• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Dedication
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Review of the literature
 Research methodology
 The findings
 Summary, conclusions, and...
 Appendices
 References
 Biographical sketch














Group Title: relationship of job marketability training to the placement success of college seniors /
Title: The relationship of job marketability training to the placement success of college seniors /
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 Material Information
Title: The relationship of job marketability training to the placement success of college seniors /
Physical Description: xv, 246 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Schlossman, Alan G., 1950-
Publication Date: 1977
Copyright Date: 1977
 Subjects
Subject: College seniors   ( lcsh )
Applications for positions   ( lcsh )
Occupational training   ( lcsh )
Success   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 236-244.
Statement of Responsibility: by Alan G. Schlossman.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098106
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000064464
oclc - 04272214
notis - AAG9671

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Dedication
        Page iii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iv
        Page v
    Table of Contents
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    List of Tables
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Abstract
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Review of the literature
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
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    Research methodology
        Page 63
        Page 64
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    The findings
        Page 94
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    Summary, conclusions, and recommendations
        Page 124
        Page 125
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    Appendices
        Page 137
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    References
        Page 236
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    Biographical sketch
        Page 245
        Page 246
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Full Text














THE RELATlIONSIIIP OF JuB N\MAiKET'1 LILLT'Y TRAINIL.G TU
THE PLACEMENT SUCCESS OF COL.1,Eu SENIORS











By

ALAN G. SCHILOSSMAN


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF
THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1977


































Copyright 1977

By

Alan G. Schlossman


































To My Wife, Lorna

Whose Love Provided the Inspiration

for Completion of this Dissertation

















ACKNO' WLIDGIEN 'S


This doctoral dissertaLion was the result of the combined

efforts of many individuals. My sincere gratitude is expressed

to:

Dr. Harold C. Riker, my chairman, who assisted me in

evolving from a graduate student into a professional counselor.

His patience, understanding, and help made my graduate ex-

perience rewarding and enjoyable.

Drs. E. L. Tolbert and Franz Epting, the other members of

my supervisory committee, for their encouragement, support,

and expertise.

The staff of the University of Florida Career Resource

Center, including Mr. Maurice Mayberry, the director, who

made this research possible; Mr. Ralph Lewis, the associate

director, who arranged the job interviews; and Mr. Pete Aylward,

Ms. Dorothy Palmer, Mr. Mike Santoli, Ms. Betty Franklin,

and Ms. Nancy Leitner, for their encouragement.

Drs. Dhande, Paige, Davidson, Richardson, Anderson, and

Collins, who made their classes available for this study.

Also, the 115 students of the University of Florida, who












participated in this investijtijiun, and the nine profes-

sional recruiters, who conduc'L d the job interviews.

Ms. Barbair Rucker, foL Ihci cassisL Ln with Li, statis--

tical analysis of this dissertation. Also, Ms. Voncile Sanders,

for her patience in typing the manuscript.

My sister, Joni Schlossman, and my friend, Edward

Friedman, for their consistent optimism.

My parents, Mr. and Mrs. Gerald B. Schlossman, whose

faith, support, and love made my education possible.

My wife, Lorna, to whom this dissertation is dedicated.














TABLE UF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ..... . . . . . . . iv

LIST OF TABLES. . . . . . . . . . . ix

ABSTRACT. ..... . . . . . . . . xiii

CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION. .. . . . . . 1

Rationale. ..... . . . . . 4
Purpose of the Study . . . . . 7
Definition of Terms Used in the Study. .. 7
Organization of the Remainder of
the Study ..... . . . 8

II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. . . . . 10

Placement. . . . . . . . ... 10

Job Placement and Placement Services 10
Historical Development of Counseling. 12
Parsons' Theory of Vocational Choice. 13
Placement Objectives. . . . .. 15
Basic Programs. . . . ... . . 17
Job Placement and Career Development. 19

Job Market Analysis. .. . . . 21

Career Development and the Job Market 21
The Changing Job Market . . . .. 24
Job Market Trends . . . . .. 27

Group Career Counseling. . . . .. 30

Rationale for Groups. . . . . 30
Specific Career Counseling Groups . 33
Group Career Counseling Research. . 41












TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continuedj


Page

Career Developni.tit Courses . . . . 43

Rationale . . . . . . . 43
Extent of Career Development Courses. 44
Purposes. ... . . . . . 46

Recruiting Practices . . . . .. 47

Present Trends. . . . . . .. 47
Research Regarding Recruiting
Practices. . . . . . . ... 51

Future of Placement. . . . . . 54

Automation. .. . . . . ... 54
Future Directions . . ... . .. 58

Summary. ... . . . . . . 61

III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. . . . . . . 63

The Hypotheses . . . . . . . 64
The Research Design. . . . . . 65
The Population and the Selection
of Subjects . . . . . . ... 68
Description of the Sample . . . ... 72
The Training Program . . . . ... 75
Procedures . . . . . . . .. 80

Experimental Group Procedures .... 80
Control Group Procedures. .. . . 82

Instrumentation . . . . . ... 83
Data Collection. . . . . . .. 87
Analysis of the Data . . . . .. 89
Limitations of the Study . . . . 91












TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)


IV TIIE FINDINGS. ... . . . . . . 4

Introduction ... . . . . 94
Findings Related to the Null
Hypotheses. ..... . . . . . 95

V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS . 124

Introduction . . . . . . .. 124
Sufmmary of the Findings .. . . ... 125
Discussion . . . . . . ... 126
Conclusions. . . . . . . . 131
Implications . . . . . . . 133
Recommendations for Further Research . 134

APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . 13/

APPENDIX A--JOB OPPORTUNITIES OUTLOOK
HANDBOOK: 1975-1985 . . . .. 139
APPENDIX B--CAREER EDUCATION MINI-SCHOOL
PROGRAM . . . . . . . .. 144
APPENDIX C--JOB SEARCH PREPAREDNESS INSTRUMENT. 150
APPENDIX D--JOB EMPLOYABILITY RATINGS INTERVIEW
RECAP SHEET. . . . . . . 158
APPENDIX E--GRADUATING STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE. . 11
APPENDIX F--LETTER TO COLLEGES OF ENGINEERING
AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION. ... . 165
APPENDIX G--INFORMED CONSENT FORM . . . .. 168
APPENDIX H--JOB MARKETABILITY TRAINING. . . .. 171
APPENDIX I--HAND-OUT SHEET--JOB MARKETABILITY
TRAINING COURSES . . . . .. 233
APPENDIX J--PRESENTER RATING SHEET. . . . .. 235

REFERENCES. . . . . . . . . ... . . 236

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . ... 245


viii
















LIST O)L 'TABLES


Table PL o

1 Lifetime Income Grows as Education
Levels Rise .... . . . . . 27

2 Crosstabulation of Group by Class . . 73

3 Crosstabulation of Group by Graduation
Date. . . . . . . . . .. 74

4 Description of Specific Classes by Group. 75

5 Analysis of Presenter Rating Sheet Job
Marketability Training Course #1. . . 79

6 Analysis of Presenter Rating Sheet
Job Marketability Training Course #2. .. 79

7 Analysis of Covariance of Item 1A on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... 97

8 Analysis of Covariance of Item 1B on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 97

9 Analysis of Covariance of Item 1C on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... 98

10 Analysis of Covariance of Item 2A on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 98

11 Analysis of Covariance of Item 2B on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 99

12 Analysis of Covariance of Item 2C on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... 99












LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Table Page

13 Analysis of Covarjince of ILci 3 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrumnnt .. . 100

14 Analysis of Covariance of Item 4 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. . .. 100

15 Analysis of Covariance of Item 5 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. . .. 101

16 Analysis of Covariance of Item 6 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument .. 101

17 Analysis of Covariance of Item 7 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 103

18 Analysis of Covariance of Item 8 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 103

19 Analysis of Covariance of Item 9 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 104

20 Analysis of Covariance of Item 10 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 104

21 Analysis of Covariance of Item 11 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 105

22 Analysis of Covariance of Item 12 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 105

23 Analysis of Covariance of Item 13 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 106

24 Analysis of Covariance of Item 14 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument ... 106

25 Analysis of Covariance of Item 15 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 107












LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Table Page

26 Analysis of Covariance of Item 16 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. .... 107

27 Analysis of Covariance of Item 17 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. .. .. 108

28 Analysis of Covariance of Item 18 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. .. .. 108

29 Analysis of Covariance of Item 19 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... i. 1

30 Analysis of Covariance of Item 20 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. . 111

31 Analysis of Covariance of Item 21 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. .. .. 112

32 Analysis of Covariance of Item 22 on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 112

33 Analysis of Covariance of Item 23A on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 113

34 Analysis of Covariance of Item 23B on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 113

35 Analysis of Covariance of Item 23C on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... 114

36 Analysis of Covariance of Item 23D on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 114

37 Analysis of Covariance of Item 23E on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 115

38 Analysis of Covariance of Item 24A on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 115











LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Table P a e

39 Analysis of Covari .nce of LL([IL 24B on Llid-
Job Scrch Prepar LidinCss InLLitrumcnL. . . I l

40 Analysis of Covariance of Item 24C on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 116

41 Analysis of Covariance of Item 24D on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... 117

42 Analysis of Covariance of Item 24E on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. . . 117

43 Analysis of Covariance of Item 24F on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. . . 118

44 Analysis of Covariance of Item 24G on the
Job Search Preparedness Instrument. ... . 118

45 T-tests of Significance of Differences
Between Experimental and Control Groups
on the Job Employability Ratings Inter-
view Recap Sheet. . . . . . .. 120

46 Analysis of Graduating Student
Questionnaire .. . . . . . . 122











Abstract of Dissertation Prisented to the Graduate Council
of the University of FloridaL in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degire uf Doctor of Philosophy

THE RELATIONSHIP OF JOB MARKETABILITY TRAINING TO
TIE PLACEMENT SUCCESS OF COLNIGEE SENIORS

By

Alan G. Schlossman

December 1977

Chairman: Dr. Harold C. Riker
Major Department: Counselor Education

The difficult experience of graduates of higher education

in obtaining satisfactory employment in the mid-70's has

attracted national interest. Highly deserved attention and

concern are focused principally upon the unemployment and

underemployment of these graduates.

Since the placement service cannot alter the job market,

a feasible way to address the employment problem might be

placement services which enhance a registrant's ability to

effectively market his assets as a potential employee. This

study was an analysis of one particular approach to the

employment problem, that of the University of Florida Career

Resource Center career education mini-school program.

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship

of job marketability training to the placement success of

college seniors. This relationship was evaluated by the

xiii












researcher through determining differences in scores on

instruments which measure job search preparedness, job

employability ratings, and employment status at time of

graduation.

A particular sequence of six career education mini-school

sessions presented in a structured fashion provided job market-

ability training for this study. Students randomly assigned

to the experimental group attended two separate job market-

ability training courses. Students randomly assigned to the

control group were not exposed to job marketability training.

This study initially included 160 undergraduate students

classified as seniors, attending the University of Florida

in Gainesville, Florida. These students were drawn from

three classes in the College of Engineering and three classes

from the College of Business Administration. A total of 115

students completed the study. Of the 115 students, 59 were

in the experimental group, and 56 were in the control group.

The Job Search Preparedness Instrument was given to all

students before and after the training period to provide a

measure of job search preparedness. Interviews with pro-

fessional recruiters were arranged for all students on a

posttest basis only, to provide data on job employability

ratings. The Graduating Student Questionnaire was completed











only by those seniors graduating in August 1977, to provide

information on actual job offers at time of graduation.

Data analysis indicated that there were significant

differences, at the .05 level of confidence, in scores between

the experimental and control groups on 9 out of 38 items on

the Job Search Preparedness Instrument. Data analysis indi-

cated that there were significant differences, at the .05 level

of confidence, in scores between the experimental and control

groups on the summary category of the Job Employability Ratings

Interview Recap Sheet. Analysis of the Graduating Student

Questionnaire indicated that there were no significant dif-

ferences between the experimental and control groups in their

employment status as of the date of graduation, August 1977.

The results of this study lead to the following con-

clusions:

1. This study found that student exposure to a job

marketability training program had a positive effect on

several elements of job search preparedness. These elements

included critical tasks in the job-hunting process in the

areas of self-awareness, job analysis and interview pre-

paration.











2. This study found that student exposure to a job

marketability training progrE.m had a positive effect on job

employability ratings by specific empluy 'rs.

3. This study found that a job marketability training

program can effectively teach some of the skills and competen-

cies needed to engage more successfully in the job-hunting

process.

Even though statistical significance was not demon-

strated for four of the hypotheses, this study suggests that

job marketability training has sufficient beneficial effects

for students and therefore should be included as one aspect

of an overall placement program.
















CIIHAF'I'ER I


INTRODUCTION


The difficult experience of graduates of higher educa-

tion in obtaining satisfactory employment in the mid-70's has

attracted national interest. Highly deserved attention and

concern are focused principally upon the unemployment and

underemployment of these graduates. Some of the more obvious

elements that contribute to the employment problem for these,

the most highly trained of our young people, are the recently

depressed economy, the dwindling demand for postsecondary

graduates, and the superabundant numbers entering the labor

market. Among the less obvious complications is failure of

higher education to provide these young people with adequate

career counseling in their undergraduate years. Missing, in

too many instances, is any well-planned program to stimulate

the career thinking of these young people, to acquaint them

with the career options available to them, and to counsel them

in self-assessment and adaptability to the world of work

(Herrick, 1976).

The recent emphasis on career planning and placement











at the college level has several causes. These include the

need to increase education's relevance to later life, a

tightening economic situation, ind the Josire to contribute

to the total development of the student (Ripley, 1975). in

the 1970's the supply of college graduates has outrun the

demand for their services. The supply-demand picture will

permit employers the opportunity to be selective in choosing

employees. The available openings will go to the best quali-

fied candidates (Powell, 1974). With jobs difficult to

obtain, students must be taught how to ascertain the com-

patability between individual means and job market limita-

tions (Devlin, 1974).

College students are expressing a greater need for

career certainty. They are critically questioning the in-

vestment of their time, money and effort in a college educa-

tion when they are unable to understand or find the correla-

tion between such education and the work world (Devlin, 1974).

An important aim of higher education is the development

of the whole individual. This wholeness implies something

far beyond the classroom. It means education for life, and

a very real part of living in our industrial society is

earning a living. Thus, the placement program is a signifi-

cant element of higher education. It is the responsibility











of this program through education, counseling, guidance,

and advisement to help students become aware of thuir own

potential and how that potential may be used productively

in the world of work. The placement office, through career

counseling, through occupational information, through helping

the student secure part-time and summer employment, and

through the employer campus interview program, can assist

students to put their classroom learning into realistic

perspective (Stephens, 1970).

If colleges and universities are to help students in

the career development process, the traditional placement

office will have to change. For placement to function as a

link between students and a changing world of work, it must

focus on the self-development, career development, and growth

of the students themselves. Major objectives would be assist-

ing students to 'evaluate themselves to determine their career

objectives as well as planning a systematic career search

(Simpson & Harwood, 1973).

Bolles (1974) argues that career development counselors

must see themselves as advocates of the job-hunters (students),

with the students as the primary focus of consideration.

Once this change in role and perspective is accepted, career

development counselors must then recover an instructional











function so that students can develop the skills and

approaches to be effective, independent jcb-hunters and

job-changers for the remainder of their working lives.



Rationale


Successful evaluation of career alternatives and job

attainment depend upon a set of interpersonal skills which

many people do not necessarily acquire or refine through

their day-to-day, unsupervised experiences. Included are

such personal skills as: (1) self-assertiveness, (2) inter-

viewing, and (3) self-disclosure. Career decisions are more

complicated than buying a suit of clothes, and require more

than only a brief contact with a career counselor. In fact,

the career decision making process is quite intricate and

cannot be unraveled in a day. Like any other complex topic,

the process must be learned cumulatively in a sequence of

sessions (Figler & Mandell, 1975). The major focus of

career planning and placement centers is on the career de-

velopment of students. The placement office accomplishes

this by providing services designed to assist students make

decisions regarding the evaluation of career alternatives

and job attainment. This study will investigate the advan-

tages of teaching the skills and competencies needed to











engage more successfully in the job-hunting process.

Many Career and Planning and Placement Centers have

decided to combat the employment problem by utilizing their

resources to increase the marketability of their institu-

tion's graduates. Through expanding services, these place-

ment offices have tried to maximize the student's ability to

secure post-baccalaureate employment. A number of programs

have appeared on college campuses in the last few years,

including group career counseling, life planning workshops,

and career development courses (Devlin, 1974).

Another vehicle which seems to be achieving acceptance

and success at the University of Florida Career Resource

Center is the career education mini-school program. Briefly,

this program consists of a total of 17 individual sessions

on separate topics in the areas of career development, jobs

and outlook, and job placement. These sessions are designed

to enhance student career selection, review employment oppor-

tunities, and prepare students to successfully compete for

jobs. Each session is 50 minutes long and all sessions are

presented weekly, free of charge, to interested University

of Florida students and alumni. A particular sequence of

six career education mini-school sessions taken in a

structured fashion provided job marketability training for

this study.












Since the placement service cannot alter the job market,

a feasible way to address the employment problem might be

placement services which enhance a registrant's ability to

effectively market his assets as a poLnt.ial employee. This

study was an analysis of one particular approach to the

employment problem, that of the University of Florida Career

Resource Center career education mini-school program. This

study was the first research project to investigate the

effectiveness of this specific program. The results of

this investigation can provide useful information to aid in

the development of placement programs which assist students

in improving their job marketability.

This program and others attempt to assist the college

graduate in selecting and obtaining a career position after

college. This assistance is given by presenting career

planning concepts and professional placement techniques that

are designed to equip the graduate with a competitive advan-

tage in the initial job market (Powell, 1974). Effective

college placement services can be a strategic linkage

between educational preparation and successful job place-

ment (Robb, 1971).












Purpose of the Study


The purpose of this study was to assess the relation-

ship of job marketability training to thi placement success

of college seniors. The following questions were investi-

gated:

1. What is the relationship between job market-
ability training and student competence in
such areas as self-awareness, job analysis,
and interview preparation?

2. What is the relationship between job market-
ability training and job employability ratings
by specific employers?

3. What is the relationship between job market-
ability training and actual job offers at
time of graduation (August, 1977)?


Definition of Terms Used
in the Study


Career Development--refers to the total constellation

of psychological, sociological, educational, physical,

economic, and chance factors that combine to shape the

career of any given individual (National Vocational Guidance

Association and American Vocational Association Joint Posi-

tion Paper, 1973).

Job Placement--refers to the process of focusing the

student's self-concept, educational background, and











occupational skills on the specific act of finding a job

(Sampson, 1977, p. 22).

Job Marketability Trainingq--refersi Lo i particular

sequence of career education mini-school sessions (; total

of 6) taken in a structured fashion.

Personal Empowerment--refers to the process which

enables individuals to develop the insights and competencies

necessary for them to take charge of their lives, to control

what occurs rather than to be controlled, and to act on the

belief that they can manage their own life career development

by their planning and decision making (Walz & Benjamin, 1974,

p. 79).

Placement Success--refers to the degree of student job

marketability. The greater the degree of student job market-

ability the greater the likelihood of placement success. Job

marketability is evaluated.by scores on instruments which

measure job search preparedness, job employability ratings,

and employment status at time of graduation.


Organization of the Remainder
of the Study


The remainder of the study is organized as follows:

Chapter II contains a review of the literature. Chapter








9


III contains a discussion of the research methodology. The

findings of the study are presented in Chapter IV. Chapter

V includes the summary, conclusions, and recommendaLions.

















CHAPTER II


REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


The review of the literature for this investigation

is divided into the following broad topics: (1) placement,

(2) job market analysis, (3) group career counseling, (4)

career development courses, (5) recruiting practices, (6)

future of college placement, and (7) summary.



Placement


Job Placement and
Placement Services


Sampson (1977, p. 22) states, "Job placement is a pro-

cess of focusing the student's self-concept, educational

background, and occupational skills on Lhe specific act of

finding a job. This process creates a high level of ego

involvement for the student and can be extremely frustrat-

ing if the student encounters difficulties in translating

occupational goals into actual job offers." Bolles (1972)

suggests a proactive approach to placement, emphasizing

self-knowledge and intensive personal research on possible











job openings. Tolbert (197-) stresses that college place-

ment should not be left to the senior year. Self assessment

should begin early in college and continue until graduation.

The traditional functions of placement services have

been: (1) campus job interview coordination, (2) career

counseling, and (3) provision of occupational and manpower

information (Toombs & Frisbey, 1972). Placement services

have now broadened to include freshman orientation, student

employment, career education, career days, maintenance of

student and employer records, alumni placement, graduation

follow-up, research, and public relations (Stephens, 1970).

Kruger (1972-1973) suggests that the college placement

center should serve as a liaison with the academic community.

By providing feedback to academic departments, the place-

ment staff can serve as change agents to improve the quality

of student career development. Herrick (1976) reported that

the College Placement Council conducted an ambitious study

in 1975, to analyze career planning and placement in the

mid-70's, in which 860 college and university career planning

and placement centers participated. The results of this

survey indicated that career planning and placement centers

consistently offered these seven services: (1) campus

interviews, (2) full-time ]ob placement, (3) career











counseling, (4) alumni placement, (5) resume service,

(6) part-time and summer job placement, and (7) credential

service.


Historical Development
of Counseling


Counseling emerged and developed as an American product.

Several factors were instrumental in its emergence in America.

These factors include: (1) belief in the importance of the

individual, (2) lack of rigid class lines, (3) economic

system affluent enough to afford it, and (4) child centered

society (Shertzer & Stone, 1974).

Several historical factors and forces influenced and

facilitated the development of counseling. The climate pro-

vided by the interaction of these factors and forces enabled

counseling to emerge and maintain itself in America. The

key factors and forces included: (1) the social reform

movement, (2) vocational guidance, (3) the child study

movement, (4) psychometrics, (5) the influence of the

mental health movement, (6) the psychoanalytic movement,

(7) client-centered therapy, (8) the depression and World

War II, and (9) federal government support (Borow, 1964;

Shertzer & Stone, 1974).











Parsons' Theory of
Vocational Choice


No complex movement such as LhIuL ut vocationr.il guidance

can be traced to any simple set of ci t'~lnmsLances. Brewer

(1942) points out four conditions which, taken together,

led to the rise of the movement: (1) the fact of the

division of labor, (2) the growth of technology, (3) the

extension of vocational education, and (4) the spread of

modern forms of democracy.

Vocational guidance and placement developed as one of

the early, fragmented, student personnel activities. Frank

Parsons, a Boston educator and social worker, is generally

credited with being the real motivator of vocational

counseling and placement. Parsons developed the first

theory of vocational choice which received widespread

attention. Parsons reasoned that young people floundered

vocationally because they did not know themselves, and

because they did not know how to relate themselves to jobs.

Out of his experiences in counseling at the Vocational

Bureau of Boston at the turn of the century, Parsons

developed a theory of vocational choice which he described

in his book Choosing a Vocation, published posthumously in

1909.











Parsons (1909, pp. 4-5) described his zhree-step

theory of vocational choice: (I) self-understaniiing on

the part of the client: a knowledge of his interests,

aptitudes, resources, limitations, etc.; (2) knowledge of

the world of work: aptitudes required on a job, educa-

tional background necessary, paths of advancement,

remuneration, etc.; (3) matching of individual qualifi-

cations to job requirements. This was a simple, workable

hypothesis: reasoned vocational choice in the light of

man-analysis and job-analysis. Parsons' book became the

bible of vocational guidance for years to come. In fact,

Parsons' theory of vocational choice remains the rationale

of many a counselor today.

In most college placement offices, current theory and

practice does suggest a Parsonian approach to vocational

counseling. Hoppock (1963, p. 149) rather succinctly

states that "the basic problem in all vocational counsel-

ing is to help the client find out what he hopes to get

from his job, what he has to offer in exchange for what

he hopes to get, and in what occupations he will have the

best chance of getting what he wants."











Placement Objectives


Stephens (1970, p. 3) has defined placement as "a means

of helping students understand themselves through counseling,

of aiding in Lhu clarification of life goils and -ducational

and job objectives through guidance, and of advising and

helping to make education and employer contacts." In these

terms, placement is defined as what it does. Placement is

action that has a positive effect on students as well as a

state of mind which centers on the self-development, career

development, and growth of students (Simpson & Harwood, 1973)

Simpson and Harwood (1973) suggest that the major ob-

jectives of placement should be to assist students in:

appraising interests and abilities; determining personal

career objectives; learning how to systematically plan an

approach to employment; developing initiative, independence,

and realism in the career and post-graduate decision-making

process; and planning and implementing career and post-

graduate decisions.

Souther (1975) stresses three primary objectives of the

career planning and placement center: (1) that students at

the university have sufficient career and employment informa-

tion to understand the implications of their educational

program decisions, (2) that graduating students and alumni












obtain employment commensurate with their academic prepara-

tion, interests, capabilities, and career and life goals,

and that those students locv.iny Lhe uniiv er si ty pi i r Lu

graduation find employment compatible wiLh their education,

experience, and personal goals, and (3) that the social and

economic well-being of public and private institutions

and employing organizations be promoted by a continuous

flow of contributive talent graduating from the university.

Holcomb (1972) provides another related view of

objectives for a career planning and placement center.

Holcomb emphasizes the following objectives: (1) to function

as a fully-integrated institutional service for students and

graduates, (2) to offer career guidance and placement

assistance to counselees, (3) to help students and

graduates find both part-time and full-time employment,

(4) to develop and maintain working relationships with

employers who have opportunities of interest to students

and graduates of the institution, and (5) to evaluate and

improve the work of the department.












Basic Programs


As the title "Career Pl]anning and Placement" suggests,

the service is built on two basic progritams: a curieer

planning program and a placement program. A career

planning program is best seen as a continuum, for career

planning does not take place at any one point in Lime.

Different students will need career planning and counsel-

ing at different times in their careers, and a particular

student will need career counseling at more than one time in

a career. Placement programs, on the other hand, tend to

be needed at particular points in time, as near graduation

or when a job change is desirable. Both programs are highly

related and interdependent, yet each is distinctive and

different (Souther, 1975).

A career planning program is part of the educational

processes of the college or university and can come into play

at a variety of points in a student's lifetime. It can pro-

vide important insights for the student trying to choose an

academic major. It can assist in defining the kind of part-

time or summer work experience that a student should seek

for self-development. The need for career planning can

occur at any time, and an effective program assures the












student easy access. Even aftLr grtduaLi on, man; alumni

will return for career planiingj s \.'ul] as placement assis-

tance. The two primary building blocks for the c rIrer

planning program are career information and individual

and group career counseling (Souther, 1975).

The placement program differs from the career planning

program in that it tends to be time-oriented, that is, it

tends to meet the needs of students or alumni at a given

point in time, as when they need employment or wish to

change jobs. Placement programs usually involve the

student most deeply during the senior year or the year

prior to receiving a graduate degree. Placement programs

focus on job identification and job development, student-

employer contact, and job seeking (Souther, 1975).

A somewhat different view of the basic programs of

a career planning and placement center is taken by Kirts

and Fisher (1973). Kirts and Fisher advocate a systems

approach called TRIPOD, to career planning and placement.

TRIPOD, an acronym for Tri-Phase Integrative Program for

Occupational Development, focuses on three phases: (1)

self-assessment (activities include interviews, testing,

simulation, and feedback), (2) exposure (activities include

off-campus field experiences, individual studies in area











of interest, integration with the acadiiic program, and

volunteer work and part-timie cu.,iplomentL) and (3) placement

(activities include evalua Lon of )ob opportunities, resume

writing and interview tochninquEcs, aind approaches tu job

hunting).


Job Placement and
Career Development


Sampson (1977) has defined job placement as the process

of focusing the student's self-concept, educational back-

ground, and occupational skills on the specific act of find-

ing a job. Tolbert (1974) has described career development

as referring to the lifelong process of developing work

values, crystallizing a vocational identity, learning about

opportunities, and trying out plans in part time, recrea-

tional, and fqll time work situations. Several theories

of career development recognize the critical role of job

placement in the career development process.

Super's theory considers vocational development as a

process of implementing self-concept. The theory suggests

that a person implements his self-concept by choosing an

occupation that gives him self-expression. Super maintains

that there are vocational life stages which people go through.











These vocational life stages include: (1) growth, (2)

exploration, (3) establishment, (4) maintenance, und (5)

decline (Super, 1957; Tolbert, 1.971).

An important concept in Super's theory is the sequence

of developmental tasks. These vocational development tasks

include: (1) crystallization, (2) specification, (3)

implementation, (4) stabilization, (5) consolidation, and

(6) retirement (Super & Bohn, 1970). Super believes that

individuals move through vocational life stages, each of

which calls for vocational behavior of a different sort

(Super, 1957; Osipow, 1973).

Tiedeman and O'Hara believe that career development is

defined as the process of building a vocational identity

through differentiation and integration as one confronts

work. Career development is a continuing process of defin-

ing one's identity in vocational terms. The developmental-

decision-making process of differentiation and integration

is made up of a series of steps which may be repeated

throughout one's lifetime in two distinct phases. The

first phase is anticipation or preoccupation. This phase

consists of four steps: exploration, crystallization,

choice, and clarification. The second phase is implementa-

tion and adjustment. The steps in this phase include:











induction, reformation, anu ]iLt.gration (Tiedeman & O'Hara,

1963; Tolbert, 1974).

According to the Ginzbierg (1951) developmental theory,

the individual moves through a series of related stages.

The process of occupational choice, rather than a one-time

decision, is central to the theory. Values, environmental

realities, psychological attributes, and educational oppor-

tunities and achievement affect the process. It is assumed

that vocational decision making can be portrayed in the

following stages: (1) fantasy period, (2) tentative period,

and (3) realistic period. Occupational choices are made

during the realistic period. There are compromises between

reality factors (job requirements and/or educational oppor-

tunities) and personal factors. Substages of the realistic

period include: (1) exploration, (2) crystallization, and

(3) specification (Ginzberg, 1951; Tolbert, 1974).


Job Market Analysis


Career Development
and the Job Market


Career development refers to the total constellation of

psychological, sociological, educational, physical, economic,

and chance factors that combine to shape the career of any











given individual (National Vocational Guidance Association

and American Vocational Association Joint Position Paper,

1973). Today there are many social iucLurs which converge

to stimulate an interest in the career development needs of

persons of all ages. Some of these include: (1) growing

complexity in the occupational and organizational structure

of society which makes it difficult for a person to assimi-

late and organize the data necessary to formulate a career,

(2) ever more rapid technological change demanding human

adaptability and responsiveness, (3) increasing national

concern with the need to develop all human talent, (4) an

ardent search for values which will give meaning to life,

(5) the need for specialized training to obtain entry jobs,

and (6) the apparent disenchantment expressed by students

who have difficulty relating their education to their

lives. Each of these factors impinges on the individual

in ways that make achieving self-fulfillment more difficult

(National Vocational Guidance Association and American

Vocational Association Joint Position Paper, 1973).

There is a clear need for college students to plan

realistically for their future. Competition among college

graduates for jobs will become increasingly keen in the

years ahead. College students should: (1) carefully












appraise their abilities and limitations early in college,

(2) learn about the employment outlook, earnings, and

working conditions in the fields that .interest them before

getting committed to them in school, and (3) develop

techniques for job-hunting before graduation (Young, 1975).

Endicott (1967, p. 32) states that "the employability

of the graduate often relates to his personal qualifications,

such as maturity, poise, enthusiasm, and ability to work

with people." Endicott is convinced that, for a considerable

number of jobs, the field of major study is not significant,

and the college graduate with the necessary personal

qualifications will find many opportunities for employment.

Figler (1973) stresses that it is the responsibility of

the career counselor to erase what students perceive to be

the rigidities of the job-market structure. Figler asserts

that it is possible to take an individual with a bachelor's

degree to any of a variety of employers and to convince an

employer that the individual has enough ability to solve

problems in that particular organization. Figler believes

that career counselors must communicate this to their

students.

Gaymer (1970) suggests that job-hunting is a combina-

tion of several arts. Gaymer describes several components











which are needed in the job-hunting process. These include:

(1) digging for information and opportunities, and examining

them front all possible angles, (2) self-assessment, (3) self

presentation, and (4) applied persistence.


The Changing Job Market


Explanations for the declining vigor of the job market

for college graduates range from the fairly simple to the

very complex. As the College Placement Council observes

(1975, p. 3), the root of the current dilemma is supply

versus demand: "Each year the number of college graduates

increases, but the number of jobs requiring college training

is not increasing proportionately." Institutions of higher

education have been caught right in the middle of this

problem. On one hand, increased pressure for mass education

has caused higher student enrollments, while on the other

hand, the reality of too few college-level positions has

created an overabundance of college graduates (Webb, 1972).

Historically, there has been an association between

the growth of the economy and the expansion of higher

education in the United States. Since 1900 the professional

and managerial occupation groups that might utilize college

educated workers have increased in proportion to all workers.











Despite large increases in enrollment after Worlo War II,

the demand for college graduates kept pace until 1969,

so that college graduates generally hai little difficulty

finding the jobs they sought (Gordon, 1974, pp. 27-29).

Gordon identifies the 1950's as the time when the rise

in employment of college graduates for professional-

technical occupations hit its peak. From 1959 to 1968 the

proportion of college graduates employed in these occu-

pational categories increased only slightly and in 1969 a

decline began (pp. 32-36). A perspective on the current

situation may be had if one sees the increase in demand for

college graduates in the 1950's and 1960's as an unusual

phenomenon, which can be attributed to large increases in

the portion of the Gross National Product going into re-

search and development and to a rising demand for elementary

and secondary teachers (p. 40). Gordon believes that both

of these influences will probably not occur again in the

1970's or 1980's.

Another perspective may be gained from Freeman (1975)

who finds that there was a substantial drop in the real and

relative starting salary of college graduates beginning in

the early 1970's after years of increases. This represents,

in his view, a price system response to a surplus of college











manpower. According to Freeman, a marked slowdown occurred

in the growth of professional and managerial jobs from

1969 to 1974 that coincided with an expansion in the num-

ber of college graduates. The result was a worsening in

occupational structure for college graduates, such as

having to take lower level jobs, or jobs outside their

area of interest (p. 294). Since these developments in

conjunction with higher costs of college resulted in less

return on an investment in college, Freeman argues that a

market mechanism occurred that explains the declining

proportion of 18- and 19-year-olds enrolling in college

(p. 298). The relative position of college graduates was

maintained for twenty years by a change in industrial job

mix and a relatively small increase in the supply of

college graduates, due to the expansion in enrollment in

postgraduate education. As the 1970's began, the demand

declined and the supply peaked (p. 305).

An individual's educational level upon entering the

labor force has been important in determining future income

(Stevenson, 1971). The findings regarding lifetime income

as related to educational level are presented in Table 1.












Table 1

Lifetime Income Grows is Education Levels Rise

Years of School 1972 Lifetime Income for Men
Completed _Age 18 to Death

Elementary 8 $344,000
High School 4 479,000
College 1 to 3 543,000
4 711,000
5 or more 824,000



Source: Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Series
P-60, No. 92, March 1974, Bureau of the Census,
p. 4.


As can be seen from Table 1, four years of college has

meant extra lifetime earnings, on the average, of almost

$250,000 (as compared to only completing a high school educa-

tion). The 1974 Current Population Reports, Consumer Income,

Bureau of the Census, confirms the money-value of a college

education.


Job Market Trends


In addition to the supply of graduates exceeding demand,

another problem exists. The talents and skills of college

graduates, as defined by the subjects in which they major,

are not in harmony with the occupations which will be

needing talent (Powell, 1974). Statistics taken from a











recent Department of Labor report (U. S. Department of Labor,

Bulletin 1701, 1970) indicate that, on the average, 1.1

million graduates each year will be available for career

employment by 1980. On the average, only 865,000 jobs will

be available. Even if many graduates drop out of the job

market to travel, or become housewives, there will still not

be a balance between supply and demand.

The most critical element in the employment situation

for college graduates in the coming years will be the

necessity for the absorption of some college educated per-

sons into jobs which have not been traditionally filled by

persons with a college education (Carnegie Commission on

Higher Education, 1973). College graduates are expected to

continue to have a competitive advantage in the job market,

taking jobs previously held by those without degrees and

not experiencing significant levels of unemployment (U. S.

Department of Labor, Bulletin 1824, 1974; U. S. Department

of Labor, Bulletin 1786, 1974) The problems of college

graduates will more likely involve employment below the

level of skill for which they were trained, underemployment,

rather than unemployment (Trivett, 1975). College graduates

will be able to find jobs, but their qualifications may far

exceed the skills demanded by the job market, creating











underemployment in those situations wher-e their work does

not require the full utilization of their skills ,Cnd train-

ing (DeWitt & Tussing, 1971; Trivett, 1975).

To assist individuals with their educational and voca-

tional choices, counselors must have occupational informa-

tion that is current, accurate, and comprehensive. The

Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1976-1977 Edition is a pri-

mary source of the information needed for sound career

planning. For more than 850 occupations and 30 major indus-

tries, the Handbook describes what workers do on the job, the

training and education required, advancement possibilities,

employment outlook, and earnings and working conditions.

Most statements also list professional societies, trade

associations, unions, and other organizations that can supply

additional career information.

This job market analysis may be completed by a review

of specific information regarding job opportunities (from

the present extending into the next 10 years or so). A

Job Opportunities Outlook Handbook: 1975-1985 has been pre-

pared by the University of Florida Counseling Center and the

University of Florida Career Planning and Placement Center

(1976) for just this precise task. The handbook is designed

to provide general information regarding job opportunities











from 1975 through 1985. The information included is: (1)

the particular field, (2) number of persons presently

employed, (3) per cent increase in the filcd over the next

10 years, and (4) assessment of job opportunities in the

particular field. The handbook appears in Appendix A (the

last page concerning career opportunities for Ph.D.'s has

been omitted, as not appropriate for this study).


Group Career Counseling


Rationale for Groups


The idea of group vocational (career) counseling is

not new; nearly two decades ago Hewer (1959) compared group

and individual counseling focused on vocations and conducted

in a college setting. Both initially and after an eight-

year follow-up,.no difference was found between group and

individual approaches (Hewer, 1968). In the second issue

of the Journal of College Student Personnel (Kirkbride, 1959),

placement was identified as one student personnel service in

which group counseling can be effective. In 1966, Loughran,

of Hunter College, told a placement workshop that "Group

work is the field of the future in placement due to the

increasing numbers of students and the complexities and rapid

changes in the world of work" (Frisbey & Scott, 1966, p. 100).











Rogers (1970) judged the group experience to be the most

potent and rapidly spreading social invention of Lhe

century.

Any rationale for usinj groups in corner development

is essentially the same as for using group approaches in

counseling generally. Offering career services in a group

setting has some distinct advantages over the traditional

individual one-to-one approach. Some of the advantages

include: (1) more economical use of staff resources, (2)

the benefits of social modeling, (3) the sharing of common

difficulties, (4) reality testing in a social setting, and

(5) providing a microcosm of the larger society (Iioffman &

Cochran, 1975). Graff, Danish, and Austin (1972) have found

group career counseling to be equally as effective as

individual career counseling.

Figler and Mandell (1975) have identified a number of

objectives to teach students through career planning and

placement assistance: (1) narrowing, (2) expanding, (3)

skills identification, (4) values identification, (5) goals

identification, (6) exploration, (7) reality-testing, and

(8) evaluation. Figler and Mandell believe that group

career counseling has a high probability of helping students

to obtain most or all of the objectives noted above because:











(1) a group experience is socially reinforcing, therefore,

it increases the likelihood tLat students will continue the

learning experience for a longer period of time than they

might do by themselves, (2) it establishes a situation in

which students can feel an identification with peers who are

experiencing the same concerns, creating less of a feeling of

isolation, (3) there is immediate feedback from various

people other than the counselor and they are a potent source

of help for students, by giving them support where necessary

and questioning their self-assessments, (4) a good group will

provide a "charged" atmosphere which may motivate the members

to be more open and introspect at deeper levels than they

would during an individual one-to-one counseling process,

and (5) an effective group has the extra benefit of improv-

ing interpersonal skills for individuals, while they are ad-

vancing through the career exploration and decision-making

process.

The content of group career counseling is being in-

fluenced by several different sources: (1) values clarifi-

cation exercises from the National Humanistic Education

Center (Raths, Harmin & Simon, 1966; Simon, Howe, &

Kirschenbaum, 1972), (2) life/work planning exercises from

Crystal and Bolles (1974), and Loughary and Ripley (1974),











in their textbooks and workbooks, (3) sLructured exercises

drawn from workbooks such as PTih' (Figlor, 1973, 1974, 1975),

and (4) exercises adapted crom effective problem solving

(Magoon, 1969).


Specific Career Counseling
Groups


Career Development Group (CDG). Reardon and Burck

(1975) report that the Counseling Center at Illinois State

University has developed and implemented the Career Develop-

ment Group (CDG). The CDG is aimed at lower division

students who are undecided about choice of major and career

plans. The CDG is intended to address broad informational

needs with an emphasis on expanding alternatives. The group

introduces identification of decision making strategies,

identification of values as they relate to educational career

plans, and the formation of short and long range goals. It

is a content oriented group. The CDG meets for four one-

hour sessions. Most participants appreciate being intro-

duced to available sources of information both about them-

selves and the world of work (Reardon & Burck, 1975).


Vocational Exploration Group (VEG). The Vocational

Exploration Group (VEG) is designed to help students clarify











the man-job relationship. Four basic dynamics occur as

students progress through lth experience: (1) gains in

self-confidence, (2) sharing of job knowledge and job

resources, (3) gains in understanding man-job relationships,

and (4) job personalization. VEG is composed of five phases:

(1) interpersonal exploration and exposure to the world of

work, (2) sharing and study of job information, (3) examina-

tion of job demands and job satisfactions, (4) job expansion

and group feedback, and (5) planning for future action

(Daane, 1972). VEG is content oriented. There are two

similar programs, a short one, and an extended one. The

short sequence is designed for completion in about two and

one-half hours, while the extended sequence takes about

four hours. Research evidence has shown that after experienc-

ing VEG, students improved in measures of employability

perceptions, social alienation, and dogmatism (Daane, 1972).


Awareness of Career Decision-Making (ACADEM). Aware-

ness of Career Decision-Making (ACADEM) is a group career

counseling program developed by Johnson (1973). It consists

of "a program of activities that helps participants under-

stand the educational, occupational, and personal aspects

of life so that their decision-making will be smooth and











rewarding" (Johnson, 1973, p. 2). ACADEM consists of six

stages: (1) personal assessment, (2) occupational explora-

tion, (3) tentative occupaLional choice, (4) educaLtional

exploration, (5) tentative educational choice, and (6)

implementation of choices. ACADEM can be completed in about

seven and one-half hours. Research evidence found that the

reactions of students to participation in ACADEM were

positive, based on evaluations of student perceptions and

attitudes of this experience (Pyle, 1976).


Case Conference Group. The Case Conference approach

has been patterned after that reported by Hoyt (1955),

Hewer (1959), and Volsky and Hewer (1960). Sprague and

Strong (1970) describe three general goals for the case con-

ference group: (1) the sessions attempt to improve the

helping skills of participants, (2) each participant

develops a better sense of his or her interests, abilities,

and needs regarding career aspirations, and (3) each partici-

pant has opportunity for interaction with peers which

generates mutual support, organization in thinking, and

strategies for problem solving. Specific objectives of

the group include: (1) to define the members' problems in

educational/career decision-making, (2) to understand











oneself and other members in the career development process,

(3) to explore various alternatives available, and (4) to

seek courses of action (Reardon & Buick, 1975). The case

conference group entails approximately 10 hours of meet-

ings. Sprague and Strong (1970) reported that over half of

the students who had participated in the case conference

group had made a definite vocational choice or were making

progress in acquiring firm alternatives at the conclusion

of the group experience.


Life-Planning Workshop (LPW). The Life-Planning Work-

shop (LPW) was developed at Colorado State University in

1969 (Birney, Hinkle, & Thomas, 1970-1971; Hinkle & Thomas,

1971). The LPW is aimed at experience and skill development

broader than job selection and the use of occupational

information. It represents movement toward a more affective

growth experience. The LPW is described (Greer, 1972) as

a powerful, impactful, structured growth group designed to

involve participants in the process of influencing their

own future. The LPW focuses on self-assessment in the pres-

ent and projection of self into the future. The objective

of the workshop is increased self-awareness and realization

of the need for specific and flexible plans for the future.











The workshop is a one-day, six or seven hour mini-marathon

experience. Research evidence suggests that participants

of the LPW tended to take more response? bi aity for career

decision making by actively seeking inlformrition relevant to

their career, their future plans, and themselves, as a result

of this experience, and tended to consider areas and majors

more congruent with their measured interests than those

considered by subjects who had not experienced the workshop

(Mencke & Cochran, 1974).


Life Career Development System (LCDS). The Life Career

Development System (LCDS) was developed by Walz, Smith, and

Benjamin in 1974. The LCDS was designed according to the

principle that career development should be concerned with

the total individual and encompass education, occupation,

and leisure time. The LCDS has as its objective the develop-

ment of the basic understandings and competencies necessary

for mastering life planning and decision making. Nine

modules comprise the LCDS and provide for participants a

sequential, organized series of experiences which will

help them develop the attitudes and behaviors requisite

for creative and productive living. Each module consists

of approximately six to nine 50-minute sessions. All of











the nine modules are designed with the goal of facilitating

the acquisition of specific attitudes and competencies on

the part of the participant. The nine modules are: (1)

exploring self, (2) determining values, (3) setting goals,

(4) expanding options, (5) overcoming barriers, (6) using

information, (7) working effectively, (8) thinking

futuristically, and (9) selecting mates (Walz & Benjamin,

1974). Research evidence indicates that the LCDS provides

a series of integrating "getting it all together" experiences

that help individuals to gain perspective from the past, more

fully understand and take advantage of the present, and

utilize their strengths to become more of what they would

be in the future (Walz & Benjamin, 1974).


Career Education Mini-School Program. The University

of Florida Career Resource Center has developed the Career

Education Mini-School Program (1975). This program pre-

sently (1976-1977) consists of a total of 17 individual

sessions on separate topics, in the areas of career develop-

ment, jobs and outlook, and job placement. The Career

Education Mini-School Program is designed to enhance student

career selection, review employment opportunities, and pre-

pare students to successfully compete for jobs. the 17












sessions that comprise the program are:

A. Career Development

1. An introduction to thi center
2. The cooperative education program
3. Careers and jobs--a womin's view
4. Career planning

B. Jobs and Outlook

5. Facts on government jobs
6. Liberal arts graduates and the job market
7. Science and Engineering graduates and the
job market
8. Business and communications graduates
and the job market
9. So you're going to teach
10. Summer jobs
11. Working overseas
12. Foreign student workshop

C. Job Placement

13. Job search planning
14. Resume preparation
15. Writing cover letters and other job search
correspondence
16. Job interview techniques
17. Resume review

A brief description of each of the 17 sessions appears in

Appendix B. This information is taken from a publication

prepared by the University of Florida Career Resource Center,

the University of Florida Career Resource Center Career

Education Mini-School Program (1976). The University of

Florida Placement Manual (1976) also describes the Career

Education Mini-School Program. Each session is 5U minutes











long and all sessions are presented weekly to interested

University of Florida students and alumni. This study was

the first research project investigating Lha effectiveness

of the Career Education Mini-School Program.


Future Group. The Future Group was developed by Sanz

(1973) at Florida State University. It is an experimental

career development group approach and is currently being re-

fined and studied. The underlying assumptions of the Future

Group are that students are largely unaware of the patterns

of career decision-making in their pasts, the processes

and bases of decisions they are making in the present,

and the questions they want to ask about their future

careers. As one becomes more aware of the process by which

antecedents of past and present choices are centered in

his environment or situation, he will be able to make more

satisfying and appropriate decisions about the future

(Sanz, 1973; Hoffman, 1973).

The goal of the future group experience is to provide a

setting of experiential self-awareness of the processes and ante-

cedents of present choices, and to help participants make some

guesses about the future. The Future Group is a highly

structured group workshop which can be completed in three










to four hours. iResearch evideilnce hs .i i'lclonstrattid that

the future group increases internality and time-com.petence,

and to a limited extent, career maturity (Hoffman, 1973)


Group Career Counseling Reseorch


Healy (1973, 1974) has developed a group career counsel-

ing procedure based on Super's (1963) theory of career de-

velopment. This procedure assists students in: (1) identify-

ing career goals and assets, (2) examining alternatives in

terms of goals and assets; (3) selecting alternatives, (4)

making plans to obtain training and entry, (5) executing

career plans, and (6) evaluating the initial progress. Re-

search evidence has found this group career counseling pro-

cedure effective in helping students to increase the certainty

of their career plans and their willingness to engage in

career planning (Healy, 1973, 1974).

Pate, Simpson, and Burks (1971) reported the results

of a demonstration project entitled "Group Counseling for

Individual Decision-Making: Maximizing the Effectiveness

of the College Placement Service." This project was con-

ducted at the University of Virginia from September, 1969

to September, 1971, and was funded by the SPUR Program

of the ESSO Education Foundation. The purposes of this











project were to demonstrate the feasibility of providing

career counseling by specially trained graduate assistants

as part of the college placement scrvic: and to demon-

strate that such counseling can be provided as effectively

and more efficiently in a group setting than in the

traditional one-to-one relationship. This project com-

pared an experimental group, which received non-traditional

services (individual or group vocational counseling) in

addition to regular placement services, to a control group,

which only received regular placement services.

Criteria for the project consisted of ratings of the

randomly-placed clients by employer representatives, com-

parable ratings by the Director of Placement, and client

satisfaction. The placement registrants who participated

in the project received employment interview evaluations

significantly below those of randomly selected control

interviews. Despite reporting more difficulty with secur-

ing positions chan a randomly selected group of placement

registrants, the placement clients who participated in the

project counseling (individual or group counseling) gave

equally favorable evaluations to the placement services

they received. Project participants' placement success

was rated by the Placement Director as equal to that of the












randomly selected control jroup. This ultimate placement

success was seen as a result of the non-traditional

services they received (individual or group counseling).

No differences in outcome were apparent between those

counseled individually and those counseled in groups.


Career Development Courses


Rationale


Since the 1950's, the proportion of college-educated

persons in the labor force has doubled--and it may double

again by 1980. This abundance of college graduates creates

a problem in that such a large group of workers is not

all guaranteed "college-level" career positions (Webb,

1973). Because of the problems of unemployment and under-

employment, colleges and universities have a clear respon-

sibility to provide career guidance and counseling for

students early in their college years. More emphasis must

be directed to the concern of what type of career is best

suited for the individual in today's work world. Career

decisions can no longer be deferred until the last semester

before graduation. Many universities across the country

have seen this situation and have attempted to provide such












guidance through their career planning and placement

services (Webb, 1973).

A variety of approaches has been developed to assist

the student in career identification. A career development

course is one specific approach, and a number of universities

offer such a course in career development. This type of

course is usually an academic credit-bearing course designed

to assist students to develop a comprehensive understanding

of themselves in relation to a future career life (Devlin,

1974).

Today's students need to have access to a variety of

options to permit ample opportunity for career investigation

(Devlin, 1974). A career development course can set the

stage for a more effective utilization by the student of

career planning and placement office resources (Stephens,

1970).


Extent of Career
Development Courses


Devlin indicated in 1974 that 78 colleges were offer-

ing career development courses. The findings of the

Devlin (1974) study suggest that there exists a definite

trend among college placement counselors for utilizing a











career development course as a career .xploratic., resource

for students. The placenmnL counselor is gradually beginning

to move into the formal academic are.i. it is being accepted

that the study of the individual and the individual's future

role in our work society need not only be considered as a

cocurricular examination, but as a vital part of the stu-

dent's recognized learning process (Devlin, 1974).

The Midwest College Placement Association (1974)

developed a proposed model for a credit course in career

planning and placement. This association included nine

separate topics in its proposed model of a career develop-

ment course. These topics include: (1) philosophy of

career choice, (2) mission of the university, (3) self-

evaluation, (4) evaluative tools and techniques, (5) careers

and college majors, (6) graduate schools and professional

schools, (7) mobility in the university system, (8) employ-

ability, and (9) trends and occupations. Herrick (1976)

reported that approximately 320 colleges and universities

offered career planning and/or employment readiness courses.

These courses were, by and large, open to all students, as

well as to alumni and faculty. Devlin (1974) has maintained

that there are three types of academic courses which seem

to fall under the title of "career development" course.












These three types are: (1) the job-oriented course, (2)

the occupational-information course, and (3) the career

identification and career dynamics coul-se.


Purposes


A trend is apparent among college placement counselors

for making available a career development course. There

tends to be a great degree of diversity among career

development courses because placement counselors differ

significantly in their course objectives, design, and imple-

mentation (Devlin, 1974). One expectation for a career

development course is that the students are left wanting

more in terms of skills, information, and understanding.

Since a career is a lifetime experience, this course should

open up a realm of possibilities and leave students with the

motivation to continue the career development process

further (Ripley, 1975).

The purpose of a career development course is to get

students involved in the process of career selection. It

is expected that as a result of such a course, most (if not

all) of the students will be better able to choose majors

and careers for themselves (Webb, 1973). Wollman (1974)

used a pretest and posttest questionnaire to evaluate the











effectiveness of a career development course at the

University of Minnesota. Results showed increases in:

(1) student knowledge of sources of career counseling,

internships, occupational information, aind educational

programs, (2) student ability to gather and analyze occu-

pational information, (3) perceived student competency

in the analysis of compatibility with occupations, and

(4) the number of occupations the students were willing to

consider as occupational possibilities.

College placement counselors should consider providing

an academic, accredited course as part of the career coun-

seling program for students (Devlin, 1974).


Recruiting Practices


Present Trends


In recruiting college students for employment,

recruiters usually look for certain factors when consider-

ing the applicant for a job. Such factors include college

grades, personality, the degree to which the student has

supported himself or herself financially, and his or her

marital status. Employers are seeking well-baliiced

students whose personality, interests, academic preparation,











and vocational goals are compatible with the employer's

needs (Ma, 1969).

Ma (1969) conducted a study to determine tie factors

given chief emphasis by employers in their recruiting

practices. This study involved 94 companies whose repre-

sentatives had visited San Jose State College (California)

during 1967-1969 for the purpose of recruiting business

students. Results of this study indicated that 66 per cent

of the companies considered personality traits as the most

important factor in the evaluation of a prospective employee.

College grades ranked second, work experience ru~.ned third,

and extra-curricular activities were fourth.

Shell and Patrick (1973) have reported on the major

selection criteria used by employers in their recruiting

practices. The recruitment procedures of 180 companies

were surveyed in this study. Results of this study indi-

cated that personality and grades were definitely the most

heavily weighted factors, with personality scores slightly

higher than grades. Shell and Patrick found that employers

feel that the personality factors, which presumably indi-

cate ability to work with others, and the performance

reflected in college grades give them much of the informa-

tion which they need in selecting prospective employees.











Tschirgi (1972-1973) designed a study to determine

the major factors deemed important in hiring interviews.

This study surveyed 70 business firms for the purpose of

identifying Lhe most important char.icturistics considered

in an interview situation. Results of this study showed

that the important factors in hiring interviews were (in

order of importance): (1) communication skills, (2) grade

point average, (3) work experience, (4) appearance, and

(5) extra-curricular activities. This study suggests that

more recruiter attention should be focused on perceptual

(communication skills, appearance) rather than substantive

(college grades, work experience, extra-curricular activi-

ties) data. Tschirgi maintains that recruiters are more

impressed with how well the candidate communicates with

them in the interview than they are with evidence of

candidate-achievement potential collected in employment

dossiers, unless such information is unusually impressive.

Lumsden and Sharf (1974) conducted a study which iden-

tified dimensions of job-applicant behavior which influence,

and can be used to predict, the outcome of an interview.

This study, done at the University of Tennessee, used

data from over 250 job interviews gathered by 100 inter-

viewers from 83 companies during 1973-1974. This study











was predicated on the following assumptions: (1) that

there exist specific applicant behaviors which are endemic

to the interview process, (2) that these distinct behaviors

influence the interviewer's final judgment, and (3) that

these distinct behaviors can be measured. Results of this

study indicated that six behavioral dimension scores were

found to be significantly related to tne overall evaluation

given an applicant. These behavioral dimensions were:

(1) social and academic balance, (2) socially unresponsive,

(3) mature insight, (4) dedication, (5) verbal, and (6)

unprepared.

Lumsden and Sharf suggest two implications that can

be drawn from this study for placement practice. First,

before beginning the interview process students should be

coached on placing their "best foot forward." Students

should be made aware of potential pitfalls to avoid, such as

the behavior specimens in the dimensions labeled "socially

unresponsive" and "unprepared." Second, students should

be brought to realize that it is not only what they are

saying but how they say it that can influence an inter-

viewer's judgment. The behavior specimens in the dimen-

sions labeled "social and academic balance," "mature in-

sight," "dedication," and "verbal" indicate the importance











of making an effective presentation in the interview.


Research Regarding
Recruiting Practices


Anton and Russell (1974) conducted a study to

determine employer attitudes and opinions regarding poten-

tial college graduate employees. This study surveyed 101

companies in the United States, identified by 114 college

recruiting officers and managers from each of 17 Western

College Placement Association industry groupings. Results

of this study provided priority rankings by consensus of

industry groupings. Items listed in the first priority

category included: (1) major field of study, (2) academic

performance, (3) work experience, (4) plant or home office

interview, and (5) campus interview. Items listed in the

second priority category included: (1) extra-curricular

activities, (2) recommendations of former employer, and

(3) academic activities and awards. Items listed in the

third priority category included: (1) type of college or

university attended, and (2) recommendations from faculty

or school official. Items listed in the fourth priority

category included: (1) standardized test scores, (2)

in-house test scores, and (3) draft status.











There are many internlti factors which may be in-

fluential in helping the individual get a job. Interests,

abilities and skills, attitudes, motivation, intelligence,

personality and sensitivity to others, and general experience

may all make their contribution in helping the individual

to obtain his desired job goal. The individual's ability

to mobilize these personal resources in order to attain his

job goal may be a critical factor in the job-getting process

(Stevens, 1963). His ability to translate his background

into new terms, to organize and reorganize his thoughts,

feelings, attitudes, and experiences so that his behavior

becomes goal-directed and purposeful has been defined as

placement readiness (Stevens, 1960, 1963), and the quality

of his placement readiness affects his placement success.

Stevens' (1960, 1963) research identified different

patterns of behavior exhibited by a randomly selected popu-

lation of registrants with the New York University Placement

Services in their efforts in seeking a job. She found that

individuals who were purposeful and self-actualized in

their job-seeking efforts with specific and realistic

job goals (identified as high placement readiness) obtained

desired jobs in a short period of time, whereas indivi-

duals who were passive and dependent in their actions with











vague, confused, and unrealistic job goals (low placement

readiness) failed to get jobs. A third pattern (moderate

placement readiiiess) was exhibited by Lcthers with -i con-

flicting mixture of characteristics reflecting the charac-

teristics of the other two patterns. They fluctuated between

being passive and purposeful, dependent and independent,

crystallized and vague about job goals. However, they did

have a unique characteristic in that they gave evidence of

being in the stage of exploring job goals. These clients

found jobs but in a longer period of time than it took

those people who had self-actualized behavior and specified

job goals (Schneider & Stevens, 1971).

Stevens' research (1960, 1963) was based on the

Ginzberg (1951) developmental theory of occupational choice.

Ginzberg postulated that an individual making an occupa-

tional choice goes through periods of (1) fantasy during

early childhood, (2) tentative choices during adolescence,

and (3) realistic choices during early adulthood. Ginzbery

suggested that the realistic choices during early adulthood

consisted of the following three stages: (1) exploration,

(2) crystallization, and (3) specification (Osipow, 1973).

Ginzberg also described the different approaches taken by

individuals attempting to solve their problem of occupational

choice. He found that some people had a passive approach











and sometimes appeared to Lb floundering, or to be con-

fused. Ginzberg found some people that were in the stage

of exploring different possible occULcIp:Li nal choices and

job goals. Other people were found by Ginzberg to be

purposeful and crystallized regarding their occupational

choice and job goals (Ginzberg, 1951; Schneider & Stevens,

1971).

The Stevens Placement Readiness Scale, based on the

Ginzberg (1951) developmental theory was developed by

Stevens in 1960. This scale is a 10-dimensional, 5-point

Likert type scale evaluating the individual's degree of

specification (point 5), crystallization, exploration, con-

fusion, and passivity (point 1) in identifying the job-goals

sought in the labor market. This instrument effectively

identified job-seeking clients with characteristics of

three different measured levels of placement readiness that

were highly significant factors in the success, or lack

of success, in getting desired jobs (Stevens, 1960, 1963).


Future of Placement


Automation


Recruitment by industry, as currently pursued, is











extremely expensive. A. F. Hartford, manager of College

Relations for DuPont, has said that "College recruiting is

the most inefficient and costly phase of a company's

staffing operation. We'd go out of business if Lhe rest

of our company had to be run the same way" (Kauffman, 1967,

p. 43). Many placement educators and company recruiters

maintain that there must be a better way both for the place-

ment office to process student job hunters and for companies

to recruit (Stephens, 1970). Stockard, placement director

at the University of Rhode Island, has said that "The sheer

weight of numbers will eventually make it impossible for

recruiters to talk to every candidate on every campus who

wants to see them. There seems to be no alternative but

to find some means for bypassing the time, effort, and space-

consuming, if not inefficient, elementary screening of the

campus interview" (Kauffman, 1967, p. 43).

Some believe the computer has the potential to rescue

both the placement officer and the recruiter. Why has

computer application in placement been developing so

slowly? Among several reasons are the increasing fears

of further impersonalization at the university; there is

also the losing battle on the small college campus to keep

relationships intimate. Even so, it is predicted that











one common denominator, namely the cost of doing business,

will force both placement educator L ind recruiter into a

computerized operation (Supthns, 197u) .

Stephens (1970) has described several ways in which

computer application and utilization can improve and help

personalize placement operations. Computer utilization

in placement will result in increased effectiveness of

placement operations because: (1) the computer can handle

far better than the clerical worker the job of storing

and retrieving data, furthermore, the computer is always

accurate, and it is capable of total recall in dealing

with endless numbers of students, (2) the computer can be

programmed to retrieve the data it has stored in an endless

variety of combinations, (3) the computer can become in-

volved in the dispensing of company-job information, and

(4) the computer can address and type letters to those

students whom it has selected for interviews, thus notify-

ing them personally of their interview selection, the time

and place of the interview, and the name of the inter-

viewer, and inviting them to sign up.

The College Placement Council developed a computerized

matching system, designed to assist students and alumni in

selecting potential employers and to assist employers in











identifying potential employees. This system was

developed in 1970, and is called GRAD II (an acronym for

Graduate Resume Accumulation and DisLribution) At pro-

sent (1976-1977), GRAD II is operational at approximately

12 colleges and universities (including the University of

Florida), while another 50 or so educational institutions

are considering the implementation and operation of this

system.

The objective of GRAD II is to lessen the amount of

time students and employers spend in searching for job

openings and qualified candidates so that more time can be

spent on evaluating alternatives and making decisions. To

participate in this system, the student and employers

complete a two-page data input form. After the forms are

processed, the student receives a list of employers with

corresponding job openings, and a mathematical correlation

for each employer that indicates the degree of similarity

between student and employer needs. The employers receive

a list of qualified students for each job opening, bio-

graphical information on each student, and the mathematical

correlation. The factors included in the matching and

correlation process are: (1) academic major, (2) degree

level, (3) career field preference, (4) geographic











preference, and (5) employer type prefrtence (Sampson,

1976).

The fears extant that computeriza-Lion of the place-

ment office might depersonalize plac eme nt-student-emnployer

relationships have not materialized. Quite a contrary

condition has been produced where computer application

and utilization have been tried. The computer has, rather,

greatly increased the effectiveness of professional staff

members (Stephens, 1970).


Future Directions


Robb (1971) suggests that each college and university

worthy of survival in the 1980's should transform its

placement office into what might be called a "career develop-

ment center." This center would not only subsume the

responsibilities of a traditional placement office but

would employ modern technology and systems approaches in

becoming a useful learning resource for students, faculty,

and alumni. It would provide career orientation informa-

tion for individuals and groups, with an emphasis upon

individual exploration of career alternatives and

potentialities. The career development center would work

productively with entering freshmen as well as with seniors











and alumni. The career development center would attempt

to prevent either premature or unnecessarily delayed

vocational decisions, enlcturiage i atioal career choices,

and provide an early warning system to detect personal

problems related to career development.

Sovilla (1970) describes a seven step program for

effective career planning and placement. This program

consists of the following steps: (1) selection of a major

field, (2) self-analysis, (3) career field analysis, (4)

short-range career goals, (5) analysis of employment

environments, (6) long-range career goals, and (7) the

job campaign. An advantage of adaptation of this program

is the flexibility it provides for the appropriate adjust-

ments that will be necessary due to changing conditions.

The goal of the program is to provide students with the

appropriate skill development to effectively analyze

their career posture.

Bolles (1972) suggests a proactive approach to place-

ment. This approach emphasizes self-knowledge and inten-

sive personal research on possible job openings so that

students can develop the competencies necessary to become

effective, independent job-hunters. In this approach,

effective career counselors "empower" the job-hun-er












rather than merely offer services (Bolles, 1972, 1974).

Walz and Benjamin (1974) provide a clear description of

the proactive approach and its resultant personal em-

powerment: "personal empowerment enables individuals to

develop the insights and competencies necessary for them

to take charge of their lives, to control what occurs

rather than to be controlled, and to act on the belief

that they can manage their own life career development by

their planning and decision making" (p. 79). Bolles (1974)

also suggests that effective career counselors will become

the advocates of the job-hunter and that such counselors

will increasingly move more into group work.

Stephens (1970, p. 211) rather succinctly describes

the future direction of placement: "There is one thing

certain about the future of placement--change. The old

bureau of appointments, with the placement office serving

primarily as a meeting place for employer and prospective

employee, is gone forever. Placement tomorrow will need

to articulate its basic educational mission--that of

helping the student put together his jigsaw pieces of

education and reason out his value orientation to life and

the earning of a living."












S summary


The traditional functions of placement services have

been expanded to meet the needs and challenges of the

present day job market situation. The factors which

facilitated the historical development of counseling have

been mentioned, with particular emphasis given to the

development of vocational guidance. The fundamental place-

ment objectives and the basic programs involved in a college

or university career planning and placement service have been

described. The relationship of job placement to career

development is examined.

A job market analysis has been presented and the impli-

cations of the job market regarding career development have

been examined. Possible explanations for the declining

vigor of the job market for college graduates are considered.

Specific information relating to job opportunities has been

documented, including job market trends in the 1970's and

1980's.

The area of group career counseling has been analyzed.

Several rationales supporting use of groups in career

development have been presented and a number of specific

career counseling groups have been reviewed. This study











was the first research project to investigate the effective-

ness of the University of Florida Career Education Mini-

School Program, one particular group caicilr counseling

approach.

A career development course can set the stage for a

more effective utilization by students of the career planning

and placement office resources. The rationale for, extent

of, and purpose of career development courses have been

described.

The area of recruitment of college students for employ-

ment has been investigated and present trends in recruiting

practices have been described. Information regarding

specific recruitment procedures of employers has been

examined. Potential computer application and utilization

in placement has been discussed. Future directions of place-

ment have been suggested.
















CHAPTER III


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship

of job marketability training to the placement success of

college seniors. This relationship was evaluated by employ-

ing a two-part experimental research design. This study made

use of both the pretest-posttest'control group design and

the posttest-only control group design. The college seniors

who participated in this investigation were drawn from three

classes in the College of Engineering and three classes from

the College of Business Administration. This study compared

an experimental group which received job marketability

training to a control group which did not. This situation

necessitated the use of an experimental design (Issac &

Michael, 1971).

The independent variable was job marketability train-

ing. The dependent criterion variable, which was examined

to see if it was affected by experimental manipulation of

the independent variable, was the placement success of

college seniors. The experimental group was exposed to

63











job marketability training; the control group was not.

The Job Search Preparedniess Instrument (Appendix C)

was given to all students as a pretest and a postLest to

provide a measure of job search preparedness. Interviews

with professional recruiters were arranged for all students

as a posttest to provide data on job employability ratings

(Appendix D). The Graduating Student Questionnaire (Appendix

E) was completed by graduating seniors only, as a posttest

to provide information on actual job offers at time of

graduation (AugLsc, 1977).

The remainder of this chapter includes the: (1) hypo-

theses, (2) research design, (3) population and selection of

subjects, (4) description of the sample, (5) training program,

(6) procedures, (7) instrumentation, (8) data collection,

(9) data analysis, and (10) limitations of the study.


The Hypotheses


This research was concerned with the following five null

hypotheses:

Hol There are no differences between the experi-
mental and control groups in the level of self-
awareness as a result of job marketability
training.











Ho2 There are no differences between the experi-
mental and control groups in the level of
student job analysis as a result of job
marketability training.

Ho3 There are no differences between the experi-
mental and control groups in the level of
interview preparation as a result of job
marketability training.

Ho4 There are no differences between the experi-
mental and control groups in job employability
ratings by specific employers as a result of
job marketability training.

Ho5 There are no differences between the experi-
mental and control groups in actual job offers
at time of graduation (August 1977) as a result
of job marketability training.


The Research Design


A two-part experimental research design was used to

test the hypotheses. This research design was required in

this investigation because testing of the first three hypo-

theses involved analysis of both pretest and posttest data

while testing of the fourth and fifth hypotheses required

analysis of posttest data only. A pretest-posttest control

group design was used to test the first three hypotheses.

This design had the advantage of controlling for all threats

to internal validity. This design did not control the threat

to external validity which concerned the interaction of test-

ing and treatment. If the pretest somehow sensitized or











altered the subjects so that. they responded to the treatment

differently than they would have if no protesting had taken

place, then the external validity would have been compromised.

The interaction effects of selection biases and the experi-

mental variable might be a factor jeopardizing external

validity. This was not expected to become a problem since

participation in this study was voluntary and students had

been randomly selected for participation and randomly

assigned to either experimental or control group classifi-

cations. Reactive arrangements might be another factor

jeopardizing external validity. Reactive arrangements did

not pose a threat to external validity in this design because

the application of the treatment (job marketability training)

was a recognized aspect of senior year placement activities,

and the collection of data took place in a classroom situa-

tion as a normal evaluative procedure rather than as a unique

experimental situation (Campbell & Stanley, 1963).

This design was represented as follows:

Group Pretest Treatment Posttest

Experimental (R)* 01 X 02

Control (R) 01 02


*Random assignment











A posttest-only control group design was used to test

the fourth and fifth hypotheses. This design had the

advantage of controlling for ill there ils t.o internal

validity. This design also controlled Lhe threat Lo external

validity concerned with the interaction of testing and treat-

ment. The interaction effects of selection biases and the

experimental variable, and reactive arrangements might be

factors jeopardizing external validity. Both of these factors

were not expected to pose any threat to the external validity

in this design, because of the same reasoning which has been

previously mentioned (Campbell & Stanley, 1963).

This design was represented as follows:

Group Pretest Treatment Posttest

Experimental (R)* X 02

Control (R) 02


*Random assignment


Both of the experimental designs used in this study,

the pretest-posttest control group design, and the posttest-

only control group design, made use of randomization.

Randomization is an all-purpose procedure for achieving

pre-experimental equality of groups (Campbell & Stanley,

1963).











The Population and the Selection
of Subjects


The population for this study was composed of inder-

graduate students classified as seniors, attending the

University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida. These

students were drawn from three classes in the College of

Engineering and three classes from the College of Business

Administration.

Two primary reasons prompted the selection of subjects

from the College of Engineering and the College of Business

Administration. One was that a majority of the senior

student contacts at the University of Florida Career Resource

Center were with students from either a business-related or

engineering-related academic background. The second was

that a majority of the recruiters that regularly visit the

University of Florida request students from either a business-

related or engineering-related academic background to fill

their current job openings.

In determining the best subject selection method, this

investigator initiated a preliminary pilot test. This in-

volved a letter inviting randomly selected students in the

Colleges of Engineering and Business Administration to

participate in a research project conducted by the University











of Florida Career Resource Center. The response rate was

inadequate. In view of this experience, acn alternative

method of subject selection wvas adoptt-d. This method

utilized six regularly scheduled academic classes, known to

have a predominantly senior enrollment, from the Colleges

of Engineering and Business Administration. Participation

of students from these classes provided an adequate selection

process.

A letter (see Appendix F) was distributed to the

Assistant Dean of the College of Engineering, the Department

Chairmen of Mechanical, Civil, and Electrical Engineering,

the Assistant Dean of the College of Business Administration,

and the Department Chairmen of Marketing, Accounting, and

Finance, asking for their assistance in helping to carry

out this study. These particular departments were selected

because of the likelihood of large student enrollments in

their classes. This letter briefly described the research

project, detailed the type of assistance needed and specified

the advantages of participation in a study of this nature.

Faculty support was requested to permit participation of

three classes from Engineering and three classes from Business

Administration in this study. Faculty reaction proved to be

quite positive. Assurances were received from each of the











six department chairmen that one upper-dJiiiason under-

graduate class (400 level, composed predominantly of seniors)

would participLte in this study during Lie summer quarter

1977. An identical letter was disLributed to the specific

faculty members who would be teaching these classes during

the summer quarter. A brief meeting between each faculty

member and the investigator was held to arrange all the

necessary planning required. These meetings were held near

the end of the spring quarter, when teaching assignments for

the summer were complete. The following six classes

participated in this investigation: (1) Mechanical Engineer-

ing 482, (2) Civil Engineering 461, (3) Electrical Engineer-

ing 461, (4) Marketing 421, (5) Accounting 409, and (6)

Finance 422.

The students in each class participating in this study

were randomly assigned to experimental and control group

classifications. All students participating in this study

filled out an index card, including their name and class.

These index cards were collected by the investigator and

sorted according to class. The cards for each class were

then numbered and divided into two groups. One group con-

tained the students assigned an odd number while th- other

contained the students assigned an even number. This












procedure permitted random assignment of students in each

class into experimental and control group classifications.

While the faculty of these ix classes Lencouracyd student

participation in this study, it was niundrsLood thit 1ll

student participation in this research project was voluntary.

Several factors served to motivate student participation in

this study. All interview evaluations would be provided

to the students for their information. Some students would

receive actual job offers which would be generated from

the interview situation. Finally, the level of awareness

of job search preparedness for student participants would be

increased. All forms pertaining to the protection of human

subjects were completed by those individuals participating

in this study. All students who participated in this study

signed an informed consent form. A copy of this form appears

in Appendix G.

The six classes that participated in this study con-

tained approximately 30 students each, for a total of 180.

All students who participated in this study were classified

as seniors. Allowing for possible non-participation and

expected experimental and control group mortality, a total

of 100 students (seniors) was the minimal acceptable

number of subjects for this study. This total included











50 in the experimental group and 50 in the control group.

Approximately 25 of these students were graduated in

August 1977.

Records were kept by the investig.,itl to insure that

students in the control group classification had not partici-

pated in more than two career education mini-school sessions

previously and that they did not participate in any job

marketability training or career education mini-school

sessions during the first-sixth weeks of this study.

Records were kept by the investigator to insure that stu-

dents in the experimental group classification had partici-

pated in the job marketability training during the third-

fourth weeks of this study. Only those students classified

as seniors who completed all requirements necessary for full

participation in the experimental or control group classi-

fication were included in this study.



Description of the Sample


The six classes which were involved in this investigation

contained approximately 30 students each, for a total of

180. The six classes included approximately 10 students

classified as juniors, who were not included in this study.

Another group of approximately 10 students from the six











classes did not wish to participate in this research project

because of a heavy academic and/or work schedule. Since

all participation was completely voluntAiry, these students

were also not included in Lilis study. ApproximaLj ely 160

students expressed an interest in participating in this

investigation, and 115 students completed all the require-

ments necessary for full participation in the experimental

or control group classification.


Table 2

Crosstabulation of Group by Class


Class Row
Engineering Business Total

Group 24 35 59
Experimental 51.3%

Control 26 30 56
48.7%

Column 50 65 115

Total 43.5% 56.5, 100.0%/




Table 2 describes the sample by group and class. In

the experimental group there were 59 students, 24 from

Engineering and 35 from Business. In the control group

there were 56 students, 26 from Engineering and 30 from












Business. A total of 115 students participated in this

study.



Table 3

Crosstabulation of Group by Graduation Date


Graduation Date Row
Aug.77 Dec.77 Mar.78 June 78 Aug.78 Dec.78 Total

Group 59
Exp. 17 21 5 7 7 2 51.3%

Cont. 13 18 9 10 6 0 56
48.7%

Column 30 39 14 17 13 2 115

Total 26.1% 33.9% 12.2% 14.8% 11.3% 1.7% 100.0%




Table 3 describes the sample by group and graduation

date. A review of Table 3 shows that 26.1 per cent of the

115 students graduates in August, 1977, 33.9 per cent will

graduate in December, 1977, 12.2 per cent will graduate in

March, 1978, 14.8 per cent will graduate in June, 1978, 11.3

per cent will graduate in August, 1978, and 1.7 per cent will

graduate in December, 1978












Table 4

Description of SpecIfic Classes by Group


Specific
Classes ExpIcrimentl

Mechanical Engineering 6

Civil Engineering 14

Electrical Engineering 4

Marketing 11

Accounting 15

Finance 9

Total 59


ControuJ 1Tot

3 9

16 30

7 11

11 22

15 30

4 13

56 115


A description of the specific participating classes is

presented in Table 4. Examination of Table 4 shows that the

115 students can be broken down into their respective classes

as follows: (1) 9 from Mechanical Engineering, (2) 30 from

Civil Engineering, (3) 11 from Electrical Engineering, (4)

22 from Marketing, (5) 30 from Accounting, and (6) 13 from

Finance.


The Training Program


A particular sequence of six career education mini-

school sessions presented in a structured fashion provided











job marketability training for this study. The six sessions

were: (1) Science and Engineering Graduates and the Job

Market, (2) Uusiness and Comiimunlcati ons Crad uates iani the

Job Market, (3) Job Search Planning, (-) Iesume Pireparation,

(5) Job Search Correspondence, and (6) Job Interview

Techniques. The first two mini-school sessions were included

in job marketability training because engineering graduates

and business administration graduates are both recruited by

engineering and business firms. The other four mini-school

sessions were included in job marketability training because

they deal specifically with job placement. A brief description

of the material covered in these six sessions included:

(1) a preview of the job outlook for graduating technical

students, (2) a preview of the job outlook for graduating

non-technical students, (3) the details of planning an

effective job search campaign, (4) the details involved in

resume preparation, (5) the preparation of cover letters and

other job search correspondence, and (6) information concern-

ing specific job interview techniques. Each session was

50 minutes long. A detailed description of the material

covered in these six sessions appears in Appendix H.

The students who had been randomly assigned to the

experimental group were invited to participate in two










separate job marketability training courses. The first

course, Job Marketability Training Course #1, was given

from 7:00 9:30 P. M., Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday

of the third week and Monday of the fourth week of the

summer quarter. Students attended Course #1 on one of these

four nights. This course covered: (1) Business and Communi-

catiorsGraduates and the Job Market, (2) Job Search Planning,

and (3) Resume Preparation. The second course, Job Market-

ability Training Course #2, was given from 7:00 9:30 P. M.,

Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday of the fourth week of the

summer quarter. Students attended Course #2 on one of these

three nights. This course covered: (1) Science and Engineer-

ing Graduates and the Job Market, (2) Job Search Correspondence,

and (3) Job Interview Techniques. All students in the ex-

perimental group received a hand-out sheet describing the

date, time, and location of the Job Marketability Training

Courses. These hand-out sheets were distributed in the

classroom settings by the researcher during both the third

and four weeks of the summer quarter. A copy of the hand-

out sheet appears in Appendix I.

These two two and one-half hour courses were designed

to enhance student career selection, review employment

opportunities, and prepare students to successfully compete










for jobs. The six career education mini-school sessions

that comprised the job marketability training were taught

by the lecture method from a prepared text (Appendix H

contains the prepared texts) with an open-ended question

and answer period at the end of each of the sessions.

All students in the experimental group received copies of

the prepared texts on job search planning, resume preparation,

job search correspondence, and job interview techniques, for

their information. The researcher's role in the training

program was to serve as the counselor/instructor of the

Job Marketability Training Courses #1 and #2. He has had

previous experience in teaching all six of these career

education mini-school sessions, over a three-month period.

At the conclusion of each of the job marketability

training courses, a presenter rating sheet (Appendix J) was

completed by the students present, to evaluate the researcher.

Ratings were made on a 5-point Likert type scale in six

different categories. An analysis of the presenter rating

sheets appears in Tables 5 and 6. The mean scores ob-

tained on these rating sheets for each separate date were

relatively consistent, ranging from 3.93 to 4.46. The mean

score for Job Marketability Training Course #1 was 4.13,











while the mean score for Job Marketability Training Course

#2 was 4.21. These data indicate that there was reasonable

consistency in the presentations by the researcher.


Date

July 5

July 6

July 7

July 11

4 Nights


Table 5

Analysis of Presenter Rating Sheet
Job Marketability Training Course #1

Number Mean
Attending Score

10 4.46

22 4.10

40 4.06

8 4.19

80 4.13 Totals


Table 6

Analysis of Presenter Rating Sheet
Job Marketability Training Course #2

Number Mean
Date Attending Score

July 12 18 4.33

July 13 19 3.93

July 14 32 4.32

3 Nights 69 4.21 Totals










Procedures


Experimental Group
Procedures


The treatment schedule for the experimental group was

as follows:


Week Procedure

1 Explanation of the investigation--advan-
tages of participation*

Random assignment of subjects into experi-
mental and control group classifications

2 Job Search Preparedness Instrument--pretest*

3 Hand-out sheet Job Marketability Training
Courses distributed*
Job Marketability Training Course #1

4 Hand-out sheet Job Marketability Training
Courses distributed*
Job Marketability Training Course #2
Scheduling of job interviews*

5 Job interviews

6 Job Search Preparedness Instrument--posttest*

8 Graduating seniors only--Graduating Student
Questionnaire*


*In classroom settings


The critical element involved in this investigation was

student participation in job marketability training. The










experimental group participated in this training during

the third-fourth weeks of this study.

Students in this group took part in a job interview

during the fifth week of this study. Arrangements were made

by the Associate Director of the University of Florida

Career Resource Center to have nin- professional recruiters

from the fields of engineering and business, who regularly

recruit at the University of Florida, conduct job interviews

with all of the students participating in this study. The

nine professional recruiters represented the following seven

firms: (1) Union Carbide, (2) International Business

Machines, (3) General Electric, (4) Southern Bell, (5)

Misener Marine, (6) Maas Brothers, and (7) Westinghouse.

The professional recruiters did not know which students were

in the experimental group classification and which students

were in the control group classification, and were able to

offer actual jobs to the most qualified candidates. The

job interviews were conducted over a two-day period during

the fifth week of the summer quarter.










Control Group
Procedures



The schedule for the control group was as follows:

Week Procedure

1 Explanation of the investigation--advantages
of participation*

Random assignment of subjects into experi-
mental and control group classifications

2 Job Search Preparedness Instrument--pretest*

4 Scheduling of job interviews*

5 Job interviews

6 Job Search Preparedness Instrument--posttest*

8 Graduating seniors only--Graduating Student
Questionnaire*


*In classroom settings


The control group was not exposed to job marketability

training. Issac and Michael (1971) state that the control

group should be exposed to the same treatment as the

experimental group, with the exception of the critical

factor. Since the critical factor in this investigation was

job marketability training, the control group did not

participate in any job marketability training. The con-

trol group was asked to not participate in any career










education mini-school sessions during the first-sixth weeks

of the summer quarter; after this period, they could enroll

if they desired.

Students in the control group took part in a job inter-

view during the fifth week of this study. The procedures

for this group were the same as those described in the

Experimental Group Procedures section.



Instrumentation


The three instruments used in this investigation were

the Job Search Preparedness Instrument, the Job Employ-

ability Ratings Interview Recap Sheet, and the Graduating

Student Questionnaire. The Job Search Preparedness Instru-

ment was developed by the investigator to assess job search

preparedness. The Job Employability Ratings Interview Recap

Sheet was developed by the investigator to provide job

employability ratings of students on a job interview. The

Graduating Student Questionnaire was developed by the

University of Florida Career Resource Center to ascertain

the after-graduation plans of graduating seniors.

The Job Search Preparedness Instrument is based on the

Job Search Barometer, a copyrighted publication of the

College Placement Council (College Placement Annual 1977,










pp. 12-14). The Job Search Barometer is responded to on a

yes-no format, while the Job Search Preparedness Instrument

is responded to on a Likert type scale and has several

additional questions. This instrument was used to provide

pretest and posttest data on student job search pre-

paredness. Questions are answered on a five-point Likert

type scale. The instrument contains 38 items in the follow-

ing three parts: (1) self-awareness, (2) job analysis, and

(3) interview preparation. These three parts contain 10, 12,

and 16 items, respectively. A copy of this instrument appears

in Appendix C.

A demonstration of the credibility of this instrument

was conducted as a part of this investigation. Reliability

was demonstrated through a coefficient of stability using

the test-retest method. One section of an upper-division

undergraduate education course (EDC 450, n = 17) was

readministered the Job Search Preparedness Instrument one

week after they had completed the instrument initially. A

Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficient was cal-

culated for all items. The instrument used here was a

slightly shorter version of the final Job Search Preparedness

Instrument, containing 24 items as compared to the 38 items on

the final instrument. This difference is accounted for by




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