 states

that there will be no significant differences between pre-

and postscores for the PBI, the TPI, and the POQ. An exam-

ination of the F ratios presented in Tables 3-5 for pre vs





52


post indicates that only for the PBI was an F significant

at the .05 level (F > 1) not found. The F ratios for

pre-post testing for both the TPI (F = 20.70) and POQ

(F = 15.95) were significant at the .05 level of signi-

ficance. Therefore the second hypothesis of no signifi-

cant differences between pre- and postscores is rejected

for the TPI and POQ but not for the PBI.



Table 3
Analysis of Variance for the
Personal Beliefs Inventory

Source DF SS MS F
Groups 1 2540.16 2540.16 5.8453*

Pre-post 1 7.839 7.839 0.0664

Interaction 1 5.759 5.759 0.0488



Table 3 summarizes the analysis of the PBI scores.

There were significant differences between the CEP and the

traditional group for the PBI (F = 5.8453 sig. .05).

Table 2 presents the means and standard devia-

tions for the two groups on the three instruments. The

higher the score on the PBI, the greater the degree of

"experimentalism." Examination of Table 2 indicates that

the mean scores for the CEP group were approximately 10

points higher than the mean scores for the traditional

group. It is of interest to note that this magnitude of

difference occurred for both pre-and posttest means. On










the basis of higher scores being reflective of a greater

degree of "experimentalism," the results of Tables 2

and 3 appear to lend support the position of Combs (1969).

The second hypothesis of no significant differences

between pre-and posttesting is supported. (F > 1) Thus,

for the PBI, the first hypothesis is rejected but the

second hypothesis is not.



Table 4
Analysis of Variance for the
Teacher Practices Inventory


Source DF SS MS F
Groups 1 1428.84 1428.84 2.725

Pre-post 1 1883.56 1883.56 20.70*

Interactions 1 25.0024 25.0024 0.27



Table 4 summarizes the analysis of the TPI scores.

The first hypothesis of no significant differences between

groups is supported by a finding of a nonsignificant F

ratio (F = 2.7254). The second hypothesis of no signifi-

cant differences between pre-post testing is not supported

(F = 20.70 sig. .01).

Additional analysis of hypothesis 2 using a test

of main effects indicated that in both groups there were

significant drops from pre to post, approximately 8 points

for the CEP group and approximately ten points for the tra-

ditional group. This decrease in TPI scores for both groups










will be discussed in relation to the findings of Gallup

in the discussion chapter.



Table 5
Analysis of Variance for the
Personal Opinion Questionnaire


Source DF SS MS F
Groups 1 1560.25 1560.25 2.944

Pre-post 1 1927.21 1927.21 15.95*

Interaction 1 734.40 734.40 6.078*



Table 5 summarizes the analysis of the POQ scores.

Hypothesis 1 predicted that the experimental group would

not score significantly higher than the control group on

the POQ. Results in Tables 2 and 5 support this hypothes-

is, indicating the POQ scores differences were not statis-

tically significant at the .05 level (F = 2.944).

Hypothesis 2 states that there will be no signifi-

cant differences between pre post scores on the POQ. On

the basis of data in Table 5, hypothesis 2 is rejected.

When the factors were considered simultaneously there were

significant differences between pre-post scores beyond the

.01 level of confidence (F = 15.95) and in addition, the

interaction between groups were significatnly different

beyond the .05 level (F = 6.078).

Again, the test for sample effectswasmade in order

to consider each pre-post group individually. The small










increase of the CEP group pre to post on the POQ was not

significant. However, significance was found in the 14

point increase from pre to post by the traditional group.

This increase in the POQ scores for the traditional group

will be discussed later in the discussion chapter.

Hypothesis 3 states that for the CEP group there

will be no significant differences between scores on the

PBI, TPI, and POQ for the three test times. The means

and standard deviations for each of the three measures

over time are presented in Table 6, and the summary of

the analyses for each measure is presented in Table 7.


Table 6
Means and Standard Deviations for the CEP
Groups for Three Belief Inventories


PBI TPI POQ
x a x a x a
CEP 1 154.96 13.27 184.36 19.39 155.48 18.21

CEP 2 159.32 14.93 190.56 16.39 164.80 19.29

CEP 3 159.24 17.54 190.88 21.01 168.96 17.87




Table 7
Summary of Analysis of Variance for the
Three Belief Instruments for the CEP Group


Source DF SS MS F

Groups (PBI) 2 311.11 155.55 2.03

Groups (TDI) 2 2526.10 1263.05 8.72*

Groups (POQ) 2 2382.23 1191.16 11.26*










An examination of the F ratios presented in Table

7 for tests over time indicates that only for the PBI was

an E significant at the .05 level (F = 2.03) not found.

The F ratios for tests over time for both the TPI (F = 8.72)

and POQ (F = 11.26) were significant at the .05 level of

significance. Therefore the third hypothesis of no sig-

nificant differences between scores over time is rejected

for the TPI and POQ but not for the PBI.

On the basis of data in Table 6 on the PBI for

hypothesis 3, the hypothesis is accepted. An examination

of the data in Table 7 indicates that an F ratio signi-

ficanty beyond the .05 level of confidence was not obtained

(F = 2.03).

However, a close inspection of the mean scores in

Table 6 indicates a slight but nonsignificant increase in

the PBI scores of the CEP group from the beginning of their

senior year scores (CEP 1) to their scores taken after their

internship (CEP 2). Then there is a very slight decrease

from test period two to test period three. However, it

is of interest to note that the PBI scores for the CEP group

remained stable over time, thus supporting the premises of

Combs concerning the Childhood Education Program (CEP).

On the basis of the data in Table 7 on the TPI for

hypothesis 3, the hypothesis is rejected. Examina-

tion of Table 7 indicates that a significant F ratio was

obtained (F = 8.72, sig. .01).










An examination of the mean scores in Table 6 for

the three test periods indicates that there was a major

increase on the TPI from the CEP 1 to the CEP 2 of 14 points.

Then there was a decrease of 8 points from the CEP 2 to the

CEP 3. This curvilinear trend for the CEP on the TPI will

be discussed in relation to the theory practice dilemma in

the next chapter.

On the basis of data in Table 7 on the POQ for hy-

pothesis 3, the hypothesis is rejected. Examination of

Table 7 indicates that a significant F ratio was obtained.

(F = 11.26, sig. .01)

The steady increase of the POQ mean scores over

time in Table 6 indicates that CEP subjects are becoming

more open, more tolerant, and less authoritarian. This

supports the premises set forth by Combs on CEP (Wass

et al., 1974).

The relationship between the data presented in

Tables 2 through 7 and the hypotheses of this study is

considered next. Implications and inferences drawn from

this discussion follow.

















CHAPTER V

DISCUSSION



If, according to Combs (Wass et al., 1974) the CEP

is designed to make future teachers more flexible, more

self-confident, more problem-centered, more aware of

self and more open to the experiences and beliefs of others,

then one would expect greater openness on attitude and be-

lief measures for CEP students than those trained tradition-

ally.

The results of hypothesis 1 lends partial support

to this. There were significant differences between the

CEP and the traditional groups on mean scores for the PBI.

Not only did CEP subjects average 10 points higher on the

PBI than the traditional subjects, but this significance

held over time. Because the CEP subjects scored signifi-

cantly higher, one presumes that they are more "experimental"

than the traditional group. This supports the premises of

Combs concerning the CEP program.

However, it is of interest to note that while

there were significant differences between CEP and the tra-

ditional group on the PBI, which samples personal beliefs,

there were no significant differences on the PBI, which










is more reflective of actual teaching behaviors. Thus one

could conclude from these data that the exposure to the CEP

program did indeed have an effect on the openness of the

students' personal beliefs but little evidence that this

openness was reflected in actual teaching behaviors.

This follows the results of Gallup (1970) who did

a cross-sectional study examining the effects of academic

preparation and/or teaching experiences on the educational

and philosophical beliefs of female elementary education

teachers. He reported while the personal beliefs (as meas-

ured by the PBI) of the four sample groups were essentially

the same, the educational beliefs (as measured by the TPI)

significantly differed. Gallup concluded that the effects

of academic and teaching experiences were more on educa-

tional rather than personal beliefs. The two kinds of be-

liefs seem to respond differently to the variables of aca-

demic and teaching experiences.

Further support of this is found in Webb and Guin-

agh (1975). They did a descriptive study rather than a

comparative evaluation, studying the program (CEP) as it

was viewed by students while they were immersed within

it. In effect, it was an examination of how closely the

program matched its own theoretical goals. Webb and

Guinagh reported that while 81.4 percent of the students

indicated a growth in their sense of responsibility

since joining the program and an impressive number of










students indicated that the CEP experience in general had

helped them to develop a positive self-concept, 66.5 per-

cent were not convinced that the CEP was what they wanted

in a teacher education program. As a matter of fact,

about 43 percent would prefer a more traditional program

of teacher preparation which incorporated school experience.

Thus the personal beliefs of the CEP students were favor-

able to the program but their educational beliefs were

somewhat negative. "The fact that CEP prides itself on

its student-centered orientation makes it hard for us to

ignore so large a group of students who would prefer a

more conventional program. If student perceptions make

the difference we claim they do in education, then these

statistics should give us pause" (Webb and Guinagh, 1975,

p. 35).

The finding of no significant differences on the

POQ is difficult to interpret. Examination of Table 6 in-

dicates that the CEP group had higher prescores than the

traditional group (164.80 vs. 151.48), but both groups

had almost equal postscores (168.16 vs. 165.58). Thus

both groups showed some evidence of being more open, more

tolerant and less authoritarian, but the cause of effects

from pre to post for the two groups is not clear.

One of the major concerns with the present study

was the effect of exposure to the CEP program on a group

of students compared to a group who were traditionally









trained. One of the apparent limitations of the Gallup

study was that it was cross-sectional in design and there-

fore there was an absence of a clear relationship between

sample groups. This apparent limitation was overcome in

the present study by using a longitudinal design. Never-

theless, it is of particular interest to note that even

though a longitudinal study was performed that the results

were almost identical with those reported by Gallup. In

fact, at the time of the internship, the scores on the

TPI and PBI for the two studies were almost identical. For

example for the TPI (see Figure 1), Gallup reported a mean

score of 192 while the mean score for the present study's

traditional group was 192. For the PBI (see Figure 2),

Gallup reported a mean score of 150.7 compared to the mean

score of 149.7 for the traditional group in the present

study at internship.

In terms of trends over time, both Gallup and the

present study reported no significant differences on pre

post change on the PBI. Finding nonsignificant differences

between mean PBI scores on pre vs post for hypothesis 2

could indicated that teaching experience did not have a

significant effect on personal beliefs on either the CEP

or the traditional group. This finding was also reported

in the Gallup study.

Close inspection of Table 6 for hypothesis 3 indi-

cates a slight but nonsignificant increase on PBI scores














(198.56)


200






195






190






185


180






175






170






165


(171.4)


(169.1)


I I I

Jr. S. Int. 1 Yr.

Academic
Preparation

Figure 1. Mean Scores on T
Study


3 Yr.

Teaching
Experience

PI for Gallup


5Yr.


and Present


0-0 = Gallup

X--X = Traditional Group

D-- = CEP Group







(190.88)










(182.32)
















0-0 = Gallup

X(-X = Traditional Group

D--] = CEP Group


(159.31)


(159.2)






(154.95)


(149.72)

(148.67)


(147.9)


I I I


Jr. Sr. Int. 1 Yr


Academic
Preparation


Figure 2. Mean Scores on PBI
Study


3 Yr.


5 Yr.


Teaching
Experience


for Gallup and Present


155


150







145






140










for the CEP group from the beginning of their senior year

(154.96) to their period of internship (159.32). Then

there is a very slight decrease from internship to the

period when the subjects were inservice teachers (159.24).

Also the control group's scores did not significantly de-

crease either (149.72 to 148.68). The mean PBI scores pre-

sented in Table 2 reflect a nonsignificant but slight de-

crease in scores from pre to post for the traditional

group.

However, both studies found significant differ-

ences on the TPI, with postscores being lower. On teach-

er practices for hypothesis 2, there were significant dif-

ferences between pre-post scores on the basis of the TPI

for both groups. In both groups there were significant

drops from pre to post-8 for the CEP group and 10 for the

traditional group. Both groups over time were becoming

somewhat less "experimental" in their teaching practices,

but the CEP scores were higher in both pre- and postscores.

An examination of the mean scores in Table 6 for

the three test periods indicates that there was a major

increase on the TPI from CEP 1 to CEP 2 of 14 points. Then

there was a decrease of 8 points from CEP 2 to the third

test period of CEP 3. The premise by Combs that CEP stu-

dents would hold their teaching practices over time is not

supported by hypothesis 3. A note of interest is the fact

that Gallup reported a similar decrease in his subjects'

TPI scores.










It should be noted that the curvilinear trend of

the TPI mean scores might lead one to the conclusion that

the effects of teaching experience had a stronger effect

on teacher practices than personal beliefs with CEP sub-

jects. If one compares the drop in the TPI scores with the

nondrop in the PBI scores, one gathers evidence that the

theory practice dilemma mentioned by Brown had an effect on

CEP trained teachers as strong. The theory practice dilemma

is defined as the discrepancy between what teachers say

they know and believe in theory and how they teach, or fail

to teach, in practice.

Gallup's subjects also had a very similar decrease

which closely matched the present study's control group.

This lead Gallup to the same conclusion mentioned before,

that the effects of academic and teaching experiences were

on educational rather than personal beliefs. This is due

in part because personal beliefs do not appear to be nearly

as amenable to change as educational beliefs.

In both studies the initial rise in the TPI scores

during the students academic experience could be the result

of the student learning the desired responses rather than

a genuine change in attitude. If the professors, as a group,

promoted experimentalist educational beliefs it would be

very difficult for a student to graduate without exhibiting

a written or verbal appreciation of this education point of

view. If this be true, then the decline in the TPI scores









during the student's teaching experience as an inservice

teacher could be that the public schools' teaching situa-

tion may not be reinforcing the same choices or beliefs as

the teacher education program did. Gallup's data indicat-

ing the more teaching experience one had, the lower his

TPI score,lend credence to this premise.

Therefore, the theory practice dilemma would be a

result of the academic experience of the future teacher,

or in other words, it may be a product of the teacher train-

ing program.

Further support of the theory practice dilemma in

CEP appears in the data of Webb and Guinagh. According

to Brown, when a program is incongruent between what it

says should be done and what is actually done, it can be

said that the program is experiencing the theory practice

dilemma.

As mentioned before, the four major principles un-

derlying the organization of CEP, according to Avila et al.,

(1972) were:

1. One learns best when learning is made person-
ally meaningful and relevant.

"The 'need to know' tenet of the CEP program is,

of course, indisputable" (Webb and Guinagh, 1975, p. 20).

Yet only 27 percent indicated that they chose a particular

learning activity on the basis of a "need to know;" instead

the students scheduled learning activities for convenience.

Webb and Guinagh also found that 52.5 percent of the students










reported that they were forced to do nonmeaningful learning

activities, always or much of the time. In addition, even

if they were not forced, only 15.2 percent indicated that

they found their learning activities to be very challeng-

ing. This throws into serious question the extent that the

learning activities are providing students with personally

meaningful and relevant information. Webb and Guinagh

stated that these "learning activities do not seem to be

serving the functions that CEP philosophy hoped they would

fill" (Webb and Guinagh, 1975, p. 26).

2. One learns best when learning is adjusted to
the rate and need of the individual.

The CEP program has been developed with the idea

that students learn best when they work closely with facul-

ty. Yet, 61.2 percent of the students indicated that it

was somewhat difficult or very difficult to contact faculty.

In addition, 53 percent indicated that they are either un-

sure or unconvinced that the faculty is doing an adequate

job in preparing them for teaching. How is the faculty go-

ing to adjust learning to the need or rate of the individ-

ual if there is little communication or if the student has

no confidence in the faculty member. As Webb and Guinagh

have stated, this "problem does promise a very special kind

of attention to student needs and some students may feel a

great frustration when this promise, for whatever reason,

is not faithfully fulfilled" (p. 15).

3. One learns best when there is a great deal of
self-direction.










CEP students according to Blume, "not only have a

choice of means to accomplish a task, but they have a

choice of when to do it. If they have a logical alterna-

tive task they would rather do, they will probably be per-

mitted to do that instead of the required one" (Wass et al.,

1974, p. 19). Yet only 37.3 percent of all students have

ever modified a learning activity. In addition, a large

proportion of students feel that the modifying option is open

to them in name only. Webb and Guinagh stated, "if the

adapting of learning activities is an accurate indication

of the degree to which students take an active participa-

tion in their own education, then this should cause con-

cern in the CEP" (Webb and Guinagh, 1975, p. 25).

4. One learns best when there is a close relation-
ship between theory and practice.

The results on the first three principles, although

not conclusive, are not very encouraging as to CEP bridging

the gap between theory and practice.

As indicated earlier, both the traditional and CEP

group appeared to show a steady increase in openness as

measured by the POQ but these differences from pre to post

do not appear to be due to differential treatment of the

two groups. The prescore for the traditional group on the

POQ was considerably lower (151.48) than the pre score for

the CEP group (164.80). The finding of pre-post signifi-

cant differences in favor of the traditional group, espe-

cially when postscores were almost equal (165.58 to 168.16)










suggest, that this findingof significant differences is

most likely due to the differences in the prescores rather

than any effects of either the traditional or CEP program

might have had.

Thus it appears from the results of the present

study that there has been some effect of the CEP program on

the expressed personal beliefs of the students. On the

other hand, little evidence is available which indicates

that the actual teaching practices were different for the

two groups, at least as measured by the TPI. However,

Busby et al., (1974) found differences in the TPI scores.

In general, Busby et al., results indicated that CEP

students seem to be more flexible, self-confident and they

appear to have different perceptions about the nature of

the educational process. They believe in an active prob-

lem-centered, experimental classroom and see motivation as

primarily intrinsic rather extrinsic.

The sample used in the present study was drawn

from the sample analyzed by Busby. Busby's sample con-

tained more subjects than did the present sample and his

report of significant differences on the TPI scores may be

due to his greater sample size.

Thus one of the major implications would seem to

be that the programs, despite initial increases in TPI

scores, are not having lasting effects on educational be-

liefs.










While the TPI reflects student attitudes and be-

liefs about teacher practices, this is in no way identi-

cal with the actual teaching practices used in the class-

room. Research studies using observational data to exam-

ine teaching practices have suggested somewhat different

results. Busby et al. (In Press) and Wass and Combs

(1973) did follow-up studies of graduates of the CEP pro-

gram as compared with the traditionally trained graduates.

The results of the Busby et al., comparison indi-

cated that graduates of the CEP program perceived their

program to provide more adequate preparation for the teach-

ing profession. One may be reminded that Webb and Guinagh

(1975) reported an opposite trend. The CEP graduates per-

ceived themselves to be more confident, self-initiating

and skillful in helping other grow. The observational

instrument used was the Florida Teacher Rating Scale (FTRS)

which was developed by Busby et al., and was answered by

principals.

Three observational measures were used by Wass

and Combs (1973), one perceptual and two behavioral. They

reported that the experimental teachers had a significant-

ly higher total score than the control group on the Per-

ceptual Dimensions Scale. "Particularly, they perceived

others as able and were possessed of larger goals to a

significantly higher degree, and tended to see themselves

as more adequate and were more self-revealing than the con-

trol teachers" (Wass et al., 1974, p. 46).










On the Teacher Practices Observation Record

(TPOR), the CEP group scored significantly higher on the

total of all even numbered items, indicating that in their

overall classroom practices, experimental teaching was

evident. However, Wass and Combs stated that on the

Reciprocal Category System used to measure verbal behav-

iors associated with social climate, no significant dif-

ferences were found.

Wass and Combs collected this observational data

only on the postgroup and no observational data on the pre-

group was available. Therefore, to keep consistency with

the self-report data and with the major concern of the

study-changes over time; these data were not included in

this study.

The findings of the present study when viewed in

combination with the results reported by Wass and Combs,

Busby et al., Webb and Guinagh and the earlier study by

Gallup raises a number of important questions that require

further research. It is clear that the TPI scores which

reflect beliefs about teaching practices may not sample

the same domain as the Teacher Practices Observational

Record which is an observational record of actual teaching

behaviors. If in fact there have been significant changes

in the belief system of those students exposed to the CEP

program, then some clear differences in actual teaching

behaviors should occur. Wass and Combs (1973) do report










differences between the CEP and a traditionally trained

group on an observational report of teaching behaviors. On

the other hand, there is little support of the data on

the teaching behaviors of these students earlier in the

CEP program and the results of Wass and Combs must be

viewed as suggestive but incomplete information regarding

changes in teaching behaviors. There are no data to in-

dicate that the actual teaching behaviors of the CEP group

before entering inservice teaching was any different than

reported.


Limitations


Because the subjects tested in this study were en-

rolled in the CEP program in 1969-70, they may not be

representative of the beliefs of today's students, and

therefore may weaken the generalizations and implications

of this study. However, the findings of Webb and Guinagh

(1975) with their 1974 sample support many of the findings

of this study.

Another limitation was the small number of sub-

jects. This was due to the high mortality over time be-

tween the two data pools. Generalizations from such a

small sample are not considered to have as high reliabil-

ity as larger samples. However, the findings from this

small sample supported the conclusions of Gallup (1970),

thus adding strength and reliability to this study's gen-

eralizations.










Another limitation was using self-report data

only. Self-report data and their correlation with one's

self-concept are considered low by some. Combs and oth-

ers have raised some questions concerning the validity

of self-report measures. They stated that self-report

measures are lacking in reliability, not only because the

individual may intend to deceive the tester but also be-

cause the individual does not know the whole truth about

himself. In addition, there is abundant evidence accord-

ing to Hall and Lindsey (1970) to show that factors un-

available to consciousness motivate behavior, and that

what an individual says about himself or writes on his at-

titudes and beliefs may be distorted by defenses and de-

ceptions of various kinds.

Since the PBI, TPI, and POQ are self-reporting in-

struments, a lack of clearer results in support of CEP

might be argued as being due to the use of self-report data.

This important question should be examined more closely in

future research.

In summary, the major limitations of this study

was that it was run on a small scale, restricted in the

number of teachers, and in its instrumentation. While

admittedly far less comprehensive and complete than hoped

for, assessments and conclusions were made on the basis

of data collected within the limits of the previous stud-

ies and resources available.









Recommendations for Further Research


According to Wass et al., (974) assessing the ef-

fectiveness of a humanistic teacher education program calls

for a systemic and comprehensive approach that uses all

possible avenues. That is the examination of all available

data by both objective and subjective methods, and product

as well as process measures. "For example, systematic

classroom observation by trained observers along with prin-

cipals' judgments, peer rating and self-reports might be

used to assess effectiveness. Taken together they may give

a better picture or added strength to the evaluation"

(Wass et al., 1974, p. 31-32).

Thus a valuable area for further research would be

to use observational techniques in a longitudinal design

with self-report data on teacher belief systems so that

some "hard" data can be collected in order to make some

conclusive assertions about the CEP program.
















CHAPTER VI

SUMMARY



An important problem for institutions of teacher

education is to select and train people to be effective

teachers. Therefore, an area of investigation where "hard

data" are needed concerns innovations in teacher education.

According to Wass and Combs, "if we do not change teachers,

it is highly unlikely that we can bring significant changes

in our school" (Wass and Combs, 1973, p. 1). In an effort

to bring about these changes, the Childhood Education

Program (CEP) was designed by the Departments of Childhood

Education and Foundations of Education at the University

of Florida. This elementary teacher preparation program

focused upon the self-concept of the teacher trainee.

It is Combs' belief that, ". . teacher education

is not a question of learning 'how to teach' but a matter

of personal discovery, of learning how to use one's self

and surroundings to assist other persons to learn" (Wass

et al., 1974, Preface). This theory was evaluated experi-

mentally and compared to the existing traditional programs.

This study deals with the evaluation of the two

teacher training programs. It examines the belief systems









of elementary teachers exposed to either the CEP or the

traditional elementary education program by their performance

on three instruments designed to sample attitudes and beliefs.

Beliefs and attitudes, in this study, were defined

by the Personal Beliefs Inventory, The Teacher Practices

Inventory, and the Personal Opinion Questionnaire,all con-

structed by Brown (1968). These instruments are designed

so that beliefs and attitudes are defined as being in a

continuumof greater to less agreement with the experi-

mentalist philosophy of John Dewey.



Related Literature


The review of related literature was undertaken

with the intention of examining the theoretical positions of

the CEP, and its influence on the belief systems of elemen-

tary teachers. Three major conclusions were drawn from this

review.

The first conclusion was that despite a great deal

of research, educators are still unable to define good

teaching in terms of any specific information or behavior

which can be clearly shown to be always associated with

either good or poor teaching.

Another conclusion was that Brown, Combs, and others

believe that a study of teachers' belief systems might

provide a better approach to understanding the differences

between good and poor teachers. Behavior is only a symptom;










the causes of behavior lie in meanings, the person's

system of beliefs, his perceptions about himself and his

world. This perceptual approach produced the underlying

principles of the CEP.

Finally, the results of CEP research produced no

clear cut evidence as to whether the CEP was significantly

better than the traditional program. While much of the

data were encouraging, it was not conclusive. It did show

that there were strengths as well as weaknesses in the CEP;

further research for "hard data" is needed.



Design of the Study


This dissertation, longitudinal in design, examined

the belief systems of elementary teachers under the two

programs. The following hypotheses were tested:

1. There will be no significant difference in

comparison of the CEP to the traditional groups

on scores for the Personal Beliefs Inventory

(PBI), Teachers Practice Inventory (TPI), and

Personal Opinion Questionnaire (POQ).

2. There will be no significant differences

between pre- vs. posttest scores for the PBI,

TPI, and POQ for the CEP and the traditional

groups.










3. For the CEP group, there will be no significant

differences between scores on the PBI, TPI, and

POQ for the three test times.



Sample


Out of Busby's (1974) and Wass' (1973) samples,

a total of 50 subjects, 25 CEP and 25 traditional, was

identified and constituted the data sample.



Instruments


The instruments used were the Personal Beliefs

Inventory, the Teacher Practices Inventory, and the Personal

Opinion Questionnaire. These instruments were constructed

by Brown and described in The Experimental Mind in Education

(1968). The higher the score on each instrument, the greater

the agreement with the "experimental philosophy" of John

Dewey and the theoretical positions of Combs and the CEP.



Testing Procedures


All students completed the three inventories

concurrently. Each student was administered the three atti-

tude measures in 1969-70 by Busby et al. (1974) and then

again by Wass and Combs (1973) three to four years later,

when they were inservice teachers. However, for the CEP










subjects only, additional data on the three measures were

obtained at the beginning of the CEP students' senior year.



Statistical Design


The hypotheses were tested by a 2 x 2 repeated meas-

ures design and a 3 x 1 test over time design,both using

an one way analysis of variance and a test of simple effects,

pre vs. post.



Results, Discussion, and Suggestions for Future Research


The first hypothesis,dealing with no significant

differences in comparison of the CEP tothe traditional groups

on scores for the PBI, TPI, and POQ, was rejected for the

PBI but not for the TPI or the POQ at the .05 level.

While there were significant differences for CEP on the

PBI, which samples personal beliefs, there were no signi-

ficant differences on the TPI, which samples teaching

practices. Thus one could conclude that the exposure to

the CEP program did indeed have an effect on the openness

of the students' personal beliefs, but little evidence showed

that this openness was reflected in actual teaching behaviors.

The second hypothesis, dealing with no significant

differences between pre- vs. postscores for the PBI, TPI,

and POQ, was rejected for the TPI and POQ but not for the

PBI at the .01 level. If one compares the decline in the










TPI scores with the nondecline in the PBI scores, one could

conclude that the theory practice dilemma mentioned by

Brown (1968) has an effect on CEP-trained teachers as well

as traditionally trained ones. Also, the finding of the

significant differences in the POQ is most likely due to

the differences in the prescores rather than any effects

of either the traditional or CEP program.

The third hypothesis,dealing with no significant

differences between scores on the TPI, PBI, and POQ for

the three test times for CEP, was rejected for the TPI

and POQ but not for the PBI at the .05 level. Thus the

effects of teaching experience had a stronger effect on

teacher practices than personal beliefs with CEP subjects.

Many of the implications found in this study

support the findings of Gallup (1970), including the effects

of academic and teaching experiences on educational rather

than personal beliefs. This is due in part because personal

beliefs do not appear to be nearly as amenable to change as

educational beliefs. Another one of the implications is

that when the rise and decline of the TPI scores are com-

pared to the stability of the PBI scores, this gives

evidence that the theory practice dilemma may be a product

of the teacher training programs.

Since these findings on the self-report data

were not congruent with some of the findings of Busby et al.

(1974), and Wass and Combs (1973), it was suggested that





81




research using observational data be used to verify the

self-report data on teachers' belief systems. The major

limitations of this study were that it was run on a small

scale, and was restricted in the number of teachers and in

its instrumentation.

















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Brown, B. B. The Experimental Mind in Education. New
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Busby, W. A., Avila, D., Blume, R., Combs, W. and Oberlin,
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Busby, W. A., Avila, D., Blume, R. and Combs, W. "A
follow-up study of the graduates of the Florida
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Press).

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L. "Can teacher education use the 'self as instru-
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Combs, A. W. "Some basic concepts for teacher education."
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Combs, A. W. The Professional Education of Teachers: A
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Julian Arthur Hertzog was born March 25, 1948,

in Wheeling, West Virginia. In 1954, his family moved

to Miami, Florida, and in June, 1966, he graduated from

Coral Gables Senior High School. Mr. Hertzog attended

the University of Florida from September, 1966, to June,

1970, when he received the degree of Bachelor of-Arts in

psychology.

In December, 1971, he enrolled in the Graduate

School of the University of Florida. While working on

his Master's, he taught psychology at Raiford State

Prison. In March, 1972, he received the Master of Educa-

tion degree and was admitted to the advanced school of

the College of Education in the Department of Foundations

of Education for work toward the Ph.D. degree. He worked

as a graduate teaching assistant in Foundations, teaching

adolescent psychology, from September, 1972, until June,

1975.

Mr. Hertzog was the President of the Banana Club,

for which he received an award from the University of

Florida Faculty Club. He is a member of Kappa Delta Pi

and Phi Delta Kappa.










I certify that I have read this study and that
in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.




(hn M. Newell, Chairman
ofessor of Education





I certify that I have read this study and that
in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.




Betty L. Siegel
Professor of Educati




I certify that I have read this study and that
in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.




4 annelore L. Wass
Professor of Education










I certify that I have read this study and that
in my opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of
scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope
and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.




e Wittmer
professor of Education








This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of the College of Education and to the Graduate Council,
and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the require-
ments for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

August, 1975




Dean, Colleo of/ Education


Dean, Graduate School




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