Title: Effects of a volunteer tutor program on self-esteem and basic skills achievement
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Title: Effects of a volunteer tutor program on self-esteem and basic skills achievement in the primary grades of a southern rural school system
Physical Description: ix, 121 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ham, Wayne, 1938-
Publication Date: 1977
Copyright Date: 1977
 Subjects
Subject: Volunteer workers in education   ( lcsh )
School children -- Florida -- Sumter County   ( lcsh )
Self-esteem   ( lcsh )
Academic achievement   ( lcsh )
Childhood Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Childhood Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 113-121.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by Wayne Ham.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098097
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000063259
oclc - 04205500
notis - AAG8457

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EFFECTS OF A VOLUNTEER TUTOR PROGRAM
ON SELF-ESTEEM AND BASIC SKILLS ACHIEVEMENT
IN THE PRIMARY GRADES
OF A SOUTHERN RURAL SCHOOL SYSTEM












By

WAYNE IAM
















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1977















ACKNOWLEID(IENTS


A project of this nature comes about only through the support

and efforts of a great many people. Special thanks are due to

Dr. William D. Hedges, Chairman of the researcher's committee.

Dr. Athol Packer and Dr. Arthur Newman also served on this committee,

rendering much needed assistance and psychological uplift when they

were necessary. Dr. Edward Turner and Dr. Linda Lamme critiqued the

manuscript in a helpful way. Dr. William Breivogel responded to a

last-minute call for help in organizing the dissertation defense

committee.

Administration and faculties of the Sumter County School System

were cordial and cooperative throughout the entire project. Superin-

tendent Joe R. Strickland was especially helpful in cutting through

the "red tape" when it was necessary to expedite the project.

Marliene, Terry, and Brian were very patient, especially during

those times when "The Project" seemed to assume an all-importance

that took precedence over family activities.

Special appreciation is extended to the children who participated

in this study. Their unqualified acceptance of the tutoring program

greatly facilitated the implementation of the experiment and the

gathering of the data.











TABLE OF CCNTEITS


ACKNOWLEDGEMEqTS ii

ABSTRACT vii

CHAPTER I 1
INTRODUCTION 1
The Problem 2
Delimitations 2
Limitations 3
Justification for the Study 5
Definition of Terms 6
Procedures 9
Hypotheses 9
Design for Research 10
Assignment to Experimental and Control Groups 10
Program Under Adoption 11
Instrumentation 12
Data Treatment 14
Susrary 15

CHAPTER II 16
REVIEW OF RESEARCH 16
Growth of Volunteer Programs 18
Research on Volunteer Programs 22
Tutoring by Parents 24
Tutoring by Peers 28
Tutoring by Other Adults 31
Mixed Results 35
"No Change" Experiments 38
Sunrary of Research 39

CHAPTER III 43
DESCRIPTION OF THE SCHOOL VOLUNTEER PROGRAM 43
Project Objectives 44
Project Activities 45
Evidence of Effectiveness 46
Modification Through Adoption 49

CHAPTER IV 51
THE EXPERIMENT 51
Organizing a Committee 53
Design and Assumptions 56
Training of Key Personnel 58
Orientation of Faculties 58












Recruitment of Volunteers 59
Orientation of Volunceers 59
Placement of Volunteers 60
Selecting Students for This Study 61
Monitoring Program Progress 63
Evaluating Student Progress 64

CHAPTER V 66
DATA ANALYSIS 66
Sunmary of the Experiment 66
Hypotheses 67
Analysis of Data Total Reading 68
Vocabulary 72
Reading Comprehension 76
Language Expression 79
Math Computation 82
Math Concepts and Application 85
Self-Esteem 88
Interrelation of Achievement, Self-Esteem,
and Main Effects 91
Summary 92

CHAPTER VI 95
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY 95
Hypothesis 1 96
Hypothesis 2 96
Hypothesis 3 97
Hypothesis 4 98
Hypothesis 5 98
Hypothesis 6 99
Hypothesis 7 99
Conclusions 102
Limitations 105
Implications for Further Study 107

APPENDIX A SELF-ESTEEM INVNTORY 110

APPENDIX B JOB DESCRIPTION FOR LANGUAGE ARTS/ 111
READING TUTOR

REFERENCES 113











LIST OF TABLES


Page

TABLE 1 COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL 47
GROUPS ON READING COMPREHENSION SCORES
FOR STUDENTS WITH TUTORS AND STUDENTS
WITHOUT TUTORS

TABLE 2 COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL 47
GROUPS ON MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT
SCORES FOR STUDENTS WITH TUTORS AND
STUDENTS WITHOUT TUTORS

TABLE 3 COST ANALYSIS FOR SVDP FOR ONE YEAR 48

TABLE 4 NUMBER AND TYPE OF STUDENTS IN THIS STUDY 62

TABLE 5 SAMPLE SIZE, POSTTEST MEANS, AND STANDARD 69
DEVIATIONS FOR TOTAL READING

TABLE 6 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR TOTAL READING 70
FOR TREATMENT, SEX, AND RACE,
CONTROLLED FOR PRETEST

TABLE 7 SAMPLE SIZE, POSTTEST MEANS, AND STANDARD 73
DEVIATIONS FOR VOCABULARY

TABLE 8 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR VOCABULARY 74
FOR TREATMENT, SEX, AND RACE,
CONTROLLED FOR PRETEST

TABLE 9 SAMPLE SIZE, POSTIEST MEANS, AND STANDARD 77
DEVIATIONS FOR READING COMPREHENSION

TABLE 10 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR READING COMPREHENSION 78
FOR TREATMENT, SEX, AND RACE,
CONTROLLED FOR PRETEST

TABLE 11 SAMPLE SIZE, POSTTEST MEANS, AND STANDARD 80
DEVIATIONS FOR LANGUAGE EXPRESSION

TABLE 12 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR LANGUAGE EXPRESSION 81
FOR TREATMENT, SEX, AND RACE,
CONTROLLED FOR PRETEST












TABLE 13 SAMPLE SIZE, POSTTEST MEANS, AND STANDARD 83
DEVIATIONS FOR MATH COMPUTATION

TABLE 14 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR MATH COMPUTATION 84
FOR TREATMEfN, SEX, AND RACE,
CONTROLLED FOR PRETEST

TABLE 15 SAMPLE SIZE, POSTIEST MEANS, AND STANDARD 86
DEVIATIONS FOR MATH CONCEPTS AND APPLICATION

TABLE 16 ANALYSIS Of VARIANCE FOR MATH CONCEPTS AND 87
APPLICATION FOR TREATMENT, SEX, AND RACE,
CONI'ROIED FOR PRETEST

TABLE 17 SAMPLE SIZE, MEANS, AND STANDARD 89
DEVIATIONS FOR SELF-ESTEEM SCORES

TABLE 18 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR SELF-ESTEEM FOR 90
TREAIMENT, SEX, AND RACE














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate
Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



EFFECTS OF A VOLUNTEER TUTOR PROGRAM
ON SELF-ESTEEM AND BASIC SKILLS ACHIEVEMENT
IN THE PRIMARY GRADES
OF A SOUTHERN RURAL SCHOOL SYSTEM

By

Wayne Ham

August 1977

Chairman: William D. Hedges
Department: Childhood Education

The purpose of this study was to explore what effects, if

any, volunteer tutors might have on primary students in terms

of academic achievement and self-esteem. The practical applica-

tion of this study was the tentative resolution of the question:

Is it worth the tine, finances, and manpower required of a small

rural school district to set up a volunteer tutoring program in

terms of measurable learner-oriented gains in basic skills

achievement and in self-esteem?

To give direction to this study, it was hypothesized that

no difference existed between the adjusted posttest means for

scale scores of learners in the experimental and control groups

for total reading, vocabulary, reading comprehension, language












expression, math computation, and math concepts and application,

all of which were measured by subtests of the Comprehensive Tests

of Basic Skills, and for self-esteem as measured by the Coopersmith

Self-Esteem Inventory -- P. K. Yonge Version 1972. A pretest/

posttest experimental and control group design was used to gather

data on 200 children in grades 1 through 3 of elementary schools

in Sumter County, Florida.

Treatment consisted of a minimum of two hours per week of

volunteer attention using language arts/reading prescriptions.

Volunteer tutoring occurred over a period of five months. The

model for the tutoring program was the School Volunteer Develop-

ment Project, a Title III program developed by the Dade County

School System.

A three-way analysis of variance, using the pretest scores

as a covariate in order to adjust the posttest means, was performed

on 76 complete data sets of the experimental subjects and on 71

complete data sets of the control subjects. The .05 level of

confidence was selected for hypothesis-testing purposes. Sex

and race were considered factors for statistical analysis, as

well as treatment.

Gains were demonstrated in the areas of vocabulary, reading

comprehension, and language expression, -- i.e., in those areas

of the curriculum for which prescriptions were given to tutors.











No significant differences between experimental and control

groups were noted for total reading, mathematics, or self-

esteem.

In examining trends in the data, it would appear that

blacks in general make more gains through being tutored than

do whites, and boys seem to be helped more than girls.

Several unexpected side effects of the tutoring program

were noted, including the reactivation of Parent-Teacher

Organizations and Citizen Advisory Committees. Research is

needed to determine if the apparent gains produced by volunteer

tutoring maintain themselves over time.














QIAPTER I


INTRODUCTION


An expanding corps of volunteer workers in schools in every

part of the nation is a phenomenon without parallel in the history

of education (U. S. News & World Report, 1977). Literally millions

of lay volunteers are coming into classrooms to share the instruc-

tional and noninstructional tasks ordinarily done by professionals

in schools. In 1975 the number of volunteers in the nation's public

schools was estimated at nearly four million, and their number now

is believed to be much higher.

Recent legislation in Florida has done much to encourage the

growth of volunteer programs in the state's schools. Law 74-238

focuses on the restructuring of education in the early elementary

years through emphasis on basic skills instruction and citizen

involvement. An assumption implicit in the legislation is that

increasing citizen participation in the classroom, thereby reducing

the adult-pupil ratio, improves the children's self-esteem and

raises the level of their demonstrated competencies as measured by

criterion-referenced assessment and/or norm-referenced standardized

tests.




2







The purpose of this study is to explore what effects, if any,

volunteer tutors may have on primary-level pupils in terms of

academic achievement and self-esteem. The practical application

of this study is the tentative resolution of this question: Is it

worth the time, finances, and manpower required of a small, rural

school district to set up a volunteer tutoring program in terms of

measurable learner-oriented gains in achievement and self-esteem?


The Problem

Will the achievement scores and self-esteem scores of a group

of primary children who have received the direct attention of volun-

teer tutors be significantly different from achievement and self-

esteem scores of a similar group of primary children who have had

no direct contact with volunteer tutors? The factors of sex and

race will be considered to be independent variables so that the

relative effects on male or female and white or black students can

be investigated.


Delimitations

1. The sample for this experiment was restricted to

primary students in grades 1, 2, and 3 or in non-

graded classrooms for this same age span in five,

later four, elementary schools in Sumter County,

Florida,during the 1976-77 school year. Approxi-

mately 100 students were designated by random











selection as experimental subjects and the

same number were designated for the control

group. The population pool from which the

experimental and controls were chosen

excluded, at the principals' request, the

brightest, most advanced learners.

2. The volunteer program selected for use in this

experiment was the one developed under Title III

sponsorship in Dade County, Florida, and then

only those portions involving tutoring functions

in language arts/reading were implemented.

3. Only those factors measured by the basic skills

subtests of the Comprehensive Tests of Basic

Skills and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory --

P. K. Yonge Version 1972 were chosen for statis-

tical analysis.



Limitations

Can the findings of this research be generalized to other similar

populations? Three factors caution against generalizing without

recognizing some limitations of this study.

In the first place, the social sciences have a disadvantage in

experimental activities because of the human variables involved.

While it is less difficult to control the behavior of inanimate

objects in a laboratory setting in the physical sciences, the human











being whose behavior the social scientist is watching is not as

predictable. Volunteers and teachers and volunteer coordinators

cannot be totally controlled. Thus there is no way to assure

uniformity in the behaviors of these participants in the experi-

ment. An assumption of this research is that the volunteers

followed the prescribed directions comrunicated to them during

training sessions and by supervising teachers. However, many

tutors worked with their charges in a secluded corner of the class-

roan or outside the classroom and there is no guarantee that every

tutor followed every prescription in a similar manner.

Secondly, differential rates of scores on self-esteem or aca-

demic achievement might reflect regional, socioeconomic, or sub-

cultural differences. The sample used in this study was approxi-

mately 6C07 white and 40/ black, all rural. Most of the whites, as

well as the blacks, art classified "lower socioeconomic" or poverty

level. Care rust be taken in generalizing results from this type

of sample to an urbanized population with different racial and

socioeconomic descriptors.

Thirdly, a tragic event in Sumter County history may have

affected the internal validity of the experiment to some degree.

In November of 1976 one of the elementary schools involved in

the experiment burned to the ground. Within two weeks of that

event, the entire population of the burnt-out school was moved to












a nearby elementary school, also involved in the experiment.

Stress was evident as teachers and students of both schools now

struggled to adjust to overcrowded conditions on a shared campus.

Only one classroom participating in the experiment was affected

directly. However, the indirect effects of the tragedy upon the

experiment cannot be assessed precisely and hopefully are minimal.



Justification for the Study

Search of the research literature reveals that the past experi-

ments involving volunteer or paid tutoring of school children have

produced varying results. (See Chapter II.) The findings of this

research project may make a modest contribution to the field of

knowledge with respect to effects of volunteer tutor programs. This

question of effects takes on significance as school administrators

wrestle with the issue of whether or not to invest time and public

monies into the implementation of a volunteer tutoring program.

Unpleasant side effects may arise from instituting a volunteer

program: fear on the part of teachers' unions of volunteers replacing the

professional, irregular attendance and unreliability of some

volunteers, and the betraying of professional confidences, such as

disseminating information on children other than one's own. Do the

benefits of volunteer tutoring outweigh the administrative hazards

that may arise from bringing nonprofessional helpers into the school?












This research project attempts to add some information that can

be useful in answering this question.

Another question that this project attempts to shed light upon,

if only informally and indirectly, is this one: What happens when

a small rural school district adapts an innovative program that

was developed in a large urban school district? The volunteer

tutor program used in this study was created under a Title III

grant in Dade County, Florida. It was validated during a three-

year period and recommended for dissemination to other school

districts. Sumter County, Florida, School District (about one

percent the size of Dade County in population) adopted the program

with the limitations specified in Chapter III. Since small school

districts are usually limited in the amount of funds available for

innovative programming, this study may be useful in raising some

questions about what happens when small districts attempt to imple-

ment programs pioneered by larger and more affluent districts.



Definition of Terms

For this study the following definitions were used:

Volunteer Tutor A person who after orientation and

training by school personnel agreed

to spend a minimum of two hours per

week in a classroom working with

individual students or small groups






















Basic Skills








Self-Esteem










Primary Grades


Experimental Group








Control Group


in language arts activities, following

the prescriptions of the teacher. No

remuneration was offered for these

services.


Reading, writing, communication and

mathematics skills as measured by

several subtests of the Comprehensive

Tests of Basic Skills


How a person feels about him- or herself

in relationship to peers, family, possessions

and abilities, as measured by the Cooper-

smith Self-Esteem Inventory -- P. K. Yonge

Version 1972


Grades 1, 2, and 3 or nongraded classes

that are administratively synonymous

with grades 1 through 3


One-hundred students in the primary grades

who were assigned by random selection for

attention from volunteer tutors using

language arts/reading prescriptions


One-hundred students in the primary grades

who were assigned by random selection to





8





a group that was not to receive attention

from volunteer tutors in terms of language

arts/reading instruction



Dependent Variables The adjusted posttest means for scale scores

for total reading, vocabulary, comprehension,

language expression, computation, and math

concepts and application, as measured by

the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills,

and the score of the Coopersmith Self-

Esteem Inventory -- P. K. Yonge Version

1972.


Independent Variables Sex, race, and treatment (attention from

volunteer tutors or no attention from

volunteer tutors)


Pretests The Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills

administered in May of 1976


Posttests The Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills

administered in March of 1977 and the

Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory --

P. K. Yonge Version administered in

March of 1977











Procedures


Hypotheses

To give direction to the experiment, the following null

hypotheses were tested, and in each instance the .05 level of

significance was used to reject the hypothesis:


No difference exists between the adjusted

posttest means for scale scores of learners

in the experimental and control groups

H1 for total reading as measured by CTBS

H2 for vocabulary as measured by CrBS

H3 for reading comprehension as measured by CTBS

H4 for language expression as measured by CTBS

H5 for math computation as measured by CTBS

H6 for math concepts and application as measured

by CrBS

H No difference exists between the means for scores

of learners in the experimental and control groups

for self-esteem as measured by the Coopersmith

Self-Esteem Inventory -- P. K. Yonge Version 1972.


The alternative research hypotheses state that the various

adjusted posttest means for scale scores of the experimental group

do in fact differ significantly at the .05 level of significance

from those of the control group. In other words, it does make a











difference in a pupil's basic skills achievement and in his self-

esteem whether or not he is the recipient of attention from a

volunteer tutor.


Design for Research

This study used a pretest/posttest experimental and control

group design (Campbell and Stanley, 1963). Pretests were administered

in May of 1976. Tutoring activities began in October and continued

through March. Unfortunately the Coopersmith protests were destroyed

in the fire at Coleman Elementary School in November, causing a shift

in the design with respect to the self-esteem measures to a posttest

survey only. Posttests were administered in March of 1977.


Assignment to Experimental and Control Groups

Nineteen primary classroom teachers in five elementary schools

elected to have volunteer tutors assigned to their classrooms.

Before choosing students for this experiment, the most advanced

students in each classroom were deleted from the roster at the

principals' request. Principals feared criticism from the public

if tutors worked with students who performed above grade level

when the majority of pupils were one or two years below grade

level on standardized test measures. Either three or six pupils

in each classroom were chosen by random selection for the experi-

mental groups. The number chosen (three or six) was dependent upon

the number of tutors available for assignment to that classroom.











A similar number of students were selected randomly for assignrmnt

to the control group. The randomization process assumed that the

two groups produced by this process were equivalent in general

ability, achievement, sex and racial distribution. The CTBS pretest

scores of the subtest "Total Reading" were used to test the equality

of the two groups in regard to achievement. Sex and race proportions

were tested against those of the total county population.


Program Under Adoption

A committee involving principals, supervisors, curriculum

assistants, classroom teachers, and parents investigated several

models for volunteer tutoring programs available in the fall of

1976. The School Volunteer Development Project from Dade County

Schools was selected for implementation in Sumter County schools

since it was inexpensive to operate and disseminators of the

project were within a half day's drive of Sumter County. This

program categorizes volunteer activities into several job

descriptions. The Language Arts/Reading Tutor was selected to be

the job function that would be highlighted in this research study.

Volunteers were recruited and trained to serve a minimum of two

hours per week as reading tutors who would work with the assigned

children under the supervision of a classrc. '. teacher. A description

of this Title III program and the modifications that occurred during

the adoption process are found in Chapter III.












Instrumentation

The Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (McGraw-Hill) are

measures of basic skills designed for and standardized on a wide

variety of students. Form S was used for this research, Level B

for first grade, Level C for second grade, and Level 1 for third

grade. Standardization for these tests took place in 1973. The

sample used for norming these tests consisted of 212,000 students

throughout the nation. Schools were randomly selected from

districts chosen by stratifying all U.S. school districts by size,

socioeconomic level, and geographic region. Public and parochial.

school students were tested.

The validity and reliability determinations followed the 1966

APA recommendations for testing instruments. Close attention was

given to the issue of content validity. The Bloom taxonomy for

the cognitive domain provided a basis for the classification of

the objectives, each of which was stated in terms of student behavioral

patterns. Numerous reliability determinations led to the conclusion

that a high degree of reliability exists for subtest scores as well

as for total scores (Buros, 1972). Kuder-Richardson Formula 20

reliability coefficients were usually in the .85 to .95 region,

although a few drifted downward as low as .75. The conscientious

construction procedures for creating this test and certain internal

measures (e.g., percent passing items at each grade level) are used

to support the content validity of the test. With the exception of











data relating CTBS scores to California Achievement Test scores,

no empirical relationships with external measures (e.g., students'

grades, teachers' ratings, other achievement tests) are reported,

perhaps on the assumption that content validity is the sine qua non

for an achievement measure.

A variety of types of scores are available for reporting student

achievement data. This study uses scale scores, or expanded standard

scores, which derive from a single, equal interval scale across all

grades for use with all levels of the test. These scale scores

have a mean of 600 and a standard deviation of 100 at grade 10.1

(Test Administrators' Handbook, 1974). Scale scores are useful

for research across all grade levels and all schools in a district,

and also for reporting in nongraded programs and for longitudinal

studies.

The other instrument used in this study is the Coopersmith

Self-Esteem Inventory, developed by Dr. Stanley Coopersmith at

the University of California (Coopersmith, 1967). The original

inventory consisted of 58 statements to which the respondent

checks "like me" or "unlike me." The respondent's professed

attitudes towards self are measured in four areas: (1) peers,

(2) parents, (3) school, and (4) personal interests. In

revealing how the child feels about himself in relationship to

these four areas, this instrument allows for measurement of

level of self-esteem.











The original version of the instrument was revised in 1972

at P. K. Yonge Laboratory School, reducing the number of statements

to 25. Items considered redundant were eliminated, but the ratio

of types of items to each other was maintained (Northrup, 1974).

The correlation between the original and the revised versions is

.86. Test-retest reliability coefficients of .70 and .88 have been

obtained on the instrument.


Data Treatment

Data were collected in May of 1976 and in March of 1977. Scores

on the May tests were used to test the equality of the experimental

and control groups before treatment. Pretest scores were also used

to adjust posttest scores, thus avoiding some of the pitfalls normally

associated with working with gain scores (McLean, 1974; Cronbach and

Furby, 1970).

The statistical analysis process used in this research was a

three-way analysis of variance with pretest scores used as covariates.

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Second Edition (Nie,

1975) was the program used for computerizing the analysis. Of 100

subjects in the experimental group, the system deleted 24 as not

having complete data sets. Of 100 subjects in the control group,

29 were deleted for reasons of incomplete data. The .05 level of

significance was selected for hypothesis-testing purposes. Assump-

tions for the statistical treatment are found in Chapter IV.















This research project was designed to explore the -ffects of

volunteer tutors on primary students in terms of self-estean and

achievement on basic skills tests. An overview of the project

has been given in Chapter I. Chapter II will survey some of the

recent research studies that have involved tutoring. A brief

description of the volunteer program selected for implementation

in this study occurs in Chapter III. Chapter IV gives additional

details about what happened as this volunteer program developed in

a large urban school district was transported to a small rural

school district. Chapter V provides a presentation and analysis

of the data, while conclusions and implications for further study

appear in Chapter VI.














CHAPTER II


REVIEW OF RESEARCH



Volunteers have been part 6f the educational scene in America

ever since the inception of public education. Only in recent

time, however, has the growth of the volunteer movement become

so great that additional supervision is needed from administrators

as well as from classroom teachers. Another recent development

is the shift of volunteer labors from strictly noninstructional

duties to tutoring activities once reserved for professionals or

paid paraprofessionals. As Wright points out, "Community self-

help programs through volunteerism are one of the most promising

new developments of this century . . Chaos, confusion, and

crises develop where there is citizen disinterest" (1969, p. xi).

The use of volunteers in the schools has been advocated as a

means of improving academic performance of low-achieving pupils

(Cf. Passow, 1967; Goldberg, 1967). Rosenshine suggests that

volunteer programs should help students by providing needed

individual attention, which might cause growth in self-esteem (1969).

McClellin hails volunteers as a promising resource for the

individualization of instruction and for changing the learning










climate of educational institutions (1971). The famous Plowden

Report from England describes correlational studies of environmental

factors and pupil achievement (Children and Their Primary Schools etc.,

1967). One conclusion of this report is that variation in parental

attitudes accounts for more variation in achievement than either

variation in home or variation in school. Direct involvement of

parents in school programs, either with their own or other people's

children, is a powerful way of improving parental attitudes and, as a

consequence, student achievement. This report from England is

echoed in the American 1968 Report of the National Advisory Ccommission

on Civil Disorders, which issued recommendations for achieving quality

integrated education. One of the recommendations was "enlarged

opportunities for parents and comaniity participation in public

schools." Volunteering for service in classrooms was viewed as

a type of participation that would benefit all parties concerned -

students, teachers, parents, and school administrators.

A rationale for volunteer programs has been offered by several

authors. Wartenburg (1970) suggests that parent involvement in

volunteer programs brings these benefits: support for the local

educational program, appreciation of the school's daily problems,

better understanding of the children's academic progress, an

improved reading program, more competent staff through sharpening

a teacher's program of instruction, more individualized help for

pupils, and a focusing on new ideas and techniques for improved











education. Whaley (1973) views the volunteer movement as

important in light of (a) soaring costs of education, (b)

rising salaries for teachers, (c) increasing pressure to

upgrade the duties of certified teachers, (d) growing demands

for parent and community involvement in schools, (e) increasing

attention to individualized instruction, and (f) mounting

enrollment trends. Hedges states that "a successful volunteer

program does more than help teachers and pupils directly with

their work. It improves parent-teacher communication, has

positive influence on parents' attitudes, enables parents to

learn more about instructional procedures, and improves

community support for the philosophy, program, and resources

of the school." (Hedges, 1972, p. 6). Hedges then expounds 16

points accomplished by a volunteer program, most of which are

variations of the points made by Wartenburg and Whaley above.

In addition, Hedges affirms that models for differentiated

staffing should have one level for volunteer workers.


Growth of Volunteer Programs

Volunteer work has always been a tradition in America, according

to Dobson (1975). In the early days of public school education,

"grass rootism" was prevalent, but as the schools grew in size and

bureaucratic organization, communication between the home and the













school was impaired. In more recent times, however, the public

is becoming more assertive in demanding "voice and vote" in

determining how the schools, their schools, are to be run.

Accompanying this concern is a greater willingness to go into

the schools to assist teachers in the educational enterprise.

Many parents and teachers agree with Jablonsky (1973, p. 6) who

reports that schools opening their doors to community volunteers

have greater success in educating children, because the changing

perceptions of the adults who visit in the schools affect the

children in a positive way.

The school volunteer movement received much impetus in New York

City in 1956 through a grant to the Public Education Association

from the Ford Foundation (Caplin, 1970). The purpose of this

grant was to survey existing volunteer programs and to lay the

foundation for a cooperative sharing of information and resources.

In 1956 in New York City there were 20 volunteers in one school,

but as attention was focused on volunteerism through the grant,

the program began to expand. By 1971 there were 2000 volunteers

in 161 schools in the city's school system.

The mushrooming effect of program expansion was not limited

to New York alone. In Los Angeles the school volunteer program

began in 1963 with 380 volunteers. Within a decade the number

of volunteers had climbed to over 15,000 with over 45,000 hours












of service donated each week to the schools (Jackson, 1975).

The National School Volunteer Program, Inc. was established

by a grant in 1964. At the end of 1964 there were formally

organized volunteer programs in seven school districts. By 1967

the number of districts sponsoring volunteer programs had increased

to seventeen.

Title III (now Title IV-c) funding for innovative programming

became involved in the historical development of volunteer programs.

HOSTS (Help One Student To Succeed), a reading program developed by

the Vancouver School District, No. 37, in Washington state under an

ESEA grant, focused on the role of volunteers in the teaching

process. In Miami, Florida, a feasibility study for a volunteer

program was conducted with funds from the Emergency School Assistance

Act of 1971 and the volunteer program itself was initiated in 1972

under the aegis of Title III. Throughout the nation Headstart and

Follow Through programs developed hone visitation, parent education,

and in some cases school volunteer programs. The Florida Follow

Through models in Dade County, Duval County, Hillsborough County,

and Okaloosa County had components that enabled schools to utilize

citizen volunteers in classrooms (Greenwood, Breivogel and Bessant, 1972).

Florida school districts, as elsewhere, experimented with

volunteer programs, sometimes with success, sometimes without

success. In 1974 the State Legislature mandated volunteer












programs by requiring lower adult-student ratios in basic skills

instruction without funding additional teachers' aides. In June

of 1976 the various districts were surveyed by the State Department

of Education just prior to the time when the new laws on lower teacher-

student ratio would go into effect (Florida Department of Education, 1976).

The results were as follows:

17 counties had district-wide school volunteer programs

21 counties had school-based volunteer programs

20 counties had no organized school volunteer program

9 counties did not report

An updated report has not yet been published, but it is expected

that in light of the legislated mandate, all counties would have

some semblance of a volunteer program in operation at the present

time.

Current leadership in the field of volunteer programming remains

with the National School Volunteer Program, Inc., a professional

organization composed of approximately 700 local school volunteer

programs (Directory of the N. S. V. P., 1976) This organization

has four major functions:

(1) to help local programs achieve standards of quality

(2) to help local programs expand efforts to meet student needs

(3) to emphasize the role of citizen participants

(4) to strengthen the programs as community institutions.












In all there are approximately four million citizens involved in

some 3000 programs in all fifty states. Not all volunteers are

given instructional tasks to do, but an increasing number are

finding themselves working side by side with professionals in

the teaching of basic skills and other subjects. This type of

involvement has raised some legal questions about nonprofessionals

doing instructional tasks as well as their personal liability while

on campus. As a result, state legislatures are acting to plug the

holes in the present legal frameworks within which school personnel

must operate. In Florida, for example, the definition of "teacher

aide" has taken on a nulti-faceted character since the passage of

the Public Education Act of 1975. The teacher aide is now "appointed"

rather than assigned by the school board (228.042 (25) Florida Statute).

Through this process, the teacher's aide receives the same legal protec-

tion as other professional personnel. The Act also broadened the defini-

tion of "teacher aide" in the Florida Statutes as follows:

Teacher aides may include parents, foster grandparents,
paraprofessionals, students, and others who serve in
the classroom as instructional or paraprofessional
assistants to the teacher, whether such aides be
paid workers or volunteers (228.041 (25) Fla. Statute),


Research on Volunteer Programs

With the surge of interest in volunteer programs, a vast amount

of literature has been produced ranging from serious books to

innumerable handouts churned out on mimeograph machines around the











nation. Most of the literature is hortatory or testimonial in

nature, sharing the assumption that volunteer tutoring is benefiting

the student in many ways. Many case studies describe local programs

and focus on obvious successes. Few articles or books on volunteer

programs have much to say about evaluation of objective measures.

This review of research is considering only those studies in

which evaluation was a component. The question being explored is

this one: What does available research reporting tell about the

effectiveness of tutoring in basic skills in terms of student

achievement and/or self-esteem? The treatments under discussion

involve tutoring rather than simply citizen involvement (such as

parent-teacher conferences) or some form of parent education or

home visitation. In each case under review, the volunteer tutor

comes in or near the classroom to work with designated students in

their pursuit of basic skills knowledge.

Three general categories of tutoring are considered: (1) tutoring

by the student's own parent, (2) tutoring by peers, and (3) tutoring

by adults or high school age persons other than parents. The first

two categories will be presented in simplified chart form, while the

third category will be described more comprehensively in narrative

form, since it is tutoring by adult; other than parents that corres-

ponds most nearly to the current research project in Sumter County.

Levels of significance for hypothesis testing should be understood

as being at the .05 level, unless otherwise noted.












Tutoring by Parents

In the following studies, arranged in alphabetical order,

the tutoring relationship is established between a child and

his own parent.



Researcher Date Program Description Evaluation Results


Brzienski 1964 Use of TV and printed There is a direct
materials to assist relation between
parents in interven- reading practice
tion in beginning under parent's
reading control and student
achievement --
minimum 30 minutes
per week.


1969 Parents supervise
students' math
homework to test
home-school con-
tact effect on
performance and
attitude.


No significant differ-
ence in performance.
In attitude, high
achievers showed
negative change while
low achievers showed
positive change.


Casaus 1974 Ten-session train- Affected parents'
ing for minority pride and knowledge
parents positively, but not
student performance


4. Champagne
and Goldman


1971 Three-day training
in specific tutor-
ing skills


11 of 12 parents
increased positive
reinforcement
(small N)


2. Buchanan









Researcher Date

5. Clegg 1972


Program Description Evaluation Results


Eight games taught to
economically disadvan-
taged parents for
teaching reading


Experimental group
scored better in
vocabulary and IQ,
but not in compre-
hension


Flint Public 1963 1000 k-6 students Mean gain on
Schools (mostly black) vocabulary and
tutored by parents comprehension for
over 5 months experimental 5.3
months; for controls
2.8 months


7. Henderson
and Swanson


1973 Parents trained to
help children develop
intellectual skills
(Native Americans)


Conclusion: well
planned instruction,
targeted on specific
skills, may be effec-
tive regardless of
child's general level
of past achievement
in academic subjects


Hoskisson, 1974 Two students tutored Significant gains,
Sherman and by mothers 20 minutes but too small N
Smith per week for 4 months to generalize


9. Hirst


10. Keele and
Harrison


1972 96 grade 2 Caucasians
tutored by parents for
five 30-minute periods
over 16 weeks


1971 Parents and high school
students tutor begin-
ning reading students,
using tutoring hand-
books


No significant differ-
ence in achievement


Experimentals did
better in sounding
letters, not in
naming letters.









Researcher Date Program Description

11. Mayes 1966 Parents supplement
math instruction
through use of kits
with third graders


Evaluation Results

Experimentals
showed greater
improvement in
mathematics


12. McKinney


13. Niedermyer


1975 Parents are taught
tutoring skills in
reading and math.
Tutoring occurs 2
hours per week for
15 weeks.


1969 Parent-monitored
practice in
reading


Experimentals gained
academically. Their
parents gained in
positive attitudes
towards school.


High level of
achievement for
experinentals


O'Neil 1975 3 groups of reading- No significant
disabled primary pupils: differences, but
(1) tutored by small gains in
supervised parents some reading
(2) tutored by unsuper- subtests
vised parents
(3) not tutored
Ten-week period




Rosenquist 1972 90 first graders of Experimentals made
high socioeconomic gains of 3 to 4
level tutored by months over controls
parents and older
siblings using games
and fun activities




Ryan 1964 232 second graders Experimentals did
tutored by parents better in word mean-
in reading ing, not paragraphs









Researcher Date Program Description Evaluation Results


17. Slater 1970 Monthly workshop for Experimentals did
parents of kindergarten better on only one
for intervention in of three scales
perceptual development



18. Waters 1968 Ten sessions with No significant
parents of primary difference
students



19. Wise 1972 Economically dis- Effective in
advantaged parents improving pupil
trained to tutor performance
in reading over
8 months




Of these 19 studies, 8 can be termed successful in terms of

student gains, 6 were unsuccessful, 3 had mixed results, and 2 had

too small a number of subjects to generalize results to other popu-

lations. Techniques of tutoring were varied, including book work,

supervising homework, conducting educational games, use of kits, and

in Henderson's case, asking questions designed to enhance intellectual

capacity of respondents. In all cases where the tutors' positive

feelings or knowledge were surveyed, gains occurred in conjunction

with the tutoring experience.

Recurrent patterns of methodology are difficult to detect in

either the successful or unsuccessful experiments. All successful

experiments utilized specific recommendations targeted on clear

objectives, but so did Hirst and also O'Neil and also Waters -

without success.











All experiments except O'Neil's and Keele & Harrison's have

a treatment group and a "no treatment" control group, which raises

the issue of how to control for Hawthorne effect. How much

positive change can be traced to the treatment effect, and how

much is due to the children's excitement over being the recipients

of special attention? In some cases (Rosenquist, 1972; Clegg, 1972),

treatment was no more than special attention, under the assumption

that positive association with parents in fun activities would

enhance the students' self-esteem and therefore cause a rise in

achievement measures.


Tutoring by Peers

In general, experiments involving peer tutoring are easiest to

design since both tutors and tutored are day-time residents of

educational institutions and can therefore be more easily scheduled,

monitored, and controlled. The following studies focus on peer

tutoring:


Researcher Date Program Description Evaluation Results


1. Bradshaw 1971 32 gra le 1, 2, 3 75% of subjects in
students tutored by only one of two schools
grade 4, 5, 6 pupils involved met criteria
15 minutes daily for successful remediation
over 8 weeks



2. Bremer 1972 80 grades 1 4 Almost half tutees gained.
students tutored 60% tutors improved in
by 40 grade 7 8 attendance, No change in
students attitude of either group











Researcher Date Program Description


3. Diamond 1970 92 grade 5 males with
low self-esteem
tutored second
graders low in
reading skills


4. Harrison


Evaluation Results


No positive effect on
either tutors or
tutees


1972 172 grade 2 nonreaders Experimentals performed
tutored by grades 4-6 better than controls
students 15 minutes
4 days a week for 5 months


1971 216 grade 2 pupils
tutored by 60 grade 4
students 20 minutes
per day for 6 months


1971 82 grade 3 black male
underachievers tutored
by 41 grades 4 6
underachievers 30
minutes a day
3 days a week for
12 weeks


1972 Pupils from 10 elemen-
tary schools tutored
by underachieving
middle school students
for six weeks


1971 120 grade 3 students
tutored by 60 grade 6
students 30 minutes per
day, 3 days a week for
4 months


No gains in tutees,
but gains showed up
in tutors


Experimentals gained
only in comprehension


No gains


Experimentals gained in
comprehension and attitude
but not in vocabulary.
Tutors gained in
attitude only.


5. Kelly


6. Liette










7. Lopp


8. Paoni


_I~


111_









Researcher

9. Plumb


Date

1974


10. Robertson 1971
and Sharp


Program Description

108 grades 2 3
students tutored
by grades 5 6
students for 6 weeks


66 grade 1 students
tutored by 33 grade
5 low achievers


Evaluation Results

Experimentals gained,
with only one student
failing to make signi-
ficant improvement.


Experimentals gained
only in signt word
vocabulary


1969 40 grade 3 and 30
grade 6 underachievers
tutored by grade 6
pupils 40 minutes
per day for 8 weeks




1970 40 grade 1, 2, 3
underachievers
tutored by grades
5 6 students
20 minutes, 4 times
a week for 8 weeks


Only third graders
made gains


Experimentals made gains.


Of 12 studies, 3 were successful in tens of learner (i.e., tutee)

results, 3 were unsuccessful, and 6 rendered mixed results. Effects

upon tutors were also ambiguous. McClellin (1971) in her own survey

of peer tutoring research reports that no study of cross-age tutoring

produced negative or damaging results, although not all produced

positive results. Hedges (1972), in surveying the peer tutoring

scene in Ontario, concludes that when older students tutor, they


11. Rogers


12. Snapp











make important academic gains, although the effects upon the tutees

are more inconclusive. A search for recurrent patterns in either

the successful or unsuccessful studies listed above does not yield

firm conclusions about why some efforts succeed and others fail.


Tutoring by Other Adults

What can happen in a child's life when someone other than teacher,

parent, or sibling takes an interest in him and expresses it in tutorial

functions? To read the case studies on volunteer tutoring, it would

appear that many positive influences occur when subjective judgement

is used to draw conclusions. Students feel better about themselves,

relate to other children more congenially, improve their attendance

record, and increase their work output. But when objective measures

are utilized, do these favorable influences hold up under close

scrutiny? Many studies have been conducted concerning the effects

of tutors other than parents or peers on student achievement. Few

studies have questioned the effects of tutors in the affective domain,

no doubt because matters of pride, self-concept, and other feelings

are difficult to document.

Some experiments report only positive results from volunteer

tutoring programs. The Ferguson-Florissant report (1974) describes

a Saturday School Program for elementary grades that combines home

visitation with volunteer service four times a year in the scli ol

district's tutorial program held every Saturday. Parents are not











expected to tutor their own children in the Saturday sessions.

Between 76% and 96% of the students made significant improvement

in basic skills, the percentage varying from year to year. No

control group was used, however.

Good results are also reported by McCleary (1971) for the

Tutorial Reading Project of North Carolina, with tutors and tutees

meeting every day during the school year on a one-to-one basis.

The experimental group demonstrated a significantly higher mean

than did the control group on all phases of the reading achievement

test.

Children attending a neighborhood tutoring center in Milwaukee,

after being referred by school personnel for special assistance,

were tutored by volunteers for as long as the need seemed to be

pressing. Average gains on seven reading measures were much

better than expected, based on past performances. In addition,

subjective evaluation by school personnel showed improvement in

self-concept, work habits, attitude, library usage, and reading

enjoyment (Schoeller, 1970). Similar gains both cognitively and

effectively are described by Gaulke (1972) for a volunteer program

in which the tutors were trained using the Laubach method. In this

study 23 boys from grades 5 and 6, after being tutored, appeared to

have made gains in self-concept, interest, and classroom academic

work. On more objective measures associated with reading test

scores, 100 of the experimental, as opposed to 89% of the controls,

showed significant gains in vocabulary and/or comprehension.












Tutoring using a programmed approach to the teaching of decoding

skills is described by Richardson (1971). Twelve nonreaders from

grades 3 and 5 were assigned to tutors for 43 sessions. While

these children could all apply decoding skills to new materials in

a way that implied significant growth, the small number of subjects

causes one to view the results with caution. The problem of having

no control group similarly raises questions about Hassinger and Via's

work (1969). Underachievers from grades 4 through 6 were tutored

during two-hour blocks for a period of six weeks. Their mean growth

on the Stanford was 4.6 nunths after only 1. 5 months of treatment.

Unfortunately, without controls it is impossible to know what other

factors contributed to this gain, nor do we know if the gain persisted

over time.

An ESEA Title I program in Omaha Public Schools enabled

1,460 children in grades 1 through 3 to receive special assistance

through volunteers and paraprofessionals trained to teach specific

reading skills. While most students exhibited improvement in the

tutored skills, it is impossible to sort out the effects of the

various components of the total program (Texley, 1973). A cost-

effectiveness study reported by Conant (1971) examined the use of

teacher aides in elementary schools, most of whom were salaried

paraprofessionals rather than part-time volunteers. Pupil achievement

gains were noted, especially among the educationally disadvantaged.












Similar gains in achievement, plus some gains in self-esteem, were

reported for Project Upswing in Maryland (Plantec, 1972). Project

Upswing was a two-year program of volunteers helping first graders

overcome learning difficulties. One experimental group was tutored

by trained volunteers, another experimental group by untrained

volunteers, and a control group was not tutored. Both experimental

groups made similar significant gains.

An Ohio study focused on ways to help educators learn to use

volunteer support, with training sessions provided for educators.

Correlative studies pointed to significant improvement in certain

language arts and math skills by 80% of the students (Logan, 1975).

A study by Rist (1971) shows how reading scores can be affected by

experiments with a non-language-arts focus. Over a nine-month

period, 127 grade 7 black students were tutored in Black Awareness

by black university students. When a comprehensive barrage of

tests was administered, it demonstrated that experimental had gained

3.4 years in reading while controls gained only .6 years.

Study of longitudinal effects of volunteer efforts is almost

nonexistent, but Shavor (1971) attempts to inject this element into

his study. Tutors worked with 194 grades 4, 7, and 10 underachievers

one hour per day for one year. The experimental showed greater

immediate gains for reading and writing, especially in grades 7 and 10.

Two years later, the mean gains were sustained at the grades 7 and 10











levels but not for grade 4. More longitudinal analyses are

definitely in order for assessing the effects of volunteer

tutoring in the nation's schools over an extended period of

time.


Mixed Results

If every experiment's results were as clear-cut as those cited

above, the issue of volunteer effectiveness would not be a live

issue for research. However, many studies have produced effects

that are inconclusive. The following reports suggest that more

experimenting and more evaluation are needed in the area of

volunteer programming.

More tests rendering ambiguous results have experimental

showing gains on some test components but not on others. Latter

(1967) observed 60 underachieving grade 5 and 6 students tutored

by 60 college students for 2 hours once a week for 9 weeks. The

experimental were superior on arithmetic subtests but not on word

knowledge tests. Simil -ly, when 60 first graders in Ohio were

tutored for 15 minutes daily for one year, the experimental did

better in word knowledge and comprehension, but not in word discrimi-

nation. And when Ellson used programmed versus directed tutoring

with 480 first graders (1968) and later with 280 first graders (1970),

in both cases 15 minutes daily for one year, similar results occurred.

The programmed instruction produced gains when measured by the basal











reader tests, but not on the standardized test. No gains were

associated with the directed instructional format.

Other year-long programs producing some, but not all, positive

indicators are PACE of Cleveland (Carter and Dapper, 1972, p. 21)

and East Charles Mix (1971). In addition, Nichols (1968) tells

of the tutoring of grades 4 through 6 disadvantaged children by

university students with the intention of raising self-concept,

reading achievement, and attitudes. While there is no significant

difference in the pretest and posttest means in reading, there was

change in three measured factors: (1) creative expression, (2)

recreational activities, and (3) adult and peer interaction.

Like Ellson, Ronshausen (1971) did a study contrasting directed

versus progranmed tutoring activities with first graders, 15 minutes

per day of individualized tutoring. Ronhausen's results contradict

Ellson's findings. The directed approach produced gains in achieve-

ment and attitude, while programmed instruction did not.

In addition to format for tutoring, does the sex of the tutor

have impact upon the experiment's results? Gentile (1975) tested

the effect of tutor sex on reading scores of children. In second

grade, apparently women make the best tutors while in third and

fourth grades men are either better, or in some schools there is

no difference. And does time make a difference? After examining

the results from 515 grades 4 and 5 students after tutoring, Cloward

(1963) reports that tutees who were tutored twice or iore each week











showed gains while those who were tutored once a week showed none.

Kirk (1966) observed a tutoring program over two years. Through

post hoc analysis he divided the students into three groups: (1)

more than 20 hours of tutoring, (2) 10 to 20 hours, and (3) less

than 10 hours. At the end of the first year, group 3 students

had significantly higher posttest scores (.001):after the scores

were adjusted for pretest scores. At the end of the second year,

there were no significant differences at all. In neither year was

there any meaningful correlation between the number of hours of

tutoring and gain in the posttest scores.

In the Great Cities School Service Assistance Project in Michigan,

tutoring occurred with other elementary children. When the data were

analyzed, it appeared that the fourth grade pupils gained in reading

and mathematics, while the third and fifth graders showed no differ-

ences (Poulos, 1971).

An innovative tutoring program in New York City used executives

from major corporations to work with 160 inner-city elementary pupils

(Reading Newsreport, 1971). Project directors, teachers, and tutors

felt that positive gains had been made, but unfortunately the

quantitative evaluation design was inadequate to stipulate any

objective results. Many early attempts at evaluation were also

inadequately designed to meet current standards for social science

experimentation. Howell (1959) did some of the earliest studies

on volunteerism, but even though the effects of the experiments were

somewhat greater where volunteers were used, the data cannot be











generalized because of design flaws. Howell, however, reaches

the tentative conclusion that the experimental conditions probably

did not impede pupil leaning in general and may have tended to

promote it.


"No Change" Experiments

Seven recent studies have turned up no significant differences

between experimental and controls or between pretest and posttest

scores. Larson (1975), Olsen (1969), and Meyers (1971) note that

teachers felt that tutoring produced positive changes in self-concept

and attitudes even if the achievement scores did not show improvement.

In Murton's study (1966), college students worked with grades 3 through

5 students, deemphasizing the academic and focusing on affective

relationships. While there were no clear gains, parents were

pleased with the program. Again, no differences occurred when

Srnith's (1971) untrained volunteers worked with "problem children"

in grades 1 through 6.

Grannick (1972) examined the data from a sumner tutoring program

in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The tutors were high school potential

dropouts working under the supervision of teachers. Attrition rate

was high among the tutors and tutees. The means for pretest and

posttest were almost unchanged. About this same time, Worl (1973)

was observing three groups of inner-city children in an eight-week

study in New York. One group was tutored by adults trained by

reading specialists, another group was concentrating on self-esteem











advancement, and the third group was tutored in whatever seemed

appropriate by adults who received no training. When no signi-

ficant difference occurred in any of the measures, Worl questioned

the effectiveness of volunteer tutoring in general and this

specific program in particular.


Summary of Research

In this overview of current research concerning volunteer

tutoring, 21 studies displayed positive gains associated with

tutoring, 16 studies showed no gains, and 20 studies had mixed

results. In 1969 Rosenshine examined 13 current studies and

concluded that "well structured, cognitively-oriented tutoring

programs are relatively few, but when they occur, there are usually

measurable achievement benefits to the pupils. The majority of

tutoring programs apparently do not have these characteristics,

but consist of less structured, helping, affective interactions.

In these 'softer' situations, the anecdotal reports are that the

tutors and the pupils develop increased pride, positive attitudes

towards self and school, enhanced self-image, and greater patience "

(p. 2). Even if the objective measures do not indicate positive

gain, often the subjective evaluations given by teachers, parents,

tutors or tutees would suggest that participants in the tutoring

programs see themselves as benefiting in many ways from the

experience.










Hawkridge and his associates (1968) prepared a review in

which 18 well designed programs for producing cognitive gains in

disadvantaged pupils were compared with 27 matched unsuccessful

programs. While tutoring was not ordinarily a function of these

programs, the conclusions may have some light to shed on why some

tutorial programs seem to work and others do not. All of the

successful programs displayed careful, deliberate planning, high

intensity and concentration in the treatment, and individualized

attention to the subject. The unsuccessful programs were more

diffuse in their objectives, usually attempting to provide a variety

of enrichment services rather than focusing on cognitive gains. Mbre

time was spent on cultural activities, for example, and less time on

academic activities. It is difficult to see patterns emerge that

would distinguish between the successful and unsuccessful tutoring

programs. However, future researchers nmy wish to take lHawkridge's

analysis into account as experiments are planned.

Few trends or patterns can be deduced from existing studies.

With regard to time devoted to tutoring, for example, there is no

evidence of any optimum frequency of tutoring sessions. Tutoring

programs meeting daily or as infrequently as once a week have been

successful and unsuccessful. In two separate years Kirk (1966)

found no correlation between amount of time spent in tutoring and

pupil achievement. Also, in terms of optimal size of groups, Shavor

(1969) reports no significant differences between one-to-one and











one-to-three tutoring experiences in three replications. One-to-

five also seems to yield the same effects as smaller groupings.

However, more data are needed in this area as well as in the area

of longitudinal studies.

If viewed only in terms of academic growth of pupils and gains

in self-esteem, volunteer tutoring programs are obviously not the

panacea that some educators might wish. Rosenshine (1969) tells

about reading reports which had been issued with negative findings

but which later became "unavailable" from funding sources. There

is no doubt that there continues to be a great need for unbiased,

objective reporting of data concerning the effects of various

volunteer tutoring projects going on in all parts of the nation.

Landberg (1968) tells of surveying 33 school districts in California

concerning their tutoring programs only to discover that not one of

them had evaluated the effects of the programs on the students. In

some ways the situation is no better one decade later. Much honest

analysis of data from volunteer programs needs to be done. This

current study in Sumter County, Florida, is one contribution to

fulfilling this need. It does this by utilizing a model with clear

goals and objectives, definite job descriptions for participants, and

specified tasks to be performed. It also targets a specific sample

and measures the effect of association with volunteers on achievement

and self-esteem scores. It then uses analysis of variance procedures




42






to investigate the concomitant effects of treatment, race, and

sex upon the experiment's results. Data from this study may

then be added to data generated by the original School Volunteer

Development Project in Miami to provide useful information on the

effectiveness of this approach to volunteer tutoring in both urban

and rural settings.

















CHAFFER III


DESCPRPTION OF THE SCHOOL VOLUNTEER PROGRAM






Dade County is the most populous county in Florida.

Within its urban and suburban communities can be found all

socioeconomic groups including Caucasians, Negroes, Asians,

and Cuban-Americans. The school system serving the multi-

ethnic population is the sixth largest in the nation, with

approximately 250,000 pupils and 20,000 employees. The need

for academic improvement in basic skills has been brought to

the public's attention through the state assessment program.

As a result, the School Volunteer Development Project was created

with assistance from ESEA Title III. The developmental aspect

of the project was in operation from 1972 to 1975. On the

basis of meeting the criteria of innovativeness, success, cost-

effectiveness, and exportability, the project was validated for

federal support as a dissemination project. Since then the

creators of this program have been attempting to share their












insights into the ways and means of volunteer programming with

all schools and school districts that express interest.


Project Objectives

The purpose of the School Volunteer Development Project was

to develop and implement a delivery system of school volunteer

services which could deliver a number of different types of volunteer

services to meet different and varying kinds of learner needs.

(Abstract, School Volunteer Center, 1975, p. 2).

Two major objectives addressing critical learner needs were

in the area of basic skills: (1) Students who are one or more

years below national norms in reading achievement and who are

tutored by volunteer reading tutors of the School Volunteer Project

will gain significantly more in reading achievement than will non-

tutored students. Reading achievement will be measured by the

reading comprehension section of the Metropolitan Achievement Test.

(2) Students who are one or more years below national norms in

math achievement and who are tutored by volunteer math tutors of

the School Volunteer Project will gain significantly more in math

achievement than will non-tutored students. The math comprehension

section of the Metropolitan Achievement Test will be used to measure

gains.











Project Activities

Administrators are trained through workshops by the staff

of the School Volunteer Development Project concerning the

overall delivery system of the project and the administrator's

supportive role in it. A School Resource Person is appointed by

the administrator from among his staff and a Volunteer Chairperson

is selected from the community to jointly coordinate the volunteer

effort in the school. The two leaders also receive training in

their respective roles.

The faculties of each school are then trained by the project

staff and a needs assessment is conducted in order to ascertain the

needs of the school and of each classroom within the school with

respect to volunteer assistance. Then the recruitment of volunteers

from the community begins in earnest. As sufficient volunteers enlist,

workshops are held to orient the volunteers to the school and also

orient the teachers to the effective use of volunteers.

Students performing one or more years below grade level in read-

ing or mathematics are identified as needing special attention from

volunteers. Assignments of students to volunteer care are made.

The program is from that point on monitored through teacher and

staff observations, feedback from volunteers, and feedback from

teachers, New ways of expressing gratitude for the volunteers'

services are constantly being sought and utilized.












During the first year of operation of the project, 1,237 volunteers

worked in 35 schools. The lives of 45,537 students were affected

by the project. Approximately 48% of the volunteers were parents

of school-age children or in sane way already associated with the

school, 50 weree senior high school or college students, and 2%

were senior citizens.

During the trial-and-error process of training tutors and

teachers, materials were developed to assist with future inservice

work. These materials have been packaged into a Starter Kit for

the Utilization of Volunteer Services. The contents of this kit

are nulti-media in nature and include administrative reference books,

introductory training materials in print fonrat, training modules

with individualize cassette tapes, and optional modules with film-

strips and tapes.


Evidence of Effectiveness

The successfulness of this project can be inferred from specific

evaluation of the two major objectives. The objectives were

measured within the context of Campbell and Stanley's pretest/

posttest design. The results obtained from analysis of the data

gathered during the experiment may be viewed in Tables 1 and 2.

Students who were tutored by volunteer reading tutors gained

significantly more in reading achievement than non-tutored pupils,

exceeding them at the .0005 level. The same results occurred












with the math-tutored students. Improved achievement was

associated with volunteer efforts.



TABLE 1

COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS ON
READING COMPREHENSION SCORES FOR STUDENTS WITH
TUTORS AND STUDENTS WITHOUT TUTORS



Number Mean Grade
Group of Equivalent SD F
Observations Gain Score



Tutored 119 1.02 .84 20.85*


Non-tutored 117 0.038 2.11


*df = 1,234; p-.0005






TABLE 2

COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS ON
MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT SCORES FOR STUDENTS WITH
TUTORS AND STUDENTS WITHOUT TUTORS



Number Mean Grade
Group of Equivalent SD F
Observations Gain Score


Tutored


0.808


.87 47.93*


Non-tutored 117 -0.059 .75


*df = 1,234; p -<.0005












The school volunteer program in Dade County has grown to over

12,000 volunteers, the second largest program in the nation. An

enormous amount of talent and resources have been donated to the

schools. The project staff has documented over $4,400,000 of

time and resource contributions during 1974-75.

The cost analysis per pupil for three stages of development

of the project for one school year is presented in Table 3:



TABLE 3

COST ANALYSIS FOR SVDP FOR ONE YEAR


Start Up Manage Operate



Total $14,511.00 $17,380.49 $71,141.37


Total number of learners
upon which costs were based 45,537 45,537 45,537


Costs per learner .31 .38 1.56



Start-up costs include pre-service staff development, all printed

and taped materials, facilities, media equipment, and office

equipment, Managanent costs include administrative materials,

evaluation services, anployee benefits, and project director's

salary. Operation costs include travel expenses, teachers'

and clerical salaries.












As a perspective on the yield which this investment of

funds provides, it is necessary to consider the dollar return

to Dade County during its first year of the project when 1,237

persons volunteered for tutoring. Each volunteer served

approximately 4 hours per week for 35 weeks, thus giving a

total of 173,180 hours. If $6.00 per hour (the mean tutorial

rate in Miami at that time) is the value attributed to the

volunteers' hours of service, the School Volunteer Development

Project added $1,039,080 in services to the educational program

as a result of the $85,220 investment froa ESEA, Title III and

$17,812.86 in donations.

The project staff instrumental in creating and disseminating

this project are the following:

Dr. Audrey Jackson, Coordinator of Volunteer Services

Johanna Bullock, Volunteer Specialist

Regina Craig, Coordinator of Training Program

and Thelma Greene, Volunteer Specialist.


Modification Through Adoption

As Sumter County school personnel made plans to adopt the

Dade County model for a volunteer program, only one change was

required, it seemed. The Dade County project differentiated

the roles and responsibilities of volunteers until finally the

following volunteer positions had job descriptions and training

modules:











Arts and Crafts Assistant
Audio-Visual Assistant
Classroom Assistant
Clinic Assistant
Clerical Assistant
Counselor's Assistant
Language Arts/Reading Tutor
Listener
Library Assistant
Math Tutor
Physical Education Assistant
Special Education Assistant
Storyteller
Supervision Assistant
Spanish Assistant
Special Activities Volunteer
Special Course Instructor
Special Interest Club Sponsor

In Sumter County the decision was made by the ad hoc canmittee

to limit the focus of the local experiment to language arts/reading

tutors only, allowing hopefully for a small but successful beginning

for the volunteer movement in local schools. Chapter IV details

other changes that occurred as the program evolved over the course

of its first six months of existence. Chapter V presents an

analysis of the data generated by this study, and Chapter VI ends

this report with conclusions and recommendations for further study.

















CHAPTER IV


THE EXPERIMENT




Sumter County, Florida, is a rural area in the central

region of the state. With its limited job market capabilities,

the county has few distractions to compete with organized school

activities for public support and attention. Consequently, PTA's

are active, "open house" at school causes congestion in some class-

rooms, and Friday evenings the place to be is the local high school

football field to watch "our boys" play "their boys." And so when-

ever the call for school volunteers has gone out from the schools,

there has usually been a good response, even though there was no

district program organized to legitimize or lend support to the

volunteer effort, or to give it direction.

In many cases, however, the call has not gone out; in fact,

many educators have worked to discourage any threatened spread

of the volunteer movanent in educational circles. The rationale

for impeding the spread of volunteerism usually took the form of

one of these arguments: (1) The teaching of reading, writing, and











arithmetic are canplex tasks that require professional training.

Volunteers should not attempt to do anything except menial tasks,

and certainly to allow volunteers to do instructional work would

be a betrayal of the public trust in education. (2) Many volun-

teers are deficient in educational graces and academic proficiencies,

using incorrect gramnar, for example, without even being aware of it.

They provide poor models for appropriate student behavior. (3) Many

volunteers are tempted to treat confidential matters as public domain,

spreading improper information of the children's progress and the

teacher's eccentricities.

In Law 74-238, passed by the Florida Legislature in 1974,

volunteerism was endorsed over and against all opposition. Aides,

including unpaid volunteers, were mandated for use in order to

lower adult-student ratios during the time period set aside for

basic skills instruction. Also, according to the law, all

primary teachers were to be trained in the use of aides, volunteers,

and paraprofessionals in their classrooms. Sumter County adminis-

trators, like their colleagues all over the state, were now faced

with a mandate and puzzled over how to implement more effectively

basic skills instruction in their schools in light of the mandate.

The issue of district-based versus school-based programing

immediately came to the fore. Both approaches to volunteer program

organization have positive features to commend them; they have draw-

backs as well. The county office administrators, in consultation











with school administrators, determined to search for a model

that would combine the best features of district-based and

school-based programming.


Organizing a Committee

A search committee was set up, involving principals,

supervisors, curriculum assistants, classroom teachers, and

parents. Several models for volunteer programming were examined

in depth by the committee, which finally decided to adopt the

Dade County model for the following reasons:

(1) The Dade County program seemed to combine most effectively

the advantages of both a district-based and a school-based

approach.

(2) Dade County was close enough for easy communication and

dissemination of the program. Local personnel could

journey to Miami for training and consultants could

travel to Sumter County very conveniently by turnpike.

(3) The Dade County model seemed to have all one could hope

for in terms of group-oriented and individualized

modules for training volunteers and teachers.

(4) The adoption of this model was inexpensive. The Starter

Kit containing all materials needed for implementing the

program cost $55.00. However, all school districts in

Florida are entitled to receive one without charge. Only

one kit was needed for a district the size of Sumter County's.












The committee had a few additional tasks to do before it could

be disbanded, such as identifying a School Volunteer Program

Resource Person (professional educator) and a School Volunteer

Program Chairperson (lay volunteer) for each school. In addition,

a policy statement needed to be adopted to guide the establishment

of a School Volunteer Program in Sumter County. The following

policy statement was adopted by the committee and subsequently by

the Board of Public Instruction.


Policy Statement


Citizens who voluntarily contribute their
time, talents and services to extend and enrich
both instructional and noninstructional programs
of the public schools are valuable assets. The
School Board of Sumter County, Florida, encourages
constructive participation of groups and individuals
in local schools under the direction and supervision
of professional personnel.

Volunteers serve a minimum of two hours a
week in a defined position that has a recommended
set of tasks. Every effort is made to utilize
volunteer resources in a manner which will assure
maximum contribution to the welfare and educational
growth of pupils.

Administrative Regulations:

i. Individuals and groups who currently work with
teachers and pupils in the schools and offices
of the Sumter County Public Schools and are not
employees of the School Board shall be formally
registered at the respective schools and in
the county office.











2. Applications from prospective volunteers
and all special requests for volunteer
assistance may be made directly to the
county office. Volunteers may also be
recruited by school personnel. It is
essential, however, that all volunteers
be registered in the school before
beginning work in the school.

3. The school principal or his designee
define and assign responsibilities
and tasks to be performed by volunteers
in the school.

4. When volunteers work directly with students,
the volunteers' activities shall be under
the supervision of a teacher, administrator
or other professional manber.

5. Both volunteers who wish to serve regularly
in the schools and the teachers who request
volunteers are encouraged to participate in
appropriate orientation and/or training
sessions. Regular assignments should be
delayed until initial orientation has been
completed.

6. Volunteer applicants shall be screened and
individually interviewed by the school level
volunteer program leaders who are appointed
by the principal. Final approval is given
by the principal.

7. In the event that a school staff person
recommends that a volunteer be dismissed
from service, the principal shall make
the final decision based on a careful
review of the situation.

8. Principals are encouraged not to place parent
volunteers in their child's classroom in order
to protect the best interest of all concerned.












For the purposes of this experiment the committee

decided to limit the number of volunteer roles. Since

reading instruction is the priority during these times of

basic skills emphasis, it was the consensus of committee

opinion that the role for this study should be that of the

Language Arts/Reading Tutor. Specific task assignments for

this role may be seen in che job description in Appendix B.


Design and Assumptions

The design for generating data for this study may be

schematized in this way:




May 1976 March 1977


Experimental X 0 X
1 2


Control X X2


where X1 = pretest, X2 = posttest, and 0 = treatment.


The protests were designated to be used a covariates during

the statistical analysis. Analysis of variance using pretest

scores as covariates permits statistical control for the covariates,

removing their influence from the comparison of treatment effects

of experimental and controls. In other words, the adjustment











for the covariate may lead to reduction in the error term,

allowing for a more sensitive analysis and increasing the

precision and power of the test.

When using the analysis of variance procedure, it is

necessary to make certain assumptions:

(1) Randomization is the foundational assumption on which most

of the succeeding assumptions are based.

(2) Additivity must be assumed -- namely that the treatment

effects and the environmental effects are additive rather

than multiplicative, with each score a sum of the mean,

treatment, and error components. In other words, the

random errors do not multiply treatment effects; they

simply add to them. The linear model is denoted

Xij = + qj + iij

where p. is the grand mean, ca is the treatment effect, and

L is the error component.

(3) A normal distribution of error components is also assumed.

Skewness and kurtosis scores available through the condes-

criptive procedures of SPSS may be used to check this

assumption.

(4) A statistical independence among the error components is

also assumed; that is, knowing about the error component

for one score tells us nothing about the error component

for another score.












(5) Another assumption is the hanogeneity of variance; that

is, the error variance has the same value for all popu-

lations. Cochran's C Test may be used to test for

homogeneity of variance where the assumption is in doubt.

(6) An assumption of the SPSS program ANOVA is the Fixed

Effects Model, rather than the Random Effects Model

or the Mixed Model.


Training of Key Personnel

The identified Resource Persons and Chairpersons went to

Miami for three days of training in September of 1976. Discussions

were held with School Volunteer Development Project personnel

to clarify duties and responsibilities, plan major activities,

identify resources, and establish a time line of events. Parti-

cipants in this workshop returned to Sumter County with a total

plan for setting up a volunteer tutoring program in five

elementary schools.


Orientation of Faculties

Workshops were held in each school by the District School

Volunteer Coordinator. The purposes of these two-session

workshops were to introduce the benefits that accrue from

volunteer tutors, to present information on the particular

model selected for implementation, and to train teachers in











ways to use volunteers effectively in the classroom.

These workshops took place in the latter part of September

and the early part of October.


Recruitment of Volunteers

In accordance with the plan devised during the Miami

workshop, a variety of recruiting activities was conducted,

including take-home handouts from schools, letters to social

clubs and civic organizations, PTA telephone communication

networks, spot announcements on the radio, and signs and

posters in public places. Guidelines on the selection

criteria were sent to each school where screening of the

candidates for tutor position was to take place. No

candidate was refused during this initial screening, although

one volunteer was asked not to continue after the program had

been in operation for a few weeks.


Orientation of Volunteers

A district-wide meeting of all volunteer tutors was held

in October for the purpose of welcoming the volunteers to the

"teaching team" and to give them information concerning school

and district policies that affect their performance in schools.












The following items were discussed:

The need for professional attitudes
The need for promptness and reliability
Procedures for calling in "late" or "sick"
Sign-in procedures
Dress code
Appropriate behaviors among children
Disciplining children
Checking out procedures for audio-visuals, etc.
Use of teachers' lounge
Use of custodial services
Use of school telephone
Use of rewards and gifts with children
Placement of tutor in classroom
Liability insurance coverage
Releasing children to adults
Access to cumulative records

Role playing was used as a technique for helping volunteers

understand their rights and responsibilities as team members

in the educational effort.


Placement of Volunteers

The volunteers who had received orientation and training

were matched with teachers' requests and classroom needs. From

this point on, inservice training for the tutor in relationship

to working effectively with the volunteer was the responsibility

of the School Volunteer Program Resource Person in the local

school. Placement of the volunteer was reviewed periodically

with changes of assignment occurring occasionally.












Selecting Students for This Study

As soon as volunteers were placed in classrooms, students

for the experimental group were selected from lists of pupils

who, in the teachers' judgement, would benefit from tutor

attention. The selection process consisted of numbering

the pupils' names, then using Kerlinger's (1973) list of

computer-generated random numbers to select out certain

numbers and consequently certain children. From the same

list of children, using the same selection procedure,

students were assigned to membership in the control group.

Tutors understood that they were to work with experi-

mental students as directed by the teacher. The controls

were not to be "shunned," but no attempt would be made to

engage in tutoring activities with them. Other students in

the classroom could receive tutoring assistance if they were

not identified as controls. Each experimental student was to

receive a minimum of two hours of tutor attention each week,

although the contact could be one-to-one or through small

groups.

An informal check of the sampling process was done by

comparing pretest scores in total reading, available from

the preceding May's standardized testing program. The

experimental group's mean score was 204 while the control












group's mean score was 198. A test of statistical significance

(p-001) suggests that both samples are drawn from the same

population pool, with only one chance in a thousand that the

two means could be this close simply by chance, given the size

of the samples and the range of scores under consideration.

In examining the sexual and racial composition of the

respective groups, both experimental and control groups show

a preponderance of males over females and whites over blacks --

the same pattern that occurs in the total school population

of Sumter County Schools. A Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test

(X2 for E = -0.62 and X2 for C = 0.23) does not reject the null

hypothesis concerning the probability of frequencies for each

cell.



TABLE 4

NUMBER AND TYPE OF STUDENTS IN THIS STUDY



Male Female Male Female


30 23 53 25 17 42




S17 6 23 4 15 14 29
S
-4 -4

47 29 76 40 31 71


Control










Monitoring Program Progress

The main responsibility for monitoring the school volunteer

program in each school fell upon the School Volunteer Program

Resource Person. However, from time to time the District School

Volunteer Coordinator would visit the school to see first-hand the

program in operation. Soon after the start of the program, several

situations or events occurred that seemed to call into question to

some degree the control of variables in the experiment. For

example, after a strong start, the holding power of the program

began to wane as the Christmas season approached. Volunteers

began "dropping out." In most cases, new volunteers were found

to replace "truants" in those classroom where the study was

already underway. In a few classrooms, a rapid succession of

volunteers occurred. Because of the turnover in volunteers and

because volunteers as persons are difficult to program or control,

plans for standardization of instructional approach had to be

abandoned. As time went on, each teacher working with a volun-

teer felt freer to make her own suggestions and write her own

prescriptions for volunteers to follow. The integrity of the

sampling was maintained, however, even though the proposed

uniformity of instruction was weakened.

The school fire at Coleman destroyed the protests for the

Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, causing a shift in the design

with regard to the self-concept component.











Two potential problems gave cause for concern to school officials.

Some children in the experimental group confused the volunteer tutors

with Title I remedial reading tutors. As a result of thinking that

they were remedial students, they began to express concern to their

teachers about their grades and academic progress. Other children

may have had similar anxieties without articulating them verbally.

Also, the issue of racism, conscious or unconscious, should be addressed.

All of the tutors were white. Approximately one third of the target

children were black. Many white adults felt uncomfortable in relating

to black children as tutors, according to their comments during and

after the fact. More training is needed to sensitize tutors to the

special needs of minority students.


Evaluating Student Progress

The Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills were administered in March

of 1977. Scores were collected in the areas of vocabulary, reading

comprehension, and language expression, since these were the three

areas that were emphasized during the tutoring sessions. The total

reading scores were also noted. In order to test for a "halo effect,"

scores were gathered in the areas of math computation and math appli-

cation and concepts. IRany teachers affirm that testing mathematics

depends upon reading skills, and improving reading skills will auto-

matically raise math scores. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory

was administered one week after the CTBS administration.











The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package

for the Social Sciences (SPSS) at the computer center of

the University of Florida. Sample size, means and standard

deviations were provided by the BREAKDOWN procedure of SPSS.

Analyses of variance were performed using ANOVA, a step-wise

multiple regression procedure assuming Fixed Effects or linear

hypothesis model. SPSS creates the necessary dummy variables

and can cope with unequal cell sizes and even empty cells.

ANOVA provides, as default option, the "classic experimental"

regression approach, which is appropriate as in this case

when the factors (here being treatment, sex, and race) have no

known causal order but the main effects are assumed to be of

a higher priority than the interaction effects. The program

PEARSON CORR was used to rate the correlation of the posttest

scores to all the factors and the covariate.

Presentation and analysis of the data await the reader in

the next chapter. Conclusions and implications for further study

are then found in Chapter VI.

















CHAPTER V


DATA ANALYSIS






Summary of the Experiment


This study compared the basic skills achievement and self-

esteem of 147 primary students, 76 of whom had received volunteer

tutor intervention and 71 of whom had received no such treatment.

Five, later four, of Sumter County's elementary schools partici-

pated in this project. The School Volunteer Development Project

of Dade County was the nodel for program organization and volunteer

training.

In a pretest/posttest experimental and control group design

(Campbell and Stanley, 1963), the Comprehensive Tests of Basic

Skills (CTBS) was administered in May of 1976 and again in March

of 1977. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory -- P. K. Yonge

version 1972 was given in March of 1977. Students were assigned

to experimental and control groups by use of computer-generated

random number tables. Experimental students received a minimum

of two hours per week of volunteer tutor attention as individuals

or in small groups. Language arts activities in general and










reading activities in particular were the media through which

the tutors intervened in the pupils' educational program.

A three-way analysis of variance was performed on the

adjusted posttest means for scale (extended standard) scores.

The pretest scale scores were used as covariates. The level

of significance selected for this experiment was .05. Data

presented in this chapter are summarized in tables, accompanied

by interpretive statements. Results are presented for seven

null hypotheses.




Hypotheses


No difference exists between the adjusted

posttest means for scale scores of learners

in the experimental and control groups.

H1 for total reading as measured by CTBS

H2 for vocabulary as measured by CIBS

H3 for comprehension as measured by CrBS

H for language expression as measured by CTBS

H5 for math computation as measured by CTBS

H6 for math concepts and application as measured
by CrBS

H7 No difference exists between the means for scores

of learners in the experimental and control groups

for self-esteem as measured by the Coopersmith

Self-Esteem Inventory -- P. K. Yonge Version 1972.












Effects related to variation by sex and race will also be

investigated. As the term is used in analysis of variance or

covariance, "effects" refers simply to differences among popu-

lation means (Hays, 1973).



Analysis of Data -- Total Reading


The sample size, posttest means, and standard deviations

for the total reading scores are presented in Table 5. Analysis

of the significance of the differences is found in Table 6.

Comparing the posttest means of the various experimental

subgroups to the various control subgroups, the experimental

in all cases have higher posttest means than do the controls.

However, data from Table 6 indicate that the only source of

significant differences was the expected variation between

the pretest and the adjusted posttest means. Analysis of

treatment, sex, and racial groups does not demonstrate

significant differences at the .05 level of confidence.

Hypothesis 1 is not rejected.

Although the differences for total reading were not

significant, it is appropriate to examine the data in search

of trends. In this context, volunteer tutoring seemed to be

more helpful for girls than for boys, and more helpful for

blacks than for whites. This observation arises out of a



















TABLE 5 SAMPLE SIZE, POSTTEST MFANS, AND STANDARD
DEVIATIONS FOR lIYTAL READING



N Means SD


Total Experimental
Total Control

Experimental Boys
Control Boys

Experimental Girls
Control Girls

Experimental Whites
Control Whites

Experimental Blacks
Control Blacks


76 270.58
71 255.15

47 262.13
40 248.75

29 284.28
31 263.42

53 277.79
42 270.57

23 253.96
29 232.83


63.13
70.53

62.92
72.47

62.11
68.22

68.66
71.98

65.04
63.08
















TABIE 6 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR TOTAL READING
FOR TREATMENT, SEX, AND RACE
CONTROLLED FOR PRETEST



Source of Sum of Degrees Mean F Ratio
Variation Squares of Freedom Square



Covariate 439802.94 1 439802.94 292.89*
(Pretest)

Main Effects 8093.87 3 2697.96 1.78
Treatment 4774.69 1 4774.69 3.18
Sex 3615.26 1 3615.26 2.41
Race 455.23 1 455.23 0.30

2-way Interaction 761.18 3 253.73 0.17
Treatment X Sex 8.99 1 8.99 0.01
Treatment X Race 650.22 1 650.22 0.43
Sex X Race 38.57 1 38.57 0.03

3-way Interaction 1.3.00 1 13.00 0.01

Residual 207214.88 138 1501.56


*Significant at the .05 level of confidence











comparison of the differences of means for these subgroups

as found in Table 5.

An examination of the means and standard deviations for

the sex groupings and race groupings reveals the heterogeneity

of the school population in terms of achievement. The mean

score of the control group of girls fell at the same level of

achievement as that of the experimental group of boys, suggesting

perhaps that boys approach the beginning reading tasks in primary

grades with a natural or cultural handicap and need special

tutorial attention just to keep pace with girls. Hedges (1976),

in his review of research on sex as a criterion for delaying

early entry into first grade, concludes that boys are less likely

than girls to be ready for the traditional tasks associated with

learning to read.

Even more divergent that the differences of means between

boys and girls are those between whites and blacks. Many

primary grade educators in Sumter County have had experience

with "educationally disadvantaged" black children as they

arrive for the first time at the schoolhouse door. Differences

between these children and the professional educators who shape

the children's new environment are evident in areas of language

usage and subcultural expectations. Prereading and reading tasks

are initiated by the teacher in "standard" English, a dialect












foreign to some black children who up until now may have had

little or no contact with whites. Comparison of the span

between pretest and posttest means for blacks vis a vis whites

suggests that volunteer tutoring, perhaps through a modeling

process, causes achievement gains in total reading for black

pupils.

A useful statistic to be reported in this study is the

indicator R 2, which tells the magnitude of relationship rather

than its direction. It is a measure of the proportion of

variance in one variable explained by the others (Nie, 1975).
2
In this situation, R = .68, which means that 687 of the

variance in the posttest scores for total reading is accounted

for by treatment, sex, and race in combination.





Vocabulary


The sample size, posttest means, and standard deviations for

the vocabulary scores are presented in Table 7, followed by an

analysis of the significance of the differences in Table 8.

The experimental in all subgroups have higher posttest means

than do the controls. In addition, Table 8 indicates a signifi-

cant difference in main effects in general and in treatment in

particular, Hypothesis 2 is rejected,


















TABLE 7


SAMPLE SIZE, POSTIEST MEANS, AND STANDARD
DEVIATIONS FOR VOCABULARY


N Means SD



Total Experimental 76 252.57 60.01
Total Control 71 240.48 62.78

Experimental Boys 47 251.70 62.28
Control Boys 40 236.23 67.84

Experimental Girls 29 256.59 57.08
Control Girls 31 245.97 56.19

Experimental Whites 53 258.51 67.56
Control Whites 42 249.86 67.11

Experimental Blacks 23 242.17 55.93
Control Blacks 29 226.89 54.16
















TABLE 8 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR VOCABULARY
FOR TREATMENT, SEX, AND RACE,
CONTROLLED FOR PRETEST




Source of Sun of Degrees Mean F Ratio
Variation Squares of Freedom Square




Covariate 441281.44 1 441281.44 665.74*
(Pretest)

Main Effects 12653.31 3 4217.77 6.36*
Treatment 9550.32 1 9550.32 14.41*
Sex 1481.19 1 1481.19 2.24
Race 1036.57 1 1036.57 1.56

2-way Interaction 5777.88 3 1925.96 2.91*
Treatment X Sex 11.04 1 11.04 0.02
Treatment X Race 3686.38 1 3686.38 5.56*
Sex X Race 1307.59 1 1307.59 0.16

3-way Interaction 1006.75 1 1006.75 0.22

Residual 91471.81 138 662.84


*Significant at the .05 level of confidence











In an analysis of variance, the main effects and its

constituent parts, rather than the interactions, are of most

interest to the researcher. The researcher wants to know if

the treatment in and of itself is effective across conditions of

other variables. While not significant as a main effect,

race in combination with treatment may here be exerting an

inordinate amount of influence on posttest scores. The

indicator R2 = .82 suggests that 82% of the variance in the

posttest scores is accounted for by treatment, sex, and race

in combination.

While the same pattern holds here as for total reading

when the means for boys is compared to those for girls, and

the means for whites is compared to those for blacks, the

variation is not so extreme. The mean for experimental blacks

still falls below that for control whites.

With vocabulary scores as the measure of the effectiveness

of volunteer tutoring, the tutoring program seemed more

effective for boys than for girls, and more effective for

blacks than for whites, based on a comparison of the differences

of means for these subgroups as found in Table 7. Admittedly,

a simple regression effect towards the means may be operative

in this instance.















Reading prehension


The sample size, posttest means, and standard deviations

for the reading comprehension scores are presented in Table 9,

followed by an analysis of the significance of the differences

in Table 10.

The experimental in all subgroups have higher posttest means

than do controls. In addition, Table 10 indicates a significant

difference in treatment, uncomplicated by any interaction effect.

Low, insignificant F-ratios for the interaction suggest that the

treatment works regardless of race or sex. Hypothesis 3 is

rejected.

In this case, boys seemed to benefit from volunteer tutoring

mare than girls, and blacks more than whites. Since R2 was .77,

77% of the variance in the posttest scores may be accounted for

by treatment, sex, and race in combination.

















TABLE 9


SAMPLE SIZE, POSTIEST MEANS, AND STANDARD
DEVIATIONS FOR READING COMPREHENSION


N Means SD




Total Experiment 76 242.46 51.78
Total Control 71 232.27 49.70

Experimental Boys 47 240.77 53.95
Control Boys 40 224.48 49.58

Experimental Girls 29 247.83 48.68
Control Girls 31 242.32 48.83

Experimental Whites 53 277.79 68.66
Control Whites 42 270.57 71.98

Experimental Blacks 23 252.96 55.04
Control Blacks 29 232.83 63.08
















ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR READING COMPREHENSION
FOR TREAIMENT, SEX, AND RACE,
CONTROLLED FOR PRETEST


Source of Sim of Degrees Mean F-Ratio
Variation Squares of Freedom Square


Covariate
(Pretest)

Main Effects
Treatment
Sex
Race

2-way Interaction
Treatment X Sex
Treatment X Race
Sex X Race

3-way Interaction

Residual


278511.94


12702.00
9812.96
1936.57
598.66

1529.69
479.63
719.86
228.66

12.75


1 278511.94 447.56*


4234.00
9812.96
1936.57
598.66

509.89
479.63
719.86
228.66


6.80*
15.77*
3.11
0.37

0.81
0.77
1.16
0.37


12.75 0.02


85875.31 138


622.29


*Significant at the .05 level of confidence


TABLE 10














Language Expression


The sample size, posttest means, and standard deviations

for language expression scores are presented in Table 11,

followed by an analysis of the significance of the differences

in Table 12.

The experimental in all subgroups have higher posttest

means than do the controls. In addition, Table 12 indicated

a significant difference in treatment effect. Hypothesis 4

is rejected.

In this situation, girls seemed to benefit from volunteer
2
tutoring more than boys, and blacks more than whites. Since R

was .74, 74% of the variance in the posttest scores may be

accounted for by treatment, sex, and race in combination.
















TABLE 11


SAMPLE SIZE, POSTIEST MEANS, AND STANDARD
DEVIATIONS FOR LANGUAGE EXPRESSION


N Means SD



Total Experimental 76 304.05 74.43
Total Control 71 284.01 75.53

Experimental Boys 47 296.91 69.98
Control Boys 40 278.38 85.67

Experimental Girls 29 315.62 81.06
Control Girls 31 291.29 60.59

Experimental Whites 53 310.83 81.74
Control Whites 42 302.09 76.63

Experimental Blacks 23 288.43 52.23
Control Blacks 29 257.83 66.79
















TABLE 12 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR LANGUAGE EXPRESSION
FOR TREATMENT, SEX, AND RACE,
CONTROLLED FOR PRETEST



Source of Sim of Degrees Mean F Ratio
Variation Squares of Freedom Square


Covariate
(Pretest)

Main Effects
Treatment
Sex
Race

2-way Interaction
Treatment X Sex
Treatment X Race
Sex X Race

3-way Interaction


590774.56


22668.44
14882.71
272.32
5312.57

4512.19
1588.26
3111.03
568.28

1578.50


1 590774.56 388.20*


7556.15
14882.71
272.32
5312.57

1504.06
1588.26
3111.03
568.28


4.97*
9.78*
0.18
3.49

0.99
1.04
2.04
0.37


1578.50 1.04


210012.19 138


5681.82


*Significant at the .05 level


Residual


I --


of confidence














Math Comoutation


While volunteer tutors focused on the language arts/reading

areas of the curriculum, there was a desire on the part of the

school administration to see if tutoring in one area of the

curriculum would have a "ripple effect" on another area of the

curriculum. Could tutoring in reading be shown to be positively

correlated with gains in mathematics achievement? Two subtests

of the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills were selected for

data display and analysis: math computation, which tests problems

using numerals only; and math concepts and application, which uses

word problems.

Table 13 states the sample size, posttest means, and standard

deviations for the math computation scores. Table 14 displays an

analysis of the significance of the differences.

As can be noted in Table 13, experimental boys and experimental

whites have higher posttest means than do the control boys and

control whites, but the experimental girls and experimental blacks

have lower posttest means than do the control girls and control

blacks. Table 14 indicates that the differences for the main

effects (treatment, sex, race) are not statistically significant.

Hypothesis 5 is not rejected.















TABLE 13


SAMPLE SIZE, POSITEST MEANS, AND STANDARD
DEVIATIONS FOR MATH COMPUTATION


N Means SD



Total Experimental 76 269.38 43.19
Total Control 71 266.11 51.72

Experimental Boys 47 267.83 44.12
Control Boys 40 255.25 43.09

Experimental Girls 29 271.89 42.30
Control Girls 31 280.13 58.88

Experimental Whites 53 275.06 46.52
Control Whites 42 271.90 51.34

Experimental Blacks 23 256.30 31.46
Control Blacks 29 257.72 52.00















TABLE 14


ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR MATH COMPUTATION
FOR TREATMENT, SEX, AND RACE,
CONTROLLED FOR PRETEST


Source of Sum of Degrees Mean F Ratio
Variation Squares of Freedom Square




Covariate 204089.63 1 204089.63 242.75*
(Pretest)

Main Effects 2469.94 3 823.31 0.98
Treatment 1698.25 1 1698.25 2.02
Sex 132.66 1 132.66 0.16
Race 434.13 1 434.13 0.52

2-way Interaction 4381.19 3 1460.39 1.74
Treatment X Sex 3648.42 1 3648.42 4.34*
Treatment X Race 271.73 1 271.73 0.32
Sex X Race 591.63 1 591.63 0.70

3-way Interaction 620.88 1 620.88 0.74

Residual 116023.88 138 840.75


05 level of significance


*Significant at the .













Math Concepts and Application


Table 15 provides information on sample size, posttest means,

and standard deviations for the math concepts and application

scores. Table 16 renders an analysis of the significance of the

differences.

As is evident in Table 15, experimental boys and experimental

blacks show higher posttest means than do control boys and control

blacks, but the experimental girls and experimental whites have

virtually the same posttest means as do the control girls and control

whites. All scores are depressed. School officials have noted

this phenomenon and have evaluated the math curriculum in terms of

the role it gives to word problems. This subtest is the only one

in which the mean for blacks is as high as that for whites. Since

all mean scores are at the extreme lower end of the scale, the level

of their validity may be questionable.

Table 16 reveals a significant difference for treatment, but

since the total main effects do not have a significant reading, the

treatment significance should be affirmed only with extreme caution.

In view of this hesitancy to accept the significance indicator as

totally reliable, prudence would suggest that Hypothesis 6 be

rejected "with reservations."
















TABLE 15


SAMPLE SIZE, POSITEST MEANS, AND STANDARD
DEVIATIONS FOR MA11 CONCEPTS AND APPLICATION


N Means SD




Total Experimentals 76 236.87 35.99
Total Control 71 232.77 42.07

Experimental Boys 47 234.91 38.43
Control Boys 40 226.93 48.09

Experimental Girls 29 240.03 32.05
Control Girls 31 240.32 36.69

Experimental Whites 53 236.75 37.02
Control Whites 42 236.31 38.81

Experimental Blacks 23 237.13 34.32
Control Blacks 29 227.66 46.95
















TABLE 16


ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR MATH CONCEPTS AND
APPLICATION FOR TREATMENT, SEX, AND RACE,
CONTROLLED FOR PRETEST


Source of Sun of Degrees Mean F Ratio
Variation Squares of Freedom Square




Covariate 173288.13 1 173288.13 225.19*
(Pretest)

Main Effects 5375.63 3 1791.88 2.33
Treatment 5029.19 1 5029.19 6.53*
Sex 7.83 1 7.73 0.01
Race 685.06 1 685.06 0.89

2-way Interaction 2035.69 3 678.56 0.88
Treatment X Sex 303.93 1 303.93 0.39
Treatment X Race 1251.44 1 1251.44 1.63
Sex X Race 449.48 1 449.48 0.58

3-way Interaction 669.06 1 669.06 0.87

Residual 106194.00 138 769.52



*Significant at the .05 level of confidence













Self-Esteem


Table 17 lists sample size, means, and standard deviations

for the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory -- P. K. Yonge Version

1972. Table 18 provides an analysis of the significance of the

differences.

An examination of these data raises questions about their

validity. The R2 indicator, set at .04, suggests that only 4%

of the variance in the self-esteem scores can confidently be

accounted for by treatment, sex, and race in combination. Race

is noted as statistically significant, but total main effects are

not, and neither is treatment nor sex. It is evident that

whites scores higher on this instrument than do blacks. For this

reason, Hypothesis 7 is not rejected.

Coopersmith gives as his norms for preadolescents 17.53 for

girls and 18.05 for boys (1967). Note that the experimental girls

had a mean score of 13.66 and control girls had a mean score of

12.77, well under the norms. Did the instrument lack the appro-

priate sensitivity for measuring the self-esteem components of the

particular children in this study? Or, more likely, did "history"

intervene to invalidate these data? No protests were available

to adjust the posttest means because of the school fire in November.
















TABLE 17


SAMPLE SIZE, MEANS, AND STANDARD
DEVIATIONS FOR SELF-ESTEEM SCORES


N Means SD




Total Experimental 76 13.86 3.66
Total Control 71 13.28 4.41

Experimental Boys 47 13.97 3.66
Control Boys 40 13.67 3.89

Experimental Girls 29 13.66 3.71
Control Girls 31 12.77 5.00

Experimental Whites 53 14.23 3.64
Control Whites 42 14.00 4.71

Experimental Blacks 23 13.00 3.64
Control Blacks 29 12.24 3.76


















TABLE 18


ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR SELF-ESTEEM
FOR TREATMENT, SEX, AND RACE


Source of Sum of Degrees Mean F Ratio
Variation Squares of Freedom Square



Main Effects 102.79 3 34.27 2.15
Treatment 5.07 1 5.07 0.31
Sex 15.89 1 15.89 0.99
Race 77.62 1 77.62 4.87*

2-way Interaction 16.39 3 5.46 0.34
Treatment X Sex 1.88 1 1.88 0.12
Treatment X Race 2.72 1 2.72 0.17
Sex X Race 14.76 1 14.76 0.93

3-way Interaction 37.07 1 37.07 2.32

Residual 2217.58 138 15.95


05 level of confidence


*Significant at the .













The self-esteem inventories were administered in March, the week

after the achievement tests. Perhaps the children were rebelling

against further testing. Or perhaps the children in Sumter County

do in fact suffer from lower-than-average self-esteem. Research

is needed to discover precisely where and why they children

score as they do on self-esteem instruments. No noticeable

variation occurs between the scores of any of the subgroups.


Interrelation of Achievement, Self-Esteem, and Main Effects

Interrelationship of achievement, self-esteem, and main

effects were investigated utilizing Pearson product-moment

correlations. These measures tell the extent to which the

pairs of sets of ordered pairs vary concomitantly (Kerlinger,

1973). In effect, they reveal the magnitude and direction

of the relation. For the present study, a significance

level of .05 was selected.

There was a significant positive correlation between

the Coopersmith Self-Esteen Inventory and total reading,

vocabulary, reading comprehension, and language expression

(r = .17, .18, .22, and .24, respectively). Also, Cooper-

smith and the factor of race showed a significant positive

correlation (r = .18).

A significant positive correlation exists between race

and total reading (r = .23), vocabulary (r = .16), language

expression (r = .23), and math computation (r = .17).




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