Title: Construct validation of an instrument to measure teacher attitude toward the use of international content in the K-12 social studies curriculum
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098094/00001
 Material Information
Title: Construct validation of an instrument to measure teacher attitude toward the use of international content in the K-12 social studies curriculum
Physical Description: xi, 106 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Erb, Thomas Owen, 1945-
Copyright Date: 1977
Subject: Teachers -- Attitudes -- Testing   ( lcsh )
Social sciences -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
Curriculum and Instruction thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Curriculum and Instruction -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Thomas Owen Erb.
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 76-86.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098094
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000206975
oclc - 04055265
notis - AAX3769


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Copyright 1977


Thomas Owen Erb

To Karonl, Christopher, aind Grtapo~ry


Special thanks are due to my chairperson Dr. Arthur J. Lewis and my

cochairperson Dr. Linda MI. Crocker for the great support they have offered

throughout this project. Thanks are due also to D~r. Cordon D. Lawrence

and Dr. Rene Lemarchand for their editorial assistance in preparing the

final manuscript.

Special appreciation is due the following people in international

and African studies who have supported this project: Drs. Haig Der-

Hloussikian and R. Hunt Davis at the University of Florida, Dr. Abdelwahab

Hechiche at the University of South Florida, and Dr. Wilfred Owen at the

University of Illinois.

I m indebted to 31 other professors at thle University of Florida,

both in the College of Education and the Center for African Studies, who

assisted this project either by serving on a panel of experts or by

allowing me class time to gain access to the 166 students who participated

as subjects. In the latter regard, I wish to thank Dr. Gus Jimenez for

supporting this research by arranging for 65 Hlillsborough County teachers

to participate in the pilot phase of the project.

Soime assistance oin computer programming was received from the Center

for InsLructi o)na l and ReSeaRTch Computling AZctivities at the University of

Florich~. Compu~lting) wasll rlrlone at l i; ingf thle facilities of the Northeast

Regiondi Data Cenlter of thle State Uiniversity System of Florida located on

the enmpuls of thle Unliversity ,F F~lorida in Gainesville.












The Problem .
Need .
Construct Validation.


International Education .
Teacher Attjitudes And Their
Summary of Research


Attitude Scale Construction
Procedures for Establj shing


Sample D~istribultions.




Tests of Construct Validity


Introduce lo rn.
Reliability Comlparisoans.
Discussio-n of FTCAS Validlity.

Mulltiple Asplects of U~nidimensional Scales.
A~dequacy of INTTrOT anld E0RTOT as Attitude Scales..

Further Research . .. .. . . .. .. .. 69
Applications ... .. . . ... .. 73
Conclusion .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. 75

REFERENCES. . .. .. . . .. ... 76


OF RESULTS . . .. .. . . .. 87

B FAKS ITEM ANALYSIS ... .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 93



E WORLDMINDEDNESS SCALE. . .. .. .... .. .. .. 103

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . .. . . .. .. . 106


Table Pg

1 Response Distribution for Open-Ended Questionnaire on
African Content in the Curriculum. . .. .. . .. 26

2 Reliabilities and Standard F~rrors for the Florida Inter-
national Curriculum Assessment Scales and the Florida
A~frican Knowledg~e Scale based on the Pilot Sample
(N.= 131). . . .. ... .. . .. .. 48

3 Raw Means and Standard Deviations for Hypotliesis One
(N = 33) ... .. ... .... .. . 52

4 Raw Means and Standard Deviations of All Samples and
Variables Entered into the Analyses of Hypotheses Two
Through Five ... .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. 54

5 Inltercorrelations of Cognitive and Affective Subscales
on FICAS .. .... . .. . . . 66

6 lhP~ Biserial Correlations Between the 30 Items Selected
for Inclusion on the FAKS and the FAKS Total Score .. .. 93


Figure Pg

1 Subscale Structure of the Florrida International Curriculum
Assessment Scales. .. . . . . 30

2 Item Assiginment to Subscales on the Floridn International
Curriculum Assessment Scales .. .. .. .. .. . . 31

3 Correlation and Item Mean Difference Patterns for NATTOT,
EORTOT, and INTTOTT .. .. .. .. . 67

4 Hypothesized Relationship Between Knowledge of Africa and
Attitude Toward African Content. .. .. .. ... . 70


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



Thomas Owen Erb

December 1977

Chairperson: Arthur J. Lewis
Cochairperson: Linda M. Crocker
Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction

Over the past decade educational researchers have established the

importance of teacher attitudes for the success of educational programs.

However, little wans known specifically about teacher attitudes toward

international content in the curriculum. Consequently, it was necessary

to learn more about these attitudes. Since no reliable or valid scales

existed to measure such attitudes, this study sought to develop and

validate the needed instrumentation, which has b~een titled the Florida

International Curriculum Assessment Scales (FICAS).

Using Cronbach's alpha as the measure of internal consistency, this

study employed three established techniques employed for testing construct

validity: Correlates, group differences, and study of change over

occasions. Three subscales of thle FLICAS were tested for validity.

After da:ta were collected fromn 131 experienced teachers, scores on the

three FIrCAS subsea.lle were rorrelated with the Worldmindedness Scale

(WJ-Scale) total score and the Floridan African Knowledge Scale (FAKS) total

score. After this procedur-e was completed, the scores on the FICAS sub-

scales of these 13L teachers who represented a cross section of the

general teacher poplarl~tion were compared to those of 49 teachers from the

Southiiast and Midwest who elected to participate in summer institutes on

African1 studies. Finally, the pretest scores of these institute par-

ticipants were compared to their posttest scores to see if the subscales

of interest could detect change in attitude as a result of institute

parti:i pat ion.

Thec Florida International Cuirriculum Assessment Scales proved to

have high reliability and adequate validity to justify their use in fur-

ther studies. Estimates of coefficient alpha ranged from .87 to .93 for

the three subscales under study. Both the International (INTTOT) and

Either/or (EORTOT) subscales showed the expected correlation with the

W-Scale. The Nationalistic (NATTOT) subscale had a nonsignificant cor-

relation with the WJ-Scale. None of the subscales produced the predicted

correlatlion with th~e FAKS. Al~l three subscales were successful in

measulrtug a difference between the cross section of teachers and those

self-selected for institute participation. The results were inconclusive

from th~e study of change over ocensions. A multivariate F test sug-

gested that the subscales did not detect a significant change over

occasions. However, EORTOT's significant univariate F test suggested

that further validation work needed to be done on EORTOT.

Icenuse of their positive correlations with the W-Scale and because

of their ability to distinguish between groups which should be different

on the attribute being measured, both INTTIOT and EORTOT are recommended

for fu~thlEr researchl. Validated for African conitent, these two subscales

need to be validal-ted for mother international studies areas. Research to

establish their relationships, to other constructs such as beliefs systems

or level of cognit ive moral development could prove fruitful. They also

have potential for basic research into the formation of attitudes as

well as into the consequences of holding certain attitudes. These scales

may also prove to be useful devaluation devices in either pre or inservice

teacher education where an internationalization of perspectives is an

intended result of instruction. Finally, the social studies objectives

comprising the items on these scales could be used to help teachers

develop teaching strategiies for using international content.


TIhe Prob~lem

Ignorane of the world beyondr our bordecrs is a Insuiry that Americans

cannot afford. Schools must play a positive role in inicreasingi knowledge~

of the non-Western world while working: to diminish Pthlnocentric attituders

toward these areas. Hlowever-, neither preservice Inor inservice teacher

education gives muich, if any, emphansis to drevelopingf thle k~nowledge and

attitudes consistent with techcling Fro~m a cross-raltln t rn1 r global per-

spective. Recoginizinji thiis deficiency the Uinitedl Statns Olfficer of

Ellucation has funded 80 14ralnguae and arena studnies Icnters (including

oight African studies Ccnters) at ulniversities thrroulghout~ the Counltry

(Easton, 19)77). As a condition ofE findings, thofsr r ntrrs are to engagee

in outreach work aimedl at cr-eatingi greater inlternlt ional uinderstanding

among Amefrican public school pupils, teachers, andr the community at

large. These funded centers have fuill disr~rttlon in developingi oultrenchh

programs, and several of them, including: those at the Ulniversity of

Florida and the University of Illiniois, have chos~en to emphasize pre-

parinfi public school leacherss to teach African co~ntent to their stuldrnts.

Have these ouitreach e~ffo~rts bee~n effective in al teriing teacher attituldes

toward the uisefulness of African content to meet arrepted socin1 Ltudics

objectives? Prior to thiis study there hans beren no valid meacnls to assess

RIuch channel inl teCnher attitudes.PR

Consequntlyy this studyl was desiginedl to devempil .l relia~le andi valir

method of assesising teachers' attituides toward frrironr conltenlt in the

curriculum. The resulting instrument was intended~i to be- onel that coulld

be used to measure change~ in teacher attituldes as a1 resullt of preservice

or inservice experiences designeldl to broadecn tearchrs' perceptions of th~e

relevance of African conte~nt. In addition, the instrulment was intended

to be useful for more basic researchi on attitudefs, their forma~tion, a7nd

conseq ueic es .

This studry wans confinedl to validanting on instrumento specificallyp for-

African content rat-her- than international conntent IgeneraivniI. Thlis decision

was made because! the concepF~t Of international cntent was rather vagueC

since it subsu~med many geograp'hical areas or1 divigio~n of thei worilld nhbout

which individual teachers wrre likely to have d ivois oEIpininns: LaJt in

Amierica, Europef, Canada, Asin, th~e nonl-Western world., theI I[hird Worrld.

the Communist world, andl so for~th. For g~reater c(lcertual clarity it

seemed necessary to define a1 spccific intecrna~tionnl region for- this

validation study. Africa was lchosenl bercause of thel rcqearcher's fam~ili-

arity withi programs almed at improving~ Afric~an studies in ther public

schools through teacher inservice edulcation. Howerver, any o~ther- inter-

national region might have served equally well.


As never before Americals need to have an unldt.rstandj~i ngf huiman

experience that transcends I:rochial perspectlives. Dentsions male~ in

centers orf power in or ne rea of the world canir effect peop"le` onr all con-

tinents. Edwin 0. Reischauorr (1973) states thle case for international

edurcation in this way:

Before long, humalnity will face malny diffirtllties thant
can only be solvedl on a iglobal. Rr:le~. ForI this therE
must he a muich h irgher deglree of uinderst ndtinc arlnd afar
greater capacity forr cooperation beltweenl di p;larate
peoples and natjions than exist nowl. dctnhwvr
as it is presently conducted in this country -- and in
every other coulntryy in toe w'ord, for that matter -- is
not moving rapiidly enloulgh inl the right direction to
produce the knowledge about thle oultside world1~ andl the
attitudes toward other peoples that may b~e essential for
humann survival wi thin a1 generationl or tw. Trh is, I
feet, is a much Igrenter international prob~lerr thain thle
military balance o~f power that absorbs so, murch of our
attention to~day. (p. 4)

Americans, who~ inh~abit thle mnost powerful national entity, cannot afford

to remain ignorant of conrd itions elsewhere in the wolrldl. Afr-icai. Asia,

and Latin America have a pLarce in our lives beyondl a mere interest in the


In agreeiing with the need for better internati~ionn studies. educaltors

have recognized the need for bothl cnrriculalr reform (no~w. 1976) and

positive tenclerr attitudles (Billinlgs, 1971; Rich, 197h). Yet so little

is done in collegefs and tecnrher training institultions toi prepare trachprs

to adequately handle interrlntional studies in their teaching (A11plgren &

Gustafsson, 1974; Bidwell., 1964; Carver, cited in Klassen & Moore, 1968;

Intercultuiral Understandityg, 1972; Phillips, 1963; Taylor, 1968/1969;

Wise, 1975a, 1975b). Often those teachers who do nttempyt to handle

international topics leave their- Stuldents with more nlegative andr stereo-

typed images than they hadt when they bfegn their study (Almaron &

Gustafsson, 1374; Beyer & Hlicksi, 1968; Eicher, 1975). However, where

teachers were well prepared and held positive attit~des about inter-

national edulcation, students' knowledge and attitudes~ imrproved as w~ll

(Arlmgren & Gustafsson, 19741; Frech, 1973, 1975; Klnsson & Mloor-e, 1968).

Because of inadequate preservice~ training, inse~rvice colmponents are

needed to help Leachers gajin the competencies necessary to trnchl shoiit

foreign cultures. Outreach p~rograms such al~s those offered byr ther Arican

Studies Centers at the Universities of Florida, 11linois, and Wisennsin

giive teachers the opportunity to participate in workshops and institutes

aimed at increasingg their substantive knowlrlede of Afrr-ica ndM helpinG

them expand their perceptions~ of the va~luef il ntelerating Africann content

into the social studies curriculum. Teachers are exposed to films,

lectures, and discussions on African topics: p~artic ipate in modifiedl

African cultuiral experiences; meet African sc~holars~ ilnd students; and

are introduced to curricularn manterialss and teachiing strategies which aIre

designed to improve their te~ach~ing of Africa.

Natulrally, the people whino aminiister African s~tudiies oultr-ench pro-

grams are inrterested in teachers' knowledge rrf, andl attjitudes toward,

African content in the curriculum. A seairch of thet litrrnture revealed

no studlies of teachers' Attitudes towardl teac-hing about AfriCal. A pr.iva~ntP

communication with Prof. Mnr-i~n .[. Rice oF thle Anlthropololn! Curricullum

Project at the Ulniversity of Georgia has confirmedl that, aside from

content-specific instruments of questionable validity, there was no

reliable. valid measure of teachers' attitudes toward Africa in the

curriculurm. At the University oE Lllinois workshop, inl 1974, trainsactionali

analysis was used to evaluate the interaction amlong: worksholp participants

and the attitudes of the wor-kshonp participants torwnrri thle workishop format

and its suibject matter content (Schmidt, 1917',). Ilrowever, thec instro-

mentation failed to produce danta thalt wouilld nllowlr an ojectivp evaluation

of the teacher attitudes involved. In fact, the teacher attituldes

studied in thle Illinols project were not directly related to the curricular

issue of using African material in the classroom, bult focusedr on thp

internal workings of the workshop i tse~l 'Thus there was a needl to

design, develop, and vallidate a1 reliable attitude s:cale thait would be

suitable for assessinf the formation of attitudes, the influence of

attitudeFs, and change in attitudes toward inlcluding African material in

the curriculum. Withonut suc-h instrumenntati n no researrch or hiecjtive

evaluation could Lake place to assess the impact of inse~rvice education

on teacher attitudes.

Deff i ni tions


Attitude is the psychological constructl wh~iir refers to the comp~osite

of all feelings about, and ~redispostitins for bhavhi~inr r towaird, somne

object. Although Attituldes are covert, they findl rvert expression in

the form of verbalized o~pinio~ns thu~s making: them meiasurrable. Though

based on coginitive processes, attitudes are primairily affective in natur-e.

As measured by attitude scale~s, an attitude is rep~resenrted by a score

which corresponds to the point along, an ulnderlying continualn which der-

Fines the degree of positive evaluation attached to a specific referent

by an individual (see Fishbein, 1967, pp. 257-260; Opprrnheim, 1966,

pp. 105-112; Osgood, 1967, p,. 112; Shaw & rightill. 1967, pp,. 2-7; Trhurston~..

1967, PP. 77-79).

African Content

The attitude referent in this study is thle inclus~ion of African

content in the established K-12 curriculum. The uise of Afr-ican content

is not restricted to nn are.a stuidies approach where stuldents focus inl

turn on various culture arease of thle world. Africanr colntrnt refers to

any materials gamese, recordlings, readings, calSe'-stu~i('S, maps. films,

biographies, Activity pacts, learning renters, sp~eakers, field trips,

kits, etc.) which are used w~ith students to achieved srome currjcicula

objective regalrdless of thie ogannizing plrinlCiple unlder whtich thle objee-

Live fits. A teacher's aIttitulde toward inlcluding Afrie~nn content is of

interest regardless of whiether thle fralework is worldl jingiraphy, world

cultures, peace studies, future studies, de~velomienit studies, global.

studies (see Recker, 197?), or any other conceiptual sicheme under which

African content could be subsumed.

African Studies Oultrench Institutes

For the Pulrpo~ses of this study AFrican studiies outlrrech ins~titutes

refer to one two-week sulmmer~ inslittute and (one fo'lr-week~ Blummi' institute

aimed at expanding teachc r aIwarencss of Africa andi de~veloping new

approaches to teaching about Africa. Ther inrstitute~s includlE thr~ee com-

ponents. T`he first uses formal presentations to dissemijnate Enformation

about AfrijcA. A second involves the teachers in enltlural Activities

including African music, films, art, and cuisine. Thle thirdl compo~nent

involves thle teachers in developing materials andi teaching strategiies

for tEaching about Africa..

Internal Consis tency

Reliability is the accuiraiy with which:I a test mo~nsirres thiat which

it measures. A reliability coefficient expresses the squraredl correlationl

between subjects' observed scores on an instrument andi their truie scores

on thle trAit heing measured. WheIn individual tpes items hanve higih cor-

relations with the total test scorrE relativi to their item variances, ther

test of whichi they are a part is said to possess hligh Enternnl consis-

tency which is a measure of reliability if ther test is intenlded to be

bomageneorus~as in an attitude scalP desijined to meansure only one dimensions,

(see Cronhach, 1967, PP. 132-167; Knider & Richardsonl 19?7, pp. 151-160;

Lord & Novick, 1968, pp. GI, 87-95, 179-140. 211-216, 331 ; Remmers. Gnge,

& Rummel, 1965, pp. 129-130).

Construct Validity

Construcrt vaidity is thle degree tor which n1 tst mneasulres the con-

struct or attribute that it is designed to neasure. Thep construct or-

attribute is no~t operationnlly definedl. Thei1frefor the problem is for

the researcher in construct validation to ide~ntify thc iionstriretor-

constructs which account for thie variance on a teist (noe Campbefll &

Fiske, 1959, p. 100; Cronhach & Meehl, 1967, pp. 263--270: Lord & Novick,

1968, pp. 261. 278-279).

Construct Validation

Cronbach and Mleebl (1967) describe a variety of Lochniques that are

used to establish the construct valid-ity of 1 test. Th1ey conclude thant

the problem is not to determined that a test is valid for mensulring a

construct buit to state as definitely as puonible thr degree of~ validity

the test is presumled to havel (p. 255). A mai ior test o~f construlct

Validity that was used in thie current study is thp croup differences

method (p. 251). Constr-uct validity can he de~monstrated if groups which

should differ in the constrlctt do in fact hnve different mIean scores o~n

the instr-ument. In addition, to establish conistruc~t validity it must bi

determined that the construct beingi measured loateally relates to other

similar constructs (p. 252). Consequently, the snciies onl the attiturde

scale should correlate with1 measures of other cornstructs relalted to

attitude toward Africa~n content in th~e curriculum. As a final test of

construct validity a studyl ofT change over occasio~ns (p. 253) wais con-

diited to see if the attitude scale could detect channge in attitude

toward using Aflrican contenlt in the curriculum as .a result of partici-

pation in summer instituites nimned at inc~reasinji teacher competence in

the area of A\fricaln studies

In order to test the construct validity of a new inst-rument it was

necessary to state specific hyp'otheses conlcerningi thle oultrnmes of thle

proposed analvfses. If thle anailyses confirmedd thec hy~poltheseS, thlen con1-

struct validity would be established for thr instrument. In t he hypothesess

one had to state the expected outcomes and the crite~ri: by whiich juldg-

ments would be made about whether the hypotheses were confirmed or not.

Listed in the next section are the set of hiypotheses which if con-

firmed by statistical analyses would establish thle construct validity of

the Florida International Curriculuim Assessmnent Scales (F1ICAS), the name

chosen for the attitude instrument developed in thi is study. The cOverall

Hypothesis provided a Framework within which specific tests of constructt

validity could be designed. Oper-at ional HypothellSis Onei dic1I(' nt di reCtly

dleal withi establishing
as to whether or not teachers' ratings of thle relevancel of African content

would be affected by the natulre of the test format. Spectfically, if

teachers were asked to~ rate thle reclevanrce ofI Africa.n Iontlent Along with

the relevance of Latinl Amerlean or Eurropean co`il~ntent woulld the~ir TraineS

of Africa be arffctted? Consequelntiv, three for1me of the F~1CAS were

developed -- rone asking teclrhers to rate Africanl co~ntenti only: a seennd,

African and Latin American content; and a third, Africain and E5uro~pean

content .

Hypo7theses Twro through F~ive were designed on, test the construct

validity of thle variousi FTCA~S subhscales. liypotheses Two and Three stAte

expected correlations between thle FICAS subsrcale; andl relatedl constructs:

worldmindedness and knowledge ofi Africa as mea:su~red by the Flo~rida Africani

Knowledge Scale (rAKS). Hyplothiesis Foulr i s biedl an thle irolp, d i fferenres

technique to test whether the instrument courlld derlret an expect d dlif-

ference between a1 pilot group consisting of a1 cross section of teachers

and thle institute groups consiistin ng oE teachers who11 were self-selected~

to participate inl summer institutee s on Afrtcanlr studl(ies. Hypothesi~i S FIve

was desigined to test wjhether or not thef FI('AS could de~ltect a channge inl

attitude that was expected to occur as a resullt of plr-ticipation in th1e

summer in~stitit~es.


Overa ll Hypothiesis

There exists in teachers an attitulde to~waird telling abioutt Africa

that can b~e measured by hlavinga teachers evainatetr the impolrrtance of sorcin

studies Fbjectives andl the 1elevance of African content to achiieving:

these objectives.

Operational Hypotheses

One. Ihere will1 be no si gIn i icant d ifi Iereces~r (p .25) ?1mong1J thet

mean scores of subjects in the pi lot samplr assiclnarl to thIlree dl ffe rent

Forms of the Florida Inte~rnational Curriculumn A~ssersnment Scales.

Two. There will be a significant poiit-ive enrrplation (p < .05)

between scores on the Floridan Enternational Cul~rrienllum A~sCSement Sr-aleS

and scores on thle Worldminrledness Scale.

Three. There will be a positive significantly (p .05~) correclatonn

between scorPs orn the Floridan International Ciirriculawin Assesssmen Scalcs

and scores o'n the Flor-ida Aifrican1 Knowldicag Scale.

Four. Sulbjects who~ elect to p~artiripalte in a r iriculuml wonrkshiop

oni Africa will have a significanntiv higher menc, scorec (p i .05) o~n thle

Florida International Curriculumm Assessment Scanles thn~nl I comprlrisonl

group of a c-ross section of ten:cher-s.

Five. Thef meanr postterst scortes of a group' of tflncherrs enlrolled in

an African, studies center smmerliC inlstitulte will ber Signlifil.anltly

(P_ < .05) higher than their mean score on a protest of thle Florida

Internationally Curriculum Asfsessment Scales.


The vaidation of an attitude scale to~ mrasulre teachers' attitudeis

toward A2frican material in the crlrriculumli is expctedr to open the door

to a variety of research, appllications. TheI1 instruments, couple~d withi a

knowledge~ test, can, be used hy Afriienn stmllion naltienchl programs throuih-

out the United States to assess the impact of their efforts. T`he

attitude andl knowledge Enstruiments can be use~d as p're anld p)slt ~tes


to evaluate c-hange as a Iresult of wo~rkshonps, semlinuls, ori cu~irse treat-


In addition to programs evallenti on, the newly Inntruelfll edtl inlStrulml'n

canl be used to measure attit-ude as either an intlepre1~~ndet r dependent

variable in more basic research stuldies. rthswhardsiin

outreach and/or inservice components for teachers, it may~ he well to know

what factors relate to teachers' attitudecs about Afiric: in the clrr-iculllm.

Knowing what factors mos~t influence the forrmntion If Ilese attitudes,,

designiers of teacher reduction programs can Laike this information into

Account. Other research~r- s may be interested inl using ther scale to rellacte

alttituldes and other variabless to pupil perfo~rmanr le.r The hiypoth-)es sized

importance of teacher attituldes for pupil growthll could~l be empiri really


The design of the attitude scale in thle cir-renrt project coul~ld csily

be adapted to measure attituder toward mother contrlnt Iwcns as wfll. Thle

adapted instrument couldl assess ther perceived relowa~ncef a~ .ny drsignatet d

content domanin for achi~iving: social studlies obhject i ve or even general

educate ion obje ct ives. For :Ilthiough this study is focursinS on social

studies o~bjectives, both Engile (1965) atd ME1tcalf (I(191) maintain that

social studies objectives are often indlistingulishnble fro~m thlose for

gen~eral education .


Thiis review of literature demornstrates the Rl hollarl concern for

international eduicatio~n in its many manifestations. Horwe~ver, in spite

of that concern, very littli is being done in ourl publl iC schOols or

teacher training, instituitionis to promote inlternaitjlinll education. The

second theme developed Es thaot teacher attitudel s towanrd eduelntiolnal

processes as well. as toward stuldents themselves hanve b~reen rlmo~nstrated

to play a major role in thle success or failurer of mllnin ntional prog~iirms.

Finally, thle methodolog~ical literature exsplicating issules in attitude

measurement is reviewed. 1hie uinifying frctorr is thle imlportanre of

teacher attitude for the snercess of internaio~lina ~l duration programs.

International Edu~caltion

Thie Theore ti cal Need

The occurrence of ;1 second world war provokled somec sociaL scientists

into conceptualizing a "moral equivalent to war" (I:. Nu~rphly, 1945).

Central to their prescriptions for a new world order was the conviction

that education neerdedl to be freed from natio~nalism to become waorldminded

in orientation (pp. 240-2421. By this thle sorcial 'Ici(.tistL: meant thatt

education should focus~ on precparinE studel~nt s for intelligent world

citizenship basedl upon demoirracy at home (p. 242,). Ju~st fourr years later

Flhria Montessori pub~ilishd hier Educazione e Paoce (19493/1972) ralling for

edulcationr to enlcouragn e the piritua~l andi~ mra~l l derveInlpment of indtividainl s

in anr effort to promoted a plnrcful worrldi.

Growinp out of the bhreakdown of world olrder ini thei 1940'9 were thre

intellectual threads calinl: for greater intrernati~n ional udersFtandingl)

which were to be picked up byv eduicatos in th~e 1960's. A~t tha~t time

thlEre arose a tide of critic ism among, socin studics rechtentorr- s ann:inst

the othnlOCEntric. orientationi of Americanl scho~oling.. lhe as i r orga:ni zn-

tion of social stuldies culrriculln had not cha~nged sincer thec 1916 Natioinal

Educational Associationi Colmmittre on Social Studies o~f thle Conmmission onI

t-he Reoirganizationo of Secrondalry Edulcation, Ircommende~d n1 pradrs Rrven to

twelve scope aInd sequenle whlich rentererl on Ur.S. andli Faropleanl hiStolry

and civics. relaltively newJ social science~ suchi as scio~logy anid

an thropolg wnire re excl udeld f rom the rec ommienda thu asr e was any! mrn ti oni

of non-Wrestern history or reniture (Massialns & Cox,z 1066). :Insfoi (19F61)

in hlis study of schools accredtied by th~e Northll Crntral A~ssciation of

Colleges and Secondary Schools conflirmedl tha~t high, schools conrtinllarl to

iignore non-Werstern arras Of the world right intor the~ 19h0's. Sepai;,rte

courses dominated by A~mericaln and world (Europea~;n?) hlisto`ry characterized

the curriculum (Nlassinlns & C:ox, 1966; No~reland, 1"h2).

By the early 1960's several wr~it~rs w'Ere cailing [nc efforts to

internationaltze the social studies curriculumm. Hairlandi Clevpland (196,0)

suggested that an ulndergraduatef edlcationr in foreign ;I~ntrs Fhoulld

defvelop cultural empathy or still in uinderstaindinr ther innler logiic of

other ways of, life as we~ll aIs theF predisposit inni to~ relrnin fr~om e~nn-

demning these ways of life be~nllSe they arr differently If promoting

world peace and international understanlding were to brcome edulcational

goals. Stearns (1966) assertedl that teacher education muist

identify and~ clarify thc inlformntion, anttitudes,: ilr an kills thant are

related to worldminldelness.. He urged the es:tabllishrment of an indepenldentt

international curriculum lab~oraltory, worldi college:~ flnters,, and a

foundation for international edrrention. In 19h6, thec 11.S. oongress

gave impetus to the movement by passing thc laternat ional ~dulcatio~n Act.

Thiis act called for developingi knowledge of other couniitries to promotee

muitual unders~ntandin anid to strengthen re Lat ions between th~e UnitEd

States a7nd mother countries (quoted in Klassrn & Mo~ore, 1968,H p. I).

Edwin 0. Reischauerr (1973) added his statulre to thei rlebate by criticizing

the past orientation oif emphansis on Western Eulrope. 110 Irged that thec

various culltulral dimensions of the non-Western world1~ bec given more


C~onernedd sholar-s andl educators have attemnpted to, dsc~ribe inter-

national ctdwaetion and non-Wecstern studlies as they woilrl rPply to a

school curriculum. Robannnn (19)73) defined interenitluranl reduction "nis

a structurrini of loomning cvxperinces thatId will helpII hath Studen~ltS aInd

teachers undterstand and useP conICets for u1nderstandringl anld working~ toward

solutions of indlividual. and intergroup problems -- loical, international.

and world wide -- that~ arise fromn cuituiral diVersity" (p. 31). 110

offered a conceptual framework for interculturanl edulcation buijlt on the

view Lthat culture is two-tilered. TJhe "macr-oculturc" is hosed on power

and is large-scale, shared, and worldwide. "Mlicrocullture is based on

love and trust or sperin1 interests andr is smanll-side~ and family and

community oriented (p. 19). Hle argued thant ednenitllrs needed to dis-

tingiiish thie two culturess and~ rebuild schools arenldingly in rrder to,

(a) enable everyone to nlegotiate the staire bertweeni malcrocullturre and

micracultuir e equally wat f n b~othl directlions and (hI) Icuch peo~plee ablout

thle natulre of the marllny mter-lcultures! C in orde t -derfarofoe o

thle next (p. 20). 11e presentedl three key values whichl shiouli lunder-lie

e~ducatio ni in th~e two-tiered frameworrk. At thei rnrvlo~ le~vel thet principal

value is "equlality of opportunity for all." Her Iluggested that "live aind

let live" should govern a Ifai rs wi thin and between mi croc ut ltres.

Thirdly, e~quln access to the stairs between micro andnr marocrllturr e shouldl

be guaranteed. Bohannan insis ted that hIi s aIpproach-l is ne either ont i-

patriotic nor culturally relativistic sentimentalism.

in the Parly 1970's gilrobal stiatles b-ecame the fansl of several

educators interested in international ediuentionl. narilon (1971) proposed

peace stud~ies which concentrate on the issues of huminii aggression andl

conflict resolutionr from thec interpersoinal t the interlnational level.

In a monograph Global Develr lament Studies (19)7 ) ther Manage~r mcnt Institulte

for Nationn] Development ouitlinll a senior hiigh eniirirfrulum thant gioes

heyond the trannsfer of know~ledge to thle chanllingl ni thle stuidenits' per~-

ceptions of reallity. Consc:iousneiss raisingr andi uninesr examination in

relationship to in~ternationall dievelopment issues conrstitute major

objectives inl this program. Becker (1973, 19)7/) advo.cated a cuirriculumi

which helps students to seec the world as others son it. to become aware

of and adept at using alternative sources of information and evaluation.

and to develop a willinginess to consider comlpeting views ofr reality.

Bover (1975) added a futures comrponent to the procless of developingi a

world view among~ students. W)l~hlberg (1974) and~r UNESCO(:( (The UNESCO

Associated Schools. 19)75) conlceptualx~ ie n1 clnhn1 studlils aPPT'rox h bSed

on the relationships between peop le aInd the ir envi ronments. concern-

trating on the theme o~f interdlependence Almgren a nd (:ustafssonl (1974)

suiggestedl thiat international education is aI reqluisite for hulman survival.

A majority of Amerlean public school tearher-s shanre a concern for

greater international underst-~lnd ding. Ciphity iPercent who respoinded toi n

recent National Education Association questionnaire said better rcoopern-

t-ion among nations was a key iSSule inl promoltIn: ai PeCnlEful world

community (McCarron & McCune, 1974).

Within the broadl framerork k of inter-national eduelntioln several recent

books hiave been written to Guide teachers and crirriculumi plannners in

using Africaln content. E~.J. Murphy and Stein (1973) suggcstted six broad

reasons for including Aifrical in the social stuioris curriculum. Under

thle headings of superficiality and rthnocentricity. Hattl (19)77)

has categorized 30 problems~ which currently exist withi the treatment of

Africa in Almerican textbooks. The Afrianl-Amefri cni I nsti tute (Co lliins,

1970), Boyer (19)69), and W~illmer (1975) pro~videdl pract~tiinners with hanth

theoretical considerations and coincrete suggecstions for including an

African perspective in an social studies p~rogral..

Existing Programs

Over the past two, decad(es, intellectual leadership hans OfFFfere n

variety of conceptual frameworks for incorp~orating international studies

into th~e curriculum. A key concern is to what extent these scholarly

appraisals and recommendations have found their way into the r~urriculai

of American schools and into~ the inistructio~nal strategies of its teachers.

John Lee (1974) offered a1 somewhat hopeful view. Heo detected several

trends in the late 196,0's anid earlyy 1970)'s which sugge sRte<1 thait cnrrirulal

were being inte national izedl: Jnternational reduction wais beginning

Earlier in the child's schiooling, the concept of thle woirld had been

broadened to include the non-west, and there~ was a1 shiift to the study

af the world's people as a society (a gilihni view as ropposedl toi the study

of one nation ?fter- another) (p. 149). Tog oeecuaigsit

may be occurring, Rose Haydecn (1976,) said thle responses: of Amerricain

public education to thle challenge of preparing citizens to respond

intelligently to global problems was inadequalte. She was palrticullarly

critical of state education naencies whiichi she claiimed dlid not perceive

the need to provide leadecrship for gilohol izine public fdulcation. In

spite of some g~loball curricullum develocpment, some inservice training on

international topics, and increasedl stress on international training: in

teacher education, too little has been dlone to internationalizef public

instruction or to evaluate its results ag~ainstt plobal Roals andi objectives.

Thle A~spen Institltc e has formedl a naitio~nal commnission on coping with~

interdependence (M~orehouse, 1975). Th1e institutee is concFr-ned with two

questions: First, to what extent do American institlt ions,: percelve thie

predienment of interdependence and its implication;; second, what new

attitudes and arrangements many be requIreTd Ln enhance(. thel rnpacity of

Americans to cope withi it? Thle findings revealedl tiat edulcatilnall i~n-

stitutions are ill-equlipped to, deal with the issue o~f interdlependelnce

because it is perceived as a national concern while schiools are run as

a state and local responsibiity. For this and other reasons. it was

concluded that much of the burden for creating a civic literacy on

interdependence issues wouliid have to be ho~rn b~y instttitutios other thann

formal educational ones.

Nonetheless, some schnols anti other sulpportiny agencies f have made

attempts to change curriculum and rearienlt inservice to implement

international education. Several school districts have dervelopedl

international studies programs of one natuire or another (Frepman, 1974;

A~frican Studies Handbook, 1971; Worl~d 1 story Serlie: Afrt-ica. 1972)

State departments of education (Jonles, 1970)! andl other agrencies (Oswald,

1974) have contributed t-heir efforts to RssistinG publliic schantl ls to

improve international stuldies progprams. Thle Afriennl-Americ ien Institutee

(Taching; About Africa, 1972) and the African Stuidies P'rogram at thec

University of Tllin~ois (Schinide,. 1975) harve mnade Ionlgoing efforts to

improve African studies through teacher inservice eduiration.

Teacher Art titudes and Their Mleasurement

A crucidl issue in assessing the role teachlern plaiy in the instruic-

tion of children is toi what extent teacher attitudleN influence the

outcomes exhiibited in children. In conjulnction with tha~t issue, is the

problem of measuring teachers' attitudes anrd their relatiionlship to other

variables. W~iseman (1971) believedl that thle sing~le moist significant

outcome of educational resonrr ch in the last deade~l wasn the rentlizattion

of the power' of teacher Itt ituldes and teacherr~~~r expr tions.

Much of the research into teacher attituldes hais foculsed on their

relationship to various educational issues anid pra t ices In anl experi-

mental study, Homme (1968) reportedly a failure to imprrove teacher attitudes

toward programmed instruction, apparently because o~f lack of commulnica-

tion between experimenters aInd teachers and lack of opltimulm classrooo

conditions. However, Ma~lini (1969) foulnd that nrw "Spanish for Co~mmuni-

cation" materials designed for programmed mlantery of instructional

objectives Emnproved teacher attitude towardi Ilanguagel in~struiction, as

well as changed their teachingl methodologies~ and student performance.

A third study deaing withl tracher attitudesR towedri so~me aspect of

educational practice was conductedl by Walmon, Rell, andi Ramsever (1971)

who hoped to show that teacher randiidates trn inedl in the microplanninfi

technique~ would score higherl onl tests of teancher elffectiveness buit

remain unchanged in attitudel towrdmt students ;Ind teaching:. Thef study

found that teaching teancher-s to contrn1l cognitive struictuire variables

increased their students' reasoning ability buit hadl no effecct on recall

not did it affect any mneasulre of teache r aIt t itde. T'his last finding waos

considered a1 positive one because the experimenters; were aIttempting to

avoid change to undesirable attituides on the part nf tnacherT cnd~idates.

A study by Mlax-in (19)74) showed how negative teacherr attitudles could black

progress in educational practice. He found that trnChers had little

knowledge of, and negantive attitudes toward, edurlnifountl resealrch.

Consequenltly, they shied awayl from its fin~dingis.

Okey (1973) studied thc reflects of learntni: Bloom's mastery teachingf

strategy on teacher candlidate's attitudes~ to~ward tests, clrades, and

diagnostic teaching,. Thle experimentltn group shoedp i sjignificanltly poSi--

tive Attitude Rains in this studyv. Inl a ne~-shot ryxperiment in which

teacher attituldes toward ~lth effectiveness; of diFfe~rent math programs

were supposedly manipulated by havingi technlers read~ bi-ised statements

about the programs, Brager (1970) found no sig~nificant difference in

students related to teacher attitude. A moreH sophisticated longiitudinall

study by Beauchamp and Conran (1975) was set uip to measure the e~ffets

of the operation of a cuirriculum eng~ineering sy~stem. A\ cauisal model

employing path Analysis (se~e Blalack, 19hi4, 1971; licise, 19)75: Van de

Geor, 1971) was; being: usedl I to xamine the rclationships between leader-

ship, currliculum engiinpering,, teacher attitudesR teanchr r performances,

and student performance. Frey (1973) in a survey study of 406 elementary,

middle, and high school. teachers at-tendinfi a summer session at Northeirn

Illinoi~s University found thatl tenchers knew much nbout~ behanviornl

objectives buit held rather neiitral attiutudes about their cffectlyoness

in pupil performance. 13ogarz (1970) found a po~sitive relationship betweencr

teachers' attitudes toward the effectivenress of instrulctional materials

and actual pupil achievement.

Research on teacher attitudes toward snhlject matterc had b~een confinled

mostly to the subject of science. Oshiman (1966). in stuidyingi the dif-

ference between lectulrcle-downstr ation and individunt investi~tientn ars

approaches to teachingi science methods courses to Ilrmentalry school

teacher candidates, measured attitudes toward scIenICe a~s wiell as con-

fidence toward teachingf science, achievement in sc~irener, an d student

teAchingi behaviors in science. Only' the confidnce va riable shOwefd

signi ficanlt d difference between expe~rimentanl and~ ontroll- groupsI). Srge

(1974) studied attitude toward science and its relat ionship to know~ledge

of science. Hie found a low positive corrplatiio n f .?5 hetween measulres

of scientific knowledge and attitudl e toward scince.c S;inceF the coef-

ficient of determination was .06, he questioned the relationship between

knowledge and attitude. However, Bl1eh and Zakha~rindefs (1975), finding

a .25 correlation between science attitudes scoresi and g~rades in science

taken as a mensurie of learning, concluded tha;t ktnowledge of science and

general exposure to science hadl a positive influernle on attituides toward

science. Thle previously mentioned Almgren andl Gusltfsson (1.974) study

looked at the relationship orf teacher ac~ttitmle to~ward teaching about

int-ernational questions and studeints' RttitudelS. TheyC~ found a positive


An important set of research rln teacher attituides has focused on the

relationship between teachers' attitudew toward their students and the


pupils' subsequent achievement. Arno (1975), Clarki (1975), anrd Cecil

(1.971) all found a positive relationship between techellr attitude towrdirr

students and pupil achie~vement.

TIhese studies have made u~se of one or several of the attitude

measurement techniques developed and reftned since thle 1920's. TIhurstonet

(1927, 1929, 1931, 1967) was the first to take attitude measulrenpnt ouit

of the suirvey stage and malke it more rirgorous by intlrodlucjin the equial-

appearing interval technignor. At the time thant Senshore and Ileyner

(1933) were modifyinR Thulrstole'ss techniques. Likert (1~97, 1970) pro-

posed the summated ratinfi method for measuring: attitudesr. Subhsequiently.

G~uttman (1944, 1947), and O:;good (1967; casGood~ & Suci. 195i: nsgoord,

Suci, & Tannenbaun, 1957, Snider &r Osgood,, 19h9) devisedr niternative

systems for attitude mensurlrment.t Edwardls (1957), alppnheim (19h6),

and Shaw and Wrigiht (1967) have each madle attempts tor Rynthesize the

previous work in attitude mealsurement anrd providi rsidelines or devrelop-

ing attitude scales according to thle different techlniqucs avani~lable

Two studies have attempltetl systemati c enmparisons~ of likiert and

Thurstone techniques of scale construction and scoring. Providing a

critical review to previous research, Seiler and Hough (1970) concluded

tha~t the Likert scoring methiod was superior to the Thulrstone method with

regard to the value of the reliability coeflicient obtained for a given

number- of items. Using L~ikert construction and scoring techniques, one

could usulal~v develop a scale with a .90 re tab i lity coerffiicint w~ith

only 20 to 25 items, It would take twice as many Thulrston~e connstructed~r

and scored items to obtain ther same rel aini Ity (p. 171). .ItRecrd,

Weber, and Lundmark~ (1975) used a mul~titrai t-mu~ltimethord matrix (see

Campbell & Fisko, 1959)) to colmpare the test-rftest r~liabil~ities and

divergent and convergecnt validitiEs: of fouir meth~ods of atl-itude measulre-

ment: Likert, Thurstone, nsg~ood, andi Guilford's self-rating. Threy fouindl

little diElerence in the companrati ve rel iahj it les, thr mletho~d variancEs,

or in the divergent and convergient validities of eachl method. W'hate ver

the merits anid demerits of each method may be, these ilifferences cancelledl

out when put to the empirient test. Thurs any of the above techniques

might. be applied to assessiing teacher attitudies towardl social studies

cuirricula, or specifiently African content.

S ummary ~ of eRser~chI

The chanengin nature of the modern world has ranisedi concern amngnfi

educators that curriculal and teaching practices neecd to become more

internationaized. Some senttered eEfacts at curi-rien~la r-eform have b~e-n

made. In addition, scatterted attempts have hern made~l to prepanre tecrhers

to use international content~ in their teach~inS. yet little reserrch has

been dlone into the effects of teacher ttiitudesR on sublsequentt students

learning oE either concepts or alttituldeS relilatin to ilterlnational


However, for fifty years educatio7nal psychollogists have heen de-

veloping and refining a nuimber of techniqises for mcasulring attitudes.

These techniques have been used in recent years to study teacher attitudeis

toward stuldents, varioulS sulbject matterss, and different educational

practices. Whllat is needed now is a mneans of measuringC teacher attitudesi

toward teaching about fo~reirgn cultuires anr interlnationall1 problems.

Making use of accepted techniiques oE a~ttitulde measuremnent, thris study has

uindertaken to devise instrumentation that could validlyv measure these

teacher attitudes.


In establishing the cronstruct vnlidity of theF new scale to measure

teachers' attitudecs toward African content in thef rurriculum,~ three

approaches to construct validation were used. First, corrreltions betw~een

scores on the F~orida International. Curriculumn Assessmeint Scailes and other

measures of similar construlcts were examined. A p~rEViously dePveloped

knowledge test of African content wa7s refined for uise as 1 cr-iterion in

this study. In addit ton another attitude scl l mieaisuring at ti tudesn

similar to, though not idential~ w~ith, attituldes torinld tonehiingi abour

Africa in the classroom was nlso used. The total fiscal sores from these

two instrumnents were correlated with thle niewly deveclopecd FTCAS sublscales

to establish the first type of~ construct vallidity. Se cond, nrollps whiich

should have differed in scores o~n the FlCAS\: subscalrs were .Ilso tested

and compared to see if expected dlifferences had berrn detected. The me~an

scores from the pilot snnmple were compared to the two summer institute

samples to see if the newly developed sub~scalesi could dletect aIn expected

difference inl attitudes between the pilot and mother two groups. Finally,

the pretest scores of the institute samples were co~mpared to th~e post-

test scores to see if any sublscales could meansure a dlifferencef in attitude

expected as a1 result of part iciLpation ini thle institutes.~

This chapter includes the details of the development of thle FTCAS.

A discussion of the procedures usedl to establishI its reliability follows

a description orf its developmentl~. Finally, measures taiken to confirm

the construct validity of thle FTCA1S are lielin~nated along withl a discussion

of the other instruments used( inl thle validaltion procteSs.

Attitude Scale Construction


The purpose of this study was to develop n reliable instrumllent with

sufficient validity to allow it to be used in attitude research andl in

curriculum and instruction evaluation. Ano instrulment was desired to yield

scores on teacher attitude toward African content whlich coulld be analyzed

to learn mnore about the relintionship of thiis attitude to other cons~r rnets

and observable behavior. It was expectFed that thle new instruments would

serve a uiseful purpose ini evaluating p"re and inservicie efforts to~ instill

an international perspective in teachers with reFgardi to their own


Scale Dimnensions

In constructing an inst-rument to measures attitude~s towanrd Africani

content in the curricullum several steps were tak~en. The first concern

was to clearly define the dimensionls of thle const rllt under considerat ion

(G~ardner, 19)75). The identified construct hand to- be unridimensional so

that all scale items could be summed to produce a meainingiful total. scale

score (G;ardner, 1975; TVhurstone, 1967). Suchi a scale score wediid hep

uninterpretable if A single linear continuumn did no~t u~nderlie th~e attitude

being measured. Attitudies ar1e assumed to viry- in qualnity anrd intpnsity

along a continuumn from p~osit ive through neitranl to negative (Shaow &*

Idright, 1967, p. 7). If, ini fact, somne scale items measure dimensions

indepenident of the major underlying: conistirut the reslltnin attilude

score will he meaningless wi~th regardl to the attitude that1 was jintended

to be measured.

While pains were taken to insure that1 the attitudef to be mneasured,,

attitude toward thle inCl1sionl of African content inr school culrriculumm

was not confouinded with otherr attitudes suchl as attitudec towir-d AFr~o-

American studies or perhaRps attituides to~warl trradi tional versuls inqui ry

social studies methodologiecs, care was also` exercised to include all

aspects of the uinderlyin6 dlimEnsion (Oppenholm. 1966. p7. 117).A

teacher's attitude toward teanchingi about Africa in the curricultun might

be made up of feelings ab~outl priorities inl thle elr-riculltma feelings about

the school's rol~e vis-a-vis cross-clltluran l reductini l feelings about

Africa's relevance to the canriculumo l or any number of other aspEcts.

These various aspects had to, be identified and mleasulrted~ if a valid scale

were to result from this stu~dy. An analysis of rtesponses to open-endedd

statements about African studies in the curr-iiculum was uised to determine

the r-e~evant undpr-lying dimensions .

A sentence completionl questionnaires withr threer itrms on it was uised

to elicite teachers' views onr African co~ntent. Thei seconnr d item on the

questionnaire was thle most p~ertinent for formullatngi the uinderlying

aspects of the construct which the reseaircher was nttemlpting~ to measur-e.

This item began "Africani content in thle pubtle school enrrriculumn

should. . ." After- completing thiis sentence, teachers wEre ~aked to~

respond to the second part of the iteml whlich said simply ". . heicause

SThul~s in addiction to open-endedl juldfnmnts s on African content,

reasons for these judgments were also solicited. A~lSo inclu(1de in the

questionnnire were two orthetr Ltemis: Thle first of these was simply "Africal

and the second was "Clobal cosiuses

'This qurestion~naire wasR admini:;terl to 100 pri andi inrservicr

teachers. The responses were categoirizedl in an effot~i t d1etermine thec

dimensions underlying attitude toward Africai in thec curirirurlumr (seef

Table 1). It appeared from analyzing the~se responses thait dile relation-

ship of African content to rognitive chieetives is ther major uinderlyingi

dimension of attitulde toward African cointent. lidhen combined with responses

related to affective obljectives, over- 78 percent of thie responses relate

to curriculum objectives.

'Table 1

Response Distributioo n for Open-Enldedl Ilnrstiolnnaire
on Africaln C~ontent in thie Cuirriculum?

Ca tego ry Pe rrc lnt of Responses

Cognitive Ob~jectives 1,7.0

Affective Objectives 11,T

Relative Importance or
Time Considerations 9.4

Intrinsic Interest 5.7

All1 Other Respionses 6.h

Note. Number of subjects equailled LOO, buit thr nulmber of responses
equalled 106 because OE multiple respo~nses.

Source of i tems

Trhe next step was to de~velopi a pool ofr items whlichl coni~ld he pilotedl

in order to construct. an adcequatef scale. These items had to differentintp

between those teachers who hold positive andl those Who~ horld negative

attitudes toward the object in qulestion (L~ikert, 1967. p. 92). Trhe .items

needed to be statements in which respondents could recognize real view-

points and feel strongly about them one wayV or the o~therr (Oppenheim,

1966, p. 114). These items~ had to cover ther ranne OEC asp~cts underlyinin

the attitude and, in a tradlitional scale, the range~ of intensity from

negative to pos itive.

For the attitude that this study attemptedi to mensuire, us~ina standard

Likert-type statements presented a potential problem of interpretation.

Since relationship to curricurlar objectives seemedl to he thle major

underlying dimension of attitude toward Aflrican content in the curricullum,

most items in the L~ikert-typef instrument woulld containi statemernts which

related African content to objectives. ?tro examples would be the

following: "The study of Africn is nercssary to pr-omotee international

understanding," or "The study o~f Africa needs to7 be~ inlud~l~ed in the study

of world geog~Raphy.l If an alttitude isl a rredispositition to art in a

certain WayI toward some objiect, then positive rrsponlsess to thcfie items

might not be measulring~ a Lrancher's inclinati onl to~ Iie A~frican content.

For it is possible thiat a teacher couldl agree that Afr~ienn content was~

important to achieve an objective but believe at thle saime time that thle

objective is not too important. Such a situaltton could~ proutlce a miis-

leading item response.

To overcome this potential problem, the current situdy used statements

of objectives as the items in the instrument. Each teaicher was asked to

rate the importance of the objective as well as ralts the relevance of

African content to achieivins it. TIhe objectives were selected to repre-

sent three content categarie~s covering.. a broad range o~f social studies

objectives. Some objectives are naltiona~list ically adiented in that

Amlerican content would he riliregnlr to achieve the c~hjecitivr (see Appendix

A). Examples include thefsi: "Studelnts should kinl'w ablout the impact of

technology on modern l i f in America," "Studeint s shoruldl hav~e a ktrnowledg~e

of the strict ure of Ame~rican g~overnment," aInd "Studentiis Shoulld~ sIPPOrt

efforts to protect America's environment." Othecr objectives are inter-

national ini orientation because they require content from outside the

U.S. in order- to develop thecm. Such objectives woulld hie the following:

"Students should acquire wor-ldmindedne~ss," "Studelnts shouldl comprehenid

the gulf between rich and poor countries," aind "Studrenits Shoulld understand

different ways of life on different continents." Still a third groulp o~f

objectives are those whose achievement does not dictante the nattennd

or international focus of contenlt in order to necomplisish themn. This

third group of oh jectives enalld be devrlopedl w~ith rather Amecrican or-

international content or both. Examples o~f this third type include

"Students should ulnderstand the balance of annture," "Students shou~ldi

understand thle exchrange orf Goods andl services," an11 "Stuidentl s shoulldd

appreciate a artistic ex~p rcss;ion."

In selecting thie objectives for incluston in th( instrulment, the

first step was to examine thle rspo~nse~s to the oPenI-ended d ques~tiOnnaire

given to pre and inservice teachers and then to review social studies

mnethods texts and school district object-ives statements. h olwn

sources were checked Ear examples of both cognitive and affective ob-

jectives: L.F. Anderson (1968); D.L.. B~rubakear (1973); L,. Ehman. 11.

Mlehlinger, and J. Patr-ick (19741); S.11. Encle (196,5); I.R. Le~e (1974);

B.G:. Massialas and~ C.n. Cox (1966); E..J. Muriphyv and II. Strin (1971);

D.Wd. Oliver and J1.P. Shaver (1966); E.o. Reischanllr (1973); .A.~ Scott

(1972); and M1.D. Waniman, D.D. Bell, and C..C. Ramsever (1971).

Based on thefse sources, a 11st of 54 cognitive chiectives andi 36

affective objectives was drawn up to be subhmitted to a panel of weight

professors of social studies edu~cation and cuirrienium Tispaelrae

the objectives as to the type of content thlat would be required to

accomplish the objective (see Appendix A). The coGn i t ie obj ectives

were written to include on equal number from e7c~h ofI six social studies

disciplines: history, political ficien~ce, anthropology, sociology,

g~eography, and economics. The affective objectives were not so easily

classified accordjIng to disc.ipline.

The FICAS could hiave been analyzed not only as:- a total score, but

according to several subscalecs as well. The sublscale structure of the

FICAS allows for 11 different subscal~es to be examninecd for conlstructt

validity. NJot all scales are independent of ealrh other, butI there exist

three sets Of independent subscales (see Figure~ 1). Thie 48 objectives

on thle scale can he divided accordling to cogrnitivc-n;ffecti ve criteria

(Bloom & Krnthlwohl, 1956; K~Rth~WOhl, Bloom, &r Navlia, 1964)!. inltO two

subscales wi th 28 An7d 20 i tcmsS r-espectively. Alte~rnaltively the scale

can be divided into subhscalrs of nationalistic, international, and

either/or objectives. Pl~acrlemen on1 these scales wals m.ade by a panel of

eight professors who were afiked to judge objectives on~ whether or not

American content or international content was requlirred to achijeve the

stated objective. The third possibility was that th~e objective could

be devel~pell with either type of content.

Naion al~,n1i stic

Nat ionlllis tic i

INTTOT~ (13)

Co nir t ive
Inte rnatiolnnL
COUlNT (8)




FEroR (10)

bscale .
the text.



Affective Affective Affective Af
Nalt onal1is tic Tnlte rnn tionall Ei

Note. Numbers in parentheses~ are nulmber of itens onr each sui
Words in all capitals are abrbreviations of subscalonn used in

SubscAle Structure of ther Florian Iiici~tntrn iona
Currinoluim A~ssessmient Scales

At lenst 75 percent agreement among professor wais required for an

objective to be fiirther considered. Of others objectives Rubmitted to thie

panel of professors, 43 of the 54 cognitive objectives andl 2 of the i6

af fective objectives met th is cri terion (see Aplllndi x A). Fulrthcr paRri ng

of obhjectives was done wijth an eye to maintanininfi anl equal rinumer of

nationalistic and internationally objectives on eachi scnle. Similalr

objectives were entlecd by p~icking thle one whiich had1~ the greatest percent

of agreement. The final 28-objective cognitive scale consiconal of 9

items which had 75 percent agFreement, ] 3 wi th 87.5 per:ent, and 6 with

100 percent agreem~ent. On th1E 20--objective lffective scale the~ numbers

were 7, 11, anrd 2 respectively,


The Florida International Curriculum Scales wiere scored aIccordingi

to the summated rating process (see Edwlards, 1957, pp. 149-170). sin

data points were repinced with the roundledl group mrran foIr rnld1 itemi hasrrl

on the pilot sample of 131.. There were 80 missingf datal points suplplictl

in this manner out1 o1f 6,288 sucrh points. Trhe groupl meauns~ bnsed on the

pilot sample were uised wheni necessary for gieneratingi the scores requiired

to test Hlypotheses One, Tlwo, andl Three. Ilowever, for Hlypothleses Four anld

Five, the group means sulbstituted for the missing aintn points wsere based

on the 222 subjects which comprised the pilot samlelll as well as the pre

and post-test samples fromn the summer institultes. 1This base was choseni

as the most conservative procedure in gienerating total scores to be

entered into an analysis of variance, to thle ]atter en:se 105 data points

were supplied by subhstitutcing the group mean ouit of 10.656 total data

points processed. After respondents ratedl rnch iteml onl a Scanle fromn 0

to 5 along a1 continuum measuiring the celevanlce of African content ranging

from useless to essential, the total scale score wais coImpultedl b summingu

the item scores. The suibscale scores were generatedl in the same manner

by summingi the items on thle relevant subscales (see FiGure 2 and A2ppen-

dix C). All1 nationalistic items can be ident~iifid by reading down the

first column of cells in Fig~ure 2. For international items read down

the second column of cells. The complete either/or sublscale comprises

thle thirdl colmann of cells.


12, 15,
12, 33, 41

38. 45





ve 1, 20, 2 1, 28, 7, 11, 19, 27, ,5 ,1,
30, 35, 19, 43 40, 42, 44, 48 21, 25, 26,

ve 4, 18, ?222,1 1 8 9 7 4
46, 47 16. 71 3h, 36, 17,

FigureT 2

Ltem Assignmefnt to Subhsenlls onl the Floridn International
Curriculum Assessment Scales

Alternative Scoring Methtlods Considered andi Discarded

Another option for scoring also presenitedl itsplf. As mentiorned

earlier, teachers could rate African content hiighly relevant for an

objective which they considered to be relatively ulnimportanlt. Forr ex-

ample affective objective number 27, which renlds "Studelnts should unlder-

stand different ways of life on d iffrerent rantinentls." had an atti tude

scale rating which was well above thie averdge for a F1C(AS Ltem. Ilow-

ever, its importance rating was only average. Cons equen~ltly, nlthlough

many teachers could see the relevance of African content to suich an

objective, they were not inclined to teach thle objective herouse they

perceived it as unimportant.

Therefore, in scoring the FICAS two special weighlting: options; were

tested to see if greater vaIlidity coniid be obtainal.l Since it was thoughti~l

that the importance a teacher attached to an ob~jective would he importa~nt

information in computing attitudef t~ward Afriennl rententl, tochlersi were

asked to rate the imlportancce of eachl abjectiv e whilh irade up the FTCAS.

First, all objectives with a rating of 5 in importance wer-e sroredl as

marked on the FICAS and all other items were weightedr 0. Second, a

rating of either 4 or 5 was usecd to solvct thie items to be scored, all.

Other items being weighted 0. In both cases i tem means were ursed as the~

scale scores inst-ead of summated ratings because of thle different

number of items receiving higih ratings fro~m diffe~rent subjec-ts. Whnen

these weightedt scoringi methods were used, thle values o~f coefficient alpha

remainerl virtually unChannged~ from those bhserTved w~ithl c.onve~tntion)

scoring procedures. Whe:n items with an importanicp ratinE of 5 we~re

Included an alpha of .94 was- observed, .95 fo~r items with impo~rtance

ratings of 4 or 5.

AIlthough these weigihtedl scoring methiods prodluced relitabilities

comparable to the conventional sulmmated rating techiniquie, theyv did~ niot

produce improved validity coefficients as predlicPted. Tefrt tr

native scoring procedure pro~duced an item mean thatl correlated .14

(p_ > .05) with the Worldmindednesss Scale and -.21 (p 05) with the

Florida Afrrican Knowledgef Scale. The second methodl resulted in an item

mean correlatingi .16 (p < .05) with the W-Srale anid -.18 (p < .05) withi

the FAKS. It appeared that using the scor-ingi alternatives of rnlculaingnf

item means for only those objectives which received a high1 importance

rating did not measurably inlcrease their vanlidity roefficients. Con-

sequently, further analysis was limited to testing the validity of the

subscales which were scorerl with the conventiornal liker-t pro~edulres (sci

Chapter Four).

Procedures for Establish ingReli h nlIitv nulll Val1i d l ey


Coefficient alpha (Cronbach, 1967) was uised as a measure of relia-

bility in this study. The suibscales of the Florida Inte~rnationall

Curricullum Alssessment Scales were designed to be uinidimensiond.ll

Consequently, coefficient alpha which is a mleasuree of internal con-

sistency of the items on a unidimensional scale was an appropriate

device to use.

For thle reliability stuidy thle instriiments we~re naministered in

regular College of Edulcation class sessions meetings at thle University

of Florida during spring quarter 1977. This was trule for these courses:

ED) 600, The School Curricululm (tw~o sectionsl); ED)E h'0. Social Studiesi

Education -- Eleme~ntary Sch~ool; EDE)l 670, Lanlguag): e Alrts in thle Elempentanry

School (off-campus in Marionl Counity, Florida);) tiDF h20 Soclinecronomic

Foundations of Eduication; EDFi 666, Seminar on Research, on Effective

Teaching;; EDF 450, Mleasuirement anid Evalua~tionl in Edrucation: and EDFI 768,

Evaluation of Educational Projects and Systems. Thp students in EDS

635, Suipervisiion of Preservice Teanchers (off-campusll in A\nlachna Coulnty,.

Florida). were given instrulctions for talkine th~e tests and then allorwed

to complete th~e scales at home and return them at thle next class meetinfi.

The elementary teachers participating: in the study fro~m Hi~lsharoulgh

County were given the instruments duiirng ; n meetinl: nE um inservice class1

in social studies meth-ods in the spring of 1977. 'lec Ii~llthborugh~ Couinty

middle school teachers wrre administered theI scniOn duIjl:ng meeting~ Of

a county-widel social studlies curriculumi committees. Ife hligh rhoo~l

teachers in Ilillsborougfh Coulnty were ap~proalched thirrought their reprt~rmente

chairpersons w~ho Ieach~ requested three ofi their dpartment memblers to

respond to thle instruments o~n their own tjlime.

Thie instrument battery used to determine the reclinh~ility and

validity of FICAS contained 12 pages of material. ThIe first pag~e asked

for demogiraphlic data rrlatedl to teaching rxperiencer. ThPe three questions

asked concerned level, subhjrct area, andl years of R-12 teachingif ex-

perience. Tlhe second pagef contained thle inistruciioin s for completing the

importance ratings and thle I:ICAS items. Thisi requiiredl a two-step process:

First, for ench of the 48 enlrrienlar obijectives, thet prubiocts were naked

to rate their importance for the school Culricullum onl a scale from 0 to

5; second, for each objective the subjects were to rate the relevancie

of A~frican content for achievingi the ch~ject ives on n 0 to 5 scale. Thef

next three pages mande up the Flo1riia TInter-nationa~ (l Crrirltum Assessment

Scales. Page~s 6 through 8 containedl the W'orldminidcdnnss Scali (Sampsorn

& Smith, 1957; Shaw & Wirigiht, 1967) entitled "So~cial Attituides cquestio~n-

naire." The last fours pages consisted of the Florida African Knowledgje

Scale which is a 30-item revision of Projec~t Africai's Africa South of thle

Saharn test (19)68). MIost respondents too(k between 30 and 415 minutes to

complete the total battery.

Data uised to estimate coefficient alphar wer~e icollectedl from

131 persons with K-12 teaching Experience drawn Trromi iradulate courses at

the University of Florida Collegie of Edllation and from the ranks of

practicing social studies teachers in thle Htllhboroughil Counlty, Flor~ida,

Public Schools. A total of 1693 people responded to the instruments.

Thirteen subjects wzere eliminated from the sample bconrse thley failed

to complete one or mor-e of the scnlesL or herouIse theCY wiere foreign

nationals without American, publlic schanl cxp~erie~nce.. An additiornal 25

respondents in the graduante coir-ses were set asiC becauISe theyV did no't

have K-12 te~achini: exper-iencre. Consequ~ently, thle pilot~ sample consistedl

of 131 subjects all of whom were either- practicing, teachers or hadr had

previous K-12 teachling experience.

Sixty-six sub~jects were enrot~cd in giradualte coureses at thle Univer-

sity of Florida, including 19 teachers enirolled in an off-cnmpus course

in M~arian Coulnty,, Florida (pop. 69,030). T'he other h5 surbicts w~ere

p~racticingf teachers in Hli~llsoroughl County, Flonridal (Pop. 190(,265), which

includes Tampa and surroulndinC. area. Thle total pilotl samlel' consistedl

of 39 people with only elementary experience, 20 wiithl only middlef school/

junior high experience, and 25 with only highi schnotl experience. Eleveni

teachers had experience at both elementary anid mladlee school,, 18 had

both middle school and high school experience. Eiilhtee~in other subjects

had experience at all levels. With rega~rd to years of experiences, 12

teachers were in their first year of teachiing; 28 hadt 2or- 1 years

experience; 23, 4 or 5 years; 34,, 6 to 10: 18, 10) to 20 years; and 12,

more than 20) years experience. TIhe subjectl matter breakdocwn was weighted

in favor of social studies teachers -- who were xps[ected to comprise

the majority of par~ticipannts in the suimmer insta nltCs. Thirty-five

subjects only had experienrr as social studies Leachellrs and an additional

16 ha~d experience teachinF social studies as wf]l as some other subhject

TwJenty-eigiht taught the basic siubjects (Languagne :IL~s, manthemaltics,

science, social studies) in elementary schools. Seventee~n hadl basic

subject experience as well as e~xperience inl somer iohir aIrea. Ninle Slb--

jects were humanities teachers in that they were nnlyl Clexeienlced in

language arts, art, music, or foreign Innguages. TIwenity-six teachers

only had experience in other areas: math. science, media, phy~sical

education, or vocational education.


Correlates. To establish the construcct validity of the florida

International Curriculum Assessment Scales, several hypo~theses were

generated to test predlictedi relationships invonlvinR the~ construct of

interest, attitude toward thre ulse of Afrie~nn contentl in thle enirricu~lum.

If a predicted pattern of corrrelations enluld he cmp i r i rn Iy veri fied,

then the construct valid ty of a test would receivr rnfi rmat ion. Th~is

study sought to verify positive correlations beptween Envnrableness

toward African content and two related construlcts. worldmindedness and

knowledge of Africa. Neithecr of the criterion attributes wars identical

with thle construct under studyl. Ilnwever, it wasrf tllo~rized thiat tearches

higih o~n worldmindedness anrd know~ledge~ of A~frical wounlld nlso tendir to be

hrigh in attitude toward the usfe of African1 Conlti'nt.

The sample, sometimes reffrerre to as the p~l~itl qsample, ulsed to test

these correlationail IIypOthesesC was the same one descrihod in the section

on reliability. The methodsc of data coll tionti~r wrlre also those rescribed

above .

The first of the instruments uised to establish the ronstr-uct validlity

of the FTCALS was the F~loridnl African Knlowlledgec Scale (FA`KS), developed

by thiis p~rojctl. Examination~ of the tent Africa Srouth of the Sahara

(1968), which is a 60-item test orig~inliv dclve-lopo1, for highi school

students as a part of "Prolject Afrien" (Rover & Ililks, 1968), revealed

a solid base upon which to build an up-to,-dat e knowkllge~# instilument.

Beyer's instrument contatinral six subhsenies whtchi werer re~tained in an

effort tor broadly measures knowledger of Africal. tlhese six subhscales were

(a) physical geographyv, (b) histo~ry bcfor-e IEruropennrl penetratioln,

(c) history of Euiropenns in Africa. (d) indigenouls fiociety, fe) rconominc

development, and (F) cur-rent affairs. Thliis orinilnni Iocumrent was used

by the University of Tllinois Program in A~frican Studies in a pre-post

design to test knowledge gaiin at their innrytrvi e woriknlhop for teachers

in 1974 (Schmidt, 1974, p. 17). Beyer uisedl a 15-member panel to sift

through 120 multiple choicr itrims and enime uip with 70 itemns to~ be itemr

analyzed. O~f thle 70, 60 werre chosen for thle final instrulment. Using anl

add-even spl it-hal f technique,, Boyer foulndl a .60 rerl inh~il i t coefficient

for his seventh grade sample and a .80 conrfricintt for- the twelfth girade

sample (Reyer & Hicks. 1968, p. 22). Althou~lGh IFyer alnd Ilicks (1968)

did not specifically report the number o~f sub~jects inivolvedl in the

reliability study, thley reportedly clsewherr in the~ir pre.Selntatlio thatl

845 seventh grade~rs and 794 twelfthi gradiers wer-r slrvleyed in their

study (p. 5).

Three facts suggested that the Beyer and tlicks test neededl to be

modifiedl for- use withi techellrss in thiis stuidy. The fir-st was that the .60

reliability coefficienlt with thle seventh Crader sample was too low to be

acceptable. Second, since thle test wans developrd in 196,8. events bothi in

Africa and in the field of African scholaarshipl have rrndrb edi several

items outdated. Thirdl, since~ this instrumnn~lt woullld he usled in co~njlne-

tion with an attitude inst ruimprt to evalulate oit reach ] workShop)s, a

shorter test was desired.

Consequently, the original 60-item instrument~t wa:s sublmitted to a

panel of 13 A~friennist s aIsso~ciatedl with ther (c-!nter for Al rican S~~tuies

at the Ulniversity of F-lorira i, evalrnto the colnte~nt validity of the

items. TheseF scholarTS representedtr thle following: disciplines: Engylish,,

geography-, bEhanvioral studirs, cllrriculum an~l d ins~truc~tion, solciology,

art history, French~, anthlropollogy, food ;Ind resoul~r econoimics, history,

linguistics, and comparative educational. All professors we~re asked to

circle the letter of the correct answer as they snw it from thle per-

spective of their ex~perti~se on Africa and then to comment on~ questions

which they thought were poorrly wo~rdedl, deltn with trivia, were ouitdated,

or in any way needed adapting before beinG uisedl wi th teachers. On the

basis of thle responses recrtvell fromn thsr IT experts on Africa. 28 of

the items in the original test were disca:r~lded rtri o

elimination of items included d thle foll~owing: rQuestions basedl on no

longer accepted assumptions (i.e., the correctness of W~estern-style

economic development as a modlel for Aflrica); qurestions calling for value

judgments; qulestionss containing: negative ~i;nses towairds Alfric:a; questions

which were confusing, simplistic, o~r container d imnplnnible-h diqtractor r

(incorrect alternatives): or quecstionsR which were daltedl and Ino longer

valid. Under these criteria the subscales on economic development and

current affairs were especially hard hiit as 60) parents of the former andl

71 percent of thle latter were eliminated from the oirginal tcst. Elevenl

other questonns from the original 60 were slightly mo~dified to bring,

thiem up to date or to chanGe a single implaunlsible~ <1isractor. The outl--

line map of Africa used toi .Inswer the first six items in thle origiinal

test was modified by addling: the four major rivers ofr Afric.7 -- Nile,

Niger, Congao, and Zambezi -- to, the continenital oultline.. Eleven new

items were written For the revised knrowledglle test, Iresultinc in a 43-itrim

instrument to be pilot tested.

The pitat test was administered to 1410 undtergi-.~r lluates at the Ulniver--

sity of Florida. Eigihty-fourl students enrolled ini the Coillegr ni

Education took thle test dlurinR fall quartrer 19761. Anir idditionail 56

students took the test wintter qluarter 1977 dluringi thle first class meetings

of two different introductory African studies courses. These 140 students

were dividend alternativelyp intor two girolpss of ln tor ni low an item

analysis and a double across validation to be performedc'. Thie biserial

correlations between item sncre and total test score were uised as the

indices of item discrimination (L~ordl & Novick, 1968, Chapter 15). The

35 items with the hiighest hiseriail correlations based on submanmple one

were cross validated on subhsample two. A~t the snme t ime the 15 biest

items revealed by an item analysis oni sulbsample two wer-e crossR validatedl

on subsample one. The 30 items which had thle highest aInd most stable

biserial correlations across the two samples were sele~.ctd for thle Einal

knowledgec test. The onnly exception to th~is strict pswholcmetric criterann

was that one item pertaining: to Zaire was diroplped becanuse of thle larLun

number of items alreadyq referring to Zaire and ;no iteml which~ had a toweri,

but acceptable, cross validat~ion biscrial correlation wtith thle total score~

( r= .31) replaced it to keep the origiinil subsolee percentagies tht~n

had been established by Be~yer and flicks (1968, p. 23) Basedl on a new

sample of 131 subjects described ab~ove in the section on reliability, th~e

biserial correlations for the Final 30 items rangedl from .1A La .76 (see

A~ppendix B).

The survivingi 30 itcims we~re given a final ichecrk forr rlntant validity

and proper wording. Thlree items were alte~rcld at th~is p~oint. Thle re.-

sulting instrument consists of 11 ifems takenI unaltered (except for-

changes in the map ulsed to answer some physically genernphy questions)

fromn the original 60-item trst. Teni other items T(lreprSent slight modi-

fications of original quefstions and nine itemis are lomrpletely new ones

wIdtten for the revised test. Consequlently, the rev~ised test consists

of approximately one-third completely new items, one-third ulnchanged

items, and one-third modify led items (see Appendix D)). To overcome any

effects of a response set, the correct answers were arpportio~ned as evenly

as possible among the Eour niternatives. The total scale scor-e coin-

sisted of the sum of correct answers.

The second instruiment uised in thle validantion prncess wars aIn already

constructed L~ikert-type scale known as the Wrorldminded~cness Scale (W-Seale)

(see Appepdix E). This scale was Ilevelopei as p.art oF a studyv to lernr-

what types of intercultuiral e~perienCes haive ai Spec~ial Empallct on

attitudes, the relationship between personallity differences and world-

mindedness, and what relationship exists between attitude prior to an

intercultural expecrience anld reactionl to that expcr ienice (Smnithi, 1935).

The Worldmindedness Scalle hans eightL subscales thant mear~sure attiltudes on

the following: dimensions: religion. immiyr-.tion. !:overnment, econnomics,

patriotism, race, education, andi war (Shaw &r Wright. 1967. p. 203). In

validating the scale Smiith (1955, p. 470) re~porterd thrse correlations

between the Worldmindedlness Srale and thie following: construdts: Ethlno-

centrism -.71, Facism -.46, and Polittenl andI Eco~nnmii n Co~nservatism -.51.

Smith~ found thaRt unstutrurcture heterogecneour s intercultural experifiene hnd

little impact on entering worl~lmindedness. Th1e tendeniicy was fo~r people

on both ends of the Wdorldminldedne~ss Scale to have their attitudces

strengthenedl by initerculturall experiences. fe oprngWrdidd

ness scores to results on factors mankingi up Guii lford anrd Guliltood's

(1934. 1936) int rovers ionr-pt reversion scaleSmlj th (1'155) c~onci ndedl thnt

the "hfihl~y worrldminded person is less mnasculnfine ad lS~cendantt more

impuilsive and emotionally decpendernt, and mo~re ine~l ined toward intro-

spection andl internalizaltion of impulses thnn the \-rry nationallistic

individual" (P. 476). Salmpsron and Smith (105r7) decfinn worldmindedness

as "a frame of reference, oi value orientation, faivoringi a world-vieww of

the problems of hulmanity, with mankinld, raither thain rhi natio~nals of a1

particular country, as thle primary reference granlp"~ (p. 105). Thel~y

emphasize that worldmindledness as they conceive o~f it dlesignaites a value

orientation, or trame of reference, apart from knowslelpr about, or

interest in, international r-elations. SamTPson and ISmith, report a

corrected split-half reliability of .91 and a tcst-rlellst reliability

also equal to .93. Allmnii (1961) uised theF Worldminir ed~ness scale to

compare differences in thle stud~enit bodies of two schooills. Ga rrison

(1961) used thle scale to compare diifferences based on re~ligion, region

of the country lived in, famiily backgrondnd sex, anid yeiar in college.

Based on hlis findings at the University of Georgin, a male frrshman

Baptist from an agricultuiral backgrounds in the Soulthea~stt woulld h~e the

most likely ennididate to be low on wo~rldminldedness. Newman and Wanre

(1976) found a low positive relationship, (r- = .35) hetween worldmindedne~s

and aesthetic perception.

The Worrldmindedness Scale was chosen for uise in th~is study for

several reasons. Not only dioes it hiave solid credrntials for rettability

and va lidity but i t also has a timely quanl i t not shaired with other scal es

aimed at measuiring, internationaolism. Manny scales dcveloped in the

1940's and 1950's contain itemrs which are noi longer- unlicl becalsee theyv

refer to personalities or specific~ situntions which would niot he Eamilialr

to subjects in the 1970's. Tlhe WorlIdmin ded ness Sc; e. how~ever, con ta7ins

items which refer to more gerneric situations which an audirience in 19)77

could r-elate to as easily as one in 1957 whe~n the s:ale was developed.

In addition, thre Sampson and Smitth (1957) scal~e attempts to measure a

broad range of dimensions related to worldmindednr4s. Mlany other scales

are limited to a narrower range of attitudle objects -- fo'r example, war,

communism, patriotism, or traide policy.

In scoring the Wonrldmindedness Scal.c, thef proc-edures outlined in

Shaw and Wrighit (L967, pp. 2031-204) were followed. However, sincp some

item responises were mission ai preliminary step was taken. Foir each

item a group mean was gefnerntte hnsed on the~ p~ilot sample oif Ill teachers.

In order to compute totanl anrd subsorilE series, these item means were

rounded to the nearest integer and substituted for the b~lanks on the

score cardsi. The Statistical Panckage for the Social Sciences (Nie, Hulll,

Jenkins, Steinbhrenner, and Bent, 1975, pp. 181-191) sublprogiram


"Ccndescriptive" was usedi to comp''te thle ite~m means.11~ The mliSSinlg dalta

problem was a very minor one in this case as only iR datn points were

missing out of a total of 4,192. Total sco~rrs werl- g~lernerate for each

subject by addring the value oIf thle item respo~nsess whichr rang~ed from 6

for strong agireement to 0 for strongly disag~rr eement

Discrimninant validation. The second step in e~stablishingi thle con-

struct validity was to state a hiypothesis about thr relationship hotweeni

scores on the FICAS suibscales of two grouips whose scores should be

different. It was assumed thaRt teachers who~ olectedl t attend sulmmcr

institutes on African studies would have morep positive attitudres toward

the use of A~frican content thann wouldl a crOSs section1 Of te nilerS.

Therefore, it was predicted that thle FTCAS suibscalr scores of thle

institute participants wou~ldi be siginificilntiv hi~iighe thn those of a

cross sec-tion (or- pilot) g~ro'up

After preliminary testing to determine the colrrelations between

the FICA\S subscales, the W'orldmindledness Scalle, anlll the FAKS, the in-

struments were administered to 49 tendhers aittendijn) sulmmer institutes on

African studies at either thle University of Illinois, Champaign, or the

University of South Florida, Tampa. Twenty-eight people toolk the thrEe-

test battery on Juine 20, 1977, in Tampa. ITwenty-o~nr took the FICAS and

FAKS in Champaiign on Jlune 9. These protests, given at thie beginning orf

the respective summer institutes, providledl Janl on the Africa attitude

scale to be used in the group differences construct validation procedures.

Bloth i ns ti tut es were s imi lar i n the ir gioaIs Eanch inistituIte sought

to increase teachers' subhstaintive knowledge of Africa aInd Africans, La

introduce teachers to new sorclres of information aboullt Africai, and to

assist teachers In develo~pingi cuirricuilum plans and teachinfi skills

appropriate to integrating: the studry of Africa in~to the~ public school

curriculum. The Champ~aign institute spolnsord hv thle University of

Illinois African Studies Pro-gram under a granlt from11 thl Naitionlal

Endowment for the Hiumanities lasted fouir weeks from Julne 6 to Jully 1,

1977. The Tampa institute~ wais sponsored jointly hv thle Departments of

International Studies and Afro-American Stuldies andii ther (`ntor folr

Economiic Educ~ation at the Uniiversity of Souith F~loridR andl the Center for

African Studies at thle University of Florida.. It lasted for two weeks

from June 20 to July 1, 1977. Each~ workshop Provi~ded participants with

a variety of resoulrces on Africa: Amongi the~se w~ere films, lecture/

diiscuss ions, meet ings w ith ~f ricans s i de-l ec tuIres, anid r~nd i ngs. Ln

addition, the participannts in each workshop were to~ pr-oduce cllrricllarr

materials which were to be implemented in thle schnotr~ veni 1977-78. At

the conclusion of each workshop the FTCAS andn FARS inst~ruments were re-

administered to allow the measuringj of change o~n thle two scales as a

result of workshop participation.

In testing the hypothlesis on giroupl diffcrences~ th~ FICAS subhscale

scores of thie pilot sample were comparerl to those of thie participants

in the two summer institute on African studieS. Attenldingi thle inStitulte

in Tampa were 28 teachers (.!6 fro~m Floridan, o~ne fro~m Lourrisiann. and o~ne

from Georg~in). Twenty-two wcre. white and six were ~lalck. NearlTy, halfl

the teachers, 12 of them, ha~s a combinedl middle schlroo-high srhan1l

background. Five more were exclusively high~ school treachers and four

were excl1us ivelIy middle school~ I/j un ior h1i gh ten;chers. only one teachers

had a comlbinedd middle schan1-elemeenntar backg~rround. Six other teachers

hiad taught at all levels. Mo~re than twice as many macnhers (10) had

taught from 6 to 10 years as had taught any other length of time. One


was in his first year of tealchingi: 5 had t-augh~t 2 ior i years: 5, ii or- 5

years; 3, 10 to 20 year-s; andi 2, 20 years or- molri. AsR hnrl been prediictpd

the majority o~f institute palrticipants were snr-ial studries teachers; 17

exclusively sor and seven more taught social studies and some other

subject. Two teacherss were art tenichers in the humultllliieS entagOry and

only one hiad experience ouitside of social studlies or humannities.e

Thre sample attending thle Champaign wo~rkshop consisted of 23 Nissandr

teachers. Of thiese, data exist on only 21. As oppoised to thle Tampa

group, the Mlissouiri group was predomirinately blacrk. 13~ to eight. This

group also contained a Ilrgepr percentage of elemecntary school teachers:

Four were exclusively sol andi one hald a middle~ srlhool-elementary backgjrolnrl.

Two were exclusively juinior h~igh/middll e school techrrs and six were

exclusively so, for high schant~. F~ivr hand n combinled mnichl10 shool-high

school background. Thle thlrre others had tilughtl at :Ill levelS. TIhe

Missourii teachers also tendred to be more expcriencdc~ thanir their souithern

counterports. Nine of the 21 hiadl 1-aught from 10 to~ 20 Yeairs; 'r, 2 or 3

years; 3. 4 or 5 years; 4, i) to 10 years; andN 1, more thanll 20 YeTrs.

'The Missouri group were for the most part also social studies teachers:

12 fit this description, five of whiom had hand experiernre in another area

as well. T~wo had taugfht only basic elementary Sub~jncts. Three had

taught elementary basic siubjects plus something rlse. TIhree were

humanities teachers and the Inst participant hadl experience ini an aren

outside of social stuidies or humanities.

Change over occannilsios Yet a thirdl methodl~ to- establhish constr-uct

validity is to experienltallya)\ manipulate conditions inl suich a waly that

a change in the construct undel~r studry would occur, thien measure that

change. In thiis study thle "experimental manipulantions"' were summer


institutes dlesignedl to increase teachers' knowledevi~ andl understalnding: of

Africa as wjell as to assist them in incorporlntin A1Frironn conltentt into

their own teachingi. If arttitude re flec ts ai pred isposi fitio to acit toward

an object in a positive or negative manner, then thp instituter experience

should improve the attitude by increasing teachers' desires to include

African content in their tec~ihingi. If the FTCAS Rlubscales couldl measure

the predicted significant rise in attituide preF to po~st as a result of

attending the summer instituites, then another confirmation of construct

validity would have been found. To this end the FICA~S was readministered

to the institute participants at the conclusion of the workshops so that

posttest scores could be comipar-ed to pr-etest senrrs in order to analyze

the ability to measure channge.


The Florida International Curriculum Assessmenlt Scnle~s (FICAS) were

validated using two other instrumments and two separate sam~ples of siub-

jects testedl on three different occasions. Staitistical estimates of

the relinh~ilities of these instruments and their sublsenles are presented

inl this chapter followed by a discussionn of thle sample distributions.

Final~y, results of tests of the experimental hypot-heses designedl to

establ~ish thle construct validity of the FICAS aIre Iceported..


In1 this study Crolnhachl's (1967) nip~hn, a memos~re `f inlternal con-

sistency, was used to estimate reliability. According to Crollnbach.

"alpha is . an estimate of thle correlation expected between two tests

drawn at random From a pool. of items lIke the items in this test" (p.

141). Alpha is the average of all the possible split-half coefficients

for a given test (p. 11~5). The formula uisedl to estimate alphan in this

study is a generalization of the Kuder-Richardson Fonrmu~la 20 (Veldman,

1967, p. 173).

Thle internal consistency coefficients for thle FA\K; andl FICAS are

displayed in Table 2. For F-AKS, only the total scaile score had an alphaR

of greater than .70 based on the pitat samplre ofT 111 subhjects. CoEffi-

cient alpha was .83 fo~r this group. Thlis speci~fler re]liabillty (L~ord &

Table1 2

Reliabilities and Standrdnr Erro~rs for the Florida~ Internation al
Curriculum A~ssessment Scales anid thei Floriian Afrienll
Knowledge Scnle basedl on the Pilot Sample (N = ~11)

No. of


Cofffircient Standalrd
A2 lpha Er rors


Cognitive Nationalistic

Cognitive International

Cognitive Either/or

Affective Nationalistic

Affective International

Affective Either/or

Cognitive Total

Affective Total

Nationalistic T`otal

International Total

Either/or Total

Total Scale

Physical Geography

History before European

History of Europenns
in Africa

Indigenous Society

Economic Development

Current Affairs

Total Scale






























Novick, 1968. Chapter 91 re~mainedl hiigh whcn the teci was adlministere~d to

the 49 subjects attending the summeifr instiltuts. Thei r pre tests y ie lded

an alpha of .77 and their posttests, .78. The FICAS hais hiigh reliabiity

as estimated by the alphan coefficients. Thei coeffricir ent alpha values of1

the 11 subscales ranged from .78 to .93 (sec Tablee 2). 'The internal

consistency estimaLes of thle NATTOT, INTTOT, and EORIKIT subscales were

.92, .87, andl .93 respectively. Slightly hlihelr coecfficients wre~r

observed as a result of administering these scales to the institltce

samples, ranging from .91 to .94 on the protest annd fr~m .92 to .94 on

the posttest.

A~n alpha of .85 was observed for thle to-tal WorldmI~nindednent ss Scale

based on the pilot sample. For- the 28 participants inl the Taimpa Inisti-

tute the coefficient of .83 was computed. As with thc FnkS, thle W'-Srale

subscale reliabilities were ton low for further annnivses Since thie

reliabilities of' the subscales were all below .7i (see Danvis, 1964,

P. 24; Tinkelman, 1971, p. 71; Fox, 1969, p1. 162), o~nly the tiota IJ-SIcale

and the total FAKS scores weire used in attempts to valida7te the FTCAS.

The results of this reliability study revealedl that eachi sub~scale on

the FTCAS was reliable enoughl to be subh jectedl to valIidiLy checks. How-

ever, because of lack of inidependlence between some ofT the 11 sub~scales,

some scales being composites of others, and high mullticaol ineairityl` among

some scales which were thleoreticlly indepenldent, Ionly three sublscales,

NATTOT, INTTOT, and EORTOT, were selected for thle investiGation of

construcrt validity.

Nlulticallinearity refers to hiigh correlations among independent variab~les
entered into mul~tiple regression (see Blalack, 1964; Gordon. 1968;
Kerlinger & Pedhaz.ur. 1973)


s~nm~pl Disfiltributioq

Because the hypotheses set forth in thiis studyv rlledl for the uise

of significance tests used withi the calcuSlatin of both Penrson r's andl

analyses of variance, thle distributions to be entered into each analysis

were checked for normality and homogeneity. Alth~oughl muchl literature

claims that the Pearso~n r (Carrol, 1961; Havliceb & IPeterson, 1977) and

analysis of variance F tests (Kirk, 19683; Linlquist, 1953; Pertson, 1931)

are robust with respect toi violations of the assumlptinns of no~rmality of

distributions and homo~geneity of unriance. except vlen sample size also

varies greatly in conjunctionn with discrcpancies in va'riance (Bonieau,

1971), some distributions in thlis study appeared to~ rep~resent extreme

violations of these assumptions. Thereforealll scresrr on the FI;CAS as

well as the W-Scale and FAKS total scores were norma,;lized befr~ie pro-

coeding with the parametric statistical tests of Ilypothe~ses.

TIests of Construct Validity

In the first phiase of construct validation thle three selected FICAZS

subscales were correlated with measures of attitude anld knowledge which

should have had some relationship to attitulde tOWarl inclu1Cding African

content in the curriculum. The tests of Hyprotheses Tiwor ad Thlrefe con-

stitute this phase of validantion. In the second phanse of construc~t

validation the differential validity was inlvrstigatedi to determine if

the scales could be used to distinguiish herween Groups'T w~ho should have

differed in attitude towardl Africa in the enrrrirenklm (Aee Hyponthesis

Foulr). Finally, the FICAS subhscales were tested to see if they could

be used to detect a channge In ~tltitude asH a re~sult of attendingf summer

institutes on African studlies aimed at increasing rincheir compnetency in

uising African content in clalssroomn teaching: (see lypo~theesis Five).

Hypothesis One

There will be no significant differences (p .2'1) amo~nF: the mean

scores of subljeCts in the pilot sample assiigned tor take threec different

forms of the Florida Internaitional Cuirriculuim Assessme~nt Scales.

Because the possibility ex~isted that thle rating: of the relevance

of African content might he affected b~y thle co~ntpxt within which the

rating occurred, three forms of thle FICAS were tested. On F'orm A respon-

dan7ts were asked to rate the relevance of studyir ing Eur-openn peoples andl

places in Raddition to rating the relevance of studyling: Africa~n peoples

and places. Form B included In~tin Amnerica along wit~h AFricai. On orm~n

C respondents were askerl to raite the relevancr of Afrriien conltent only.

Thirty-three subljects were assigned at randolm toi oneir of the thiree test

conditions. These subjects were the first 33 to rtpondt to the instrll-

ment from the pilot sample described inl Chapter Thr~ee

Because thle researcher expected thle null hypothesis -- M : X =

X2 = X3 -- to be confirmed, a liberal alpha level of .2!5 was chosen

increasing thle chances of a Type T error, and thus redulcing: the chances

of a Type IL error. The observed difference in meanis wa~s tested against

the expectation that it woulld occuri by chance~l at lest 25 times in 100

before the researcher would accept thle nlll hypothes~ris A o~newny analysis

of va~riance supported the nall h1Ypolhesis. T'he obseilrve F' ratio, .71,

indicated that the differences in mneais woulld occurl 50 limps in 100 by

chance aloner (p = .50)

~Table 3

Raw Meanrs andl Stancllrrl Datavitionsl
for- fypothesis One (N = 11)

Treatment M~ean Standard Deviation

Form A 145.45 33.16
Form B 144.00 35.58
Form C 128.72 78.50

H ~thsis Two

There will be a significant positive correlatiorn (p < .05) between

scores on the F~lorida Interna~tional Curricullum Assessnolnt Scales and

scores on the Wiorldlmindedness Scale.

11ypothlesis Two was tested uising th~e responsesi of thle pilot Rroup of

131 experienced K-12 teac~hrrs. This group consistled I a crossi-section

of teachers representing all1 grade levels andi sub jlact areas. Becausef

multicallinenrity can enuse problems of interpretation in multiple regres

sion analysis,2 the six indF~epdende subscales making uip the total FLCAS

were reduced to three composites. Because there were three subscales of

interest, multiple regression was uised to provide an o~verall significance

test of the relationship betweenl the three FICAS~ sub~cales and thle

criterion of worldmindedness. NATTOTr, INTTO3T,, and ORoTOT had a multiple

For a djSIiscussin o the problems of multicrl linenrity,. see Blalack.
1964; Dalrlingiton, 196;8; Carrdon,, 1968; Johnsosn, 1q72; Nie et al1., 1975.
Tlhe researcher opted to, crrnte compositesi rather than eliminate some of
the highly correlatedl subscales. COGEOII andl AFFFOR (rxy = .84) were
co~mbinedl to form EORTOT; COG:NAT and AF1FNATr (rxy = .8 4) wrre combined
to form NATTOTI; and COGINT andi AFFINT (r,, = .72) wrFIe combined to form

correlation, R, with thie total Worldlmindedlness Scaile oif .28 (withi

F3,127 = 3.47, tl < .05). Since thp overall F ratiio was significant, theI
indi vidtual Pearson-producle t moment correlit ions~ between the :T CAS subh-

scales and the Wi-Scale to~tal were examined to decterminle which ones

differed signiificantly from zero in the expected direcrtion. As hypothe-

sized, both, INTTOT and EORTO(T hand signi ficant posi tivc correlations withi

worldmindedness. Their corrections were .26 and .21 (p_ < .DS) respec-

tively. However, thef correlation between NATTO(T and the W-Scnle total

was not sigrnifieantly greater thann Zero. Conslequenrtly, for Hypothesis

Two there is some evidence nf construct validity for TNiTTOT Hnd EORTOT

but not for NATTAT.

Hypothesi~s Three

There will he a sifnificant positive correlation (p .05) hetween

scores on thec Florida Interinational Curricuilum Assessmeinnt Scales andi

scores on thle F~lorida African K~nowledge Scalr.

Hlypo~thesis Three was tested using the same pilot samnple of 131

teachers that was used to test Hypothesis Two. An R wais calculated

between NATTOT, INTTOT, and EORTOT on the one hand and the FAKS total

scale score on the other. T'he observed value was R = .2'3 (F = 2.17,
not significant). No significant relationship was found between thle

FICAS subscales anid the test of African knowledgeF.


Subjects who elect to palrtjicipate in a cuirriculumn w~orkshopi on Africa

will have a significantly higher mean senre (p < .05) o~n the Florida

RRaW M.eans nd Standard Deviations ofalll Simples anld Variables
Entered into the Anailyses o~f Hypothe1SSe inr thlroulGh F'ive



aInd llThree


Hypothe~ses T~wo

281.14 41.79
15.43 10.59


Pilot X
(n =131) Sx


h'1.36 92.91
20.05 22.54


Hypothesis Four

(n =131) 5

TampR Prpb r
(n =28) E

Lllinois Pre )
(n =21) E

Tampa P'reb X
(n =22) S

Tampa Postb x
(n =22) S

Illinois Pre X
(n =20) S

Illinois Post X
(n =20) S

ab~ssing values

Missing values
mean (n = 222).





51 .00
11. .54





Hypothesis Five

S36.16 51.05 i5.71
x16.61 12.60 21.69

S37.68 53.91 83:i.50]
15.49 11.06 16.66

S39.75 55.05 R2.9)0
13.51 8.26 16.16

S38.65 55.35 84.65
16l.30 h.07 12.L3

were supplied based on pilot jiroup mieans (n


131) .

sulpplied honsed on pilot and inlStitultE giroups grand

International Curriculum ARSsessment Scales th31n ai riomlpurti o group OF a

cross section of teachers.

The next step in establishing the constrruct vilidityv of the F'ICA\S

was to demonstrate that a significant dirfcferece existedd between the mean

scores of two or more groupsn whio theorceically shoullld hav1e differed on

the scale. TIhe two groups selectedl in this study wecre (a) the pilot

group and (b) the combined institute giroupS. TrhE pilot grollp was a croSS

section of teachers whio happened to be available for ttesting. Thecy wtere

assembled to take coursrwork whiich in no wayv was related to internationniil

education or cross-cultulral studies. The IillilsboroughI Coulnty suibsample

was composed of social studiies teac~hers who were selected hernllse their

availability was unrelated to internatioionu ediiention issues. On thec

other hand, the institute samples were composed of tow;lhers whlo were

self-selected to participate in summer insatuttes o~n Afriian studiies.

They could be presumed to have a mo~re posjtivl nt itlde to~ward teachingi

about Africa than the cross section of teachers in the~ ptilnt group.

Th~erefore, if a significant dlifference- in mean scores between these two

groups could be detected by) the FTCAS sublscales, 'lhen terce won~d be some

evidence for the validity of these attitude mealsurles.. Because the two

institute samples came from diffe~rent areas of the conirtry, they were

treated as separate groups in the analysis. AZ discrimlinant analysis was

performed with the three relevant FICAS subsentell s b~einX uIsed to diS-

criminate between the pilot~ groulp and thie two inlstitulte groups. A post

hoc orthogonal planned comparison (Kirk. 1968, pp. h9-78) wa~s used to

test whether the means of the institute giroups lirffered From each other

and whether their combined means differedi from thef pilot groupl mean.

With three groups, only twoi (k 1) orthiogonail pallanned comparisonss were

possible (Kirk. L968, p. 72). However, withi thpse two, complarisons the

researcher was able to chtniin all thle infoirmationn nee~ded to test

Hypothesis Four. The comparisonr s ulsed can he symbli; 1:. l in thiis wany

(Kirk, 1968, pp. 69-70):

i1 = X2 X3


The first of the two compar-isons testedl whether aIny significant di~ffer-

ences existedi between the inlstitulte groups on thp r-elevant FICAS sulbscales.

The second comparison tested whether thle pilot giroupl rrain was siginificantl y~

different from the average institute g~roupi mean.

Wheni NATTOT. INTTOT, anrd EORHTOT were entered inrto a direct dlis-

criminantn analysis one significant discriminant furnctirion was produced.

The standardized discrimiinantt function coeficiients for this function

were .76 for LN1TTT, .28 for NArTTO)T, andl .09 for- 0I~nTlrl.

After determining that these thlree suibscales do discriminate betweenPI

the three groups in th~e analysis, post hoc analyqiis of variance employing

planned comparisons was usedl with each variable sepairately to test first

if there was a significant difference betwpen ther means of thet institute

groups and second if there was a significant difference between the mean

of the pilot group and thle combined institrlte groups. Thel overall F

ratio for each variable was siginificant at belo~w the .05, rriterion alpha

Icvel. In addlitio~n, on nio vairiable were th~e means of thle institutee

groups found to be significantly di fferent. However, o~n echct variable

the mean of the pilot group was found to bre signiftcantly flower than thie

average of the two Institute groups means. Hyp~othesRis Four confirmed

that INTTIOT, NATTOT, and I:ORT`OT cachl measlredl the~ expected differences

between the piilot group and the instituted C1roIPs. Ytt the~ two institute

groups, each of which consisted of educators seflf-selecteed to participated

in an African studies program, did not differ froim achcl other-.

~tepotess Five

The. mean posttest score of a giroupl of teachers riinrlled in ann Afr-ienn

studies center summer inlstitulte will be signlificantly (p .05) higher

than their mean score onl a pretest of thle Floridal International Cuirriculumm

Assessment Scales.

Hypothesis Five was designed to see if ther ne~w attitudelF scales could

detect attitude change as a result of summer inst i tute partic~ipAtion.

A multivnriate analysis of variance rep~eated measures IIesignI controlling

for site was developed to test if a changije in attitude1 couldll be measuredt

by the instrument. This anailysis was followed hv post Iir split-plot

analysis of variance withi unequall nI (Kirk, 1968. pip. 2761-279).

When all three vnriables wrer entered into a muiltivariate analysis

of variance an F approximation of thie Pillat-Bartlctt trace statistic

was not significant at the .05 alphan level (see ol son. 1976). Conse-

quently, it must be concluded that the tlree subs~fcales did not distin-

guish between pre and ponsttest scores of inlstitulte pairticipants.

Thefrefore, [Iypothesis Five was not supported.i


Int reduction

Two su~bscales of thle Floridn International Cur~riculunm Assessment

Sales have been shown to possess su~fficient reliability and validity to

be employed in further researchI andl evaluation studies. Bothi TNTTOT and

EORTOT demonstrated the Predicted relationship to wa,~rllminll~dredss and

distinguishied successfully between~ the pilot andi institute groups.

NATTOT has served a usefull purpose in this va3lidantion study buit aIppears

to be of no further use in measuring tEa1Cher'S attitudelS tolWard uIsing

international content, Aflriinan or otherwise. In thiis c-haptrer the

psychometric quality of the FICASS is disculssed,. Srlfiestions for fulrthefr

research and applications ar-e also presented.

Reliab-ility Comlparisonss

Before focusing on th~e FTCAZS, the reliability daita observed for the

Floridla African Knowledge Srale and the W~orldmnindedr~ness Snl~e will be

compared to thiat reported elsewhere in thie literature. Foir thle pilot

sample of 131 subjects nn alpha of .83 w~as observedl for thre FA
subjects attendling the suimmler institutes vieldled anr alp~ha of .77 for the

prerest and .78 for the poisttest. These figuires compared favorably with

the reliabilities reportedly by Boyer and 114cks (1968X. p. 22). 'They used

an odld-even split-half techiniquie to compute a1 cocff icintit of .60 for

their seventh grade sample and .80 for their twel Eth g:rade samnple.

However, reliability is a fuinction of test length anld the Beyer andl

Hicks instrument was twice ns Long as the on~e refjinal in the current

study. Later Beyer and Hlicks (.1970) used their own 48-item revision

of the or-ig-inal inst rumen t i n a s tudy wh i h p rod ucedr Kcller-R Kichardson

reliabilities of .73 for the protest and .88 fo~r the posttest.t

As a1 by-pro~duct of vAlidating the FICAS, the 10-i'cm FAKS has been

produced. Its reliabilities are comparable to,, if not sulper~rir. to on::pr

versions of African knowledge tests producedl by earllier stuidies. The

content validity of the FAK~S was assured hy submittinG the itemis poten-

tially to be included in ther instrument to a panell of IT~ Africanists

associated with the Center Ear African Studies atC the Unriversity of

Florida. Items which were danted, poorly wourledl, hiasell, or otherwise

vulnerable were deleted from thle item annalysis aInd cross validation whlich

produced the finial 30-itcnm scalee.

For the W~orldminidedlness Scale, the reclinlhility- enefficie~nts obsiervedl

in this study were slightly lower than those reported b~y Sampson and

Smith (1957). They reportedly both split-hllnl and test-retest reliabilittes

to be .93. For the pilot saimple in this studiiy ain nlphni of .85 was ob-

served. For the 28 participaints in the Tamnril Tnsti~ltut thle coefficient

of .83 was computed. The eight four-item sublscnles on the Wr-Scale hadl

relatively low reliabilities among the pilot sample ranriingi from a .31

for thle "Education" suibscale to .62 for thr "Patriotisrn" sublscale.

Discusionjos ofT FICAS Validity


Among the 11 subscales of FICAS with potential fo~r use inl measuring

teacher attitudes toward including Africanr content in thle curriculum,

only INTTOT and EORTOT emerge as reliable, valid. and independent men-

sures. N"INTTT consis ts o~f IT entrrii curlr orjer t lives requiiri ni i nterna tional

content to achieve (i.e., "Sutudents should decvelop a sense of helongingf

to a world community" and "Students should ulnderstanld dliffrernt ways of

life o-n dlifferent contingents"). Teacher's INTT~lOT crores co~rrelated .26

with their Worldmindedness totAl scale scor-es. Thiis enrrclation was not

only sta~itistilly significant buit of an necepltablle magnitulde in spite

of its mlalest size. The W-Scale wais designed t, mrasurel nationailistil:-

internationalistie attituldes. Through it was theorrized thant teacherles wiho

were positively disposedl to uisinig internatiornal rcontenit (sp~ecifielivll

Af rican con tent) in thei r t each ing woulld hF hIighelr -i n wo rldmini dctnrss

than those not so disposAEd, a highl correlation beftween INrTTOT and the

W-Scale would not be expected because the two scales~ wre~ intendecd to

measure dliffEerent construct-s. A\ general worldmindeldness is dlistinct from

an inclination to uise international content in one's traching.

Althiough no relationship b~etween TNTTOTrn scores and FAK;S to~tal scalle

scores was observed for the pilot group, there is prl-cedencrce for suchi a

finding. Shrigiley (1974) found n low correlation between knlowledge of

science andi attitude townrd srcience among pr-rserviice tceachers. 110

questio-ned the existence o~f a positive relatlionshiip beftween thle two

constructs. Perhanps the culrrrllnt researcehr was expcting. too much to

expect a positive rel~latonshilp to exist betwrsrn knowlrledge of Africa anrd


attitude toward African contentll in thle cur-rienlum.r n Anolthler possibility

also exis~ts. TIhere may' be .1 nonlinearr relationships bet~ween~ knoledge1L: of

Africa anid attitude to~ward African contrnt. Th is Ioss ibil ity wi ll he

taken up later when fuirther- research is dliscused.

Of the tested subtstales, INTTOT'I had the~ highest standardized dis-

crimiinant fulnction coefficient on the function dliscriminati ngi between a

cross section of teachers ilnd a grouIP whiChl w~s sel--lf-slcted to attend

African studies summer institutes. Theorrticallv teaichIEIS who( Would

choose to attend a summer inlstitulte inl African studlies should be more

inclined to use African conltent to achitne international obljectives thann

a more general population of teachers. INTTOT' clearly measures this

expected difference.

That INTTOT failed to measure a pre-past lifferencel~ inl attitude

among summer instituted part~iripants might be explained in neverni wiys;.

It is quiite possible that no, change occurired in the alttitudef measulred by

this scale. Strength is added to this explalnalti On1 b the PrevIous

finding that institute tachclers are relatively h~irgher in their INT'TOT

scores compared to the pilot sample thani they are o~n thle other twio scalles

being tested. Their initial higih scores may have left Little room for

additional change. in addition, the phenomenon of r-rgrission toward the

mean could have plnyed al major role in FINIT~OT's nout mea:surina a changer

in attitudde. It is also possible that INTTUI'T failed to detect a change

in attitude thlat didl occuir amongrn thle inst~itute techellrs. Ilowreverr

INTTOT's power in detecting a difference bet~weeni institutep techellrs anid

a cross section of teachiers makes the explanation of no real change mo-re

p~lausible than that of an unldetetedl real change.


The EORTOT subsente consists of 22 obilortives whiich can he devel~lopd

with either nationalistic or international content, oir both (i..e.,

"Students should understand the balance of rnature," "Studtents should

know about the role of government," or "Stuldent s should accept chiangef

as a natural feature of the human condition"). Siichi obeCtivesS are not

specifically international in scope, as are INTTOT(,'s, but one would

suspect that a worldmindjed teacher would be mo~re inlrlinled to use inter-

national content to develop either/or objectives th~n u~nal~l n teacher

with a more othlnocentric viewpoint. Consequently, o~ne would expect to

find EORT~OT scores to be positively related to thoRe noi thle W-Snent but

not qulite as strongly as INfTOr'ss scores. Sulch wals in factL the case as

the correlation between EORTOT and thle WJ-Scale equa.lld .21 (p < .05).

Althougfh no significant re~lationship was found bectwee~n EO(RT10f and the

FAIKS total scores, furithcr r-esearch maiy show this findingF to resullt froml

a nonlinear relationship, existing between the two' (.nnstruCtS.

EORTOT also distincluishledl between the piilot cross sortion sample

and the institute samp~le. however, because of i ts h i[gh enrrelation with

TNTTOT (r = .72), it adds little information wheln TNITTOT is; also entered

into a dliscriminanti analysis. Conse~quently, its discriminant fuinction~

coefficient is rather 10w when compared to 1NTTOT. Nonellcthelss,. when

used separately in its ow~n right, EORTOT'1 is anl rffective dlicriminnator

between pilot andr institute grollps.

The EO~RTT scale was expectedl to menaur-e the t;tlitudel l variableL mosnt

amenable to change as a result of attending sulmmer institute, A

teachers learned more about Africa aInr developed culrriculair applici~ations

for African content, it was expected that they would see more and more

uses for- Afri can content aImong thle ei ther/or object~i vs Because of :1

nonsiginificant multivalrintc F ratio, the researchers r dlirl rit examine ther

univariate (ratios for NAT10~lT, INTfTO'T,; ll and EORTOT fo ir thle pulrpose~s of

drawing statistical conclusions. However, it should be noted that in

spite of thep mulltivaridte F'Is being nonsiginificant, EoRTOI'sR univnriate

I' was significant (p < .0)5). Suich a result, which con neculr when several

weak dependent variables; are included inl a mat~tivnr-iat anarlysis (see

Uack, 1975, p. 155), suggetss that the issue of EnrKTOT~'s ability y to

detect pre-post differences as a result of summer institute attendance

is still unresolved. TIhough1 thiis stu~dy has not beelln ble to establish

the abi~lityr of EORTOT to detect a pre-post differececc neither has Lt

Inid to rest the possibility of EORTOT's ability to~ do so,.


NATTOT has served a ulseful purpose in thle vail id~t ion process by

being distinct from INTT0T alnd E01RTOT'1. Ilowever, it no~s not appear to

be a valid measurer of teacher inclination to use internationally co~ntent.

This result was expected. NAT'ITOT consisted of 13 c~urricular objectives

which required American content to achieve (i.e., "Studeints should be

proud of our national accomplishments" and "Student-~s should have a

knowledge of social change inl America"). Although somr individuals who

like to teach fromr a comiarattve perspective might~ filnd international

content relevant to achievingR natiornalistic objectives, it was not ex-

pected that a cross section of American school tealrlchern nr teven the

institute participan-ts, wouldl perceive Afriro; n Icontent to b~e relevant

for teaching to national tstic objiectives.

NATTOT scores proved to, have no significant relationship to IJ-Scale

scores. A correlation of .04 was observed!. Neither did NATTOnT sco~res

shrow the predicted relationship to FAKS scores. A-2 p<.5 a

observed where a positive relationship was hlypothlesized.l It appears that

as teachers knew more about Africa they were less EnclinedI to ulse this

knowledge to achieve nationalistic object i ves. Tholrse fi ndings fulrthrc

reinforce the conclusion that NATTOTr) 7 is indeedl measulrinc a traiit distinctt

from that meAsuredl by INTTnT and EO(RTrOT.

White it is true thiat NATTOT was useful in distinguiishing between

pilot and institute groups, its complete resistancr La rhangei as a result

of in1stitutE treatment has added weight to thc argulmenlt that it is d~is-

tinct from TNTTOT and EOnRTOcT and useless as la ensure ofi teacher attitude

toward thle use of Africain !rnntent. Among thec tortal Inumber of institute

participants there was virtually no changefi in NATrl` laf il mean sors pre-post.

In fact, amonga the Illilnois institute sublsample threnr wais a no~nsignifi-

cant decline in Group meanr. Thlis palttcrn of findli ings leads to thle coni-

clusion that NATrTOT is not nI use~ul subscale to meaisure teacher attitudes

toward includling African content in the curriculum.

However, NATTOT has yinyedl a uiseful role in thle vallidatio~n process

precisely because it hacs shorwnn up as distinct from TNTTOTT andl EORTO)T,

One precaution that mo~st Likert-type attitude scanles take to correct for

response set is to word one half of the items negati~~rvel and one half

positively. The negative items are theni refletctd in scoring:. However,

since FTCAS items consist ofT curricular o~jectives it wasB not possible

to word one half of them nrCuntively. COnISequently,~ it wais realssuringl to

find that the nationalistic i tems scattered througfhoutt tbo FTCAS were

responded to differently by the subjects. Ro~th subscalles, NATITOTL and

INTTOT,~ hiad a potential rannge of zero to 65. Among thl pilot groulp the

raw mean for NAT'TOT wals 28. 1 while thle raw mnean for INTITO'T was 43.8.

This difference w~as significant at thle .001 nipha~ lo~Vrl. 1hlis finding

lends support to the argument thlat FICAS and its subhscales were measuiring

muich more than response set.

Mlultip~le Asp~ects of Unidimenlsionall Scales

Thee hlih murlticallincari ty foindl betwe n several sets of FICAS suib-

scales has confirmed the uinderlyingi structure of It ti tude toward African

content in the curriculum.1 In1 alnalyZinfi the open-ienderle qlestionnnares

during thle early stages of the test develop~ment, the~ re~searchefr depterminll~r

that the two major undlerlyingf cimensionss of thie aItetitrile undefr considerni-

tion were the relationshiip ofl Africann content- to ronin Live ob~jectives on

the one hlandl and to affective objectives on the( mother (see Tab;lelt 1).

Consequently, bot, conjintive and affective objectives w ere includedc oni

thle FTCAS under each of the three entejio~riie: nationa~listic, interna-

tional., and either/or. TIhe intercorrel.ations amony: the vertonsi cournttive

andi affective sulbscales indicates that they belong togthier on their

respective scales. Tnb le 5 displays these cog:ni tive-n ffectivr initer-

correlations which show tha:t on the two Risubseale ofE host validity,

INTTOT and EORTOTr, the cogn~itive-af~fctive compone~ts haln .72 and .84

correlations respectively.

fablel 5

In terrr c~torrltos of Coign t ivr ind
Alffctive Subscales Iin FICTAS

Cognitive A2ffective SubhsI.ales

CoGNATI 0.83
CoGINT 0.72

Adeq~uacy of INTTOT and~1 EORTOT as AttitudIre caley~

INTTOT and EORTOTr have been shown to possess highl reliahtility and

various degrees of validfity. Buit how do thecy mpasuire up whtEn checrked

argainlst theoretical criterin for evainat~inga goold atltitudelt inst rumecnts?

Gardner (1975) has cri tiqued~ recent research inl :Ittitllli measurementn

pa'rticularly in the area of at tituides to~ward sc icns.r 11 points out

three major defects whiichi he has found andl thant sholdtll he avoidIEd:

(1) scales which lack any discernible uinderlyingf
theoretical c~onstruct;; (2) scales in whichl va~riouss
thieoretical constructs are confouindedl tloge~ther, i.e.,
scales which attempt to reduce multi-dimen~ nsikunil1
attribu~tes to sinlerJ scores; (3) experimnta~rli trc:t-
ments in which ~lthre is little dliscernible relationi-
ship between the experimental treatment applied and
the scale used to measures its oultcomles.. (p. 101)

Both INTTOT` and EORTOT have unlderlyingi thenretien1 constructs. INTTOTl's

items as judge~d by aI panel ofT eight social stuidies and cllrriculumr pro-

fes~sors at the University of Flor-ida relate to teachiit~: ngaout foreign

peoples and places; thley are international content curricullar objectives.

The LatnSI of hIypothesesP coupled( With thet finding thatI iNT'lO1T's mean scrre~

wals s ign tfica~n tly di f lfeen t from NA F`TOT's anld thart the~ I NTTOT()~ NATTOT1

intercorrelaition is: low (r = .35) confirms thant INrnnT is indeed mEasulr-

ing teachers' perceptions oif the relevance of using: African contpn t n

achieve international curricular objectives.

EORTOT's items were jldyedl by the smle eiight-member panel to be

cuirricular objectives specifically requirina neither national. nor inter-

national content but amenable to usingf either or haoth. Figuire- 3 shows

that th~e pattern of intercorrelations amongi NATTOTT EO)RTOT,, andl NTTOTI

reinforced by the raw mean differences between sub~senies, supplorts thec

theoreticnl basis ulnd~r~lying the subscales. NA~TTOT and INTTOrT which

reflect very different subhjectt matter domains arc shownl to be far apart

by both a Inw correlat ion (r .35) andl 1 lInrre rau i tem mieani di fference

of 1.20. EORTOT which reflects a suibject matter doma~in thalt is somewhere

between NTAT'TOT and INIT(~al SinceF it Shollld theonreticallly represent a

combination of the two, is lolndd to fall. between the~ NATTnT and TNTTOT

extremes on two COunits, correlation coeFfiCients andl rnlw itemI meanl dil-

ferences. INTTOTI, EORTOT, and NATT~OT doi thenr a1pponr to represent

distinct uinderlyingf theoretirnl constructs.



Raw item means: 2.17 2.1 .37

H~ean dilffrences: 20.?

Fi gure

Correlation andr Item Hefan Diffe~rence P'Atterns

Begiinning this validat ion study by examininfi all siz independent

subhscales, thet researclerr hans met Cnrdlner's second crite~ricn thant various

Lbearetical constructs not h~e confounded. Where mullticallinearity sup-

ported theoretical expectations as in thle case of coGnlitivee and affectivec

subscales, scales were combined to include all aSp)ectS of a single

unidimnens ional construlct. In this process NTJ~TOT, I NTTOT, and~ EORTIIT

emerged as scales measuringr separate attributes. As a consequence no

attempt has been made to analyze the FICArS total sco~res. Indeed, thle

FICAS total score, rep~resenting a combinations of NAiTTOT,. INfTTOT, and

EORTOT, is mlultidimensionall anrd as suchi is difficult to interpret. Con-

sequently, INTTOT andi EORTOT() are heing reco~nmmended as separate uinidimien-

sional scales to be used in fuTthler research and e~valuaion.n

The response to Ganrdlner's thiirdl criterion vni les fo~r IN'TTOT1 and

EORTOT in terms of the current study. Clearly IN1TOT is not suiited to

be used as a measure of thef effects of institutes treatments where the

selE-selected particip~ants .Ire already highr on thip scall. Thie case is

not closed on EORTOT. Theonretically EORTOT should be :Imenable to change

as a result of institute treatment. It contains objectives for which

teachers have probably not thou~htt of using inlternational conitent until

they engagfed in an intensive experience to increase their knowledge of

foreign areas and to help th~em write curriculumi projects to incorporate

international content. There would seemn to be a dliscernable relationship

between the institute treatment and the EORTOT,1 subsca~le. it remains to

be shown, however, that EORfoT does indee etl rc~t the texpcrtedl change in

attitude. Gardlner's criteriai for de~veloping I:ood attitudelF 8rcles appear

to have been met by the INTTOl)T and EORnTOT sanles.

Further Researchi

New Test of EOR~TOT's Validity

The first order of business will be to test E0(RTOf's Abil~ity to

discriminate pre-post attitude changes as a result of institute partici-

pation. LL wais necessary for thiis studyv to use a multlivarintr F: test ini

order to simultaneously evaluate thre ability of echi~l ii thle thiree scales

of interest to detect thle experctd changej in tende~lr aittitudte. Tlhe three

scales in combination dil Inot detect a change;; howuever, EnRTOT1 by itself

did. Yet thls latter resullt must be viewedl with sispi ien beenuII se of

the nonsignificant multivariate I' test. TIhei currently stuldy hans eliminated

NATTOT and INTITOT from cons Ede-ration to detect. pre-post8 diff~erenres.

However, it is necessary to test EORTOT, using a ulnivnrinte F Lest. on a1

new institute sample indecpendent of thant used in thiis studyl. If a test

based on a large enough sample is: condu~cted, a nonsi~iicnifcnt result

would indicate that EnRTOT, dloesi not dlistingulis h prec-postt changes. A

Positive result would confi rm expectations thant it does dertect real

channges when they occur.

P~ossibility of aNon-Linea Re~lationship Bc` t weenr ~INETTOTI~ anld FAZKS

The failure to findl a sig~nificant linear relationship between the

otherwise valid FICAS sulbscales. INTTOT anid EORTOT. andl kn~owlrede of

Africa raises questions about the nature ofi thle relationship between

knowledge of Africa and inclination, to Iise At ricaln content in tecnhing.

A nonlinear relationship may exist (see Figulre 4) h~etwteen the two

attributrs. It is quite possible that the teacher w~ithi a little bit of

knowledge might be less inclinedl to use Africani co~ntentl than thle teAchefr


who knows virtually nothing. 'This phenenolnoln cou11 ll occur bo(rnullSe thle

little bit ofI knowledge a typical tahrmgtnqiewudpoal

come froml Tarzan movies, Idi A2min news repor-ts, or fromn mythological

relics of the colonial era. Such sources of information aIre hardly

likely to, inspire a teacher's uising: African coltlent for iurricuilar pir--

poses. However, as knowledge of Africa increasesR in both breandthl and1

depthi so that teacher s can uinderstand ACr-iro;n soictietie as mankingy a c~n-

tribution to human understaindingi, these teach~rrs wourldl he more and more

inclined to use African content. A preliminaryv Ilok at the danta in this

study lenids support to this theory with respecct to IN'TTOT. For thle pilot

sample whose knowledgec level was signi fienntly Iower thann thle institute

pre sample, there was observed a negative correltion h~etween INTTOT and

FAZKS. For the institute prl Iroulp there was a1 mo<1oral;~ te pcs itIi ve relat ion-

ship. For the institute post giroup whose know~ledG- level wa~s significantly

higher thian the institutep pre sample, an7 even strongei~r positive reJlatjin-

shiip between [NTTOT and FAKhS was ob~ser-ved. A studei~ is neededl to ader-

quately test the possibility of a nonlinear relationship beftween knowledge

of Africai and teachers' inclinatio ns to uise Afrien:n conltent to accomplish

international objectives.

Attitutde Toward

Kniowledige of Africa

Figuire 4

ilypothiesized Relatlionship Between Knlowledgee of Aifrica
and Attituide Toward African Content

Validity Studiies for O~the(r international Areas

In another line of research the Florida Internatnnaln Cir-riculuim

Assessment Scales need to be validated for- international co~ntent areas

other than Africa. The items on the scales, clnrril cullar- objectives,

should be as appropriate for measuringi teacher attitude~ toward teaching

about other areas of thle world as they hanve bee~n sho~wn to be for

measuiring teacher attitulde toward African co~ntent. Sincer n~one of thle

items needs to be changed, thre FTCAS ontly needs to hanve two wolrds chaniged

in its inistructions (Appenldtx C) to alter it to test teacher attituide

toward Latin American, Euiropean, or Asian content. More generic terms

such as non-Western. foreiign, or non-Amertenln could~ also b~e tested.

Although this study focusedt on validating, thc Afrienin content because of

thre availability of data from two African studies summer institutes for

teachers, there is every rcasorn to suspect thatL thle in~strument would hie

useful for other international co~ntent areas -- henirce thle worrd

"International" in its title.

Namological N'etwork

Additional validlity studriies shoulrl be carrird outl to relate scores

on TNTTOT and EORTOT to other constructs and to tecicher performance.

According to Cronbach and Mleebt (1967), to bre scientifical? ly missile

a construct miist occuir in a nomological not, at Irngt same of whose l~aws

involve observables. They define a nomnological network as an interlocking:

system of lInws which constitute a theory (p. 25'7). Thc laiws in a namo-

logical net may involve thlree types of relationshlips. First, observable

properties may be related to each othcr; se~ond,, thefolraticn] construlct s


many be related to abservablels; and third, different thieoreticall con-

structs may be relatedl to one another (P. 255). Ihis studyl hans beguln

the thiirdl part by demonstrating a molerate re~lationshipl of ther constructs

measured by INTTOT and EORTOT to tha~t menusred by thle worldminldedness


Yet more needs to be donne in this thirdl area to more completely

describe the relationshiip between the construlcts measuredl by INTTnT and

EORTOT andr other constructs. One potential fruitfuil rcintions~hip to

investiqate would be that between attitude tolward inclunding international

content and bElief systems as defined by 0..J. Ha~rvry (196,7; )Irvey, Hunt,

& Schiroder, 1961). He hias dlescribed fouir systems of helief alonfi a

concreteness-abstr actness co`ntinuium. One would~ expect~ to, findl a positive

relationship between thle ablstrnetness withi which n techejlr thinks andi

willingness to use interinatiirina content. nelief systems have beeni

related to attitude changes (Hanrvey, 19617), parent chibi relations

(Harvey & Felknor, 1970), classrooms atmnospherte andl stlndent performance

(Hlarvey, P'rather, Wihite, & linffmofister, 1968), anrd alongi withi sub~jert

matter and sex of teacher to students' Igrade achievement and student

perception of teachers (Ilarvey. Wells, Schimidt, & IGrimnm, 19171). Con-

sequently, if a relationships between attitulde towardt international content

and belief systems can be shown, a big step in deve~loping thle nomologient

net around the new construct will have been taken.

Anoither potentially reproductive area o~f research fo~r expandling, the

nomological network around thle construlct m~easured by~ INTTOTr and EORTUT)' 1

would be to investigate thec relationship between level of teacher cogni-

tive moral development (Kohlbherg, 1964, 1969, 1970, 1971) and attitude

toward uising International content. Erb (1976,) has arguled that

international or cross-rlltltral studlies are ess.ntinI for arbievingi the

higher levels of moral dleve~lopmenit. However, it re-mainis to be demon-

strated that n1 positive reintionshhip does in fact exYis It betwoo n atitude~

toward international conlten~t and higher levels of oran~l development.

Cronibachi and Mleebil's (1967) second category for the laws in a

nomologiical net is the relationshi p between thleoreticall conistruct s andr

observables. T'o further vnltd;ate thle INTT1OT and I-[,inO suibsentes one

would have to observe the classroom tecA~hing of those who achieve dliT-

ffrent levels on the two scalles to see if dlifferncel~s in thie uise of

international content did exist. Althougfh atltitudr is an incinaation to,

behave in a certain way and not a b~ehavior ini its ownl rightI (Finlhbein.

1967, p. 2h0; Shaw & Wrifiht, 19)67, p,. 6; Trhurstonr,, 19~7, p. 78), niti-

tudes must predict behaviors to make them wo~rth worrying about.. Suich

variab les as the t ime teachers spendl on int-erna tirnal:~ topi cs the variety

of ways they introduce international content, nr then numbehcr of timnes

they necept stulen~t initiatives to introduced inlter-national ideras inlto

lessons are some of the teacher behnviors which mighlt he~ looked at and

related to scores on EORTOTr and 1NTTOT.


Basic Research

There are two General aIreas in which thr FTICAS col~lld be put to goodl

use. One aren is in haiste researchICI into' atjtitude frma~n~tionl. As: thel

nomoloaical net is built upy nroundl atituide toward 'Ising international

content. in the curriculum, it will be possible to test hypotheses about

whiat vlriablels contribute to, the formation of this atltitude. A causal

model coiid be developed andi testedl by path1 analysiR (Blalack, 1964,

1971; Eleise, 1969, 1975; Wrifiht, 1921, 1934). Both11 mr.sures of enn-

struicts and observable roaid be enteredl intor analysis. nnckgroulnd

variables such as previous exposure to internationally situations such as

foreign~ travel or meeting foreign visitor- s or~ formal study Ruch as course

work or study abroad mnight form one cluister of variablel s relatedl to,

attitude formation. Personality factors mirght forl ancother cluster of

traits which could be shown to have a h~earingi on aIttitudes toward usinn

international content. Environmental factors suich as school r~lmate,

type of community, or aspirartions of students might contribute yet a

third set o~f factors affect ing teachers' attituldes toward international

content. The possiibilitie appear endless for invisticating th~e factors

related to the formationi of thle attitudes meansurred hv INT~cT;T ad EORTOTr.

Evalua tion andi Teac~hiri

The instruments developed by thiis study, IN'rraf,r FnRTOUT, andl FKS

total score, could be used in evaluation stuldies. PendijnJ further

validation studies on EORTOT', that scale could be uised to, evaluate the

results of teacher inservice programs. Intenlsive institutes and year-

long progcramns could be candidates Ear evnaluatio usinlg EORTOTI. If the

teacher participants waere no~t self-selected so that- their init tal INT10T'l

scores were very hjigh, INTTOIT might also, be ulsed tn evalluate suchl

iniservice efforts.

TNTTOT and EORTOT could be used in preservice teacher educational to

measure where teacher candicl3Les were in their thinkil6nh abot interlnationall

content in the curriculum. INTTOT and E()RTIOTI used with preservice

teachers might be employed rjther in more baisic rpeserch or evaluation

of efforts to make teacher randidates miore inclinedl to use international

content .

Finally ENTITOT and E~ORTOT might be Iised ini lonju~nctio n withi cur-

ricululm research. Efforts to modify cuirricula often necessitate changless

in instruction as well, AnI effort to inter~natiolnnalive thp culrricululm in

a given school~ district could he supported by5 knorwledgye of where the

teachers stood in their attituldes toward includlingl international content

in the curriculum. These inistruiment s could be uised in teaching as we~l

as research devices in an effort to changef curriculla. The obljectives

which make up the items o~f FICAS could he used to Fcensiitiz techerlfs to

thle applications of international content to bo~th inte~rnatiional and

either/or objectives. or to~ natiolnalistic obrjectives on a enmpal~rative

basis. However, using thle scales for teachingr precluldes their uise with

the same group of teachers for research purproses.


In this study two attitude scales and a kniowlj ge scale were

developed that can he used to further research andi evaluation in the

area of international cuirricuilum and instruction. Vallidated for lf rican

content, INTTIOT and EORTOTr stand ready for vailidationl and application in

a wide range of international studies arena. These scales have potentint

for basic research into the formation of attitudels arnd the co~nsequences

of certain attituldes. liey can serve n uiseful pulrpose in cvaluaitio~n,

measuring change as a result of inlservice o~r preslervice treatmennt. ia

thley could he used for teachiing devices by having: teachers focus on thle

individual items (i.e., curricular objectives) inl n effort to develop

strategies for using international content for achiieving the objectives.


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Attached is a list of 5/4 cognitive anil 36 effective objectives

which could be selected in rlevelopingi a social stud~ies ciirrjicultun. Some

objectives focus on A~merica and can beSt, pe~rhaps only, be pulrsuled usingC

content derived from the Ameirican experience. Other objecttives are more

international, or global, or jiaterculturalnl in focusR so, that thery coulld

only be achievedl by using conitent whiich is deprived fromr outeir cultures,

nations, and peoples. A third set of objecttvesR aIre harder to- classify

as to their American or internationally fol'us. That:1 is they could be

achieved by usingR American conntent or international contentn o~r a com-

hination of bo~th.

After reading each obljective, plel nso mrk thef ent-gKory into which

youi think it should be placed.

-- If an objective would~ require mainly Amerlean cntent~~ o c~hieve

place a check in Columnln I.

-- If an objective wouldc require internlatiional ot- global content to

achieve, place a chEck in Coluimn Ll.

-- If an objective dores not specificallly requiire other American or

international content but conuldl be developed d withi either or both,

place' a check in Column Ill.



Co I umn

I If flI StudeFnts shou~rld

X L. ulnderstand thle U.S. Consiit it I tion

X 2. hanve a ktnow~ledge of Chtincs! dynasties

X 3. know the role of natuirnl rresources in



I II ZII Studrents shoulld.

6 2 1. halve a knowledge. of unrl<11 history

6 2 2. comprehernd the CI1lf b~l~etwee rich\ and poor

8 3. understand thle consumer'-s role~ in the
American economy

8 4. understand social conf iit

8 5. comprehend Lhe role ofT Inhaor in produlction

6 2 6. nodterstaind difCferent wayvs or li fe on
li ffere~nt c~ont inents

7 1 7. have a kno~wledge of social chnane in America

7 1 8. comprehend the p~roiness IF nging in oulr so~ciety

8 9. understand the cau~ses aIndl Iffects of
hLstorical events

7 I 10. know about the imlpact of technology on
modern life in America

7 1 1.1. haJve a knowledlge of thec relationship betw~ieen
environmental and wasv of ma~king, a Ilving round
thlE world

7 2 1.2. understand the reintionship between coloniid-
ism and nationalism

8 13. Hiave a knowledgei of social interaction

8 14t. know about ~the role of rrovcrnment



IIf III Studelnts should.

6 2 15. hanve a knowl'`thi~r of woiilrld Gl'ongrPhyY

8 16. have a chlrounlog~iral I~nnwledger of major
Americaln historical events

7 1 17. hanve a knowledge OE thec structurer of American
gove rnoen t

5 3 18. have a knowledge' of d ifferent cul tures

7 1 1.9. comprehend the principlesi of American

1 7 20. understand~ the princriplels of coo~peration
among people

7 1. 21. know the locattion of t he world's major

6 2 22. understand thle Americ:,i economic systemr

1 7 23. understand intrtaction amnngi variousf social

1 1 6 24. understand urba~nizatio~n

6 2 25. haive a knowlEd!: e ofI vaiirous American ethnic

2 6 26. understand thle rnuses of wair

5 37 27. comprehend dirffrent systems of government

5 3 28. comiprehend the pinranlistic nature of Ame~rican

8 29. kniow the major produicts of the student's
home state

33 3a a30. comprehend~ Ameri can forei rn polio cy

6 2 31. ulnderstmulr l d iff erent~ Iitterns o f family
orga~nization arolndd thle wotrldl

3a 4; 3n 3:2. comprehendl Ameri c~a 's ris to a po~sition o F
world power

3 8 33. rnmp~rehen crult rlr l cli ffus irtn

1 7 34. unlderstand thle e~xch-angF nf goods and

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