Group Title: effect of the relaxation response on the positive personality characteristics of paraprofessional counselors /
Title: The Effect of the relaxation response on the positive personality characteristics of paraprofessional counselors
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Title: The Effect of the relaxation response on the positive personality characteristics of paraprofessional counselors
Physical Description: x, 112 leaves ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bole, David Nelson, 1948-
Publication Date: 1978
Copyright Date: 1978
 Subjects
Subject: Paraprofessionals in social service   ( lcsh )
Personality   ( lcsh )
Counseling   ( lcsh )
Foundations of Education thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Foundations of Education -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 105-110.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by David Nelson Bole.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098078
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000064465
oclc - 04272237
notis - AAG9672

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THE EFFECT OF THE RELAXATION RESPONSE ON THE
POSITIVE PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF
PARAPROFESSIONAL COUNSELORS











By

David Nelson Bole


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1978






























Dedicated to my father

Nelson S. Bole















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The author wishes to express his appreciation to his

Committee Chairman, Dr. Donald L. Avila, for his sage advice

and counsel, and to the other members, Dr. Walter Busby and

Dr. Richard Anderson, for their scholarship, friendship and

guidance.

The author also wishes to thank the faculty of the

Human Services Department at Santa Fe Community College,

Gainesville, Florida, for their support of this research.

Special thanks to Dr. William Korth for his support and to

Maria Duncan for her creative suggestions and help through-

out the development of this research. Also, thanks to the

Human Services' student volunteers who were the subjects of

this experiment.

Special thanks to Alec Riddle, University of South

Carolina, for his cooperation in offering research informa-

tion which was most helpful to the author.

Grateful mention must also be made of Dr. Paul Schauble,

University of Florida Counseling Center, for his advice and

aid in providing raters for this research. Thanks to David

Linquist and Gabriel Rodriquez who served as the raters.

Finally, the author expresses his deepest gratitude to

his father for his untiring support and encouragement.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . iii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . ... .. . vi

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . .viii

CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . 1
Purpose of the Study . . . . . 1
Background of the Study . . . . 1
Paraprofessionals .. . . . 1
Counselor Behavior Variables . . 3
Meditation . . . . . . . 5
Hypotheses . . . . . . . 6
Need for the Study . . . . . . 8

II REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH . . . . 10
Counselor-offered Conditions, Personality
and Client Growth . . . . . . 10
Facilitative Conditions and Personality 13
Counselor Verbal Responses Approach 16
Psychological Effects of Meditation . 19
Transcendental Meditation . . . 19
Relaxation Response . . . . . 23
Meditation in Theory . . . . . 24
Psychoanalytic Derepression . . .. 24
Generalized Desensitization . . . 26
The Relaxation Response (RR) . . 26
Elements of Meditation . . . . 28

III EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND PROCEDURES . . 31
Experimental Design . . . . . . 31
Population . . . . . .. 32
Subjects' Demographic Data . . . 32
Research Instruments . . . . . 33
Assessment of Self-Actualization . . 33
Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) 34
Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS). 37
Demographic Questionnaire . . . 40









TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)


Page


Collection of Data . . . . ... 40
Initial Data . . . . . ... 40
Selection and Training of Raters . 41
Relaxation Response (RR) Training . 42
Posttest . . . . . . ... 44
CVRS Data Collection . . . ... 44
Statistical Design . . . ... 44

IV RESULTS OF THE STUDY . . . . . 46
Testing of the Hypothesis . . . . 47
Hypothesis 1: Self-Actualization . 47
Hypothesis 2: Affective/Cognitive . 51
Hypothesis 3: Understanding/Nonunder-
standing . . ... 54
Hypothesis 4: Specific/Nonspecific . 55
Hypothesis 5: Exploratory/Nonexplora-
tory . . . .. . 56

V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS . .. 66
Summary . . . . . . . ... 66
Results . . . . . . .. 69
Conclusions . . . . . . . 71
Limitations of the Study . . . . 74
Implications for Future Research . . 74

APPENDICES

A How to Bring Forth the Relaxation Response
and Eliciting the Relaxation Response . 79

B Counselor Verbal Response Scale
Counselor Verbal Response Scale Rating Sheet. 83

C Relaxation Response Calendar . . .. . 95

D Demographic Data Sheet . . . . . 97

E Additional Analyses of POI Scores . . . 101

REFERENCES . . . . . . .. . . . 105

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . .... . 111














LIST OF TABLES


TABLE Page


1 Analysis of Posttest POI Scores
Control vs Experimental Groups . . . ... 48

2 Analysis of Experimental Group
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores . . ... .. . 49

3 Analysis of Control Group
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores . . . ... 50

4 Analysis of Pretest POI Scores
Control vs Experimental Groups . . . 52

5 Analysis of CVRS Scores for Facilitative
Responses . . . . . . . . 53

6 Comparisons of Group Mean Facilitative Responses
RR & NRR Groups: Pretest vs Posttest .. . 58

7 Comparison of Group Mean Facilitative Responses
Pretest and Posttest Scores: RR vs NRR . . 59

8 Analysis of Mean Group Proportions
All Facilitative Responses on CVRS . . . 62

9 Counselor Response Level . . . . ... 62

10 Average Number of Relaxation Response Sessions
Per Week by Members of Experimental Group . 64

11 Scoring Categories for the Personal
Orientation Inventory . ... . . . 65

12 Analysis of Posttest POI Scores
Control vs Experimental Groups . .. . . 101

13 Analysis of Control Groups
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores . . . ... .102









LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


TABLE Page

14 Analysis of Experimental Group
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores . . . ... 103

15 Analysis of Pretest POI Scores
Control vs Experimental Groups . . . ... .104








Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


THE EFFECT OF THE RELAXATION RESPONSE ON THE
POSITIVE PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF
PARAPROFESSIONAL COUNSELORS

By

David Nelson Bole

March 1978

Chairman: Donald L. Avila
Major Department: Foundations of Education


This study hypothesized that there would be measurable

gains in self-actualizing values of a group of student para-

professionals as a result of the regular practice of the

Benson Relaxation Response (RR), a meditation technique.

It was further hypothesized that such gains would be associ-

ated with increased proportions of facilitative responses

on the parts of these students, acting as counselors, in

reacting to the communications of fellow-students, acting

as clients.

The study was carried out during the winter semester of

1977 when a group of volunteers who were students in their

first term at Santa Fe Community College were randomly

assigned to two groups: 14 to an experimental group

and 8 to a control group. The experimental group practiced

RR throughout a 10 week period while the control group did

not.


vi11








Both groups were pretested by use of the Shostrom

Personal Orientation Inventory, which is believed to measure

values that have been associated with self-actualization and

positive mental health. Research cited indicates a correla-

tion between many of the values measured by the POI and

counselor effectiveness.

In measuring changes in proportion of facilitative

responses the unit of analysis employed was the level of

content in the counselor's response to client communication

of four dichotomized dimensions as rated on the Counselor

Verbal Response Scale (CVRS): (a) Affective/Cognitive; (b)

Understanding/Nonunderstanding; (c) Specific/Nonspecific;

and (d) Exploratory/Nonexploratory. Each member of the

population made a pretest tape at the beginning of the study

which was compared with a posttest tape made at the end.

Significant gains in self-actualization by the RR group

vis-a-vis the NRR group were found in five of the POI scales.

Significant gains were also made in the posttest scores of

the RR group compared with its pretest scores. No gains in

any self-actualizing values were found in the NRR group.

Significant gains by the RR group in their proportion

of facilitative responses were found only in the area of

understanding of the client's responses. However, in spite

of the absence of significant gains, as measured by the "t"

test statistic, in any of the other CVRS scales, the RR

posted impressive percentage gains in the proportion of








their facilitative responses on all CVRS scales. And when

the facilitative response proportion of all the scales was

combined, the mean group proportion showed significant gains

by the RR group.

It was concluded that the Benson Relaxation Response

is one method for acquiring and developing the positive

personality traits which have been linked to effective

counseling and resulting client growth. In terms of coun-

selor behavior that is measured by the CVRS scale, the

initial results of RR practice may be a gain in the capacity

for understanding another person's verbal communication,

rather than in the other areas which may depend more on

specific training and experience than on stage of personality

development.















CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION



Purpose of the Study


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of

a meditation technique upon the behavior of a group of para-

professionals acting as counselors. The specific behavior

examined was the counselor's responses to client communica-

tions in terms of four dichotomized dimensions: (a) affective-

cognitive; (b) understanding-nonunderstanding; (c) specific-

nonspecific; and (d) exploratory-nonexploratory. (See

Appendix B.) The meditation technique used was that

developed by Benson. It was used to test meditation as a

method of developing and improving skills related to effec-

tive counseling as well as to enhancing those perceptual

attitudes and personality traits correlated with effective

counseling performance.



Background of the Study


Paraprofessionals

Community services, such as care for the physically,

emotionally and intellectually handicapped all require far








more trained manpower than professional schools have been

producing. To meet this need programs have been established

to train Human Services' personnel who, working under pro-

fessional supervision, can provide such necessary services

as counseling and interviewing.

The recognition and acceptance of this need for counsel-

ing services has rapidly accelerated over the last twenty

years. Counseling services have become an integral part of

programs aimed at the educational, vocational, and psycho-

logical well-being of the individual. As a result of this

growth, both the training and use of a new body of workers

have been the target of increasing research. These workers

are referred to as "support personnel," "lay helpers" or

most commonly, paraprofessionalss" (Morgan, 1976). Such a

paraprofessional program was established at Santa Fe

Community College, Gainesville, Florida in 1970 and designated

as the Human Services Program (HSP).

The purpose of the HSP is to provide intensive training

in human relations, general helping skills, psychopathology,

and different approaches to counseling. The two most

important assumptions underlying the program are: (1) that

the single most critical resource a person has to bring to

the helping situation is himself as an open, sensitive,

caring human being; and (2) that the most effective learning

takes place in situations in which a person is actively

working in the area of study.








The core skills taught are those which deal with those

competencies that should be possessed by persons working in

a human services agency. These skills include interviewing

and therapeutic skills, knowledge of community resources and

community dynamics, process recording and psychopathology.

Fieldwork competencies deal with skills related to working

directly with people and the student's ability to apply the

knowledge he has obtained. Fieldwork skills include con-

ducting on-going counseling and in-take interviews, working

with groups, case management activities, client advocacy, out-

reach and any other activities that human service agencies

require of their counselors.

In addition to their other courses, students are

required to take a minimum of 18 hours of general education,

including mathematics, science, communications, humanities

and social and behavioral sciences. At the completion of

this curriculum students are awarded an A.S. degree in Human

Services work.


Counselor Behavior Variables

Rogers (1957) presented an organized theoretical formu-

lation in which he hypothesized that three characteristics

of the counselor, when adequately communicated to the client,

are both necessary and sufficient conditions for construc-

tive personality and behavior change. These are: (1)

empathic understanding of the client by the counselor; (2)








unconditional positive regard for the client by the coun-

selor; and (3) the genuineness or self-congruence of the

counselor in the counseling relationship. The improvement

of the counselor's position and professional status is the

major stimulus for the present research.

To achieve a more effective level of counseling Truax

and Carkhuff (1967) have elaborated upon the position of

Rogers and sought to describe the process of effective

counseling and/or interpersonal functioning more specifi-

cally. They proposed a model which brings together many

theoretical orientations:

Despite the bewildering array of divergent
theories and the difficulty in translating
concepts from the language of one theory to
that of another, several common threads
weave their way through almost every major
theory of psychotherapy and counseling,
including psychoanalytic, client centered,
behavioristic, and many of the more eclectic
and derivative theories. In one way or
another all have emphasized the importance
of the therapist's ability to be integrated,
mature, genuine, authentic or congruent in
his relationship to the patient. They have
all stressed the importance of the thera-
pist's ability to provide a non-threatening,
trusting, safe or secure atmosphere by
acceptance, non-possessive warmth, uncon-
ditional positive regard or love. Finally,
virtually all theories of psychotherapy
emphasize that for the therapist to be
helpful he must be accurately empathic, be
"with" the client, be understanding, or
grasp the patient's meaning.
These sets of characteristics can for
lack of better words be termed accurate
empathy, non-possessive warmth and genuine-
ness. (Truax & Carkhuff, 1967, p. 25)








The evidence of a growing number of studies (Carkhuff,

1968; Truax & Carkhuff, 1967: Luborsky, Auerback, Chandler,

Cohen, & Backrach, 1971) strongly indicate that therapists

who exhibit more of the aforementioned conditions are

significantly more helpful in terms of client growth, while

those who provide low levels of these conditions are

actually harmful.


Meditation

One technique that shows great promise for enhancing

the positive personality characteristics of counselors is

meditation. Meditation is increasingly becoming a subject

of empirical study. Research in meditation indicates that

behaviors derived from such practices are compatible with

and facilitative of counselor behaviors as taught in the

traditional and developing schools of counseling and psycho-

therapy (Keefe, 1973).

Investigations of meditation have yielded interesting

results. A variety of psychological and physiological

changes are reported in research studies cited by the Tran-

scendental Meditation Society and reviewed by Bloomfield,

Cain and Jaffe (1975), Kanellakos and Ferguson (1973),

Kanellakos and Lukas (1974), Wallace (1970a, 1970b), and

Wallace, Benson and Wilson (1971).

Of most interest to psychotherapists is that meditation

has been found to be productive of enhanced empathic ability

(Keefe, 1976) and correlates highly with measures of

enhanced interpersonal functioning (Lesh, 1970).









A technique of meditation that is highly valuable for

future research and which has been adapted for use in the

present study is one described by Benson (1975) called the

Relaxation Response (RR). This method is best suited for

research because it is well standardized and therefore makes

possible further studies under uniform conditions. In

addition, it is easily learned so that experience is

developed after only a short period of training. Furthermore,

learning the technique does not involve adherence to any

specific religion, belief system or life style.



Hypotheses


The present researcher agrees that accurate empathy,

genuineness and respect are necessary characteristics of

effective counselors and that any process which increases

these characteristics in an individual is contributing to

the development of a more effective counselor. This is true

whether the candidate is a paraprofessional or a fully certi-

fied professional. Furthermore, meditation appears to be a

technique which can contribute to counselor effectiveness

by enhancing the positive personality characteristics

mentioned above.

On the basis of these assumptions, the following

hypotheses were tested. The hypothesis for the study related

to four dimensions for measuring the subject's ability to

relate interpersonally and one dimension measuring the








subject's level of self-actualization. Three hypotheses

(one major and two minor) were concerned with each of the

dimensions. The major hypotheses were statements of no

difference between groups. The minor hypotheses were state-

ments of no difference within each treatment group.

Hypothesis 1: Self-Actualization

H1 There will be no significant difference between
subjects in the RR* and NRR** groups on self-
actualization as measured by the Personal
Orientation Inventory.

H1A There will be no significant gain in self-
actualization for subjects in the RR group.
H1B There will be no significant gain in self-
actualization for subjects in the NRR group.

Hypothesis 2: Affective/Cognitive

H2 There will be no significant difference in gain
between subjects in the RR and NRR groups on the
feeling level of the responses to the clients.

H2A There will be no significant gain in feeling
level of the responses to their clients for
subjects in the RR group.
H2B There will be no significant gain in feeling
level in the responses to their clients for
subjects in the NRR group.

Hypothesis 3: Understanding/Nonunderstanding

H3 There will be no significant difference in gain
between subjects in the RR and the NRR groups in
understanding of client responses.

H3A There will be no significant gain in under-
standing of client responses for subjects
in the RR group.




*RR trained in Relaxation Response (experimental
group) .
**NRR no training in Relaxation Response (control
group).








H3B There will be no significant gain in under-
standing of client responses for subjects
in the NRR group.

Hypothesis 4: Specific/Nonspecific

H4 There will be no significant difference in gain
between subjects in the RR and the NRR groups in
the degree of specificity of responses to their
clients.

H4A There will be no significant gain in the
degree of specificity of responses to
clients for subjects in the RR group.
H4B There will be no significant gain in the
degree of specificity of responses to
clients for subjects in the NRR group.

Hypothesis 5: Exploratory/Nonexploratory

H5 There will be no significant difference in gain
between subjects in the RR and the NRR groups in
ability to give responses that lead clients to
further self-exploration.

H5A There will be no significant gain in
ability to give responses that lead
clients to further self-exploration for
subjects in the RR group.
H5B There will be no significant gain in
ability to give responses that lead
clients to further self-exploration for
subjects in the NRR group.


Need for the Study


The ideas generated by Carkhuff and Truax have been of

great value to the field of counseling in describing how

the effective helper interacts with his client. However,

Bergin (1966), Carkhuff (1969a, 1969b), and Truax and

Carkhuff (1967) have all advocated the need for more re-

search investigating ways of developing more positive per-

sonality characteristics of counselors.





9


The research herein presented is an attempt to assist

in the fulfillment of the need for aiding counselors in

providing the therapeutic and facilitative conditions

requisite of client growth by enhancing personal functioning

through meditation.















CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED RESEARCH



The review of pertinent research is divided into the

following four areas: (1) Counselor-offered conditions

contributing to client growth; (2) Facilitative condition

and Personality; (3) Psychological effects of meditation,

and (4) Theory of meditation.



Counselor-offered Conditions, Personality
and Client Growth


In 1952 and 1961 Eysenck published research which

seemed to deny the value of counseling and psychotherapy

(Eysenck, 1952, 1961). These controversial articles caused

those who were convinced of the benefits of counseling to

try to find ways to show its effectiveness. Part of what

they found was that there were some factors that could be

isolated which distinguished effective from ineffective

therapists. These ingredients Rogers calls the "necessary

and sufficient conditions" for therapeutic change (Rogers,

1961). These necessary and sufficient conditions have become

the basis for the scales measuring counselor effectiveness

that Truax developed (Truax, 1961b, 1962a, 1962b).








Since the early 1960's Truax, Carkhuff and others have

conducted research on therapist and client variables that

have accounted for positive outcomes in therapy (Truax &

Carkhuff, 1967; Carkhuff, 1966; Carkhuff, 1969a; Carkhuff

& Berenson, 1967).

The Truax and Carkhuff research findings can be

summarized as follows:

(1) Individuals possessing such personal character-

istics as empathic understanding, nonpossessive

warmth and genuineness can effect positive

changes in clients. They can also rapidly

develop more sophisticated therapeutic skills.

(2) Counselors who have the facilitative inter-

personal qualities effect therapeutic changes

without fully understanding the complexities of

personality dynamics.

(3) Lengthy professional training is not a pre-

requisite for effective functioning as a

therapist.

(4) Paraprofessionals with limited training can be

just as effective as professionals in facilitat-

ing client change over relatively short periods

of time.

Piaget, Berenson, and Carkhuff (1967) found that high-

functioning therapists elicited higher levels of client

self-exploration than did moderate-functioning therapists.








The higher the initial level of client self-exploration,

the more elevated it becomes in the presence of a high-

functioning therapist, whereas the moderate to poor thera-

pist had his most deleterious effects on clients with

initially low levels of self-exploration. When therapists

intentionally lowered their levels of functioning during the

middle third of the interview, the self-exploration of those

clients of moderate-functioning therapists were more

seriously lowered and the moderate-functioning therapists

appeared less able to reestablish the earlier exhibited

level of facilitative conditions.

Cannon and Pierce (1968) designed a two-way study to

check on the effect of lowered and heightened facilitative

conditions. The therapists saw three patients in a 45

minute interview. Group I therapists offered Hi-Low-Hi

conditions and Group II therapists offered Low-Hi-Low con-

ditions. Results indicate that the clients explored them-

selves more deeply (p<.05) when the therapists offered

high-level conditions.

Holder (1968) found that high-functioning helpers have

clients who engage in significantly fewer (p<.05) topics

and engage in each topic for approximately 20 minutes. The

study compared nine high rated versus nine low rated inter-

viewers.









In studying the effects of these conditions in other

settings Aspy (1965) found that students receiving rela-

tively high levels of empathic understanding, warmth and

genuineness from teachers gained significantly in reading

achievement (p<.01). Truax and Tatum (1966) found that

observer ratings of facilitative behavior of teachers were

significantly correlated with increased socialization and

adjustment of their students. Thus, the above mentioned

conditions seem to be important for facilitative teacher-

child relationships as well as counselor-client

relationships.




Facilitative Conditions and Personality


A few research investigations have attempted to study

the relationships between particular personality charac-

teristics of counselors and their ability to offer the

therapeutic conditions previously mentioned.

Bergin and Solomon (1963) found that the Depression

(p<.05) and Psychasthenia (p<.01) scale of the Minnesota

Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) correlated

negatively with ratings of therapist empathy. The Consist-

ency, Intraception and Order Scale of the Edwards Personal

Preference Schedule (EPPS) were negatively correlated and

Dominance and Change were positively correlated with empathy.

All correlations were statistically significant (p<.05).









Foulds (1967) found significant positive relation-

ships between self-actualization measures, the Personal

Orientation Inventory (POI), and counselor trainees' ability

to offer conditions of empathy and genuineness at the end

of their practicum. This research found six POI scales

related to empathy and 10 to 12 scales related to

genuineness. Therefore, as measured by these scales,

positive mental health is related to the provision of a

positive therapeutic condition.

Truax and Carkhuff (1967, pp. 233-235) cite the

unpublished findings of Truax, Silber, and Wargo (1966)

of the correlation between counselor offered conditions of

empathic understanding, positive regard and genuineness

with EPPS scores. In this study the MMPI and the EPPS were

administered to 16 graduate students in counseling before

and after experiencing an integrated didactic and experi-

ential approach to training (Truax & Carkhuff, 1967).

Tape recorded counseling sessions were made early and late

in the training program and were then evaluated with respect

to the trainees' ability to communicate empathic under-

standing, positive regard, and genuineness to their clients.

Students showing high ability to offer these conditions

were then compared with students of lower ability in

demonstrating these conditions. Counselors showing the

greatest ability to provide the therapeutic conditions were









initially lower on the Order, Intraception, and Deference

scales of the EPPS than counselors who showed little or no

gain in ability to offer the therapeutic conditions.

The counselors who scored higher initially in the

Change and Autonomy scales scored even higher on these

scales by the end of the training program. Truax, Silber

and Wargo's findings were highly consistent with the

findings of the previously cited Bergin and Solomon study.

The data gathered from the studies cited above

suggest that the counselor's ability to offer high levels

of therapeutic or facilitative conditions in a counseling

relationship may be dependent on the well-being and

personal adequacy of the counselor. These studies have

indicated that counselors who are anxious, defensive,

conflicted or personally inadequate are least likely to

facilitate constructive behavior change in their clients.

Conversely, there is a positive relationship between the

personal adequacy, authenticity or self-actualization of

the counselor and his ability to facilitate constructive

change in his clients.

These studies emphasize the direct effects of the

helper's interpersonal level of functioning on the helpee.

According to Carkhuff's model, the degree to which the

helping person offers high levels of empathy, positive

regard, and genuineness is related directly to the degree








of the client's ability to internalize these facilitative

conditions into his own personal life. In addition, the

degree to which the action-oriented helpful counselor is

freely, spontaneously, and deeply himself, disclosing of

himself, actively confronting himself and the client,

being in the moment, and taking concrete courses of action

is directly related to the helpee's ability to apply these

same facilitative activities in his own life situation.

Counselor Verbal Responses Approach

Attempts to measure counselor effectiveness through

types and levels of verbal responses given by the counselor

are probably the most widely researched of all the dif-

ferent system of measuring counselor effectiveness. Carkhuff,

Truax, Berenson, and Rogers have been leading researchers

in this area. Their research deals primarily with relating

a set of interpersonal core factors to client gain. These

factors are empathy, unconditional positive regard, con-

gruency, and concreteness. Effectiveness of communication

of these relationship factors is measured through scales

that assess the effectiveness of counselor responses on

those dimensions.

In his model for effective therapy Carkhuff offers

several propositions concerning the effect of facilitative

helper dimensions on the client-counselor interaction. A

review of his two propositions and corollaries seems appro-

priate as the interactional scale used in this study closely









relates to that used by Carkhuff. In Helping and Human

Relations, Volume One, he supports the following statements

with a wide variety of research evidence.

Proposition I. The degree to which the
helping person offers high levels of
facilitative conditions in response to the
expressions of the person seeking help, is
related directly to the degree to which
the person seeking help engages in processes
to constructive change or gain.

Corollary I. The degree to which the helping
person offers high levels of empathic under-
standing of the helpee's world is related
directly to the degree to which the helpee is
able to understand himself and others.

Corollary II. The degree to which the helping
person communicates high levels of respect and
warmth for the helpee and his world is related
directly to the degree to which the helpee is
able to respect and direct warm feelings toward
himself and others.

Corollary III. The degree to which the helper
is helpful in guiding exploration to specific
feelings and content is related directly to
the degree to which the helpee is able to make
concrete his own problem areas.

Corollary IV. The degree to which the helper
is responsively genuine in his relationship
with the helpee is related to the degree to
which the helpee is able to be responsively
genuine in his relationship with himself and
others.

Proposition II. The degree to which the helping
person initiates action-oriented dimensions in
a helping relationship is directly related to
the degree to which the person seeking help
engages in processes that lead to constructive
change or growth.

Corollary I. The degree to which the helper
can be freely, spontaneously and deeply himself,
including the disclosing of significant infor-
mation about himself when appropriate, is








directly related to the degree to which the
helpee is able to be genuine and self-
disclosing in appropriate relationships.

Corollary II. The degree to which the helper
actively confronts the helpee and himself is
directly related to the degree to which the
helpee is able to confront himself and others.

Corollary III. The degree to which the helper
both acts and directs the actions of the
helpee immediately in the present in the
relationship between helper and helpee is re-
lated to the helpee's ability to act with
immediacy and later to direct the actions of
others.

Corollary IV. The degree to which the helper
can make concrete a course of constructive
action is related to the degree to which the
helpee can go on to make concrete courses of
action for himself and others. (Carkhuff,
1969, pp. 84-90)

These statements emphasize the direct effects of the

helper's interpersonal level of function on the helpee.

According to Carkhuff's model, the degree to which the

helping person offers high levels of empathy, warmth, re-

spect, concreteness, and genuineness is related directly to

the degree of the client's ability to internalize these

facilitative conditions into his own personal life. In

addition, the degree to which the action-oriented helpful

counselor is freely, spontaneously, and deeply himself,

disclosing of himself, actively confronting himself and the

client, being with the moment, and making concrete courses

of action is directly related to the helpee's ability to

apply these same facilitative activities in his own life

situation.









The Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS) has been

found to have a .40 positive correlation with the Carkhuff

scales (Schauble, Pierce, & Resnikoff, 1976). Additionally,

it has been found to be more sensitive to small gains in

interpersonal level of functioning and thus more appropriate

for measuring relatively short-term counselor trainee

progress (Schauble, Pierce, & Resnikoff, 1976).



Psychological Effects of Meditation


The research available on meditation suggests that the

technique may be able to increase the degree of positive

personal characteristics needed by professional helpers.

These behaviors include enhanced awareness of one's own

feelings, the ability to hold cognitive processes in abey-

ance, enhanced perception, and increased present centered-

ness. The purpose of this section is to examine some of the

relevant investigations of meditation.

Much of meditation research has been conducted by the

members of the Transcendental Meditation Society (Bloomfield

et al., 1975); therefore, these studies will be reviewed

first.


Transcendental Meditation

Most of the studies investigating the psychological

effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) have used paper-

and-pencil tests. Some attention has been devoted to the








effects of TM on self-actualization as measured by the POI.

In the first such study (Seeman, Nidich, & Banta, 1972)

meditators and nonmeditators were administered the POI two

months apart. For the TM group, the first administration

took place two days prior to instruction in TM. There were

no differences between these groups on the first administra-

tion. But upon retesting the meditators scored significantly

higher (p<.05) than nonmeditators on 6 of the 12 scales

(inner directedness,self-actualizing value, spontaneity,

self-regard, acceptance of aggression, and capacity for

intimate contact). In a second study using the same design

Nidich, Seeman, and Dreskin (1973) found similar differences

in 10 of the 12 POI scales.

The differences found in these two studies were thought

to have been influenced by expectancy, that is, the experi-

mental subjects expected to experience positive personality

changes from the practice of meditation, whereas nonmedita-

tors had no such expectation of change. Hjelle (1974), in

order to test for this possibility, compared two groups of

experienced meditators (meditating average of 22.6 months)

and novice meditators who were tested a week prior to being

instructed in TM. Experienced meditators scored higher on

7 of the 12 POI scales (inner directedness, time competence,

spontaneity, self-regard, self-actualizing value, feeling

reactivity, and capacity for intimate contact. The findings

of Seeman et al. (1972) were supported by this study on five








scales (inner directedness, spontaneity, self-regard, self-

actualizing value, and capacity for intimate contact).

This suggests that expectancy may not have made any signifi-

cant difference in accounting for the observed changes.

Russie (1975) suggested that expectancy may be at least

a minor factor in the changes in the POI scores as a result

of TM. Meditators and nonmeditators were tested five months

apart, meditators having been first tested two days prior

to learning TM. After five months, meditators scored

significantly higher than nonmeditators on seven scales

(inner directedness, time competence, self-actualizing value,

feeling reactivity, spontaneity, self-acceptance, and

capacity for intimate contact). Changes on four of these

scales (inner directedness, self-actualizing value,

spontaneity, and capacity for intimate contact) replicated

the findings of both Seeman et al. (1972) and Hjelle (1974).

However, as determined by correlation between subjects'

pretest expectation scores and actual pre- and posttest

differences, a significant positive relationship (p<.04)

was found between prospective meditators' expectations of

positive changes and the results achieved in six of the POI

scales. Thus, while some of the changes in the POI do

appear to be a result of practicing TM, and are replicable,

they do not seem to have resulted entirely from expectancy.

Apparently expectation of change may account for at least

some of the variance in these differences.








Drennen and Chermol (in press) noted that initial

studies of the effects of TM on self-actualization (Seeman

et al., 1972; Nidich et al., 1973) did not control for

possible expectancy or placebo effect. That is, meditators

were not compared with nonmeditators who followed other

practices of regularly sitting quietly. These early studies

compared three groups: meditators, nonmeditators (who were

told to relax following a relaxation training twice a day

for 20 minute periods) and no treatment controls. The POI

was administered prior to instruction and again one month

later. Subjects in all groups showed positive changes on

the second administration of the POI: on 5 scales for the

control group, 6 scales for the TM group, and 9 scales for

the relaxation group. These results were interpreted as

indicating (a) that placebo effects need to be taken into

account in TM research, and (b) that other relaxation tech-

niques may produce changes similar to those resulting from

TM.

Dick and Ragland (1973) administered the POI eight

weeks apart to three groups of subjects who (a) learned TM,

(b) received individual counseling and learned TM, or (c)

received individual counseling and rested quietly for 15

minutes twice each day. Subjects in the latter two groups

were drawn from individuals seeking treatment at a counsel-

ing center and were randomly assigned to groups. Thus,

expectancy was controlled in that subjects in all three








groups expected some improvement, and the relaxation vari-

able was controlled by having control subjects rest twice

daily. The authors predicted that scores of the counseling

plus TM groups would be higher than for the group practicing

TM alone, which in turn, would be higher than the counseling

with rest group. This hypothesis was supported (p<.05) for

the time competence and inner directedness scales. It

appears, then, that TM facilitates certain changes measured

by the POI to a greater extent than expectancy or rest

alone can account for.

Research to date indicates that the regular practice of

TM certainly results in significantly positive changes in

self-actualization as measured by the POI. However, it is

quite possible that there may be other relaxation techniques

which produce similar changes. Transcendental meditation

has not been shown to be unique in its effects on self-

actualization as measured by the POI.


Relaxation Response

Another method of meditation which lends itself well

to research is that described by Benson. It is called the

Relaxation Response (RR). Beary and Benson (1974) have

provided evidence that RR is effective in eliciting the

relaxation response as defined by Benson and his colleagues

(Benson, 1975; Benson, Beary, & Carol, 1974; Wallace,

Benson, & Wilson, 1971). Seventeen subjects, each serving

as his own control, learned RR by reading instructions from








a sheet of paper. Subjects were novices at this technique.

Expectancy was minimized by telling subjects that only the

physiology of relaxation was being investigated. During

the experiment, subjects practiced RR during 1 of 5 consecu-

tive periods of 12 minutes each. During control periods

subjects either sat quietly and read material of neutral

emotional content or sat with eyes closed. Subjects were

randomly assigned to two sequences. Oxygen consumption,

carbon dioxide production and respiration rate were measured.

All three were significantly lower during the RR period

than during control periods. These results were interpreted

as indicating changes resulting from RR.

While the research on the effects of RR has been very

limited, especially with regard to psychological data,

initial findings suggest that the physiological and emo-

tional states produced by RR are similar to if not the same

as those associated with TM. Further, the regular practice

of RR may have beneficial long-term effects. This new

technique offers the opportunity for more highly controlled

studies of meditation.


Meditation in Theory

Three theories, two psychological and one physiological,

have been put forth to account for the effects of meditation.

Psychoanalytic Derepression

Initiates to TM (and to certain other forms of medi-

tation) are repeatedly reminded of the need for effortlessness.








That is, during meditation extraneous thoughts are not to

be resisted any more than they are to be attended to

closely; rather, such thoughts are to be allowed to occur

dispassionately. In practice, while a mantra is being re-

peated this effortless dealing with extraneous thoughts

amounts of noninterfering observation. Naranjo (1971) has

compared this observation to the activity of the second

witness (the therapist) to free associations of a patient

in the psychoanalytic situation. With repeated meditations,

resistance to the awareness of certain thoughts becomes

weakened, and such thoughts become increasingly spontaneous.

Shaffii (1973) has compared the meditation and psycho-

analytic processes in detail. Two major events are common

to both. The reexperiencing of psychic traumas during

meditation frees psychic energy for present uses. This

amounts to bringing repressed thoughts into consciousness

and transcending the conflicts related to them. The repeti-

tion of such events leads gradually to a controlled regres-

sion to a nonverbal stage of development, at which point

traumatic experiences can be resolved internally at a level

deeper than verbal or cognitive processes permit. The major

difference between psychoanalysis and meditation is that the

former emphasizes verbalization and the latter silence. The

therapeutic aspects of both processes are seen to be the

same.









Generalized Desensitization

A second theory, behavioral in nature, is quite com-

patible with the first. Goleman (1971, 1974), noting the

similarity between the relaxation states produced by both

meditation and relaxation training, has compared meditation

with systematic desensitization. In the latter, a hierarchy

of images troublesome to a patient is presented to him by a

therapist while he is relaxed, beginning with the least

anxiety-producing images and ending with the most trouble-

some. Anxiety responses are thereby inhibited by the

association of relaxation with stimuli. In meditation, the

contents of the mind (both verbalizations and imagery) are

presented to consciousness in a self-regulated manner while

the meditator is relaxed. As troublesome thoughts occur,

anxiety is inhibited by the association of relaxation with

such thoughts. While this occurs in a less systematic

manner than in desensitization, the hierarchy is optimally

salient to the individual. Meditation is seen as a slower

and less efficient means to the same end, but perhaps a more

thorough one in that items in the hierarchy are not limited

to those selected by therapist and patient.

The Relaxation Response (RR)

A third theory, compatible with both of the above

theories, is based on the physiological correlates of

meditation. Benson (1975) and Benson et al. (1974) have

theorized that the physiological changes associated

with meditation constitute "an integrated hypothalamic








response which results in generalized decreased sympathetic

nervous system activity, and perhaps also increased para-

sympathetic activity" (Benson et al., 1974, p. 37). This

relaxation response is the counterpart of the flight-or-

fight response of extreme arousal. The latter is also an

integrated response, mediated by the sympathetic nervous

system and characterized by increased arousal and body

metabolism, which is elicited by and prepares an organism

for dealing with a threatening situation or set of stimuli.

Because civilized man is socially reinforced for

inhibiting literal fight-or-flight responses, the repeated

elicitation of the fight-or-flight response in varying

degrees results in the accumulation of stress at a physio-

logical level, and probably at other levels as well. A

person thus may become less efficient with time due to ever-

accumulating stress. The regular elicitation of the

relaxation response, which TM and other forms of meditation

provide, serves both to release accumulated stresses and

to prevent further accumulation. This may result in the

alleviation and prevention of physical, mental, and emotional

symptoms that are produced by stress.

French and Tupin (1973, 1974) and Benson (1975a and b)

have developed procedures designed to elicit the relaxation

response in a manner similar to that of TM and other forms

of meditation. The latter procedure is the only one to

have been researched in a controlled manner.








Benson (1975b) reported that his technique for elicit-

ing the relaxation response was developed by comparing the

various practices of meditation, yoga, prayer, and secular

relaxation practices. Four essential components were found

to be common to these practices: (a) a mental device con-

sisting of some constant stimulus upon which attention is

focused; (b) a passive attitude (i.e., not trying to relax

and not worrying about whether the technique is being

practiced correctly); (c) decreased muscle tonus, which

necessitates a posture conducive to relaxation; and (d) a

quiet environment in which outside stimuli are minimal. The

procedure for eliciting the relaxation response, as de-

scribed by Benson (1975), consists of having a person sit

quietly in a comfortable position, close his eyes, relax all

the body muscles (beginning with the feet and progressing

upward to the face), and once relaxation is attained, repeat

silently to himself the word "ONE" in conjunction with each

respiratory exhalation.


Elements of Meditation

Beary and Benson (1974) have provided evidence that

this technique of meditation is effective in eliciting the

relaxation response as defined by Benson and his colleagues

(Benson, 1975; Benson et al., 1975; Wallace et al., 1971).

Seventeen subjects, each serving as his own control, learned

RR by reading instructions from a sheet of paper. Prior to

being studied, practice had been limited to one hour, so








that subjects were relative novices at the technique.

Expectancy was minimized by telling subjects only that the

physiology of relaxation was being investigated. During the

experiment, subjects practiced the RR during 1 of 5 con-

secutive periods of 12 minutes each. During control periods,

subjects either sat quietly and read material of neutral

emotional content or sat with eyes closed. Subjects were

randomly assigned to two sequences. Oxygen consumption,

carbon dioxide production, and respiration rate were meas-

ured. All three were significantly lower during the RR

period than during control periods, and sitting with eyes

closed resulted in no differences from sitting and reading.

There is also evidence that the regular practice of RR

may have long-term physiological effects. Benson (1975b;

Beary & Benson, 1974) reported that the regular practice of

RR has been found to be associated with decreased blood

pressure in hypertensive patients and increased blood pres-

sure in hypotensive patients. Benson, Alexander, and

Feldman (1975) found that the regular practice of RR after

four weeks reduced premature ventricular contractions in

patients with ischaemic heart disease during both wakeful-

ness and sleep.

The previously cited research of Benson et al. (1975)

and Benson et al. (1974) have provided evidence that this

technique of meditation is effective in eliciting the relax-

ation response as defined by Benson (1975). The results of




30


these studies were interpreted as indicating changes

resulting from the RR were similar to those resulting from

TM.














CHAPTER III

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND PROCEDURES



This chapter discusses the experimental design used in

the study and the major considerations involved. It in-

cludes a description of the training program, the study

population, the hypotheses advanced, and the criterion

instruments employed. In addition, the chapter provides

an explanation of experimental procedures used in the

investigation.



Experimental Design


This study employed the pretest-posttest control group

design which included the following procedure:

1) the administration of a pretest to both groups;

2) administration of treatment to the experimental

group, but not the control group, and

3) administration of a posttest to both groups.

Students were assigned to groups by means of their

Personal Data Sheets collected during the orientation ses-

sion. Each data sheet was numbered inconspiciously 1, 2,

or 3 and distributed at the orientation session. Subjects







whose sheets numbered 1 or 2 became the experimental group

and those numbered 3 became the control group. However,

these numbers were known only to the experimenter.


Population

A group of paraprofessional counselor students in their

first term at the Santa Fe Community College Human Services

Department was selected to be the subjects of this study.

Out of a total of 36 students in the program, 28 volunteered

initially. Two students dropped out of the Human Services

program after two weeks and 4 dropped out of this study as

subjects. The total number of subjects completing the

study was 22 (see demographic data sheet, Appendix C).


Subjects' Demographic Data

Sex--The sexual composition of the groups are as

follows: the experimental group had 9 females and 5 males.

The control group had 4 females and 4 males.

Race--The experimental group had 11 whites and 3 blacks.

The control group had 4 whites and 4 blacks.

Age--The figures for the total sample are: mean 26,

range 19-52, mode 21, and median 23. The figures for the

experimental group are: mean 27, range 19-52, mode 21, and

median 23. The figures for the control group are: mean 24,

range 19-38, mode 21, and median 22.








Marital status

Experimental Group Control Group

Single 42.8% 37.5%

Married 21.4% 12.5%

Separated, divorced
or widowed 35.8% 50.0%



Research Instruments


The instruments used in this study were: the Personal

Orientation Inventory (POI) (Shostrom, 1966) and the Coun-

selor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS) (Kagan & Krathwohl, 1967).



Assessment of Self-Actualization


The psychological construct, "self-actualization," has

been used by personality theorists such as Combs (1962),

Maslow (1954, 1962), Rogers (1961), and others. Counselors,

psychotherapists, personality theorists, and researchers

have felt a need for a comprehensive measure of values and

behavior seen to be of importance in the development of

self-actualization. Shostrom (1964, 1966) developed the

Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) to meet this need.

Most diagnostic instruments have been developed for use with

seriously disturbed psychiatric populations, and they

attempt to provide measures of the subjects' pathology.

This is a negative approach to personality assessment.







Shostrom (1966) appears to use the terms self-actualization,

fully functioning, and positive mental health synonymously.

A description of the POI is presented below.


Personal Orientation Inventory (POI)

The POI is an instrument developed by Shostrom (1964,

1966) which purports to provide a comprehensive measure of

values believed to be of importance in the development of

self-actualization or positive mental health. The POI con-

sists of 150 two-choice paired-opposite statements of values,

and scores are reported for 2 major scales and 10

secondary scales which purport to assess particular person-

ality characteristics considered to be associated with self-

actualization. The POI purports to assess a person's

position on a continuum for each of the following personality

variables.

Major Scales:

Time Competence (Tc): measures the degree to
which one is "present" oriented.

2. Inner Direction (I): measures whether reactivity
orientation is basically toward self or others.

Secondary Scales:

1. Self-Actualizing Values (SAV): measures affirma-
tion of values held by self-actualizing persons.

2. Existertiality (Ex): measures ability to
situationally or existentially react without
rigid adherence to principles.

3. Feeling Reactivi t (Fr): measures sensitivity of
responsiveness to one's own needs and feelings.








4. Spontaneity (S): measures freedom to react
spontaneously or to be oneself.

5. Self-Regard (Sr): measures affirmation of worth
or strength.

6. Self-Acceptance (Sa): measures affirmation or
acceptance of self in spite of weaknesses or
deficiencies.

7. View of the Nature of Man (Nc): measures degree
of the constructive view of the nature of man,
masculinity, femininity.

8. Synergy (Sy): measures ability to be synergistic,
to transcend dichotomies.

9. Acceptance of Aggression (A): measures ability to
accept one's natural aggressiveness as opposed to
defensiveness, denial, or repression of aggression.

10. Capacity for Intimate Contact (C): measures
ability to develop contactful intimate relation-
ships with other human beings, unencumbered by
expectations and obligations.

The POI is essentially self-administered. The ques-

tions are printed in a reusable test booklet, and the

examinee records his answers on a specially designed answer

sheet. There is no time limit set for completion of the

inventory. Testing time is usually about 30 to 40 minutes.

The POI was validated on 650 freshmen at Los Angeles

State College, 75 members of a sensitivity training program

at UCLA, and 15 school psychologists in a special training

program. Retested after training, the latter two groups

showed definite growth in inner directedness.

The POI was also tested on three other groups: 160

normal adults, 29 relatively self-actualized adults, and

34 relatively nonself-actualized adults nominated by the








clinical psychology societies of Orange and Los Angeles

Counties, California. The test does discriminate between

self-actualized and nonself-actualized persons on 11 of 12

scales according to Shostrom (1964).

Robert Knapp (1965) compared the POI with the Eysenck

Personality Inventory (EPI). The EPI measures neuroticism-

stability and extraversion-introversion. High- and low-

neurotic students were selected from 136 undergraduates on

the basis of their EPI and correlated with the POI. Low-

neurotic students tended toward self-actualization as did

extroverted students. The POI and EPI are from different

theoretical frames of reference but seem to be tapping a

common core. Shostrom and Knapp (1956) correlated the POI

with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

and found high correlations between the POI and the Social

I.E. (SI) and Depression (D) scales of the MMPI.

The POI manual gives high reliability correlations of

.91 to .93. An independent retest (50 week interval) study

gave a much more modest correlation of .55 for the Time

Competent (Tc) scale and .71 for the Inner Directed (I)

scale. The mean correlation for the subscales was .58.

Although this is not as high as would be desirable, it is

well within the range of reliability similarly established

for the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule and the MMPI

(Ilardi & May, 1968). On the basis of the above studies

it was felt that the POI would be a valid instrument for the

present research.








Counselor Verbal Response Scale (CVRS)

The CVRS purports to describe a counselor's response to

client communication in terms of four dichotomized dimen-

sions: (a) affective-cognitive; (b) understanding-

nonunderstanding; (c) specific-nonspecific; (d) exploratory-

nonexploratory. A fifth dimension, effective-noneffective,

provides a global rating of the adequacy of each response

which is made independently of the four descriptive ratings.

For the purposes of this study the first four dimensions

were used.

The unit of analysis was the verbal interaction between

counselor and client represented by a client statement and

counselor response. A counselor response is rated on each

of the four dimensions of the rating scale, with every

client-counselor interaction being judged independently of

preceding units. In judging an individual response, the

primary focus is on describing how the counselor responded

to the verbal elements of the client's communication. The

procedure is based upon the theories of Carl Rogers and

theories and research of Truax and Carkhuff.

The CVRS consists of five forced choice dichotomous

dimensions measuring the extent to which counselors are

characterized by affective, understanding, specific, explor-

atory, and effective responses. The dimensions are defined

as follows: An affective response is one which makes

reference to or encourages some affective or feeling aspect







of the client's communication while a cognitive response

refers to the cognitive component of a client's statement;

understanding refers to the counselor's ability to convey

to the client his awareness of, and his sensitivity to, the

client's feelings and concerns by attempting to deal with

the core of his concerns rather than making vague responses

or referring to peripheral concerns; exploratory responses

encourage the client to explore his feelings and provide

him with an opportunity to do so. Nonexploratory responses

typically restrict the client's freedom to explore. The

final dimension, effective-noneffective, is a global rating

of overall effectiveness of a counselor's response in

promoting client movement. A sample rating sheet can be

found in Appendix B.

Inter-judge reliability was determined by applying

Hoyt's analysis of variance technique to the ratings of two

sets of judges who had rated the videotaped interviews of

50 inexperienced M.A. candidates in Counseling and Guidance

at Michigan State University. Corresponding four minute

segments were rated for 53 counselors (the post tape of one

of the M.A. candidates was lost). Of the 53, 45 were M.S.

candidates and 8 Ph.D. candidates, and they interviewed the

same coached client. Because timed segments with unequal

numbers of responses were used, ratings were converted to

proportionate scores. Corresponding 20 response segments

were rated for the remaining 10 counseling interviews.








Coefficients were obtained of average tape inter-judge

reliability of .84, .80, .79, .68, and .79 for the affective-

cognitive, understanding-nonunderstanding, specific-

nonspecific, exploratory-nonexploratory, and effective-

noneffective dimensions of the scale, respectively (Kagan &

Krathwohl, 1967).

These scales have been validated on 53 counselor educa-

tion trainees. Forty-five of these trainees were M.A. candi-

dates and 8 were Ph.D. candidates. Tapes of counseling

interviews from each of the trainees were collected and

rated using the CVRS. On each dimension of the scale signif-

icances (p<.01) were found between the responses of the Ph.D.

candidates and the M.A. candidates, with the former having

more responses rated as affective, understanding, specific,

exploratory, and effective (Kagan & Krathwohl, 1967). When

separate ratings were made of 10 counselors with M.A.'s

having some advanced training and counseling experience and

were compared to the ratings of the 53 trainees, the

response pattern of these counselors fell between those of

the M.A. and the Ph.D. candidates (Kagan & Krathwohl, 1967).

Other validation studies have been conducted by Kagan and

Krathwohl (1967, pp. 84-90).

The CVRS differs from other rating scales in that it

focuses on a series of individual client/counselor verbal

units (client statement . counselor response) during the

course of an interview, rather than on global ratings of









entire interviews or longer interview segments. Thus, the

judge is required to describe every counselor response to

a client's verbalization on each of the dimensions of the

scale. After 20 counselor responses have been dichotomized

on each dimension, totals are obtained. A sample rating

record sheet can be found in Appendix B.

These scales have been validated through several

studies presented by Kagan and Krathwohl (1967, pp. 84-90).

Ratings in this scale have also been found to have a

positive correlation with the Carkhuff scales (Schauble,

Pierce & Resnikoff, 1976). These scales have also been

validated in extensive process and outcome research in

counseling and psychotherapy (Truax & Carkhuff, 1967).

(Refer to Appendix B.)


Demographic questionnaire

The demographic questionnaire or personal data sheet

was intended to elicit personal information so that com-

parisons could be made between the two sample groups. This

questionnaire was developed by the Human Services Department

of Santa Fe Community College as a student data sheet. A

sample of this form may be found in Appendix E.



Collection of Data


Initial Data

In an orientation session during the first week of

classes for the winter semester 1977, 26 students








volunteering for this study from the Human Services Program

were pretested using the POI. At this time they also filled

out a student data sheet. After completion of the POI the

subjects were given a cassette tape and asked to make a 30

minute taped interview with a student in their class acting

as a client who would share a problem with the subject

acting as counselor. These tapes were made during class

time with other students.


Selection and Training of Raters

Research on the selection of raters suggest that both

raters' level of functioning and raters' training by a

qualified professional are a significant influence on dis-

crimination scores (Cannon & Carkhuff, 1969), and that

persons functioning below minimal facilitation levels (level

3) would not be capable of accurate ratings. While the

CVRS used in this research employs a dichotomous rating

assignment, the training and rating procedure are essentially

the same.

Four raters were selected from a group of graduate

students in counseling psychology. Those individuals were

functioning at above minimal levels of facilitative inter-

action, as judged by independent ratings of their own tapes

as helpers. The training of the raters was conducted by a

Counseling Psychologist, at the University of Florida's

Counseling Center, who is experienced in using the process

scales.








A pair of trained judges individually rated pre- and

postinterview segments with respect to the CVRS. For the

CVRS scale a 10 minute segment from each tape was selected.

A 5 minute segment in the first half and a 5 minute segment

in the second half of each counseling tape were used.

Raters started rating the first response after the first

minute of the interview. Then they advanced the tape to

the middle and rated the following 5 minute segment.


Relaxation Response (RR) Training

All subjects attended a general meeting during the

second week of the semester and the counseling tapes were

collected. At this time the experimental group was told to

remain for further training in the RR. Students in the

control group met separately and were told they would learn

the RR at the end of the semester.

The researcher then instructed the 14 experimental

group subjects in the RR in three phases, in a manner

similar to that described by Benson (1975).

Phase 1. Instructions:

Find a comfortable position. Close your eyes,

Deeply relax your muscles as you repeat inter-

nally, "I relax my feet . I relax my calves

S. .etc." Beginning at your feet and pro-

gressing up to your face--feet, calves, thighs,

lower torso, chest, shoulders, neck, head. Allow

them to remain deeply relaxed. Now breathe








through your nose and feel your breathing.

(Students practiced this for 2 minutes.)

Phase 2. Instructions:

Sit comfortably with your eyes closed for a

moment Open our eyes . Close the eyes

SOpen the eyes . Were you aware of

thoughts during the silence? Did you notice

how easily and naturally they came? This is

how easily you should think of the sound "So"

as you breathe in and "Hum" as you breathe out.

Now close your eyes again and begin repeating the

sound "So" each time you breathe in and "Hum"

each time you breathe out. Slowly open the eyes.

(Student practiced this for 5 minutes.)

Phase 3. Instructions:

This is the way to do the RR. Remember, don't

resist thoughts or sounds, but when they occur,

gently allow your mind to return to the sound

"So" when breathing in and "Hum" when breathing

out. Remember to wait about half a minute with

eyes closed before beginning to practice and take

a couple of minutes to open your eyes after you

finish. Are there any questions? (At this point

questions that may arise are answered and sub-

jects are given an opportunity to discuss their

experience with RR.)









Before the training session ended subjects were given

written instructions to take with them (Appendix A) on how

to bring forth the relaxation response.

Students were then reminded to practice the RR daily

for the duration of the semester and were given a calendar

to record the time and days they practiced (Appendix C).


Posttest

A date and time were set for posttesting in 10 weeks.

At that time all subjects were given the POI for the second

time. Subjects were given a second cassette tape to record

a posttest counseling tape to be submitted the following

week.

Upon receiving all the tapes, the control group was

trained during the last week of the semester in the RR in

the manner described above.


CVRS Data Collection

At the conclusion of the semester all pre- and post-

tapes which had been collected by the experimenter were sent

to the University of Florida Counseling Center for analyses

on the CVRS scale by a trained set of raters (see section on

Selection and Training of Raters, page 41 above) and sub-

sequently returned to the experimenter.


Statistical Design

The criterion instruments were administered to the

subjects in both experimental and control groups prior to








and after the first semester of training in the Human

Services Program. Analysis of the POI score employed the

Mann-Whitney U test. The Mann-Whitney U test may be used

to test whether two independent groups have been drawn from

the same population. This is one of the most powerful of

the nonparametric tests, and it is a most useful alternative

to the parametric "t" test when the researcher wishes to

avoid the "t" test's assumptions, or when the measurement

in the research is weaker than interval scaling (Siegel,

1956). However, for purposes of comparing the results, the

traditional "t" test was also made on the POI scores and

those results are also shown. The analysis of the CVRS data

employs the "t" test as well as cross-tabular analysis of

the CVRS scores converted to percentage figures.














CHAPTER IV

RESULTS OF THE STUDY



The purpose of this study was to investigate the

effect of the Relaxation Response on the personality charac-

teristics of paraprofessional counselors. In the first

part of this chapter, the analyses of the data relevant to

the hypothesis are reported. In the second part of the

chapter, additional analyses are summarized.

Two instruments were used to measure and evaluate 16

variables in a pre-post test design. Five major hypotheses

and 10 minor hypotheses were concerned with each of the

variables. The major hypotheses were statements of no

difference between groups. The minor hypotheses were

statements of no difference within each treatment group.

The ManrnWhitney U was used to test measures of Self-

Actualization as was the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic

and the "t" test statistic. The "t" test statistic was

used to test the significance of changes in proportion of

facilitative responses on the CVRS.









Testing of the Hypothesis


Hypothesis 1: Self-Actualization

Hypothesis H1: There will be no significant dif-

ference in gain in self-actualization between subjects in

the RR (experimental) and in the NRR (control) groups as

measured by the POI.

A summary of the analysis of the posttest POI scores

relevant to this hypothesis is found in Table 1. Because

of the significant gains (p<.05) made in five of the scales

(Other, Inner, Existentiality, Spontaneity, Self-Acceptance,

and Acceptance of Aggression) the hypothesis H1 was rejected.

Hypothesis H A: There will be no significant gain in

self-actualization for RR (experimental) group subjects.

A summary of the analysis of the Experimental Group

pretest vs posttest scores relevant to this hypothesis is

found in Table 2. Because of the significant gains in the

Inner Directed, Spontaneity, Self-Regard and the Self-

Acceptance scales (see Table 2 for the relevant confidence

levels) hypothesis HIA was rejected.

Hypothesis HIB: There will be no significant gain in

self-actualization for subjects in the NRR (control) group.

A summary of the analysis of the Control Group pretest

vs posttest POI scores relevant to this hypothesis is found

in Table 3. Because of the lack of significant gains in

the scales hypothesis H1B was accepted.












Table 1
Analysis of Posttest POI Scores
Control vs Experimental Groups


Control Experimental Mean
POI symbol** mean S.D. mean S.D. difference U* Significance


Ti 7.88 4.27 6.00 3.08 -1.88 38 NS

Tc 15.13 4.27 17.01 3.08 1.88 38 NS

0 46.13 9.51 34.87 13.33 -11.26 30 p<.05 Exp.
I 79.25 9.48 91.94 13.31 12.69 29 p<.05 Exp.>Cont.

SAV 20.00 2.23 19.93 2.93 .07 49 NS

Ex 17.38 3.66 22.15 5.40 4.77 27 p<.05 Exp.>Cont.

Fr 15.75 2.62 17.57 2.98 1.82 32.5 NS

S 12.38 2.77 14.72 1.81 2.34 31 p<.05 Exp.>Cont.

Sr 11.13 2.36 12.87 2.28 1.74 35 NS

Sa 13.75 2.56 17.86 3.09 -4.11 17 p<.05 Exp.>Cont.

Nc 11.25 2.72 12.29 1.51 1.04 45 NS

Sy 6.25 .94 6.72 1.09 0.47 49.5 NS

A 14.75 1.89 16.51 3.64 1.76 32 NS

C 17.38 4.40 20.37 3.82 2.99 33.5 NS


*Mann-Whitney U.
**See Figure 1 for symbol description













Table 2
Analysis of Experimental Group
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores


Pretest Posttest Mean
POI symbol** mean S.D. mean S.D. difference W* Significance


Ti 6.21 2.77 6.00 3.08 -0.21 42 NS

Tc 16.80 2.77 17.01 3,08 0.21 42 NS

0 39.94 9.60 34.87 13.33 -5.07 29 NS

I 85.43 9.55 91.94 13.31 6.51 26.5 NS

SAV 20.51 2.79 19.93 2.93 -0.58 22 NS

Ex 20.79 3.71 22.15 5.40 1.36 30.5 NS

Fr 16.86 2.72 17.57 2.98 0.71 27 NS

S 13.79 1.67 14.72 1.81 0.93 21 NS

Sr 11.87 2.21 12.87 2.28 1.00 13 p<.05 Post>Pre

Sa 14.79 2.72 17.86 3.09 3.07 20 p<.05 Post>Pre

Nc 12.29 1.54 12.29 1.51 0 38.5 NS

Sy 6.86 1.09 6.72 1.09 .14 8 NS

A 15.87 2.73 16.51 3.64 0.64 40.5 NS

C 19.16 2.43 20.37 3.82 1.21 24.5 NS


*Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic.
**See Figure 1 for symbol description.













Table 3
Analysis of Control Group
Pretest vs Posttest POI Scores


Pretest
POI symbol** mean S.D.


7.88

15.13

43.75

78.00

18.75

17.75

15.63

12.38

11.50

14.13

8.75

6.50

15.88

17.88


3.13

3.13

6.99

8.03

3.88

4.31

1.37

1.64

2.28

3.01

2.32

.83

1.26

2.56


Posttest Mean
mean S.D. difference W*


7.88

15.13

46.13

79.25

20.00

17.38

15.75

12.38

11.13

13.75

1 1.25

6.25

14.75

17.38


4.27

4.27

9.51

9.48

2.23

3.66

2.62

2.77

2.36

2.57

2.72

.94

1.89

4.40


0

0

2.38

1.25

1.25

-0.37

0.12

0

-0.37

-0.38

2.50

- .25

1.13

- .50


10.5

10.5

12

10.5

5

9

18

14

10.5

6

1.5

5

7

12.5


*Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic.
**See Figure 1 for symbol description.


Significance








At this point it should be noted that the Mann-Whitney

U showed no significant differences between the pretest POI

scores of the control and experimental groups with the

single exception of the scale, Nature of Man, Constructive,

where the experimental group received a significantly higher

score than the control group. See Table 4.


Hypothesis 2: Affective/Coqnitive

Hypothesis H2: There will be no significant difference

in gain between subjects in the RR and NRR groups in terms

of the feeling level of their responses to clients.

Table 5 presents a summary of the results of applying

"t" tests of significance to the facilitative responses of

the subjects as measured on the Counselor Verbal Response

Scale. The nonfacilitative components of these four dichot-

omized dimensions are not shown in Table 5 since we are

focusing on possible gains in facilitative responses and a

gain in one component of a dimension is necessarily accom-

panied by an equal loss in the score of the other component,

and vice versa.

Since Table 5 shows that there was no significant dif-

ference in the posttest scores of the control and experi-

mental groups, this hypothesis is accepted.

Hypothesis H2A: There will be no significant gain in

feeling level of the responses to their clients for sub-

jects in the RR group.












Table 4
Analysis of Pretest POI Scores
Control vs Experimental Groups


Control Experimental Mean
POI symbol** mean S.D. mean S.D. difference U* Significance


Ti 7.88 3.13 6.21 2.77 -1.67 34.5 NS

Tc 15.13 3.13 16.80 2.77 1.67 34.5 NS

0 43.75 6.99 39.94 9.60 -3.81 50.5 NS

I 78.00 8.03 85.43 9.55 7.43 34.5 NS

SAV 18.75 3.88 20.51 2.79 1.76 43.5 NS

Ex 17.75 4.31 20.79 3.71 3.04 39 NS

Fr 15.63 1.37 16.86 2.72 1.23 32 NS

S 12.38 1.64 13.79 1.67 1.41 34.5 NS

Sr 11.50 2.28 11.87 2.21 0.37 55.5 NS

Sa 14.13 3.01 14.79 2.72 0.66 48.5 NS

Nc 8.75 2.32 12.29 1.54 3.54 14 p<.05 Cont.>Exp.

Sy 6.50 .83 6.86 1.09 0.36 48 NS

A 15.88 1.26 15.87 2.73 .01 49.5 NS

C 17.88 2.56 19.16 2.42 1.28 43 NS


*Mann-Whitney U.
**See Figure 1 for symbol description.








Table 5
Analysis of CVRS* Scores for Facilitative Responses


Facilitative Response** "t" Score Significance


Dimension: Affective

Control: Pretest vs. Posttest

Exper.: Pretest vs. Posttest

Cont. vs. Exper.: Pretest

Cont. vs. Exper.: Posttest

Dimension: Understanding

Control: Pretest vs. Posttest

Exper.: Pretest vs. Posttest

Cont. vs. Exper.: Pretest

Cont. vs. Exper.: Posttest

Dimension: Specific

Control: Pretest vs. Posttest

Exper.: Pretest vs. Posttest

Cont. vs. Exper.: Pretest

Cont. vs. Exper.: Posttest

Dimension: Exploratory

Control: Pretest vs. Posttest

Exper.: Pretest vs. Posttest

Cont. vs. Exper.: Pretest

Cont. vs. Exper.: Posttest


1.208

1.466

0.383

1 .566



1.325

2.790

1.748

2.511



0.504

1.833

1.011

1.226



1.678

0.766

0.994

1.175


*Counselor Verbal Response Scale.
**Facilitative responses only are analyzed
are in terms of proportion of responses.


NS

p<.05 Post>Pre

NS

p<.05 Exp.>Cont.



NS

NS

NS

NS



NS

NS

NS

NS


since scores








No significant gain was found between the pretest and

posttest scores of the RR group; therefore this hypothesis

is accepted. See Table 5.

Hypothesis H2B: There will be no significant gain in

feeling level in the responses to their clients for sub-

jects in the NRR group.

Since no significant gain was found, Table 5, between

the pretest and posttest scores of the NRR group, this

hypothesis is accepted.


Hypothesis 3: Understanding/Nonunderstanding

Hypothesis H3: There will be no significant difference

in gain in understanding of client responses between sub-

jects in the RR and the NRR groups.

As shown in Table 5, a significant difference (p<.05)

was found in gain in understanding between the posttest

scores of the experimental group compared with the control

group. Therefore, this hypothesis is rejected.

Hypothesis H 3A: There will be no significant difference

in gain in understanding of client responses for subjects

in the RR group.

Table 5 reflects the finding of a significant gain in

understanding in the posttest scores of the RR group com-

pared with their pretest scores. Therefore, this hypothesis

is rejected.










Hypothesis H3B: There will be no significant gain in

understanding of client responses for subjects in the NRR

group.

No significant gain was found between the posttest and

pretest scores of the NRR group, as indicated in Table 5.

Therefore, this hypothesis is accepted.


Hypothesis 4: Specific/Nonspecific

Hypothesis H4: There will be no difference in gain

between the RR and the NRR groups in the degree of

specificity of responses to their clients.

Application of the "t" test of significance to the

posttest scores of the two groups found the differences not

significant at the 95 percent level of confidence. This

hypothesis, therefore, is accepted.

Hypothesis H4A: There will be no significant gain in

the degree of specificity of responses to clients for sub-

jects in the RR group.

No significant gain was found between the pretest and

posttest scores of the RR group and, therefore, this

hypothesis is accepted.

Hypothesis H B: There will be no significant gain in

the degree of specificity of responses to clients for sub-

jects in the NRR group.

No significant gain was found between the pretest and

posttest scores of the NRR group, as indicated in Table 5.

Hypothesis H4B, therefore, is accepted.








Hypothesis 5: Exploratory/Nonexploratory

Hypothesis H5: There will be no significant difference

in gain between subjects in the RR and the NRR groups in

ability to give responses that lead clients to further

self-exploration.

The difference in the posttest scores of the two

groups were not significant (p<.05) and this hypothesis is

accepted.

Hypothesis H5A: There will be no significant gain in

ability to give responses that lead clients to further self-

exploration for subjects in the RR group.

No significant differences were found in the pretest

and posttest scores of the subjects in the RR group. This

hypothesis, therefore, is accepted.

Hypothesis H5B: There will be no significant gain in

ability to give responses that lead clients to further self-

exploration for subjects in the NRR group.

The pretest and posttest scores of subjects in the NRR

group revealed no significant gain. Hypothesis H5B is

accepted for that reason.

The analysis of our results thus far indicates that,

although the RR group scored significant gains in a broad

range of self-actualizing values, which replicates some of

the results reported in Chapter II (Seeman, Nidich, & Banta,

1972), these gains were translated into higher ratios of

facilitiative responses only in the dimension of understanding.









The RR group gained in this dimension both in relation to

its own pretest score and vis-a-vis the control group in the

posttest scores. However, when we examine the actual group

means which are shown in Table 6 and Table 7 in terms of

actual proportions (percentages) of responses, a somewhat

different picture emerges. Table 6 shows that whereas the

control group actually decreased their proportion of

facilitative responses for each of the four dimensions, the

experimental group showed an increase in every case. This

group's affective, understanding and specific responses

increased by 50 percent or more while its exploratory re-

sponses increased by almost 18 percent, comparing posttest

to pretest scores. If we sum the group means of just the

facilitative responses for each dimension we find that the

combined group mean proportion went from 46.8 percent down

to 37.9 percent for the control group while increasing from

35.8 percent to 51.4 percent for the experimental group.

A comparison of the pretest scores of the two groups,

as shown in Table 7, reveals that the average proportion of

all facilitative responses of the experimental group was 11

points, or almost 31 percent lower than that for the

control group. By the time of the posttest, however, the

experimental group had a combined mean proportion that was

13.5 points and 26 percent higher than the control subjects.

These are impressive gains by the experimental group but

not large enough, except in the case of the understanding








Table 6
Comparisons of Group Mean Facilitative Responses
RR* & NRR** Groups: Pretest vs Posttest


Dimensions


Mean Proportion Point
Pretest Posttest Difference


Percent
Change


RR (Experimental) Group


Affective
Cognitive
Understanding
Nonunderstanding
Specific
Nonspecific
Exploratory
Nonexploratory

Mean Proportion of
All Facilitative Res.


15.3
84.7
55.1
44.9
27.8
72.2
44.9
55.1


35.8


28.4
71.6
82.4
17.6
41.9
58.1
52.8
47.2


51 .4


+13.1
-13.1
+27.3
-27.3
+14.1
-14.1
+7.9
-7.9


+15.6


+85.6
-15.5
+49.5
-60.0
+50.7
-19.5
+17.6
-14.3


+43.6


Affective
Cognitive
Understanding
Nonunderstanding
Exploratory
Nonexploratory


NRR (Control) Group

17.9 12.1
82.1 87.9
75.9 65.1 -
24.1 34.9 +1
55.6 41.5 -1
44.4 58.5 +1


Mean Proportion of
All Facilitative Res. 46.8


37.9


-5.8
+5.8
10.8
10.8
4.1
14.1


8.9


-32.4
+7.1
-44.8
+44.8
-25.4
+31.8


-19.0


*RR: Relaxation Response (Experimental Group).
**NRR: Non-Relaxation Response (Control Group).


-









Comparison
Pretest



Dimensions


Table 7
of Group Mean Facilitative Responses
and Posttest Scores: RR* vs NRR**


Mean Proportion Point Percent
RR NRR Difference Change


Affective
Cognitive

Understanding
Nonunderstanding

Specific
Nonspecific

Exploratory
Nonexploratory

Mean Proportion of
All Facilitative Res.



Affective
Cognitive

Understanding
Nonunderstanding

Specific
Nonspecific

Exploratory
Nonexploratory

Mean Proportion of
All Facilitative Res.


Pretest Responses
15.3 17.9
84.7 82.1

55.1 75.9
44.9 24.1

27.8 37.9
72.2 62.1

44.9 55.6
55.1 44.4


35.8


Post
28.4
71.6

82.4
17.6

41.9
58.1

52.8
47.2


51.4


-2.6
+2.6

-20.8
-20.8

-10.1
+10.1

-10.7
+10.7


46.8 -11.0


test Responses
12.1
87.9

65.1
34.9

32.8
67.2

41.5
58.5


37.9


+16.3
-16.3

+17.3
-17.3

+9.1
-9 .1

+11.3
-11.3


+13.5


-17.0
+3.1

-37.7
+46.3

-36.3
+14.0

-23.8
+19.4


-30.7



+57.4
-22.8

+21 .0
-98.3

+21.7
-15.7

+21 .4
-23.9


+26.3


*RR: Relaxation Response (Experimental Group).
**NRR: Non-Relaxation Response (Control Group).


----~-----









dimension, to conclude according to the "t" statistic test,

that such differences could be expected in only 5 percent

of the cases in samples drawn from the same population.

But this result stems from examining each of our

hypotheses, and therefore, each dimension separately from

the other. If we apply our "t" test statistic to the aver-

age proportion of all facilitative responses combined, as

shown in Tables 6 and 7 ("Mean Proportion of All Facilita-

tive Responses"), we get another perspective of the results.

Table 8 shows the results of applying "t" tests of

significance at the 95 percent confidence level (p<.05) to

the mean proportion of all four facilitative dimension

responses combined. These results show a significant dif-

ference between the pretest and posttest scores of the

control group which reflects the decrease in proportion of

facilitative responses pointed out above. On the other hand,

the experimental group showed significant gains both in

their own posttest scores compared to pretest, and in their

posttest scores compared to those of the control group.

Our conclusion, then, is that when individual dimen-

sions are considered, the experimental group shows gains at

the level of confidence we chose to employ, only in the

dimension of understanding. But there was a sufficient gain

in each dimension to produce an overall significant gain

when all facilitative responses in all dimensions are con-

sidered as a whole. No significant difference was found

between the pretest scores of the two groups.








As stated above, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U and

the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic were used to test meas-

ures of self-actualization in the POI and to serve as a

criterion for accepting or rejecting hypothesis 1. For

comparison purposes, the parametric "t" statistic was also

used to test the measures of Self-Actualization in

hypothesis 1. The results of these tests of significance

are given for information in Appendix E.

Table 11 of Appendix E agrees with Table 1 in the

text in the analysis of posttest POI scores, control vs

experimental, except that the "t" statistic found a signifi-

cant gain in Self-Regard (Sr) while the Mann-Whitney U did

not. On the other hand, the Mann-Whitney U indicates a

significant gain in the Acceptance of Aggression while the

"t" test statistic does not. In all important respects,

however, both tests tend to corroborate the findings of this

study.

Table 9 tabulates the number of responses by each

counselor in the 10 minute segment of tapes which was used

in rating counselor responses. These figures indicate that

there was no significant variation in the counselor re-

sponse level between groups or between tests of the same

group. Therefore, counselor response level is not consid-

ered to be a contributing factor to any variations in

results between treatment groups.








Table 8
Analysis of Mean Group Proportions
All Facilitative Responses on CVRS


Treatment Group "t


Control: Posttest vs Pretest

Experimental: Posttest vs Pretest

Pretest: Exp. vs Control

Posttest: Exp. vs Control


" Statistic Significance


4.19 p<.05 Pre>Post


3.77

2.96


p<.05 Post>Pre

NS


6.86 p<.05 Exp.>Cont.


Table 9
Counselor Response Level


Subject Number


Control Group_
Pretest Posttest


Exerimental Grou
Pretest Posttest


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Total Responses
Average Number


122 130
15.25 16.25


19
26
24
20
13
12
24
17
9
14
19
16
222
18.50


16
34
18
14
20
6
7
17
11
18
15
14
190
15.80


-- ------~









The average number of times per week that each subject

in the experimental group practiced Relaxation Response is

tabulated in Table 10. These data were computed from the

calendars maintained by each of the 12 subjects whose CVRS

responses have been tabulated in this report. As can be

seen in the figures, there was considerable variation as to

the number of times the members of the experimental group

practiced meditation. The bottom quartile averaged only

4.8 meditation sessions for the 10 week period while the

top quartile averaged 11 sessions. The overall average was

7.1 practice sessions per week, however,all quartiles but the

top one averaged less than the group average. No attempt

was made to collate calendar information with test scores

since the test results were not identified by subject name.

Therefore, no correlation between amount of meditation and

gains in facilitative response dimensions could be carried

out.











Table 10
Average Number of Relaxation Response Sessions
Per Week by Members of Experimental Group


Av. No. Weekly Quartile
Subject No. Quartile No. RR Sessions Average


4.2
4.8
5.5
5.6
6.1
6.1
6.4
6.8
7.0
7.6
12.1
13.2


4.8



5.9



6.7



11.0


Group Average
Group Median














Table 11
Scoring Categories for the Personal
Orientation Inventory


Number Scale
cf Items Number Symh o Description

1. Ratio Scores

23 1/2 T /TC TIME RATIO
rime Incompetence/
Time Competence -
measures degree
to which one Is
"present" or ented
127 3/4 0/1 SUPPORT RATIO
Other/Inner-
measures whether
reactivity orien-
tation is basi-
cally toward
others or self
II. Sub-Scales

26 5 SAV SELF-ACTUALIZIING
VALUE
Measures affirma-
tion of primary
values of self-
actual izng
persons
32 6 Ex EXISrENTIALI TY
Measures ability
to situationally
or existentially
react ithlout
rigid adherence
to principles
23 7 Fr FEELING RFACTIVITY
Measures seniltiivty
of responsivren's to
one's own needs and
feel Ings
18 8 S SPONTANEITY
Measures freedom to
react spontaneoualy
er to be oneself
16 9 Se SELF-REGARD
H(-asures aff irm.-
tinn of self b--
caiuse no worth or
strength


NImber Scale
of Items Number Symbol Description

26 10 Sa SELF-ACCEPTANCE
Measures affir-
mation or
acceptance of
self in spite
of weaknesses
or deficiencies
16 11 Nc NATURE OF MAN
Measures degree
of the construc-
tive vlew of the
nature of man,
m.asculinity,
feminity
9 12 Sy SYNERGY
Measures ability
to be synergistic,
to transcend
dIchotomies
25 13 A ACCEPTANCE OF
AGGRESSION
Measures ability
to accept one's
natural aggres-
sivenoss as
opposed to de-
fensiven-ss,
denial, and
repression of
aggress ian
28 14 C CAPACITY FOR
INTIMATE CONTACT
Measures ability
to develop ccn-
tactful intimate
relationships
with other hl~an
beings, uncn-
cumbered by
expectations and
obl nations














CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS



Summary


This study was designed to measure the effects of a

meditation technique upon the behavior of a group of para-

professionals acting as counselors. Of primary interest

was the question of whether or not a meditation technique

developed by Benson and referred to as the Relaxation

Response resulted in the enhancement of the positive person-

ality characteristics which have been correlated with

counselor effectiveness. It has been found (Carkhuff, 1969b,

pp. 84-90) that the degree to which the helping person

offers high levels of empathy, warmth, respect, concreteness

and genuineness is related directly to client growth.

Available research on meditation suggests that these are the

very qualities which have been found to be enhanced by

meditation. Previous research (see page 21, above, for

examples) found that meditators scored significantly higher

than nonmeditators on such scales as inner directedness,

time competence, self-actualization values, spontaneity and

self-acceptance. These are among the qualities measured by










the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) (Shostrom, 1966),

one of the research instruments used in this study.

The specific behavior examined in this study was the

counselor's responses to client communications in terms of

four dichotomized dimensions measured by the Counselor

Verbal Response Scale (CVRS) (Kagan & Krathwohl, 1967),

which is the other principal research instrument used in

this study. The four dichotomized dimensions included in

the CVRS are: 1) affective/cognitive; 2) understanding/

nonunderstanding; 3) specific/nonspecific; and 4) exploratory/

nonexploratory. Counselor response in a client-counselor

interaction was rated on each of the four dimensions of the

rating scale, with each interaction being judged as an

independent unit. The counselor's responses were judged

primarily on the manner in which he responded to the verbal

elements of the client's communication. The judges rated

each counselor response to the client on each of the dimen-

sions of the scale. Totals were tallied after responses had

been dichotomized on each dimension on two five minute

segments of each tape.

The study population consisted of 22 paraprofessional

counselor-candidates who were attending their first term

at the Santa Fe Community College Human Services Department.

These subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups--

an eight member control group and a 14 member experimental

group. Two of the tapes for the experimental group subjects









were lost and our CVRS analysis, therefore, was based upon

12 experimental group members, while the POI analysis covers

all 14 experimental group members.

The members of each group were pretested with the

Personal Orientation Inventory, an essentially self-

administered instrument developed by Shostrom (1964, 1966).

The POI consists of 150 two-choice paired opposite state-

ments of personal values which are believed to be important

in the development of positive mental health. Scores are

reported on two major scales and 10 secondary scales as out-

lined on page 34, above.

After completing the initial POI each subject, acting

as counselor, taped an interview with a fellow student,

acting as client. Subjects in the experimental group then

received instructions in the meditation technique developed

by Benson, called the Relaxation Response. They were given

forms on which to record the number of times and the time

of day that they practiced meditation during the ensuing 10

weeks in a regular daily program of meditation which they

were asked to undertake. Members of the control group were

told that they would receive instruction in RR at the end

of the semester.

At the end of 10 weeks all the subjects were given the

POI for the second time and were given a second cassette

tape on which to record a posttest counseling tape.









Four graduate students in counseling psychology were

selected as raters for the two sets of counseling tapes.

They were trained as raters by a counseling psychologist.

Ten minute segments of each tape were rated by each of two

raters. In scoring the CVRS the ratings of the two raters

were averaged.


Results

Significant gains by the experimental group compared to

the control group were found in 5 of the 12 scales of the

POI. The experimental group evidenced gains compared with

the control group in Inner Directedness, Existentiality,

Spontaneity, Self-Acceptance and Acceptance of Aggressive

Tendencies in Oneself. On the other hand, the control group

posttest scores showed a significant (p<.05) gain in Other

Directedness, a nonself-actualizing factor, relative to the

posttest scores of the experimental group.

All of these gains were found to be significant by use

of the Mann-Whitney U (see Table 1). Also, all of these

gains were corroborated as significant (p<.05) by the "t"

statistic, with the exception of Acceptance of Aggression.

In addition, the "t" statistic indicated a significant gain

in Self-Regard.

Use of the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistic validated

significant gains in the experimental group's posttest

scores compared with those of the pretest in the following








dimensions: Inner Directedness, Spontaneity, Self-Regard

and Self-Acceptance.

There was a significant difference between the pretest

scores of the experimental versus the control group only

in the dimension, Nature of Man, Constructive, with the

experimental group ranking higher. The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank

Statistic revealed no significant gains or losses in the

posttest scores of the control group compared with its pre-

test scores.

Performance of "t" tests of significance on the pretest

and posttest scores on the Counselor Verbal Response Scale

of the two groups revealed no significant differences except

in the understanding-nonunderstanding dimension. The RR

group's posttest scores showed significant gains compared

with their own pretest score and compared to the control

group's posttest scores. The pretest scores of the two

groups yielded no significant differences at all.

Thus there were no significant gains or losses in the

other three dichotomized dimensions: affective/cognitive;

specific/nonspecific; and exploratory/nonexploratory. How-

ever, comparisons of the actual group proportions expressed

in percentage terms reveals impressive percentage gains in

the posttest scores of the experimental group compared to

their pretest figures and compared to the posttest scores of

the control group. Whereas these gains were not great

enough by individual dimension to rule out the possibility









that they could have occurred in a similar pretest sample

drawn from the same population, when the proportions for

all dimensions were averaged for facilitative responses only,

significant differences did become apparent. Applying the

"t" test to the mean proportion of all facilitative responses

from all dimensions for each group revealed that: the

control group registered significant losses in the proportion

of facilitative responses; the experimental group exhibited

significant gains in the overall proportion of facilitative

responses, posttest versus pretest; and that the experi-

mental group gained significantly in their proportion of

facilitative responses vis-a-vis the control group, based

upon a comparison of their posttest scores.


Conclusions

In this study we attempted to measure the affects, if

any, on counselor behavior of a meditation technique,

Relaxation Response, which was developed by Benson. The

research design called for measuring in an experimental

group any gains in self-actualization that might be

attributable to meditation and the Relaxation Response.

Since the control group was chosen from the same population

as the experimental group and all other conditions and

influences were assumed to be equal--for example, the train-

ing that both groups were receiving at the Human Services

Department--any significant gains by the experimental group








might be attributed to the program of meditation carried out

by the members of that group.

The POI scores indicated that significant gains in a

broad spectrum of self-actualizing values were made by

the RR group. Particularly important was the gain by the

RR group in Inner Directedness, one of the two principal

scales of the POI. Inner, or self-directed individuals are

guided primarily by internal principles and motivations,

one of the attributes of positive mental health.

Did this gain by the experimental group in self-

actualizing values translate itself into more effective

counseling behavior as measured by the CVRS? Significant

gains in desirable counselor behavior were found only in the

dimension of understanding. No significant gains were noted

in the facilitative responses characterized as affective,

specific and exploratory. A possible explanation for this

result may be found in distinguishing between the charac-

terizations of counselor response in the CVRS model. The

habit of responding to client verbalizations in specific

terms or in terms that encourage further exploration could

be thought of as depending on learned technique rather than

on basic personality factors. In contrast, the quality of

understanding, particularly in the context of the inter-

actions between a counselor and client, would seem to depend

more on the stage of personality development and experience

than on specific techniques that can be taught in a class-

room situation.








If this premise is accepted, then it would seem logical

that new gains in a person's level of self-actualization and

in basic positive personality characteristics would first

manifest themselves in a greater capacity to understand the

communications of another human being. As we saw on page 3

above, Rogers (1957),in describing the necessary charac-

teristics of effective counselors, linked "empathic under-

standing of the client" and the "self-congruence of the

counselor." Thus in our present study, we may conclude that

the measured gains in self-actualization were linked at the

basic personality level to gains in the capacity for under-

standing. We may also conclude that such gains at the

level of personality development may not be translated

immediately into specific professional skills or techniques

(a verbal bag of tools) which require learning. This would

appear to be especially true of the subjects of this study

who were students in the initial stages of learning their

profession.

Our principal conclusion, based upon the results of

this study, is that the Benson Relaxation Response technique

of meditation appears to offer one means of acquiring and

developing the positive personality characteristics which

have been linked to effective counseling. The first results

of such a meditation technique may manifest themselves in

a capacity for increased understanding of another's communi-

cation.








Limitations of the Study


Generalization based on this study are limited to the

Santa Fe Community College Human Services Program for para-

professional counselors. The sampling procedures did not

make allowance for generalizing outside of this population.

A small sample size of twenty-two further limits generaliza-

bility.

The amount of time in which subjects engaged in the

practice of the Relaxation Response (RR) is an important

factor. The overall length of time that the experimental

group practiced the RR was 10 weeks. The average number of

times per week was 7 times. However, there was a wide vari-

ance in the meditation schedules of the individual members,

see Table 10. All quartiles except the top quartile had a

practice rate of less than the group average of 7 times a

week. It may be that a more consistent schedule may produce

more definite results. (See Implications for Future Research

#5) .



Implications for Future Research


The findings of this investigation suggest that a medi-

tation procedure, namely the Relaxation Response (RR), can be

adopted by a paraprofessional counseling program. Research

cited in this study demonstrated the importance of positive

personality characteristics as it relates to counselor









effectiveness. The present study also suggests training

designed to aid in the development of self-actualizing attrib-

utes in counselors. This type of training may be considered

as important to counselors as the formal training in mechan-

ical skills and theory.

The following suggestions may be of value to those

interested in further research on this subject.

1) To further investigate the quality of meditation

being practiced by each student. Researchers can

carefully monitor not only the actual amount of

time spent in the RR, but the quality of the experi-

ence by means of biofeedback equipment. Biofeedback

equipment which measures brain waves (EEG), muscle

tension (EMG), or galvanic skin resistance (GSR)

may contribute to further exploration and develop-

ment of student potentials.

2) A longitudinal design could be used to investigate

the long term effect of the RR on the personality

characteristics of paraprofessional counselors.

Also, this type of design could allow more time for

students to translate their personal perceptions

from the RR experience to behaviors measurable by

the research instruments. Further research is needed

to explore the relationship of time spent in medi-

tation and personal growth.









3) The present study indicates the need for further

investigation of the correlation of the affective

content of counselor responses with the degree of

self-actualization of the counselor. We have

attempted to explain the fact that the specific and

exploratory dimensions of the CVRS did not increase

in tandem with the gains in measures of self-

actualization with the assumption that these

dimensions are more dependent upon skill-training

than on the development of positive personality

traits. However, a person gaining in self-

actualizing values would, by our definition, also

be increasing his capacity for empathy and there-

fore, would be expected to manifest this empathy

by increased levels of feeling content versus

cognitive content in his responses to clients. The

reason for the failure of our experimental group to

show significant gains in the proportion of these

responses needs further study.

4) Researchers may further investigate the interaction

effects of self-actualization, meditation, and

counselor effectiveness. For example, one question

not answered by the present research is, do initially

high self-actualized individuals show significantly

greater gains from practice of the RR than initially

low self-actualized individuals? More research is

necessary to answer this question.








5) As mentioned in the Limitations of the Study, the

amount of time spent in the practice of the RR was

shown to be highly variable. Future research may

show that a more consistent schedule of meditation

can produce more definite results. Therefore,

researchers may wish to incorporate into their

experimental design methods to insure a minimum

period of time in which the subjects engage in

practice of the RR. For example, incentives such

as the payment of fees to subjects may be advanta-

geous, however, more research is needed to verify

this conclusion.

6) In the counseling relationship, clients respond to

both the verbal and nonverbal behaviors of the

counselor. In addition to verbal communication,

the counselor uses facial, postural and gestural

modes of communication. Therefore, future research

may be supplemented by videotape recordings of the

client/counselor interaction to observe changes in

both verbal and nonverbal communications as a result

of the RR training.

Continued research is needed which focuses directly upon

the kinds of experience which will facilitate the counselor's

personal awareness, integration and psychological maturity.



























APPENDIX A

How to Bring Forth the Relaxation Response

and

Eliciting the Relaxation Response















How to Bring Forth the Relaxation Response


(1) A Quiet Environment.

Ideally, you should choose a quiet, calm environment

with as few distractions as possible. A quiet room is

suitable, as is a place of worship. The quiet environment

contributes to the effectiveness of the repeated work or

phrase by making it easier to eliminate distracting thoughts.

(2) A Mental Device.

To shift the mind from logical, externally oriented

thought, there should be a constant stimulus: a sound, word,

or phrase repeated silently or aloud; or fixed gazing at an

object. Since one of the major difficulties in the elicita-

tion of the Relaxation Response is "mind wandering," the

repetition of the word or phrase is a way to help break the

train of distracting thoughts. Your eyes are usually closed

if you are using a repeated sound or word; of course, your

eyes are open if you are gazing. Attention to the normal

rhythm of breathing is also useful and enhances the repeti-

tion of the sound or the word.

(3) A Passive Attitude.

When distracting thoughts occur, they are to be dis-

regarded and attention redirected to the repetition or








gazing; you should not worry about how well you are per-

forming the technique, because this may well prevent the

Relaxation Response from occurring. Adopt a "let it happen"

attitude. The passive attitude is perhaps the most impor-

tant element in eliciting the Relaxation Response. Dis-

tracting thoughts will occur. Do not worry about them.

When these thoughts do present themselves and you become

aware of them, simply return to the repetition of the mental

device. These other thoughts do not mean you are performing

the technique incorrectly. They are to be expected.

(4) A Comfortable Position.

A comfortable posture is important so that there is no

undue muscular tension. Some methods call for a sitting

position. A few practitioners use the cross-legged "lotus"

position of the Yogi. If you are lying down, there is a

tendency to fall asleep. As we have noted previously, the

various postures of kneeling, swaying, or sitting in cross-

legged position are believed to have evolved to prevent

falling asleep. You should be comfortable and relaxed.



Eliciting the Relaxation Response


(1) In a quiet environment, sit in a comfortable position.

(2) Close your eyes.

(3) Deeply relax your muscles, beginning at your feet and

progressing up to your face--feet, calves, thighs, lower

torso, chest, shoulders, neck, head. Allow them to

remain deeply relaxed.








(4) Breathe through your nose. Become aware of your

breathing. As you breathe in, say the sound "So"

silently to yourself and as you breathe out say "Hum."

Thus: breathe in--"So" . breathe out with "Hum."

In, "So" and out with "Hum."

(5) Continue this practice for twenty minutes. You may

open your eyes to check the time, but do not use an

alarm. When you finish, sit quietly for several

minutes, at first with your eyes closed and later with

your eyes open.

(6) Remember not to worry about whether you are successful

in achieving a deep level of relaxation--maintain a

passive attitude and permit relaxation to occur at its

own pace. When distracting thoughts occur, ignore

them and continue to repeat "So-Hum" as you breathe.

The technique should be practiced twice daily, and not

within two hours after any meal, since the digestive

processes seem to interfere with the elicitation of

the expected.


























APPENDIX B

Counselor Verbal Response Scale

Counselor Verbal Response Scale Rating Sheet















Counselor Verbal Response Scale


Description of Rating Dimensions


I. Affective-cognitive dimension

The affective-cognitive dimension indicates whether a

counselor's response refers to any affective component of a

client's communication or concerns itself primarily with

the cognitive component of that communication.

A. Affective responses: Affective responses generally

make reference to emotions, feelings, fears, etc. The

judge's rating is solely by the content and/or intent of the

counselor's response, regardless of whether it be reflection,

clarification or interpretation. These responses attempt

to maintain the focus on the affective component of a

client's communication. Thus they may:

(a) Refer directly to an explicit or implicit

reference to affect (either verbal or nonverbal)

on the part of the client.

(b) Encourage an expression of affect on the part

of the client. Example: "How does it make

you feel when your parents argue?"

(c) Approve of an expression of affect on the part

of the client. Example: "It doesn't hurt to








let your feelings out once in a while, does

it?"

(d) Presents a model for the use of affect by the

client. Example: "If somebody treated me like

that, I'd really be mad."

Special care must be taken in rating responses which use the

word "feel." For example, in the statement "do you feel

that your student teaching experience is helping you get

the idea of teaching?" the phrase "do you feel that" really

means "do you think that." Similarly, the expression "How

are you feeling?" is often used in a matter-of-fact, con-

versation manner. Thus, although the verb "to feel" is

used in both these examples, these statements do not repre-

sent responses which would be judged "affective."

B. Cognitive Responses: Cognitive responses deal

primarily with the cognitive element of a client's communi-

cation. Frequently, such responses seek information of

factual nature. They generally maintain the interaction on

the cognitive level. Such responses may:

(a) Refer directly to the cognitive component of

the client's statement.

Example: "So then you're thinking about

switching your major to chemistry?"

(b) Seeks further information of a factual nature

from the client.

Example: "What were your grades last term?"








(c) Encourage the client to continue to respond

at the cognitive level.

Example: "How did you get interested in art?"


II. Understanding-nonunderstanding dimension

The understanding-nonunderstanding dimension indicates

whether a counselor's response communicates to the client

that the counselor understands or is seeking to understand

the client's basic communication. This encourages the client

to continue to gain insight into the nature of his concerns.

A. Understanding responses: Understanding responses

communicate to the client that the counselor understands the

client's communication--the counselor makes appropriate

reference to what the client is expressing or trying to ex-

press both verbally and nonverbally--or the counselor is

clearly seeking enough information of either a cognitive or

affective nature to gain such understanding. Such responses:

(a) Directly communicate an understanding of the

client's communication.

Example: "In other words, you really want to

be treated like a man."

(b) Seek further information from the client in

such a way as to facilitate both the coun-

selors' and the clients' understanding of the

basic problems.

Example: "What does being a man mean to you?"

(c) Reinforce or give approval or client communica-

tions which exhibit understanding.









Example: CL: "I guess then, when people

criticize me, I'm afraid they'll

leave me."

CO: "I see you're beginning to make

some connection between your

behavior and your feelings."

B. Nonunderstanding responses: Nonunderstanding

responses are those in which the counselor fails to under-

stand the client's basic communication or makes no attempt

to obtain appropriate information from the client. In

essence, nonunderstanding implies misunderstanding. Such

responses:

(a) Communicate misunderstanding of the client's

basic concern.

Example: CL: "When he said that, I just

turned red and clenched my

fists."

CO: "Some people don't say nice

things."

(b) Seek information which may be irrelevant to

the client's communication.

Example: CL: "I seem to have a hard time

getting along with my brothers."

CO: "Do all your brothers live at

home with you?"








(c) Squelch client understanding or move the focus

to another irrelevant area.

Example: CL: "I guess I'm really afraid that

other people will laugh at me."

CO: "We're the butt of other poeple's

jokes sometimes."

Example: CL: "Sometimes I really hate my aunt."

CO: "Will things be better when you

go to college?"


III. Specific/nonspecific dimension

The specific-nonspecific dimension indicates whether

the counselor's response delineates the client's problems

and is central to the client's communication or whether the

response does not specify the client's concern. In essence,

it describes whether the counselor deals with client's

communication in a general, vague, or peripheral manner, or

"zeros in" on the core of the client's communication. NB:

A response judged to be nonunderstanding must also be non-

specific since it would, by definition, misunderstand the

client's communication and not help the client to delineate

his concerns. Responses judged understanding might be

either specific (core) or nonspecific (peripheral) i.e.,

they would be peripheral if the counselor conveys only a

vague idea that a problem exists or "flirts" with the idea

rather than helping the client delineate some of the dimen-

sions of his concerns.









A. Specific responses: Specific responses focus on

the core concerns being presented either explicitly or

implicitly, verbally or nonverbally, by the client. Such

responses:

(a) Delineate more closely the client's basic

concerns.

Example: "This vague feeling you have when

you get in tense situations--is it

anger or fear?"

(b) Encourage the client to discriminate among

stimuli affecting him.

Example: "Do you feel in all your

classes or in only some classrooms?"

(c) Reward the client for being specific.

Example: CL: "I guess I feel this way most

often with someone who reminds

me of my father."

CO: "So as you put what others say

in perspective the whole world

doesn't seem so bad; it's only

when someone you value, like

Father, doesn't pay any attention

that you feel hurt."

B. Nonspecific responses: Nonspecific responses indi-

cate that the counselor is not focusing on the basic con-

cerns of the client or is not yet able to help the client









differentiate among various stimuli. Such responses either

miss the problem area completely (such responses are also

nonunderstanding) or occur when the counselor is seeking to

understand the client's communication and has been presented

with only vague bits of information about the client's

concern. Thus, such responses:

(a) Fail to delineate the client's concern and

cannot bring them into sharper focus.

Example: "It seems your problem isn't very

clear--can you tell me more about it?"

(b) Completely miss the basic concerns being pre-

sented by the client even though the counselor

may ask for specific details.

Example: CL: "I've gotten all A's this year

and I still feel lousy."

CO: "What were your grades before

then?"

(c) Discourage the client from bringing his concerns

into sharper focus.

Example: "You and your sister argue all the

time. What do other people think of

your sister?"


IV. Exploratory-nonexploratory

The exploratory-nonexploratory dimension indicates

whether a counselor's response permits or encourages the

client to explore his cognitive or affective concerns, or








whether the response limits a client's exploration of these

concerns.

A. Exploratory responses: Exploratory responses

encourage and permit the client latitude and involvement in

his response. They may focus on relevant aspects of the

client's affective or cognitive concerns but clearly attempt

to encourage further exploration by the client. Such

responses are often open-ended and/or are delivered in a

manner permitting the client freedom and flexibility in

response. These responses:

(a) Encourage the client to explore his own con-

cerns.

Example: Cognitive--"You're not sure what you

want to major in, is that

it?"

Affective--"Maybe some of these times

you're getting mad at

yourself, what do you

think?"

(b) Assist the client to explore by providing him

with possible alternatives designed to increase

his range of responses.

Example: Cognitive--"What are some of the other

alternatives that you have

to history as a major?"

Affective--"In these situations, do

you feel angry, mad, help-

less, or what?"




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