Group Title: relationship of teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect to pupil classroom behavior
Title: The relationship of teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect to pupil classroom behavior
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Title: The relationship of teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect to pupil classroom behavior
Physical Description: xi, 67 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Walter, Glen Herman, 1947-
Copyright Date: 1977
 Subjects
Subject: Teacher-student relationships   ( lcsh )
Classroom management   ( lcsh )
Foundations of Education thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Foundations of Education -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Glen H. Walter, Jr.
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 62-65.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098109
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000210054
oclc - 04168664
notis - AAX6873

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THE RELATIONSHIP OF TEACHER-OFFERED EMPATHY,
GENUINENESS, AND RESPECT TO PUPIL
CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR













By

GLEN H. WALTER, JR.














A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1977



































To Jackie


I I













ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


There are a great number of people who have directly and indirectly

contributed to the preparation of this study. I appreciatively acknow-

ledge the following people:

Dr. Carl Rogers, who through his writings, has introduced me to

the humanistic philosophy of education.

Dr. Arthur Combs, who through his friendship, instruction, and

writings, has added meaning and understanding to my concept of the

helping professions.

Dr. Patricia Ashton, chairperson of my committee, for countless

hours spent improving my grammar, rewording my thoughts, and correcting

my spelling errors. Her patience, thoroughness, time, and effort is

deeply appreciated. Her genuine concern for me, and all of her students,

has made her special.

Dr. Donald Avila, friend and committee member, for his advice,

knowledge, and friendship which has made my doctoral program a growth

producing experience.

Dr. Walter Busby, friend and committee member, who, by his example,

gave me insight into the dynamics of good teaching, and who, like Dr.

Avila, extended his friendship and warmth beyond that of a professor.

Dr. R. S. Soar and Dr. R. L. Roebuck, for allowing me to use

data from research studies that they have conducted.

Dr. Robert Jester, who not only helped with the statistical design

of this study, but who also unselfishly shared his office for the entire

year.









Ruth and Glen Walter, my parents, whose Christian love, support,

and guidance has always, and will forever, influence me.

And, to my wife, Jackie, who has been willing to work beside me,

sacrifice, and alter her life around this program and study, so that

my dream of helping others could become a reality, I dedicate this

study. I will be forever grateful.














TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. . . . . . ..........

LIST OF TABLES............. . . . . . .

LIST OF FIGURES ...... .... .. ...... .....

ABSTRACT. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .

CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION . . . . .

Statement of the Problem .. . .........

Purpose of the Study . . . . . . . .

Significance of the Study .. . . .......


II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE .. . . .......

Introduction . . . . . . . . . .

Theoretical Rationale . . . ... . . .

Empirical Evidence on Interpersonal Skills .....

Summary . . . . . . . . . . .


III. DESIGN OF TIE STUDY . . . . . . . . .

Hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . .

Subjects . . . . . . . . . . .

Procedures . . . . . . . . . . .

Instrumentation . . . . . ... .

Florida Climate and Control System .. . ...

Intra- and Inter-Reliability .. . .....

Validity . . . . . . . . . .


page
iii

vii

viii

ix









page
Aspy Rating Scales for Empathy, Genuineness,
and Respect . . . . .... ........ 27

Statistical Analysis of the Data. . . . . ... 32


IV. RESULTS. . . . . . . ... .. ...... . 34

Descriptive Statistics. . . . . . . . ... 35

Hypothesis 1 .. . . . . 35

Hypothesis 2. . .. ..... . . . ... 38

Hypothesis 3. . . . ...... . . . 47

SSummary . . . .... ..... ... .... . 48


V. SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS . ... .......... . 52

Summary ............. ....... . 52

Limitations . . . . . . ... . . . 54

Conclusions ..... . . . . . . . 56

Implications. . . . ... . . . . . . 56

APPENDIX
FLORIDA CLIMATE AND CONTROL SYSTEM . . ... .... 59

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . ... .. . . . . . 62

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. ... . ............... . 66












LIST OF TABLES


TABLE

1 INTER-RATER RELIABILITY FOR ASPY SCALES . . . . .

2 MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS, AND NUMBER OF CASES OF
TEACHER-OFFERED EMPATHY, GENUINENESS, AND RESPECT,
PUPIL SUPPORTIVE BEHAVIOR, AND PUPIL DEVIANT
BEHAVIOR. .. .. .... . . . . . . .

3 CORRELATIONS (r), r SQUARED, AND LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE
OF TEACHER-OFFERED VARIABLES OF EMPATHY, GENUINENESS,
AND RESPECT WITH PUPIL SUPPORTIVE CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR..

4 CORRELATIONS (r), r SQUARED, AND LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE
OF TEACHER-OFFERED VARIABLES OF EMPATHY, GENUINENESS,
AND RESPECT WITH PUPIL DEVIANT CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR . .

5 Z TRANSFORMATIONS AND LEVELS OF SIGNIFICANCE FOR CORRE-
LATIONS OF TEACHER-OFFERED EMPATHY, GENUINENESS, AND
RESPECT AND PUPIL SUPPORTIVE AND DEVIANT BEHAVIOR . .

6 INTERCORRELATIONS OF TEACHER-OFFERED VARIABLES OF
EMPATHY, GENUINENESS, AND RESPECT . . . . . .


PAGE

31



36


37


42


49


50


1














LIST OF FIGURES


FIGURE PAGE

1 SCATTER DIAGRAM OF THE VARIABLE TEACHER-OFFERED
EMPATHY WITH PUPIL SUPPORTIVE BEHAVIOR. . . . . ... 39

2 SCATTER DIAGRAM OF THE VARIABLE TEACHER-OFFERED
GENUINENESS WITH PUPIL SUPPORTIVE BEHAVIOR. . . . ... 40

3 SCATTER DIAGRAM OF THE VARIABLE TEACHER-OFFERED
-RESPECT WITH PUPIL SUPPORTIVE BEHAVIOR. . . . . ... 41

4 SCATTER DIAGRAM OF THE VARIABLE TEACHER-OFFERED
EMPATHY WITH PUPIL DEVIANT BEHAVIOR . . . . .... 44

5 SCATTER DIAGRAM OF THE VARIABLE TEACHER-OFFERED
GENUINENESS WITH PUPIL DEVIANT BEHAVIOR . . . ... 45

6 SCATTER DIAGRAM OF THE VARIABLE TEACHER-OFFERED
RESPECT WITH PUPIL DEVIANT BEHAVIOR . . . . .... 46













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



THE RELATIONSHIP OF TEACHER-OFFERED EMPATHY,
GENUINENESS, AND RESPECT TO PUPIL
CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR

By

Glen H. Walter, Jr.

August 1977


Chairman: Dr. Patricia Ashton
Major Department: Foundations of Education


Empathy, genuineness, and respect have often been identified as

critical factors in the facilitation of learning. However, empirical

evidence of the relationship between these teacher behaviors and student

classroom behavior is needed. Perhaps development of the interpersonal

skills of empathy, genuineness, and respect may lead to more effective

classroom management.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between

teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect and pupil classroom

behavior. A significant positive correlation was expected between teacher-

offered empathy, genuineness, and respect and pupil supportive classroom

behavior. A significant negative correlation was expected between

teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect and pupil deviant

classroom behavior.









Three hypotheses were tested:


Teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect
are positively related to pupil supportive class-
room behavior.

Teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect
are negatively related to pupil deviant classroom
behavior.

There is a significant difference between the corre-
lation of teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and
respect and pupil supportive classroom behavior and
the correlation of teacher-offered empathy, genuine-
ness, and respect and pupil deviant classroom behavior.


The sample consisted of 41 fifth grade teachers and their classrooms.

The sample included both black and Caucasian teachers and students from

rural, suburban, and urban populations in six counties in central Florida.

Two instruments were used in the study. Teacher-offered empathy,

genuineness, and respect were rated according to the Aspy Rating Scale.

Observations of two factors from a systematic observation system, the

Florida Climate and Control System, provided the measures of pupil

supportive and pupil deviant behavior.

In testing the first hypothesis, Pearson product-moment correlations

were calculated to determine the relationships of the teacher-offered

variables of empathy, genuineness, and respect to pupil supportive class-

room behavior. Each of the three teacher-offered variables had a sig-

nificant positive correlation with pupil supportive behavior. The corre-

altion of teacher-offered empathy and pupil supporitve behavior was .58

(p is greater than .01); the correlation between teacher-offered genuine-

ness and pupil supportive behavior was .584 (p is greater than .01); and

the correlation teacher-offered respect with pupil supportive behavior

was .47 (p is greater than .01).









In testing the second hypothesis, Pearson product-moment corre-

lations were calculated to determine the correlations of the teacher-

offered variables of empathy, genuineness, and respect with pupil

deviant behavior. No significant relationships between the teacher

variables and pupil deviant behavior were found.

In testing the third hypothesis, a formula for testing the degree

of significance between two Pearson product-moment correlations from

related samples was computed to determine if there was a significant

difference between the correlations of teacher-offered empathy, genuine-

ness, and respect and pupil supportive behavior, and the correlations

of teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect and pupil deviant

behavior. The findings indicated that there was a significant difference

(at .05 level or beyond) for all three teacher-offered variables tested.

The data analyses led to the following conclusions:

1. Teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect were sig-

nificantly related to pupil supportive classroom behavior.

2. There did not appear to be any significant negative correlation

between teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect and pupil

deviant classroom behavior.

3. There was a significant difference between the correlations of

teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect and pupil supportive

behavior, and the correlations of teacher-offered empathy, genuineness,

and respect and pupil deviant behavior.

Findings from this study suggest that training teachers to improve

their interpersonal skills in the classroom may result in increases in

pupil supportive behavior. Experimental research to investigate this

possibility seems warranted.













CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION


The increasing amount of student disruptive behavior in the classroom

has become a major concern in education. Gallop (1974) reported that in

five of the six years he surveyed, discipline appeared as the number one

problem tn the schools. This problem has caused such a concern in the

public schools in Florida, that a Governor's Task Force (1973) was

commissioned to study school disruption. According to this Task Force,

the growing frequency of disruption, the increased number of disruptive

students, and the losses resulting from school disruption have created

one of the most serious and complex problems yet encountered by schools.

Parent groups, teachers, administrators, colleges of education, and

national educational organizations have all been trying to solve this

distressing problem. Articles offering solutions to discipline problems

in the classrooms have appeared in innumerable newspapers, magazines, and

educational journals. The works of Bell (1971), Moser (1971), Gaines (1972),

McCurdy (1973), McMillen (1973), and Stainback (1973) are representative of

the enormous amount of literature dealing with the problem of classroom

discipline. Despite the concerted efforts of countless groups, the problem

of classroom discipline still remains.


Statement of the Problem

A great deal of empirical research has been conducted to identify

factors related to classroom discipline. For example, Branch (1974)









reported that as many as 87 variables have been used to describe dis-

ruptive students, including socioeconomic status, academic achievement,

IQ, race, sex, age, number of siblings, and whether or not parents are

divorced. Since most of the variables found to be related to disruption

were either unchangeable (race, sex, age) or beyond the scope of the

schools (socioeconomic status, home environment, level of parents'

education, marital status), Branch (1974) concluded that research has

provided little assistance to educators in curbing school disruption.

In a review of several research approaches to the study of classroom

management, Dunkin and Biddle (1974) concluded that, while behavior

modification and classroom climate studies have revealed a number of

potentially productive directions for research applied to the problem

of classroom discipline, considerable research is needed that explores

the relationships between teacher characteristics and student behaviors.

Avila and Purkey (1971) argued that traditional approaches to dis-

cipline, whether positive or negative, treat the maintaining of discipline

as if it were a matter of using certain techniques. The authors recom-

mended a new approach to discipline. This new approach focuses on the

teacher's beliefs about self, pupil, and teaching. The authors suggested

that perhaps the most important teacher belief affecting classroom disci-

line is the teacher's belief in the worth and dignity of the individual.

Adding support to the approach recommended by Avila and Purkey

(1971), Davidson and Lang (1960) reported that among students in grades

four through six the higher the student's perceptions of positive

feelings from the teacher, the more desirable was the student's classroom

behavior. Rogers (1967) agreed that the relationship between the teacher









and the student is the key to effective teaching, and he identified

three teacher attitudes or qualities that facilitate teacher-student

relationships. These three teacher qualities are empathy, genuineness,

and respect. Rogers (1967) defined these teacher qualities as follows:


Empathy. When the teacher has the ability to understand
the students' reactions from the inside, has a sensitive
awareness of the way the process of education and learn-
ing seems to the student, then again the likelihood of
significant learning is increased. (p. 10)

Genuineness. When the facilitator is a real person, being
what he is, entering into a relationship with the learner
without presenting a front or a facade, he is much more
likely to be effective. This means that the feelings which
he is experiencing are available to him, available to his
awareness, that he is able to live these feelings, be them,
and able to communicate them if appropriate. It means that
he comes into a direct personal encounter with the learner,
meeting him on a person-to-person basis. It means that he
is being himself, not denying himself. (p. 6)

Respect. It is caring for the learner, but a non-possessive
caring. It is an acceptance of this other individual as a
separate person, having worth in his own right. It is a basic
trust--a belief that this other person is somehow fundamentally
trustworthy. (p. 8)


Rogers felt that these three teacher qualities create an atmosphere that is

conducive to significant learning.

Rogers has written extensively about the need for teachers to exhibit

these qualities in their interactions with students. However, there has

been little empirical research to determine the relationship between these

teacher behaviors and actual student behavior in the classroom. This study

was designed to provide evidence regarding the relationships among the

teacher qualities of empathy, genuineness, and respect and pupil class-

room behavior to determine if these teacher characteristics might be ex-

pected to have an impact upon classroom management.









Purpose of the Study

The objective of this study was to determine if teacher-offered

empathy, genuineness, and respect are related to pupil classroom behav-

ior. More specifically, the following hypotheses were investigated:


Teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect
are positively related to pupil supportive classroom
behavior.

Teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect
are negatively related to pupil deviant classroom
behavior.

There is a significant difference between the corre-
lations of teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and
respect and pupil supportive behavior and the corre-
lations of teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and
respect and pupil deviant classroom behavior.


Significance of the Study

Carl Rogers (1961) has stated that the major aim of education is the

facilitation of learning. He added that facilitation of significant learn-

ing rests upon certain attitudinal qualities which exist in the relation-

ship between the facilitator and the learner. The three teacher qualities

which Rogers (1967) felt would facilitate learning are empathy, genuine-

ness, and respect. Although many educators have agreed with Rogers

(Gordon, 1974; Johnson, 1972; Wittmer & Myrick, 1974), there has been

little empirical research to support this position. Aspy (1969) pre-

sented preliminary evidence to suggest that there is a relationship

between the three qualities of the facilitative teacher and student

achievement as measured by the Stanford Achievement Test. On the basis

of his findings, Aspy (1974) developed a training module to help teachers

use these interpersonal skills in their classrooms. Aspy (1974) has









also developed scales to measure these behaviors in teachers' class-

rooms. Roebuck (1975) demonstrated that these scales were a better means

of predicting student achievement than specific-behavior observational

instruments.

There has been little research to evaluate the effect of teacher-

offered empathy, genuineness, and respect on actual student behavior

in the classroom. Perhaps these skills are the key to classroom man-

agement. This study was designed to investigate the relationships of

teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect to student classroom

behavior. If it can be demonstrated that there is a relationship

between the teacher's interpersonal skills and pupil classroom behaviors,

a basis for'assisting teachers in their efforts to cope with classroom

discipline problems might be provided.













CHAPTER II


REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Introduction

Empathy, genuineness, and respect have long been considered an

integral part of interpersonal skills. Rogers (1961) emphasized that

these skills are essential for facilitative teaching. Wittmer and

Myrick (1974) also identified these three teacher qualities as key

characteristics for facilitating learning. Based on the assumption of

the importance of these skills to effective teaching, Aspy (1974) and

Gazda (1973) have included empathy, genuineness, and respect in teacher

training modules designed to help teachers develop interpersonal skills.

In this chapter, the rationale for considering the interpersonal

skills of empathy, genuineness, and respect as essential to facilitative

teaching is reviewed. In addition, the research indicating that these

skills are related to student achievement is presented. Finally, research

supporting the hypothesis that the interpersonal skills of empathy, genuine-

ness, and respect are related to student classroom behavior is discussed.


Theoretical Rationale

The aim of education, as defined by Rogers (1967), is the facilitation

of learning. Rogers described the facilitation of learning as "the func-

tion which may hold constructive, tentative, changing, process answers

to some of the deepest perplexities which beset man today" (p. 5).

Rogers asserted that the key to facilitative teaching is the presence of









certain qualities in the personal relationship between the facilitator

and the learner, and he identified three qualities or attitudes as

necessary in this process.

The first quality that Rogers indicated a teacher should exhibit

is empathic understanding:


When the teacher has the ability to understand the
student's reactions from the inside, has the sensi-
tive awareness of the way the process of education
and learning seems to the student, then again the
likelihood of significant learning is increased.
S(p. 10)


Empathic understanding is the ability of the teacher to see the world

from the student's eyes.

The second, and, according to Rogers, perhaps the most important

teacher quality related to facilitative teaching, is that of realness

or genuineness. The genuine teacher is aware of his or her feelings,

is able to live these feelings, and is also able to communicate these

feelings, if appropriate. The genuine teacher can be a real person in

his or her relationship with students. The genuine teacher can be

happy, sad, bored, or enthused, and, in the process, becomes a real

person to the students. Not all teachers possess genuineness, but

as Rogers pointed out, it is a necessary quality for facilitation of

learning.

The third quality that a teacher should possess in order to facili-

tate learning is respect; that is, acceptance of the other individual

as a separate person. Rogers referred to this quality as prizingg the

learner, prizing his feelings, his opinions, his person," (p.8). The

teacher who possesses this quality has the ability to accept the student









for what the student is, not for what the teacher wants the student to

be. The respectful teacher can accept a student who is bored, and

sometimes troublesome, because the student is seen as an imperfect

human being with many potentials.

In summarizing the three qualities essential to facilitative

teaching, Rogers (1967) concluded:


When a facilitator creates, even to a modest degree,
a classroom climate characterized by such realness,
prizing, and empathy, he.discovers that he has
Inaugurated an educational revolution. Learning
of a different quality, proceedings at a different
pace, with a greater degree of pervasiveness occurring.
Feelings positive, negative, confused become a
part of the classroom experience. Learning becomes
life, and a very vital life at that. The student is
on his way, sometimes excitedly, sometimes reluctantly,
to becoming a learning, changing being. (p. 11)


A number of other writers have also emphasized the critical import-

ance of the student-teacher relationship in facilitating learning in

the classroom. For example, Combs and Syngg (1959) defined the goal

of education as the ability "to create the optimum conditions for

individual growth and achievement of adequacy," (p. 343). According to

Combs and Syngg, to facilitate the lifelong search for adequacy, educa-

tion must involve personal elements, and learning must have personal

meaning for the learner. Thus, the teacher must become more a facili-

tator of student growth than a conveyor of facts and figures.

Gordon (1974) stated that the most important factor in teacher

effectiveness is the ability of the teacher to establish a particular

kind of relationship with students:









It is the quality of the teacher-learner rela-
tionship that is crucial. More crucial, in fact,
than what the teacher is teaching, how the teacher
does it, or whom the teacher is trying to teach.
(p. 13)


Wittmer and Myrick (1974) defined the goal of education as the

facilitation of "an openness in attitudes so that individuals feel free

to engage in personal growth experiences. It also implies that indivi-

duals must become more aware of their humanness and how this humanness

affects all choices and decisions,' (p. 1). According to Wittmer and

Myrick, most teachers really want to facilitate the personal growth of

their students, but, in too many cases, are hampered by traditional and

conventional approaches which make facilitation difficult, if not impos-

sible.

Wittmer and Myrick proposed that a teacher who is committed to facil-

itating personal growth in students will provide learning situations

where learning is-


1. meaningful to the learner

2. voluntary

3. self-initiated

4. self-evaluated

5. feeling-oriented


Wittmer and Myrick also listed six characteristics which identify

teachers who are high facilitators of personal growth. These are-


1. effective listening

2. genuineness









3. understanding

4. respect

5. intelligence

6. skill in interpersonal communication


In summary, a number of theorists have indicated that teacher effec-

tiveness is dependent upon the development of particular teacher-student

relationships. A teacher must be able to create a warm, accepting, and

genuine relationship with students.in order to facilitate learning.


Empirical Evidence on Interpersonal Skills

One of the first efforts to gain empirical evidence on Rogers' theory

that the key to helping relationships is the presence of attitudinal

qualities of empathy, genuineness, and respect was a study conducted

by Barrett-Lennard. Barrett-Lennard (1962) developed an instrument

that measured genuineness or congruence, prizing or positive regard,

and empathy or understanding. The Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inven-

tory was then given to both client and therapist to determine the

perception of the relationship by both the client and therapist. Barrett-

Lennard found that those clients who had shown more therapeutic change,

as measured by other instruments, reported more genuineness, positive

regard, and empathy in their relationship with the therapist than did

those clients who showed less change.

Emmerling (1961) extended the research on conceptualization of the

helping relationship to secondary school teachers. In his study,

Emnerling divided teachers into two groups on the basis of how they

answered the question, "What is my most serious problem in school?"









Teachers who listed their most serious problems in a positive, student-

oriented manner were placed in a group labeled "open" or "positively

oriented," and teachers who listed their most serious problems in a

negative or critical manner were placed in a group identified as

"negative." When the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory was given

to the students of these two groups of teachers, it was found that the

positive group of teachers was perceived as significantly more real,

more accepting, and more empathetic than the negative group of teachers.

In the studies by Barrett-Lennard and Emmerling, the clients and

students perceived that the most effective helper was the teacher or

therapist who possessed the qualities of empathy, genuineness, or respect.

Being perceived as effective is an important aspect of evaluation of

effectiveness in the teaching profession, but educators insist that,

in addition to being perceived effective by students, teachers need to

be able to demonstrate that they have helped students achieve academic-

ally. A number of studies have attempted to determine if students who

have teachers that possess a high degree of empathy, genuineness, and

respect have greater academic success.

Christenson (1960) studied the relationships between pupil achieve-

ment, pupil affect-need, teacher warmth, and teacher permissiveness at

the elementary school level. Using a 2 x 2 x 2 factoral design with

two levels of permissiveness, warmth, and affect-need, and using a

covariance analysis to determine growth in achievement, Christenson

found that warmth of teacher was significantly related to vocabulary

and arithmetic achievement. Christenson's study suggests that affective

qualities in teachers, such as warmth, do make a significant impact upon

students' achievement.









Further investigating the relationship between teachers' inter-

personal skills and pupil classroom achievement, Aspy and Hadlock (196/)

reported the effects of teachers with high and low levels of empathy,

genuineness, and respect on student performance. After recording class-

rooms of elementary school classrooms, trained raters determined the

level of the teachers' interpersonal skills. Student performance was

assessed in order to determine a relationship to teacher level of

functioning. Aspy and Hadlock reported that students of teachers

with the highest levels of empathy, genuineness, and respect gained

significantly more in academic achievement than did those students who

had teachers that offered low levels of empathy, genuineness, and respect.

Students of the teachers rated low on empathy, genuineness, and respect

were also significantly more truant than those students of the high

level teachers.

In another study of the effects of teacher-offered conditions of

empathy, genuineness, and respect upon student achievement, Aspy (1969)

again found a relationship between the teacher's interpersonal skills

and student achievement. The classrooms of six third-grade teachers

and their 120 students were recorded twice, once in March, then again

in May. The students were given the Stanford Achievement Test to

measure academic gain. After having three trained raters evaluate the

tapes, Aspy separated the teachers that rated high from those that

rated low on the three interpersonal skills. The analysis of the data

revealed significant differences between the two groups on four sub-

tests of the Stanford Achievement Test. The sub-tests were paragraph

meaning, language, word meaning, and work study skills. Aspy concluded









that these results support the hypothesis that there is a positive

relationship between teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect

and cognitive growth of students.

Aspy, Black and Roebuck (1972) studied the relationship between

elementary teachers' interpersonal skills in the classroom and their

students' level of cognitive functioning. The authors divided 40

teachers into two groups of 20. One group of teachers taught a read-

ing lesson at Level One of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.

The other group of teachers taught reading lessons at Level Two or

higher. A one-hour tape of the reading lesson was rated using Cark-

huff's scales for empathy, congruence, and positive regard, Flanders

Interaction Analysis, and levels of cognitive functioning achieved by

students. An analysis of the relationship between students' cognitive

functioning and the teacher's interpersonal skills indicated that the

teacher's positive regard was significantly related to cognitive

achievement.

Adding more support to the hypotheses that a positive relation-

ship does exist between the interpersonal skills of the teacher and

student academic success is a study by Boak and Conklin (1975). These

investigators studied the effects of a training program in interpersonal

skills for junior high school teachers on students' scores on the

Canadian Test of Basic Skills and the Test of Achievement in Basic

Skills: Mathematics. Using the Mann Whitney U Test, Boak and Conklin

reported that students of teachers with high levels of empathy, genuine-

ness,and respect had obtained significantly higher scores in language

arts and mathematics than students of teachers with low levels of

interpersonal skills.









Another study investigating the effects of systematic human rela-

tions training for teachers on student achievement was conducted by

Hefele (1971). Thirty-one teachers that were enrolled in a teacher

preparation program at a school for the deaf in Buffalo, New York,

were given human relations training. By giving the students of these

teachers the California Achievement Test (Reading, Arithmetic, and

Literature), before (March, 1968) and after (February, 1969) the train-

ing, Hefele was able to correlate the students' gains in academic achieve-

ment with the teachers' level of interpersonal functioning. On the basis

of a multiple regression analysis, Hefele concluded that reading achieve-

ment was positively related (r = .79) to the level of teacher interpersonal

functioning'. In addition to supporting the hypothesis that a correlation

between the interpersonal skills of the teacher and student academic

achievement exists, Hefele's study also gives some evidence that teachers

can be trained to increase their levels of interpersonal skills.

From the studies reviewed in this chapter, there is evidence to

suggest that, in addition to being perceived by their students as more

effective, teachers with high levels of interpersonal skills also create

an atmosphere that is conducive to academic success. The basic purpose

of the present study was to determine if a relationship exists between

the interpersonal skills of teachers and their students' classroom

behavior. While the amount of empirical evidence supporting this

hypothesis is limited, there are studies that suggest that teachers who

possess high levels of interpersonal skills do create an atmosphere that

is conducive to pupil supportive behavior and a deterrent to pupil dis-

ruptive behavior. Research supporting this hypothesis is discussed in

the pages that follow.









A series of early studies investigating the effects of teacher per-

sonality on student classroom behavior were designed by Anderson and his

associates (Anderson & Brewer, 1945; Anderson & Brewer, 1946; Anderson

& Reed, 1946). Anderson's et al. findings were based on observations

of preschool, primary school, and elementary school classrooms, involv-

ing five different teachers and extending over several years. From his

studies, Anderson et al. reported three significant findings. The first

significant finding was that the behavior of the teacher more than any

other individual set the climate of the classroom. The teacher with a

dominant classroom style set a climate of further domination by students

in the classroom, and the teacher with an integrative style, that is, who

respected students and allowed them to express themselves, established a

climate of further integration by the students in the classroom. The

second significant finding was that when a teacher had a higher propor-

tion of integrative contacts, pupils showed more spontaneity and initia-

tive, more voluntary social contribution, and more problem solving. The

third significant finding was that when a teacher had a higher proportion

of dominant contacts, pupils were more easily distracted from school

work.

A further study investigating the effect of the attitudes and behav-

iors of teachers on the emotional climate of 53 elementary classrooms

was conducted by Fowler (1962). Criterion measures used were the Obser-

vation Schedule and Record, Russell Sage Social Relations Test, and

Flander's Interaction Analysis. Predictor measures consisted of the

Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory, and the Minnesota Multiphasic

Personality Inventory. Using correlation analysis, Fowler found that

the attitudes of teachers were significantly related to teacher and pupil

behavior.









The findings of both Anderson et al. and Fowler are important because

they indicate that teacher attitudes do influence pupil behavior in the

classroom. More specifically, Anderson et al. found that teachers who

displayed a high proportion of accepting and respectful interactions

with pupils had pupils who displayed more voluntary social contributions

or supportive behavior, and that teachers who displayed a high proportion

of dominant contacts had pupils who were more easily distracted from

school work, which could lead to deviant behavior. Anderson's et al.

findings add support to the hypothesis investigated in this study that

teachers' interpersonal skills are related to pupil supportive behavior.

In a study of 33 teachers, 5 principals, and over 900 high school

students, Cogan (1958) investigated the relationship between the classroom

behavior of the teacher and the productive behavior (self-initiated work)

of pupils. Behavior of the teachers was placed into three categories.

The categories were inclusive, preclusive, and conjunctive. Cogan

defined inclusive teacher behavior as integrative, affiliative, and

nurturant. Preclusive teacher behavior was defined as dominative,

aggressive, and rejectant. Conjunctive teacher behavior was defined

as the ability to get students to do work that was correct and in good

order, the ability to make clear explanations, and the ability to handle

the class. Cogan reported that there was a strong relationship between

the inclusive behavior of the teachers and the self-initiated work of

their pupils. This, according to Cogan,


must be of some moment to educators who place great
reliance upon theories of education in which a pupil's
interest, his self-reliance, his creativity, and his
self-initiated activities play so important a role.
(p. 103)









Wallen (1966) provided additional evidence suggesting that the inter-

personal skills of the teacher are related to student classroom behavior.

Wallen investigated four teacher variables in order to define meaningful

dimensions of teacher behavior in the classroom. The four teacher

variables were control, affiliation, stimulation, and achievement

orientation. Wallen defined affiliation as the extent of warmth, support,

and affection given pupils by the teacher. On the basis of observations

of 118 teachers, Wallen found that the student's "liking for school"

seemed to be positively related to the degree of affiliation displayed

by the teacher. Another conclusion from Wallen's study was that sup-

portive behavior on the part of the teacher seemed to foster a more

friendly group interaction during the operational phase of group prob-

lem solving, and that teacher supportive behavior appeared to be nega-

tively correlated with the extent of test anxiety in the students.

These findings substantiate studies previously cited in this chapter

in which a correlation between teacher warmth and support and positive

pupil classroom behavior was reported.

Two studies conducted by Ryans (1961a, 1961b) lend support to the

relationship between certain teacher characteristics and pupil class-

room behavior. In over 1000 classrooms, Ryans (1961a) had groups of

trained observers assess both pupil and teacher behavior. After a

correlational analysis of the data, Ryans concluded that teachers who

were understanding, friendly, organized, original, and stimulating had

students who tended to be alert, participating, confident, responsible,

self-controlled, and initiating.









In a later study the same year, Ryans (1961b) reported similar, but

even more statistically conclusive, findings. Using three elementary

schools and the same procedures outlined in this previous study, Ryans

concluded that pupil classroom behavior was related to a number of

teacher characteristics. Such teacher classroom characterisitcs as

being understanding, friendly, organized, original, and stimulating were

significantly related to purposeful and productive pupil behavior.

In both of Ryans' studies, the findings indicate that teacher-offered

understanding or empathy is one of a number of teacher characteristics

that are positively related to supportive pupil behavior. Ryans' find-

ings provide evidence suggesting that Rogers' three core conditions of

empathy, genuineness, and respect could have a positive effect on pupil

classroom behavior.

Johnson (1971) provided more specific evidence of the effect of

empathy on behavior by studying the effects of the helper's warmth,

interaction, accuracy of understanding, and proposal of compromises

on the listener's behavior. The author reported that his evidence

indicated that there was a relationship between the expressed warmth

of the helper and the degree of favorableness of interpersonal attitudes.

A relationship was also demonstrated between the expressed accuracy of

understanding and the proposal of compromises and the induction of

cooperation in a negotiation situation. Johnson's results give support

to a Rogerian theory that suggests that a student's perceptions of the

teacher's warmth and understanding affects the student's behavior in a

compromise situation.

Of particular relevance to the present study is a report by Berenson

(1971) that provided significant evidence of the impact of the teacher's










interpersonal skills on the teaching-learning process. Berinson described

the results of a systematic human relations training program with a group

of 48 elementary education majors selected at random from a suburban

state college. Four groups were formed, with each group receiving 25

hours of training in a human relations workshop. The training occurred

three weeks before student teaching. All subjects were observed during

their student teaching and were measured and evaluated with Flanders'

Interaction Analysis, the Student-Teacher Competency Rating Scale, and

the Teaching Situational Reaction Test. The experimental group used

greater amounts of praise, encouragement, acceptance, and clarification

than did the control groups. The experimental group also tended to spend

less classroom time criticizing and giving directions. Classroom super-

visors rated the experimental group significantly higher than the control

groups on total competency, general teaching competency, classroom man-

agement, and understanding of the teaching-learning process. College

supervisors also rated the experimental group significantly higher in

classroom management. The experimental group, as rated by both college

and classroom supervisors, was also rated as more competent in the class-

room, scored significantly higher on a situation reaction test, and

utilized significantly more positive reinforcement behaviors in teaching.

Berinson's findings provide strong support for the hypothesis that

the teacher's interpersonal skills are related to the students' class-

room behavior. Berinson's experimental group of teachers scored sig-

nificantly higher on both college and classroom supervisors' ratings

of classroom management.










Summary

Rogers has maintained that three core conditions are necessary for

facilitative teaching to occur in the classroom. These three core con-

ditions are empathy, genuineness, and respect. Empirical research has

shown that teachers who function at high levels of empathy, genuineness,

and respect have been perceived as effective in their classrooms by their

students. In addition to being perceived as effective in the classroom,

teachers who were functioning at high levels of empathy, genuineness, and

respect were also show to have created an atmosphere conducive to aca-

demic success.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship

between teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect and pupil

supportive behavior and pupil deviant behavior. Studies by Anderson

and Brewer (1945) and Cogan (1958) showed that teacher behavior and

attitudes do affect student behavior. Also, studies by Ryans (1961)

and Wallen (1966) found that accepting and respectful teacher behavior

and attitudes produced supportive pupil classroom behavior, and other

teacher behavior and attitudes, such as dominance, produced deviant

pupil classroom behavior. In addition, a study by Berenson (1971)

revealed that a systematic human relations training program for student

teachers had a significant impact on the student teachers' competence

in classroom management.

From the empirical studies reviewed, there seems to be evidence to

warrant a study of the relationship between teacher-offered empathy,

genuineness, and respect and pupil classroom behavior. The empirical






21


data cited in this chapter suggest that teacher-offered empathy, genuine-

ness,and respect are positively related to pupil supportive behavior and

negatively correlated with pupil deviant behavior.













CHAPTER III


DESIGN OF THE STUDY


The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between

teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect and pupil classroom

behavior. The three hypotheses that were investigated in this study are

presented in this chapter. Also included in this chapter is a description

of the subjects, procedures, and instruments used in the study. In addi-

tion, the procedures for analyzing the data are discussed.


Hypotheses

The relationships which have been established between interpersonal

skill of teachers and student ratings of teacher effectiveness (Emmerling,

1961), interpersonal skills of teachers and academic achievement (Aspy,

1969; Boak & Conklin, 1975; Christenson, 1960), and certain teacher

characteristics and pupil behavior (Berenson, 1971; Cogan, 1958; Ryans,

1961a) provided a rationale for asking the question, "Are there relation-

ships between teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect and pupil

classroom behavior?" Three hypotheses were proposed to investigate

these relationships:


H1: Teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect are posi-
tively correlated with pupil supportive classroom behavior.

H2: Teacher-offered empathy, genuineness and respect are nega-
tively correlated with pupil supportive classroom behavior.









H3: There is a significant difference between the corre-
lations of teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and
respect and pupil supportive classroom behavior and
teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect and
pupil deviant classroom behavior.


Subjects

The data for this study were collected in 41 fifth-grade classrooms

in six counties near Gainesville, Florida. The counties included Alachua,

Columbia, Dixie, Duval, Gilchrist, and Marian. The sample included both

white and black teachers and students from rural, suburban, and urban

populations. Approximately 45% of the students were attending school in

communities with populations less than 2,500; approximately 29% attended

schools in communities with populations between 25,000-50,000; and approxi-

mately 26% attended schools in a community size of greater than 50,000.


Procedures

The 41 classrooms observed for the present study were visited once

a month from November, 1970, through April, 1971, by a team of observers,

resulting in six observations of each classroom. The time of the class-

room visits varied so that three of the six observations sampled differ-

ent subject-matter areas. Each team recorded systematic classroom obser-

vations by using the Florida Climate and Control System (FLACCS). Each

team consisted of two observers who were graduate students, research assis-

tants, or permanent members of the staff of the Institute for the Develop-

ment of Human Resources. All observers were trained during September

and October in a scheduled course at the University of Florida. Each

observation in the classroom consisted of half-hour visits. During

the half-hour, the observers alternated 5-minute periods of marking the









FLACCS instrument. In addition, small battery-powered audiotape record-

ing equipment simultaneously recorded the classroom activity. From the

audiotapes made during the FLACCS coding, three tapes were selected

at random for each teacher. From each of the three tapes selected for

each teacher, two 3-minute segments, one from the beginning of the tape

and one near the end of the tape, were selected at random and then rated

independently by three trained raters using Aspy's Scales for Empathy,

Genuineness, and Respect. The raters were a professor and two graduate

students -in education. The raters were trained for a period of 15

hours. The training ended when 85% agreement was reached by the three

raters; acceptable agreement was set at +.3 of a scale level. Once

acceptable levels of agreement had been reached, each rater independently

rated all segments of the audiotapes. Each rater rated every teacher

on all three measures, and the results were averaged to obtain the

teacher's score on each scale. The teacher's scores on the Aspy Rating

Scales were made available by Dr. F. L. Roebuck.


Instrumentation

Florida Climate and Control System. Pupil behavior was coded by

using an observational instrument developed by Soar, Soar, and Ragosta

(1971), the Florida Climate and Control System (FLACCS), which was

developed from several other observational instruments. The FLACCS

data for this study were collected under the National Institute for the

Development of Human Resources, University of Florida, Gainesville. The

data were made available by Dr. R. S. Soar, principal investigator of

the grant. The FLACCS instrument has two major parts. (See Appendix

for a copy of the instrument.) The first part, with 84 items, is









concerned with teachers' control of the classroom and with pupil response.

The second section consists of 78 items dealing with verbal and nonverbal

expressions of affect by either teacher or student.

For this study, two of the nine factors from the FLACCS were used.

These factors consisted on the following behaviors:


1. Pupil Supportive Behavior

(a) pupil reports rule to another, (b) pupil
gives reason, (c) pupil works, plays coopera-
tively, collaborates; (d) pupil seeks reassur-
ance, support, (e) pupil agrees with another,
(f) pupil helps another, (g) pupil helpful.
shares.

2. Pupil Deviant Behavior

(a) pupil engages in out-of-bounds behavior,
(b) pupil aimless, wondering, (c) pupil teases,
(d) pupil commands, or demands, (e) pupil makes
disparaging remarks, (f) pupil makes faces, (g)
pupil threatens, (h) pupil uncooperative, resis-
tant, (i) pupil interferes, threatens, (j) pupil
takes, damages property of others, (k) pupil picks
at child, (1) pupil pushes or pulls, holds, (m)
pupil hurts with something, hits, (n) pupil leans
close to another, (o) pupil horseplay.


Intra- and inter-reliability. Ragosta (1974) presented evidence

regarding the intra- and inter-observer reliability of the FLACCS factors

based on data gathered in 289 classrooms in eight experimental programs

and a sample of comparison classrooms, grades K-2 in Project Follow Through.

Ragosta reported that the intra-observer or within-observer reliability

estimate, adjusted by the Spearman-Brown formula and based on two series of

observations by the same observer in the 289 classrooms for FLACCS factor

3 -- Teacher-Pupil Supportive Behavior was .90 for one observer who









visited the classrooms early in the day, and .91 for an observer who

visited the classrooms later in the day. For FLACCS factor 7 Negative

Behavior the intra-reliability estimate adjusted by the Spearman-Brown

formula was .83 for the observer who observed the classroom early in the

day and .88 for the observer who observed the classroom later in the day.

The inter-observer or between-obeserver reliabilities were based on the

two series of observations done by two different observers in each of

the 289 classrooms. For factor 3, the inter-observer reliability coef-

ficient was .73, adjusted by the Spearman-Brown formula, and for factor

7, the inter-observer coefficient was .79. Thus, the inter- and inter-

observer reliability estimates for the FLACCS factors relevant to this

study appear sufficiently high to warrant their use.

Validity. With respect to validity of the FLACCS, Soar (1973)

reported that factor 3, Teacher-Pupil Supportive Behavior, and factor 7,

Pupil Negative Affect, as well as the other seven factors of the

instrument, discriminated between different experimental programs in

Project Follow Through. In addition, Soar and Soar (1975) reported

that the affect factors were related to classroom achievement in the

expected direction. This evidence suggests that the FLACCS factors do

measure an important component of student classroom behavior.









Aspy Rating Scales for Empathy, Genuineness, and Respect

This set of scales, revised by Aspy (1974), is designed to measure

the degree of empathy, genuineness, and respect evident in the teacher's

interactions with students in the classroom. A description of these

scales is presented here:

1. Empathy scale. This measures the teacher's understanding of

the meaning of classroom experiences for the students. Each of the

teacher's behaviors is assigned a value from 1 to 5 on the following

scale (Aspy, 1974):

ASPY EMPATHY SCALE

Understanding of Empathy

Level '5 The tone and words of the teacher's verbal
communication always add to the students'
meanings. The students are always helped to
express deeper meanings of their experiences.

Level 4 The tone and words of the teacher's verbal
communication consistently add to the stu-
dents' meanings. The students are usually
helped to express deeper meanings of their
experiences.

Level 3 The tone and words of the teacher's verbal
communication match the students'. That is,
they neither detract from nor add to the
students' expression of meaning.

Level 2 The tone of the teacher's verbal communication
indicates she understands the most obvious
meanings of the student's experience to him.
However, the teacher's verbal communications
are less intense than the student's. That is,
she detracts from his expression of meaning.

Level 1 The teacher's verbal communication indicates
no response to the students' feeling. The
teacher seems totally unaware of the meaning
of the experience to the student. (p. 55)









2. Genuineness scale. This measures the teacher's spontaneity.

Each of the teacher's behaviors is assigned a value from 1 to 5 on the

following scale (Aspy, 1974):

ASPY GENUINENESS SCALE

Understanding of Genuineness

Level 5 All of the teacher's verbal communications are
spontaneous. They appear to grow out of the
current interaction only. They are not mechan-
ical or practiced.

Level 4 lost of the teacher's verbal communications
are spontaneous, but a few of them are ritual-
istic.

Level 3 The teacher's verbal communications are about
equally distributed between ritualistic and
spontaneous, but the spontaneous quality
dominates slightly.

Level 2 Most of the teacher's verbal communications are
mechanical, but a few of them are somewhat spon-
taneous.

Level 1 All of the teacher's verbal communications are
ritualistic. They seem to be mechanical or
Practiced. (p. 61)

3. ResDect scale. This measures the extent to which the teacher com-

municates a positive regard for the student's ability to operate effectively

at all intellectual levels. Each of the teacher's behaviors is assigned

a value from 1 to 5 on the following scale (Aspy, 1974):

ASPY RESPECT SCALE

Understanding of Respect

Level 5 The teacher consistently communicates a positive
regard for the students' abilities to operate
effectively at all intellectual levels. Her
guide is the students' direction. That is, she
heps the students explore rather than directing
them.









Level 4 The teacher consistently communicates a posi-
tive regard for the students' abilities to
operate effectively in learning situations
involving Level 1 of Bloom's Taxonomy, and
occasionally allows her students to explore
the higher intellectual processes.

Level 3 The teacher consistently communicates a posi-
tive regard for the students' abilities to
operate effectively in learning situations
involving memory and recognition (Level 1 of
Bloom's Taxonomy) but not with the higher
intellectual processes, i.e., creativity,
problem solving, and evaluation.

Level 2 The teacher communicates a somewhat negative
regard for the students' abilities to operate
effectively in learning situations involving
memory and recognition.

Level 1 The teacher communicates a clearly negative
regard for the students' abilities to cope
with any learning situation. (p. 59)


Roebuck (1975) reported that the Aspy Scales have been shown to

meet the criteria proposed by Remmers (1963) as necessary for valid use

of rating scales in research. Specifically, the Aspy Scales meet

Reemer's criteria in the following ways:

1. Objectivity. Teams of raters can be trained to reach and

maintain inter-rater reliabilities of .85 (Pearson's r: p.= .01) on

each scale (Aspy & Roebuck, 1973).

2. Reliability. Inter-rater reliability of the Aspy Rating Scales

was obtained by calculating the Pearson product-moment correlations for all

combinations of the three raters on each of the three scales (Roebuck,

1975). The inter-rater reliability coefficients for the three Aspy Scales

appear in Table 1. Examination of the table reveals that the inter-rater

reliability on the Aspy Scales is more than adequate for use in research.










In addition, it has been demonstrated that the percent of agreement

obtained among the raters on these scales meets the criteria generally

accepted for use of a rating scale in research (Roebuck, 1975). The

percent of agreement data are also shown in Table 1.

3. Sensitivity. The Aspy Scales require the rater to make discrim-

inations on a five point scale, ranging from no evidence of the behavior

to continuous use of the behavior.

4. Validity. The discriminant validity of the Aspy Scales as a

measure o-f teacher effectiveness has been demonstrated in a number of

studies. Aspy, Black,and Roebuck (1972) and Boak and Conklin (1975)

reported that teacher ratings on the Aspy Scales were positively related

to students' achievement on standardized tests. Evidence of the rela-

tionship between teachers' ratings on the Aspy Scales and student behavior

was provided by Aspy and Hadlock (1967). These researchers found that

teachers who scored high on the Aspy Scales had students who were sig-

nificantly less truant than teachers who scored low on the Aspy Scales.

Thus, the Aspy Scales have demonstrated effectiveness in predicting

student academic achievement, as well as student classroom behavior.

As further evidence of validity, it has been shown that scores on the

Aspy Scales are not influenced by years of teaching experience, teacher

sex or race, and grade level (Aspy & Roebuck, 1974; Roebuck & Aspy,

1974a, 1974b).

5. Utility. The scales have been utilized in research as well as

in-service training. It was demonstrated that 80% agreement in the use

of the scales can be attained with as little as three hours of training

in the use of the scales (Aspy, 1972; Aspy, Black, & Roebuck, 1972;

Aspy & Roebuck, 1973, 1975).















TABLE 1


INTER-RATER RELIABILITY FOR ASPY SCALES


Index Rater


Pearson's r 1 with
Correlation 1 with
Coefficients 2 with

Percent of 1 with
Agreement 1 with
2 with
All Th


s


Meaning Genuineness Respect


2 0.9961 0.9957 0.9953
3 0.9986 0.9987 0.9984
3 0.9988 0.9934 0.9984

2 85.84 83.43 84.64
3 96.08 94.88 94.28
3 96.39 93.67 93.37
ree 85.54 83.43 84.64


Note. Number of Tapes Rated = 150.









Statistical Analysis of the Data

The Pearson product-moment correlation was calculated to determine

the relationship between teacher-offered empathy and pupil supportive

behavior. A significant positive correlation was expected. The Pearson

product-moment correlation was also calculated to determine the rela-

tionship between teacher-offered empathy and pupil deviant classroom

behavior. This correlation was expected to be significantly negative

After these two correlations were computed, a test for significance of

the difference between the two Pearson product-moment correlations was

calculated. A significant difference between these two correlations

would indicate that teacher-offered empathy is significantly related

to pupil classroom behavior.

The Pearson product-moment correlation was also calculated to

determine the relationship between teacher-offered genuineness and

pupil supportive behavior. A significant correlation was expected.

With the same correlation procedure, teacher-offered genuineness and

pupil disruptive behavior were correlated. This correlation was pre-

dicted to be significantly negative. After these two correlations

were computed, then a test for significance of the difference between

the two Pearson product-moment correlations was calculated. A signifi-

cant difference between these two correlations would indicate that

teacher-offered genuineness is significantly related to pupil class-

room behavior.

The Pearson product-moment correlation was also calculated to

determine the relationship between teacher-offered respect and pupil

supportive behavior. A significant correlation was expected. The corre-

lation of teacher-offered respect and pupil disruptive behavior was also





33


determined. This correlation was hypothesized to be significantly nega-

tive. After these two correlations were computed, a test of the sig-

nificance of the difference between the two Pearson product-moment

correlations was calculated. A significant difference between these

two correlations would indicate that teacher-offered respect is signif-

icantly related to pupil classroom behavior.













CHAPTER IV


RESULTS


The three major questions asked in the present study were (1) are

teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect positively correlated

with pupil supportive classroom behavior? (2) are teacher-offered empathy,

genuineness, and respect negatively correlated with pupil deviant class-

room behavior? and (3) is there a significant difference between the

correlations of teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect with

pupil supportive classroom and the correlations of teacher-offered empathy,

genuineness, and respect with pupil deviant classroom behavior?

The results of this study are presented in four sections. In the

first section, the means and standard deviations of the variables observed

in this study are presented. The second section contains the results of

testing the first hypothesis to determine if each of the teacher-offered

variables of empathy, genuineness, and respect was positively correlated

with pupil supportive classroom behavior. Pearson product-moment corre-

lations were calculated to determine each of the correlations. The

third section contains the results of testing the second hypothesis to

determine if each of the teacher-offered variables of empathy, genuineness,

and respect were negatively correlated with pupil deviant classroom behav-

ior. Again, Pearson product-moment correlations were calculated to deter-

mine each of the correlations. The fourth section presents the results

of testing the third hypothesis to determine if there was a significant









difference between the correlations of teacher-offered empathy, genuine-

ness, and respect with pupil supportive classroom behavior and the corre-

lations of teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect with pupil

deviant classroom behavior.


Descriptive Statistics

Five variables were examined in the present study. Table 2 lists

the means, standard deviations, and number of cases for all five varia-

bles.

As seen in Table 2, teacher-offered empathy had a mean of 2.38 and

a standard deviation of .49. Teacher-offered genuineness had a mean of

2.46 and a standard deviation of .50. The mean for the third teacher-

offered variable of respect was 2.59 and the standard deviation was .52.

These statisitcs indicate that in this group the teachers were function-

ing at a rather low level of effectiveness in terms of their interpersonal

skills.

Pupil supportive behavior had a mean of 6.11 and a standard devia-

tion of 1.73. The fifth variable used in this study, pupil deviant

behavior, had a mean of 5.20 and a standard deviation of 2.63.


Hypothesis 1


Teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect
are positively correlated with pupil supportive
classroom behavior.


Pearson product-moment correlations were calculated to determine the

relationships of the teacher-offered variables of empathy, genuineness,

and respect to pupil supportive classroom behavior. The correlation (r),

r squared, and the level of significance are displayed in Table 3.

















TABLE 2



MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS, AND NUMBER OF CASES OF TEACHER-
OFFERED EMPATHY, GENUINENESS, AND RESPECT, PUPIL
SUPPORTIVE BEHAVIOR, AND PUPIL DEVIANT BEHAVIOR



Variable Mean Standard Deviation Cases



Empathy 2.38 0.49 41

Genuineness 2.46 0.50 41

Respect 2.59 0.52 41

Pupil Supportive 6.11 1.73 41
Behavior

Pupil Deviant 5.20 2.63 41
Behavior


















TABLE 3


CORRELATION (r), r SQUARED, AND LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE
OF TEACHER-OFFERED VARIABLES OF EMPATHY, GENUINENESS,
AND RESPECT[ WIIH PUPIL SUPPORTIVE CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR*


Correlation (r)


Teacher Empathy-
Pupil Supportive Behavior


Teacher Genuineness-
Pupil Supportive Behavior


Teacher Respect-
Pupil Supportive Behavior


0.58



0.53



0.47


r Squared p


0.34



0.31



0.22


*Based on 41 teachers and their classrooms


.00004



,00003



.00088









The Pearson product-moment correlation revealed that the teacher-

offered variables of empathy, genuineness, and respect were significantly

correlated with pupil supportive classroom behavior. The correlation

between teacher-offered empathy and pupil supportive behavior was .58,

which was significant at the .00004 level. The correlation of teacher-

offered genuineness with pupil supportive behavior was .58. This corre-

lation had a level of significance equal to .00003. The third variable,

teacher-offered respect, had a correlation of .47 with pupil supportive

behavior, and the level of significance was .00038. Thus, the correla-

tions of all three teacher-offered variables were all highly significant.

These results support Hypothesis 1.

A scatter diagram indicating a linear relationship between teacher-

offered empathy and pupil supportive behavior is shown in Figure 1. A

scatter diagram of the relationship between genuineness and pupil sup-

portive behavior is displayed in Figure 2 and a scatter diagram of

the relationship of teacher-offered respect and pupil supportive behav-

ior is shown in Figure 3. Scanning of the graphic displays reveals a

moderate, direct relationship between the three teacher variables of

empathy, genuiness, and respect and pupil supportive behavior.


Hypothesis 2


Teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect
are negatively correlated with pupil deviant
classroom behavior.


Pearson product-moment correlations were calculated to determine the

relationships of the teacher-offered variables of empathy, genuineness,

and respect to pupil deviant classroom behavior. The correlation (r),

r squared, and the level of significance are displayed in Table 4.























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TABLE 4


CORRELATION (r), r SQUARED, AND THE LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE
OF TEACHER-OFFERED VARIABLES OF EMPATHY, GENUINENESS,
ANU RESPECT WITH PUPIL DEVIANT CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR*


Correlation (r) r Squared P


Teacher Empathy-
Pupil Deviant Behavior


Teacher Genuineness-
Pupil Deviant Behavior


Teacher Respect-
Pupil Deviant Behavior


-0.11



0.01



-0.0


0.011 0.26


0.00



0.00


0.47



0.49


*Based on 41 teachers and their classrooms









The Pearson product-moment correlations for the teacher-offered

variables of empathy, genuineness, and respect with pupil deviant be-

havior were so low that it must be concluded that a linear relationship

does not exist between teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect

and deviant behavior. The correlation of teacher-offered empathy with

pupil deviant classroom behavior was -0.10. This correlation was not

significant at the .05 level; the significance was only .26. The

correlation between teacher-offered genuineness and pupil deviant

behavior -was -0.01. This correlation was also not significant at the

.05 level; the level of significance was .47. The correlation of respect

with pupil deviant classroom behavior was 0.00 and, again, this corre-

lation was hot significant at the .05 level as the level of significance

was .49. Although there was a negative correlation between each of the

three teacher-offered variables of empathy, genuineness, and respect

and pupil deviant behavior, the level of significance did not reach the

.05 level. These findings indicate that there was virtually no corre-

lation between the three teacher-offered variables of empathy, genuine-

ness, and respect and pupil deviant classroom behavior.

A scatter diagram of the relationship of the teacher-offered

variable of empathy and pupil deviant classroom behavior is shown in

Figure 4. Figure 5 is a scatter diagram of the relationship of

teacher-offered genuineness and pupil deviant classroom behavior, and

a scatter diagram of the relationship of teacher-offered respect and

pupil deviant behavior is displayed in Figure 6. An examination of

these diagrams suggests that the teacher-offered qualities of empathy,

genuineness, and respect and pupil deviant behavior are not related in

any systematic way.











































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Hypothesis 3


There is a significant difference between the
correlations of teacher-offered empathy, genuine-
ness, and respect and pupil supportive classroom
behavior and the correlations of teacher-offered
empathy, genuineness, and respect and pupil
deviant classroom behavior.


Teacher-offered empathy was positively correlated with pupil suppor-

tive classroom behavior (r = .58, p. = .00004). Teacher-offered empathy

was negatively correlated with pupil deviant classroom behavior (r = .10),

but significance did not reach the .05 level. Computation of the z

transformation for determining the significance of two Pearson coeffi-

cients from a related sample (Roscoe, 1975) yielded a z value of 3.35,

which was significant at the .0004 level. The finding that the correla-

tion of teacher-offered empathy and pupil supportive classroom behavior

and the correlation of teacher-offered empathy and pupil deviant class-

room behavior are significantly different supports the hypothesis that

the teacher-offered variable of empathy is related to student behavior.

Teacher-offered genuineness was positively correlated with pupil

supportive classroom behavior (r = .58, p. = .00003). Teacher-offered

genuineness was negatively correlated with pupil deviant behavior

(r = .00009), but the level of significance did not reach .05. Compu-

tation of the formula for determining the significance of two Pearson

coefficients from a related sample resulted in a z value of 3.16, sig-

nificant at the .0008 level, indicating that there is a significant

difference between the relationship of teacher-offered genuineness to

pupil supportive behavior and the relationship of teacher-offered

genuineness and pupil deviant behavior.









Teacher-offered respect was positively correlated with pupil sup-

portive classroom behavior (r = .47, p. =.00088). Teacher-offered

respect was negatively correlated with pupil deviant classroom behavior

(r= .01), but the level of significance did not reach the .05 level.

Computation of the formula for finding the difference between two

Pearson coefficients from a related sample yielded a z value of 2.38,

significant at the .008 level. This finding supports the third hypothe-

sis in that there is a significant difference between the correlations

of teacher-offered respect and pupil supportive classroom behavior and

the correlation of teacher-offered respect and pupil deviant classroom

behavior. Table 5 lists the z values and levels of significance for

the three teacher-offered variables and pupil supportive and deviant

behavior.

A correlational analysis to determine the intercorrelations among

the teacher-offered variables of empathy, genuineness, and respect

indicated that these variables are highly correlated. Table 6 presents

these correlations. The correlation between empathy and genuineness

was .95. The correlation between respect and genuineness was .92, and

the correlation between respect and empathy was .93. These high inter-

correlations indicate that only a small proportion of unique variance

could be attributed to each variable, in accounting for pupil supportive

or deviant behavior.


Summary

The statistical analysis of the data was presented in this chapter.

The results of this study indicated that there is a significant positive

correlation (r = .58, p. = .00004) between the teacher-offered variable




























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TABLE 6


INTERCORRELATIONS OF TEACHER-OFFERED VARIABLES
OF EMPATHY, GENUINEHESS, AND RESPECT*




Variables Empathy Genuineness Respect



Empathy 1.00 0.95 0.93


Genuineness 0.95 1.00 0.92


Respect 0.93 0.92 1.00


*Based of 41 teachers









of empathy and pupil supportive classroom behavior. The teacher-offered

variable of genuineness was found to have a significant positive corre-

lation (r = .58, p. = .00003), with pupil supportive behavior. The

third teacher-offered variable of respect also had a significant

positive relationship (r = .47, p. = .00088) to pupil supportive class-

room behavior. An analysis of the correlations between teacher-offered

empathy, genuineness, and respect with pupil deviant behavior revealed

virtually no relationships between these variables. A significant

difference (at .05 level or beyond) was found between the correlations

of teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect and pupil supportive

classroom behavior and the correlations of teacher-offered empathy,

genuineness, and respect with pupil deviant classroom behavior.













CHAPTER V


SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS


Summary

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of

teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect to pupil classroom

behavior- The basic theoretical assumption underlying the study was

that teachers offering empathy, genuineness, and respect create an

atmosphere in their classrooms that is conducive to pupil supportive

behavior and is a deterrent to pupil deviant behavior.

To investigate this assumption, three hypotheses were tested:


Teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect
are positively related to pupil supportive class-
room behavior.

Teacher-offered empathy, gninuineness, and respect
are negatively related to pupil deviant classroom
behavior.

There is a significant difference between the
correlations of teacher-offered empathy, genuine-
ness, and respect and pupil supportive classroom
behavior and the correlations of teacher-offered
empathy, genuineness, and respect and pupil
deviant classroom behavior.


The sample for this study consisted of 41 fifth-grade teachers and

their classrooms. The teachers were located in six counties in central

Florida; rural, suburban, and urban areas were included.

Two instruments were used in the study to investigate the relation-

ships of teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect to pupil

classroom behavior. Pupil classroom behavior was scored by using the









Florida Climate and Control System (Soar, Soar, & Ragosta, 1971). The

FLACCS is an observational instrument which was developed to record

systematically teachers' control of the classroom and their pupils'

classroom behavior. Audio tape-recordings of the classroom interaction,

that were made while the FLACCS was being recorded, were used to evaluate

the teachers' empathy, genuineness, and respect. The Aspy Scales (Aspy,

1974) were used to evaluate the teachers' empathy, genuineness, and

respect. The data collected from these two instruments were used in

testing the three hypotheses.

To test the first hypothesis, a Pearson product-moment correlation

was calculated to determine if the three teacher-offered variables of

empathy, genuineness, and respect were positively correlated with pupil

supportive classroom behavior. The results indicated that there were

significant positive correlations between each of the three teacher-

offered variables and pupil supportive classroom behavior. The corre-

lation between teacher-offered empathy and pupil supportive behavior

was .58; this correlation had a level of significance of .00004. The

correlation between teacher-offered genuineness and pupil supportive

classroom behavior was .58; this correlation had a level of significance

of .00003. The third teacher-offered variable of respect had a corre-

lation of .47 with pupil supportive classroom behavior; this correlation

had a level of significance of .00088. These findings indicated that,

in this study, teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect were

related to pupil supportive classroom behavior.

To test the second hypothesis, a Pearson product-moment correlation

was calculated to determine if the three teacher-offered variables of









empathy, genuineness, and respect were negatively related to pupil

deviant classroom behavior. The results indicated that there was virtually

no relationship between each of the three teacher-offered variables of

empathy, genuineness, and respect and pupil deviant classroom behavior.

Although there were negative correlations for the three teacher-offered

variables and pupil deviant behavior, the results were not significant

at the .05 level. The correlation between teacher-offered empathy and

pupil deviant behavior was -0.10, which was significant at the .25 level.

The correlation between teacher-offered genuineness and pupil deviant

behavior was .00, which was significant at the .50 level. The correlation

between teacher-offered respect and pupil deviant behavior was -.01,

which was significant at the .47 level. The findings from this study

indicate that teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect were not

related to deviant classroom behavior.

To test the third hypothesis, the formula for finding the difference

between two Pearson coefficients from related samples was computed to

determine if there was a significant difference between the correlations

of teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect and pupil supportive

classroom behavior and the correlations of teacher-offered empathy, genuine-

ness and respect and pupil deviant classroom behavior. The findings indi-

cate that there was a significant difference (at the .05 level or beyond)

for all three teacher-offered variables tested.


Limitations

The implications of this study must first be considered in relation

to limitations in the statistical analysis:









1. As reported in Chapter IV, the correlation coefficients for

the three teacher-offered variables of empathy, genuineness, and respect

were high (.92 or higher). These high correlations indicate that only

a small proportion of unique variance could be attributed to each vari-

able, in accounting for pupil supportive and deviant behavior.

2. In this study, a number of correlations were calculated from the

same data. It should be noted that the greater the number of correlations

run on the same set of data, the more likely the chances of obtaining

spuriously significant results. However, it is likely that the results

obtained in this study were real, since the degree of significance reported

was quite high and in the predicted direction.

3. In reporting the findings of the third hypothesis that there

was a significant difference in the correlations of teacher-offered

empathy, genuineness, and respect and pupil supportive behavior and the

correlations of teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect and

pupil deviant behavior, it should be reported that the difference could

be explained by the high correlations of teacher-offered empathy,

genuineness, and respect with pupil supportive behavior.

4. Because this study was correlational in nature, no conclusions

regarding causality can be drawn. Consequently, it remains for future

research to determine if an increase in teachers' interpersonal skills

will result in increased pupil supportive behavior and reduced pupil

deviant behavior.

5. Inspection of the means and standard deviations for teacher-

offered empathy, genuineness, and respect reveals that the teachers

in this sample were, as a group, functioning at a relatively low level









on these interpersonal skills. Consequently, the restriction in the range

of the teachers' scores on the Aspy Scales of Empathy, Genuineness, and

Respect may have resulted in correlation coefficients that underestimate

the extent of the relationships of teacher-offered empathy, genuineness,

and respect to pupil classroom behavior.


Conclusions

On the basis of findings reported for this study, the following con-

clusions were drawn:

1. Teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect were positively

related (significance beyond the .001 level) to pupil supportive classroom

behavior.

2. There did not appear to be any significant negative correlation

between empathy, genuineness, and respect and pupil deviant classroom

behavior.

3. There was a significant difference between the correlations of

teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect and pupil supportive

classroom behavior and the correlations of teacher-offered empathy,

genuineness, and respect and pupil deviant behavior.


Implications

The above conclusions seem to suggest several implications for

educational practices concerning pupil classroom behavior. This corre-

lational study showed that teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and

respect were positively related to pupil supportive classroom behav-

ior. Experimental studies should be conducted to determine if increas-

ing teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect would create an

atmosphere in the classroom that would be conducive to pupil supportive









behavior and a deterrent to pupil deviant behavior. Such research

could provide the evidence needed to assist teachers with classroom

management.

Teachers who are having classroom behavior problems may benefit

from training in interpersonal skills. In addition, specific prepara-

tion in the skills of empathy, genuineness, and respect could be a

crucial component in the preparation of future teachers.

The expected negative relationship of teacher-offered empathy,

genuineness, and respect to pupil deviant behavior was not found. This

may be due to the low level of interpersonal skills that the teachers

in this sample displayed. The means for the three teacher-offered

variables of empathy, genuineness, and respect were well below the

average score expected for teachers on the Aspy Rating Scales. It is

also possible that teachers need to display higher levels of interper-

sonal skills to reduce pupil deviant behavior than to increase pupil

supportive behavior. Further research is needed to determine if increases

in teacher-offered empathy, genuineness, and respect could reduce the

incidence of pupil deviant behavior.

This study investigated the relationship of teacher-offered empathy,

genuineness, and respect to the behavior of an entire class. It may be

worthwhile to investigate the effect of these three teacher-offered

qualities on the behavior of an individual student who is disrupting

the classroom.

In summary, this study demonstrated positive relationships of

empathy, genuineness, and respect to pupil supportive classroom behav-

ior. Considerable research is needed to determine if teachers can

be trained to increase these skills and, as a result, increase supportive

pupil behavior in the classroom.

























APPENDIX











APPENDIX
INSTITUTE FOR liHE DEVELOPMENT OF HU[AN RESOURCES
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
November 25, 1970


FLACCS*

Florida Climate and Control System
(1970-1971)


Program

City_


School

Grade


Abundant &
varied

5


Teacher

Date


Observer

Series



Children's Art Work Displayed



Quite a few Some A few None


Relation of Room Displays and Artifacts
To Children's Subcultural Background



Quite a few Some are A few are None are Not
are related related related related applicable


*This is an experimental form which should not be cited
or used without permission of the developers.


Most are
clearly
related













APPENDIX (CONT'D)


No. Nature of Structure
PSI upii as lndcl di' .
S2 Total rur te.achr
S31 Sml jroun w it.ch-r-

SS StructurLed group 1i, ( "/o T
S6o Iree groups

No., teacher
1 Teacler central ......
2 Leads singing, a.es ,
storyt Imc
3j Hoves freely amon pun1 s1

U Tes blacrLoard, -I c'ii .
I6 esres. l 'I cI -t, ii "- I'

Attends cics ti [rieio
Sttend tjs ur coI ri'
Attends P in i ccsleion
St r d: s71ii11 tn'. acttI >




Veibal Control
II [rrices
I fs c, r s tu liie t .
. 1 g'.1 s -ts, ,u iJ-'
It cd :'ak, cit's is;. i)1
IS 1.c-lions frTr retI cct iv
tL __ _t!oi'ihat- -
6 oCrrect c/o critics r-iS(')
17 1it-;n. for cf n 'tir''l"
1 1-''ic..., st tacs hc ii v i uc
19 ['irc Is 'iith rc ,on
211 Ti rr- Cn i o r' -'0l

SCalls child ni 7i"re
?3 I n1 -f>

25 PS-iv. P clusacli, tooni] i es
'2 r t 'iu7 c .t i -
27 nrdel-r, cne'LC Ps
28 So ld'., uni_-.1' -
29 111, f fir tCC
30i uis sharp tnc


Trainee's Name_

Section Episode

Score of correct.


No. Nanverbal Control
31 l-erates d .i n boe'uv.
3l2 4, ai t LCV rC'17j 1 Ct 10
31 ods, iil t1 ic r control
34 'osiive facial tcedback
35 U ses "body M l s h"

a 7 eI ecs il'lc In careu
35 2 olchs, pats ( cnt i-




1 F es esctDien iTt____boo



44 'Puiil central

P4 j7ri -- lin'ree choice
Sl'ai- I reC0--
4 S Ncat i'or /f'cc-..u' r
40 (Scnto rb l it' ceo. er-
so0 1orks, plno much

SI (Works, p15T. ilTh little
S iuprvision
b7 ~t ( in'- s / iAd saC o *'' .d i re cit

k.-t hss 'i-'''i ir
5! Ni 's V" i cn e-- -


5' c"oiv ts il fo ta lii t
59- iiv s j T i :i ___
_0 I iuea cs rion -i i
I_1 |Sra'k5_aJlll- -'i w/u Frifs^_


No. Pupil (Cont.)
62 Entaics in out-of-bounds
L behavia o ors
s3 oa rs1"l r e or r plar

T4 a'1o:t. 'rt or )lay.
i6 iorks, plays corlit itive
c -Tone relnte"d moeCeent
(I8 \illes wcering
65 iFa tayss
70 Uses '.Uclay object as itse
I nEW4 c eaurec behSuv'ior

73 0ho1s icmre, 55C1=,
huan. il at ion__An
74- -1 uio.s aat ______



Socialization
,-oct never
72 l[rcsi ional l>
771 jFrequcnt l


Materials
7 Structure 1 behavior
79_JStructure P behavior


Prnil Interest Attention
801 fi;














APPENDIX (CONT'D)




NEGATIVE AFFECT


Tearl dr Verhal

' lis 'rl thr itenln to'e__

A rcit' ieti i 'at
A 4 T'riTIC1 c i1ar'e_
A '2 lhars
A ellY __I__
A 7 Scolds, Luml I tate
An Other
A9 Code Ino Iverorlit


Pa'ili Verbal _
Ali as"No," "I on't" etc.





'-ea-rrnds att entin i

All I i'id ta lt _
Alli Il rt irit' _
A or ther a
A21 lode lrnvorIvemenot


Teacher Nonverbal
A2 Isat- for child



A7Z Ifir ts, ie flnr_
A Tih(" ob r rlltC, holds.


A2 I Reiihrs to res1'ond to child




'uPi l Nonverbal
A30 ilaers face. frowns

Ad3_ I Urtc 5 rat ICe, re Itant


A3 I0 7,c T7 t cC I r o Cutty
A 'icks t c-.r id
A37 lJush"' o,,-r l olds
A 3lits, iurt'____
A? Is j lft out
Ain jOthcr


POSITIVE AFFECT


l eachcr V'crh a
A4l1F ays "larok r t" c.______
Aid r.r. *' r _____


AI5 'i n, l' i i i1
A11L
A47 I'reve i 'r' ev -lr n __.___-

AlA I t5 -trk rh
AIR IsC) t t c

ASU tode In .ol _cment_


PuiD I Verball
___'aC__ '''lr .'rr'ti'c______e__ -

A5J (t t '' i 'le,



'" I 'rr. T Tn



AbIl icle Itv slvreit ______


Teacher Sonverbal
A Accc:Is fsa r for self

Ahi4 ii iscsin vi al jtteintion
I IT.-oyh1, .
A(ha'har conrial ______
A7d i.i- tn- carr'l v to child
A' j 'ls, lai hI nods

Adn'lStih'- ir ___________ht__-




rupi1 Nonverbal
71, _- '1, I=ru > r s
.A4tI _il :'lr Iir ir s_________
A7 Otei r
AT7 L9 r iclon to oer ther


AAlr A've'i'l lv, co 'irtiveC -

A78 orllarv rlriy_______________
A79 Othi ________ _________













BIBLIOGRAPHY


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Anderson, H. H., & Brewer, J. E. Studies of teachers' classroom person-
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Anderson, H. H., & Reed, M. F. Studies of teachers' classroom person-
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Aspy, D. The effects of teacher-offered conditions of empathy, positive
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Aspy, D. N. Toward a technology for humanizing education. Champaign,
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Aspy, D. N. Interpersonal skills training for teachers. NIMH Research
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Aspy, D. N., Black, B., & Roebuck, F. N. The relationship of teacher-
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Aspy, D. N. & Hadlock, W. The effect of empathy, warmth, and genuine-
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Aspy, D. N., & Roebuck, F. N. An investigation of the relationship be-
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Aspy, D. I., & Roebuck, F. N. Research summary: Effects of training in
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Aspy, D. N., & Roebuck, F. N. The relationship of teacher-offered con-
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Avila, D. & Purkey, W. W. Classroom discipline: A "self-concept
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Glen H. Walter, Jr., was born October 19, 1947, in St. Louis, Missouri.

After graduating from Lutheran High School Central in St. Louis, he

attended Concordia Teachers College in River Forest, Illinois. While

attending Concordia, Glen majored in physical education until being

greatly influenced by Carl Rogers' book, On Becoming a Person. Shortly

thereafter, he changed his major to psychology.

Between Glen's junior and senior years at Concordia, he taught in

Lutheran Elementary School in Kaneohe, Hawaii. After graduating from

Concordia in 1970, Glen taught school and coached in San Diego, Califor-

nia and St. Louis.

In 1974, Glen attended Southern Illinois University in Edwardsville,

where he received a Master of Science degree in Counselor Education.

While at Southern Illinois University, he worked in the Micro-Teaching

Laboratory where he evaluated and worked with student teachers.

In 1975, Glen was a guidance counselor in the Bond County Unit 2

School District in Greenville, Illinois. The following year, Glen

enrolled in a doctoral program at the University of Florida. He has

specialized in psychological foundations of education. During his

doctoral program, Glen served as an instructor in classes for Human

Growth and Development, The Young Child, and Adolescent Psychology.

Glen also served as an instructor for the class, The Secondary School

Today.






67


Upon completion of his doctoral studies, Glen will be employed in

the Department of Educational Psychology and Guidance at Eastern Illinois

University, Charleston, where he will assume the rank of assistant

professor.

















I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.






Dr. Patricia Ashton, Chairperson
Professor of Education













I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.






Dr. Donald Avila
Professor of Education

















I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.



S, /' . '. .

Dr. Elroy J. Bolduc, Jr. \
Professor of Education












This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College
of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

August 1977

Dean, College of Education /


Dean, Graduate School




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