PARENT PARTICIPATION IN THE SCHOOL SYSTEM:
ITS RELATIONSHIP TO PARENT SELF-CONCEPTS
AND INTERNAL-EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL
PAUL HAMILTON FULLER, IV
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE
OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
It is with sincere appreciation and thanks that I
recognize the following people for their significant con-
tribution to my personal and professional growth during my
doctoral program and their vital assistance toward the com-
pletion of this study:
Dr. Phillip A. Clark, Associate Professor of
Educational Administration, Director of
the Center for Community Education
Dr. James I. Wattenbarger, Professor of
Educational Administration, Director of
the Institute of Higher Education
Dr. Robert 0. Stripling, Professor of Counselor
Dr. Michael L. Hanes, Associate Professor of
General Teacher Education
Dr. William Ware, Professor of Foundations in
Dr. Skip Little, Associate Director of the
Center for Community Education
Jo Ann Salter, Linda Moore, and Mary Harrington,
my typists and friends
Many Friends, Fellow Students and Colleagues of
the University of Florida
I would also like to give grateful thanks to God for
inspiration, strength, love, joy, and faithfulness.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . ii
ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . v
I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . .. 1
The Prob] m . . . . . . . .
Delimitations and Limitations . . . ... 5
Definition of Terms . . .... . . 7
II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . . . . . .. 9
Child cSel -Concepts, Locus
of Control, and Achievement . . . . 9
Parent Self-Concepts/Locus of Control,
and Child Self-Concepts/Locus of Control . .13
Parent Education and Parent Participation . .17
Conclusions . . . ... . . . 30
III. METHODOLOGY . . . ... . . . . . 32
The Sampl e .. . . . . . . . . 32
Data Collection . . . . . . . . 33
Instrumentation . . . . . . . . 34
Data Treatment . . . . . . . . 36
IV. RESULTS .. . . . . . . . 43
V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . .. 64
Summary of the Study . . . . . . . 64
Conclusions . . . . . . . . . 66
Recommendat ions .... . . . . . . . 67
A. DEPAKTIIEiT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION,
AND WELFARE, OFFICE OF EDUCATION MEMORANDUM 71
B. HOW I SIE MYSELF SCALE . . . . . . 74
C. REPORT ON THE REFACTORING OF THE HISH ... .77
D. SOCIAL REACTION INVENTORY . . . . . 80
E. S.R.I. SCORING INSTRUCTIONS . . . . 84
F. PAC ME.FETTNC/ACTIVITY SIGN-IN SHEET . . .. .85
G. PARENT EDUCATOR WEEKLY REPORT . . . .. .86
H. CLASSROOM VOLUNTEER REPORT FORM . . . .. .87
REFERENCES . . . .... . . . . ... 88
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .. .......... . . 96
Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
PARENT PARTICIPATION IN THE SCHOOL SYSTEM: ITS RELATIONSHIP
TO PARENT SELF-CONCEPTS AND INTERNAL-EXTERNAL
LOCUS OF CONTROL
Paul Hamilton Fuller, IV
Chairman: Phillip A. Clark
Major Department: Educational Administration
Literature of educational research supports the existence
of significant relationships among parent self-concepts/
locus of control, child self-concepts/locus of control, and
child achievement. If parent participation in the school
system could be related to parent self-concepts and locus
of control, it would be of interest and significance in the
development and enhancement of the overall educational
and achievement process of that system. It was the purpose
of this study to determine the nature of the relationship
between selected parent participation activities in the
Florida model of Project Follow-Through and parent self-con-
cepts and locus of control.
Persons chosen to participate in this study were those
selected by Project Follow-Through staff and classified as
lower socio-economic members according to Office of Economic
Opportunity Income Poverty Guidelines. Conclusions and
generalizations were therefore restricted to this socio-
Parents exhibited positive measures concerning inter-
personal adequacy, teacher-school relationships, and personal
appearance, and negatives attitudes concerning personal com-
petence on the How I See Myself (HISM) self-concept scale
prior to project participation. These same parents exhibited
an internal measure, or a positively perceived degree of con-
trol over one's destiny, on the locus of control instrument.
Social Reaction Inventory (SRI).
Of the four selected parent involvement activities,
project participation was most frequent in the basic project
element of the home visitation and successively less frequent
in the other project activities of classroom volunteering,
Parent Advisory Committee meetings, and Parent Advisory
Committee activities. Measurements of project participation
were limited to measurements of frequency.
The multi-variate analysis of canonical correlation
failed to provide predictors of project participation from
pretest attitudinal factors.
Posttest attitudinal change indicated less positive
responses in the HISM factors of interpersonal adequacy,
personal appearance, and teacher-school, and a more positive
response to the HISM factor of personal competence. Also,
post-SRI scores indicated that participants increased in their
degree of internality. This pre-post change was significant
only for the competence factor of the HISM scale and the
SRI measure of locus of control.
Canonical correlation analyses were again used to
investigate the relationships between the independent variable
set of pretest attitudinal and project participation measures
with a dependent variable set of posttest attitudinal scores.
A strong variability associated with the pretest experience
was indicated, and additional correlations supported the
premise that the participation variables accounted for some
of the posttest attudinal variance. The home visitation
activity was consistently associated with this variance,
and it is the conclusion of this study that parent partici-
pation in the home visitation process, and in this project,
was directly related to positive change in parent self-
concepts and locus of control.
The growing concern and mandate of state and local
school districts for the increased participation of citizens
in advisory, decision-making, and programmatic activities
is, in part, the outgrowth of a national concern and desire
to make the overall educational endeavor more relevant and
effective. Professional educators and laypersons at all
levels of the educational system are striving to meet the
changing needs and desires of its student clientele.
Colleges and universities are encouraged to have citizen
input and involvement in program development and administra-
tion. Technical, vocational, and secondary schools utilize
to an increasing degree resources within their service
communities to train, advise, and regulate programs and
activities. Elementary schools have become aware of the
necessity, and potential, of increased parent participation
in regular and compensatory instructional activities.
Federal and state governments have also encouraged increased
parent participation through such legislation and programs
as the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 (Title II), the
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1966 (Title I),
the federally funded project Follow-Through vocational/
technical programs, and state regulations such as the Florida
mandate of 1973 for the establishment of advisory committees
for school boards (Breivogel and Greenwood, 1973). It is
the specific intention of this study to identify and
examine selected elements of parent participation within
the early childhood educational milieu.
Three historical trends are largely responsible
for the recent urgent reactivation of interest
and realization of the importance of involving
parents in early child care programs. Accumu-
lative research data have given impetus to a
growing awareness of the basic and critical
nature of parent involvement for producing healthy
happy, and active child-learners, regardless of
whether those learners are yet in some sort of
more formal child care or schooling system, or in
the primary care of parent and parent surrogates.
1) The first historical stream feeding the
present rushing tide to involve parents stems
from the undisputed failure of almost all inter-
vention programs without such involvement to
sustain the often considerable cognitive gains
demonstrated during the child's participation in
such a program.
2) A second source of data consists in ob-
served cultural and familial differences in
3) The third factor is accumulating positive
evidence of the effectiveness of parent involve-
ment in young children's education in influencing
academic motivation. (Ilonig, 1975, pp. 9-14)
There is little doubt in contemporary thought that
parent and family involvement is, and should become, more
pervasive in child development programs and early education
(Lillie, 1975). Research efforts, such as the work of Gray,
Klaus, Miller, and Forrester (1970), Karnes (1972), and
Levenstein (1970) point out that educational efforts in
day care centers, nurseries, Head Start Centers, and public
schools should be augmented with training programs for the
parents of those children involved. Deutsch (1964) feels
that appropriately organized cognitive stimulation during
the early years can be highly effective in accelerating
the development of intellectual functions. A summary of
the 1976 Gordon and Guinagh longitudinal study indicates
that there are clear, lasting school achievement and per-
formance effects for children who were in the parent education
program with their parents. Several investigations (Casler,
1965; Rheingold, 1961; Sayegh and Dennis, 1965; White,
Castle and Held, 1964) have demonstrated the feasibility of
positively altering early development through introducing
stimulation programs for infants.
Working with the child is therefore not enough. What
is needed is a coordinated effort to identify the ecological
variables of the family and community which need to be
changed for the child's good,as well as for that of the
family and community, and to try to change them. "The
devastating effects of the environment cannot be changed
until the environment itself is changed" (Palmer, 1976, p. 3).
Studies such as Brookover, Thomas, and Fatterson (1964);
Combs (1964); Fink (1962); Shaw and Alves (1963); Shaw,
Edson, and Bell (1960); Wattenburg and Clifford (1966) and
others (to be further discussed later in this study) clearly
indicate that child achievement is significantly related
to child self-concept and locus of control. Additionally,
research by Combs and Spoer (1963), Rogers (1958), Battle
and Rotter (1963), Crandall, Katkovsky, and Crandall (1965)
and many more indicatesthat child self-concepts and locus
of control are significantly related to those same measures
in parents and "significant others."
It would, therefore, be extremely important to identify
specific activities and experiences which could be signif-
icantly related to positive changes in parent self-concept
and locus of control, and thereby, related to child self-
concept, locus of control, and ultimately, child achieve-
The purpose of this study is to determine the nature
of the relationship between selected types of lower socio-
economic parent participation in school activities and
parent self-concepts and internal-external locus of control.
This study will specifically address the following questions:
1. What is the nature of the measured self-
concept and locus of control of lower socio-
economic parents prior to their participation
in this study?
2. Do lower socio-economic parents exhibit nega-
tive measures on each of four factors of a
3. Do lower socio-economic parents exhibit an
external measure on a locus of control scale?
What is the nature of parent participation in
the following four selected activities:
1) Policy Advisory Committee Meetings,
2) Policy Advisory Committee Activities,
3) Classroom Volunteering, and 4) Home
5. Will parent participation be most frequent
in the basic program element of Home Visits
and become successively less frequent in
Parent Advisory Committee Activities, Parent
Advisory Committee Meetings, and least frequent
in Classroom Volunteering?
6. What factors of parent self-concept and
measure of internal-external locus of con-
trol can individually and in combination pre-
dict the type and/or frequency of parent
participation in the four selected participa-
7. What is the nature of the pre/post change in
measures of self-concept and locus of control
after participation in this study?
8. What is the nature of the relationship between
the four selected parent participation activities
and pre/post change in measures of self-
concept and locus of control?
Delimitations and Limitations
The following delimitations are basic to this investi-
1. The primary source of data for this study
will be the recorded participation of an
estimated sample (n) of 180 parents in
Richmond, Virginia, newly enrolled in the
Florida Model of Project Follow-Through.
2. Parent participation measures will be selected
from programmed activities of the Florida
Model of Project Follow-Through.
3. Self-concept and internal-external locus of
control measures are self-reported and
administered by local (Richmond) project
4. The How I See Myself (HISM) Scale is assumed
to measure parent self-concepts, and the Social
Reaction Inventory (SRI) is assumed to measure
parent internal-external locus of control.
5. Persons chosen to participate in this study
are those selected by Project Follow-Through
staff and classified as lower socio-economic
members according to Office of Economic
Opportunity (OE0) Income Poverty Guidelines
(See Appendix A).
The following limitations are recognized:
1. The self report nature of the HISM and SRI
may not accurately reflect the real behavior
and beliefs of the participating parents.
Reactive and testing threats to validity may
2. Data collection is the responsibility of
the Richmond project personnel with the
Florida Model Sponsor providing consultative
and evaluative services.
3. Data will be collected from persons in the
state of Virginia. Therefore, generalizations
may be restricted to similar socio-economic
members in the Richmond school district and
in other school districts with a comparable
Definition of Terms
Policy Advisory Committee (FAC). An organization of Follow-
Through parents authorized to take a cooperative role in
program decision-making. Representatives of other groups
and the Follow-Through staff may, with PAC approval,
participate. The PAC elects its own officers, makes its
own meeting plans, has its own funds, plans how to use
these funds, organizes its own activities, and makes its own
Policy Advisory Committee Meetings and Activities. PAC
meetings will be defined as those planning, budgeting, and
decision-making sessions authorized and conducted by the
PAC. All other sponsored activities will be distinguished
as PAC Activities.
Home Visitation. Two adults, usually mothers from low-
income backgrounds, are trained to work in the classroom
with the teacher is a team. These adults, called "parent
educators," also visit the homes of the children in the
classroom weekly in order to teach an enrichment type
learning activity called a "task" to the child's mother,
who later teaches it to the child.
Classroom Volunteering. Parents are encouraged to partici-
pate in the classroom as parent volunteers by the parent
educator during home visits, as well as by the PAC, the
classroom teacher, and other program personnel. Whenever
possible, parent volunteers are involved in the actual
classroom instructional process. Teachers, parent educators,
and parent volunteers each take their turn at the clerical,
housekeeping, and other non-instructional activities which
must occur within the classroom.
Self-concept. "Those perceptions, beliefs, feelings, at-
titudes, and values which the individual views as describing
himself" (Perkins, 1958, p. 221). A more detailed descrip-
tion of this measure will be given in the Instrumentation
section oF this study.
Internal-External Locus of Control. Locus of control
refers to the disposition to perceive one's reinforcements
as consequences of one's own behavior or as due to extrinsic
factors; those who believe that they exercise some control
over their destinies are considered to be internally con-
trolled. Externals believe that their reinforcements are
controlled by luck, chance, fate, or powerful others
rI:VTiH OF THE LITERATURE
The major Iopic under investigation in this study is
parent participation in the school system and its relation-
ship to parent self-concepts and locus of control measures.
This relationship becomes a significant link in the educa-
tional process when associated with two previously researched
relationships in this process: 1) child self concepts/
locus of control, and child achievement, and 2) parent
self-concepts/locus of control, child self-concepts/locus
This review will cite related research which documents
these two significant relationships and then describe parent
participation/parent education programs, characteristics,
goals and activities.
Child Sclf-Concepts, Locus of Control, and Achievement
Academic achievement in the educational process is the
subject of much research and in the opinion of most is the
complex product of many variables. Sex, race, and socio-
economic status among other characteristics of the student
clientele as well as parental-environmental influence,
teachers, school, and the curriculum are integrally involved
in determining the rate and extent of academic achievement.
One of the subsets of this very complex system of deter-
mining factors is that of the self-concept and locus of
control. Research has suggested the importance of the role
of the self-concept, and the closely related concept of
locus of control, with achievement in all areas of life.
Piaget and Inhelder (1965) called the earliest self an
"undifferentiated absolute" where there are no boundaries;
neither between one's body and other objects nor between
reality and fantasy. "The self is more than a possession,
it is the center of the individual's universe of experience
and is the criteria against which the world is measured"
(Purkey, 1967, p. 4). The self-concept, then, moves with
experience to bring greater definition to this earliest
"undifferentiated absolute." It becomes a "hypothetical
construct devised to explain the continuing effect of past
experience on present behavior" (Llabre, 1977, p. 1) and
includes "those perceptions, beliefs, feelings, attitudes,
and values which the individual views as describing himself"
(Perkins, 1958, p. 221). As an attitude, the self-concept
involves three components: cognitive, affective, and
behavioral (Gocdman, 1972) and is considered an important
factor both in guiding a person's immediate behavior and
in the later development of his personality (Combs and
As postulated by Arthur Combs and Spoer (1963), Carl
Rogers (1958), Purkey (1967), and others, the self has
numerous properties, some of which are these:
The self develops out of the ijvididual's
interaction and communication with his
environment; it is a social product.
The individual's perceptions of himself and
his environment will determine his behavior.
SThe individual's continuous struggle to
maintain and enhance the perceived self is
the basic motive for all behavior; thus,
people are always motivated.
The self strives for consistency and
behaves in ways which are consistent
with itself; self-concepts are followed in
a compulsive manner.
SLearnini, is more rapid if it is perceived
by the learner as related to positive
aspects of self.
The self determines what is perceived and the
closer the experience to self, the greater
its eflf ct.
The self can be changed through school
Understanding these properties of the self it becomes
clear, then, why the self-concept is so significantly
related to academic achievement and is confirmed in research
studies by Allport (1936), Davidson and Lang (1960), Gough
(1955), and Hartshore and May (1930). Research by
Wattenburg and Clifford in 1966 clearly indicates that
measures of self-concept and ratings of ego-strength made
at the beginningp of kindergarten are more predictive of
reading achievement two-and-one-half years later than are
measures of intelligence. This study indicates that
self attitucdes stand in a causal relationship to later
achievement and this effect is long-lasting. Shaw, Edson,
and Bell (1960) found that male achievers feel relatively
more positive about themselves than do male underachievers.
Fink (1962) concluded that there is a significant relation-
ship between self-concept and academic underachievement, and
that this relationship appears stronger in boys than in
girls. Shaw and Alves (1963) confirmed Shaw's 1960 study
and added that male underachievers were less accepting of
self and attributed a similar lack of self-acceptance to
their peers. There also appeared a difference in the
general perceptual mode between males and females. Combs
in 1964 contrasted underachievers and achievers and found
that they "saw themselves as: less adequate and less ac-
ceptable to others; saw peers and adults as less acceptable;
showed less effective approach to problems, and less freedom
and adequacy of emotional expression" (p. 48). Brookover,
Thomas, and Patterson (1964) found a significant and positive
correlation between self-concept and performance in the
academic role, specific self-concepts of ability related
to specific academic areas, and, finally, that the self-concept
was significantly and positively correlated with perceived
evaluation of Lhe student by other significant people.
Additionally, Bilker (1970), Lefcourt and Ladwig (1965),
and Battle (1962) found that Negroes were significantly
more external in their control expectancies than Caucasians,
and that this degree of externality was related to academic
Research clearly indicates that self-concept is a
major factor in the academic achievement of the child.
Further, it is theoretically clear that the self-concept of
the child is related to those of his mother and father,
teacher, and significant others. Research confirms this
Parent Self-Concepts/Locus of Control, and Child
Scl -Concepts/Locus of Control
During the early developmental years a child is com-
pletely dependent upon the love and care of those responsible
for him. The nature of this love and care has an over-
whelming influence on the way the infant sees himself and
the world (Purkey, 1967). If the experiences with important
people in his life are good, then the child can begin to
grow and develop to his fullest potential. Love is facilitated,
and intelligence is increased by exposure to an enriched
and varied perceptual environment. Loretan (1966) felt
that any of the early years spent in a poor environment
are almost irretrievable. For good or bad, the child is
molded by the behavior of the significant people in his
Sigel (1964) stated that one of the reasons why child-
ren from disadvantaged homes have difficulty in kindergarten
and first grade is that they have not had appropriate stimu-
lation during the early years. Lewis (1963) stresses the
significance of the first three years of life in the future
cognitive development of the child, and states that the
process of the growth of meaning during the second year of
life is a complex interaction of cognitive and affective
factors. "Any behavior of significant people that causes
a young child to think ill of himself, to feel inadequate,
incapable, unworthy, unwanted, unloved, unable is crippling
to the self" (Purkey, 1967, p. 7). Significantly, Grant
(1967) found that the transmission of self-concept is largely
a one-way process from adults to children.
Moss arid Kagan (1964) reporting on the Fels Research
Institute Longitudinal Study which followed 36 males and 35
females from birth to adulthood found that maternal treatment
from birth to three years of age was generally a better pre-
dictor of child and adult intellectual status than was maternal
treatment of the child during subsequent periods of life.
This was based upon Stanford Binet testing, observations,
and interviews. Less, Shipman, Brophy, arid Baer (1968) found
that parent conveyance of positive attitudes toward educa-
tion and school and realistic expectations for the child's
behavior were significant predictors of the child's performance.
Bradshaw (1968) looked at several factors of maternal behavior
and infant performance in environmentally disadvantaged homes.
Such factors as maternal verbalizations, maternal punish-
ment and discipline, infant performances on speech and
hearing, family density, intelligence, housing, paternal/
maternal relationships, and nutrition were analyzed. Results
indicated a cause/effect relationship but were not precise
or specific. Other investigations in the area of intel-
lectual stimulation of infants from environmentally deprived
situations have demonstrated gains for the experimental
groups on measures of intellectual functioning associated
with increased levels of stimulation (Klaus and Gray, 1965;
Kittrell, 1968; Gordon, 1969). Deutsch (1964), Rheingold
(1961), Sayegh and Dennis (1965), Casler (1965), and White,
Castle and Held (1964) have each studied the possibility of
positively changing early development through stimulation
programs. However, the nature of the experiences which
initiate adaptation and stimulation is not fully understood.
Weschler (1971) hypothesized that one way to improve
the self-acceptance of an underachieving child might be to
improve the mother's attitude toward the child. Mothers of
underachievers underwent group counseling, and later testing
indicated that boys achieved an increased self-acceptance
and a sustained academic improvement. Achievement was
measured by the C'ilifornia Test of Mental Maturity, while
self-concept was measured by five sorts of the Catherall-
Reece, Ipsative, True-Ideal, Q-sort Upper Elementary Test.
Underachieving bovs whose mothers did not undergo counseling
did not improve on either measure.
Another important variable demonstrated by Bayley
and Schaeffer (1960) and Samuels (1969) indicate that many
personality and behavioral traits of the mother tend to be
functions of the mother's socio-economic class. Those
studies indicate that socio-economic status is a factor in
the transmission of self-concept from mother to child.
Battle and Rotter (1963) found that low socio-economic class
(determined by lather's or mother's occupation) was
related to a feeling of powerlessness externalityy). Dean
(1961) reports similar findings. Franklin (1963), Crandall
et al. (1965) and Strodtbeck (1958) found that the lower
the socio-economic class of an individual, the more likely
he will be external. The importance of this relationship
to the transmission of self-concept variables is presented
in a study by Phares (1965). Phares indicates that internally
oriented people are able to induce significantly greater
changes in the expressed attitudes of others than externally
controlled ones. This may indicate that internals have more
influence in changing the child's self-concept than externals.
Exterrals would then tend to breed externals and be less
effective in bringing about any positive change in the
child's locus of control.
Goff (1919), Ausubel (1953), and Kvaraceus (1965)
state that the position of the American Negro leads to nega-
tive self-perceptions, and Coleman (1966) emphasized the
importance of the Negro's perceptions of inability to control
his own environment. Additional studies by Rotter and as-
sociates show a hi gh correlation between internal control
and r ffil ia tin ,ind initiative in improving the conditions
of school performance (Gore and Rotter, 1963; Rotter, 1966).
Friejo, Gordon, and Bilker (1968) investigated control
expectancy in the Early Child Stimulation Through Parent
Education project and found a significant difference
between Negro and white mothers. White mothers had
significantly lower (more internal) scores on the Social
Reaction Inventory, and the same group of mothers in-
vestigated by Friejo et al. were found to be low on the
Autonomy factor of the How I See Myself Scale (HISM).
There was also a low but significant correlation between
the Interpersonal Adequacy factor of the HISM and the Social
Reaction Inventory (SRI).
Finally, a study at the University of Florida took
self-concept measures from 323 Florida Model Follow Through
kindergarten and first grade children and their mothers at
the beginning and end of the 1968-69 school year. The
mothers and children were compared with a variety of
statistical teclhniques, and the author concluded: 1) mother's
self-concept measures (HISM and SRI) are related to children's
self-concept measures (Child's Self-Social Constructs Test),
and 2) mother's self-concept measures are related to change
in children's solf-concept measures over the course of the
year (Tocco, 1970).
Parent education and Parent Participation
The integration of parent education and parent partici-
pation programs into the mainstream of the American educa-
tional system has been a long, slowly developing process.
European educator-philosophers such as Pestalozzi (1965)
and Froebel (1907) emerged as leaders in the parent involve-
ment process and were commonly associated with such American
educators as Dewey and the Progressive Education movement
in the early 1900's. The child-study movement, the PTA,
parent cooperative nursery schools and the community school
movement each chlaracteristicaliy contained elements designed
to generate increased parent participation in the educational
process. In addition, the country's social system increas-
ingly demanded the active participation of schools in the
democratization of the society for all of its members. This
national desire has continued to the present and often
centers its energy in the form of compensatory programs.
Compensatory programs were initially designed to "remedy"
"deficient" child groups of lower socio-economic members.
But educators who began to work with the children of the
socially disadvantaged soon realized that there were problems
associated with the value systems of the parents, the at-
titudes of parents associated with these values, and the
value systems of schools and the success of the children
within these value systems (Karnes and Zehrback, 1975).
Deutsch (1963) suggests a number of characteristics normally
found in the milieu of the environmentally disadvantaged.
These include overcrowding, sub-standard housing, lack of
sanitary facilities, restriction to the immediate environ-
ment, few toys and creative materials, and reduced verbal
communication. In addition to these demographic or struc-
turai variables as Gordon (1976) would call them, there are
the attitudinal and process home variables which also play
an important role in the child-development process. These
would include areas such as educational aspirations for
the child, parental self-concepts and locus of control,
academic guidance, intellectuality, dominance patterns,
stimulation, and reinforcement practices.
An educational system which attempts to remedy inef-
fective development in the child-learning triad of parents,
child, and the program without parental involvement is
destined to only marginal success (Lillie, 1975). Schein-
field (1969) proposes that
parents cannot construe a child's relationship
to the world in ways that are fundamentally
different from the way they construe their own
relationship to the world. Therefore, to change
child-rearing practices effectively, one must
change the parent's own experience in the world.
The required changes in child-rearing would
necessitate significant shifts in family cultures,
particularly a shift from a family environment in
which the chief concerns of child-rearing center
on external control or avoidance of trouble, to
one in which the internal experience of the
child and the development of competence become
pivotal family concerns. If parents are to foster
competence in their children, then it would seem
imperative that the parents experience "competence-
gaining-activity" in their own lives. (pp. 2-3)
IF the parent does not perceive these "competence-gaining-
activities" as having been gained through valid experience,
then Scheinfield suggests that there is relatively little
chance for substantial change.
Involvement of parents with the process of their
children's learning in ways consistent with a given compen-
satory program is advantageous in several ways. First,
such involvement often bridges a continuity gap which may
exist between home and school. The use of parental-applied
techniques can encourage the practice of important cog-
nitive skills lacking in many disadvantaged children.
Third, the indirect effects of parental self-worth and
respect engendered by a meaningful contribution to their
children's develoDment may go a long way toward improving
affectional relationships in the home (Evans, 1975). As
Weikart and Lambie (1968) suggest, the most fruitful out-
comes of compensatory programs could be in terms of changes
in parental behavior and the total home environment of dis-
In an effort to rectify the cultural disadvantages of
an increasingly large number of children, the federal
government began a series of compensatory programs in the
early 1960's. Chief among these programs was Operation
Head Start, initiated on a national scale in the summer of
]965. This "concrete deployment of resources to wage the
war on poverty" was mainly concerned with early childhood
education but included many other facets (Evans, 1975, p.
64). Project Head Start was conceived as a seven-component,
multidisciplinary enterprise including education, medical-
dental care, nutrition, social services, psychological
service, parent education, and the involvement of community
volunteers (Evans, 1975). Head Start goals included among
helping the emotional and social development
of the child by encouraging self-confidence,
spontaneity, curiosity, and self-discipline.
-increasing the child's capacity to relate
positively to family members and others while
at the same time strengthening the family's
ability to relate positively to the child and
-developing in the child and his family a re-
sponsible attitude toward society, and fostering
constructive opportunities for society to work
together with the poor' in solving their problems.
-increasing the sense of dignity and self worth
within the child and his family. (p. 12)
In addition, Head Start served to illuminate the general
question of how to achieve changes in local institutions
utilizing a nationwide educational innovation as the inter-
vention strategy (National Survey of the Impacts of [lead
Start Centers on Community Institutions, 1970).
Some well known figures in the social and behavioral
sciences contend that there is no evidence that the goals
of early compensatory education have been accomplished
(Palmer, 1976). Bronfenbrenner, in his U.S. Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare report of 1974, states that
early results indicate that the effects were short-lived,
modest achievement gains, with substantial overlap in the
distributions for experimental and control groups. Experi-
mental groups did not continue to make gains when the inter-
vention was discontinued for one year. But, this evidence
of failure is with respect to cognitive change (IQ).
Bronfenbrenner stated that "there is evidence that such
programs are contributing in important ways to the develop-
ment and welfare of the child and his family, community
and society" (p. 52). Bronfenbrenner also felt that the
evidence for social change as well as cognitive performance
was inconclusive, but the review finds that "the magnitude
of 10 gain was inversely related to the age at which the
child entered the program, the greatest gains being made
by children enrolled as one and two year olds" (p. 53).
Bronfenbrenner's Head Start Survey also found that, in
terms of parent participation, the greater the frequency of
participation in Head Start programs, the greater the change
process. In the communities surveyed there was a notable
increase in the participation of parents in the activities
of, and decisions concerning, local institutions. One
manifestation of change was the increase in the numbers of
volunteers helping with school-sponsored activities.
Another is the greater use of school facilities after class
hours for all types of community meetings, adult-education
classes, and service programs. In many communities it
was noted that the schools had begun to encourage greater
involvement by low-income parents, changing policies and
regulations to permit this. A majority of the school sys-
tems surveyed had been influenced by the activities of
neighborhood or parent organizations seeking involvement in
or control over school affairs. In many communities parent
advisory committees had been formed by grass-roots organi-
zations. These were both permanently established organiza-
tions and groups established for a special purpose.
The results of this 1974 survey cannot be construed
as solely derivative of operation Head Start. They reflect
to a great extent the influence of subsequent Federal pro-
jects developed throughout the late 1960's and early 1970's.
Day Care, Parent-Child Centers, and the Florida
Parent Education Program
Federal Interagency Day Care Guidelines of 1968
reflect the growing mandate for parental involvement. They
required specifically that:
ParenLs must have the opportunity to become
involved themselves in the making of
decisions concerning the nature and operation
of the div care facility.
P parents must be provided with opportunities
at times convenient to them to work with the
program and whenever possible to observe their
children in the day care facility.
SWhenever an agency provides day care for 40 or
more children, there must be a Policy Advisory
Committee with a set percentage of parents
selected by the parents themselves. (pp. 10-11)
In the fall of 1966 a White House Task Force on Early
Childhood Education was convened at the request of
President Lyndon B. Johnson (Costello, 1970). This group
was made up of acknowledged experts in the field of early
childhood education drawn from across the country and had
the assignment of reviewing the field and making recommenda-
tions. In February 1967, as a direct result of recommenda-
tions made by the White House Task Force, the President
delivered a special message to Congress on Children and Youth.
He requested the development of 25 comprehensive services
programs for families with children under three years of
age to be called the Parent and Child Centers (PCC's).
The Parent-Child Centers Program was established within
Head Start in the Office of Economic Opportunity and
directed by three members of the Washington Head Start Staff.
The budget provided a $10,000 planning grant and a grant
of $175,000 for first year operations for each center,
to serve a maximum of 100 children under three years, and
their families. The following criteria, as listed by
Costello in her 1970 national survey,were required of all
1. Outreach recruitment and admissions procedures
which would guarantee that selected families
were economically disadvantaged.
7. Comprehensive health care for children, health
care and health education for parents and
siblings, family planning services, and pre-
3. Children's programs designed to facilitate
physical, intellectual, and emotional develop-
4. Parent activities designed to strengthen:
(a) Understanding of child development,
(b) Competence as family managers,
(c) Skills essential to making a living,
including maximum opportunities for
(d) Self-confidence and self-image as parents,
(e) Family relationships, i.e. husband-wife,
(f) Role of the father within the family.
5. Social services for the entire family.
Programs designed to increase family participation
in the neighborhood and the community in terms of:
(a) Becoming knowledgeable about its resources and
taking advantage of available opportunities,
(b) Stimulating the family to become participating,
responsible, and active members of the community.
7. Training program for both professionals and para-
professionals, which must include the recruitment
and training of neighborhood recruits and volunteers
of many age groups to work alongside the profes-
8. A Frogram of research and evaluation developed in
cooperation with an appropriate institution such
as a University or a Clinic and designed to
describe and measure the progress of the
programs for children, parents and other
family members; as well as program contents
and costs. It was also to produce packaged
instructional materials and handbooks on how
to operate the program. (It was expected that
each center's research and evaluation program
would be related to a comprehensive research
and evaluation subcommittee organized by OEO,
the Children's Bureau, Public Health Service,
and the O[fice of Education of the Department
of Health, Education and Welfare. (pp. 53-54)
As this clearly indicates,the Federal government was
getting more and more in the business of parent education
and the Washington commitment did not stop with the Head
Start and Parent-Child Centers. Many research grants were
awarded to private and state systems to investigate more
effective means of parent education. Among these grants
was the Florida Parent Education Program under the direction
of Ira Gordon at the University of Florida.
This 1967 project specifically focused on the family
so that the support system for the child's intellectual
growth might endure. Results at age six showed that children
in the experimental group for all three years or for two
consecutive years were superior to the control group on
the Stanford-Binet. These differences were evident at
least three years after the termination of the project
(Gordon and Guinagh, 1976).
Other results at age six indicated that the families
had been affected by the Florida Parent Education Program.
Interviews were conducted with mothers at the time of
testing in the child's sixth year. A significantly higher
percentage cf experimental mothers reported involvement in
an educational program after project termination, higher
educational expectations for the child, and more purchasing
of tovs and use of the toys in direct instruction of the
child. There was also more personal activity by the mother
in her use of community resources such as the library
(Gordon and Guinagh, 1976).
Research continued to support these conclusions. Mayeske
(1973, p. iv) showed that about 85 percent of the variation
in average achievement between schools is associated with
measures of the family background. Program success was
enhanced in all respects when intervention strategies
included efforts to actively involve and educate the parents
(Gordon, 19G8; Klaus and Gray, 1969; McCarthy, 1969; Weikert
and Lambie, 1968; Willmon, 1969). Research also demonstrated
that the influence of the home seems more critical than the
quality of education the child receives at school in af-
fecting school achievement (Coleman, 1966; Jencks, 1972;
Mosteller and loynihan, 1972). Strodtbeck (1958), Hertzig,
Birch, Thomas, and Mendez (1968) suggest that one of the
more promising methods of early intervention involves as-
sisting parents to become better teachers in day-to-day
transactions with their children. Carew (1976) concep-
tualized the interactive intellectual experiences of the
child and stated that the parent plays a critical role in
the child's development as a teacher, entertainer, playmate,
converser, and blender of roles. The interactor is
responsible either solely or jointly with the child for
the "manifest intellectual content of the experience"
(Carew, 1976, p. 12). A prototype for the coordination of
parent education with compensatory education is the Florida
Model of Project Follow-Through (Gordon, 1968).
Project Follow-Through and the Florida Model
Formulated primarily to service Head Start graduates,
Project Follow-Through is available to children who come
from other preschool programs for the disadvantaged (Evans,
1975). Eligibility is limited to children from low-income
homes as defined by the poverty line index of the OEO (see
Follow-Through was initiated on a pilot basis in 1967
with a fiscal aJlocation totalling $15 million dollars, and
authorized to full-scale in 1968 under the Economic Oppor-
tunity AcL of 1964. Programs were established throughout
the nation with a fiscal budget of $30 million dollars which
serviced over 16,000 children (Evans, 1975). According to
Ms. Rose Koury of the National Follow-Through Office,
Washington, D.C., the 1977-78 budget will reach approximately
$54 million dollars and involve over 76,000 children and
A fundamental assumption of Project Follow-Through is
that further environmental planning can provide a more sus-
tained pattern of early gains by Head Start, or at least
further increase the probability of long-term benefits
(Evans, 1975). In addition, a philosophy supporting the
development of educational alternatives is reflected in
the subsidization of nineteen "program models," each of
which emphasizes somewhat different intervention strategies.
These planned variations range along continue with elements
such as structure, parental involvement and cognitive
activities; they include major evaluation components and
move within the context of broad community social and health
service involvement (Evans, 1975).
Project Follow-Through operates under the theoretical
assumption that parent education may take many forms but
basically involves parents in four, or five, types or levels
of participation (Gordon, 1970). These include:
1) Audience; bystander-observer Here the parent
visits or observes the school, or day-care
center to see what the wise, professional
teacher accomplishes. This has been called
2) Teacher of the child At this level the school
normally suggests areas of change or
development and recommended activities to
produce this change. Here a bias of the school
changing the family to meet its standards may
3) Volunteer The parent takes an active role in
the school as an aide or volunteer with the goal
of changing or helping the child and the parent to change
skills and attitudes.
4) Trained workers This involves varying degrees of
training to develop the skills of parents to
assist in teaching, counseling, and assisting
in roles in and out of the school.
5) A fifth approach to parental participation and
involvement is to honor the right of the
parents to control the school board and the
school system. Offered by Campbell in Community
Control (1968), local control means that
parents become decision-makers rather than
recipients of a pre-determined system. (p. 53)
Grounded in this philosophy and intent upon including
parents at the highest levels of participation, the 1975-76
Florida Model of Project Follow-Through operates eleven
school systems in ten states (Jacksonville, Florida; Tampa,
Florida; Winnsboro, South Carolina; Houston, Texas; Jonesboro,
Arkansas; Chattanooga, Tennessee; Lawrenceburg, Indiana;
Richmond, Virginia; Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin; Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania; Yakima, Washington). The Florida Model attempts
to involve parents in three ways: (1) through home visita-
tions, (2) involvement in program decision making and
activities; and (3) through classroom volunteering.
As established by the Florida Sponsor, home visita-
tions are conducted by two adults, usually from low-income
backgrounds who are trained to work in the classroom with
the teacher as a team. These adults, called "parent
educators," also visit the homes of the children in the
classroom weekly in order to teach an enrichment type
learning activity to the child's mother, who later teaches
it to the child.
Before the parent edcuator makes a home visit, she
plans for the visit with the teacher and relays evaluative
information after each visit to the teacher. Each parent
educator will normally spend one half of each day in the
classroom assisting the teacher and the other half in making
Parents of children involved in Follow Through par-
ticipate in program decision-making through the Policy
Advisory Committee (PAC). The PAC serves as the governing
body for each program and often includes mini-PAC's for
each school involved and a city-wide PAC for the larger
communities. PAC members make decisions concerning program
personnel selection, budgets, proposal content, evaluation
and development of home learning activities, and also plan
and conduct numerous educational and recreational activities.
Parents are encouraged to participate in both PAC meetings
and activities and are often assisted with transportation
by parent educators and other interested parents.
Parents are also encouraged to participate in the
classroom as parent volunteers and whenever possible are
involved in instructional activities. Parent volunteers
also serve, as do teachers and parent educators, in planning,
clerical and general housekeeping activities.
Through the three processes the Florida Model attempts
to develop a flow of communication and a system of inter-
actions between the home and the school. The beneficiary
of these interactions is not only the child, but also the
parent, family, school, and community.
Research consistently provides evidence that parents
influence the intellectual, affective and interaction pat-
terns of their children by the nature of the parent-child
relationship (Grotberg, 1969). "The beliefs of parents
and the effects of these beliefs on their children are
inextricably woven into the learning potential" (Adkins,
1975, p. 2). Alice Honig, a leader in contemporary parent
education, states that parent involvement has been an "anti-
dote to professional arrogance" by dramatically spotlighting
the parents' role in the development process (1975, p. ix).
Parent involvement has played a crucial role in linking
the child's home-community world with his formal learning
environment and has challenged educators to think critically
about parents' rights to participate in decisions affecting
their children (i rnig, 1975). An educational system which
fails to maximize the parent involvement potential can never
be more than partially effective, and as Adkins (1975)
says, "the boundaries which restrict the utilization of
parents in the educational program are limitless. They are
dependent only upon educational creativity and enthusiasm"
In order to answer the questions developed in Chapter I,
this study has identified and selected a group of parents
whose participation in a parent education program was moni-
tored and analyzed over the period of one school year.
Existing instrumentation developed by the University of
Florida Project Follow-Through staff was utilized as well as
existing evaluative processes. Additionally, Richmond
Follow-Through staff were responsible for pre and post self-
concept and locus of control test administration as well as
all other data collection.
One hundred eighty-nine parents of kindergarten and
first grade children participating in Project Follow-Through,
Richmond, Virginia, were administered a pre-test measure
of self-concept and locus of control. Of this group,one
hundred forty-six parents were newly enrolled in Project
Follow-Through; forty-three parents were repeating parti-
cipation in the project. For purposes of this study, only
those newly enrolled parents were selected as participants.
Complete data sets were obtained from sixty-one partici-
pants and were the basis for all statistical information.
Each parent was classified as a lower socio-economic member
according to the 1976-77 Office of Economic Opportunity
(OEO) Guidelines (Appendix A) and was, therefore, represen-
tative of other Follow-Through project participants. In
addition, the Richmond project has been cited as one of the
most representative programs of the Florida Model of Project
Follow-Through. This sample and the results of this study
were, therefore, also representative of the Florida Model.
Specific measures were utilized to reduce the influence
of factors jeopardizing internal and external validity.
Selection biases were minimized through the use of a large
sample of the total population. Instrumentation and reac-
tive effects were reduced through the use of the same
observer for both pre and post test administration. Each
participant also had the knowledge that all similar project
participants were tested as an integral element of the
project and not as a special exercise or event. Testing
threats to validity were treated in the statistical analysis
package and recorded along with the final results of the
The collection of data was supervised by the Richmond
project staff and monitored by this investigator, serving
as the Florida Model Sponsor Assistant Evaluation Coordinator.
Data werecollected throughout the 1976-77 school year and
occurred as follows:
1. Within the first six weeks of the 1976-77
school year parent educators administered
the HISM and SRI instruments to all partici-
pants of this study.
2. Home Visitations were recorded by parent
educators on a weekly basis and forwarded to
Model Sponsor for tabulation.
3. Classroom Volunteering was recorded by
teachers on a weekly basis and forwarded to
the Model Sponsor for tabulation.
4. PAC Meetings and Activities were recorded by
PAC secretaries and forwarded as they occurred
to the Model Sponsor for tabulation.
5. Within the last six weeks of the 1976-77 school
year, parent educators administered the HISM
and SRI instruments to all participants of this
Data collection for this study was accomplished through
the use of the following five instruments:
How I See Myself (HISN): The HISM (see Appendix B) is a modi-
fication for mothers of Gordon's HISM (1968), which has been
developed and norms established on children grades three
through 12. The scale is a 40-item, five-point, self-report
scale with the direction of the most positive responses vary-
ing for each question. The modification of the scale for use with
mothers consisted of changing those items which said
girls or boys to women or men and those having to do with
a teacher to the past tense.
A refactoring of the revised HISM Scale for parents
was performed on the data from 2,053 parents from the 1969-70
pretest administration. All items were correlated with each
other, and various statistical operations were performed to
group those items which related highest with each other.
Four such groups, or factors, emerged: 1) Interpersonal
Adequacy, 2) Teacher-School, 3) Personal Appearance, and
An item analysis and table of comparisons of old and
new factors is included in Appendix C.
Social Reaction Inventory (SRI): This scale (see Appendix
D) is a self-report inventory designed to assess attitudes
toward mastery of the environment (Herman, 1970). The SRI
was developed by Bilker (1970) as a modification of the
Rotter (1966) Internal-External Scale. A population mean
and standard deviation for the Rotter I-E Scale were
approximately 8.34 and 3.87, respectively. The first step
in the modification of this scale was changing the language
to a fourth-grade vocabulary level. A test re-test reli-
ability for this modified self-report measure was .78,
about the same level as the original Rotter version (Bilker,
Scoring instructions are included in Appendix E.
PAC Meeting/Activity Sign-In Sheet (PAC M/A): This
report form (see Appendix F), a Project Follow-Through
Instrument, indicates the date and type of meeting or
activity conducted within each community. Parent name,
child name, type of relationship and teacher name are
also indicated. Type and frequency of parent participation
in this program element will be determined from this
Parent Education Weekly Report (PEWR): This instrument
(see Appendix G), developed by the Florida Model Sponsor
of Project Follow-Through, reports the home visit of each
parent educator on a weekly basis. For purposes of this
study only the first two measures will be utilized. These
indicate the number of visits scheduled (by appointment
with the parent) and the number of visits completed. This
index should reflect the level of parent involvement with
this project element.
Classroom Volunteer Report Form (CR Vol): This instrument
(see Appendix I1), developed by the Florida Model Sponsor of
Project Follow-Through, reports the date, length of time,
and type of classroom volunteering of each parent partici-
pant. The frequency of parent participation should provide
an index of parent involvement in this project element.
Descriptive statistics were utilized to initially
analyze pre and post HISM and SRI measures. The participation
variables were also analyzed in this manner. These opera-
tions provided base data (means, standard deviations, and
range) for subsequent inferential statistical analysis.
The standard error of correlations, SE,: 1//N-i, and
the standard error of the difference of means, SEd
/m + c 2 "2 m m2 (m = standard error of a mean;
r12 = correlation between the two sets of means), were
derived for each variable to determine the significance of
pre-post change in self-concept and locus of control scores
A multi-variate analysis procedure developed by
Hiotelling (1935, 1936) and referred to as "canonical corre-
lation" was used in this study. Canonical correlation
uses the coefficients of linear compounds to describe the
dependencies between two sets of variables (Morrison, 1976).
This correlation,as suggested by Kerlinger and Pedhazur
(1973) is a multiple regression analysis with k independent
variables and m dependent variables. Through least squares
analysis, two linear composites are formed, one for indepen-
dent variables, Xj, and one for the dependent variables, Yn.
The correlation between these two composites is the canoni-
cal correlation, Re. The square of the canonical correla-
tion, Rc is an estimate of the variance shared by the two
In canonical correlation analysis, two or more vari-
ables, the dependent variables, are partitioned from the
rest of the matrix as seen in Table 3.1, the basic data
matrix for canonical correlation analysis. The first
subscript of each X stands for rows (subjects, cases) and
the second subscript for columns (variables, tests, items).
The broken vertical line partitions the matrix into the K
independent and the n-k dependent variables. The variables
are intercorrelated and a correlation or R matrix is formed.
Table 3.1. Basic Raw Data Matrix for
1 X 1t X12 . Xlk
2 X21 X22 X2k
2(k+l) . 2n
X2(k+1) -* *2n
"N = number of cases; k = number of independent variables;
n = total number of variables.
Source. Kerlinger, F. N. and Pedhaeur, E. J. Multiple
regression in behavioral research. Atlanta: Holt,
Kinehart and Winston, Inc., 1973, p. 343.
The four partitions of the correlation matrix are indicated
in this way:
R = -------- -------
where R = the whole correlation matrix of the K+(n-k)
variables; R11 = the correlation of the k independent vari-
ables; R22 = the correlations of the n-k dependent vari-
ables; R12 = the correlations between the independent and
dependent variables; R21 = the transpose of R12 (Kerlinger
and Pedhazur, 1973).
The inlercorrelated variables are similarly partitioned
as shown in Table 3.2 and indicated by the broken lines.
The correlation between composites of independent and depen-
dent variables is the canonical correlation. Its square
Rc represents the variance shared by the two composites.
According to Darlington, Weinberg, and Walberg (1973),
canonical variate analysis answers these questions:
1. What is the minimum number of traits that
would have to be controlled or partialled
out in order to eliminate all important
linear relations between sets X and Y?
2. What is the nature of those traits?
More than one source of common variance can be iden-
tified and analyzed. The method systematically extracts
the first and largest source of variance, and the canonical
Partitioned Correlation Matrix for Canonical
rll r 22
r(k+)l r(k+Dklr(k+l(k+l) r(k+l)n
rnl rn2 ' rnk
k = number
of independent variables; n = total number of
Source. Kerlinger, F. N. and Pedhazur, E. J. Multiple
regression in behavioral research Atlanta: Holt, Rinehart
and Winston, Inc., 1973, p. 3414.
I rk(k+l) r kn
correlation coefficient is an index of the relation between
the two sets of variables based on this source of variance.
The next largest source of variance, independent of the
first source of variance, is extracted and analyzed. The
second canonical correlation coefficient, which is smaller
than the first, is an index of the relation between the two
sets of variables due to this second source of variance
(Kerlinger and Pedhazur, 1973). The number of nonzero
canonical correlations is termed the number of canonical
relations between sets X and Y. This number cannot exceed
the number of variables in the smaller set (Darlington et
al., 1973). The most widely used significance test on the
number of canonical relations is Bartlett's (1938) chi-square
approximation to the distribution of Wilk's lambda. This
test, though conservative, can be regarded as highly accurate
for sample sizes of N above 50 (Darlington et al., 1973).
Canonical correlation does yield weights which can be
interpreted as regression weights. These weights, however,
are the weakest link in the analysis process and must there-
fore be interpreted with great caution (Morrison, 1976).
This study used the four factor scores of the pre-HISM
and a fifth measure from the pre-SRI locus of control instru-
ment as independent variables. These five independent
variables were correlated to the four participation measures
which served as dependent variables. Existing significant
relationships were established and recorded. Next, the
pre-HISM and pre-SRI variables and the four participation
variables were held constant as independent variables.
Change scores ii the HISM and SRI served as dependent vari-
ables. The canonical correlation analysis was then utilized
again to detect any unique variance attributable to the
participation variables. This was supported through the
use of an additional canonical correlation between pre-HISM
and pre-SRI measures with change scores in the same measures.
The results provided inferential statistical data between
the testing and participation variables of this study.
The purpose of Lhis study was to examine the nature
of the relationship between selected parent participation
activities in the school system and parent self-concepts
and measures of internal-external locus of control. The
results presented in this chapter are addressed to the
questions presented in Chapter I. Descriptive statistics
were generated to answer questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7.
Multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships
among sets of variables and were required by questions 6
Question 1: What is the nature of the measured
self-concept and locus of control of
lower socio-economic parents prior to
their participation in this study?
Descriptive statistics were generated for each of the
four HISM Factor's as well as the SRI score. Means and
standard deviations for each of these variables are provided
in Table 1I.1 and 4.3,with variance distributions provided
in Figure 4.1.
Factor 1 of the pre-HISM self-concept scale, Inter-
personal Adequacy, contained 14 questions scaled 1-5 with
the most positive response being a 5. A maximum score
would be 70, a minimum score, 14, and a neutral response
would be 42. The mean score for Factor 1 was 56.92 with
MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PRE AND POST
HISM AND SRI VARIABLE SCORES
Variable Mean Standard Deviation Cases
PRE-HISM Factor 1 (Interpersonal Adequacy) 56.92 9.22 61
PRE-HISM Factor 2 (Teacher-School) 21.54 8.46 61
PRE-HISM Factor 3 (Personal Appearance) 22.51 4.90 61
PRE-HISM Factor 4 (Competence) 20.43 3.39 61
PRE-SRI (Locus of Control) 8.85 3.92 61
POST-HISM Factor 1 (Interpersonal Adequacy) 55.79 8.75 61
POST-HISM Factor 2 (Teacher-School) 21.87 6.57 61
POST-HISM Factor 3 (Personal Appearance) 22.11 4.75 61
POST-HISM Factor 4 (Competence) 19.72 2.92 61
PRE-SRI (Locus of Control) 7.93 4.04 61
Response or -10
--- + or 1 Standard
Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3
Figure 4.1 Composite Profile for HISM and SRI variable Prescores
an individual item mean score of 4.06, indicating a sample
response in the upper, or most positive, quartile of pos-
sible responses. The standard deviation for Factor 1 was
9.22. Sample items for this factor included such questions
as "1 like to work with others and "I feel at ease,
comfortable inside myself."
Factor 2 with items such as "I liked school and
"I get along well with teachers," was labeled Teacher-School
and was measured through responses to 10 questions. The
score was reversed and, therefore, one became the most
positive response. Since the factor consisted of the sum
on ten items, a maximum score would be 10, a minimum score
50, and the neutral response score would be 30. The sample
mean was 21.514 with an individual item mean of 2.15. This
was a positive response in the upper-middle quartile of
possible responses. The standard deviation for the 61 com-
plete data sets was 8.46.
Fre-HISM Factor 3 contained six questions with items
such as "I like the way I look." This factor labeled
Personal Appearance had a maximum score of 30, a minimum
score of 6, and a neutral response score of 18. The sample
and individual item means were 22.51 and 3.75, respectively,
and indicated a positive participant response in the upper-
middle quartile of possible responses. The standard devia-
tion for this factor was 4.90.
Factor 4 of the HISM scale, labeled Competence,
reflected the parent's feelings of academic or intellectual
ability as well as general language and academic adequacy.
This factor contained such items as "I'm very good at
speaking before a group and "I write well," and consisted
of 6 questions on the reversed scale. The maximum score
was, therefore, G, the minimum score, 30, and the neutral
response score, 18. The mean prescores for sample and
individual item, were 20.43 and 3.40. This lower-middle
quartile response was the only negative response of pre-
measures on the HISM Scale. The standard deviation for
this factor was 3.39.
The prc-SRI (Iocus of Control) mean for 61 responses
was 8.46, and the standard deviation was 3.92. Of 29
questions, 23 specific responses were tabulated with 0
indicaLing internal locus of control and 1 indicating
external locus of control, with a possible range of 0 to 23.
The neutral response score or midpoint lay between scores
of 11 and 12. Participants chose between alternative
statements such as "What happens to me is my own doing,"
or "Sometimes I feel that I don't have enough control over
the directions my life is taking."
Project participants responded in the upper quartile
of possible responses for Factor 1, Interpersonal Adequacy,
of the HISM self-concept scale, and upper-middle quartile
for Factor 2, Teacher-School, and Factor 3, Personal
Appearance. A negative response in the lower-middle quartile
was exhibited on HISM Factor 4, Competence. The pre-SRI
response for these lower socio-economic parents was below
the neutral response score, an internal measure of locus
Question 2: Do lower socio-economic parents exhibit
negative measures on each of four
factors of a self-concept scale?
Responses indicated that the sample exhibited a
positive attitude in the self-concept factor of Interpersonal
Adequacy. The mean score of 56.92 and standard deviation
of 9.22, with a possible maximum score of 70, indicated a
strong positive response. A comparative pre-intervention
sample of Farent Education Project mothers (Gordon, 1968)
responded with a mean of 60.75 and a standard deviation of
12.8 (Table 4.2).
Project participants also responded with positive
measures on Factor 2, Teacher-School. The sample mean of
21.54 lay in the upper-middle quartile of responses. The
standard deviation for this factor was 8.4G. Parent
Education Project mothers were not scored for this factor,
but a test-relest reliability group of working mothers
with a sample size of 34 scored a mean of 14.94 and a
standard deviation of 4.2. Follow Through parents were much
less positive about their relationship with teachers and
Factor 3, or the Personal Appearance Factor, of the
HISM scale produced a positive premeasure for the lower
MEAiS3 AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF PRE-IITERVENTIO,: HISH AND SRI VARIABLE SCORES
FOR THE PARENT EDUCATION PROJECT, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Peliability Sample (T=34) Parent Education Samnle (N=61)
Mean Standard Deviarton Mean Standar- Deviation
HISM Factor 1
(Interpersonal Adequacy) 67.31 12.9 60.75 12.8
HISM Factor 2
(Teacher-School) 14.94 4.2
HISM Factor 3
(Physical Appearance) 28.09 6.6 25.51 7.1
HISM Factor 4
(Competence) 26.54 4.1 23.57 4.4
(Locus of Control) 10.26 3.8
Source: Gordon, I. J. A Test Manual for the How I See Myself Scale, Gainesville,
Florida Educational Research and Development Council, 1969, pp. 40-L2.
socio-economic parents of this study. The sample mean
of 22.51 out of a maximum score of 30 was also in the
upper-middle quartile of possible responses. This compared
to a 25.52 sample mean for Parent Education Project matters
and again indicated a less positive response for participants
of this study. The reliability sample had a mean of 28.09,
a very high response. The standard deviations for each
group were as follows: 1) Reliability sample, 6.6; 2)
Parent Education Project Sample, 7.1; and 3) Follow Through
parents of this study, 4.90.
Factor 4, Competence, revealed the only negative
response mean on the pre-HISM measure. The mean of 20.43
was in the lower-middle quartile of possible responses.
This compared with the Parent Education sample mean of 23.57.
The standard deviation of this study, 3.39, indicated less
variance than the Parent Education standard deviation of
4 I .
In summary, parent participants of this study exhibited
positive responses on three measures of a self-concept
scale, Factor 1, Interpersonal Adequacy, Factor 2, Teacher-
School, and Factor 3, Personal Appearance. The only
negative response for these parents was on pre-HISM Factor
Question 3: Do lower socio-economic parents
exhibit an external measure on a
locus of control scale?
KEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR PARENT
PARTICIPATION VARIABLE SCORES
Variable Xean Standard Deviation Cases
Hone Visits Scheduled 26.98 3.30 61
Home Visits Completed 24.61 3.96 61
Percent of Home Visits Completed 91.18 9.05 61
Classroom Volunteering 3.93 8.26 61
PAC Meetings 1.64 2.45 61
?AC Activities 0.80 2.47 61
With the neutral response score of 11.5 on the SRI
scale, the pre-SRI mean of 8.46 for this sample indicated
that project participants were internal on a measure of
locus of control. This compared very favorably with
the population mean of 8.34 established by Rotter (1966)
in a series of nine studies with over 3000 participants.
In contrast, Parent Education Project Mothers (Table 4.3)
exhibited mean scores of 10.26, a more external measure.
Question 4: What is the nature of parent partici-
pation in the following four selected
activities: 1) Policy Advisory
Committee Meetings; 2) Policy Advisory
Committee Activities; 3) Classroom
Volunteering; and 4) Home Visitations?
As Table 4.3 indicates, monthly PAC meetings were
attended an average of 1.64 times during the project period
of nine months. The dispersion of scores indicated by the
standard deviation of 2.45 was relatively small. PAC
activities, though more numerous than FAC meetings,were
attended at an even poorer rate of 0.80 times with a
standard deviation of 2.47. Parent participation in PAC
meeLiiin s and activities was not mandatory for project par-
Classroom volunteering occurred an average of
3.93 times during the project year reflecting greater
participation in this activity. The increased standard
deviation of 8.26 for this variable also indicated a greater
variance in the amount of parent participation in this
The mean number of visits scheduled for home visita-
tions was 26.98 of a possible 30 visits with the number of
visits completed averaging 24.61. This high percentage of
completion, 91.7, was to be expected since participation in
this basic program element was mandatory. The standard
deviations of 3.44 and 3.96 for both visits scheduled and
visits completed were relatively small.
Project participation varied greatly with the highest
participation measured in the home visitation and lower
participation in classroom volunteering, PAC meetings and
Question 5: Will parent participation be most
frequent in the basic program element
of lome Visits and become successively
less frequent in Parent Advisory
Committee Meetings, PAC activities
and least frequent in Classroom
In this simple frequency comparison, results indicated
that parent participation in the Home Visits was by far
the most frequently attended activity. Classroom Volunteering,
though relatively infrequent,was the second most attended
activity. Parent Advisory Committee Meetings were in-
frequently atticnd'd with the mean participation at the
very low rate ot only 1.64 times. This, however, was
greater than parent participation in PAC Activities which
averaged less than once per person during the project period.
Question 6: What Factors of parent self-concept
and measure of internal-external locus
of control can individually and in
combination predict the type and/or
frequency of parent participation in the
four selected participation activities?
In order to determine significant relationships
between the measures of self-concept and locus of control
with four participation variables, the multivariate analysis
of canonical correlation developed by Kerlinger and Pedhazur
(1973) was used. The five self-concept and locus of
control variables were partitioned as independent from
the four dependent variables of participation. Table 4.4
lists the results of this analysis which indicated that
there were no canonical correlations that reached the .05
level of significance. This process systematically extracted
the first and largest source of variance,in this case,
Classroom Volunteering. The canonical correlation coef-
ficient, 0.93, was an index of the relation between the
two sets of variables based on this source of variance.
The largest source of variance among the dependent variables
was pre-HISM Factor 3, with a coefficient of -1.20. The
significance of this relationship wis only 0.29; therefore,
no canonical correlation reached the .05 level of signi-
ficance. The relationship described above was, however,
the first non-significant canonical correlation. The
results of this analysis indicated an absence of a suitable
attitudinal predictor for project participation from among
the selected variables.
Question 7: What is the nature of the pre/post
change in measures of self-concept
and locus of control after partici-
pation in this study?
CAIHOHIICAL CORRELATION I FOR PARENT PARTICIPATION,
PRE-HISM, AND PRE-SRI VARIABLE SCORES
Number Eigen Value Correlation Lambda Chi-Square Significance
No Canonical Correlation Found at the 0.050 Level of Significance
The First (Non-Significant) Canonical Correlation is Printed Below.
COEFFICIENTS FOR CANONICAL VARIABLES OF THE FIRST SET
Visits Scheduled 0.37
Table 4.4 (continued)
COEFFICIENTS FOR CANONICAL VARIABLES OF THE SECOND SET
PRE-HISM Factor 1 -. G6
PRE-HISM Factor 2 0.15
PRE-HISM Factor 3 -1.20
PRE-HISM Factor 4 0.96
CANOI:IAL CORRELATION II FOR PARENT PARTICIPATION, PRE HISM
AND SRI, AND POST HISM AND SRI VARIABLE SCORES
Number Eigen Value Correlation Lambda Chi-Square Significance
1 0.72 0.85 0.04 168.72 0.00
COEFFICIENTS FOR CANONICAL VARIABLES OF THE FIRST SET
PRE-HISM Factor 1
PRE-HISM Factor 2
FRE-HISM Factor 3
PRE-HISM Factor 4
Table 4.5 (continued)
COEFFICIENTS FOR CANONICAL VARIABLES CF THE SECOND SET
Canvar 1 Canvar 2 Canvar 3 Canvar 4
POST-HISH Factor 1 0.38 0.11 0.78 0.19
POST-HISM Factor 2 -0.15 0.19 0.10 1.16
POST-HISM Factor 3 -0.55 0.18 -1.16 0.24
POST-HISM Factor 4 0.79 -0.27 -0.67 -0.24
POST-SRI 0.25 0.94 0.02 -0.25
Using the number of complete data sets for project
participants (N:61), the standard error of correlations
(SEr = i// N- of 1.28)was derived to determine the signi-
ficance of the relationship between pre and post scores.
Correlations for each change were determined and used in
this discussion. Additionally, the standard error of the
difference of correlated means (SE =o +o2 -2x120 o
dm m1 m, mi m2
was determined for each factor to investigate the significance
of any pre-post change. Z scores were also determined for
each factor (Z = Ml-M2/SEdm), and any score greater than
1.96 was estimated to be significant at the .05 level
Project participants responded less positively on
HISM Factor 1 post scores than on previous pretesL scores
(Table 4.1). The means changed from 56.92 to 55.79 or a
difference of -1.13. The correlation of these scores,
r = .21, was within two standard error units from the mean
and was, therefore, not significant at the .05 level. Using
the formula SE = /o2+ o2 to determine the standard
dm m1 m2
error of these uncorrelated means, SEdm was equal to 1.31
which yielded a Z score of .86. This indicated that the
pre-post change for Factor 1 was not significant.
The pre-HISM Factor 2 mean was 21.54 as compared to
the post score of 21.87. This less positive response on
the reversed scale amounted to a difference of .33. The
correlation between these two scores was .39,which indicated
that the pre-post factor relationship was significant at
the .05 level. The standard error of the difference of
these correlated means was 1.14 and the Z ratio was -.29.
This was within 1.96 standard error units, therefore, the
pre-post change of Factor 2 was not significant.
Responses on post-HISM Factor 3 were also less positive
than responses on the pretest. The post score mean of
22.11 compared to 22.51, or a difference of .40. The cor-
relation between pre-post scores was .59 which placed the
relationship well within the .05 significance level. The
standard error of the difference between means was .57
and the der ive]d 2 score equal to .70. This pre-post change
was also not significant at the .05 level.
HISM Factor 4 was the only self-concept score to
increase during the project period. The postscore mean
of 19.72 increased .71 from the pretest score of 20.43.
This factor also had the highest correlation of means
r = .63 which meant that the pre-post factor relationship
was significant at the .05 level. The pre-post change of
Factor 4 was also significant. The standard error of the
difference between means (SE dm) was .35 and the Z ratio
equal to 2.03. This Z score was greater than the 1.96
units required lor significance.
Post-SRI responses also increased in internality,
moving from a mean prescore of 8.85 to a postscore mean
of 7.93. The difference of .92 was almost an entire point
on the scale. The pre-post factor relationship was
significant with the high correlation of means of .67. The
standard error of the difference between means was .41
which yielded aZ score of 2.211. The pre-post change for
the SRI locus of control measure was, therefore, significant
at the .05 level.
In summary, there were no significant pre-post changes
in HISM Factor 1, Interpersonal Adequacy, HISM Factor 2,
Teacher-School, and HISM Factor 3, Personal Appearance.
There were, however, significant, positive pre-post changes
for HISM Factor Ji, Competence, and the SRI locus of control
Question 8: What is the nature of the relationship
between the four selected parent partic-
ilpation activities and pre-post change
in the measures of self-concept and locus
Four of the five preattitudinal measures were
significantly related to postscore change. In order to
determine whether or not any of the participation activities
of the project were related to this change, the canonical
correlation analysis was again utilized. The participation
variables were added to the preattitudinal scores and
partitioned as independent from the postattitudinal or
dependent variables. Table 4.5 lists the results of this
analysis and indicated that four canonical correlations
existed between the independent and dependent variables
at the .05 level of significance. Significance was
determined through the use of Bartlett's (1938) Chi-
square approximation to the distribution of the Wilk's
The canonical variable coefficients were listed for
each of the significant correlations and indicated the
largest source of variance for both independent and dependent
variable sets. The first canonical correlation (Rc) deter-
mined was 0.85. As indexed in the first canonical variate
list, the strongest relationship existed between pre-IISM
Factor 4, 0.88 and post-HISM Factor 4, 0.79. It was im-
portant to note that the next largest independent variable
source of variance was the inverse relationship indicated
for Visits Completed (-0.60). The strong influence of
the home visitation process was a pattern throughout the
Canonical Variable List 2 confirmed this strong source
of variance with a coefficient of -3.34 for the number of
Visits Completed. This was most highly related to the post-
SRI variable with a coefficient of 0.94. More simply
stated, the more visits completed,the lower more internal
the score on an SRI scale. Also very highly related to
this variance was the number of visits scheduled with a
coefficient of 2.53.
The canonical correlation analysis having removed
the variance attributable to these first two relationships
produced a third significant correlation (Re = 0.68).
This third greatest variance was associated with the
relationship between the number of visits completed, coef-
ficient = -1.07, and post-HISM Factor 3 (-1.16). This
indicated that a direct relationship existed between the
number of home visits completed and the parent attitude
toward personal appearance.
A fourth and final canonical correlation, Re = 0.56,
was extracted and the coefficients of canonical variables
were an index of Lhis variance. The number of home visits
completed was again significantly related, -4.75, to two
dependent variables, post-HISM Factor 4 (-0.24) and post-
Through the use of the canonical correlation analysis,
significant relationships were indicated between the
number of home visitations and three attitudinal variables,
HISM Factor 3, Personal Appearance, HISM Factor 4, Competence,
and SRI, locus of control. The pre-post change, as deter-
miniled for Question 8 of thio; study, was significant only
for HISM Factor 4I and the SRI measure. Therefore, the
number of home visitations was directly and significantly
related to positive change in HISM Factor 4, Competence,
and the SRI locus of control measure.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of the Study
One hundred forty-six lower socio-economic parents
of kindergarten and first grade children, newly enrolled
in Project Follow-Through, Richmond, Virginia, were
selected to participate in this study. Parents were
measured with pre and post self-concept and locus of con-
trol instruments, and their participation in four project
activities was monitored throughout the 1976-77 school year.
Sixty-one complete data sets were available for data analyses.
The relationships between the measured attitudinal and
behavioral variables were analyzed, and the results
reported in Crhapier LV.
When interpreting the results of this study, certain
cautions should be noted. Conclusions and generalizations
should be restricted to similar socio-economic groups.
The self-report nature of the self-concept and locus of
control scales may not have accurately reflected the real
behavior and beliefs of the project participants. Reactive
and testing threats to validity may have existed due to the
fact that such testing was mandatory for project participation.
Parent participation was also measured only by the
programmed activities of the Florida model of Follow-
Through and recorded only by the frequency of participa-
tion. More positive participation may have been exhibited
in other areas significantly related to the results of
this study. No attempt was made to isolate the many
variables effective in the lives of these participants,
conditions which would not only be relevant to any study
of this nature, but would possibly be significantly
related to its results. Additionally, the number of com-
plete data sets suffered an undesirable attrition. This
number, however, reached the very acceptable ratio of 4
to 1, data sets to variables.
The statistical procedures utilized in this study,
in particular, the multivariate analyses of canonical
correlation, were the most appropriate and effective means
for analysis and interpretation of the results. Appropriate
levels of significance were reached, and therefore, the
conclusions drawn from this study are offered as valid
Based on the results of this investigation, the fol-
lowing conclusions were established:
1. Project participants exhibited positive
preattitudinal self-concept scores on three
factors: 1) Interpersonal Adequacy,
2) Teacher-School, and 3) Personal Ap-
2. Project participants exhibited negative
preattitudinal self-concept scores on the
Factor labeled Competence.
3. Project participation varied greatly
wiLh the individual and the activity with
highest participation measured in the home
visitation and lower participation in class-
room volunteering, PAC meetings, and PAC
4. Project participation cannot be predicted
by present IHISM and SRI instrumentation.
5. Pretest measures of self-concept and locus
of control were significantly related to
posttest scores on the same measures with
the exception of HISM Factor 1, Interpersonal
6. Significant pre-post change of self-concept
and locus of control measures occurred only
for HISM Factor 4, Competence, and the SRI
7. The number of home visits completed was
consistently and significantly related to
positive change in the posLtest self-concept
Factor of Competence and in the post
locus of control score.
8. Project participation was significantly
related to positive change in the posttest
self-concept and locus of control scores.
The following recommendations were developed to
improve and further direct research in the study and evalua-
tion of parent education and parent involvement in the
1. The home visitation process, a parent
participation variable determined to be
significantly related to positive change
in self-concept and locus of control
measures, should be further developed
in orler to maximize its effective rela-
tionship with parent attitudinal variables.
2. Parent education programs should include
additional parent participation activities
which are significantly related to positive
self-concept and locus of control develop-
3. Parent participation variables such as
classroom volunteering and parent advisory
council meetings or activities, which
have been determined in this study not
to be related to positive self-concept
development, should be restructured or
investigated to determine their relation-
ship with other variables.
4. Further research should determine the
nature of the relationship between environ-
mental variables (i.e., age, state of
employment, family membership profile,
etc.) and parent self-concept development.
5. Further research should investigate the
relationship between parent participation
in the school system and child achievement.
6. Longitudinal studies should be developed
to determine the relationship between
selected parent participation activities
and parent self-concept and locus of
7. Staffing and program administration of
parent education projects should at all
times reflect positive self-concepts
and locus of control in their interaction
with project participants.
8. Further research should determine the relative
merit of specific components of national parent
education models and synthesize these components
in order to provide the most effective model
for parent involvement in the school system.
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
OFFICE OF EDUCATION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20202
June 17, 1976
Our Reference: CEP/Division of Follow Through
Administrative Memorandum #61
MEMORANDUM TO PROJECT DIRECTORS AND PAC CHAIRMEN
SUBJECT: IEW INCOME POVERTY GUIDELINES
In selecting children eligible to be included in the new
group of entering children funded by Follow Through for the
1976-77 school year, you should be aware of the new income
poverty guidelines, which are enclosed.
The following definitions, derived mainly from Current Popu-
lation Reports, P-60 No. 91, Bureau of the Census, December
1973, have been adopted for your use with these guidelines.
For the purpose of applying the guidelines to determine
A. INCOME Refers to total cash receipts before
taxes, from all sources. These include money
wages and salaries before any deductions, but
not including food or rent in lieu of wages.
They include receipts from self-employment or
from own farm or business after deductions
for business or farm expenses. They include
regular payments from public assistance, social
security, unemployment, and workmen's compen-
sation, strike benefits from union funds,
veterans' benefits, training stipends, alimony,
child support and military family allotments
or other regular support from an absent family
member of someone not living in the household;
government employee pensions, private pensions
and regular insurance or annuity payments;
and income from dividends, interest, rents,
royalties, or income from estates and trusts.
Page 2 MEMORANDUM TO PROJECT DIRECTORS AND PAC CHAIRMEN
For eligibility purposes, income does not refer
to the following money receipts: Any assets
drawn down as withdrawals from a bank, sale of
property, house or car, tax refunds, gifts,
one-time insurance payments or compensation for
injury; also to be disregarded is non-cash income,
such as the bonus value of food and fuel produced
and consumed on farms and the imputed value of
rent from owner-occupied or non-farm housing.
B. A FARM RESIDENCE Is defined as any dwelling on
a place of 10 acres or more with $50 or more
annual sales of farm products raised there; or
any place of less than 10 acres having product
sales of $250 or more.
Rosemary C. Wilson
Director, Division of
INCOME POVERTY GUIDELINES FOR CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES
FAMILY SIZE NON-FARM FAMILY FARM FAMILY
For family units with more than six members
each additional member in a non-farm family
each additional member in a farm family.
add $900 for
and $760 for
INCOME POVERTY GUIDELINES FOR ALASKA
FAMILY SIZE NON-FARM FAMILY FARM FAMILY
6 9,120 7,750
For family units with more than six members add $1,120 for
each additional member in a non-farm family and $950 for
each additional member in a farm family.
INCOME POVERTY GUIDELINES FOR HAWAII
FAMILY SIZE NON-FARM FAMILY FARM FAMILY
6 8,390 7,130
For family units with more than six members add $1,030 for
each additional member in a non-farm family and $870 for
each additional member in a farm family.
HOW I SEE MYSELF SCALE
1. Nothing gets me too mad
2. I don't stay with things
and finish them
3. I'm very good at drawing
4. I don't like to work
5. I wish I were smaller
6. I worry a lot
7. 1 wish T could dlo Oomne-
thing with my hair
8. Teachers like me
9. I've lots of energy
LO. I am ignored at parties
Ll. I'm just the right
12. Women don't like me
13. I'm very good at
speaking before a group
1 2 3 4 5 I get mad easily
1 2 3 4 5 I stay with some-
thing til I finish
1 2 3 4 5 I'm not much good
1 2 3 4 5 T like to work with
1 2 3 4 5 I'm just the right
1 2 3 4 5 I don't worry much
1 2 3 4 5 My hair is nice-
1 2 3 4 5 Teachers don't like
1 2 3 4 5 I haven't much energy
1 2 3 4 5 I am a hit at parties
1 2 3 4 5 I wish I were heavier
1 2 3 4 5 Women like me a lot
1 2 3 4 5 I'm not much good
at speaking before
Follow Through Project IHOW i SEE MYSELF SCALE
14. My face Is pretty
15. I'm very good in music
16. I get along well with
17. I don't like teachers
18. I don't feel at ease,
19. 1 don't like to try new
20. I have trouble control-
ling my feelings
21. I did well in school
22. I want men to like me
23. I don't like the way I
24. I don't want other
women to like me
25. I'm very healthy
26. I don't dance well
27. I write well
28. I like to work alone
29. I use my time well
30. I'm not much good at
making things with my
1 2 3 4 5 I wish I were
1 2 3 5 I'm not much good
1 2 3 4 5 I don't get along
1 2 3 4 5 I like teachers very
1 2 3 4 5 I feel very at ease,
1 2 3 4 5 I like to try new
1 2 3 4 5 I can handle my
1 2 3 4 5 I didn't do well in
1 2 3 1 5 I don't want men
to like me
1 2 3 4 5 I like the way I look
1 2 3 4 5 I want other women
to like me
1 2 3 4 5 I get sick a lot
1 2 3 4 5 I'm a very good
1 2 3 4 5 1 don't write well
1 2 3 4 5 I don't like to
1 2 3 4 5 1 don't know how
to plan my time
1 2 3 4 5 I'm very good at
making things with
Follow Through Project H1OW I SEE MYSELF SCALE
31. I wish I could do some- I
thing about my skin
32. School was never in- 1
terestinpg to me
33. 1 don't do my housework 1
34. I'm not as smart as the 1
35. Men like me a lot 1
36. My clothes are not as 1
37. I liked school 1
38. I wish 1 were built 1
39. I don't read well 1
40. I don't learn noew
2 3 4 5 My skin is nice-
2 3 4 5 When I was in
school it was
interesting to me
2 3 4 5 1 do a good job at
2 3 4 5 I'm smarter than
most of the others
2 3 4 5 Men don't like me
2 3 4 5 My clothes are nice
2 3 4 5 1 didn't like school
2 3 4 5 I'm happy with the
way I am
2 3 4 5 1 read very well
2 3 4 5 I learn new things
Developed by Ira J. Gordon, Director Institute for
Development o Human Resources, College of Education, University
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601
REPORT ON THE REFACTORING OF THE HISM1
The original factor scores had been based on the high
school version of the How I See Myself Scale, and we felt
that with some of the items changed, and with adults as
respondents, these scores might not be the most accurate and
useful. Therefore, a refactoring of the revised HISM Scale
for parents was performed on -he data from 2,053 parents
from the 1969-70 pretest administration.
All 40 items were correlated with each other, and various
statistical operations were performed to group those items
which related highest with each other. Four such groups,
or factors, emerged.
Factor one was the most stable. It was named Inter-
personal Adequacy and consisted of the following test items:
2 I stay with things until I finish them.
4 I like to work with others.
12 Women like me a lot.
17 I like teachers very much.
18 I feel at ease, comfortable inside myself.
19 I like to try new things.
20 I can handle my feelings.
23 I like the way I look
24 I want other women to like me.
32 Housework is very interesting.
33 I do a good job at housework.
38 I am happy with the way I am
39 I read very well
40 1 learn now things easily.
With a few changes this factor is very similar to
that extracted with children' scores.
The second factor appears to be a combination of the
Teacher-School, the Physical Adequacy, and the factor which
appeared for males only, Boys-Social, on the high school
norms. It consists of the following:
8 People like me.
9 I've lots of energy.
16 1 get along well with teachers.
21 I did well in school work.
22 I want men to like me.
25 I'm very healthy.
27 I write well.
29 I use my time well.
35 Men like me a lot.
37 I liked school.
This cluster of scores is not easily named. After
inspection, it has been tentatively labeled Social-Male
because of items 22 and 35. In this respect, it differs
from the first Factor.
Factor three is clear and stable. It is the Personal
Appearance factor consisting of items:
7 My hair is nice looking.
1il My face is pretty (good looking).
23 1 like the way I look.
31 My skin is nice looking.
36 My clothes are nice.
38 I'm happy with the way I am (built).
Factor four is labeled Competence. The items which load
on this factor are:
13 I'm very good at speaking before a group.
15 I'm very gcod in music.
21 I did well in school work.
27 T write well.
34 I'm smarter than most of the others.
39 I read very well.
This factor seems to reflect the parent's feelings of
academic or intellectual ability, and combines items from
the previously all-male high school factor, Language Adequacy,
and the general Academic Adequacy factor (items 21, 34, 39).
This factor structure seems to be sound on the face of
it, and we are new going to score the 1969-70 HISM using
these four factors. We will also score the 1970-71 data on
An interim report from Ira J. Gordon and Harris Jaffee to
Florida Parent Education Follow Through and Head Start
Planned Variation personnel.
SOCIAL REACTION INVENTORY
P.E./Parent Name ___ City
Child's Name Date
Child's Teacher ____ _Collected by
I More Strongly Believe That:
1. a. Children get into trouble because their parents punish
them too much.
b. The trouble with most children today is that their
parents are too easy with them.
2. a. Many of the unhappy things in people's lives are
partly due to bad luck.
b. People's troubles result from the mistakes they make.
3. a. One of the biggest reasons why we have wars is
because people don't take enough interest in govern-
b. There will always be wars, no matter how hard people
try to prevent them.
4. a. In the long run people get the respect they deserve
in this world.
b. It is the sad truth that an individual's worth often
passes without being recognized no matter how hard
5. a. The idea that teachers are unfair to students
is "hot air."
b. Most students don't realize how much their grades are
influenced by accident or chance.
Follow Through Project SOCIAL REACTION INVENTORY Page 2
6. a. Without the right breaks one cannot be a good and
b. Able people who fail to become leaders have not
taken advantage of their opportunities.
7. a. No matter how hard you try, some people just don't
b. People who can't get others to like them, don't
understand how to get along with others.
8. a. What a person is born with plays the biggest part in
determining what they are like.
b. It is one's experiences in life which determine what
they are like.
9. a. I have often found that what is going to happen will
b. Putting trust in fate has never turned out as well
for me as making a plan to take a certain course of
10. a. In the case of the well prepared student there is
hardly ever such a thing as an unfair test.
b. Many times test questions tend to be so different
from class work, that studying is really a waste of
11. a. Becoming a success is a matter of hard work, luck
has little or nothing to do with it.
b. Getting a good job depends mainly on being in the
right place at the right time.
12. a. The average citizen can have an influence in govern-
b. This world is run by a few people in power, and there
is not much the little guy can do about it.
13. a. When I make plans, I am almost certain that I can
make them work.
b. It is not always wise to plan too far ahead because
many things turn out to be a matter of good or bad
Follow Through Project SOCIAL REACTION INVENTORY Page 3
14. a. There are certain people who are just no good.
b. There is some good in everybody.
15. a. In my case. getting what I want has little or nothing
to do with luck.
b. Many times we might just as well decide what to do
by tossing a coin.
16. a. Who gets to be the boss often depends on who was
lucky enough to be in the right place first.
b. Getting people to do the right thing depends upon
being able, luck has little or nothing to do with it.
17. a. As far as world affairs are concerned, most of us
are pushed around by forces we can neither under-
stand, nor control.
b. By taking an active part in government and social
affairs the people can control world events.
18. a. Most people don't realize the point to which their
lives are controlled by accident and chance.
b. There is really no such thing as "luck."
19. a. One should always be willing to admit his mistakes.
b. It is usually best to cover up one's mistakes.
20. a. It is hard to know whether or not a person really
b. How many friends you have depends upon how nice a
person you are.
21. a. In the long run the bad things that happen to us are
made up for by the good ones.
b. Most troubles are the result of lack of know-how,
lack of knowledge, being lazy, or all three.
22. a. With enough effort we can clean up dirty government.
b. It is difficult for people to have much control
over the things government leaders do in office.
Follow Through Project SOCIAL REACTION INVENTORY Page 4
23. a. Sometimes I can't understand how teachers arrive
at the grades they give.
b. The harder, I study, the better grades I get.
24. a. A good leader expects people to decide for them-
selves what they should do.
b. A good leader makes it clear to everybody what
their jobs are.
25. a. Many times I feel that I have little influence over
the things that happen to me.
b. It is impossible for me to believe that chance or
luck plays an important part in my life.
26. a. People are lonely because they don't try to be friendly.
b. There is not much use in trying too hard to please
people--if they like you, they like you.
27. a. There is too much emphasis on athletics in high
b. Team snorts are an excellent way to build character.
28. a. What happens to me is my own doing.
b. Sometimes I feel that I don't have enough control
over the direction my life is taking.
29. a. Most of the time I cannot understand why politicians
behave the way they do.
b. In the long run, the people are responsible for bad
government on a national as well as on a local level.
Adapted by larry M. Bilker, Institute for Development
of Human Resource2,, College of Education, University of
Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601, from Rotter I-E Scale.
S.R.I. SCORING INSTRUCTIONS
SoverL'n itmins in the instrument are dummy items and
are not used in scoring.
For each of the below listed items, the indicated
responses (either a or b) are to be considered as ones (l's)
and summed to arrive at a single score for the instrument:
2 a 16 a
3 b 17 a
I b 18 a
5 b 20 a
6 a 21 a
7 a 22 b
9 a 23 a
10 b 25 a
11 b 26 b
12 b 28 b
13 b 29 a
Total score ran i-e is from 0 to 23.
PAC MrLET[NG/ACTIVITY SICi'-IN SHEET
rO 1l 16, June, 1976
Check' u. roprlnte category and fill in appropriate blank
1. C:ty- l Je P\C necrtirg
2. BiilJng PAC meeting
3. PAC subccri:ttee meeting
(I[i i i .a n [r t
ELx ple. iarr ct .nith Exapl Carul Sithn
:,v Jne --
ame o: Activity
PARENT EDUCATOR WEEKLY REPORT
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CLASSROOM VOLU ELR REPORT PFOrP
For 'S, June, 1976
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