Title: Effects of oral reading rate and inflection on comprehension and its maintenance
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Title: Effects of oral reading rate and inflection on comprehension and its maintenance
Physical Description: xiv, 191 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tenenbaum, Henry A ( Henry Abraham ), 1951-
Copyright Date: 1983
 Subjects
Subject: Oral reading   ( lcsh )
Reading comprehension   ( lcsh )
Memory   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Henry A. Tenenbaum.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University Florida, 1983.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 129-136.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita
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Bibliographic ID: UF00098069
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000440923
oclc - 11272134
notis - ACK1487

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EFFECTS OF ORAL READING RATE AND INFLECTION
ON COMPREHENSION AND ITS MAINTENANCE









BY

HENRY A. TENENBAUM


A DISSERTATION RESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOP THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1983
































Copyright 1983

by

Henry A. Tenenbaum


















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


A doctoral dissertation and all the steps along the way to a

doctorate require one to commit much of his energy and lifestyle

toward this goal. For me, this dissertation was greater than any

one individual. Several people have contributed directly to my

dissertation and others have given me their encouragement and per-

spective that I needed to succeed.

My acknowledgements must begin with my parents, Jack and Bertha.

I will probably never know the extent of their suffering when their

lives were threatened and when they were separated from each other

during World War II. You would think they would be embittered people

who had given up their desire to be a constructive part of society.

Yet, when they escaped the torments that existed for them in Europe

during and after the War, they stood strong and proud to become

Americans. From their pride and eagerness to begin a new life, they

provided me with the devotion, love, and their constant nudging to

go on and to become the best of what I wanted to be. One may never

be able to provide parents such as mine with all the acknowledgements

due them. But, I will continue to live my life in a manner that will

continually nake then proud.












I must also acknowledge my sister, Sara, and my brother,

Theodore. Throughout my life they have always provided me with

another view and the necessary wisdom to make the best choices

concerning my career.

Probably one of the most difficult tasks throughout a doctoral

program is maintaining a fulfilling relationship with your spouse.

My wife, Sarah, never once strayed from her dedication and love for

me. The sacrifices that she made and her understanding of what was

needed to pursue a doctorate were an inspiration to maintain my

motivation and perseverence.

My dedication and interest in the behavioral sciences were not

shaped by accident. Dr. Robert E. Anderson gave me the opportunity

to work with children and encouraged me to continually increase my

skills on the graduate level. My friends, Kay Kaldor and John

Carrier, provided me with many of the fundamental principles that

were needed to work with children successfully. I will always be

grateful for the time and patience they have shown me.

The people who have contributed more directly to my doctorate

will be remembered. As life is, people come under different con-

tingencies and leave their friends. But comfort can be had when one

knows that whenever we meet or need to be close again, the likeli-

hood of its occurrence is great.

fly closest friend and the one who influenced me the most was

my chairman, Bill Wolking. Bill is a remarkable human being who

seems to thrive on friendship and his dedication to students. Bill












has given me unselfish support and the guidance to know what an

empirical science of behavior should entail. Bill was able to not

only maintain my interest in applied behavior analysis and precision

teaching, but to widen my interests and to develop my curiosity of

the world outside of the university halls. He is a magnificent

person and I will continue to seek his leadership throughout my

career.

In any doctoral program one becomes influenced by many people.

But, Hank Pennypacker was one of those people along with B. F.

Skinner whose writings were continua'ly used as a fundamental guide

to enhance my understanding of the principles involved in a science

of behavior. To him I will be grateful for the wisdom that he has

given me and to humankind.

Special thanks go to my other committee members Ed Turner

and Bert Sharp. As a committee member one is constantly being asked,

along with everything else, to review manuscripts, attend meetings,

give counseling, and to provide leadership as it is needed. Without

Ed and Bert my doctoral work could have been a much more difficult

task.

While working towards my doctorate others outside of my

committee went above and beyond to provide me with much needed

support. These people were typically part of the Special Education

Department. To these people I give my thanks. More specifically

my gratitude goes to Dr. Cecil Mercer who many times offered and gave

his guidance. Special thanks also go to Dr. Bob Algozzine who always












provided me with the humor, encouragement, and his attendance at

the meetings needed to complete my degree.

I also wish to express my thanks to many of my friends who I

have grown close to and who never failed to ask whether or not I

needed their help in some way. These people have already completed

their doctoral degrees or are pursuing doctorates themselves. My

appreciation goes to Bonnie Engel for the many years of encourage-

ment she gave me. My appreciation goes to Leonard Weiss who kept

me interested in my studies by offering his professional respect and

by reaching out to maintain a long friendship with me. Special

thanks go to Charles Hughes who helped me to express many ideas

and, whenever he could, reminded me that I needed to graduate.

Another colleague who always made me feel in charge and helped to

maintain my motivation was Sue Peterson. To her I send very warm

thanks. To all the people who I have not mentioned, but who influenced

my life in many subtle ways, I give my appreciation.

Lastly, my love goes to all the children past and future who may

never have the opportunity to pursue a doctorate. Through the child-

ren I have met, each one helped me to better understand human behavior.

They truly were my inspiration.


















TABLE OF CONTENTS



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .... . . . . ... iii

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . xiii

CHAPTER i INTRODUCTION ..... . . . . .

Rationale . . . . . . . . . . .

Significance .... . . . .... . . . 4

Statement of the Problem ...... ....... .. . 5

Delimitations .. . . . . .. ..... 5

Definition of Terms .... . . . ....... 6

Summary .. . . . . . . . .. 7

CHAPTER II REVIEW! OF RELATED LITERATURE . . . . 9

The Nature of Reading Comorehension . .. . . 10

Reading Comprehension as a Multifaceted Skill ... 10

Listening and Reading Comprehension . . .... . 11

Reading Comprehension as Facts . . . ... . 12

Oral vs. Silent Reading: whichh Way Maximizes
Comprehension? . . . . . . . .. 12

Theories, Strategies, and Tactics oF Reading and
Comprehension .............. .... . 13

Traditional Teaching Methods .. ... . . 13

Recent Strategies and Tactics for Teaching Reading and
Comprehension .... . . . . . . 18

Summary ........... . ..... ... 26













Dependent Measures of Reading Comprehension ..

Reading Comprehension and Memory ..

Summary . . . . .

Oral Reading, Rate, Punctuation, and Comprehension

Summary . . . . .


Verbal Behavior ....

Experimental Analysis of Behaviom

Stimulus Control ...

Comprehension Questions and Free
Stimuli for Intraverbals . .

Summary . . . . .

CHAPTER III METHOD ...

Experimental Questions . .

Experiment 1 . . ..

Experiment 2 . . . . . .

Independent Variables . . .

Apparatus . . . .

Dependent Variables ...

Subjects . ..

Design . . .

Procedure . . ..

Pretraining Period . . .

Experimental Conditions .


r and B. F. Skinner



Recall as Discriminati






















. . . . . .


Data Analysis--Dependent Variables ..












CHAPTER IV RESULTS . . . . . .

Questions 1-6 Results for Experiments 1 and 2
Free Recall Total Performance . . . . . . .

Experiment 1 Results for Question One . . . . .

Question One Results for Experiment 2 . . . . .

Condition Two Results for Experiment 1 . . . .

Question Two Results for Experiment 2 . . . . .

Question Three Results for Experiment 1 . . . . .

Question Three Results for Experiment 2 . . . . .

Question Four Results for Experiment 1 . . . .

Question Four Results for Experiment 2 . . . . .

Question Five Results for Experiment 1 . . . .

Question Five Results for Experiment 2 . . . . .

Question Six Results for Experiment 1 . . . . .

Question Six Results for Experiment 2 . . . . .


Accuracy Results . . . .

Question One Results for Experiment 1

Question One Results for Experiment 2

Question Two Results for Experiment 1

Question Two Results for Experiment 2

Question Three Results for Experiment

Question Three Results for Experiment

Question Four Results for Experiment 1

Question Four Results for Experiment 2

Question Five Results for Experiment 1

Question Five Results for Experiment 2


67

67

69

70

71

71

74

75

75

76

76

76

77


. . . . 78

. . . . 78

. . . . 78

. . . . . 80

. . . . 80

. . . 81

. . . . . 82

. . . . 82

. . . . . 83

. . . . 83

. . . 84











Question Six Results for Experiment 1 . . . ... 84

Question Six Results for Experiment 2 . . . ... 85

Free Recall--Words Per Fact ... . . . . . 85

Summary Free Recall Questions 1 6: Total Performance,
Accuracy, and Wlords Per Fact . . . . . . . 87

Ten Comprehension Questions . . ......... .. 88

Question One Results for Experiment One . . . ... 88

Question One Results for Experiment Two . . . ... 88

Question Two Results for Experiment 1 . . . ... 91

Question Two Results for Experiment 2 . . . ... 91

Question Three Results for Experiment 1 . . . ... 92

Question Three Results for Experiment 2 . . . ... 93

Question Four Results for Experiment 1 . . . ... 93

Question Four Results for Experiment 2 . . . ... 93

Question Five Results for Experiment 1 . . . ... 94

Question Five Results for Experiment 2 . . . ... 94

Question Six Results for Experiment 1 . . . ... 95

Question Six Results for Experiment 2 . . . ... 95

Latency Measure Results . . . . . . . ... 96

Summary of Results: Dependent Measures of Comprehension . 96

Results Cloze Procedure--Total Performance . . . ... 98

Question One Results .. .. .. .. .. .... 98

Question Two Results . . . . . . . . . 99

Question Three Results .. . . . . . . 101

Question Four Results . . . . . . . . . 102

Question Five Results . . . . . . . . . 103

Question Six Results .. . . . . . . . 103











Cloze Procedure Results--Accuracy . . . . . . .

Question One Results . . . . . . . .

Question Two Results . . . . . . . . .

Question Three Results . . . . . . . . .

Question Four Results . . . . . . . . .

Question Five Results . . . . . . . . .

Question Six Results . . . . . . . . .

Results Cloze Procedure--Percent Correct . . . . .

Summary of Results--Cloze Procedure . ...

Summary of Results Experiments One and Two . . . . .

CHAPTER V DISCUSSION . . .. . . . . . .

Variability . . . . . . . . . . . .

Replications . . . . . . . . . . . .

Practical Implications . . . . . . . . .

Implications for the School Psychologist . . . . .

Generalizations . . . . . . . . . . .

Suggestions for Future Research . . . . . . .

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . .

APPENDIX A FREQUENCY MULTIPLIERS, TOTAL PERFORMANCE, FREE
RECALL . . . . . .

B ACCURACY RATIO MULTIPLIERS, FREE RECALL .

C FREQUENCY MULTIPLIERS, TOTAL PERFORMANCE
CLOZE PROCEDURE . .....

D ACCURACY RATIO MULTIPLIERS, CLOZE PROCEDURE

E 10 SAMPLE COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS, CLOZE
PROCEDURE . . . . .


104

104

106

106

107

107

108

109

109

111

114

118

120

124

124

125

126

129












APPENDIX F POST-EXPERIMENTAL INTERVIEWS . . . . .. 165

G RAW DATA . . . . . . . . 174

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .. . . . . . . .. . 190















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



EFFECTS OF ORAL READING RATE AND INFLECTION ON
COMPREHENSION AND ITS MAINTENANCE

By

Henry A. Tenenbaum

August, 1983

Chairperson: William D. Wolking
Major Department: Counselor Education

Rigorous experimental analysis of the effect of oral reading

rate on comprehension has only recently been performed. There is

still controversy over which rate of oral reading maximizes compre-

hension and retention. Inflection and how it interacts with rate

of oral reading have received very little attention.

This study sought to determine how oral reading rate, when

approximating functional conversational speech (150 to 200 words/

minute) and inflection, impacts comprehension and maintenance of

comprehension. A single subject design was developed to determine

how oral reading at 150 to 200 words/minute with inflection compared

with oral reading at 40 to 60 words/minute (instructional rate), with

inflection on measures of comprehension and maintenance of comprehen-

sion. High oral reading rates without inflection were also compared

with low oral reading rates without inflection to determine their












effects on comprehension and maintenance of comprehension. The

dependent variables were a free recall task, answers to 10 compre-

hension questions and written responses to a Cloze procedure.

These occurred immediately following reading criteria, and at three

and 10 days after criteria was reached.

Six subjects were used in this study; two subjects were of high

school age and reading below grade level and four subjects were in

the third grade reading on grade level. For this study an ABCD

design was used with four subjects and a CDAB design was used for

two subjects so that any effect that sequence may have had could be

determined. Also, the high rate conditions were yoked to the low

rate conditions to keep the number of trials equal.

The results confirmed that the combination of high oral reading

rate with inflection (when reading approximates conversational

speech), increased both the accuracy and speed of comprehension and

its maintenance more than any of the other combinations. The combina-

tion of high oral reading without inflection was found to increase

comprehension and maintenance of comprehension when compared with

low oral reading rate with and without inflection. Also, inflection

training in both the high and low rate oral reading conditions

improved comprehension. The results of Experiment 2 systematically

replicated the results of Experiment 1 across reading levels, reading

passages, settings, and subjects.


















CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION



This is a study of how inflection and oral reading rate affect

comprehension and maintenance of comprehension. The impact that

inflection may have on comprehension and maintenance of comprehen-

sion has not received extensive investigation (Weaver, Holmes,

Curtis, & Reynolds, 1970). Many reading experts agree that reading

with the correct inflection is an important skill (Durrell, 1949;

Heilman, 1967; Spache & Spache, 1977). The importance of reading

fluently has also been considered a major variable for developing

comprehension by only a few investigators (Lovitt & Hansen, 1976;

Smith, 1972). Yet, research reported has not addressed the relation-

ship between both levels of fluency and levels of inflection on

comprehension and maintenance of comprehension.



Rationale


There is a concern that there has been a paucity of research on

how to develop and improve reading comreenension (Armstrong, 1981;

Turner & Fey, 1977; Van Etten, 1978). The idea behind this investigation

came forth as a result of discussing the concepts in verbal behavior












(Skinner, 1957) with others. In beginning an investigation in

reading comprehension, the concepts embedded in Skinner's (1957)

analysis of verbal behavior appeared to be a good guide for research

in this area.

Skinner (1957) wrote about reading comprehension as a particular

instance of verbal behavior. Within his analysis, understanding

written language is similar to listening comprehension. They are

similar in that they both need a preceding set of events for either

one of them to occur. Also, both kinds of comprehension must be

functional to maintain their occurrence (i.e., produce benefits

for the reader).

A difference between listening comprehension and reading compre-

hension is that listening comes under the control of another person's

vocal behavior while reading comes under the control of words. People

with normal hearing will probably have a greater chance to receive

reinforcement from listening than from reading. In other words,

listening appears to have a longer history of reinforcement than

does reading. Also, it is easier to have access to another person

who will engage in conversation than it is to find a person with whom

one can discuss what one has read. Another difference appears to be

the rate at which conversational speech occurs as compared to reading

rate. People have been trained to listen and understand conversations

(which include inflection) of 150 to 200 words per minute (Wolking,

13S~). The average elementary aged school student is trained to read

only 40 to 90 words per minute (Lovitt, 1982).












Earlier researchers demonstrated that receptive vocabulary

is prerequisite for comprehension of written words (Sidman, 1971;

Staats & Staats, 1962). Also, there is a body of research to

suggest that when the rate of reading approaches conversational

speed, there is an improvement in comprehension (Lovitt & Hansen,

1976) and retention (Berquam, 1981). Although inflection has been

implicated as an important variable for the development of compre-

hension, the literature contains very little on how rate and inflec-

tion affect comprehension and the maintenance of comprehension.

From the above concepts and research an empirical question

concerning rate and inflection developed. Taking Skinner's (1957)

analysis of reading and listening comprehension, perhaps reading

comprehension can be improved when the reading episode approximates

conversational behavior. In other words, can comprehension and

maintenance of comprehension improve when reading sounds similar to

the way people speak? If so, students can learn that reading has

functional value. What is said can be equivalent in function to what

is read. To answer the question two independent variables will need

to be controlled. These are oral reading rate and inflection.

To determine the impact that the independent variables have on

comprehension and maintenance of comprehension, a single subject

design was used. Single subject research has been proven to be a

successful strategy in observing and subsequently controlling for

individual variation in responding (Johnston & Pennypacker, 1980;

Sidman, 1960). Precision Teaching will be used as a way to teach












and measure inflection, reading, comprehension, and the maintenance

of comprehension (Armstrong, 1981; Berquam, 1981; Hansen, 1979;

Haring, 1978; Wolking, 1982).



Significance


Society views reading and reading comprehension as an important

measure of the effectiveness of public school instruction (Haring,

1978). The importance of reading with comprehension cannot be

underestimated (Turner & Fey, 1977). This study attempts to describe

one or more variables that may have a positive effect on the develop-

ment of comprehension and the maintenance of comprehension. Hope-

fully, this will increase the efficiency with which reading comprehension

comes under the control of teacher-environmental arrangements.

There appears to be a correlation between the illiteracy index

and public opinion. The 13th Annual Gallup Poll, funded by Phi

Delta Kappa, reported that 20 percent of the parents of children

attending public schools gave the schools a grade of D or F (Kappan,

1980). This was the highest percentage of failing grades given in

eight years. A teaching strategy that uses effective and accountable

techniques may help to improve the reading performances of students.

More than likely, when the reading performances improve significantly,

suoport for public education will increase. Familiarity with the

mechanisms that enhance reading and comprehension will give school

personnel the opportunity to take a leadership role in enhancing

the accountability of public school instruction and improving public

opinion.












Statement of the Problem


The present study investigates the effect of oral reading rate

with and without inflection has on the dependent variables, compre-

hension and maintenance of comprehension.

This study also serves to extend Lovitt and Hansen's (1976)

findings. In their study, high oral reading rate was not compared

with other rates. Also, they did not report any control for inflec-

tion. This study also systematically extends Berquam's (1981) findings

that high rate increases retention, by replication with a different

skill.



Delimitations


Comprehension has been defined by many investigators as having

several components. This study will only describe the relationship

of the independent variables with measures of comprehension and

maintenance of comprehension. The dependent variables measure

instances of recall. This limits the generality of the findings

across other components of comprehension. However, as already noted,

increased oral reading rates resulted in improved comprehension

across other components (Lovitt & Hansen, 1976).












Definition of Terms


Accuracy Ratio: This is a measure of accuracy derived from the

ratio Frequency Correct
Frequency Error
Behavior: The behavior of an organism is that portion of the

organism's interaction with its environment that is characterized

by detectable displacement in space through time of some part of the

organism and that results in a measurable change in at least one

aspect of the environment (Johnston & Pennypacker, 1980).

Celeration: This is the basic unit of measurement to describe

behavior change; change in frequency per unit time.

Comprehension: Comprehension is an instance of verbal behavior

known as an intraverbal. An intraverbal is a verbal response in

which the prior controlling variable is a verbal stimulus with no

point-to-point correspondence between the stimulus and the response.

Criterion: A criterion is an aim or goal. A criterion is

expressed in terms of desired frequency of performance for a specific

skill.

Frequency: Frequency is the number of cycles (responses) per

unit of time (minute). Frequency is equivalent to rate in this

definition.

Inflection: A change in pitch or loudness of the voice. The

change of form that words undergo to mark case, gender, number,

tense, person, mood, or voice (Merriam-Webster, 1974). In addition

to the above definition, inflection in oral reading comes under the

control of punctuation marks.











Latency: The amount of time between the occurrence of a

signal and the beginning of a movement.

Learning: A change in performance per unit time; also called

celebration.

Level of difficulty of material: Level of difficulty of

material is defined by the frequency at which the student demon-

strates performance of material. Levels of difficulty range from

slow frequency of performance with many errors (very difficult

material) to fast frequency of performance with no errors (easy

material).

Readability: Readability is defined by Fry's readability formula.

This formula will provide an estimation of the grade level of reading

material.

Response Class: A response class is a set of responses that

have-at least one characteristic in common. These characteristics

may involve the movements themselves (all are eye-blinks) or the

effects of these movements on the environment (we may open a door

by pushing against it with a hand, foot, knee, or body, but the

result is the same on the environment) (Whaley & Malott, 1971).

Standard Behavior Chart: A standard six-cycle semi-logarithmic

chart that displays frequency as movements/time and celebration as

movements/minute/week.



Summary


Experimental questions were developed to determine whether oral

reading, when it approximates conversational speech, can enhance












reading comprehension and maintenance of comprehension. More

specifically, the purpose of this investigation is to understand

the interaction of oral reading at two rates with and without

inflection as it impacts reading comprehension and maintenance of

comprehension. Precision Teaching, single subject technology, and

Skinner's Verbal Behavior paradigm, are the strategies that will be

employed to engineer the research design, data analysis, and conclu-

sions.

Special educators who are interested in the area of reading

have only recently begun to determine the efficacy of oral reading

in enhancing comprehension. Oral reading at high rates has been

shown to have a positive effect on reading and reading comprehension

(Lovitt & Hansen, 1976). Studies that have investigated the effects

of varying reading rates on retention have suggested a positive

relationship between high rates of performance and retention of facts

(Berquam, 198i). This study is a systematic replication of Lovitt

and Hansen's study (1976) and also looks at the effects of inflection

on reading comprehension and its maintenance over time.


















CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE



The following review is divided into six sections. The first

section focuses on the nature of reading comprehension. The second

section describes theories, strategies, and tactics that relate to

reading comprehension. The third section describes the most typical

methods of assessing the dependent measure, reading comprehension.

The fourth section refers to how oral reading, rate of oral reading,

and punctuation affect reading comprehension. Section five describes

reading comprehension as an instance of verbal behavior (Skinner,

1957). Although each main section has a summary, section six is a

summary of the previous main sections.

Only those studies and position papers that were relevant to

the experimental questions were reviewed. First, oral and/or silent

reading must be the major independent variable. Second, studies

which contained at least one of the following dependent measures of

reading comprehension were chosen: answers to comprehension questions,

Cloze procedures, and free recall. Third, studies that were performed

within a laboratory setting were sought. This was thought to be an

efficient way to provide the reader with studies that have undergone

experimental analysis. Moreover, by reviewing these studies, one












begins to set the occasion to systematically replicate known

laboratory principles of reading comprehension. So few laboratory

studies were found that research conducted in applied settings with

less than adequate control had to be included.



The Nature of Reading Comprehension


A definitive statement as to what constitutes reading comprehen-

sion and how to teach it is hard to come by. It is no wonder then

that the literature contains very little experimental data on how to

improve reading comprehension (Armstrong, 1981; Van Etten, 1978;

Vogel, 1975).


Reading Comprehension as a Multifaceted Skill

Reading comprehension has usually been conceptualized as a complex

skill. There are many definitions of this skill. Smith (1969)

outlined seven categories of reading comprehension by using the

Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill,

and Krathwohl, 1956). These categories are memory, translation,

interpretation, application analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

The use of these categories has not gone without criticism.

Smith (1969) reported that the list was too large and proposed

a four level approach to reading comprehension. These were literal,

interpretive, critical, and creative reading comprehension. Miller

(1976) also believed that most definitions and components of reading

comprehension were too long. He described four types of reading











comprehension. These were (a) recalling information from long-term

memory, (b) elaborating and abstracting, (c) interpreting, and (d)

naming. In addition to these categories, listening comprehension

and word comprehension have also been included as a definition of

reading comprehension (Lerner, 1976; Vogel, 1975, 1977).


Listening and Reading Comprehension

Studies (Sidman, 1971; Vogel, 1975, 1977) have shown a high

correlation between listening and reading skills. Also instruction

in listening comprehension often results in improvement in reading

comprehension (Lerner, 1976; Sidmarr, 1971).

Some differences between reading and listening are (a) listen-

ing (language or speech) is typically acquired first, (b) the process

of speech acquisition is more gradual (Staats & Staats, 1962), (c)

speech acquisition is under the control of stronger reinforcers

(Staats & Staats, 1962), and (d) speech is typically taught in a

one-to-one setting (Bijou & Baer, 1961). The use of vocal language

is usually learned before reading. Reading comprehension is strongly

influenced by spoken language (Staats & Staats, 1962). Along the

same lines matching-to-sample (visual and/or auditory equivalence

training)/ has been used as a definition of reading comprehension

(Sidman, 1971; Wolking & Greenwood, 1979). This is in line with

Skinner's (1957) understanding of comprehension. In his classic

book Verbal Behavior, Skinner (1957) defines reading comprehension

as an intraverbal. For example, "A person comprehends a text when

he can describe it in different words" (Johnson & Chase, 1981, p.

110).











Reading Comprehension as Facts

The most widely used measure of comprehension in the public

schools is the ability to remember specific facts from what has been

read (Guszak, 1969; Johnson & Chase, 1981; Rystrom, 1970). The

ability to recall facts does appear to be a fundamental prerequisite

for all other measures of comprehension. Without the ability to

recall facts, concept formation and other abstractions will be

limited (Johnson & Chase, 1981). Thus, one might propose that train-

ing a reader to recall facts should be the primary comprehension

task.


Oral vs. Silent Reading: Which Way Maximizes Comprehension?

During the early 1900's, E. L. Thorndike recommended that an

exclusive emphasis on precise pronunciation and oral reading was not

adequate for developing comprehension (Thorndike, 1917). His conclu-

sions initiated a greater awareness and concern for reading comprehen-

sion and silent reading; however, data to support his contention were

not provided. Yet, the emphasis shifted from oral reading to silent

reading within the public schools. Along with silent reading, an

emphasis on decoding words has been used with some research indicating

gains in comprehension (Rystrom, 1970). However, a new body of

research has been supporting the use of oral reading to increase

comprehension.

This new research suggests that when oral reading rate reaches

to a standard of performance, comprehension improves (Armstrong,

1981; Hansen, 1979; Lovitt & Hansen, 1976). Similarly, Samuels












(1979) demonstrated the effectiveness of using a standard within

his repeated readings paradigm was an effective way to increase

comprehension.


Summary

Reading comprehension has usually been viewed as a multifaceted

complex skill. Silent reading with an emphasis on teaching decoding

skills and word comprehension has been the accepted way to teach

comprehension. Other ways of teaching comprehension have been

related to listening comprehension. The most widely used measure

of comprehension has been recall of-facts. Since the early turn

of the century, silent reading along with teaching decoding skills

has been the predominant method of teaching reading and comprehension.

In more recent years a body of research has evolved to support the

use of oral reading at high rates to increase comprehension.



Theories, Strategies, and Tactics of
Reading and Comprehension


Many different ideas of how to teach reading and to maximize

comprehension exist. Many reading programs have been developed to

coincide with stages of child development. Theories of child develop-

ment are myriad.


Traditional Teaching Methods

Teaching reading usually begins as a sequential process. More

often, beginning readers are taught to read from a basal series












(Heilman, Blair, & Rupley, 1981). This early reading curriculum

usually involves letter naming, saying letter sounds, word-picture

recognition and word attack or phonetic analysis, respectively.

More often than not, little emphasis is given to speed or fluency

building. Also, mastery of reading skills is usually assessed over

a long period of time. Teaching in the regular classes is also

performed in large groups. Students are asked to read in a round

robin format with each child reading approximately 40-50 words in

30 to 45 minutes.

Since the early 1900's many reading methods have been developed.

One such method that existed since the 1930's is the Language

Experience Approach (LEA).

Many educators have advocated the LEA rather than a skills

approach (Hasselriis, 1982). LEA requires teachers to use printed

material in its "natural" form; then whole sentences are combined to

form stories, articles, magazines, newspapers, and books. It requires

that if instruction is focused on words, parts of words, or other

subsets of language, those fragments of language should not be

removed from their original context (Hasselriis, 1982). This method

recognizes the relationship between reading, speaking, writing, and

listening as part of an individual's personal experiences (Spache &

Spache,1977). It further requires that the students be given

extensive opportunities to read, write, listen, and speak in natural

settings rather than through contrived means. Proponents see that

a child cannot be expected to deal with ideas of language in reading

that are much further advanced than those he can speak or write.












Linguistics and reading comprehension. Reading has been

related to language development. Concerned with language and its

components, the linguistic approach has been drawn upon to guide

curriculum development, instruction, and methods of teaching reading

and comprehension. Linguistics has been defined as the study of

language. Proponents of this system attempt to explain the phonemic

and grammatical structures of language (Karlin, 1975). Two of the

more salient domains in linguistics are structural linguistics and

generative or transformational linguistics. Structural linguists

study oral language to identify its sounds; its units of meaning,

carried by words and by parts of words; and its syntax. Transforma-

tional linguists seek to find the knowledge one must have in order

to make such utterances or to understand them. They typically try

to produce grammars that describe the often unobservable knowledge

of language (Karlin, 1975).

Transformational grammarians believe that knowledge of the

grammar of a language enables one to produce it, and that meaning

is derived not from the words in a sentence, or the surface structure,

but from knowledge of the deep levels of the language. Grammar

serves as a bridge between the deeper structure of a language, in

which meaning resides, and the surface structure of the language

(Chomsky, 1965). Comprehension then is a process which occurs between

the surface and the deep structure by means of the vocabulary,

phonology, and syntax of a particular language. Therefore, compre-

hension of what is read is assessed through techniques that rely on












inferences and/or prediction of a next word within the context of

a passage.

Similar to the area of linguistics, psycholinguistics has

recently had an impact in the arena of reading comprehension.

Psycholinguists believe that reading and comprehension are an

active process. For example, people can read words without decoding

and can understand without knowing how to read words (Smith, 1971).

Psycholinguists believe that comprehension of words and word identi-

fication may be a result of comprehending the story before reading

it. Also, psycholinguists believe that readers read for meaning

rather than word identification (Smith, 1971). A technique that has

been developed to test comprehension within this model is the "Cloze"

procedure. This procedure uses an automatic word deletion process

(e.g., every nth word), whereby words are removed from a printed

passage. The pupil's task is to say the exact word that was removed

and replace it (Rankin, 1965). Proponents of this method indicate

that pupils can predict the next word on a Cloze procedure when their

prior knowledge, general understanding of the material, context

clues, and a knowledge of word usage are well developed.

Reading in context with a focus on punctuation has been described

as a way to increase comprehension (Heilman, 1981). This is consistent

with the linguist point of view. The linguists and psycholinguists

have also emphasized comprehension to be partly influenced by intona-

tion. In addition to the consonant vowel phonemes, they relate that

English uses a number of intonational phonemes. Speech consists of












a flow of words arranged in particular patterns which result in

distinctive rhythms or melodies which are unique to English

(Heilman, 1967). Reading in context along with using the correct

intonational patterns is viewed as having an impact on comprehension.

Reading as operant behavior. In 1938, B. F. Skinner published

The Behavior of Organisms. In that book he describes the differences

between operant behavior and reflexes. He described the use of fre-

quency as a basic datum of behavioral research to describe how behavior

changes under operant control. It was notuntil Azrin and Lindsley

(1956) used operant procedures with children that the power and

generalizability of Skinner's fundamental principles could be

realized. In 1957, Skinner's book Verbal Behavior conceptualized

how reading and comprehension can be defined as and come under operant

control.

The inaugural study that used principles of operant behavior to

explore the relationship between reading behavior and reinforcement

was performed by Arthur Staats and associates (Staats & Staats, 1962).

This led to the systematic development of strategies and tactics for

the investigation of reading behavior. Staats and his colleagues

(Raygnor, Wark, & Warren, 1966; Staats, Minke, Filey, Wolf, & Brooks,

1964; Staats & Staats, 1962) demonstrated that reading, like any

other operant behavior, was influenced and controlled by its conse-

quences.

Often, operant technology has focused on arranging contingencies

of reinforcement for academic behaviors. For example, the use of












"token economies" (Ayllon & Azrin, 1969) has been used to increase

academic performances across most subject areas (Ayllon & Roberts,

1974; O'Leary, Becker, Evans, & Saudergas, 1969; Wolf, Giles, &

Hall, 1968). The efficacy of using reinforcement contingently has

also been demonstrated on a national level with Project Follow

Through (Benjamin, 1981).

Reading comprehension is also a class of responses which a

science of behavior can and has investigated (Staats & Staats, 1962).

However, the study of reading as a natural science phenomenon has

only recently gained momentum (Indrisano, 1982).


Recent Strategies and Tactics for Teaching Reading and Comprehension

Recent approaches to teaching reading have focused on strategies

that have proven empirical value. Some of these are still undergoing

parametric evaluations. One particular approach which has gained in

momentum over the past decade is Direct Instruction.

Direct Instruction. Direct Instruction has emerged as an effec-

tive method to develop reading and comprehension. The beginning

sequence of this approach begins with first having the child say the

letter sound, word-picture identification, blending sounds into words,

and letter naming, respectively (Englemann & Bruner, 1974). Much of

the direct instruction approach requires the child to continually read

aloud. Comprehension at the beginning levels emphasizes visual dis-

crimination tasks, matching to sample, and visual equivalence training

(Sidman, 1971). Direct Instruction emphasizes teaching children

letter sounds before naming them. This was developed empirically as











a method to teach children that reading is similar to speaking.

An important hallmark of Direct Instruction is the interaction

between the instructor and the students. Immediate feedback is

typically provided. Also, Direct Instruction is under the philosophy

that all children can learn. Therefore, instruction does not pro-

ceed unless the pupil demonstrates that a skill or a lesson has been

learned. There are important studies published that have described

the efficacy of Direct Instruction with a program such as DISTAR

(Benjamin, 1981). These studies typically have shown how DISTAR,

compared to many other popular teaching strategies, managed to

raise the performances of low achieving students so that they were

on and above grade level (Benjamin, 1981; Englemann, 1975).

Precision Teaching and reading comprehension. Recent investiga-

tors have used the technology of Precision Teaching (PT) and reported

studies in which reading comprehension was the primary dependent

variable (Armstrong, 1981; Fleisher, Jenkins, & Pany, 1979; Hansen

& Lovitt, 1976; Jenkins, Barksdale, & Clinton, 1978; Lovitt & Hansen,

1976; Roberts & Smith, 1980; Weaver, Holmes, Curtis, & Reynolds,

1970). The findings of and the paradigms that were used in each of

these studies can be seen in Table 1. Included in Table 1 is the

only study that could be found comparing oral reading and inflection

with comprehension (Poulton & Brown, 1967).

Precision Teaching (PT) has five basic ingredients: (a) replic-

able teaching procedures, (b) individual analysis, (c) experimental

control, (d) direct measurement, and (e) daily measurement (Haring,

1978). Within this framework, 0. R. Lindsley introduced Precision












Table 1

Review of Selected Studies on Oral Reading Rate
and Comprehension


Author(s) Subjects Measures Intervention


24 Housewives


Answers to Oral and silent
questions. reading.


Results: Memory for the first 30 percent of the passage was less
after reading aloud. Remainder of the passage memory was equally
good for both conditions. The last 10 percent of the passage was
remembered reliably after reading aloud. Difficulty level of compre-
hension questions was not reported. Also, questions restrict the
total number of facts that could have been recalled.

Limitations: Readability was not controlled. Rereading passages
was not controlled. Also, rates of oral and silent reading was not
controlled. The use of punctuation and inflection was not controlled.


Weaver, Holmes, 18 volunteer
Curtis, & undergraduates
Reynolds, 1970


Cloze proc. Oral and silent
reading with
punctuation. Oral
reading without
punctuation.


Results: Reading silently with punctuation resulted in higher scores
on the Cloze questions.

Limitations: Reading rates were not controlled. The number of trials
read silently and orally could not be managed successfully. Cloze
procedure restricts that total number of facts that could have been
recalled.


Words read C
per minute s
correct and o
error. q
Percentage of a
correct r
answers on
comp. questions.


ontingency of
kipping. Drill
n words and
questions read/
answered incor-
ectly.


Poulton &
Brown, 1967


Levitt &
Hansen, 1976


7 LD boys












Table 1--Continued


Author(s) Subjects Measures Intervention


Results: Subjects oral reading rate increased during the skip and
drill phase. There was also a simultaneous increase in number of
correct answers to comprehension questions.

Limitations: Minimal changes from the skip and drill phase to the
final baseline phase. The effects of punctuation training was not
reported in the study.


3 LD students


Correct oral
reading rate.
Answers to
-comp. questions.


Money contingent on
correct answers to
comprehension
questions.


Results: Reading comprehension improved under the money contingency.
Then number of words read correctly increased also under the money
contingencies.

Limitations: Subjects began at a high level of reading correct words.
Comprehension questions restricts that total number that could have
been recalled.


36 students.
14 good readers.
22 poor readers.


Words read per
minute. Per-
cent correct
on Cloze.
Number correct
on factual and
inferential
questions.


Decoding training.
Oral reading rate
of 90 wpm. In-
struction in
reading for
understanding.


Results: Poor readers improved their number of words read correctly
with training. Good readers did not improve significantly.

Limitations: Low proficiency standard for oral reading. Did not
control punctuation and inflection. Difficulty level of comprehension
questions not reported. Comprehension questions restricts the total
number of facts that could have been recalled.


Jenkins,
Barksdale,
& Clinton,
1978


Fleisher,
Jenkins, &
Pany, 1979












Table 1--Continued


Author(s) Subjects Measures Intervention


Oral reading rate
corr. Percent
correct of comp.
questions.


Contingencies to
increase oral
reading. Model-
ing and instruc-
tion.


Results: Oral reading rate increased, but answers to comprehension
questions improved less.

Limitations: Punctuation and inflection training was not controlled.
Many variables involved with the study. Difficult to separate out
the controlling variables. Level of difficulty of the comprehension
questions was not reported.


6 LD students


Type and number
of responses to
comp. questions.
Response latency.


Contingent
pennies for
correct answers
to comprehension
questions for
each level of
material pre-
sented at
staggered inter-
vals.


Results: There was an inconclusive relationship between the contin-
gencies and the percent of comprehension questions answered correctly.
In all six cases there was a positive relationship between the median
number of words read correctly and comprehension. There was a nega-
tive relationship between words read correctly per minute and mean
response latency. In all six cases there was a positive relationship
between errors per minute and response latencies.

Limitations: Did not control for punctuation training. The rate of
oral reading was not controlled. Also used comprehension questions
that may have limited the total number of facts that could have been
recalled. The level of difficulty of the comprehension questions was
not reported.


Roberts &
Smith, 1980


8 LD boys


Armstrong,
1981












Teaching at the University of Kansas in 1964 (Haring, 1978). A

hallmark of PT is the insistence on daily charting of targeted

skills on a six cycle semilogrhithmic chart (Pennypacker, Koenig,

Lindsley, 1972). PT also incorporates the use of frequency as the

basic datum to describe behavior. Many classrooms throughout the

country use PT techniques, although great variability exists between

classrooms (Lovitt, 1977). Lovitt (1977) describes five characteris-

tics of PT that are the best practices within these classrooms (p.

175).

1. The teacher or pupil must pinpoint each behavior of a

child's program. !F one goal is to increase ability to read orally

from a certain text, a situation should be arranged to deal directly

with that behavior.

2. An aim (e.g., goal) must be determined for each identified

behavior. In order to determine an aim, the teacher or pupil must

decide the rate at which the selected behavior should occur and the

date on which that criterion should be achieved. Lines of progress

are then drawn on a chart of that activity from the intersection of

the current date and rate to the point of the projected date and rate

intersect.

3. Third, the teacher or pupil must count the number of times

the behavior occurs.

4. The teacher or pupil should chart each day the frequency

of the pinpointed behavior.












5. The teacher and pupil should evaluate the performance of

each charted behavior every day. If the correct rate is above and

the incorrect rate below the corresponding progress lines, the

current instructional technique should be continued. If, however,

the progress is not satisfactory, an instructional change should be

considered.

Direct Instruction and PT are two methods that can be used

in a coordinated way within the classroom. Both advocate direct

interventions. PT and Direct Instruction focus on observable data

to guide interventions that are necessary to have a learner reach a

mastery criterion. PT also uses frequency as its basic datum. PT

differs from direct instruction methods by its insistence on frequency

of response as being the datum of interest. Typically, Direct

Instruction uses a percent correct criterion. In other words, PT

relies on accuracy and rate to measure performance while Direct

Instruction will emphasize the number of trials to criterion or

accuracy.

The ecological approach. This approach is similar to the Language

Experience Approach and to ABA. The approach deals with the inter-

actions between the organism as a whole and its entire environment,

which includes the existence and behavior of other organisms in that

environment (Bijou & Baer, 1961). In the educational sense, ecology

is the relationship of the learners to their instructional environment

(Indrisano, 1982). The learner is viewed as a dynamic part of an

ongoing changing environment.












Automaticity theory. The tactics advocated by the proponents

of automaticity are in some ways similar to PT. This method

advocates the use of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979). "Fluent

readers automatically process information at the visual and

phonological levels and are therefore able to focus attention on

the meaning codes in the text" (Box, 1982, p. 51). Advocates of

this theory believe that when each level of processing receives

attention and assisted repeated reading to a fluent rate, selective

attention will be improved. Samuels (1979) advocates oral reading

at 85 wpm as the criterion for fluent reading. Although not proponents

of automaticity theory, Smith (1969) and Beck (1982) advocate fluency

to be at 150 to 200 wpm.

PT and automaticity theory both include fluency training and

rereading as an important tactic to increase comprehension. Consistent

with PT is the notion that fluent reading is a more functional way to

increase reading comprehension for three reasons. First, fluent

reading can increase retention. Second, fluent reading increases the

probability that the reader and/or audience will attend to what has

been read. Consequently, this may provide the reader with a greater

variety and frequency of reinforcement because of the faster pace.

Third, as this study seeks to substantiate, when oral reading approxi-

mates conversational speech, comprehension will improve. These

reasons are similar and coincide with those given by the proponents

of automaticity and PT.












Microcomputers and reading. Another approach which has recently

been revived because of advances in electronics is the use of

programmed instruction through the use of microcomputers. The use

of machines and programmed instruction are contrived methods that

can be made a valuable tool for instruction (Skinner, 1958). More-

over, through programmed instruction and teaching machines the student

can rehearse newly learned skills, receive immediate reinforcement,

and develop independent work habits. Although much more technologically

advanced than teaching machines, microcomputers can be used as a very

sophisticated learning device as Skinner had envisioned. Furthermore,

microcomputers can reinforce small increments of behavior that other-

wise may go unnoticed by the instructor. However, the use of micro-

computers have been limited because of software design. The importance

and/or the expertise to incorporate fluency building into educational

software has typically not been made part of the recently developed

software for students. However, some educators have recognized this

deficiency and have begun expressing their concerns and have suggested

alternative strategies (Eshelman, 1983; Wolking & Buss, 1983).


Summary

The nature of reading comprehension is difficult to delineate.

Several theorists have believed that reading comprehension is a

multifaceted skill. Others have actively sought to decrease the

number of skills necessary to constitute what is commonly called

reading comprehension. There is agreement as to the importance of

retaining facts as a minimum skill that is the foundation for later












types of comprehension. During the early 1900's silent reading

was considered to be the best method toteach reading and comprehen-

sion. Then along with silent reading, decoding and word comprehension

were thought to be the best ways to optimize comprehension. Some

researchers in the 1960's provided data which support the notion

that when the rate of oral reading reaches a proficiency standard,

there is a concomitant increase in comprehension. Lovitt and Hansen

(1976) provided data that indicate that although improvements were

not as great during oral reading training, reading silently at high

rates improved comprehension of materials that were read silently.

There are many theories as to how comprehension should be

conceptualized and subsequently taught. Some theorists have con-

jectured that language and comprehension are closely related. The

linguists, which include the psycholinguists, and the transformational

grammarians advocate developing comprehension through increased under-

standing of the deep structures of language. The Language Experience

Approach advocates the use of already learned language as a place to

begin instruction. Also, reading materials should consist of func-

tional value to the students. Similarly, proponents of Applied

Behavior Analysis see reading as operant behavior that comes under

the control of contingencies within the immediate environment. The

fundamentals of operant research were developed by B. F. Skinner

(1938). Skinner's (1957) conceptualization of reading and compre-

hension was presented in his book Verbal Behavior. He defined

comprehension as an intraverbal. As an intraverbal (see definition












of comprehension), the aim of teaching reading comprehension will

be to functionalize it. More recent approaches to reading compre-

hension are Direct Instruction, Precision Teaching, and Automaticity

theory. The research supporting these recent approaches is providing

evidence as to their effectiveness across many environments. More

specifically, instruction which incorporates a standard of per-

formance, direct and frequent measurement of performance, high rate

of oral reading along with practice of the same or similar stimuli

has the greatest probability of increasing reading comprehension.



Dependent Measures of Reading Comprehension


Without a standard definition of reading comprehension, strategies

and methods to measure its occurrence are difficult. Without a standard

definition, it is difficult to decide which treatment effects are to

be considered significant. In spite of this difficulty investigators

have developed ways to measure comprehension.

In general, responses to comprehension questions are the most

common format. Typically multiple choice type questions are used.

However, true/false questions, fill-in-the-blanks, and vocabulary

definitions have also been used (Hansen, 1979). Methods of assessment

that employ questions have many drawbacks. Comprehension questions

reveal only a portion of the available information that may be obtained

from textual material. Also, students are assessed on what another

person considers to be the major points made in the text.












More recently other methods have been developed to correct

the problems inherent in the use of questions to measure compre-

hension. Short-answer fill-ins have been suggested in an attempt

to facilitate recall of response rather than recognition. These

open-ended questions do not resolve the other concerns about questions

as a measure of comprehension. Cloze techniques have been suggested

as another alternative to comprehension questions. Difficulty arises

with the Cloze procedure because it does not provide evidence of the

ability to understand entire passages. Moreover, this technique

does not permit evaluation of a person's critical and inferential

comprehension skills (Hansen, 1979).

A more direct measure of comprehension was proposed by Sidman

(1971). He believed that reading comprehension occurs initially when

a beginning reader can match a word to a corresponding picture. In

this way the child indicates that written words are symbolic repre-

sentations of objects found in the environment. He also proposed

that pictures and words become equivalent to each other, because

they both can serve as discriminative stimuli for the same operant

(same class of responses), of the same auditory word. Several

studies have reported that matching spoken words to pictures and

to printed words is a sufficient prerequisite for the emergence of

reading comprehension at the word level (Sidman, 1971).

Another direct measure of comprehension is whether the child can

locate the actual object or perform the prescribed action. This

method relies on recall as a prerequisite'skill. The ability to











recall facts does appear to be a fundamental prerequisite for all

other measures of comprehension. Without the ability to recall

facts concept formation and other abstractions will be limited

(Johnson & Chase, 1981). Thus, one might propose that training a

reader to recall facts should be the first comprehension level.

A free recall task that uses frequency of facts told correctly

to criterion (e.g., 15 to 30 correct facts recalled per minute), can

significantly aid retention, type of information remembered and

provide a direct measure of its occurrence (Hansen, 1979). The

ability to recall facts to criterion might then be considered as a

tool skill for all other types of comprehension. Once proficiency

has been demonstrated, another type of comprehension should be taught.

Johnson and Chase (1981) proposed a hierarchical instructional

typology for adult learners based on Skinner's Verbal Behavior (1957).

Their suggested sequence begins with teaching cf free recall and then

moving on to more abstract methods of teaching and measuring compre-

hension. Within the instructional typology all types of comprehension

measures that use answers to literal questions, and fill-in-the-

blanks, are considered as fundamental steps in developing abstract

comprehension. Other measures of comprehension such as Sidman's

(1971) equivalence training would likewise be regarded as a funda-

mental step in developing comprehension. This:study will measure

comprehension on a fundamental level. In other words, all responses

will be considered as free recall across different stimulus events.

Since free recall is the basic building block of all later












comprehension, steps should be taken to determine the accuracy

and rate that will improve more abstract types of comprehension.

This is regarded as a step towards standardizing a definition of

comprehension.


Reading Comprehension and Memory

Although recall of facts is the most sought after measure of

comprehension, many reading programs do not employ teaching

strategies that enhance memory. Reading curricula usually rely on

one trial learning per story. Students are expected to read a

story one time and then answer comprehension questions. This does

not appear to be the most efficient teaching strategy to enhance

memorization. Ebbinghaus (1885) learned that the more exposure or

practice he had to learn a list of words, the greater was his recall

for these words.

Although practice is highly correlated with an increase of

retained material, Berquam (1981) investigated the relationship

between rate of performance and extra practice of learning nonsense

syllables. He used a paired associate task in a trigram form.

His study confirmed the results of earlier investigations, in that

level of previous learning has a very strong relation to subsequent

retention of skills. The group that worked to increase performance

required less time to relearn the nonsense trigrams than did the

group which received extra practice without fluency training.

Since Berquam's study used frequency of response data, the results

indicate that the basic learning/retention relation is found with












frequency data as well as with the accuracy measures of previous

studies. Berquam (1981) concludes from these findings, "It seems

likely that teachers could increase their students' skill levels

and subsequent retention by using short, concentrated periods of

fluency training, similar to those used by precision teachers"

(p. 73).

This study builds on Berquam's findings. In Berquam's study,

he used nonsense trigrams. For this study, reading passages will

be used. As Berquam used rate in terms of frequency, this study

will also use frequency of oral reading as a basic datum. This

sets the occasion to systematically extend Berquam's (1981) findings.


Summary

Many different kinds of measures of reading comprehension exist.

Most of the ones used are question and answer type. Problems with

questions usually center around the subjectivity of the answers.

Also, the format in which the questions are asked usually does not

contain a time component. The question answer format usually solicits

the fundamental skill of recall. Since recall is a fundamental skill

for later types of comprehension, then a format that directly assesses

facts per some unit of time appears to have great merit. Memory has

been an important issue for experimental psychologists and educators.

Studies have been performed in which practice and, more recently,

practice with fluency increase retention on later measures.












Oral Reading, Rate, Punctuation, and Comprehension


Since retention increases with practice and fluency, the rela-

tionship between oral reading rate and comprehension should be

investigated. The relationship between oral reading and comprehen-

sion has received little attention. An early investigation of the

efficacy of oral and silent reading was conducted by Poulton and

Brown (1962). In their study 24 housewives read some passages

aloud and others silently and then answered questions. Time

allowed for reading silently was matched for time reading aloud.

The researchers concluded that memory for the first 30 percent of

the passage was less after reading aloud. For most of the remainder

of the passage memory was equally good. The last 10 percent of the

passage was remembered better after reading aloud.

To improve oral reading Lovitt and Hansen (1976) used a high

rate of oral reading along with word drill made up of words taken

from the pupil's reading passage that were read incorrectly. They

also reported a simultaneous increase in comprehension. Their pro-

cedure also generalized to silently read material. Also, when allowed

to read the passage silently after they were trained to read it

correctly orally, their silent reading also improved. The results

from this study may also be generalized to silent reading as well.

Oral reading appears to improve comprehension, but the rate at which

oral reading maximizes comprehension has recently begun to receive

attention.












There is little empirical data at this point to determine

which rates of reading are needed to maximize comprehension

(Buss, 1982). A wide range of proficiency rates for academic

skills are reported in the literature (Mercer, Mercer, & Evans,

1982). Haughton (1982) reported that oral reading reaches competent

levels in the 250 to 400 words correct per minute range, but in the

first three grades most children receive instruction in the 50 to

70 words per minute range. Smith (1971) reported that "normal"

readers call words at 200 wpm. After reviewing the reading per-

formance of over 3,000 second and third graders, Kunzelman (1973)

reported that the students designated as top readers by their

teachers read orally between 150 and 210 correct words per minute

with two or less errors at a particular grade level is considered

instructional level (Starlin & Starlin, 1973).

There appears to be a great deal of discrepancy of what consti-

tutes proficient reading. However, W'olking (1973) reported that,

by sixth grade, the median child has attained approximately 95

percent of adult accuracy and 65 percent of adult speed in the

performance of basic academic skills. Wolking's (1973) data appear

to translate into an easy formula by which a proficiency can be

judged on a criterion referenced basis. However, this does not

settle the question of which rate maximizes comprehension. Reading

at or near conversational adult speech has been regarded as a

possible goal for oral reading rate that may maximize comprehension

(Wolking, 1982). This also appears to be in line with Skinner's












understanding of verbal behavior (1957). Moreover, in the Wolking

findings, comparing children with adults to determine rates appears

to approximate the development of a reading rate that resembles

conversational speech. Conversational speech has been clocked at

150 to 200 wpm (Wolking, 1982). Although this review does not

report any studies that used a proficiency standard of 150 to 200

wpm, some researchers have used high rates of oral reading to

determine its effect on comprehension.

In their study, Fleisher, Jenkins, and Pany (1979) trained 36

fourth and fifth grade students to read at 90 wpm to see the effects

it would have on comprehension. They had two groups of children.

The first group were good readers while the second group were poor

readers. The investigators concluded that there was no significant

change in any of the three measures of reading comprehension between

the groups.

In a more recent study Roberts and Smith (1980) demonstrated the

efficacy of improving reading fluency by using high rates of oral

reading with eight learning disabled boys. However, comprehension

improved less than oral reading correct did. In support of Roberts

and Smith's (1980) study, Armstrong (1981) reported a positive

correlation to exist between high rate of oral reading and compre-

hension.

The impact that punctuation has on oral reading should not be

overlooked (Weaver, Holmes, Curtis, & Reynolds, 1970; Wolking, 1982).

One study that was significant to this research was found which












directly addressed the question of punctuation and its relationship

with comprehension. In this study 18 volunteer undergraduate

students were assigned randomly to one of six conditions: oral

reading with punctuation, oral reading unpunctuated; reading final

word in sentence, punctuated; reading words in sentences unpunctuated

(Weaver et al., 1970). A Cloze procedure was used to assess compre-

hension. The investigators concluded that reading silently with

punctuation resulted in higher scores on the Cloze procedure. They

concluded that the imposing of the verbal production has an inhibit-

ing effect upon comprehension (p. 82).


Summary

In summary, investigators studying the relationships between

reading and reading comprehension have reported results which suggest

that oral reading at high rates can improve comprehension. Except

for Lovitt and Hansen (1976) and Armstrong's (1981) studies, most

results have not been replicated. The rates at which oral reading

will optimize comprehension and retention have not been reported in

the studies reviewed. Studies which sought to determine the effects

of oral reading rate did not use proficiency standards that were

advocated by precision teachers. Experts in the area of Precision

Teaching report a rate of 200 wpm to be the proficiency aim for

reading aloud. Many of the studies cited did not control for the

possible effects that punctuation training may have had on oral

reading and comprehension. A study that did investigate the

relationship between reading and use of punctuation had design












difficulties. In that study, they could not prohibit rereading

of the silent reading phase. The effects of overt and covert

reinforcement have been well documented. Yet, many of the studies

cited in this review do not report the use of contingencies that were

operating during the study. This investigation will use a minimum

of intermittent praise as the only source of reinforcement. Also,

some studies which used group designs did not adequately control

for receptive vocabulary differences in their subjects.



Verbal Behavior


Skinner's (1957) conceptualization of verbal behavior can help

to improve the strategies and methods that are presently being used

to research and to teach reading comprehension. Skinner (1957)

made the case in his book Verbal Behavior that all instances of

verbal behavior such as reading, writing, answering questions, are

defined by their function. As noted earlier, comprehension is an

intraverbal. This concept uses the idea that comprehension like

other kinds of verbal behavior is part of a dynamic system that is

functional in some regard. For example, if a teacher has established

herself as either possibly rewarding and/or aversive, she can elicit

responses from a student thatare functional to both the student and

the teacher. The response by the student would be functional

because he/she would be either seeking a positive reinforcer or

possibly avoiding a punishment. The response by the student then

is a stimulus for the teacher to behave in some fashion. Thus, the












student's response sets the occasion for some teacher behavior.

Viewed in this light, intraverbals such as free recall can be

taught for some functional value. For instance, when a child learns

to provide answers at a rate of 20 per minute, he/she will probably

move on to a new story and/or understand similar stories at a faster

rate. Since the occurrence of a high rate behavior typically

implies that some reinforcement contingency is operating (Ferster

& Skinner, 1957), it can be said then that high oral reading rate

has some functional value. Since recalling facts at 20 per/minute

may increase understanding a similar story at a faster rate, then

recalling facts at a high rate will take on a positive functional

value.


Experimental Analysis of Behavior and B. F. Skinner

Since this study uses B. F. Skinner's conceptualization of

reading comprehension as an instance of verbal behavior, a discussion

of his contributions and related research are included.

Behavioral practices resulting from the pioneering work of

Skinner have become the system called Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA).

Analysis on the individual level is probably the most salient charac-

teristic of ABA. This strategy is closely related to the concept of

experimental control (Johnston & Pennypacker, 1980). Other research

methods often report group data that compare the means of experi-

mental and control groups (Johnston & Pennypacker, 1980). By using

single subject designs the variation in individual responding is

readily available for visual inspection and possible subsequent












control (Johnston & Pennypacker, 1980; Sidman, 1960). Since

control of variation is feasible, statistical procedures are

often unnecessary. Systematic removal of sources of variability

in the data leads to stable responding (Sidman, 1960). When stable

responding has been achieved, systematic replication of the effects

of an intervention can be reported with greater confidence

(Johnston & Pennypacker, 1980; Sidman, 1960).

Johnston and Pennypacker (1980) have developed a definition of

behavior that includes the properties of a physical science as they

relate to behavior (see Appendix A). Verbal behavior (Skinner, 1957)

is a class of behavior within this generic definition of behavior.

Peterson (1978), based on Skinner's book Verbal Behavior (1957),

defines the verbal episode as having the following features.

1. It is established and maintained by reinforcement.

2. The reinforcement is mediated by another person.

3. The other person's action that results in the rein-

forcement must have been specifically trained in order

to reinforce speakers.

Peterson then goes on to list features which are irrelevant to a

definition of verbal behavior (p. 9). These are as follows:

1. The topography of the behavior: which muscles are used

in making the response.

2. Dynamic characteristics of the response: speed,

intensity, repetition.

3. Verbal or non-verbal stimulus.












4. Stimulus mode: auditory, visual, gustatory, etc.

5. Reinforcement features: conditioned, unconditioned,

type of schedule.

Many people involved with reading research have made the point

that reading, like speaking and listening, should be considered as a

language process (Goodman, 1976; Mcleod & Crump, 1978; Peaster, 1976;

Ryan & Semmel, 1969; Staats & Staats, 1962). Skinner (1957) defined

reading in terms of verbal behavior which is explicitly different from

language. He referred to reading as textual behavior. It is con-

trolled by a prior stimulus that is the response product (end

result) of writing behavior (such as a book) and there is point-to-

point correspondence between the stimulus and the response. Point-to-

point correspondence refers to discriminative stimuli and responses

in which each discriminative component controls a single response

component regardless of the mode of verbal behavior. For example,

copying a sentence word for word from a blackboard will have a point-

to-point correspondence between what was on the blackboard and what

was copied.

As with speaking, reading comes under the control of an audience.

The audience is a type of controlling variable (Peterson, 1978). The

audience is usually a listener in the presence of whom verbal behavior

is typically reinforced. Moreover, it controls a group of response

fcrms. The teacher and the school setting can serve as the audience

effecting control over the response form likely to be emitted. For

example, in a high school Spanish class, the teacher may only wish to











respond to questions and answers given in Spanish by the students.

In this way, Spanish is strengthened and English, in that particular

class, is weakened. Thus, the teacher defines the occasion for only

certain types of stimuli to be reinforced. This also holds for

reading and comprehension. For example, when a teacher responds

only to words read correctly, the teacher sets the occasion to be

an audience that will reinforce only correct word calling. In other

words, the audience is developing or has developed stimulus control

over a behavior or a class of behaviors. Closely related to this

concept of audience is the notion of stimulus control.


Stimulus Control

Verbal behavior develops as the audience mediates reinforcement.

Stimulus control is a function of discrimination training (Whaley &

Malott, 1971). The discrimination training procedure consists of

reinforcing a response in the presence of one stimulus and extinguish-

ing it in the presence of other classes of stimuli. When the response

is more likely to occur in the presence of the discriminative stimulus

than in the presence of the nonreinforced stimulu, stimulus control

has been established. Transfer of stimulus control has been demon-

strated through fading and errorless discrimination training (Moore &

Goldiamond, 1964; Sidman & Stoddard, 1967; Terrace, 1963; Touchette,

1968).

Skinner (1957) regarded reading as a type of stimulus-response

relation (stimulus control) in which the controlling stimuli are

visual words--written or printed text. In a mediated transfer study,












Sidman (1971) sought to discover if saying a word in the presence

of the visual equivalent of the word would suffice to establish

reading comprehension. Also, would teaching auditory-visual word

matching suffice for oral reading to emerge? He reasoned that

children normally understand words they hear before they learn to

read with comprehension (p. 6). He used receptive auditory visual

training for reading comprehension. By bringing receptive language

under discriminative control of words and pictures (he used pennies

and a bell contingent on correct response), Sidman was able to

demonstrate that retarded children could match sound to word and then

word to picture without instruction. Simply, he taught the retarded

child the word symbol association by saying the word in the presence

of the written word. The child was then able to read the word and

point to the correct picture that was associated with the word. This

phenomenon has been replicated with normal preschool children (Wolking

& Greenwood, 1978).


Comprehension Questions and Free Recall as
Discriminative Stimuli for Intraverbals

The episode that is usually known as comprehension can be inter-

preted as an instance of verbal behavior. More specifically, compre-

hension in Skinner's metaphor of Verbal Behavior is called an intraverbal.

An intraverbal is a verbal response in which the prior controlling

variable is a verbal stimulus (e.g., a discriminative stimulus

situation such as reading) with no point-to-point correspondence

(i.e., a thematic response instead of an exact duplication of what












has been seen or heard), between the stimulus (the question) and

response (the answer). In other words, there is no point-to-point

correspondence between the question and the answer. In this study,

comprehension is defined as an intraverbal. The maintenance of

comprehension is simply an attempt to evoke elementary intraverbals

(Johnson & Chase, 1981) over longer time periods.

Comprehension questions can be designed to evoke intraverbals as

the mediated transfer studies (Sidman, 1971; Wolking & Greenwood,

1978) have demonstrated. Any questions or procedures that require

the subject to perform recall behavior engage that subject in per-

forming intraverbals (Johnson & Chase, 1981). However, if compre-

hension questions are not designed carefully, basic intraverbals

(the foundation for extended intraverbals and concept formation)

can be disrupted (Johnson & Chase, 1981).

Two investigators have dealt with this topic. Knapczk and

Livingston (1974) prompted students to ask questions when they

encountered unfamiliar words or directions in the comprehension

questions. The students comprehension performances increased as

they were able to provide themselves with more and more stimuli

leading to intraverbals from the story and correct comprehension

answers. Hansen and Lovitt (1976) had students drill on the compre-

hension answers missed. This should help them to discriminate the

stimuli that evoke the proper intraverbals from those that lead to

incorrect ones. The reader is encouraged to read Peterson's (1978)

introductory text to Verbal Behavior for a more detailed account of

other types of verbal behavior.












The concepts of Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957) may be readily

applied to the professional working with school aged children. As

Johnson and Chase (1981) have pointed out, an entire instructional

sequence can be mapped out for each individual student. This will

include a functional approach to teaching skills from the funda-

mental to the abstract level. Moreover, by engineering functional

assessment strategies, interventions can become more precise and

capable of evolving into a practical solution for many of the

difficulties that may burden school children (Grimes, 1981).



Summary


Several definitions of reading comprehension exist. This, in

part, has contributed to the difficulties involved with the develop-

ment of a standard measure of reading comprehension. Major theorists

have promoted their own definitions and measurement schemes congruent

with their theory. This has made it difficult to replicate and

extend reported findings. Based on Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957),

comprehension is defined as an intraverbal. This is a functional

definition which can be used as a standard definition. Along with

frequency, the basic datum of behavioral research, this can set the

occasion for researchers and practitioners to make direct comparisons

of other research that finds its way into the professional literature.

This is thought possible because frequency uses a universal dimensional

property of behavior known as countability (Johnston & Pennypacker,

1980). Also, frequency uses an absolute and standard unit of











measurement to express countability. Along with frequency as a

basic datum, conceptualizing comprehension as a functional behavior

can help to pinpoint exactly the conditions, topography, and the

outcome of the episode known as comprehension. This is considered

desirable because each of the dynamic parts of comprehension can be

analyzed and understood in relationship with the entire episode.

One common type of intraverbal which appears to be a prerequisite

for all other types of intraverbals is recall. Free recall or facts

told per minute appears to have much promise as a measure of an

elementary intraverbal. Free recall and other types of recall type

situations rely heavily on memory. Several studies indicate that

relearning skills to criterion accelerate as a function of the number

of learning trials needed to reach criterion during initial learning.

More recently, Berquam (1981) demonstrated that daily practice with

an emphasis on high rate performance decreases the number of trials

needed to relearn a skill compared with practice without fluency

building.

During the turn of the century, E. L. Thorndike (1917) spear-

headed the movement towards silent reading. His contentions prevailed

until the early 1960's and 1970's. Since then, use of oral reading has

been demonstrated as being an efficient method of increasing compre-

hension (Lovitt & Hansen, 1976). More recently, Samuels (1979)

demonstrated that repeated readings along with a fluency criterion

increase comprehension. The minimal rate range of oral reading at

which comprehension will be maximized has not yet been established.








46



Most comprehension studies have not controlled for the effects

that inflection may have had on comprehension and the maintenance

of comprehension. Similarly, studies that manipulated punctuation

did not control reading rate and/or the number of trials (resulting

in a practice effect). Inflection provides the reader and listener

with auditory cues that may aid in the comprehension of written

materials for normal hearing persons. The strategies and tactics

designed to view individual variation as it is needed in this study

have been derived from applied behavior analysis and its related

area, precision teaching.

















CHAPTER III

METHOD



Experimental Questions


This study addressed six questions as follows:

Questions 1-3: How does high rate of oral reading without inflection

(Condition HRNI) influence comprehension and mainten-

ance of comprehension compared with the following

conditions:

Condition LRNI: Low rate of oral reading without


Questions 4-5:


inflection?

Condition HRWI: High rate of oral reading with

inflection?

Condition LRWI: Low rate of oral reading with

inflection?

How does high rate of oral reading with inflection

(Condition HRWI) influence comprehension and mainten-

ance of comprehension compared with the following

conditions:

Condition LRWI: Low rate of oral reading with

inflection?












Condition LRNI: Low rate of oral reading without

inflection?

Question 6: How does low rate of oral reading without inflec-

tion influence comprehension and maintenance of

comprehension compared with low rate of oral reading

with inflection?

The format of the experimental questions lend themselves to

making a summary statement about which conditions had the greatest

influence on comprehension and maintenance of comprehension. This

can be found in the results chapter.



Experiment 1


Experiment 1 began in November, 1981, and the last day of data

collection was in February of 1982. The study was done to probe the

procedures and the design to see if they were adequate for observing

the suspected relationships between rate, inflection, comprehension,

and maintenance. Also, it seemed particularly important to test

ways to sequence the occurrences of the dependent measures. The

experimental questions listed above were used. Since the first

experiment yielded data that were systematic and orderly, it was

decided to continue this line of research. Experiment 2 contained

the necessary modifications that were developed as a result of having

performed experiment one. The findings of experiment one are included

in the results section.











Experiment 2


This study was designed to

experiment by using subjects of

Two other changes were made. A

dependent measures and a design

was changed from an ABCD design

of finding sequence effects.


systematically replicate the first

different age, sex, and skill level.

Cloze procedure was added to the

change was also made. The design

to one which increased the probability


Independent Variables


There were two independent variables. These were (1) reading

rate and (2) vocal inflection. Two rates of oral reading were used.

First, a proficiency reading rate of 150 to 200 words per minute

with two or less errors (Starlin & Starlin, 1973) was used. Secondly,

instructional rate or reading at 30 to 60 wpm with two or less

errors (Starlin & Starlin, 1973) was used. Vocal inflection was

defined as those audible qualities of oral reading that come under

the control of punctuation marks and make oral reading approximate

conversational speech.



Apparatus


During Experiment 1 a General Electric tape recorder (model

number 3-5311) was used to record oral reading with and without

inflection. A Casio MeIldy Alarm wrist watch was used for timing.

It has a stop watch function that records time to a tenth of a second.












The watch provides an auditory signal at 60 second inter-als. This

made it possible to make reliable measurements of frequency,

latency, and duration.

Experiment 2 used the same apparatus to serve the same

functions as in Experiment 1. The tape recording permitted the

experimenter to check and verify the onset of the independent

variables. The cassette recording helped the experimenter to check

the accuracy and reliability of recording oral reading with or with-

out inflection. The recordings were also used to record the verbal

responses to the different comprehension measures.



Dependent Variables


There were three dependent variables. They were (1) free recall

of facts, (2) answers to 10 comprehension questions, and (3) written

answers to a Cloze procedure (every fifth word was deleted). Compre-

hension and maintenance of comprehension were measured in exactly

the same way. Comprehension was defined as the score received on

each of the dependent measures immediately following criteria for

oral reading for each condition. Maintenance of comprehension was

defined by the three scores on each of the dependent variables after

intervals of three and 10 calendar days. Each subject received

three different measures of comprehension in each of the four condi-

tions, at three different times. This yielded a total of 36 measures

of the dependent variable that each of the four subjects received.











The dependent measures were taken in the following order:

free recall, ten comprehension questions, and then the Cloze

procedure. 'Jith this format the comprehension questions and the

Cloze procedure would not offer any cues or give answers to the

subject during the free recall episode. Since the Cloze procedure

used the entire reading story with every fifth word deleted, it

would have been possible for the subjects to recall facts that

otherwise would not have been recalled. To prevent this, the Cloze

procedure was always given last.

The ten comprehension questions consisted of the "what, when,

where, why, and how" variety. Whenever the textbooks listed compre-

hension questions for a story, they were included as part of the ten

questions. Questions other than the ones taken from the textbook

were developed by the experimenter. The Cloze procedure was written

with a word processor on the TRS 80 Model 1 microcomputer. The Okidata

Microline 82A dot matrix printer was used to print the text.

Each of the dependent variables was measured by using universal

dimensional quantities of behavior (Johnston & Pennypacker, 1980)

These are countability, latency, and duration. When behavior occurred

often within a particular response class, frequency was employed

When changes in the frequency, latency, and duration of behavior

occurred over time relative to the independent variables, a ratio

multiplier was used to describe the changes. For other measures, a

ratio index of change was used.











Subjects


For Experiment 1, two subjects from Gainesville Job Corps

were selected: a black student and a white student, ages 18 and

16 years, respectively. The 18 year old was on a sixth grade

reading level. The 16 year old was found to be on a second grade

reading level. These reading grade levels were determined by a

modified informal reading inventory taken prior to the experiment.

All the research was conducted within the subjects' regular reading

class at eight o'clock in the morning located at the Gainesville Job

Corps. The Open Court Basic Reader.was used with the 16 year old

(Open Court Basic Readers, 1972) and the SRA Reading Kit entitled

"Black Like Me" (Science Research Associates, 1976) was used with

the 18 year old.

For Experiment 2, four white females in the third grade were

selected from three different classrooms located within a school in

Alachua County, Florida. Subjects were selected randomly from a list

of children who, in addition to the above, met the following two

criteria: they must have been between the ages of eight and nine

years of age. They also had to have been reading on the third grade

level, which was determined by their completed work in the Ginn

Reading Series (Ginn, 1976). Prior to Experiment 2, the Inventory

of Basic Skills (Brigance, 1980) was used to assess each subject's

reading level. The purposes for using informal assessments have been

documented elsewhere (Alpar, Nowlin, Lemoine, Perine, & Bettencourt,

1974; Brigance, 1980; Lovitt & Hansen, 1976). The results indicated












that all subjects were on grade level. Reading materials for these

students were selected from a reading series which was grade appro-

priate. The students read entire stories from the Open Court

Reading Series (Open Court, 1972). Table 2 lists all the subjects

and describes the materials they each read in each condition.

Fry's (1972) readability formula was applied to increase the

probability that the stories from the reading series were grade

appropriate for the subjects. All materials used for these experi-

ments were on or near each subject's instructional reading level.

An attempt was made to insure that different reading passages would

appear at different conditions across subjects. For example, the

story in condition HRNI for subject three would also appear in

different conditions for subjects four through six. This was thought

to decrease the probability of experimental effects being attributable

to interest levels that subjects may have had for one story over

another.

The above differences stated between Experiment One and

Experiment Two subjects are in part the elements that comprised

a systematic replication of experiment one.



Design


A single subject design (Sidman, 1960) was used so that an

analysis at the individual level could be performed. This strategy

for conducting research has been well developed and documented

(Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968; Baily, 1977; Johnston & Pennypacker,












Table 2

Table of Subjects' Condition, Sequence, Reading
Passages, Number of Trails to Criteria, and Total Time in Minutes



Experiment 1 Subjects


Subject 1: 18 year old black male; Gr. Level 6

Readings from: SRA School House Kit Black Like Me.
Phase Sequence ABCD

Story Trials Time

Phase A: The Skeleton's Song. 8 78 min.
Phase B: The Burning Hand. 8 101' 29"
Phase C: In Jail. 11 85' 48"
Phase D: The Beauty of Me. 11 123' 33"

Subject 2: 16 year old white male; Gr. Level 2

Readings from: Open Court Basic Readers Level 2.
Phase Sequence ABCD

Phase A: The Camel's Nose. 12 55' 3"
Phase B: The Sphinx. 12 65' 48"
Phase C: Hot and Cold From One Mouth. 18 57' 16"
Phase D: The Monkeys. 18 63' 15"

Experiment 2 Subjects

Subject 3: 8 year old white female; Gr. Level 3

Readings from: Open Court Basic Readers A Trip Around the World.
Phase Sequence ABCD

Phase A: The Blind Men and The Elephant. 4 12' 8"
Phase B: The General and the Arrows. 4 21' 9"
Phase C: Antarctica. 7 26' 25"
Phase D: Cortez and Montezuma. 7 66' 24"











Subject 4: 8 year old white female; Gr. Level 3

Readings from: Open Court Basic Readers A Trip Around the World.
Phase Sequence CDAB

Story Trials Time

Phase C: Cortez and Montezuma. 8 48' 54"
Phase D: Antarctica. 8 64' 42"
Phase A: The General and the Arrows. 4 16' 54"
Phase B: The Blind Men and the Elephant. 4 33' 48"

Subject 5: 8 year old white female; Gr. Level 3

Readings from: Open Court Basic Readers A Trip Around the World.
Phase Sequence ABCD

Phase A: How the World Looks. 5 15' 18"
Phase B: Copernicus and Galileo. 5 34' 26"
Phase C: The Blind Men and the Elephant. 4 10' 25"
Phase D: The General and the Arrows. 4 21' 2"

Subject 6: 8 year old white female; Gr. Level 3

Readings from: Open Court Basic Readers A Trip Around the World.
Phase Sequence CDAB

Phase C: The Melting Pot. 7 47' 42"
Phase D: Cortez and Montezuma. 7 61' 5"
Phase A: How the World Looks. 5 22' 1"
Phase B: Antarctica. 5 29' 36"












1981; Sidman, 1960). The strategy allows for an interactive approach

between the experimenter and the independent variable. This is made

possible because N=1 designs allow for the identification of experi-

mental sources of intraindividual and interindividual variability

while the data are being generated by the subject (Pennypacker, 1982).

Also, this strategy permits the use of ratio comparisons that can be

made within experimental conditions and across experimental condi-

tions.

Since this study required that the independent and dependent

variables occur in a predetermined sequence, a design was used so

that if sequence and practice effects occurred, they could be

observed (Johnston & Pennypacker, 1980). This study involved four

conditions with two different sequences. Condition HRNI required

that the subjects read at a high rate without inflection. Condition

LRNI required oral reading at low rate and without inflection. Condi-

tion HRWI consisted of reading orally at a high rate and with correct

inflection. Reading at low rate with inflection comprised Condition

LRWI. The sequence of conditions for Subjects one, two, three, and

five was HRNI, LRNI, HRIII, LRWI. For Subjects four and six the

conditions were ordered HRWI, LRWI, HRNI, LRNI. This design also

made it possible to replicate the results across subjects and across

sequences. (See Figure 1.)

For the LRNI and LRWI conditions, the number of opportunities

to read a story was determined by the number of times stories were

read in HRNI and HRWI conditions, respectively. For example, the








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number of times a subject read a story to meet reading rate criteria

in condition HRNI was the same number of times that the subject

could read a story in LRNI. In this way, practice effects were

equal so that the experimental effects of rate on the dependent

measures could be detected.



Procedure


The experimenter met with the two subjects in Experiment 1

every day for half hour each beginning at 8 a.m. The sessions took

place at a desk in the regular classroom at Job Corps. The experi-

menter met with the four subjects in Experiment two every instructional

day. Each subject was seen for one half hour between 8 and 10 a.m.

each day during the regular school week. The experimental sessions

took place behind the Media Center of the library at the school.


Pretraining Period

High rate for oral reading was defined as 150 to 200 wpm with

two or less errors. Reading a story at 30 to 60 words per minute

with two or less errors was considered the low rate for each subject.

To teach the idea that reading can be as fluent as conversational

speech, fluency training with an easier prerequisite skill was con-

ducted for all subjects. This is also known as tool skill training

(Haughton & Binder, 1982). Subjects were asked to say the letters of

the alphabet for one minute. Two to four of these timings were con-

ducted. Also, subjects were asked to think/say "Star Wars is one of












my favorite movies" (Wolking, 1982). This was also done to shorten

the number of trials needed to reach proficiency criteria (Haughton

& Binder, 1982). Tool skill development was done prior to reading

a story and at times just before rereading a story. For subjects

who displayed little growth in oral reading, their reading rate

criteria for conditions A and C were then reduced to 100 correct

words per minute with two or less errors. Little growth was defined

to mean those subjects who were accelerating less than 10 percent per

session and their rates were lower than 100 words per minute on each

reread for two or three days. This occurred for three of the six

subjects.

During oral reading, when a subject misread a word, the experi-

menter said the word aloud to the subject so that fluency would not

be disrupted. Furthermore, misread words were corrected and recorded

for later practice by the subject. These words were practiced every

day until they were read to a criterion of 40 to 60 per minute with

two or less errors.


Experimental Conditions

The high rate no inflection condition (HRNI) required the subjects

to reread a story orally and without inflection until 150 to 200 wpm

with two or less errors was reached. At times when the error rate

went above two per minute the experimenter modeled reading without

inflection. The modeling procedure was as follows:

(a) The experimenter asked the subject to read quickly and not

to pay attention to the punctuation marks.












(b) The experimenter then said that reading should sound like

the Federal Express commercial that they had seen on T.V. so that

their reading was fast and monotone and with equal emphasis on all

words.

(c) The experimenter then began reading a passage in a monotone

voice at a rate equal to 150 to 200 words per minute.

When criterion was achieved, measures of comprehension were taken

before starting the next condition. The number of trials to criteria

was recorded. This number was then used in a yoked manner in which

rereading in the LRNI condition only occurred for the same number of

trials that was required to reach criteria in the HRNI condition.

A new story for each subsequent condition was used. A measure of

the maintenance of comprehension of the story read in the HRNI

condition was then taken three and 10 calendar days from after the

end of HRNI condition. During the interval between the three and 10

days of the maintenance of comprehension measures for one condition

the next successive condition was in progress.

The LRNI condition required subjects to reread a story orally

without inflection at a rate of 30 to 60 wpm with two or less errors.

Modeling and verbal instructions were given similar to the instruc-

tions for the HRNI condition, except the subjects were asked to

read slowly. The experimenter modeled this by reading in a monotone

voice with equal emphasis on each word, at a rate of one word per

second, so that the 60 wpm criteria with two or less errors would

not be exceeded. When the requirements in the LRNI condition had

been met, measures of comprehension were then taken. Maintenance












of comprehension was assessed for tie LRNI condition three and 10

calendar days from the end of the condition.

Prior to the HRWI condition punctuation and inflection training

was provided. The punctuation marks that were taught and drilled

were the period, comma, quotation marks, exclamation mark, and the

question mark. First, naming punctuation marks for one minute was

a daily task prior to reading. Then the experimenter told the

subjects the function of each punctuation mark. Soon after, when

the experimenter pointed to each of the punctuation marks, the

subject told the examiner the function of each mark. This continued

until the subject was able to say the function of each punctuation

mark with 100 percent accuracy. Once this was completed, the subject

then pointed to each mark and then told the examiner the function

for each one until 100 percent accuracy was obtained. A probe sheet

with eight isolated phrases was used to practice oral reading at

high rates with correct inflection. The experimenter read these

phrases quickly and with the correct inflection. The subjects then

were asked to read these phrases as if they were speaking with some-

one. At first, daily one minute timings were used. Later, the

subjects reread these phrases as many times as they could in two

one-minute timings. Reading a phrase with the correct inflection uas

counted as one correct movement. If the subject inflected the

phrase correctly, but made an error in word calling the phrase was

still counted as correct.












In the HRWI and LRWI conditions an error was recorded when

incorrect inflection occurred during oral reading. The HRWI

condition involved rereading a story until criteria were reached

with correct inflection. When criteria were met, measures of com-

prehension were then taken. The maintenance of comprehension measure

for the HRWI condition story occurred three and 10 calendar days

after criteria had been met.

The LRWI condition required subjects to reread a story for the

same number of trials it took to reach criteria in the HRWI condi-

tion. When criteria were met, measures of comprehension followed.

Maintenance of comprehension was measured three and 10 calendar

days after the subject reached criterion.



Data Analysis--Dependent Variables


All performance data except for the answers to the 10 comprehen-

sion questions and percent correct on the Cloze procedure were

charted on a Standard Celeration Chart--a six cycle semiTogarithmic

chart (Pennypacker, Koenig, & Lindsley, 1972). (See Figure 2.)

Oral reading was plotted as words read correct and incorrect per

minute. Free recall required two levels of analyses. First, fre-

quency of correct and incorrect facts per minute recalled were plotted.

Second, words read per minute were divided by the total number of

facts recalled. This was done so that a measure of words read per

fact could be charted.





























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For the ten comprehension questions, the latency to respond

to each of the ten questions and the count correct and incorrect

were plotted.

The Cloze procedure required two levels of analyses. First,

percent correct was recorded as the datum. Second, words written

correctly and incorrectly per minute were also plotted. To obtain

a rate correct per minute the total amount of seconds to complete

the Cloze test was divided into the number correct. This number

was then multiplied by 60 to get rate correct per minute. This was

also done for obtaining incorrects per minute.

The dependent measures of comprehension, maintenance after

three, and maintenance after 10 calendar days were compared. A

frequency multiplier was used to compare one condition with another

condition for measures of total performance (total performance =

rate correct + rate incorrect). An accuracy multiplier ratio was

used to describe accuracy ratio differences between conditions. A

total number correct for the 10 comprehension questions was used

to describe differences between conditions. A ratio index of change

was used to describe differences on the latency measures. The

measures for the Cloze procedure were the same for free recall.

In addition, a percent correct was used to describe differences

between conditions. (See Figure 3.)

A gain score for each of the independent variable conditions

was tabulated. This was done by counting the number of times the

dependent measures of a particular condition showed improvement over

the other conditions within the corresponding dependent measure.




















+ +

S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Instructional Days





A = Measures of comprehension immediately following criterion
performance for each phase.

+ = Measures of maintenance occurring 3 and 10 instructional
days following the end of each phase.











Figure 3

Sequence of Dependent Measures
(Comprehension and Maintenance)








66



For example, if the accuracy ratio for facts recalled per minute in

the HRWI condition for the three days after criteria measure was

greater than the number of facts recalled in the LRWI, HRNI, and

LRNI conditions for the same corresponding dependent measure, then

the HRWI condition would have a gain score of three for that dependent

measure. Then all of the gain scores are added together and pre-

sented as total number of gains for a particular condition on a

particular dependent measure.



















CHAPTER IV

RESULTS



This chapter is designed to present data as they relate to each

of the experimental questions. The data are presented in the order

they were gathered while doing the research. Therefore, the data

generated from Experiment 1 are presented first. The results of

Experiment 1 consist of the free recall measures (total performance,

accuracy, and words per fact), count correct on the comprehension

measures and the median latencies, respectively. The Cloze procedure

was used only in Experiment 2. The results of the Cloze procedure

include total performance, accuracy and percent correct, respectively.

Since the Cloze procedure occurred after the free recall measures and

answers to the 10 comprehension questions, it is the last dependent

variable presented in this chapter. For Experiment 1 there was a

total of five measures that occurred three different times for two

subjects during each of the four conditions. Therefore, a total of

120 measures for Experiment 1 was taken. Experiment 2 had a total

of eight measures that occurred three different times for each of the

four subjects during each of the four conditions. Therefore, there

is a total of 354 measures for Experiment 2.












Six questions in a comparison format were asked in this study.

Since there were four conditions, a 3 by 2 by 1 matrix is presented

as an aid to the reader when following the results of the comparisons.

(See Table 3.)



Questions 1-6 Results for Experiments 1 and 2
Free Recall Total Performance


Question One: (A comparison between two reading rates) How

does high rate of oral reading without inflection (HRWI) influence

comprehension and maintenance of comprehension compared with low rate

of oral reading without inflection (LRNI)?


Experiment 1 Results for Question One

Figure 3 shows the total performance (speed) for facts recalled

per minute for all six subjects.

Criteria performance--free recall. Subjects in Experiment 1

were D.D. and J.J. For these subjects the HRNI condition produces

a faster rate for each measure of the dependent variable than the

LRNI condition for facts recalled per minute. For D.D., HRNI

condition is faster for each of the maintenance measures. For

J.J. the HRNI condition produces a faster performance compared with

the LRNI condition. The table provided in Appendix A displays how

many times faster or slower a condition is when compared to another

condition. This number is called a frequency multiplier index. A

number with an "X" indicates that the referent condition is faster.

A number with a division sign means that the referent condition is
















Table 3

Graphic Display of Experimental Questions






Conditions


HRNI LRNI HRWI LRWI

Quest Quest Quest
1 2 3



Quest
4



Quest Quest
5 6


= High rate without inflection

= Low rate without inflection

= High rate with inflection

= Low rate with inflection


HRNI

LRNI

HRWI

LRWI












slower. From the table provided in Appendix B, it can be seen that

initially for 0.0. the HRNI condition is 1.25 times faster than the

LRNI condition. For J.J. the HRNI condition initially is 2.14

times faster than the LRNI condition.

Three day performance--free recall. Maintenance at three

days shows the HRNI condition to be 1.21 times faster than the LRNI

condition for subject D.D. For subject J.J. the HRNI condition is

2 1/2 times faster than the LRNI condition.

Ten day performance--free recall. Maintenance at ten days for

D.D. shows the HRNI condition to be 2.0 times faster than the LRNI

condition. For J.J. maintenance at 10 days the HRNI condition is

2 1/2 times faster than the LRNI condition.


Question One Results for Experiment 2

The subjects in this experiment were S.B., E.H., A.P., and

B.S.

Criteria performance--free recall. For these subjects the

HRNI condition initially produces a faster rate of recalling facts

than the LRNI condition. The frequency multipliers (see Appendix C)

for the HRNI condition are times X1.44, X1.27, X2.67, and XI.71

faster than the LRNI condition.

Three day performance--free recall. Three subjects under the

HRNI condition at the three day maintenance measures produce faster

rates compared with the LRNI condition. The HRNI condition influences

three subjects to produce slower rates, while the HRNI condition

influences E.H. to produce faster rates. The LRNI condition produces

a slower rate of responding for three subjects.












Ten day performance--free recall. It can be seen that for two

subjects, the HRNI condition at the ten day maintenance measure

influenced a faster response rate of recalling facts than the LRNI

condition.


Condition Two Results for Experiment 1

Question Two: (A comparison between inflection conditions)

How does high rate of oral reading without inflection (HRNI) influence

comprehension and maintenance of comprehension when compared with high

rate of oral reading with inflection (HRWI)?

Criteria performance--free recall. For both subjects the HRWI

condition initially produces a rate of recalling facts that is quicker

than facts recalled under the HRNI condition. From Appendix B it

can be seen that Subject D.D. under the HRWI condition is initially

1.4 times faster than his performance under the HRNI condition. And

the HRWI condition influences J.J. to be a 1.13 times faster than his

performance under the HRNI condition. (See Figure 4.)

Three day performance--free recall. For both subjects at

maintenance after three days the HRWI condition produces a faster

rate of recalling facts than the rates reported under the HRNI

condition.

Ten day performance--free recall. The HRLI condition produces

a rate for D.D. during the maintenance measure at 10 days that is

faster than those produced by the HRNI condition. However, J.J.

produces a faster rate under the HRNI condition than he does under

the HRWI condition.









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Question Two Results for Experiment 2

For S.B. and E.H. initially, the HRWI condition produces rates

of recalling facts that are 1.07 and 1.21 times faster than facts

recalled under the HRNI condition, respectively. From Figure 3 it

can be seen that initially, there are no differences between the

HRWI and HRNI for Subject A.P. Under the HRNI condition Subject

B.S. initially produces a rate that is 1.71 times faster than her

rate generated under the HRWI condition.

Three day performance--free recall. Maintenance at three days

shows two subjects, A.P. and B.S., under the HRII condition producing

a degree of performance that is faster than the HRNI condition. For

Subject S.B. the HR'WI and HRNI conditions produce a similar rate of

performance. Subject E.H., when the HRNI condition is in effect,

yields a rate of recalling facts that is faster than facts recalled

under the HRWI condition.

Ten day performance--free recall. The speed of performance for

maintenance at 10 days shows that for two of the subjects, S.B. and

E.H., produced faster rates under the HRWI condition than they did

under the HRNI condition. For B.S. rate of performance under the

HRWI and HRNI conditions are the same. The HRNI condition for

Subject A.P. produces a rate at ten days that was faster than her

rate under the HRII condition.


Question Three Results for Experiment 1

Question three: (A rate versus inflection comparison) How

does high rate of oral reading without inflection (HRNI) influence












comprehension and maintenance of comprehension when compared with

low rate of oral reading with inflection (LRWI)?

From Figure 4 it can be seen that under HRNI both subjects,

initially and after three days, are able to recall facts faster

than those under the LRWI condition for the same measures. At the

ten day measure, the HRNI condition for Subject J.J. produces a

faster rate. The HRWI and HRNI conditions yield similar rates for

Subject D.D.


Question Three Results for Experiment 2

Initially, the four subjects produced faster rates under the

HRNI condition compared with the LRWI condition for facts recalled.

From Appendix B it can be seen that performances under the HRNI

condition are 1.63, 1.56, 1.33, and 1.71 times faster, respectively,

than their performances under the LRWI condition.

Three day performance--free recall. For maintenance after three

days three subjects under the HRNI condition produced rates that are

faster than their rates under the LRWI condition.

Ten day performance--free recall. At the ten day maintenance

measures, the HRNI condition produces rates for two subjects that

are about 1.5 to 2.0 times faster than their rates under the LRWI

condition. For E.H. and B.S. the LRWI condition produces a faster

rate of recalling facts.












Question Four Results for Experiment 1

Question four: (A high and low rate comparison, with inflection)

How does high rate of oral reading with inflection (HRWI) influence

comprehension and maintenance of comprehension compared with low

rate of oral reading with inflection (LRWI).

Criteria performance--free recall. By comparing the LRWI condi-

tion with the HRWI condition Subjects D.D. and J.J. initially produce

faster recalls per minute under the HRWI condition. From the table

in Appendix B it can be seen that D.D.'s performance under the HRWI

condition initially is 1.62 times faster than his comparable measure

under the LRWI condition. For J.J., the HRWI condition produces a

rate that is b.7 times faster than his LRWI condition rate.

Three day performance--free recall. The HRWI condition for both

subjects produces a faster rate of recalling facts compared with the

LRWI condition at the three day measures of maintenance.

Ten day performance--free recall. For Subject D.D. the HRWI

produces a faster rate when compared with the LRWI condition at

the 10 day measures of maintenance. For Subject J.J. the HRWI

condition produces a frequency multiplier that is 1.25 times faster

than the LRWI condition.


Question Four Results for Experiment 2

For three subjects initially the HRWI condition produces a faster

rate of recalling facts per minute compared with the LRWI condition.

Subject B.S. under the HRWI condition produces the same rate as the

LRWI condition.


I












Three day performance--free recall. For three subjects,

maintenance after three days under the HRWI condition produces a

faster rate of recalling facts than under the LRWI condition.

Ten day performance--free recall. Three subjects produce a

faster rate of recalling facts under the HRWI condition compared

with the LRWI condition at the ten day measures of maintenance.


Question Five Results for Experiment 1

Question five: (A comparison between the presumed best and

worst conditions) How does high rate of oral reading with inflection

(HRWI) influence comprehension and maintenance of comprehension

compared with low rate of oral reading without inflection (LRNI)?

Subjects D.D. and J.J., under the HRWI condition, yield fre-

quency multipliers that range from a times 1.25 to a times 2.42

faster than rates that are produced under the LRNI condition, across

all measures.


Question Five Results for Experiment 2

For three subjects, the HRWI condition produces rates that are

faster across all measures in comparison with the LRNI condition.

Initially Subjects S.B., E.H., and A.P., under the HRWI condition

produce frequency multipliers that are 1.56, 1.55, and 2.5 times

faster than the LRNI condition.


Question Six Results for Experiment 1

Question six: (A comparison between inflection and no inflection

at low rates) How does low rate of oral reading without inflection












(LRNI) influence comprehension and maintenance of comprehension

compared with low rate of oral reading with inflection (LRWI)?

Criteria performance--free recall. Initially, for Subjects

D.D. and J.J., the low rate with inflection condition increases

their rate for recalling facts per minute.

Three day performance--free recall. This trend maintains for

J.J. at the three day maintenance measure. Subject D.D. produces

identical rates under conditions B and D at the three day maintenance

measure.

Ten day performance--free recall. For Subject D.D. the LRWI

condition produces faster rates when compared with the LRNI condition.

For Subject J.J. there is no difference between the speed of recalling

facts produced by either condition.


Question Six Results for Experiment 2

Initially, S.B. and E.H. under the LRNI condition produce faster

rates when compared with the LRWI condition. Subject A.P. produces

a faster rate of responding under the LRWI condition. Subject B.S.

produces the same speed of performance regardless of condition.

Three day performance--free recall. For three subjects, the

LRUI condition produces faster rates of performance.

Ten day performance--free recall. The trends are very similar

to those seen at the three day measure. That is, three subjects at

the ten day measure of maintenance produce faster rates under the

LRWI condition compared with the LRNI condition.











Accuracy Results


The following results are presented in the same format as the

performance data.


Question One Results for Experiment 1

Question one: (A comparison between two reading rates) How

does high rate of oral reading without inflection (HRNI) influence

comprehension and maintenance of comprehension compared with low rate

of oral reading without inflection (LRNI)? Figure 5 depicts the

accuracy ratios for all subjects.

Criteria recall--accuracy. From the table in Appendix C it

can be seen that, for Subjects D.D. and J.J. under the high rate

without inflection condition (HRNI), they initially produce accuracy

ratios that are 1.3 and 2.5 times more accurate compared with the

low rate without inflection condition (LRNI).

Three day recall--accuracy. For Subject J.J. the HRNI condi-

tion continues to produce an accuracy multiplier that indicates a

more accurate performance compared with the LRNI condition. This

trend does not maintain for Subject D.D.

Ten day recall--accuracy. Subject D.D. produces more accurate

responding under the HRNI condition at the 10 day measures of mainten-

ance compared with the LRNI condition.


Question One Results for Experiment 2

Initially, all subjects have a greater accuracy multiplier index

under the high rate without inflection condition (HRNI) compared with

the low rate without inflection condition (LRNI). From Appendix C,






























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these subjects produce accuracy multiplier indices under the HRNI

condition that range from a times 1.44 to 3.2.

Three day recall--accuracy. For the three day maintenance

measure, three subjects produce more accurate responding under the

HRNI condition compared to the LRNI condition.

Ten day recall--accuracy. Two subjects under the HRNI condi-

tion produce more accurate responding compared with the LRNI condition.

For one subject there is no difference.


Question Two Results for Experiment 1

Question two: (A comparison between inflection conditions)

How does high rate of oral reading without inflection (HRNI) influence

comprehension and maintenance of comprehension compared with high

rate of oral reading with inflection (HRWI condition)?

From Figure 5 it can be seen that responding for Subjects D.D.

and J.J., under the HRWI condition, yields a greater accuracy ratio

compared with the HRNI condition. This trend is seen across all

three temporal measures of accuracy.


Question Two Results for Experiment 2

For Subjects S.B. and E.H. initially the HRWI condition produces

a greater accuracy ratio compared with the HRNI condition. For A.P.

there is no difference. Subject B.S. responds under the HRWI condi-

tion by producing a better accuracy ratio compared with the HRNI

condition.












Three day recall--accuracy. For maintenance at three days,

Subjects A.P. and B.S. under the HRWI condition produce a greater

accuracy ratio compared with the HRNI condition. There is no

difference observed for Subject S.B. Subject E.H. under the HRWI

condition produces a greater accuracy ratio compared with the HRNI

condition.

Ten day recall--accuracy. For two subjects, the HRWI condition

produces more accurate responding at the ten day measures of main-

tenance compared with the HRNI condition. The same measure for Subject

S.B. reveals a no difference effect. Figure 5 shows that for E.H.,

a steeper decelerating slope is present under the HRWI condition when

compared to the HRNI condition.


Question Three Results for Experiment 1

Question three: (A rate versus inflection comparison) How does

high rate of oral reading without inflection (HRNI) influence compre-

hension and maintenance of comprehension compared with low rate of

oral reading with inflection (LRWI)?

Criteria recall--accuracy. Subject D.D. initially responds

under the LRWI condition by producing an accuracy multiplier that

is 2.0 times greater compared with the HRNI condition. For Subject

J.J., initially the HRNI condition produces an accuracy ratio that

is 3.75 times greater than the one produced by the LRWI condition.

Three day recall--accuracy. Maintenance after three days for

D.D. is similar to the trends found under the initial measurement.

At three days, Subject J.J. under the HRNI condition produces an











accuracy multiplier that indicates a more accurate performance

compared with the LRNI condition.

Ten day recall--accuracy. At the ten day maintenance measure,

Subject D.D. under the HRNI condition produces an accuracy multiplier

of 3.25 compared with the LRWI condition. For J.J. a reverse trend

occurs. That is, the HRNI condition produces less accurate per-

formance compared with LRWI condition.


Question Three Results for Experiment 2

From Figure 5 it can be seen that initially more accurate per-

formance is produced by all subjects under the HRNI condition. The

accuracy multipliers range from a times 1.33 to a times 1.71.

Three day recall--accuracy. For three subjects, the HRNI

condition produces more accurate performances compared with the

LRWI condition at the three day measures of maintenance.

Ten day recall--accuracy. The ten day measure describes two

subjects under the HRNI condition as yielding more accurate performances.

For B.S. there is no difference, while for A.P. the LRWI condition

results in more accurate responding compared with the HRNI condition.


Question Four Results for Experiment 1

Question four: (A high and low rate comparison, with inflection)

How does high rate of oral reading with inflection (HRWI) influence

comprehension compared with low rate of oral reading with inflection

(LRWI)?











For both subjects, Figure 5 depicts high rate of oral reading

with inflection (HRWI condition) to produce more accurate respond-

ing across all temporal measures compared with the LRWI condition.


Question Four Results for Experiment 2

As seen in Figure 5, three subjects under the HRWI condition

initially produce more accurate performances compared to the LRWI

condition. For Subject B.S. there is no difference.

Three day recall--accuracy. Accuracy at three days under the

HRWI condition produces more accurate performances for three subjects.

Subject B.S. produces the same accuracy ratio under either condition.

Ten day recall--accuracy. The ten day maintenance measures

for Subjects S.B. and E.H. under the HRWI condition produce more

accurate responding compared with the LRWI condition. For B.S.

there is no difference between the two conditions. This is also

true for Subject A.P.


Question Five Results for Experiment 1

Question five: (A comparison between the presumed best and

worst conditions) How does high rate of oral reading with inflection

(HRWI) influence comprehension and maintenance of comprehension compared

with low rate of oral reading without inflection (LRNI).

Subjects D.D. and J.J. generate data under the high rate with

inflection condition that have a greater accuracy ratio when compared

with the low rate without inflection condition for all measures of

accuracy.











Question Five Results for Experiment 2

The HRWI condition initially produces more accurate responding

for three subjects. For Subject B.S. there is no difference.

Appendix C shows the accuracy multipliers range from 1.0 to 3.77.

Three day recall--accuracy. Four subjects under the HRWI

condition produce more accurate responding at the three day main-

tenance measure compared with LRNI condition.

Ten day recall--accuracy. More accurate responding are also

produced by three subjects while under the HRWI condition at the 10

day measures of maintenance.


Question Six Results for Experiment 1

Question six: (A comparison between inflection and no inflection

at low rates) How does low rate of oral reading without inflection

(LRNI) influence comprehension and maintenance of comprehension

compared with low rate of oral reading with inflection (LRWI)?

Criteria recall--accuracy. For Subject D.D. the LRWI condition

initially produces an accuracy ratio that is 2.4 times greater than

the ratio produced by the LRNI condition. Subject J.J. generates

an accuracy ratio that is greater for the LRNI condition compared

with the LRWI condition.

Three day recall--accuracy. At three days both subjects are

producing a greater accuracy ratio under the LRWI condition.

Ten day recall--accuracy. Responses by D.D. under the LRNI

condition yields a greater proportion of number correct to incorrect

when compared to the LRWI condition at the 10 day measure. For

Subject J.J. there are no differences in the accuracy of responding.












Question Six Results for Experiment 2

Initial responding by Subjects E.H. and A.P. under the LRWI

condition produce a better accuracy ratio compared with the LRNI

condition. For Subject B.S. there are no differences.

Three day recall--accuracy. For three subjects at the three

day measures of maintenance the LRWI condition is producing a better

accuracy ratio compared with the LRHI condition.

Ten day recall--accuracy. At the 10 day measure, two subjects

under the LRWI condition produce more accurate responses compared to

the LRNI condition. For Subjects S.B. and B.S. the LRNI condition

produces more accurate performances.



Free Recall--Words Per Fact


Figure 6 depicts six subjects on their measures of the number

of words read for each fact retained.

For this measure, a lower value indicates that while reading

less words, subjects were recalling more facts. From Figure 6 it

can be seen that the high rate conditions initially have lower

values for all six subjects when compared to the low rate condi-

tions. Three subjects are maintaining this trend at the three day

measures of maintenance. At 10 days, four subjects maintain this

trend while one subject produces no discernable differences.

Responding under the high rate condition with inflection more

frequently produces a lower value (more facts per word) compared

to the other conditions. Except for the HRWI condition, responding









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