Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Review of the literature
 Procedures and methodology
 Results and discussion
 Summary and implications
 Appendix I: Instruments for the...
 Appendix II: Pre-program activ...
 Appendix III: Post-program...
 Appendix IV: Instructions...
 Appendix V: Directions for administering...
 Appendix VI: Instructions...
 Appendix VII: Facilitative teaching...
 Appendix VIII: Teacher activity...
 Appendix IX: Results of module...
 Appendix X: Preliminary data: FIAC,...
 Biographical sketch

Group Title: effects of a self-instruction program in facilitation and communication skills for elementary school teachers /
Title: The effects of a self-instruction program in facilitation and communication skills for elementary school teachers /
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098125/00001
 Material Information
Title: The effects of a self-instruction program in facilitation and communication skills for elementary school teachers /
Physical Description: x, 164 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Maurer, Carolyn Gwen, 1945-
Publication Date: 1976
Copyright Date: 1976
Subject: Elementary school teachers -- Training of -- Programmed instruction   ( lcsh )
Communication in education   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 156-162.
Statement of Responsibility: by Carolyn Gwen Maurer.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098125
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000175757
oclc - 03039765
notis - AAU2233


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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page i-a
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Table of Contents
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Review of the literature
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Procedures and methodology
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Results and discussion
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Summary and implications
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Appendix I: Instruments for the study
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Appendix II: Pre-program activity
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Appendix III: Post-program activity
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Appendix IV: Instructions to counselors
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Appendix V: Directions for administering SATA
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Appendix VI: Instructions to raters
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Appendix VII: Facilitative teaching module
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Appendix VIII: Teacher activity package
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
    Appendix IX: Results of module evaluation
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Appendix X: Preliminary data: FIAC, SATA, TRP
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
    Biographical sketch
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
Full Text








3 1262 08552 7686

Copyright 1976

To my parents

Speak your truth quietly and
clearly, and listen to others



The writer appreciatively acknowledges the help and

support rendered by many during the course of this study:

Dr. P. Joseph Wittmer, Chairperson of the writer's

dissertation committee, for his encouragement, under-

standing, and reality focusing which helped bring this

undertaking to completion;

Dr. Robert D. Myrick, member of the writer's committee,

for his wealth of knowledge and editorial expertise which

he willingly shared;

Dr. Audrey Shumacher, member of the writer's committee,

for her guidance and quiet reassurance;

Dr. Marvin R. McMillin, for his faith, friendship

and time so willingly given;

Dr. Larry Loesch, Mrs. Barbara Rucker and Mrs. Sue

Legg for their statistical advice;

Mrs. Betty Pyle and Ms. Jane Blue and their students,

Mrs. Nora Murrell, Mr. Jim Poage. and Mr. Lee Neil for

technical help in the preparation of tapes for the study;

Mrs. Arlene Barry and Mr. Mike Johnson for help

with organizing and processing the data;

Mrs. Janice McGilvray and Mr. Miki Solomon for their

help with rating the tapes;

Mrs. Miriam Williams, Ms. Judy Limehouse, Ms. Harriet

Patterson, and Ms. Cheryl Wakeman for their cheerful

willingness to help at a moment's notice;

Mrs. Judy Johnson, for typing and alertness in the

midst of a busy time;

The participating teachers and school counselors in

Alachua County, Florida, for their cooperation and


The writer's parents, George and Alce Maurer, for

their assistance, support and unconditional love.




Statement of the Problem 4
Purpose 5
Definition of Terms 6
Significance of the Study 7

Effective Teaching 8
Identification of the Effective Teacher 8
Characteristics of Effective Helpers 10
Characteristics of Effective Teachers 13
Verbal Behavior of Effective Teachers 19
Effective Teaching and Pupil Growth 22
Interpersonal Skills 25
Communication and Facilitative Responding 25
Listening as a Prerequisite to Communicating 28
Training for Interpersonal Skills 29
Instructional Models for Teacher Education 34
Programmed and Self-Instruction 34
Microteaching 36
Modular and Competency Approaches 28
Summary 39

Description of the Population and the Sample 41
Design of the Study 43
Research Design 43
Collection of the Data 44
The Experimental Program 46
Hypotheses 47
Instrumentation 48
Flanders' Interaction Analysis Categories
(FIAC) 48
Teacher Response Patterns (TRP) 51
Student Assessment of Teacher Affect (SATA) 51
Analysis of the Data 53

Hypothesis 1 54
Hypothesis 2 58
Hypothesis 3 61
Hypothesis 4 63
Hypothesis 5 65
Hypothesis 6 68
Summary 69

Summary 70
Implications 72
Limitations 72
Recommendations 73
Conclusions 75













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council of
the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



Carolyn Owen Maurer

August, 1976

Chairman: P. Joseph Wittmer
Major Department: Counselor Education

The purpose of this study was to develop and investigate

the effects of a self-instruction program in facilitation

and communication skills for elementary school teachers.

Interpersonal skills are considered an integral part of

teaching. The teacher who attempts to see the student's

point of view, regards self, students and others psi.ti.vel'y,

and who is empathic and warm, contributes much to the

learning environment. A teacher skilled in conveying such.

relationship variables will foster personal growth and

learning in students.

The exper-imentai proI''a, which integrated experiential

and didactic me thc doogies=, cis compared with a delayed-

treatment control tprra.. Sev ri;een volunteer third,

fourth and fifth gra'e tier.' partiipated as subjects

for the stuay. Eight teachers comprised the experimental

gr.up ;ith fn c, t ::l.r i :-: sr~e atzet prcgrasm which


consisted of a 15 lesson module containing written and/or

taped materials and activities. Each activity focused on

a skill or skill component related to facilitative responding.

Three dependent variables were investigated: teacher

verbal response patterns (VRP); teacner written response

identification (WRI); student perceptions of teacher affect

(TA). Null hypotheses were defined indicating that no

significant difference would exist between groups on each

of the variables. Measurement of the variables took place

prior to and following either interaction with the experimental

materials or a nine week control period.

Data for measuring VTP were generated through audio-

taping prescribed classroom guidance discussion lessons.

These tapes were coded and randomly assigned to trained

judges. The Flanders' Interaction Analysis Categories (FIAC)

scale was employed as a measurement for VRP. Two other

instruments were employed to measure WRI and TA: The

Teacher Response Patterns (TRP) inventory and the Student

Assessment of Teacher Affect (SATA) scale, respectively.

Comparisons of group means were made using the Student's

t statistic.

The results of the data indicated significant differences

between groups in change scores from pr'- to post-treatment

measurement of the variables WRI and TA, p<.05. For the

variable VRP, two categories of the FIAC scale reached sig-

nificance at .05 level. Positive, significant experimental

group change was indicated for Category 1, acceptance of

students' feelings. Negative, significant experimental

group change was indicated for Category 7, criticizing or

justifying authority. Teacher evaluation of the experi-

mental module following treatment indicated that subjects

perceived participation as a valuable experience. Limita-

tions in methodology and design were explored as a precaution

against unwarranted generalizations.

It was concluded that the self-instructional materials

tested in this study offered an effective method of training

for elementary school teachers in interpersonal skills.

The modular lessons positively affected the acquisition of

skills in identifying facilitative responses, reflecting

feelings, clarifying another's ideas, and in the use of

feedback as an alternative to criticism of students or

justification of authority. Furthermore, the students

themselves perceived their teacher more positively as a

result of the teacher's experiences with the experimental




Current trends in education focus on the need to

foster positive, personal growth ii s'tuderts. The educa-

tional process of meeting this need is most often spoken

of as "humanistic education." Humanistic education aims at

helping students develop compassion and concern for others,

along with faith in themselves (Blume, 1971). Because the

school exerts influence over the total life of the indivi-

dual, recognition and inclusion of both affective and

cognitive learning experiences is essential.

The merger of affective and cognitive elements of

learning has been referred to as confluent education (Brown,

1971). Advocates of confluent education maintain that a

student's emotional needs are linked to his capacity to

learn. The student who perceives learning as meaningful

will initiate new discoveries about himself in relation to

the learned material. The meaning that learning will have

for the individual depends upon the extent to which his

emotional needs are being met; this extent depends upon the

manner in which teaching is conducted. A teacher who views

students positively and who is, in turn, perceived by students

as warm and empathic will facilitate personal growth and

acquisition of knowledge (Bell, 1962; Combs, 1969; Dellow,


Today's schools are facing a number of problems which

point out the need for increased interpersonal effective-

ness. Violence on public school campuses is on the rise

and evidence of over-crowding in the classrooms continues

as increased costs of operation mandate budget cuts. In

addition, the growth and maintenance of a technological

society creates an environment which de-emphasizes individual

worth. Contemporary writers have emphasized the need to

turn again to valuing human potential (Fronm, 1968; Reich,

1970; Toffler, 1970; Wrenn, 1973). Wrenn (1973) further

suggests that:

The beckoning frontier belongs less to
technological knowledge than to better under-
standing of human relationships, less to know-
ledge per se than to use of knowledge, less
to ideas a-T things than to that most puzzling
phenomenon, the human being. (p. 212)

A 1972 Gallup poll indicated that public consensus considered

schools as places where students should be taught to relate

more positively to one another (Hill, 1972). The classroom

teacher is a key figure in this educational process.

Besides imparting information, the teacher serves as a model

for interpersonal interaction. To fulfill this role ade-

quately, the teacher must be cognizant of how to affect

growth and change in students through interpersonal rela-


Research in the helping professions has indicated that

the helping, or facilitative, relationship is not unlike any

good, positive interpersonal relationship (Fiedler, 1950).

Particular conditions emerge which enable one person in

contact with another to act as helper. Rogers (1957)

designated three main therapeutic dimensions: genuineness

or congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy.

These three conditions are considered central to all facili-

tative interpersonal learning experiences. They apply also

to the teaching task and have an effect on learning climates.

The facilitative teacher exhibits skill in effective listening

and interpersonal communication (Wittmer & Myrick, 1974, p.

40). These five characteristics (congruence, unconditional

positive regard, empathy, effective listening, and inter-

personal communication), coupled with intelligence, are

present in classrooms where students and teachers are engaged

in meaningful learning experiences.

In an analysis of classroom interaction patterns,

Flanders (1970) found that 95% of teacher classroom behavior

consisted of advising, judging, and dispensing facts, opinions,

and information. Further research indicated that there

exists a positive relationship between feelings, praising

or encouraging, accepting ideas and asking questions, and

measures of pupil achievement and positive attitudes toward

school (Flanders, 1970).

Wittmer and Myrick (1974) suggested that teacher res-

ponses can be grouped along a continuum from least to most

person-centered. Those responses identified as most person-

centered are considered to be highly facilitative in nature.

They include the use of open-ended questions, clarification

and summarization, and reflection of feelings. Research has

indicated that these responses lead students to perceive

teachers as more empathic and understanding (Wittmer &

Myrick, 1974, p. 75). Consequently, an increase in the use

of facilitative responding by the teacher can foster learning

and personal growth on the part of students.

Some teacher preparation programs are currently dealing

with the task of providing learning experiences which will

hopefully serve as models for humanistic approaches to be

used in classrooms of future teachers (Blume, 1971). Those

teachers already in the field must rely on other means to

acquire such experiences.

Statement of the Problem

Educators have traditionally devised and conducted work-

shops with groups of teachers. Such in-service education has

served to update teaching methods and subject matter compe-

tencies. The staff development which has been offered in

interpersonal skills has chiefly been aimed at special target

groups. Very little on-going, ir-service education in commu-

nication skills and facilitative teaching appears to be

readily available. School counselors and other consultants

occasionally have offered programs in individual schools

dealing with communication skills. A key problem to be faced

with any such program is one of attendance. With teacher

time at a premium, teacher commitment to such workshops can

easily be displaced to more pressing items such as report

cards, cumulative folders, and lesson plans.

One way to solve the problem of attendance at workshops

might be through individualized self-instruction. In meeting

the needs of increasing numbers of students, educators long

ago initiated methods of individualized instruction. These

methods ranged from sophisticated machines programmed to

respond to students' needs and requests, to teacher-devised

learning centers at which students progress through a given

task. After completion of a self-instructed task, students

often meet with the teacher for follow-up and checking out

of skills learned. The student is then free to move on to

other experiences appropriate to his needs. Research has

indicated the success of such learning activities and

students themselves have responded enthusiastically to such

experiences (Calvin, 1969; O'Day, 1971). A learning package

incorporating the elements of a workshop in communication

skills and facilitative teaching might be employed to educate

teachers. The program would then be available to teachers

on their own terms, at their own convenience, to be com-

pleted at their own pace. Such a self-instructed learning

package was the focus of this study.


The purpose of this study was to develop and investigate

the effects of a program of self-instruction in facilitative

skills on elementary school teachers. The treatment program,

which integrated communication skills training and affective

experiences, was compared with a control program of no

treatment. At the conclusion of thie experimental intervention

period, the treatment program was made available to control


The following questions were explored: were teachers

who experienced the learning module able to identify high

facilitative responses (HFR) in written form; were these

same teachers able to demonstrate increased frequency of

HFR during classroom discussion; were these teachers rated

by students regarding relationship and classroom climate

variables more positively after treatment?

Definition of Terms

For the purpose of this study, the following definitions


Facilitative Teaching

The process of educating which facilitates or promotes

growth on the part of the student. Such teaching includes

skill in interactive talk, plus the provision of certain

helping characteristics (empathy, non-possessive warmth,

congruence, respect, positive regard, caring, and acceptance).

High Facilitative Responses (HFR)

Typically, the method of responding employing open-ended

questioning, clarification, and reflection of feelings. These

responses focus on the person and his experiencing.

Communication Skills

Methods or techniques employed to insure exchange of ideas

and feelings from one person to another. These include lis-

tening and verbal and non-verbal language.


Significance of the Study

The significance of this study was based upon the need

for person-centered, facilitative teaching for today's

students. It was hypothesized that the procedures utilized

wo-uld have positive implications for training programs in

interpersonal skills for teachers and the availability of

such low-cost human relations training would have an impact

on teacher in-service programs.



Effective Teaching

Identification of the Effective Teacher

The problem of describing and identifying the good

or effective teacher has been approached from many posi-

tions. Proponents of merit-pay systems have advocated

using analyses of student achievement to determine compe-

tence of individual teachers. Other investigators have

studied teacher classroom behavior to distinguish behavior

patterns which appear most conducive to pupil growth.

Still other researchers have attempted to describe the

perceptual field of teachers identified as effective or

ineffective. It would appear that such investigations

would have led to a large body of concrete information

regarding effectiveness in teaching. Yet, there remains

the question of who is applying what standards for the

purpose of identification (Rabinowitz and Travers, 1953).

One way of viewing teacher effectiveness is through

the goals of education. Hoyt (1969) related success in

teaching to student progress on objectives valued by the

instructor. Medley and Mitzel (1962) described teacher

competence as "the average success of all . behaviors

in achieving their intended effects" (p. 317). O'Conner

and Justiz (1970) described general teaching ability as

the ability to produce in students skills specified by

educational objectives.

The problem, then, becomes one of defining and delin-

eating the objectives, goals, and purposes of education.

Contemporary writers, in social comment, have predicted

that the goals of education must include the scope of human

experiencing in order to prepare students for the vastly

changing, challenging world of the future (Blume, 1971;

Brown, 1971; Fromm, 1968; Reich, 1970; Toffler, 1970).

This would indicate that the affective as well as cognitive

elements of learning must be emphasized.

Combs and Snygg (1959) have described the goals of

education in terms of a dynamic society--'to create the

optimum conditions for individual growth and achievement

of adequacy" (p. 343). Theoretically, human beings are

engaged in a lifetime search for adequacy, or self-actuali-

zation (Combs & Snygg; Maslow, 1954). Education, therefore,

must involve personal elements; learning must have personal

meaning for the learner. Successful or effective teaching

relies on creating experiences which encourage learning

and emphasize communication and discovery (Combs & Snygg,

1959). The teacher becomes more a facilitator of student
growth than a conveyor of facts and knowledge.

Characteristics of Effective Helpers

The view of the teacher as a facilitator of personal

growth is derived from a view of the helping professions

at large. Counselors, therapists, physicians, clergymen,

and educators are traditionally considered members of

helping professions. Their purpose is to facilitate mental,

physical, and spiritual health in other individuals. Their

goal is to aid people in exploring and discovering more

effective and satisfying relationships between themselves

and their environment (Combs, Avila, & Purkey, 1971).

Rogers (1958) has described the helping relationship

as "a relationship in which at least one of the parties

has the intent of promoting the growth, development, maturity,

improved functioning, improved coping of life of the other"

(p. 6). The helping relationship is further distinguished

from other types of relationships by the presence of certain

core conditions or therapeutic dimensions, according to

Rogers (1957).

Genuineness. The therapist should be, within the
confines of the relationship, a congruent, genuine,
integrated person; he is freely and deeply himself,
with his actual experience accurately represented
by his awareness of himself. (p. 97)

Unconditional Positive Regard. The therapist accepts
each aspect of the client's experience as being a
part of the client; there are no conditions of accep-
tance. Unconditional positive regard exists as a
matter of degree in any relationship. (p. 98)

Empathy. The therapist experiences an accurate,
empathic understanding of the client's awareness
of his own experience. (p. 99)

Fiedler (1950) attempted to delineate the ideal thera-

peutic relationship and to distinguish its different manifes-

tations. In his notable studies, therapists of different

schools of thought and of varying degrees of expertise and

naive laymen sorted descriptive statements concerning the

ideal relationship into categories ranging from least to

most characteristic. The results of these studies indicated

that allegiance to one theoretical orientation did not deter-

mine one's description of the ideal therapeutic relationship;

that experience and expertness seemed to be related to deter-

mination of ideal variables; but that naive laymen also could

distinguish most and least desirable qualities of the relation-

ship. A factor analysis of the more than one hundred variables

used in Fiedler's cardsort yielded one general factor for

each group of subjects. These results led Fiedler to con-

clude that "a good therapeutic relationship is very much like

any good interpersonal relationship" (p. 244).

In his investigations of the nature of the therapeutic

relationship, Rogers (1957) reported six conditions necessary

and sufficient to the ideal relationship and for positive

personal growth.

1. Two persons are in psychological contact;

2. The first person (client) is in a state of
incongruence, being vulnerable or anxious;

3. The second person (therapist) is congruent or
integrated in the relationship;

4. The therapist experiences unconditional positive
regard for the client;

5. The therapist experiences an empathic understanding
of the client's internal frame of reference and
endeavors to communicate this experience to the

6. The communication to the client of the therapist's
empathic understanding and unconditional positive
regard is to a minimal degree achieved (p. 96).

In any interpersonal relationship, the first condition is

either present or not. The other five conditions exist

along a continuum. The extent of positive client change

depends upon the degree to which the conditions are offered.

The greater the degree, the greater the change.

Extensive review and study of the literature, concerning

therapy and client change, reveals that counseling and therapy

may be for better or for worse, depending on the degree of

conditions offered by the therapist (Berenson, 1971; Carkhuff,

1969b, 1969c; Carkhuff & Truax, 1966). Ratings of taped

interviews conducted by expert and non-expert, or naive,

helpers indicated that positive client growth occurred only

at levels above 3.00, on a scale from 1.00 to 5.00, for the

core conditions of empathy, respect, genuineness, concrete-

ness, confrontation, and immediacy. Below 3.00, clients

either maintained their current status or deteriorated.

In describing the ideal helping relationship, other

investigators have approached analysis by viewing the

characteristics of the perceived helper. In a series of

studies pf the helping professions, Combs (1969) identified

attributes of effective helpers which were related to the

perceptual organization of the helper, rather than to

specific techniques. Generally, it was found that effec-

tive helpers viewed themselves and others positively; that

these helpers were people-oriented as opposed to being con-

cerned with things; that they viewed their task as freeing

rather than controlling; that they displayed authenticity

in their methods of helping.

Miller (1965) studied the personality factors related

to effective helping. Using the 16PF test devised by

Cattell, he confirmed the presence of three factors in

unique combination in effective helping personalities. An

emergent profile of this person included surgency, conscien-

tiousness, emotional maturity, interest in people, tolerance

for frustration, and ability to express inner emotions.

Characteristics of Effective Teachers

The literature on the characteristics of effective

helpers offers a perspective for viewing the process of

education and effective teaching. In the past, research

on teacher effectiveness has been limited by the assumptions

that: 1) student growth can be measured objectively;

2) the ultimate goals of education are obtained through

such growth; 3) the teacher is solely responsible for

pupil growth or lack of it; 4) teacher effectiveness is

reflected in pupil growth alone (Bradley, Kallenbach,

Kinney, Owen, & Washington, 1964).

In a review of research relating teacher behavior to

pupil growth, Soar (1972) reported that early studies

reflecting such assumptiurs were inconclusive in showing

that a positive relationship indeed exists between teacher

effectiveness and student achievement. When attention

shifted from measurements of pupil achievement to analysis

of teaching behavior and perceptions, more consistent and

conclusive findings began to emerge.

In an early exploration of student perceptions of

teacher effectiveness, Witty (1950) compiled the following

list of characteristics taken from student essays on "The

Teacher Who Has Helped Me Most." Ranked in order of frequency,

these characteristics were:

1. Cooperative, democratic attitude;

2. Kindliness and consideration for the individual;

3. Patience;

4. Wide interests;

5. Pleasing personal appearance and manner.

Knowledge of subject matter was ranked twelfth by these

students in grades 1-12. A review of research on effective

teaching by th- American Association of School Administrators,

commissioned in 1929 and published in 1961, also revealed

that proficiency in subject matter was not sufficient for

success by an individual teacher (Ellena, Stevenson, &

Webb, 1961).

Student perceptions of teacher attitudes and effec-

tiveness have been found to be significantly related to

teaching behavior. Silberman (1969) interviewed third grade

teachers to discern particular students whom they regarded

positively or negatively. Classroom observation of these

teachers interacting with their students revealed that the

teachers' attitudes significantly affected the frequency

and kind of interaction with identified students. Silberman

concluded that ". . these actions not only serve to commu-

nicate to students the regard in which they are held by a

significant adult, but they also guide the perception. of,

and behavior toward, these students by their peers" (p. 407).

Faunce (1969) found that attitudes of effective and

ineffective teachers differ with respect to culturally dis-

advantaged children. Effective teachers tended to recognize

and accept the unique situation of the disadvantaged child

without rejecting the individual. Ineffective teachers were

more likely to deny the existence of any problems created

by the child's experience, and reacted with rejection or

punishment toward children who exhibited behavioral symptoms

of such deprivation.

These studies suggest that there may be internal,

personality factors which distinguish effective teachers

from the ineffective. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality

Inventory (MMPI) scores reveal that successful teaching is

positively related to maturity, responsibility, depth of

affect and ability to feel personal and social loyalties

(Bowers & Soar, 1962). Additional investigations propose

the existence of a unique perceptual organization of teachers

perceived as most facilitative.

An extensive body of knowledge with respect to the

perceptual organization of effective teachers has been

compiled by Combs and his associates. Using a modified

Fiedler Q-sort, Combs and Soper (1963) determined that both

"good" and "poor" teachers, as identified by student and

supervisor nominations, agreed with expert therapists on the

nature of the ideal helping relationship. These teachers

were able to describe ideal interpersonal characteristics,

but were not necessarily able to offer such conditions to

their students. This study confirmed that there is a

difference between knowing and behaving. It was evident

that other variables existed to distinguish effective

teaching from ineffective.

In a search for these distinguishing variables,

Gooding (1964) used trained judges to observe selected

teachers during classroom sessions. The judges rated each

teacher on twenty perceptual dimensions on three separate

occasions. Results of these data indicated that the teachers

described as effective had a similar perceptual organization,

and that this organization differed from teachers identified

as ineffective.

Investigating the phenomenology of teaching futther,

Vonk (1970) reported a relationship between perceptual frames

of reference, teaching purposes, and pupil-rated teacher

effectiveness. In this study, teacher effectiveness corre-

lated highly with a positive view of self, identification

with others, and openness to experience. Similar results

were found for the teaching purposes--having broad purposes,

discovering meaning, expanding uniqueness, disclosing self,

and seeking student ends. A significant interaction effect

was found between frame of reference and teaching purposes.

In another perceptual study, Dedrick (1972) explored

the relationship between effective junior college teaching

and six perceptual characteristics. Responses of instructor

subjects to a human relations incident and the Thematic

Apperception Test were rated according to an internal or

external frame of reference; viewing others as able or

unable, worthy or unworthy; viewing self as with people or

apart, adequate or inadequate; viewing the helping relation-

ship as freeing or controlling. These data were compared

with student-determined effectiveness criteria. Results

indicated that an internal frame of reference, viewing others

as worthy, and viewing self as adequate were relevant predic-

tors of teacher effectiveness.

From this study and others previously cited, it can be

concluded that there is a positive and significant relation-

ship between perceptual organization and various criteria of

teacher effectiveness. Good teachers view themselves and

their students as worthy individuals; are internally motivated

and open to experiences of the teaching relationship; see

their task as one of freeing and facilitating others to

learn. The relationship of these perceptual criteria to the

core interpersonal conditions has been the focus of additional


Emmrerlirg (1961) identified high school teachers as open

or closed on the basis of classroom problems they regarded as

most urgent. In a comparison of these teachers with student

perceptions of the empathy, congruence and positive regard

they displayed, he found that student perceptions were related

to the type of teacher.

Dellow (1971) utilized judges' ratings of problem inci-

dents written by teacher subjects to explore relationships

between empathy, congruence, positive regard, and the per-

ceptual protocols--general frame of reference, perceptions

of self and others, and perception of the helping relationship.

The results of the data indicated high correlation among

the perceptual variables. The facilitative variables yielded

varied correlations with each other. Correlations of per-

ceptual variables with facilitative variables were low to

moderate. Dellow concluded that perceptual variables differ

from facilitative variables with regard to teaching. "Levels

of empathy, congruence, and positive regard are related to

the total perceptual organization, rather than just isolated

perceptions" (p. 81). The therapeutic condition of positive

regard appeared to be the best single predictor of a teacher's

facilitative functioning.

The literature on effective teaching discloses a posi-

tive relationship between perceptual characteristics and

success in the field. In addition, the therapeutic dimen-

sions of empathy, congruence, and positive regard are related

to perceived effectiveness and are integrated in the teaching

style of the perceived facilitative teacher. The ideal

teaching relationship is not unlike the ideal therapeutic


Verbal Behavior of Effective Teachers

Researchers in the area of teacher competence and

effectiveness have attempted to define specific behaviors

which successful teachers exhibit. Much of their data has

been gathered by classroom observation methods, in which

the frequency of occurrence of behavior indices has been


A review of work in the area of systematic classroom

observations in the late 1930s and early 1940s confirms

the postulate that specific teacher classroom behaviors are

related to pupil growth (Scar, 1972). These early results

indicated that:

S. a teacher tended to create the same
patterns of behavior in pupils from one year
to another, and that pupils in "integrative"
classrooms tended to sh-io more initiative and
spontaneity, participated more freely and
involved themselves in problem solving, in
cortilrist to pupils in the dominativee" classrooms
who seemed less independent aid showed some
tendency to reject the teacher. (p..512)

Since these early studies, investigators have employed

various observation systems and have concluded that whether

during specific study areas or during classroom work in

general, teacher behavior is a distinct factor in the

classroom success of both teachers and pupils.

In the area of teacher verbal behavior, Flanders and

his associates have been leaders in data collection and

analysis. The impact of teacher verbal behavior is re-

flected in the acknowledgement that 70%. of all classroom

talking is teacher talking (Flanders, 1965). The class-

room teacher exerts tremendous influence on students through

verbal interaction. An understanding of how to control

this verbal communication will lead to use of influence as

a social force (Flanders, p. 1).

Early research by Flanders and others categorized

teacher verbal behavior as either integrative or dominative.

An integrative behavior pattern is characterized by:

acceptance, clarification and support of pupil ideas and

feelings; praise and encouragement; questions to stimulate

student decisionmaking, questions to orient students to

schoolwork. A dominative pattern includes: expressing or

lecturing about own ideas or knowledge; giving directions

or orders; criticizing or deprecating pupil behavior with

the intent to change it; justifying own position or autho-

rity (Flanders, 1951). In a laboratory research situation,

a sustained dominative pattern was disliked by students,

reduced recall of cognitive material, and produced disrup-

tive anxiety. Exposure to integrative patterns reversed

these trends.

In order to study classroom interaction patterns more

specifically, Flanders and associates devised and refined a

system of nine verbal categories, with a tenth category

used to denote silence or confusion (Flanders, 1965; 1970).

(Appendix I). A frequency distribution is charted on a

matrix so that areas of influence can be easily discerned.

The Flanders' scale breaks all teacher interaction into

either indirect or direct influence. Indirect influence

includes behaviors of the earlier interactive designation.

Direct influence refers to dominative patterns of behavior.

With this scale, the assumption is made that verbal behavior

is an adequate sample of total classroom behavior.

The pilot research with the Flanders' instrument in

1956 and 1957 showed that the presence or absence of indirect

influence correlated highly with positive or negative student

behavior (Flanders, 1965). Classes of students with a high

degree of motivation and respect for the teacher, where

rewards and punishments were perceived as fair, who displayed

independence and a lack of anxiety, were characterized by

a high degree of indirect teacher influence. These studies

also concluded that knowledge of subject matter was not


Amidon and Hough (1967) reported a study comparing

superior elementary school teachers with average teachers.

The frequency distribution per Flanders' categories revealed

the following:

Category 1, acceptance of feeling, was used nearly
three times as much by superior teachers, although
both groups used this category infrequently.

Category 2, praise and encouragement, was used equally
by both groups, although superior teachers used praise
more frequently after student-initiated ideas, and
gave reasons for the praise more often.

Category 3, acceptance and use of student ideas, occurred
twice as often with superior teachers and was used over
three times as often in response to student-initiated talk.

Category 4, questioning, was distinguished by average
teachers using more closed questions, while superior
teachers employed questions to control noise and to
clarify ideas.

Category 5, lecturing, was used more by average teachers,
but accounted for at least 4Ofo of all teacher-talk.
Superior teachers were interrupted more often by their

Category 6, direction-giving, was used twice as often
by average teachers.

Category 7, criticism, occurred twice as often with
average teachers as a technique for control of noise.
Both groups of teachers used this response infrequently.

Categories 8 & 9, student interaction patterns, differed
for the two groups of teachers. Superior teachers had
two times more student-initiated talk occurring in their

Category 10, silence or confusion, occurred twice as
often in classrooms of average teachers (pp. 186-187).

Effective Teaching and Pupil Growth

The evidence thus far cited purports that there are

certain behaviors and ways of being teachers which positively

influence pupil growth. Effective teachers hold certain

characteristic perceptions of students, themselves, and their

own role, respond to others in a therapeutic, facilitative

manner, and tend to interact with their students from an

indirect spliere of influence. Researchers have attempted

to relate these variables to measures of student achievement.

Christenson (1960) investigated relationships between

pupil achievement and affect-need, and teacher warmth and

permissiveness. Results of the study indicated that

teacher warmthwas significantly related to pupil achievement

in vocabulary and arithmetic.

In a study of the interpersonal dimensions of empathy,

congruence and positive regard, Aspy (1969) found a rela-

tionship with measures of pupil achievement on the Stanford

Achievement Test. Test scores correlated positively with

the three therapeutic characteristics in all areas related

to language arts, except spelling. On that subtest, the

correlation was negative but not significant.

Kratochvil, Carkhuff, and Berenson (1969) explored the

influence of several variables of parent and teacher facili-

tative functioning upon student emotional functioning,

physical variables, grade point average, creativity and

productivity. A series of multiple regressions indicated

that combined parent and teacher levels of functioning were

not related to student interpersonal, physical, and intellec-

tual indices. However, the level of functioning of individual

teachers was positively related to criterion variables when

these were important at that grade level. Results further

indicated that parent and teacher facilitative functioning

needs to meet minimum levels to have a significant and

positive effect on student functioning. The researchers

concluded that the negative impact of parents and teachers

functioning at lower levels may cancel out the positive

impact of high level parents and teachers. In a related

study, Cogan (1958) reported that student work habits and

productivity were influenced by teacher attitudes and behaviors.

Extensive investigations have been conducted to study

the effects of teacher verbal interaction on student achieve-

ment. Soar (1968) reported a non-linear relationship between

teacher indirectness and measures of pupil growth. Students

showed the most gain in creativity with high teacher indirect-

ness. Vocabulary gain was achieved with somewhat less

indirectness. Reading gain was related to still less


Later work by Flanders, reported by Soar (1972), has

shown a difference in pupil gain from lower to upper elemen-

tary grade levels. Previous results of studies with students

from fourth grade and higher have shown a positive relationship

between sustained teacher acceptance and student achievement.

A later study with second grade students revealed very dif-

ferent results. In this study, a strong negative relation-

ship was reported between teacher acceptance and pupil cogni-

tive growth. In reporting these intriguing differences, Soar

(1972) suggests that there may be a developmental difference

which might call for a different style of teacher-pupil inter-

action at lower grade levels to produce the most growth.

Pellegreno and Williams (1973) reported a sex-based

differential in teacher response patterns. These patterns,

however, related to student role behavior. They found that

the teachers sampled used significantly more praise and

encouragement following the talk of girls characterized as

rigid, conforming, and orderly. The teachers asked more

questions of boys who were active, independent, and assertive.

Also, these boys responded to teacher questions more fre-

quently, whether or not these questions were directed to

them personally. The authors concluded that the teachers

rewarded "typical" female behavior and that the immediate

didactic purposes of the teachers were more important than

the student behavior fostered (p. 273).

Interpersonal Skills

Communication and Facilitative Responding

The process of influencing positive growth in another

is one of communicating effectively. The successful teacher

is an effective communicator of facets of knowledge and human

experience. In the act of educating, the teacher is an

encoder of messages which are sent to students, the decoders.

For learning to occur, the message sent must be decodable

by the learner within his frame of reference (Olson, Pagliuso,

Robinson, Marcus, Gaite, & Taub, 1969). Communication in

the learning environment is a function of common meanings,

an overlapping of perceptual fields (Combs, Avila, & Purkey,

1971). Loeffler (1970), in reviewing literature on communica-

tion, concluded that this process consists of a variety of

verbal and nonverbal expressions. All communication conveys

content and relationship and is a measure of shared thoughts

and feelings (Cherry, 3966; Lceffler, 1970).

Critical to the art of teaching is the art of inter-

personal communication with students. In a study reported

by Olson et al. (1969), teachers who could adapt their

communication patterns to include the listener's frame of

reference were judged, on independent bases, as more effec-

tive. Lewis and Newell (1962) also studied teacher communi-

cation patterns with reference to the orientation of the

teacher. They found that learner-centered instructors empha-

sized a receiving-orientation.

Behavioral conditioning is apparently not free of the

influence of facilitative dimensions. Vitalo (1970) explored

the extent to which conditioning and extinction processes

depend on the interpersonal functioning of the experimenter.

Results of the study suggested that the conditioner's level

of functioning on empathy, positive regard and genuineness

was essential to effective systematic conditioning and extinction.

Wittmer and Myrick (1974) described the frame of reference

of teacher communication patterns as a critical issue in

teacher-student relationships. Response patterns fall along

a continuum from least person-centered to most person-

centered. The more person-centered the teacher's responses

to students the greater the understanding, warmth, and

caring communicated.

These writers go on to explain the behaviors which

occur along the continuum (Wittmer & Myrick, pp. 54-74).

On their scale, the least person-centered response is one

of advising or evaluating. This response emphasizes the

teacher's role as an authority, making judgments based on

personal values and frame of reference. Timely advice can

be helpful, but all too often advice is perceived as a

threat or rejection and acts as a roadblock to personal


Moving along the continuum, verbal responses which

seek to analyze or interpret the behavior or feelings of

another limit the extent to which another's frame of ref-

erence is considered. Such responses tend to limit also the

facilitative nature of teacher-student interaction.

Reassurance and support are often employed by teachers

to express their caring and confidence in students. These

responses, however, are likely to deny the actual feelings

of students, limiting the expression of empathic under-


Questioning is a unique tool in teaching methodology.

Employed most often to extract cognitive knowledge from

students, questions follow several forms and relay numerous

messages. Wittmer and Myrick (1972) classify questions as

either least person-centered or most person-centered, de-

pending on the facilitative nature of the question. Least

person-centered questions include questions which create a

bind for preferred answers, questions which solicit agreement,

forced-choice questions, double-bind questions ("have you

stopped beating your wife") and 'Why" questions. Most

facilitative, person-centered questions are those questions

which allow an expanded reply. These are most often referred

to as open questions and solicit expression of another's

frame of reference.

A high level response along the Wittmer-Myrick

continuum is one in which the teacher or helper seeks to

clarify or summarize what has been said by the respondent.

With this response, a genuine attempt is made to comprehend

what has been expressed by another person by rewording or

simplifying what was said. While clarifying and summarizing

statements reflect understanding of what has been said, the

facilitative teacher also attempts to reflect the feelings

of the student. The feelings held by a student may be

verbalized or not, but the sensitive teacher responds to

what he thinks the student is experiencing. A verbalization

and labeling of the feeling by the teacher helps the student

become aware of his innermost experiencing and thereby

promotes growth.

Listening as a Prerequisite to Ccmmnunication

An integral part of the communication process is the

ability to listen. Combs and Snygg (1959) emphasized the

importance of teachers listening intently to students as a

method of helping students explore the personal nature of

learning. Intent listening is an active process in which one

tries to grasp the meaning of what another is expressing.

"Good teaching requires a sensitivity to what students are

expressing and this requires accurate hearing of what others

are trying to convey" (p. 395).

Gordon (1970) refers to "active listening" as a means

of conveying understanding and caring. The receiver (parent

or teacher) decodes the message sent by the child and ver-

balizes his understanding as feedback for verification by

the sender (p. 53). Prerequisite attitudes for active

listening include genuineness, acceptance, trust, and


The most person-centered responses (Wittmer and Myrick,

1974) rely on the skill of listening. Both reflection of

feelings and clarification or summarization are possible

only to the extent to which careful listening has occurred.

Effective listening includes attending to all that is being

expressed by another person, both verbally and non-verbally.

It includes also what specifically is not expressed. Such

listening has been referred to as "listening with the third

ear" (Combs, Avila, & Purkey, 1971).

Training for Interpersonal Skills

Carkhuff (1969a; 1969b; 1969c; 1969d; 1971a; 1971b)

has described the effects of training in interpersonal

skills on the level of functioning of professional and lay

helpers. His investigations have shown that the level of

communication achieved is a function of experience, training,

or both. An overriding assumption of these studies is that

interpersonal skills can be learned.

The theme of systematic human resource training
is skill acquisition. The key to the model is
the expansion of the quantity and thus quality
of an individual trainee's response repertoire
in physical, emotional, and intellectual spheres
of functioning.(Carkhuff, 1971b, p. 4)

The skills and conditioir. necessary for effective

helping and teaching have been subjected to various inquiries

regarding methods of training. Training models for lay

personnel have typically been geared to establishing rela-

tionship skills which promote positive growth (Carkhuff,

1969b). These programs have focused on sensitivity training

or teaching interpersonal skills and attitudinal changes in

the individual trainee. Training models which focus on

empathy, positive regard, and congruence showed that lay

persons could be trained to function at minimal facilitative

levels over a relatively short period of time--from 20 hours

to a one year duration (Carkhuff, 1969b).

A systematic approach to interpersonal skills training

has been developed and tested by Carkhuff. This model inte-

grates didactic and experiential approaches to learning.

The didactic experiences provide for the transmission of

theory and validated constructs, while the use of role-playing,

modeling, and imitation comprise a system for active involve-

ment of participants (Carkhuff, 1971a).

A high-level facilitative trainer is considered crucial

to the training process, with trainee outcome related to the

trainer's level of functioning. Trainees are taught to use

process rating scales with which to make decisions concerning

the facilitative nature of verbal interactions. Stimulus

tapes provide practice in response patterns, and eventually

actual clients are employed in the training process. Sessions

with these clients are taped and feedback to the trainee is

given by professional helpers. Research supports this

training method as highly effective in producing high-level

facilitative behavior (Carkhuff, 1969d; 1971b). Additional

research has indicated that both written and verbal responses

to helper stimulus expressions are valid indices of assess-

ment of counselor behavior in an actual counseling situation

(Carkhuff, 1969b).

Instances of training for communication and facilitation

skills have been effective in producing increased levels of

functioning with relation to various criteria. Lundgren

and Shavelson (1974) investigated the effects of a program

in listening training on the interpersonal skills of teachers.

Results of this study plus prior testing by developers of

the program indicated significant treatment effects on

listening criteria.

The effects of training for the communication of core

interpersonal conditions reveal success within the methodologi-

cal limits. Holder (1969) studied the immediate and long-

range effects of empathy communication training on student

nurses. Utilizing didactic training procedures presented

by a facilitative trainer, this investigation yielded signi-

ficant and consistent gains for 5, 10, and 15 hours of training.

A one month follow-up indicated that the gains were sustained.

Newton (1974) reported significant, positive effects

of training procedures utilizing videotaped stimulus vignettes,

process rating scales, and triad listening-talking-observing

techniques. Measures of empathic understanding, respect,

and communicative accuracy increased for the trained student

personnel paraprofessionals participating in this study.

Resnick (1972) compared two treatment groups and a

delayed treatment control group. The treatments employed

systematic, didactic, and experiential training, video-

taping and process recall, and micro-counseling. Although

one treatment program was not more effective as a training

program over the other on all the variables, the program

which included both communication skills and self-disclosure

produced significant gains in facilitative responding.

Training programs for teachers employing active involve-

ment in the training process have produced gains in inter-

personal skills. Dustin (1973) reported the effects of a

workshop approach to empathy training for school counselors

and teachers. After training in the skills to express

empathy, both groups interacted with a coached client. Post

treatment data showed both groups using more empathic res-

ponses. A positive aspect of the workshop appeared to be

the interaction of teacher and counselor during training.

Carline (1970) studied the effects of a teacher in-

service program designed to "train in" and "train out"

relationship variables. Using the Flanders' Interaction

Analysis Categories (FIAC) scale as the major instructional

vehicle, the program emphasized the analysis of classroom

interpersonal environment. Results of FIAC and Teacher

Situation Reaction Test data indicated that the program

was successful in "training in" behaviors that were desired.

This study supported the use of intensive in-service training

to produce desired teacher behavior change.

A comparison of four methods of training in interpersonal

skills revealed that direct involvement of teachers in the

learning process was more valuable than didactic experiences

(Thorman, 1971). From the data obtained in this study, it

was concluded that training in interpersonal skills produces

extroverted and gregarious behavior in teachers.

Hefele (1971) explored the impact of interpersonal

process training on teacher effectiveness and student achieve-

ment. Pre-service teacher participants in the systematic

training program were rated as exhibiting higher levels of

facilitative behavior than non-participants. Students of

the trained subjects displayed greater involvement with

learning. An adjunctive finding of the study was that the

trained student-teachers selected supervising teachers who

were functioning at high facilitative levels, indicating

increased discrimination regarding effective teaching


Berenson (1971) conducted a systematic human relations

training program with another group of pre-service teachers.

Experimental subjects received twenty-five hours of didactic,

experiential and modeling training which employed discrimina-

tion and communication of core facilitative conditions.

Comparison groups received either 25 hours of straight

didactic interpersonal skills training or no tr iiJrg.

Analysis of classroom interaction patterns, measured by the

FIAC scale, revealed greater use of praise, encouragement,

acceptance, and clarification by experimental subjects over

those in comparison groups. The experimental group also

tended to spend less classroom time criticizing and giving

directions than control subjects. Supervisors of trained

student-teachers perceived these subjects as more effective

in the actual classroom experience. These students appeared

more capable of handling problems related to classroom manage-

ment, planning, and pupil teacher relationships. Results of

this study supported the efficacy of short training periods

for interpersonal skills.

Instructional Models for Teacher Education

The systematic approach to education in communication

and facilitative skills has proven effective in thV training

of teachers and other lay personnel. This final section

will explore the use and relative effectiveness of other

methods of instruction for teacher education, namely programmed

and self-instruction; microteaching; modular and competency


Programmed and Self-Instruction

The technology of programmed instruction seeks to solve

problems created by ever-increasing numbers of persons to be

educated. Calvin (1969) supported the advancement of self-

instruction with programmed materials as an answer to indi-

vidual differences in learning styles, shortage of instructors,

and the educational consequences of socio-economic deprivation.

The principles of programmed instruction (PI) focus on the

specification of objectives and terminal behaviors. Learning

is self-paced and can be influenced by built-in feedback and

successive approximation of the terminal behavior (O'Day,

Kulhavy, Anderson, & Malczynski, 1971). Programmed instruc-

tion is based upon the concepts of learning theory--that all

behavior is learned and that responses leading to the behavior

can be shaped (Hilgard & Bower, 1966; O'Day, et al., 1971).

Programmed materials which include the principles of

overt responding and feedback provide increased learning

yields but also expand program time. Program time decreases

with the inclusion of successive approximation, review prior

to responding, and confirmation. However, the more PI prin-

ciples which are employed in a program, the less the learning

is dependent upon ability. In a study cited by O'Day, et al.,

results indicated that: ". . for learners at any level of

ability, the branching format with its small steps and thematic

prompting achieved the most learning" (p. 103). Overt res-

ponding was found the most critical principle to include in

programs for junior college students (O'Day, et al.).

Schramm (1964) reviewed tnirty-six studies which com-

pared programmed instruction with conventional classroom

instruction. These sampled different populations: 16 studies

were done ir colleges; 4 in secondary schools; 5 with primary

grade children; 1 with retarded children (Schramm, p. 5).

Results for the groups varied, but general findings indicated

that 18 of the studies showed no significant differences

between groups when measured on the same criterion tests.

Seventeen studies reported superiority for subjects inter-

acting with programmed materials. One of the thirty-six

studies distinguished classroom instruction as superior to

programmed instruction. Schramm noted a possible source of

error in all studies involving progErsa,,ed materials with the

occurrence of the Hawthorne effect (p. 4). This must be

viewed as a limitation to research findings where these pro-

grams have been utilized.

Coppernoll and Davies (1974) reported an evaluative

study of methods of instruction in a school of medicine.

Students and faculty rated self-instruction and independent

study high, outranking lecturing. Ranked most effective

were the experiential approaches of clerkship and departmental


The effectiveness of self-directed learning programs

has been cited by Hunter (1972). The experiences of 400

junior college students indicated that students can assume

the major responsibility for their own learning and that

achievement can be positively influenced.


The concept of microteaching recognizes the efficiency

and effectiveness of experientially based learning. The

elements of practice, feedback, modeling, and supervision

have been employed in this approach, with the provision of

step-by-step integration .of teaching competencies to reach

the terminal goal (Brown & Armstrong, 1975; Perlberg, 1972;

Phillips, 1975).

The typical microteaching program is based primarily on

a laboratory experience with videotape recordings used for

feedback. A modeled tape of the teaching skill to be learned

is presented prior to student practice. The student or teacher

then prepares and presents to a small group of children a

similar lesson focusing on the basic teaching component.

After feedback utilizing the videotape recording, the lesson

is retaught to a different group of children.

Brown and Armstrong reported an adaptation of the

original microteaching approach developed by Allen and others

at Stanford University. Their adaptation expanded the original

model to encompass a three year program. The first year

focuses on observation and analysis of teaching techniques.

In the second year, students participate in small group

teaching with videotape feedback. The third year consists

of student-teaching in a school. A unique aspect of this

program is peer-group teaming. The peers serve as teachers,

pupils, and cameramen for the laboratory experiences. An

analysis of evaluative data for this microteaching program

indicated significant changes in teaching performance for

students involved. Flanders' Interaction Analysis data

showed that by the end of the program, students asked fewer

questions of pupils but obtained more pupil-initiated res-

ponses; students responded to and expanded upon pupil ideas;

student-teachers used silence effectively; the student-

teachers talked less and were less hesitant with responses

and explanations (Brown & Armstrong, p. 56).

Modular and Competency Approaches

A corollary to microteaching is the minicourse or

modular approach to teacher education. The learning module

is a self-contained package of training materials which

focus on a single learning component or competency (Le Baron,

1969; Perlberg, 1972). This self-contained nature makes

the module a program which can be used in any school or

locality. The minicourse package is self-explanatory and

includes a method of self-evaluation. Perlberg explained

three procedures utilized in the minicourse: 1) an instruc-

tional film describing the focal skill; 2) the planning,

teaching, and taping of a lesson employing the skill; 3) self-

feedback and evaluation with provision for replanning and

reteaching (Perlberg, p. 551). Research has indicated that

the minicourse is an effective instructional method. Self-

evaluation through videotaping appears as adequate as super-

visor feedback and evaluation. Teaching skills learned

through interaction with the module have been found to be

incorporated into the teacher's classroom behavior (Perlberg,


The Childhood Teacher Education program at the Univer-

sity of Florida reflects the integration of competency and

modular approaches within the framework of the learning

theory of Combs and phenomenological psychology (Blume, 1971).

Faculty members of the various methodological disciplines

direct the acquisition of specified teaching skills. Students

participate in learning activities which emphasize personal

involvement in the educational experience. During the typical

two year program, students also complete field experiences,

increasing observation and participation time from an hour

a week to five full weeks of intensive student teaching.


Teacher effectiveness has been found to be related to

the level of interpersonal functioning of the individual

teacher. The presence of core facilitative dimensions--

empathy, positive regard, and congruence--creates a class-

room climate which positively influences student academic

and personal growth. The effective teacher holds certain

beliefs regarding his role and the students to be reached.

These beliefs become integrated into and interpreted by the

teacher's style and functioning in the classroom. Students,

in turn, perceive the teacher as a significant, helpful


Teacher verbal behavior patterns also influence the

amount and direction of pupil growth. The facilitative

teacher employs interaction patterns which focus on acceptance

of feelings, use of praise and encouragement, responses to

pupil ideas, and use of questions. Such person-centered

responses communicate warmth and understanding and stimulate

creativity and problem-solving.

The formulation of an educational program for teaching

interpersonal skills necessitates consideration of effective

training techniques and methods. Programs which combine

didactic, experiential, and modeling approaches have been


found to be effective over any single-method programs. In

the area of teacher education, training programs based on

microteaching and/or learning modules provide valuable

resources for the acquisition of specified skills. Programmed

materials and self-instruction capitalize on a technology

which adapts theoretical concepts of learning. These and

other methods of educating are based on the assumption that

knowledge can be acquired and behaviors learned, such that

adaptation and assimilation create new modes of responding.



Interpersonal skills are considered an integral part

of teaching. The teacher who attempts to see the student's

point of view, regards self, students and others posi-

tively and who is warm and empathic, contributes much to

the learning environment. A teacher skilled in conveying

such relationship variables will foster positive personal

growth and learning in students.

Methods for teaching interpersonal skills to teachers

have most often been offered through time-consuming work-

shops conducted by experienced facilitators. This study

proposed to develop and evaluated the effectiveness of a

program of self-instruction for developing interpersonal,

facilitative skills for teachers in the field.

Description of the Population and the Sample

The target population for this study was third,

fourth, and fifth grade teachers in public elementary

schools located in a metropolitan area of Alachua County,

Florida. The sample was defined as teachers from among

this group who volunteered to complete the self-instruc-

tional program during the second semester of the 1975-76

school year.

In order to secure the sample for the study, the

researcher contacted principals and counselors of eleven

elementary schools which had expressed interest in the

study. Counselors and principals in eight of the eleven

schools agreed to allow the researcher to meet with third,

fourth and fifth grade teachers to explain the study, its

rationale and materials to be used. At this meeting, the

researcher presented first an activity in which the teachers

were asked to list one word each to describe a teacher from

their past schooling who had exerted a negative influence

on their academic and personal development. They were

then asked to do the same for a teacher who had exerted

a positive influence. These descriptions were then related

by the researcher to the literature concerning effective

teaching and facilitative skills. The researcher con-

tinued with a description of the study and the involvement

that volunteers could expect. All prospective subjects

were informed that basic in-service points would be

awarded through the Alachua County Teacher Center, CREATE,

for participation in the study.

All of the teachers who volunteered were selected

to participate in the study. A total of twenty-five

teachers from seven of the eight schools meeting with

the researcher volunteered for the study. Two groups

subsequently were identified upon self-selection to one

of two entry dates for interaction with the experimental

materials. Those electing to begin immediately composed

the experimental group. Those electing a later date in

the same school year composed the delayed-treatment control

group. Thirteen teachers thus participated as experimental

subjects; twelve teachers participated as delayed-treat-

ment control subjects. Of the original twenty-five teachers

subjects, sixteen completed the study; seven experimental

subjects and nine control subjects. Seven of those not

completing the study dropped out of their own accord. Two

others failed to use the tape recorder correctly, rendering

the data unusable.

Design of the Study

Research Design

In order to determine the effects of a self-instruc-

tion program in facilitation and communication skills on

the interaction behaviors of elementary classroom teachers

a quasi-experimental research design was employed. Three

dependent variables were investigated: teacher verbal

response patterns in a classroom setting; teacher selec-

tion of written response patterns; student perceptions

of the classroom environment. The Flanders' Interaction

Analysis Categories (FIAC) scale, the Teacher Response

Patterns (TRP) inventory, and the Student Assessment of

Teacher Affect (SATA) scale were used to measure the

effects of the treatment program. These instruments were

administered to all teacher subjects or to their students,

respectively, prior to and following the treatment inter-

vention period.

The research paradigm employed a nonequivalent con-

trol group design (Campbell & Stanley, 1967). This design

has been used widely in educational research. It was

selected for this study because of its adaptability to the

limitations of this research. The controls exerted by this

design have been described by Campbell and Stanley (pp. 47-50).

Since the major purpose of the study was to test the

effectiveness of individualized, self-paced experimental

materials, subjects in the experimental group completed

the treatment within varying time periods. Delayed-treat-

ment control subjects were administered post-treatment

instruments at the end of a nine-week period. They they

were given the opportunity to use the experimental materials.

Collection of the Data

Pre-treatment. Systematic collection of pre-treatment

data took place immediately upon the securing of subjects

in each particular school. Counselors in the participating

schools were responsible for managing the data collection

procedures. The procedures were as follows:

1. Using audio cassettes, each subject taped a

prescribed classroom guidance lesson (Appendix II).

2. After taping the prescribed lesson, each subject

returned the completed tape to the school counselor. The

teacher was then given a copy of the TRP which was to be

completed within one week.

3. The school counselor administered the SATA to

homeroom students of teacher subjects prior to the experi-

mental treatment or the nine-week control period. Teachers

were asked to leave their classrooms during the collection

of student assessment data.

Treatment. All experimental subjects began with

Lesson I upon completion of pre-treatment data. In

accordance with the self-instructional orientation of the

module, all teachers in the experimental group progressed

through the fifteen lessons at their own pace. Inter-

mittent encouragement was supplied by the school counselors

and the researcher to insure completion of the module prior

to the end of the school year. Teachers in the delayed-

treatment group proceeded with normal teaching activities

during the nine-week control period and did not have

access to any of the experimental materials until after

the post-treatment data were collected.

Post-treatment. Immediately following the nine-week

control phase, all post-treatment data were collected from

delayed-treatment teachers. As with pre-treatment data,

each teacher taped a prescribed activity (Appendix III)

then completed the TRP. The school counselor administered

the SATA to students of participating teachers. Post-

treatment data were gathered from experimental teachers

upon completion of Lesson XV of the module. This final

lesson contained the identical taping activity as pre-

scribed for control subjects. All post-treatment taping

was therefore concluded as each experimental teacher

completed the module. Upon receipt of the tape and Teacher

Activity Package, the school counselor gave each experi-

mental teacher the TRP and administered the SATA to the


The Experimental Program

The experimental program centered around a self-

instruction module in facilitation and communication

skills. The module consisted of fifteen lessons containing

written and/or taped materials. Each lesson included one

or more activities to be completed by the subjects. Each

activity focused on a skill or skill component related to

facilitative responding.

The entire module package was housed in a box and

consisted of the text, Facilitative Teaching: Theory and

Practice (Wittmer & Myrick, 1974), manila folders holding

each lesson and tape, and a lesson check-out sheet. One

such module package was provided for each school parti-

cipating in the study. Typically, the module packages

were kept in the counselors' offices or in a centrally

located area so that materials could be shared by parti-

cipants. Subjects checked out individual lessons as

needed, signing name and dates taken and returned on

sheets provided.

A Teacher Activity Package (TAP) consisting of a

module outline, response sheets for lesson activities,

and a final module evaluation form, was designed to

accompany the module. The TAP served as a workbook,

and a copy was provided for each subject. Subjects

recorded responses to lesson activities on the designated

worksheets in the TAP. Eight of the fifteen lessons

required the completion of a self-evaluation form con-

cerning facilitative skills. Seven lessons required

other types of response formats specific to the particular

lesson. All TAPs were returned to the researcher at the

conclusion of the study. The module and TAP materials

are contained in the Appendix section of this study.

Implementation and management of this study neces-

sitated involvement of school counselors. The researcher

met with counselors from participating schools prior to

program initiation for the purpose of orientation. This

orientation meeting with each counselor focused on the

purpose of the study and role of the counselor. The

researcher continued close contact with each school coun-

selor throughout the study. Instructions to the counselor

are included in Appendix IV.


Ho : There is no significant difference between groups
on the variable of indirect teacher talk as mea-
sured by the Flanders' Interaction Analysis Cate-
gories scale (FIAC).

a: There is no significant difference between groups on
the variable of acceptance of students' feelings
(category 1 of FIAC).

-b: There is no significant difference between groups on
the variable of praise and encouragement of students
(category 2 of FIAC).

c: There is no significant difference between groups on
the variable of acceptance or use of ideas of stu-
dents (category 3 of FIAC).

d: There is no significant difference between groups on
the variable of questions asked students (category 4
on FIAC).

-Ho2: There is no significant difference between groups on
the variable of direct teacher talk as measured by
the Flanders' Interaction Analysis Categories scale.

a: There is no significant difference between groups on
the variable of lecturing to students (category 5
of FIAC).

-b: There is no significant difference between groups on
the variable of giving students directions (category
6 of FIAC).

c: There is no significant difference between groups on
the variable of criticizing or justifying authority
(category 7 of FIAC).

Ho : There is no significant difference between groups on
the variable of student talk as measured by the
Flanders' Interaction Analysis Categories scale.

Ho : There is no significant difference between groups on
the variable of confusion or silence as measured by
the .Flanders' Interaction Analysis Categories scale
(category 10).

Ho : There is no significant difference between groups on
the variable of student assessment of teacher affect.

Ho6: There is no significant difference between groups on
the variable of identification and ordering of written
facilitative responses by teachers.


Flanders' Interaction Analysis Categories (FIAC)

In order to obtain a behavioral measurement of class-

room interaction, the FIAC scale was employed as both a

pre- and post-treatment measurement. This scale, developed

by Flanders and tested by Flanders, Amidon, and other

researchers, gives an overall picture of classroom verbal

interaction and groups all interactions into ten categories.

A rater records a numeral corresponding to one of ten

categories every three seconds of the observation period.

The frequencies which occur within categories, plus the

patterns in which they fall, indicate the interactions and

communication patterns which have taken place during a

given classroom observation period. This observation

period is typically twenty minutes in duration (Amidon,

1968; Flanders, 1970). Research utilizing FIAC indicates

the instrument to be an effective measure of classroom

verbal interaction (Soar, 1972). The first seven categories

were of particular interest in this study and were applied

as they pertain to teacher-to-student interaction.

Behavioral samplings for analysis with FIAC were accom-

plished in this study by obtaining from each subject an

audiotape of a prescribed classroom discussion, prior to

and after the treatment period. Theaudio-tapes were rated

by trained judges utilizing the FIAC scale. The use of

trained raters in FIAC coding has been discussed by Amidon

(1968), Amidon and Hough (1967) and Flanders (1970).

Judges for the study were two Teacher Corps graduate

student-teachers, each of whom had prior exposure and

experience with the Flanders' and other observational rating

systems. Training sessions for the judges were conducted

by the researcher for the purposes of re-training with

FIAC and obtaining interrater agreement data. These

sessions consisted mainly of rating audiotapes of teacher-

led classroom discussion. Tapes for the training sessions

were made by teachers not participating in the study.

Five training sessions, totaling 14 hours, were con-

ducted the week prior to the data rating period. Each

rater had memorized the FIAC scale prior to the training

sessions. The first session consisted of reviewing the

FIAC categories and discriminating among categories, as

suggested by Flanders (1970). Samples of classroom discus-

sion were used for category distinction. The remaining

sessions focused on actual rating experiences with training

tapes followed by analysis and discussion of rating deci-

sions. In order to clarify distinctions between FIAC

categories, ground rules were established during the rater

training period and are found in Appendix VI.

At the end of the third, fourth, and fifth training

sessions, analyses were made of the ratings generated.

Scotts' coefficient, Lp, was employed to obtain an indica-

tion of interrater agreement (Amidon & Hough, 1967, pp.

158-166; Scott, 1955; Tinsley & Weiss, 1975, p. 370).

During the fifth training session, the judges agreed on

83% of the responses coded. Using Scotts' coefficient,

which corrects for agreement by chance, an interrater

agreement level of .77 was obtained.

At the conclusion of the training sessions, all taped

data for the study were given to the judges. Audio-

tapes containing pre or post data were randomly assigned

to each rater. Each tape was labeled with a teacher

identification number so that all ratings could be

considered "blind" (i.e. judges did not have access to

teacher names, schools, or group assignments, and did not

know whether the taped data were pre- or post-treatment).

All ratings were made directly on NCS scanner sheets,

Transoptic F 3143-54321, ten-response form. All other

coding necessary was done by the researcher at the com-

pletion of the judges' ratings.

Teacher Response Patterns (TRP)

An inventory of teacher response patterns was adminis-

tered to obtain a measure of teachers' ability to identify

and select written facilitative patterns. The Teacher

Response Patterns inventory consists of five selections

describing a situation which might occur in a school setting.

Each selection is presented with limited information,

followed by six possible responses which might be made by

a teacher. Respondents rank-order the selections from

most understanding and helpful to least understanding and


Reliability coefficients for the TRP, utilizing both

split-halves and test-retest methods, are above .86. Raw

scores on the TRP range from 30 to 180, with a score of

144 or above indicating selection of person-centered

responses. The TRP was administered to both groups of

teachers pre and post.

Student Assessment of Teacher Affect (SATA)

A measure of student perceptions of teacher classroom

affect was obtained from the home-base students of each

teacher-subject. The Student Assessment of Teacher Affect

scale (Appendix I), devised by the researcher, was adminis-

tered by school counselors to the target students in absence

of the classroom teacher. This scale is based on the con-

structs of empathy, positive regard of teacher toward

student, and general classroom climate. All items on the

scale refer to the general factor of teacher affect.

The student scale consists of sixteen statements related

to the general factor. It employs a Likert scaling tech-

nique with four categories ranging from strongly agree to

strongly disagree, as described in Shaw and Wright (1967).

Scores on the SATA range from 16 to 64 for each student

rating. To obtain a teacher score, student scores were

averaged, yielding a mean score with a range from 16 to 64.

Content validity for the SATA scale was obtained

through a consensus of a panel of four judges. The judges

were faculty members in the Department of Counselor Educa-

tion at the University of Florida. Each judge was selected

on the criterion of experience working with public school

teachers or pre-service teachers. Each judge was given a

copy of twenty possible items for the scale and instructed

to label each item as relating to one of the three con-

structs, empathy (E), positive regard (PR), and general

classroom climate (C). Items reflecting 75% agreement or

better were selected for the scale. Two teacher educators

specializing in elementary teacher education evaluated

the format and readability of the instrument.

A stability rating over time for the SATA was

established through a test-retest method over a three-

week interval. A Pearson's product-moment correlation

coefficient of .64 was obtained. Results of the data

obtained in the study with the SATA are discussed in

Chapters IV and V.. Interpretations are guarded, relative

to the low reliability of the instrument.

Analysis of the Data

In order to compare differences between groups in

teacher verbal patterns, ordering of written responses,

and student perceptions of teacher affect, a statistical

analysis of the data was conducted. Data generated by the

FIAC scale were tallied and a rate established for each

category. Difference scores were computed from the rates.

A series of "t" tests were run on the difference scores

from pre- and post-treatment administrations of the FIAC,

TRP and SATA instruments. Results of the data are discussed

in Chapter IV.



The purpose of this study was to develop and investi-

gate the effects of a self-instruction program in facilita-

tive teaching skills with elementary school teachers. The

following dependent variables were studied: teacher verbal

response patterns during classroom discussion; teacher written

response identification; student perceptions of classroom

climate and teacher-offered empathy and positive regard.

This chapter presents the results of the data analysis

regarding the three dependent variables. All results are

discussed in the text at the point presented and are con-

sidered in relation to the methodology and statistical pro-

cedures explained in Chapter III.

Hypothesis 1

In general, Hypothesis 1 indicated that no differences

would exist between experimental and control group means on

the variable of indirect teacher verbal expression. This

variable is comprised of the first four categories of the

Flanders' Interaction Analysis Categories (FIAC) system.

An analysis of the data was computed on the four categories

collectively' (Hypothesis 1) and individually (Hypotheses

la, Ib, Ic, Id).

Results. The results of the data analysis, presented

in Table 4.1, indicate a significant difference between groups



Group Mean

S.D. D.F. t Value

14 1.62

11 3.45*

14 1.16

11 2.07

14 0.63












Cat. 1

Cat. 2

Cat. 3

Cat. 4






















for Category 1, acceptance of students' feelings, t (11) = 3.45,

P < .05. Category 3, clarifying and summarizing students'
ideas, categories 2 and 4, and the combined category effect,

Indirect Teacher Talk, yielded no significant differences

between groups. Therefore, null hypotheses 1, Ib, Ic and Id

were accepted; null hypothesis la was rejected.

Discussion. The significant difference between groups

on the variable of acceptance of students' feelings indicates

a positive treatment effect of the experimental program, as

this difference was in the direction of the experimental

group. The variable of clarifying and summarizing students'

ideas approached significance in the same direction, which

supports the indication of a positive treatment effect.

According to Wittmer and Myrick (1974), the facilitative

skills of responding to feelings and clarifying content are

highly person-centered. These responses reflect an attempt

on the part of teachers to interject themselves into the

students' frame of reference. Other investigators have

suggested that such communication patterns are related to

effectiveness in teaching (Amidon & Hough, 1967; Aspy, 1969;

Combs & Snygg, 1959; Olson, Pagliuso, Robinson, Marcus,

Gaite, & Taub, 1969). The results of this data analysis

confirm Berenson's (1971) findings that the interpersonal

skills of acceptance of feelings and clarification are sub-

ject to positive, short-term training effects. Both skills

were stressed in the experimental program.

The lack of significant difference between groups on

the variable of praise and encouragement (Category 2) may

be related to the tendency of all teachers to rely on this

mode of responding to students. Traditionally, teachers

have been encouraged to use praise liberally in their teaching

relationships, in order to extend warmth and to reinforce

preferred student behaviors. The increased use of praise

and encouragement was not a focus of the treatment program,

and thus the presence of similar reliance on this response

by all subjects was expected.

The results of testing, regarding the variable of use

of questions (Category 4), may relate to the traditional

teacher role as the director of discussion. The lessons pre-

scribed for the pre- and post-treatment measurements (Appen-

dices II and III) were designed as discussion activities.

Teaching methodologies support the use of questions to

elicit student response in such activities. Category 4

of the FIAC scale does not differentiate among types of

questions, as have been described by Wittmer and Myrick (1974).

Distinctions in past studies with the FIAC scale (Amidon &

Hough, 1967) have been gained by specific analyses of paired

observations. In this manner, responses prior to and

following the use of a question were analyzed to identify

the type of question asked. Such analysis was not con-

ducted in this study, and therefore all questioning modes

were included in this one category. The use of open-ended

questions, which was a focus in this study, is not identi-

fiable and should be investigated in further studies.

Hypothesis 2

In general, Hypothesis 2 indicated that no difference

would exist between the experimental and control group means

on the variable of direct teacher verbal expression. FIAC

categories 5 through 7 were considered collectively (Hypo-

thesis 2) and individually (Hypotheses 2a, 2b, 2c).

Results. The results of the data analysis, presented

in Table 4.2, indicate a significant difference between

groups for Category 7, criticizing or justifying authority,

t(14) = -2.19, P < .05. Results of data analysis for

Categories 5 and 6, lecturing and giving directions, and the

collective Direct Teacher Talk yielded no significant dif-

ferences between groups. On the basis of these findings,

null hypotheses 2, 2a and 2b were accepted; null hypothesis

2c was rejected.

Discussion. The significant difference between groups

on the variable of criticizing or justifying authority

indicates a positive treatment effect of the experimental

program. The direction of this difference between groups

is indicated by the negative mean for experimental group

difference scores and the positive mean for control group

difference scores. One explanation of this difference lies

in the focus of the experimental materials. These materials

emphasized the positive influence of conveying understanding

to students and de-emphasized responses to students which

tend to analyze, interpret, or otherwise place the teacher

in the position of an authority on another's inner






D.F. t Value

10 -0.09



14 -2.19*










Cat. 5

Cat. 6

Cat. 7

<. 05.

















experiencing. In addition, the experimental module sought

to familiarize subjects with a model for verbal feedback to

convey their own feelings to students. This model was pre-

sented as a positive alternative to the use of criticism,

physical and verbal abuse, and exercising authority.

The exhibited difference between groups may also be

explained by the method of self-evaluation used in the

module. This procedure provided progressive experiences

wherein subjects were expected to increase their use of

facilitative skills. In the acquisition of skills a con-

ditioning process takes place such that old behaviors are

gradually replaced by new, reinforced behaviors. This con-

ditioning process may account, in part, for the negative

experimental group difference mean reported for Category 7.

Both the experimental and control groups experienced

an overall decrease in the use of Indirect Teacher Talk,

as indicated by the negative difference means. This was

also found for both Categories 5 and 6. As with Hypothesis

1, the nature of the pre- and post-treatment modular lessons

may have influenced these results since the primary focus

of the lessons was to generate classroom discussion.

Directions to teachers specified that they lead their

students to talk about the stimulus experiences. Such

directions may have precluded the occurrence of extended

lecturing or directing by the teacher subjects, and thus

have acted as a positive influence in decreasing the

occurrence of these behaviors.

Amidon and Hough (1967) reported use of lecturing and

direction-giving by both average and superior teachers, with

directions being given twice as often by average teachers.

Analysis of the interactive patterns during classroom obser-

vation revealed that superior teachers, although relying

heavily on lecturing, were interrupted more often by their

students than were average teachers.

It would appear, from the data of this study, that

teaching modes involving lecturing and direction-giving are

not affected by training in interpersonal skills. Classroom

interaction patterns are influenced by the task at hand.

The appropriateness of a teacher's response--whether to lec-

ture, give directions or advice, clarify student ideas,

reflect feelings--determines the effect on student functioning.

Hypothesis 3

In general, Hypothesis 3 indicated that no differences

would exist between group means on the variable of student

verbal expression. This variable encompasses two categories

of the FIAC scale: responsive pupil talk (Category 8) and

initiative pupil talk (Category 9).

Results. The results of the data analysis, presented

in Table 4.3, indicate no significant difference between groups

on the student talk variable. Group means and standard

deviations fbr the variable are, for all purposes, equivalent,

indicating a similar increase and dispersion in the rate of

student talk from pre- to post-treatment measurement and

null hypothesis 3 was accepted.





S.D. D.F.

t Value

Student Exp.
Talk Con.

Cat. 8

Cat. 9

















14 0.08

14 0.23

14 -0.31

Discussion. The major point which should be mentioned

in a discussion of the student talk variable consisting of

Categories 8 and 9 is that these category distinctions were

difficult to discern in the data collected for this study.

Flanders (1970) discussed the perils to be encountered in

rating audiotaped data, as were employed by this study.

Without the advantage of viewing student behavior, it is

difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish responsive

from initiative verbal expression of students (p. 50). For

the purpose of this study, the categories were therefore

considered together. It is doubtful that anything more can

be derived from the data other than that instances of

student talk occurred in both groups and at a slightly higher

rate during the post-treatment observation session. The

nature of the post-treatment lesson may have influenced this


Hypothesis 4

In general, Hypothesis 4 indicated that no differences

would exist between group means on the variable of the

occurrence of silence or confusion during classroom

discussion. This variable was represented by Category 10

on the FIAC scale.

Results. The results of the data analysis, presented

in Table 4.4, indicate no significant difference between

groups for Category 10, silence or confusion. Both groups

experienced a drop in the rate of occurrence of the behaviors












D.F. t Value


identified by this category during the post-treatment

observation session.

Discussion. Category 10 in the Flanders' system is

utilized to record the occurrence of silence or confusion.

It is also the first category recorded by a rater to initiate

an observation period. In this study, in addition to tradi-

tional uses, Category 10 was recorded during any portion of

the taped sessions where student responses were entirely

inaudible (see Appendix VI, Instructions to Raters). Due to

this use of the category, one can determine little from the


The negative group difference means may have been

influenced by the different procedures of the pre- and post-

treatment modular lessons. The pre-treatment lesson was

structured so that the teacher needed to write on a chalk-

board to record student responses. The post-treatment

lesson required only that the teacher lead students in a

discussion. Due to this major procedural difference, it

would be expected that the rate for Category 10 might

decrease upon posttesting.

Hypothesis 5

In general, Hypothesis 5 related to differences between

teacher group means obtained through an assessment of stu-

dent perceptions of teacher-offered affective variables.

Results. The results of the data, presented in Table

4.5, indicate a significant difference between groups on the



Group Mean S.D.

D.F. t Value

Exp. 0.1743 3.147

Con. -2.5556 2.963

Exp. 48.0000 19.459


0.7778 15.246




*2 <.05.

student assessment variable, t(14) = 2.11, < .05. There-

fore, null hypothesis 5 was rejected.

Discussion. The low test-retest reliability coefficient

(r = .64) obtained for the Student Assessment of Teacher

Affect (SATA) scale, noted in Chapter III, directs a need

for caution in interpreting the results obtained in this

study. Although the literature supports an assumption of

positive change in student-reported perceptions for teachers

receiving training (see Chapter II), it is difficult to assess

whether the change indicated by these results is a factor of

treatment effect or weak instrumentation. It is interesting

to note, however, the differences in group means indicating

positive change for experimental subjects and negative change

for control subjects. These group mean differences are in

the same direction as differences for FIAC categories 1

and 3, the TRP, and inversely, for FIAC category 7. These

differences raise a question regarding the relationship

between results for individual teachers on the SATA and

the other dependent variables. The existence of such a

relationship would further suggest a positive treatment

effect of the experimental materials. One factor influencing

data obtained through student assessment has been discussed

by Soar (1972). He cautions that such student assessments

tend to lack discrimination in perceptions below the fifth

grade (p. 521). Therefore care is needed in interpreting

data for younger children. The data obtained in this study

describe the perceptions of third, fourth and fifth grade

students. The low reliability of the SATA scale could be

inherent in the variable being tested as well as in the

instrument itself.

Hypothesis 6

In general, Hypothesis 6 explored the nature of group

mean differences on the variable of teacher identification

of written facilitative responses.

Results. The results of the data, presented in Table

4.5, indicate a significant difference between groups on

the variable of teacher response identification, ((14)= 5.45,

. < .05. Therefore, null hypothesis 6 was rejected.
Discussion. The significant difference reported for

results of Teacher Response Patterns (TRP) data reflects a

considerable treatment effect of the experimental program,

as evidenced by the large difference between group means.

The experimental group gained substantially more than the

control group from pre- to posttesting.

One focus of the self-instruction program was to

increase teacher subjects' awareness of facilitative,

person-centered responses. The first portion of the module

centered around identifying such responses in written form

and on tape. Remediation exercises were required for those

teachers not achieving a nominal degree of accuracy with

each lesson; Such activities have exerted positive influence

over the dependent variable tested by the TRP in this

study. One caution to be considered in interpreting these

data, however, is that the results presumably reflect an

effect of practice as well as an effect of treatment.


The three dependent variables investigated in this

study were teacher verbal response patterns, teacher iden-

tification of written facilitative responses, and student

assessment of teacher affect. The hypotheses generated

around these veriables were tested using a Student's t

test, with the rejection level at L<.05. Significant pre-

to post-treatment differences between groups were found for

the student assessment and teacher response identification

variables. A breakdown of the teacher verbal response

variable revealed significant pre- to post-treatment

differences for two verbal patterns, acceptance of feelings

and criticizing or justifying authority. A third pattern,

clarifying or using student ideas, approached significance

at the .05 level of confidence.

These findings indicate the existence of a positive

effect of the experimental program. Self-reports of experi-

mental subjects-indicated generally favorable reactions

to the program. Exposure to the training activities were

viewed positively, and a carry-over of skills into other

teaching activities was reported by a majority of the





The purpose of this study was to develop and investi-

gate the effects of a self-instruction program in facilita-

tion and communication skills for elementary school teachers.

Interpersonal skills are considered an integral part of

teaching. The teacher who attempts to see the student's

point of view, regards self, students and others positively,

and who is empathic and warm, contributes much to the learning

environment. A teacher skilled in conveying such relation-

ship variables will foster personal growth and learning in


The experimental program, which integrated experiential

and didactic methodologies, was compared with a delayed-

treatment control program. Seventeen volunteer third,

fourth and fifth grade teachers and their students par-

ticipated as subjects fcr the study. Eight teachers com-

prised the experimental group, with seven completing the

treatment program which consisted of a 15-lesson module

containing written and/or taped materials and activities.

Each activity focused on a skill or skill component related

to facilitative responding.

Three dependent variables were investigated: teacher

verbal response patterns (VRP); teacher written response

identification (WRI); student perceptions of teacher affect

(TA). Null hypotheses were defined indicating that no sig-

nificant difference would exist between groups on each of

the variables. Measurement of the variables took place

prior to and following either interaction with the experi-

mental materials or a nine-week control period.

Data for measuring VRP were generated through audio-

taping prescribed classroom guidance discussion lessons.

These tapes were coded and randomly assigned to trained

judges. The Flanders' Interaction Analysis Categories

(FIAC) scale was employed as a measurement for VRP. Two

other instruments were employed to measure WRI and TA:

the Teacher Response Patterns (TRP) inventory and the

Student Assessment of Teacher Affect (SATA) scale, respec-

tively. Comparisons of group means were made using the

Student's t statistic.

The results of the data indicated significant dif-

ferences between groups in change scores from pre- to post-

treatment measurement of the variables WRI and TA, p<.05.

For the variable VRP, two categories of the FIAC scale

reached significance at the .05 level. Positive, signifi-

cant experimental group change was indicated for Category

1, acceptance of students' feelings. Negative, significant

experimental group change was indicated for Category 7,

criticizing or justifying authority. These findings suggested

a positive treatment effect of the self-instructional

materials tested in this study. Teacher evaluation of the

of the experimental module following treatment indicated

that subjects perceived participation as a valuable exper-

ience (Appendix IX).



The implications of this study must first be considered

in relation to limitations in the design and methodology.

1) The primary limitation of the study lies in the

generalizability of the results. Although the robustness of

the Student'st test allows for considerable violation of its

underlying assumptions, the small number of subjects, use of

volunteers, and lack of total random assignment to groups

indicate that caution must be used in generalizing results

to other populations.

2) Repeated analysis of the data using the t statistic

increases the probability of obtaining at least one signifi-

cant comparison by chance. The results obtained, particu-

larly for the Flanders' data, may include the occurrence of

type I error.

3) A degree of self-motivation and involvement of

teachers participating in the training program was necessary.

Extrinsic motivation was provided by in-service credit and

counselor ana researcher encouragement. There was, however,

no way to measure either the reinforcing quality of the planned

encouragers or the motivational level of the individual



The training program. The results of the study have

suggested that the use of self-instructional materials in

training programs in interpersonal skills is a viable alterna-

tive to traditional approaches. Most training programs in

interpersonal skills have utilized the involvement of a

trainer. Carkhuff (1969d; 1971b) has reported significant

positive training effects with the presence of a high-func-

tioning trainer. Although it was not the purpose of this

study to compare methods of training, further investigation

utilizing other methodologies for such purposes warrants


Length of the training program. There was some indica-

tion that the length of the module was a factor in securing

and holding subjects for the study. Teachers who either

chose not to participate or who later dropped out of the

program cited lack of time as a major factor in their

decisions not to participate. Pressures on all teachers

in the latter portion of the academic school year were present

so that volunteer involvement in yet another project was

uncomfortable, if not impossible. Scheduling the program

during another period of the school year, withholding teacher

responsibilities for other projects, or exercising more sys-

tematic checks on the progress of individual teachers are

suggested as considerations for further research.

Instrumentation. The use of observational data in this

study has proven to be costly and time-consuming. Such

data were, however, necessary to the nature of the study and

provided a picture of teaching behaviors which have been

previously described as highly influential of positive

student growth. An expansion of such data-gathering methods

might therefore be considered to insure "getting the most

for one's time and money." The optimum observational data

would be those gathered in the actual classroom and at

various intervals throughout and after the treatment period.

The lesson content could still be held constant across

teachers to control for some nuisance variation. An alter-

native to direct observation might be to retain the use of

taping, employing videotaping where possible. Rather than

holding to a prescribed lesson, samples could be gathered of

a teacher's "best" teaching.

The SATA instrument used in this study presented prob-

lems initially and may also have been a factor in the volun-

teer rate. Several teachers approached about their partici-

pation in the study expressed concern over the prospect of

being assessed by their students. It might be advantageous

to further investigations to eliminate this variable entirely

if the population sampled views such as a threat.

Role of the counselor. This study was designed so as

to utilize the involvement of the school counselor as a

research assistant (in collecting the data) and as a consul-

tant (in listening to tapes that teacher subjects chose to

share with them). The analysis of the data did not explore

the influence of the counselor in either capacity as related

to results. Apart from administrative duties required by

the study itself, the inclusion of the counselor as a part of

the self-instruction program was optional. Teacher subjects

reported varying degrees of reliance on counselor input.

There was some evidence that in schools which experienced

a high teacher drop-out rate (50 to 100%), the counselor

either had not completed all data collection procedures as

specified or had not served as a motivator for the partici-

pating teachers. One teacher completing the program and

exhibiting growth in the use of facilitative skills reported

that the input of the school counselor had been meaningful

to her in the course of the study. Further analysis is nec-

essary to determine the overall effect of counselor as con-

sultant on the success of the experimental materials.


On the basis of findings reported for this study, the

following conclusions were drawn:

1. The self-instruction module offered an effective

method of training for elementary school teachers in inter-

personal skills.

2. The module positively influenced teacher verbal

responses to students, by increasing the rate of responses

to feelings and clarification of ideas, and by decreasing

the use of criticism or justification of authority.

3. Students' perceptions of their teachers were

enhanced as a result of the teachers' experiences with

the modular activities.

4. The module increased teachers' awareness of facili-

tative ways of responding in a variety of situations, exhibited

by their expanded ability to identify such responses to

written stimulus situations.

The generally positive influence of the self-instruc-

tion program tested in this study suggests the need to

replicate the study with inclusion of such methodological

improvements and additions as have been previously noted.

A more thorough assessment of the value of this approach

to interpersonal skills training can be completed at that

time, utilizing the added input of comparative methodologies.

The efficacy of training programs in interpersonal skills

for teachers has been discussed in Chapter II. If such

training programs are to be made available to teacher popu-

lations at large, analyses of local needs, priorities and

environments will be necessary. Selection of methodology

for the program would then reflect these needs plus effec-

tiveness of approach as tested with similar populations.

The discovery and utilization of motivational sources would

serve to enhance the success of the program. The ultimate

in-service program in interpersonal skills training for

teachers would be designed so as to become an extension of

their professional role and function.



Flanders' Interaction Analysis Categories (FIAC)*

Response 1. Accepts feeling. Accepts and
clarifies an attitude or the feeling
tone of a pupil in a nonthreatening
manner. Feelings may be positive or
negative. Predicting and recalling
feelings are included.

2. Praises or encourages. Praises
or encourages pupil action or behavior.
Jokes that release tension, but not at
the expense of another individual;
nodding head or saying "um hm?" or
"go on"are included.

3. Accepts or uses ideas of pupils."
Clarifying, building, or developing
ideas suggested by a pupil. Teacher
extensions of pupil ideas are included
but as the teacher brings more of
his own ideas into play, shift to
category five.

Teacher 4. Asks questions. Asking a ques-
Talk tion about content or procedure,
based on teacher ideas, with the
intent that a pupil will answer.

5. Lecturing. Giving facts or
opinions about content or procedures;
expression of his own ideas, giving
his own explanation, or citing an
authority other than a pupil.

Initiation 6. Giving directions. Directions,
commands, or orders to which a pupil
is expected to comply.

7. Criticizing or justifying authority.
Statements intended to change pupil
behavior from nonacceptable to acceptable
pattern; bawling someone out; stating
why the teacher is doing what he is
doing; extreme self-reference.

Response 8. Pupil-talk--response. Talk by
pupils in response to teacher. Teacher
initiates the contact or solicits pupil
statement or structures the situation.
Freedom to express own ideas is limited.



9. Pupil-talk--initiation. Talk by
pupils which they initiate. Expressing
own ideas; initiating a new topic;
freedom to develop opinions and a line
of thought, like asking thoughtful
questions; going beyond the existing

10. Silence or confusion. Pauses,
short periods of confusion in which
communication cannot be understood by
the observer.



*There is no scale implied by these numbers. Each number is
classificatory; it designates a particular kind of communica-
tion event. To write these numbers down during observation
is to enumerate, not to judge a position on a scale.

I.D. # Date Grade Level


The following selections describe situations svhich
might occur in a school setting and where a teacher will
make a response to a student. Each selection is presented
with limited information, and follonied by possible responses
a.hich a teacher or teacher's aide might first nake in the
described situation.

Read over the possible responses and rank order them from
1 to 6 in order of those considered to be most understanding
and helpful to those found least understanding and helpful.
Place a number I in the space before the response you are
most apt to favor, if you were in the situation. The wording
used may not always appeal to you as being the best, but
disregard this factor as long as the response is the same
type as you would favor. Place a number 2 in the next most
understanding and helpful response, and so on.

1. A boy says, "I wish I weren't in school. Sometimes
it's okay, but most of the time I hate being here. .
(pause). But it's better than staying at home and being
'nagged.' This place (school) . they expect so much.
Things would be great if I could just get acay from here .
anything is better than this . I don't kno . I
might just quit . ."

(a) You're pretty unhappy no.w and feel things
would be easier for you if you weren't in
(b) Even though you don't like school, you're
still here and probably because you're feeling
that things might not go well for you, if you
quit school.
(c) If I understand you, you're saying that you've
got a decision to make between staying in
school or quitting.
(d) Things are looking bad for you right now, but
I'm sure you'll find some way of working things
out, and you'll feel better.
_(e) What would you do if you quit school?
(f) You should talk with the school counselor
about this; he has some interesting infor-
mation you should see.

2. Helen, a fifth grade girl, reports that she is being
talked about by a group of girls. "Those girls make me
so mad! They're nothing but dirty little gossips." (She
glares at the group across the playground.) "I can tell
just as dirty stories about them--and I will too. You just
wait and see . ." (A few tears appear in her eyes.) "They
think they are so great--so high and mighty--just because
they are the 'goodie-goodie' girls."

(a) Are you saying that some day you'll make sure
that they pay for how they are making you feel
right now?
(b) You're very angry with them right now.
(c) What do you think they are saying about you?
(d) Many girls your age talk about other girls that
way, but later it won't seem so serious. You
might even be close friends.
(e) If I were you, I'd ignore them and not let them
know that they upset you.
(f) Behind your feelings of wanting revenge, Helen,
it might be that you're a bit envious of the
girls in the group.

3. A girl is complaining that another teacher, Mrs. Jones,
is being unfair to her. "That Mrs. Jones . she doesn't
like me. She likes all the other kios better than me. She's
always picking on me and it makes me . (hesitates) . .
makes me so mad. She's so unfair and critical. I know I'm
not doing as well as I should in her class, but . she's
so (frowns) . so . .

(a) Correct me if I'm wrong, but it seems you're
saying that Mrs. Jones doesn't see you like you
want her to see you.
(b) How long have you felt this way about Mrs. Jones?
(c) Well, one of the best things you could do is
to talk with Mrs. Jones about how you feel.
(d) You say you're not doing as well as you should
in school, and this is hard to accept. Thinking
that Mrs. Jones is unfair to you could be an
(e).Some teachers seem unfair at first. You might
be interested to know that most of the kids
eventually list Mrs. Jones among their favorite
teachers. You'll be able to work things out.
(f) You're feeling upset and irritated with Mrs.

4. Harold, who frequently seeks the teacher's approval,
wants to have the record he brought to school played for
the rest of the class, riglt now. He's standing by the
teacher and says, "Can't we play the record now? Please.
Oh, please." (The teacher wants to move to the lesson
she's planned and play the record later.) Harold looks
at the teacher with a depressed expression.

(a) Now look, there's no need to feel sad, Harold.
We want to hear the record and we will later.
(b) Playing your record right now is especially
important to you and you're disappointed. But
we will hear the record later.
(c) I guess you're saying, Harold, that you don't
want to wait. But, we will hear the record
(d) Your wanting me to play the record right now,
Harold, is another way of your asking me to
prove that I like you. We are going to hear a
story now and the record later.
(e) You ought to think of other people's wishes too,
Harold, and most of the class wants to hear the
story (lesson) now. So, we will hear the record
(f) Why is it so important to you that we hear the
record right now, Harold?

5. A class committee is meeting and one boy, John, is taking
charge. He is not appreciated by the others. Finally, Joe
says, "I don't want to be on that committee. I want to be
with someone besides John. He's telling everybody what to
do and says we aren't doing it right. Besides, he's not the
leader, is he? I'm a better leader than he is . he's so
bossy. He never lets anyone else say anything. Can I be on
another committee?

(a) One of the reasons you probably dislike working
in the group is because you'd like to be one of
the leaders, and don't feel John will let you.
(b) Why don't you and Bill get together and tell
John that it should be a group effort and every-
one should have a chance to say something.
(c) John's attitude makes the group work unpleasant
'for you, and you're so frustrated you want to
get out of the group.
(d) What can you do about the situation?
(e) I know John can be a little bossy at times and
I can understand why you want to be on another
committee. However, things will work them-

selves out before long.
(f) I think you're saying that the group is domi-
nated by John and you want to have more to say
about what the group's doing. Huh?

*This inventory developed by Dr. Robert Myrick, Department
of Counselor Education, University of Florida, Gainesville,

Student I.D. Number

1. My teacher understands me. c Zi
2. My teacher wants to be my
friend. 0 0
3. My teacher talks too much in class.

4. My teacher can usually tell what
I'm feeling.
5. When I make a mistake, my teacher
makes me feel dumb.
6. My teacher laughs and jokes with
us in class.

7. My teacher doesn't care how I feel.

8. My teacher praises me when I do a
good job. 0
9. My teacher orders me to do a lot
of things. 0
10. My teacher likes to know how I feel t
about things. 00
11. My teacher believes I am an important (on. ( ) f )
person. \^2 \/ Y2 /
12. My teacher is a bossy person. v 0 0

13. My teacher never listens to my e s. (
ideas. 00 _' 0
14. My teacher makes me feel I can do ( *
a lot of things.
15. My teacher lets me study about *
things that interest me.
16. My teacher makes fun of me in o
front of others. 0 00




Pre-Program Activity

(In taping this activity, make sure the microphone is close
to you so that your responses are picked up clearly. Our
main concern is with the audibility of your voice, and not
necessarily with the clarity of the students' responses.
Test the quality of this taping before embarking on the
activity. You may find that you will need to hold the
microphone during the activity.)

What Do We Look for in a Friend?

Purposes: 1) To discuss qualities we like those we call
friends to have
2) To explore how behavior affects feelings


1) Write the word friend on the chalkboard. Ask your
students to quickly give one or two word descriptions
of what this word means. Write their words on the
board as quickly as they give them. Do not evaluate
or discuss these words at this time; merely list them.

2) Now look over the list together. Have your students
vote for two items listed to narrow the range. Those
items with highest number of votes remain on the list.

3) Now have your students give you feeling words to
describe friendship (example: happy, proud, secure).
List these also on the chalkboard.

4) Ask your students to give examples of their exper-
iences with friends which show a) positive qualities they
like in a person and b) how they feel toward that person.
For example, when my friend lets me borrow something,
I feel good about myself--special and trustworthy--and
I feel warm and grateful toward my friend. I am likely
to let him borrow something from me at a later date,
or do some other favor for him.

5) Use whatever time may be left after several instances
in #4 to conclude the activity. Your students may want
to make "I learned" statements in conclusion. These
statements begin with "I learned . ." and include
students' input on what was learned from the lesson.
These statements are not evaluated.




Post-Program Activity
(Control Teachers)

We would appreciate another taping from you. The activity
for this session is a fantasy experience for you to present
to and discuss with your students. Your school counselor
will give you a tape of this fantasy, "The Abandoned Store."
You will need to record the discussion of the fantasy on a
blank cassette tape, also to be provided by your counselor.

In taping the activity, make sure the microphone is close to
you so that your responses are picked up clearly. Our main
concern is with the audibility of your voice, and not neces-
sarily with the clarity of the students' responses. Test the
quality of this taping before embarking on the activity. You
may find that you will need to hold the microphone during
the discussion following the fantasy experience.

The following suggestions will help you present this fantasy
activity to your students. When you complete the discussion
taping, return this sheet and the tapes to your counselor
who will then instruct you in further procedures.


1) Use imaginary examples to set the mood before playing the
fantasy tape. (Picture a red house, a brown horse--now make
him turn blue, et cetera.) Ask your students to get into
the experience, they will enjoy it.

2) Talk about the importance of keeping eyes closed and no
talking during the time the fantasy tape is playing.

3) Make them relax before beginning the activity.

4) Following the playing of the tape, allow ample time for
discussion and don't interpret a student's fantasy nor
permit others to do so.

5) Encourage your students to share their experiences with
the fantasy.

6) Choose a.time of day when you will not be interrupted.
If you are in a classroom, hang a Do-Not-Disturb sign 6n
your door. A situation free from outside noise is ideal,
but not essential.1

Wittmer, J. & Myrick, R. D. Facilitative teaching: Theory
and practice. Pacific Palisades, Calif.: 197V, 99-100.


7) Introduce the words abandoned and neglected to your class
before the fantasy to make sure your students know their
meaning prior to the experience.

Thank you for participating in this experience.

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