The ecology of the ants of the Welaka Reserve, Florida (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00098044/00001
 Material Information
Title: The ecology of the ants of the Welaka Reserve, Florida (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) ..
Physical Description: 158 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Van Pelt, Arnold Francis, 1924-
Publication Date: 1950
Copyright Date: 1950
Subjects / Keywords: Ants   ( lcsh )
Biology thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Biology -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Thesis: Dissertation (Ph. D.) - University of Florida, 1950.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 154-157.
Additional Physical Form: Also available on World Wide Web
General Note: Manuscript copy.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000554599
oclc - 13415104
notis - ACX9444
sobekcm - UF00098044_00001
System ID: UF00098044:00001

Full Text



(Hymenoptera: Formicidae)



September, 1950

9 ^'19'c



3 1262 08552 2794
3 1262 08552 2794



Xmtruo0dBmtofto o**********m *********. ****************** 1

DBeriptiem of the Ar ..................................... $

esatiou and Phyical Feature........* *. i..... S

ls. Seil ad Vegetati ....................... T

eitisis................oo................... o..o 9

methods ft Study.....e.s....es. oes.es.e.eeeose.s.e.eo..e... 10

Cell.etin Methods and the Reeordiag of Data At
h e ..LU &seeld ... .. .... 1

Relative Akaine ..e ....o.oo.....o.. ...o........ 14

The Olleeoting Statios of the /ersave.................... 3

Summiy of the Retosaiied 6tatior... ........... 16

Deseriptia eof the Statiou....................... 21

Zoeleieal Relatieuship u................................... 27

Dicsripti n, of the Strata and Istisg Site....... 27

Avatiability af seating Sites ft statias......... 30

Distribution l 8tatis.......................... 32

Distributia iU Strata sad Meting Sits.......... 38

Asitlity Belatioaships......... so....s e ...e...... 41

AaUotated Litst............................................ 42

Asikowledg s 1.....o............ .... o............ 143

uLtratum e Oited......o* o................. .... ............. 14


his dsoertatie presats the result of a studr deal ith

oele0ie~ a relative fips f the ao w en the tiven ity of tlrotA

Cra-nrati Rbserve Welate, Flrida. Z& in anttfgt to aped the

kmoite of the austin h it i and tbhaier the ats of a li ted

area Although Sl lar stele -n ant had been mnrtake pwreiely

in other parts f thLe tIed ItatS., l pecial"~ the mULte wwet, the

still r imelt the pportfmity to study samprehailey an area thI

outheastwe Sestl Plaine th its itlamse from both the metro

mad aware famous

ZI stoylag the aus of the RIoerrev it desired to 1) asm

eertaia that uat frs eo ae the Resve, a to dIrmie their

questiativ rel tuinLsh Is m-h at the oetuatif A in hus there

ftmund 2) classify these diiffwnt situa m from a knWluode f the

quitaUtiv ad quastittive ditritalbue of the auts in tbma 3) gathe

Sas mh ito t lem passiblu Uom ersl the life history and bhMbt

of the ets.

Swaim the stady bk Aerkwti s tafrmtim i-dal to the

mai probem- ebtaimed em various aspets of the ate'* bm@liw.

beerwatim oemearmi the speed of mrwmt, feetig kaits, gus -a-

parasite i the ma a a the AiAividals, Mi the bern diu *Ulah

ftraga is deam aue Aluded Sa the Amutated Ldt.

he literature borig a at of seleted regi m hm be

far the mut part, 1oat or hops, iladingy ely mete to tthe natiag

babies o the ants esamoeard Samia resat paper have dealt wit

the eseleglutel roelatimips betewe the aato adt the Ueasi mma of

limited areas urea (1944) in lora Cole (1940) in the Great Saok

Mountains of Temesseel Gregg (1944) in the Chicago regions and Talbot

(1934) alaO In the Chicage region. Those papers dealing with Florida
ants have been four state lists (Smith 1930, 1933, 1944, and Wheeler,

1932) and a key to the ants of the Gainesville region (Tan Pelt, 1948).
Qttil recently, the taxeneoy of ant has been baued en a

quadrinesial system. About 1875T Carl Bnery and Auguste Ferel first

recegnised infraspeeifie units. At that time the taxoney ot the

European ants, with which theee mea dealt, as in a period of stability

brought about by the thorough knowledge these men had of their auna.

They therefore felt n hesitation in parking formI as distinct which

showed a slight variation. Speeies were first divided into races by

Forel and were later ermed varieties by Iaery in 1885. In 1890,

Snery recognized the subspecies as a second infraspecifie category.

Acceptance of this quadrineial system as not Imediate, but through

the added influence of We Wheeler, it Uwa in general use by 1910.

Even though Forel to his Irri@ AE JA uMege recognized the

possibility that subspocte inatersrade and exit in separate ranges,

the concept am embryanic and he failed to earry through with it Meest

other author disregarded this geographical aspect of subspecies, and

named the infraspeeifie form on the basis of their concept ef the

manitude of the difference between them. Thus subspecies were separated

by smaller differences than species, but by larger ones than varieties.

Mest ef the material studied by mery and Forel consisted of cabinet

speeisans. Iack of sufficient field observation and data, such as this

dissertation presents, led them into king taxenomie errors.

Several authors have Iade proposals to do aay with the cumbersome

quadrinemial system VW ler, in 1910, in his book ata. suggested that

the variety in ant ane solaturo is very nearly equivalt to the speiees

in other group., such as birds and mmise and that for ordinary purposes

it would be sufftleit to treat the varietal mmo as i t er speai .*

In written gawelly at an ut, therteref ho ued a ubiomal system

but retained the full tewmileg for atalogue listing sad the like.

h efforts of toseler uan ether authors fo wre teeing amy

from q ria al nmolature might have predued ero general results

it it had aet been for the publieatiLo, from 1901f to 1925, at tr's

section the or iaidae i the lst with l te s oamitant

authority. In 1938 Creighto proposed a trlmmia system in which all

of the varieties were to be raised to subspeoifio rak and in 1944

Surea put this dea into praitie for the ants of zI .

inally, in 195N, reighton published a mnul on the ants of

INrth Amerisa in hish rvi h ri is earlier seonspt by diseardin the

atogery "variety and by designating as subspeies all interradia

fotms ich reoplae eah other googaphically. Actmly great mn

varieties were releapted to synoe3ep bemuse the hare ters, espoially

eolor, separating them from their mot closely related fte were

found to be mvlid. Nest of Creighteoms changes Involved either

aonisiag varieties or raising the to ubspefw fi rank. Has paper

eight to have a wtide taftIoM in plains aut nmemlaturo e a woed

basis. Several points in the preseat stody have ben smpl3fed, and

other *bvius mistakes in preiraus Wam Atur ratified by aeeepti

his trimial system

Literatre retwe ar are give at the Ad Of this diMsertat

oly fer those paper eited In the tat. No refwewm to erilal


doseriptions or to papers dealing with symonem are listed. The reader

will b able to find theee references, along with keyo to all North

mericaa anata, i Croighton (1950).

L imn saa wnmw isl eaense

The Itrvermity ot Flrida Caservatiea Revrre, where the present

study s mado, is a 2180 mere treet, 1oaste a the mst bank ot th

It. JohI River, about sevent- n a m m outh If Palatha nar the toam of

Welamsh i PutaNm Ct ty, loriid The Resenve isr sitr d L erthetem

pealular orida a a prtiom of the state kmm as the Cuastal Leslads

(COoke, 1945s8), md is ftr the uest part loatet O the hElos araeI

tarea, Whis is 41gatel d by its 25 foot eUeatim abne srea lrel.

It is apprkmately s the easter of the r eetugle fate by the lime

of latitude of t29 ud 30, aid these etf leb itudo of 81* an 82'.

TIh Reerre varies i its t p e r phy frem flat or very eaty

rellng lams covered with pins wods to hilly uplaads supportg ask

ead pins ad mua ar are peek-mrked bsrme of the mluatiao of th

umnerlyita 11mestamo. The tplamt, with their sand damw pp erae, are

vidame that the lan s ease part at a arri e shere lm The sab

mesrases mad emrgesMem of the Castal Iswlarnd te tF Plestofse

ariae terrsams, along with the absmtue of taktrophis m nme in the

Welaa aure, as el a iA all erid, will sadLeubtedy prove Alportaut

in semidaratia of the mogeugraphie distributim of the Fornieidae.

For a mplete disemaiosm of the geoloy a this area, as well as their

parts of Florida, as Cooke (1945).

Usumlly wre than half of the mmml presipitatis fal.fl ia

thunder showers during the bettet meats, Jun to Septmber, Wbh rlaftkll

avWse 5 to 10 lahes per manth Last preeipittatt essur in late

fl maud agala ian early spring, with a maikhly average of 1 to 4 iashe-

rTe annual raisnall averages under 50 laohke. th wether station at

Crescent oAY1 reord e the total preipitatiom per math during the

period of t*h present study as ahmO in Figue 1. For emqplete data

the *limte o Florida fro 1896 to 1926, see Mitehll and ,wign (1928).

The temperature of the are in whieh the Reserve i loeatod

savrag about 7O hkresheit. Froering temperatre may eeoutr fr

Normber to Nlareh although frost-fro irters have been reported.

S r5Uw temperatures average 80 to 90', and are at times recorded above

100' Tperature ~y vary greatly within a s al area9 for *n m ple,

frem a dse hannMek to a epem flatweods. Figw I Aheu the average

nthly tempmture during th period of the present study*. he average

length of th growing sessu Is 300 days. he first killing frot in

fall my oeer ia ervember or Domber; the 1~ kWi ing frost is spring

umally seeur ina tinry r troeh

the n arest weather arstati reerding relative h dity is

at JaSkeassil~, are the wean annual roaltive humidity tfr I AJ. is

83A tbile fr 7 P.M. it is 76T. Raords frm here alto iadiate only

the gsweral emaditione the Rleseve siwne Jasehmrill andl Welakd are

separated by seventy miles. w aever relative humidty vrio greatly

within a snal ar, depending upon the vegetatieonl oeaditio

mesuntered. The author has reorde d relative huidity beow 20% ea

amreso emsios In open arms on hot, sum days.

STh reosrds f tsepraturo and rainfall taken froe Creuoent City,
eleven mile to th ea st, ea be usd enly -a general indientian at
eoaditiols the Reerve

/ I

' 1


1- III

I :/I- [

9 h' I1
-a = N

Se Bolt sat Vertstti-

During the umer of 1948, a soil survey of the Reerve s

aLe Is ardtr to bereo acquainted wit the s*l types present. his

work we based to a gret esteat a the detailed sure aof the area ade

by LasXel (1942). weo nses ry, the seil-typo lmaomelatwo m

brought up to date (Ise lMp 1) the felloUavi diseussie n of the derl-
watien and texture of perWt materials, a at drainage, is based a

So mineral sails fa the are are very probably derived fri

nrise dpeositU ftie sand Sd delays were found within six ftet of

the srfaee, with the soeeption of mall aurs als n the St. Johs River.

the argeal sell, peaty awk, h been laid down by the asoulatie *f
vegetable rtter in two atemunve are alulg the river

Chmial analysis fa the s ls has bon carried out only to

a in er eIteSt ln nearby area, and Wt at all an the Reserve.
hn the roll areas, ad a n ether area where the land s

net entirely flat the vey snrdly atur of the soll permits xeslleut

drainge. Much of the Reserves hbe er, is rliat emplately flat,

sad in these ares lateral nvems t of wtaer s slv w e neligbla Ua

the ter table is nee the fastee. 30 mar of the flat areas, U

aseeunalti tm of p e matter, alled a hardpan is ford at varyln

depths breath the srteae, ad in sush areas during heavy rain the

ground beaemoe uprsaturated. h lear peeitimn withi the flatwood,

orgep matter seelates a a blask or dark ray layer at the srthee
rather than as a hardpa. In setradistiastion to these soils, the soils

ot the higher arWa, with good lataeul draims do Met have an erganle

hardpan within 42 lashe of the stufee and sentain very little erlgani

tIp 1 sI5ol tI p e the RI4 ve

am] at. tI* tli msl
CID ElAkaglS fie sant

IZZ baunt. time saat, humnok phase
S~Lem file eat d
X Iem time SS liht esolored ertese phase
E- P*Mll flma Sam
SFPlumale tine smau
E Rutlege fao sand
E Pwety musk, seq phem
I Pyeaty mank, mrh phase

5 i i i i I i I i TI T
3 A 5 7 -' "- G

I a




C Moore fromAirplan Dhotqgraphs and Add;io.nalData
d B1 tIDeVo'l AMI.resslr andJ .T Fr;au T fid Sale in F",eiL
indle tlhe Drectman e HB ibnrmariInllU4l -__ .. ___ 1
!I ll T1 F rr 1r0


Llndr the Dre~mn 4D, B b~anA~n 194

mttur a te wtariaw soil.

BM Ta tatiu the U e."rae (Nap 2) my be aivLtd late tOW

min eatuori"e, ant inaliung thn rists types rt ural areaw

They area 1) uplads or sandhilla 2) nfatm"Wos 3) hamnebsp a
4) a um .lly flooded arwes. f th eaetem *a e t o the Rbamr thee

is a large are of uplands sapprtiaf loaslam t pine ad twrky ead, amr

seattuewlt I the seuther patio are lta~ r aml er armwe enrwe wtht

loaglaf pine and bljasek ea. Varmio type t flatmeed tm a s trip,

iaterWpto* br Sayead and l hainher *mMds, thr the sewte of ha

ewrsive. La bhmmees tfen a arip adjasnt to rive s m adt mr

ubish borer the ISt Jeha Rive.

p 2a TV@utatim Map of the Rlwrve

the tfoll ri dtfinitiam f trms are sr gv so a that their u
in the remlter ot the dssertatiau will be elear

arn Aat fteo s used to deisnate uq eategery below subfems.
JsMflmb n JC nim Jn a t Amemblag is used to desgl teo a
eharaetaristie and dAsitiotIe asretat atf nt oooies eufttaiad In a

given plant asseelatism, stratima or nesting site mah a assmbal

can be separate quitatively andw r quantitativelr f a ether
assmblagee. 3 this dissetatin all assemblage edntain more tuhn -

species, sad are seessquety species asseblages.
J-Sl- The eriremwt in ob a a semblage eeur is its habitat,

ana eomequmetly the habitat of all the at fers within the asseMla e

Bkatu A stratu i e ef the vertical levIel or layers uithia plant ame-
eiatirem. o usea d here it Is oet delimitd by the bedateries f aw -
plant uesselatl eor statione but e teads threN all of the n- the Rserm.

fJlj -itr Nest is used to desi te the place in whish Mo eoels
lives f heres aestig ite indicates all testing plaes of s1lar
strueture and empesitinm regardlse of plant asseeatien boundaries

All tests iA strmpr, for ample, are ina e meting sate

i- I k- The te relative abundamne is used a a measure to
i"diente the Lemity or aabundam of Om ften ina selleeting tatioe dring

a particular tie relative to the abunduse oft uy fu A saq statitm swer
a equal uath fa tims. Its based M eeaol es, net indivAdmT 1.

a i An area ekse e representative f a plant ae rolatik.

lai -- IApplied to eeh anet baerwved or eellts n eaeses ls omly
adelring rCiG va were seew m they ere reered as s ellsUee a e SM p

peitim that a mert ow nearb this applied la mt ataume to ram am
whose mistina sites wee net kMem



May authors have found close cerrelatien between the distri-

bution of the animals they studied and plant associatiosa. On this basis

they have been able to desigate plant asoeiations as the habitats of

distinctive pecies assmmblage. O the ether hand, there are found to

be other asmblaes associated with strata. These strata my be coined

to oel one plant assoelatione or they my extend through several. They

have also beean considered habitats. Thus an ecological hiearehy ms

st up with the plat asseeiatims as ajor habitats, and strata as

minor habitats.

In erder to determine it similar relationships could be pressed

for the aats ef the Reserve, it s first meossary to mak the work ie

at as comparable as possible with the work on solitary animls. It

met be decided whether the sat individual or its eoleoa will be used as

the biette unit in dealing with distribution and relative abundsae. In

this study the eeleq i itt nest, aad not its individuals or their

rage f fet rging, is considered the unit.

Amens the chief reasons for basing the study en the eelea

rather than ea the individual worker at As that reproduetien for the

whole eleony s snemlly aeeomplished by the queen. Za this respect the

workers ad soldiers are net emplete individuals, but generally must

depend e the reproductive easte to etimue the rare. Feed is brought

back to th nest by tender, not for their benefit alem, but for the

beafit ef the ele0w. There is operation among the arts of a colony,

whereas there tis empettileon ame solitary animals et the same and

different raeem, and likewise ares ant elonies of the same and ot

different raises. In so tr as the proesse oft lving and perpetuating


the race are snrneTd, the seleny is more smplete t th he individual

Zt is, fer example, wre Sqplee than the queen, which Might be sugw td

as tL type of individual In the ant amet most oelealH r lmbll a

solitary aalm l. sing the colony as a basi, therefore, it ua proposed

t determine it distinctive ant assblags existed, and if so, by what

meMIs they could be defiMne

la order to delimit ant aemblages, it u- not only messo ry

to dissever in hat situations the ant torns "ourred, but it ws also

memasary to determine a nearly as pratiable the relative abundance

of oah form in each situation. o that this o*uld be aoseeplishod, it

us proposed to viait plaut asseelation (au modified in the following

sectiao) sinose 1) they eocur L repeated, rather uniftm stands

characteristic of the Welaka area, and eonsoquestly are mer readily

recognizable by other workera and 2) eehe Welaka area

and elsewhere have tound plant asseeiations to be habitats fer their

group. If a oorrelation of plant aseoirtion and ant asseblages

were foud to exist, then the plant associations could t ailed ant

habitats. If ant asuflages wre found to eist It strata and in

noting sitos, these t ee would be seosidered ant habitat.

It wouldd be pootulated that soil, as well as vegetation,

might be a oritieal factor i determining were an ant ferm mght mst.

In reality, sao plant asooeiations eeurred on two or ere different

soil types so that it ue to the point to eembine soil type with vege-

tation fer the purpose f selerting a collecting site. All such oemb-

nations on the Reserve were designated as possible ce*loetian localities.

Several eambinatias wre f found to oeoupy an iuinifieant area and were

fitted. Within each of the other o**l type-pleat association cmbinatiam

a representative area or staticm me soleted.


aOolltin.. Methods and the Reoordiaa of Data in the FliAld
It w kneon fro previous ezxprisoce that ant a a a family

are able to live in a wide variety of nesting place, although certain

ant form ar quite specific in their requirements. Without a fairly

complete knowledge of the ants to be dealt with, the data, especially

as oonoerns relative abundaneoe could very well be invalidated. It

as imperative, therefore, to become acquainted as quickly as possible

with the nesting habits of the ants on the Reserve, and likewise to

becm familiar with the plant and terrain involved.

I order to facilitate process along this line, a prellainry

survey of the ants of the Reserve a begun in October, 1947, and -a

carried -n during weekend trips from the university is Gainesville On

June 18, 1948, residence w established ea the Reserve, and eoonentratod

eollectiag was began and moatiauod in the maara described belo for

sma ht ever one year. The data from further collecting, carried oa

until June, 1950, were used to substantiate the distribution and relative

abundance figures already obtained. During the period of conoentrateod

collecting, observations were ardo on 3576 noets

aeh station was visited 17 timae (with additional special

trips to oollect ono particular ant form or on particular nestiag site).

Visits to oaoh station were ado as early as possible aoe every month.

They were continued up to (and, It reality, past) the point at whikh it

wu felt an accurate sample ha boee obtalaed, i.e., the point ef

dsinishin returns. Equal lengths of tia, troa 2 1/2 to 3 horse, were

spent at each station. order to obtain a representative sample frm

ash stations each type of neetUng rite worked for a period of tiam

properties to its abusdaane in that particular stati s. for emmple,


Ia lenagl pine flateods there s are opportunity ter ants to nat in

the bsoo of trees than ia the open mad, sad therefore the toermr -
eolcted proportiomttly lemger than the latter n that assoeeatim
Mot of the eolloetione were mdo y foroeop, sat sa m were ad

with a aspirater The daily *olletimn fm eaoh station was supplmmted

by putting the litter fen approximately two square feet f sel awftees
through Berlese fmel. The litter a left the ftuel with as

metoral heat tf two r three days until dry.
To sampl the eurtets atf the litter I the field, several

other Brlne-type ftau ls were built tram five-i lleU lard eam. The

tuael itself emisted of am tAveted likht reflester whish le to a

hole ia the betofm o the emart w the lght refloetw diffrtt t msh

seoreemin or hardre eloth eul be plsede To astivate the analmN

a few drops of houmkoAld ama- twr intretoed, na the top p3laed m,

the ea. uoh famnols were left s hew or less.
Another supplatmmary Brls-type tfuel -s made trm a

household tfnml by ftuteinag wire seren eer its top and rumin a

rubber taub fre- its bettm late a v tal. Sal piees at weed, piGes
of ose, and other siaiar eboets wee placed this tuawl, ad a

light bulb* sully sixty ftta, lawerd in a refleeter ever the

fuanel. Other speal ollUettaig s soee om ished by ue of mlass
traps, and a Ight trap. Tho ants ftm thee lit two fum ls ana

trem the traps were met fignred in the relative abadaw
Fer gah soley ollUeted, the blanks a field dta sht

(Fig. 2) were filled i, sept wn tw er Ore s Uelletis at the

sane tem were do in ieastical situatiomw. h these cases, oly me

field data sheet w filled i, but tho appropriate relative abuane

Mt. Sy ATI

tivnoity ot Florida Oemuerwvatio Reserve Wala
(ereept a- bate) 194-195O

Sell. oM. ___
So__.___ ___...__ 6.11,.....ll. by A?_P,_ .

Statisna 23a 2a 3a.

Areau nt ea Resere

24b 144

afs 2Xa W2b 113a Illa

reeps erlese Seem ap ......

wlesti sites
oA tader soil uarfts
1. Open sad
a. eio enter
b, Rudlaeatu y rate
o. oeelmplet emtr a _te_
e complete Mrater
2. Ia ua under litter
3. Water leg (sp. y idey)
4. aider and 1m leg (sp. oideMy,) _........ ...
Om s.oil ,rfteer
5. I t~les les (up.ldeamy)
6o. I palmstto leg au grpoua (ap. ___ _y),
Irn ving palmett reet/trimk (p.)
to & dead stup (ep.jdeM7y)
9. In base tf living tre (ep.) .T ___-E:
e. In litter
6. r sru
11. a basest grass m- (sP.) _
13. Is tall rM ate. (ap.)
3. Arbteral
14. WtEi (with emly senter wee absutr) (spe)
15. amln ramh (with may pas, gay) (sp.)
1'. all (p. *aou tree)
X Other (Tere foeutd)

Eight or nests SMe. pem ug _sps -_age a
arer parents les rm Is Call uses gC LarrM Paqpea
Qesom(s) tloe nale Worker
Sumetials (up.)
LNeal abundanees shaeA semom osiese mal rare
Ameat f ustivity very oaiderable om aideble maderast slow
as Movemat
Lyeal ftaketw Day Might. taiu Overeast Cle6 y Clear
STi _______ Ts_ ative tuy _
DispaSiti of eallestiea ATiP Met kept Plamnd Other
Remals (weer

ifg. 2. ield data sheet.



-a cheeked.

ash selletioen w recorded -e the field data shoot s follows

he blanks in the upper left had erner of the field data shoet wer

filled In with the sae of the tfem take and the detea'Snaw. T the

other e~ner, the eoileetion awme, hi h seo bi the date with the

amber of a giea eeleetol ea do a that date, -u written. he s tatias

were given ode mmber (see p. 16) to oave space and facilitate reeerdi

on this sheet and als euher. The I* indicate high area oef saneill,

srbwa, or ascrbby flatw ds; the IZ's ar t the oher flatwoods# the Zs

are the hoeeks al the I' are the seaoelly flooded areas. an

eah sheet the aie lle d l O the ae t lime below

the list of statiem, the man of solleetiom a indicated. har the

testing site wu sheked, aad where applicable the species of plant in

which the nest e ftunad its state of decay, ad any other peculiarities

of the nst were listed the rest of the sheet is solf-oqplnatery.

Rmrhr of various mata pertaining t he ant in question were rittea

ea the bak of the sheet

It oa eM selleetiag trip to two and one-alf heurs to a give.

station an at rem n us solloetd six tes or are it wu os~e iderod

abundantly if elated four or five tia e, Osemea two or three times

eoasiemal; and if collected enly oe, it us treated as rare i that

losality. The relative abLadameo data efr oaoh w olleUtaK trip m

recorded in the field.

A for leelected only oneo ar twice in a given day my haTv

a sporadic sourreace i the area of the station e*lleted, and ye

have a relatively high abndans e er a period of time in that statim.


eaRseof mt r possible diserpasie s, a rlative abuadsase 1fiur

based oa the If SoeUeting trips was compiled for aeh form Is meh

station o as to give a truer represeatations On this basis, a form is

oesaiderd abundant if it was collected in a station forty times or

mero eomen, ift sollted thirteo to thirty-aIna tiesl ooesional,

It selloted two to twelve timeo and rare if soll eted ae



=umav of Reconiued WStatioe
For Mnveaeniea in referring to the field data sheet, the
plant ausoeeationseall type embinations, or station, are expressed

by letters sad ambears presenting the drainage, vegetation, and moil
type of the station For emaple, na reprgesat a well drcined statim
suprrtiug the fiag altf r MMl aslseou atieo an Lakeland
fine *.id, The statiea chosen area
& Well dralme arms ether than hameek

1. rW aJl a -tr ng m klJSi auselatle
a. Lakelud ftime snd (Turaey oak mandlls or qupambs)
a2. Z* alinatr-s**. aim
s. tastes s. (nBlajask eatk eaih4is)

3. Z* SAauM-. 2 ZEla wry. Imasl-. vrtifelaf

a. aM1UL ass.
a. St. Isie tf. *. (St. Iles ser*b er sarnh)

4. go. mln maml var. amiMnLf .P mtitLHaulai. bmaIa as.n
b. Lee t. s., light rei d sorftm phase (LeaI
scrubby flatwoods)

4. Pello t. (Pemelle serubby flatwoeds)
zI Porly dained flatweod

1. . alwktk-AdSiaM atiks ****ag
a. Les6 f. s. (Leanglf pine flatoods)
2. Z. AMM ass.
a. Pluwe r f.. (Plame slash pine flat ds)

b. Rutlege t. e (Rutlee slash pine flatwoods)

tMp 3. Distribution of Statioma e the Reserv
I1., Turkey oak sandhill or uplaBn
22a. Iluejask as saudhill.
123a. t. Luaie saeb or srub
Z4b. Lea scrubby flatwoods
144d Poemllo scrubby flatwoods
MIio. Leouglef pins flateods
II2a Plumer slash pine flatoeds
I2b, RButleg slosh pins fairmoos
1123. Blaok pima-ftterbuhk flatwoods

ZX13a. Nydrie bAamek
T3a. iver mp
Ir. kayhma
733, mrarh

-^- <.jI .-(l ..'.. G i".- __,_[_"_"1 1 1

." '" I
\- In^ ....
0 0o

000 m| *
0 0 rxJ\ f Ii

rLake 1 .\ '

N p


IV .- -- -X



ICMoo- c rom ATir-plancrratoqraphs and AdditionalData
.ed nb WBDeTill AM .LoMIeI and J.T Frianu( Jr id 5cale n Fert
Jndercihe Direction q'e HODbhernanApQ41 *.- a. a.

hp_ aNstarbtea f Stath m t3he 3suwvs

3.0 eeretn o m 'a-Demtam auo.
a. Plumenr f. s. (Black pine*ftterbush flatwoods)

XII. Hamsocks (Well drained to nearly saturated)
1. ji tAn a.so
a. Blanton f. 8 hamo haok ase (Xerie hameok)

2. leaoUa narsfl~rna-Asx assl
Blaten t. ., hamoek phase (Maese bameek)

3. W- aigm-il darbar-f bl malmatie ass.
as Ratlege f. e, (Hydrie hanoek)
I. Seasonally flooded area
1* flad diltisah-BM biflmr ass.
a. Peaty maek (River sump)
2o. oronla-_TmLa ubeemes-Mano&ha irL in-iaa ass
a. Rutlege to (Bayhoad)

3. ain.!i JAn1t9SI1 I**.
a Peaty mask (Imrah)

DSerantius eof the Statioa1
Turkey oak anadhiUl

U(. aaautrifr*. aMr *I kela; s fees)
The leatie of this station (see fIp 3) s in the northeast
pertiea of the Reerve, betan Trails 10, 11, Rd 12. Characteristi
trees ar the loaueml pine (,. matr a2) er turkP ak (nis IMl).

F1 r a. ftller tiseussie of the vgetatir o aMd oels ef the Re erv a
whole, and f the satie d he the tie reader should see Lassle (1942).
2 Th seletifis am" at pine are taken frtm Wet ad Arnold (1946).


Bluejack oak (. a-inea) and live oak (j. virliniaM) are also present,

but are not ee plentiful. Below the widely spaced trees is a scanty

herbaceous vegetation consisting in the main of wiregrasese (Ariatit

etrieta and Suorolbalis gEain s). Between these rather dense patehes
of wiregrass there are areas of bare, pale pray sand.

Lakeland fine sand (Laesle's Norfelk fine sand, deep phase)

ay oeeurn level or gently sloping areas of uplands, but on the

Reserve it appears chiefly in the rolling turkey oak sandhills. The

soil bhs goed drainage, but it is net as ezoeseive as that of St. lueie

fine sand and lakewod fine sand. It has more organic water in the

surface layer than either of the latter soils.

Bluejaek oak sandrille

(. &ptestris-. eaierel ass.g Blanton f. s.)
This station is losted at the junetion of Trails 9 and 13

in the middle of the eastern side of the Reserve. The vegetation is

similar to that of the turkey oak sandhills, except that bluejask eak

(Q. igergs) is the eodominant instead of turkey eak. The pines of

this station are larger and more numerous in a given area than in the

turkey eak sandhille, and there is consequently more pine needle littered

This litter, along with the wireerase and the litter added by the eaks,

feor a eemplete and sometimes dense mat.

Blanton fine sand possesses good to fair drainage. Althengh

the soil has nme rgmnie hardpan there is a tendency toward one at a

depth of three feet where the soil herders Lee fine sand


St. Iami Scrub

(i*. als sapp. as.; St. Lucie t a*.)
The area sheen for this station is located Just ever the Reserve

fence at the end of Trail 13o Part of this ara oef scrub extends onto

the ReIerve east of Trail 13 but the larger area ever the fene was

hes ea as ere typical.

Lasesle points out that the patch of scrub in question lacks

certain characteristic plants of the Florida scrub in general. Important

aiong these are rosemary (Caratola risa id) ada the samphere eaetus

(Qputia watr&a). A rather dense growth of sand pine (Z. lausa)
makes up the upper story of the station, while scrub oake, aleng with

several other shrubs, omprise a lower layer. Amona the eaks my be

listed twin live oak (I. Jtirnima var. S) a min oa nai'*s eak

(Q. haupanii) while staggerbush (QA aa ferruhi aes), saw pal2ltte

(Sagra JalM), silk bay (haj hjgaU), and species of lM ar
other shrubs found at the station. A fee vines and herbe, aleag with

mosses and lichens are also to be found, It is poiated eat by la-sle

(1942s29) that "in spite of the zeremorphie nature of the srub

veogeation, with its small heavily outimized, oste revelute, ma4

hairy leaves.... oamparatively moesie editions are fouwado... i

scrub beauae of the lose, low, and consequently dense growth.

St. Lucie fine sand is charaoteristie of higher areas where

drainage is excessive or nearly so. rganic matter has opportunity te

remain only in the first inch of the profile. Below this the rainnater

leaches it rapidly through the large particles of what perhaps were

ancient dune sands, to give a loose, white sand.


Leon scrubby flatwoods

(. spp. ass.. Leon f. s., light colored enrtee phase)

This station is located between Trails 9 and 13 in the middle

portion of the eastern side of the Reserve. The vegetative is like that

ef the St. Luoie ocrub, except that the sand pine and the silk bay, a

well as certain other plants, are absent. A few trees of lengleS t pine

may be present an relies.
Leea fine sand, light colored surface phase (lacele's Leen

fine sand, serubby phase) holds a position between Peelle fine sand and

St. Leite fine sand on the one hand, end the typical Leen fine sand a

the ether. It is better drained than the latter and more poorly drained

than the terer. The hardpan is usually within thirty to ferty-two inches

ef the light gray or almost white surface.

Pemelle erubby flatwoods

(. sapp. ass.; Pomelle t. e )
The path of this scrubby flatwooda studied is located sm

hundred yards west ea the hignay, and abeut 1/4 mile northwest of the

fire tower. The vegetation is very mach like that ef the Lee serubby

flatweeods. leeale (1942*30) sun up the differences between the te

a follmesw "1 n able to detect no fudammstal vegetatisal differene

... except that there is a noticeable different in the ate height

attained by the shrubs [of the Perolle soil] and the lnleaf pine

always seems laseking there.

Peaollo tine sand (Laessle'o St. Lucie fae sand, flat phase)

is oero perly drained than St. Leit fine sand, and better drain than

Lee flae and. It differs from Leem tine and, ligt celered senee

phase la drainage as neted abshee ad in peeesinug hardas w thda
wrty-t e lashes ef the sarasee


Leoglea pine flatweod

(* mlf e. gk ft ass. 0 Len f t .)
This station I leeated between Trail 4 and the highly, about

3/8 mile tri the fire tere. Th vegetation Is dSnated by meMiat
scattered, large lneglaf pianes sll leglrea pines are quite abundant.
Sa palmtto, gallberry (gn ba), and fetterbush (DP Mthaaus

lueidus), as well as their asrubs, are fead here. The ground

consists largely of wiregrass (. strl ta), but mah indian grass

(Serhartrfum Senw d ) Ie present. Sinae fire has been kept eut tor
several year anew, the shrubs, epeelally these mentioned abebve are

growing pretfsely, and wiregrass s being forced out.

These flatwood, whish are fire subellma for this regional

grw on Leea ftime sanl It is higher than Plumr ftio sand and Rutlege
fine sand. The sell has a gray or maltand-pepper surftae beeming lighter

dea te a brLenish black hardpan esuisting of fine sand particles eeated

together with rganie matter. Belew the hardpan, at twenty-eight to

thirty-tour inches from the surface, the mand Is snly partially esmted
with ergasie rtter, and b mes lihter brew with depth.

Plier slash pine flatweeds

(Z. Wltti as. Plume t. s.)
The lesatien of this station ts a little less than 1/4 il

south t tht he fire twer. It supports the demimat slsh pine (z.

uiMrLti) at a few longlaf and blaek pines. Saw palmetto and other
shrubs are present, aleog with rsevral grasses, meaig the m dr

Planer fins saad, fund in may eases between leanleta pine
flatwoods and the lewer hydrie hare-ks, is a gray to light gray sil.
It entains a brent stained fine sand, usually at abeut three fteet


ftlr.e luash pime natweMo

(* rIimttI a*I amI- e.)
this etatm ifs a earth of Trail 3 md JSut est f the hifbmy.
ho TAetaisa, hmsmted by 2cash pa (e jMwAtg), uMA eMpsed of
mattered tren f esQuel piae (Q* uti.) uad blas pine (.
asMiAN). s dlmiln r to that sa Pilm r Bluh pine flatmedst. lt
ahraubs seoam t f fwetterblI ( lamdi 2ausd), sa pal etto

(la tMu in ) aad father, eaee f lt aL f ftire, these hbrbs
have beams daee aad are in ayW planes bardlag aut the gnal
ayer ot lshrt grades
he aurfth tea isherm f Ratlg ta saua (I wnalo'
Pertmoeth tim suDt) *oodta *ah erw ate attr and are dark gray
r blLak. The statieu s la au in tiMe m f bheay iran theo sil
my beom superatwated.
aUk ptae-t-fterbh flatneob

U(. g f- .-m.m ass. feer to. s.)
This station Is about 1/4 il*e sat of the Jumtim of btails
6 udt 8, the so eth aide of 'tAil 6 Ear the m A fdle th west side
of th*e ea rrve n tree te are are widely eattaren bMluk pain

(. naflMsa bt Mdth et o f ttterbkm h a firly dee btw the
pinw. an these thihke tare em area with little or litter i
Ateh to Met -Iretur plaN re the rom *as. (amaeME--s "
shorter greases. thieets these es r eRm are aised a te
iMhes abrne the lm e, pn sodl, praeati amilahl sfps tr must
ern the lwer areas base tpaemrlv supersar'atdr dnig the W


Although the oil of this station (designated St. Johns fine

eand by Irseo l) my not be typical Plumer fine sand, it is placed under

that heading. The lack of a hardpan within the eighteen to twenty-four
inch level suggests Plumer rather than the best alternative, St. Johns

fine sand. Over the surface of the very flat area, the organic matter
is tightly packed,

erie hammock

(Q Virmlniana ass.;l Blanton t. *., hamook phase)
Located i* the only large area of live oak on the Reserve, this
station estends between Trail 6 and 7 fro near their junction for about

a quarter oa a mile. The dominant tree i. live oak (f. ~ slMa&ali)

There are also embers of bluejack oak (. sinora) and laurel oak (.-

JariZtSla), d *se cabbage palmetto (bal amntto). A tew tree of
longleaf pine (. nalujtri) and loblolly pine (. taeda e preeset.
Chapman's oak as well as other shrubs, wild grapes (Iti app.),

virginia oreeper (fPrthemneioas ail uaaatll), and grassea of the genus

Phaiem make u part of the ret of the flera. Because of the well-
spaced large trees, the area is quite open, except la these elmps where
serab oaks, with other loer vegetation have grown together to fern

more or lesm dense thickets.

Blanton fine sand, aamock phases has a profile such like that
ef the typical Blanton fine sand. The oil at this states n higher

than that of the surrounding Lee fine sand flatooeds.
Mesae hameek

unliu arsnimlera& gft ass.a BSlaten fo **s hanook phase)
This station is nat to thb river, just south of Orange Point.

the area supperts a dealer growth than the zerio hbsaoek. he top

auwp allows eoaratively little smligh to titer ~ throng d on*e-
quaily theo ltter s mlst ash fa the time. ile it Lto Se mtrt
emeIi to represent a typiomal *li asseiatot it does suIpport be

bay (Miea ssal a3) ant Amiriea blu y (a Ag) ale wi th
various large oea adr pigawt hitkery (jaflk mlIn). rw palmetto
and taggebushri (djg^ 5t A) are arun ar e Am" the vimes we
scupprames (fhfitum zfelmHtaa).lI flUU3 A1 Ma irgina
oreper. Pow herbs are pree e ai the arie h r, the sOil typo
hnre is alotem fit~e sam, hmeek passo.

(ag. r aa mm-b L a ll ma.; ego*, fans et )
the mite tf this statIes I/ ]Ale west it the junatim ft
amils 6 a 8s at t'aase PorAt, be we m th me e hmmek Jwt deseibed
and the lower river samp. A the mm *f th afsseIatI m Idiftian,
wate mk (W. m ) srwrtg (inLmt (MBfafltsa s), P t adbbag
palmetto (fal jglaW) are oamen. Aloe premlet are sMap red
ay. (mCiu snMIm n ..U rle e m (n3 0fSMam). Ears. rlatu
lash pine are lso to be femd tfprqutly. Poisn ivy (Sis I ( L r

iamsA) mad Ibaspme ri Ti (IMBr IlItila)I and the bruabs as
Myrtle (fierrlhalir ri ) at Sa palmetto are not SemMSn. a
mer layer, iN& *s.* we to be touead Th grerd, which at tiLa
beom very wt to saturated, supports patem at sphgnmpe Th RutlA
fiM Sal is Mt ithe ea ra u deribe ma r RtlUW elsh pae flaiweo.
It supports a souprtivoly deoe gmrat, the top mfpy f Uih
fres is soly a fw plae.


.a tisvw n .

(a .tts a hc na a.; i Paty matk)
Tis statlen t loetle4 Just mnrtl of Ml Sprap. aeimr
se the tre.. lkrisb ft a elrLy thisk oL W are b al jy

M(Nada S1iftnr matew tqpiee (a MG ), red 4ple (lgnam
afB), ea ad taess palmer e as enrws tatt- emb a ( gtafl
jsidatl). LU IIsf .sat asm Pte are prer oert aleqa with
sowerl vi m, at d nly fr kbrts. ft peat m* b s MS ins I ergste
material fro the deeipeseulim f datris, is semseqr ely daru
bean or blat. Theke is standing mte at this station aslet all year,
mexjept juet bee the amr tLiq se es. Mhe mter i elated I-sM*
t maM by the reot Irlms at tres 4es ram e a ftot or mer above t
lwst I+oel of tlhe mea

e tbyhlad use for hs statin- is ahet 3/4 mi leoth of

the te to Trail 3 thU eas t f the higlmy. IlAM AI this statiLm
are te braidlawed merpeu, ebUlUy bay (rmf JuiuMS). sa
re bTy r m ) .a ua Wite ay (aMM Adaltm). *A tw
shruts, bhihiely as grtU, are slpr4te well a Mamphol vim ant
polse ivy. um deom enns a 1sm little hers gwt but
sph a patches eOm MIs bayhot is tfrma I a 4 epdrssiem o the
mnoarf piLe flatsees Swhih m wremie it. 5e m me suggubt, babeat

better the smer sir semse. erbta partime, sp-ially t tar
edge re-min ei aativel dry, ta t # tl Rate fim ma sd Aslym mist.


(tram JinmMAe a Ie. Posty mok)
The area f this stati Iu b etwem rils 2 t t 3m, nmr Mh

Spriw. Xt supports a growth at ..dmmut saw rass ( Jr minKM f),
mattered butteimbAh, m a d n lLtbarfi alms with vernal other mIlr

plts.o The maw gras Is Ia met parts e the statl.o asm thi th t mrt
nhk, if ay, plant Utfo mists bldes s the ur ss.
The pMity mik at thi s tatien Im swerved wti th r almrt

all year. A test or a ftt ad a halft f wter aenmlat tdrin the
summer ratriy rme, thliLk the river ump, the grmSt hwer i s mplely
sTeerd with mte, at there are m satwuat, emrent hemmetkI



y m anm of repeated eolletig trips to the staties, it au
fend that eaah sentained a characteristic and distiaetive asemblage of

ant ferm. The statiamo therefore represent ant habitat. It w- also

dissoverd that eartain strata and nesting site (as defied, p. 9)

eratained distimtive assemblages The.e could also the be monmidered

at habitats.

Deeristio ofa thi Strat ad at ietit Sites

The strata fiend to be significant in designating asremblages

ia th present study areas 1) sbsurfase or ubterramnoa 2) surtfas

or ground; 3) grass or herbaseoau and 4) shrub or arbormal. Inamlad

i the first stratum are all thoeo nests which oeur in satd, whether

they ar under lg, litter or awme other over, or are in the ep

with me sever. easts Is the surface stratm are those stieh oear la

any of the fellowiaK litter, fllma log, palumtto root o ground,

under mat f palmetto root or truk, dead stump, bas of living tree,

and grass selmp. heo nests which are built in and mader loeg are

inseltAd i the strataI in which their largest portions were fuead For

examplI, if a sele~a ban its largest part In a leg rather than in the

sand uader the leg, the nest is recorded in the surface stratu. The

herbase s stratum eoasists at two nesting sites, amely, Ia tall grass

stems (imislae Einau), and As and betwea sawgrass blades. The

shrub Wr arboreal stratus includes mall bramshes, twigs, or Sgals.

The testing sites reognaised in these four strata are a



A. i*Iin fl
1. .m tee sta mSak were term is uram wih -
wenr. Ime mh oe 1ivit l ate fer types 1) eoater aw am*
built Is the epe with m aont of aad pellets the snrfm arou
the mawt epmias; 2) nruimrtudsy eate theme ma et Ia mit a mou

or strla of sarnal or may epei ap built is semigly irganiued
flthimg 3) i lmpt*e crater those osts in habis th orater of
atd peUllets m n t built I a seompletoe s ile sa 4) emplot cnter -
a* ast with a smplAste sir of Deat pllets aresAt the met speala

hemplete waters ae probab ay flimihe emplAete ente.
2. l i- -a m t la tesm itateime isa whah a

met my be either Is sa mauer litter rly mat litrteor. Et of
the stb ia this esagry were setulln under litter. A ajerity ao
the maest ih eatwded from the mua late litter we pLroaby ely

is litter temp.rril.

3. "l"0 R- se ma i seat with the met sp ipNS
mater a leg.
4. ar mat iA ei- tBhe mart with pertilem t the

eella beot umer lop sa iAs Inp

A fLUmM a 1r -- isI all plep aseept these If

ffest a itist metiag alto, Shih w n thoh wrely ferS wea

lsy lahabitaet.
7.- IT am pal--te rnet er tit -- M iAvin palmette
re ts mat e the base ot peatte tralh, meats eeur As the dti


beneath the mat and between the bases left by fallen reonds.

8 and 9. Nests is dead stumos and in the bark at the aa

of lJiv a trees usually oourred i the moist first four inches above

the soil surtae.

10. In lJttr those nests built in and on fallen leaves,

especially live oak. This type of nest occurred most often in nasio

bamaoek en oak leaves which had fallen so that the convene surface as

next to the ground. The ants lived on the inverted, concave surface

and the colony was covered by one or more leaves. This as a favorite

nesting site of ParaeOrchim ar a (Whyr), and although other ants,

such as Phedole dentata hyr, were found in it, they nested there only

seldom. Other nests in this category were taken in the lower areas of

the Reserve from piles of pine needles supported by low vegetation.

11. Nests in the bases of ram s claups are built mostly between

the appressed blades of grass and in the roots* Various ants occur in

this nesting site, usually in low areas such as Rutlege slash pine flatwoods,

but again Pa-ratreohina rrla (agyr) is most abundant Nests of this

kind are especially numerous during the wat season. Although this eatagery

was first placed in the herbaceous stratum, its oeles relation to other

nesting sites in the surface stre.tum makes it necessary to place it in

the latter stratum.

C. Herbaeosou Straet

12. Between eagrass blade this category is very meuh like

the lest in that the ants nest between appreesed blades. Where sagrasa

occurs, however, there is standing water mo of the year, and nests emmet

extend into the roots. Patrechina arvla ( )hyr) is a. major ababitant

of the saw rass toe.


13. al a----s am at of the tell prass wiehb uat
live Is o the sa s bn r O tall rasee do ast allow enou

rem for the at to w- within the t-. Oa at thof i fr habitants tf
the Itall grase stU is flla amm SJ. Si th, but it is teod

their abuoasat. Ale iaeludd* withi this eat ge'y anr the flwerw
stalks o a angns, although the ourree a ant s withi thia is met

Dp earal Litk
a. a age

24. M those brmehes fr whieb the enter owe at
wee is atbet, providiag nly is mh rem itr the an to erul throml.

Is. blj f l- theM bramohae whiih Lave multiple
pasageways, or vhibk retain a ly the burk ad a ry little of the weood

6. i NMets n gall. See to be me do ly aftS the

gall iwaet mhas mrged. The auto al ey u the opening ado by the
mergif gall lm"t s a nest epeni t, but Saes all showed additiamal

eperig quite. rttalUy kte the nts.

A I llansm eategaryg, thet, is use tar masts is Pla
amae, n er rstes, r at sti, e t ua ether *ee place wehli are of
Little sensequene fer aesting M the Rasoe.

A.ailahbilit ataterM s tt s i tatiim
mSl I showm the relative a duwe atf places teo nat in the

various stateism this means is purely sujastive p based a th

fielUd eeriemew th author, an is det to iAimate the suhadae

a give plae to mest i a givem statiem relative to that of the som
pln i Sa a ther tatie. the aelam dI ter awras a double purpes

la delpml tL the availbilty of nmetig p bth In littAer aAt I

at mater littwro Ldk Utrl the salum warleaW eA r pAi L'a

tImSq e-al

sqa einsuri

4q -, .I
'a3 *ir-T
~wl rtlMY

'1M vC^Mlf


* I


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disate the availability at ples to nost la and under legs, ader

logs, m in tallen xags The table therefore imdleats the availabilty

at the estia sites in the stations.

In parts f hyrftie homeek ad a h oad, litter t emonly svr
the whole surfts arer but it is e als thi k, mrtime rmeking a

depth of alx lamheo or mor. Ats that l d lived uder littr were to

be at a miamm, bein roplUaed by amts living in litter and ai the ass

of roots and decaying leg buried in little. Litter is mema or abundant

in almost very station emept somp and mara Bero the availability

of meeting sites a litter is out den by tw sesenally standing water.

la stations ah as zerie homeak and turkey ankt here the troee shrub,

and herb greth is widely speed, mare pates ot bare send are present.

Lg are met abuadaat -a the Reerve, sept iA hydria hImoek

and river smqp boesuse o the loieang operateis being earrid ma. n

the swu, hovover, met oe the lop are ader water tfr the best part

of the year, and eesequmntly ofter an nesting places. The solum

*LifTi tres and shrubs indtietes the abundanne ot the possible westin

places in the bases of trees and shrubs. Nesting sites are found almost

always in the bass of pins tree, rather than Ls the bases of breadlved


Ora a solWp" sh em the abuad nme f slumps oa f rama, in ldin

the bases of the tall raises. "Tall pras plants dadete S a

The stm, in whish the ante live die in the witeM and although meM

remia suitable for nesting sites th nghs t the yeawr there is a t ndea y

for this nestin site to disappear seaesally


Distrbution of Ant Fora in Stations

Table II shows the distribution of ant forms in stations on

the Resern.e In general, they preferred the higher and mare open areas

in which to net. Xerie hambeek and turkey oak contained the largest

number of ferms with 43 and 42 respectively. Th next 11 stations held

mailer and smaler numbers eof trms, th numbers diminishing by one to

three per statis. The black pine-fetterbush flatwoode supported only

17 form, and the number dropped to 11 in marsh. The number of fenr

per station is as follows

zerie hameok 43
turkey ak 42
bluejack oak 33
esrub 30
mesic hamneek 30
legleaf pine flatweeds 2
hydrie bamsock 27
Leon scrubby flatwoeda 22
Pamello asrubby flatwoods 25
bayhead 24
Plumer slash pine flatwoods 22
river swuB 21
Rutlege slash pine flatwoods 20
black pine-fetterbush flatweeod 17
armh 11

The man number of forms collected n ene station is 26.7, a figure

lying between hydrie hamook or Leen esrubby flatwoods and Pemlle scrubby

flatooeds, near the middle f the list.

The difference eof form between the first two stations and

the next highest probably indieatea an aspect of the naturalness of the

Reserve. Where there should be leg under what are natural condition

in other pertias of the state, the tiUb b has been raoed ea the Reserve

before it fell. Longleaf pine flatwoeds and miase ammoek should seotain

mer fallen lego than they do, with a correspeadingly greater nuber of

log-iababitng forms. b Gainesville, a ore typical maio hamoek,

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with 39 ferm, contained the highest maber of ants collected la any

plant association worked.

Turkey oak and zerio ha- k offer the greatest opprtuanty

for meting in open sand. They are thoreforo able to attract these ant

ukish prtefr or have b eating sites in open areas. At the mam tinM

they offer dry r -a ist litter, a f leg, and arberOal mites.

te fetter should be mastiond in regard to las1eaf pine

fltwoods. rirs the legig oneratione renm mar legp Skio would

provide aetias sitel, ad perhaps attract a gr eter m boe of speei
to the ar Besamd, tire Is sema ntioesly kept oat of the Reoro.

As a oonsequeou there is a damso grEth of shrubs .A the flatwods and

letter is boee~ ng deper over theo hole are.

Oaly 1T fer were taken fk blaek pime-fttterbush flatweds.

Siae the station offer vory little diversity of onsting site, it

esludes met of the other ats feoud ea the Resev. during the I-mr

manthU it has standing mter after wery heavy rag thi toads to lidt

the ats to theoe uhich at a withstand perieodio I aurme e.

The low amber at ferm in marsh an aloe be traed to t h

mall smber of available testing site in that plant association For

all but a few matha of th year there is standing atero There are o

tree, but only mattered shrub to offer mall braheo and twigs. Tho

reat maerity of tho nesting site are between the appressed bades at

The amber eof *9o1 eism ado (theo ambr t neets sollooted)

in eaeh station ios ao felle


turkey oak 425
xsris hmaok 373
black p s-ftetterbash flatweod 30
mist haoeek 295
Leaon srabby flatwoods 280
hydrie hanosm k 245
smerb 226
bleojlok oak 224
loegloaf pis flatwoods 219
Pemlle serublb flatweeo 218
mash m 184
Pluer slash pin flatweds 166
river seAp L66
bayhasd 128
Rutlge slash pins fatwoods 120

The mea amber of solleetions nd in one station is 238.4, a figure

lyiag between hdri hammo k and serub
It will be netted that turkey oak and seri himmeek are at the

top of the list with the greatest maber of eolleotim, as well a with

th grIwatest auber of term. This empha-si that thee two station

are beet suited to the an ter acting situation In this hart amio,

th higher and ae epem areas are at the top of the list. I this

onaoetien, tho opea bak pino-tftterbush flatwoods ua neot to lost

a thes member of form taken fro it, burt it is third whn the umber o

oolleotio is esoeiderod. This iLndiates that black pl e-fettorbush

flatwoods is particularly favorable for the tow at form oe arriu there

Th opposite tread ls shom by bluejaek oak, which is relatively la in

number of collootiou, but hiCh number of ant ferml esuh a trmed inti-

eate that suitable mating sites are diverse but searsoe

s gamral, these places in whih the moisture Ma litter are

intr odiate are in the middle of the Ulst last oe the list ae the

saeamslly fldted areas na the slah pina flatwods. marsh, which as

the fest nmber of ferm, Is nore temrd the middle f the list i

ambers of slle timm. Aylaad sa the clash pinM flatweods, e the

ether habt are ler "a the proent list.



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5 43 41

Number of Form per Station

FigS 3. Suitability ot the station
for ants, based eo the member tof at toms
per station weighted against the number a
olleetions per stations. he stations ftl
iate there groups separated by the solid
blsk lines In general, the higher, more
open areas are highest In nmber of term
and amber of eolleetions per statioae the
leoer, wetter areas have the least of eeh;
and the mare meie situations oesur in the
middle gruop a the graph
The "a represents the iterseetion of
th average amber of storm ad the average
amber t oolleetions per station. These
stations to the right of the dashed lin are
more suitable than average tr ante, while
these o the left are less suitable.


Sias soee of the stations differ in their positions on the

list nre or loo esosierably, the amber of form per station and the

amber of colleotions per station are weighted in FIure 3 to obtain tho

ver-ll suitability of acsh station as a meeting itaties. The mbers

and letters near eah point on the graph iadiste the station whioh that

point represents. It will be noted that three major groups are shown,

separated on the graph by the sliAd blak lines. The group lowest ia the

maber ot species and the amber of eolleetions per station contains all

of the sesomally fleeded areas plus the slash pine flatwoods. Plier

slash pine flatwoods is higher than Rutlege slash pine f2atweods in

number f speci and In number of *olleetions, b tearing ot its eleoor

resemblane in the field to leagleaf pine flatwooeds

The middle group ontails mss and hydrie hamemok bluejaok

mak, sorb, and all of the flatwoods, including scrubby flatwoeds. It

is possible that the thick stand of pine in the blueJasek ak area is

responsible for itb relation to the loneglaf pine flatwoods an the graph.

The lst group, zei hnmeok and turkey oak, is eatstarding for the large

maber of opooioo and oolleotiono nado n its two stations.

The "x" in Ficuro 3 repreooeat tho point at which the mean

amber of oollbotions per station lnterseets the meo amber of form

per station. These stations to the right of the dashed li o are nre

suitable than average for ants, while those on the loft are loes suitable

than average.

Plant suooession as depicted by Ladsslo for the Reservo (1942*95)

is shem in Figuro 4. Three peasmsoeres are roeognised. 1) active dunme

or straogly wave-washed andse, loading evetwual to serub; 2) residual

eands neither strongly vwin-orted nor wavo-eorted, with rolling





tepesac py lea Mdg to the Qanditlm of turkqy oak atd bluwak ak; and
3) shted sa er"d s m rise .ad, with flat tApesrapq le dag to

leaqiefa p-s tfatmneds. he hy'dre ese la, t one had, through
-eesivle stages to bayhtad, and a thU ether, through ilatrar tags
t* uswh. th re latiemUp of the blaek pineswftterbuh flageoed a

eaure but it is psebtle that thy aeri a to in moa the swe my a
tMe Ini-f pim flatweeds anBd that bayhbad vegtatom replace the
ifatwsed fLor the lwor peartieU he tra Itnton tra hydrie hamnek

to mise hnoerk is also peesible, but Iaesale Lad not obsered r h a

replasemat I the Relwrve. It will be nmted that i n gaf pin flatwoeds
my be replace by either sernbby flatweeds r slush pila flateedm,

dptl i apen p ether useessism take place ia the high r the lwer
parti leaemsle resesgise tOhre re subelimx- 1) sroba 2) the
isallrnl and 3) leaslf ptaI flatmeds. the elim 1s m4e m bmaek.
Zn gmeNrl then station anar eah other oIn aoes m m are

fre sar each other a the g ph (FAr. 3). Iis aittatiem Is pretty
a rfleei f the mixture seaitia~ i the vriousw asseelatles.

Bhe grespe the rpe se p l be cal ma rie, nsrs, au hldrise with
little overlap. he gskp shon that the hydrit siturtti bare the lst
mabert speis o an selleeUtio per state tile the KerLe sitatla f

have the maSt.
Another aortest rlattei is platted ia 15 5. The soliA

black lasi shoks ke amber Af sat ftes Ieeu0wpi e- staU the

smber oeeuppal to sRtti e, ete. he dashed lume shes the mbr of

fa n per ITve mber ef seatiu tf teekr f em e1 estd me thMa
gg and the im f dashes am d dAr o thi e l 11t1edl mre them tWe.
Mte tat ealy in the irst ease Is there a lare amber fa

u 10

I I\

5 1 15

lbeor of Stations

Ig. 5. I- 4mber of mat tfrm seatflud to a irom m r of
station,. Th figure show that 14 ftem, or 19, wore eomfimed to one
station whn all tors solletoed are omaideorA (--- ) ( 71). Thi
ombr drops to $ fote or o, Ihn those toerm olleotd o s oae are
met ioludod (-- -) (N 62), e to 3 fater, or SA, wa aaly thee
formn olletod r thu twice are mmreiored (- .- -) (I 56). ~
graph tnds to boems lrl at 2 or 3 tor for the higher a er of


form (about 19$) take. in e station I the eme oft these auta dah

were sollsted awe thanm m ely 5, or % are s omafied to me ta tim.
O these orM eUllootd we than twie, ea3r 3 aut, or about f, are

HAtted tSo -s static. As this pressure Is setimed, the amber oa

ants s ouly emM statSte teond to baesm m aslr ad wll ftiaUy reaML
awe &a eot em ** tioe .

he dashed ii im raph as a peak tee the wobwer of stations

equals me. I grapr sematltg at fems oslloet two t ms or less,

three time or less, sl,, the peak ores over to three statis.s 'hs

ease of thi peak is ebour, but t my idieste that th Uats of the

Reserv will, in mt e ass be fond to eoeepy at Least three station

mh emen h oolletios are ade.
It ea be pointed ot that the graphs do nt dip strongly as

the member of statiism i ns a drnsem They tead toward a stralht liU
at two to three tear per given amber of states.

the 19 of the ant te take i only am station is sr c arable

to the 20% of the ant fnrm of the Chiage regaie that Talbot (1934) took
in me plant association. Likewise, Bragg (1944) showed about 24% of the

sat fter fa the sam region eoentif d to eo plant massoatie, but Col

(1940), in the Geat ateky ataiem, ftomd abou 48% of the antes a o
fined to oea plant asselatlsa. r hig peretae m in paPLt ave

boon eased by the differing altitdal loels of his plant asseeati .
Neither Talbot aor CoSI Meiles the mer oft Itase eash uo

for was selleeted. Evn though Gra give relative huadaa*o figures

for eash spoieso these apply to the Sole area worked, rther tha to

hs plant asseelaties. On the boais of the fares he process, however,
noe at the ants eolleeted in only eon plant ossmitia wMe sam or


abuLnduat. e his ants wee feund to be omen or abundant they wee

always eoiletod ia nore than oe plant aseeloation. this also holds

true for the Rserve. Only thee sellested rarely or oessiona.lly were

seofint d to e station. This fct aRke it plausible to suggest that

a their distributiea, ants do not show as aoh depeadmse upa statieas

based on plant asseiatitos as ether aMamnr.

It im inteestil o to mte that oly three i the foir listed

by Talbet u s eonfino to e plant aosseiatieon ere found in but oe

plant asmeationa by Greg te year later. In vimr this het and

in eomiderattLo of the observation n mdd dAurin the present study, it

became quite lear that ervn after a thorough investigation of a given

ara h a been seOplted, osoinmed solleeting i that are wil imerease

the number of station in ahish eertain of the aut are fo nd. his can

also be med ln support fa the eeatetion that aato are eot as restricted by

teeters ia plant assocatiaoneol type eLmbiastie s a r ether aa.ri.,
sntrihatini iA4 the Strat a.d htM tiM lite

at n torm selloe~td ea or nar the Reserve were found to

have th following distributier ax t stratas

sebterranea stratum 38
satree strata 38
herbaseeu stratum 11
arboreal stratus 16

s subterra saurrhee strata lentainud a -aarity of the ant tefr

ea the Reserve with a total of 58 is the tw. Only 19 term aestd iA

the herbaeeos and arboreal strata.

Table xIII ae thi relatioahip. Of the total of TJ uats,

1 teo found ely ian tuidi, hlle tefr 10 others a definite

Meeting site dat were Ithe A fe tr olleeti a were mads Wih my

TAB L6 1 Z

DPIaruox rs AIUr m I IM BATA

Pound Oenl in ame trat *
Preferred stratn P
Aditismal strat a

8 p5B7 I 8uSatet- Barbes Er- Arbers-

12 E ute e S .e...H.o.************** o I *
. nepmetha.I g............. I -
3* Abablyqeae pllpem............ a *
4. PaFreeratla *ersn...******... *-

1 P Hft $RUIr2r* ************ * *
6. pmwm uirm...........o...... a a

8 epmtiseps................... P a -
L kigo o*&sr...Po.m..e -

11t Po lMgme ImaMAw**.*.*...*.. z* a
12 p &*******************............... p

16 A. ftwln...oo..o.............. a P a -
IN Aaln-OMllK b.AMoeosses*sees*o* *1 o

15e A. fterid.................. *

iA AO teuaa......e.............. a a
fe, A. 4t11remtme..... e**....***** a
21. PbeUl*e etattl..o............. P x
32. Ph. 4miglae***....****.. .*** a P
23* Ph, sJor n lM-Adu***o **** X P A s
24 Ph. meta3luese-ee****..***... ..P

26* Pho pCi2fi**eeu*....eoo* e a e
26@* MMUt m W ooI8******.***.*oo* 5 a
l. w relighted btimealt....... P -
30. rrn-et1wstsr amtnlea
SdsmIemWiu..L...o.oo.oo** A P a

32. Cr. earetat, vami ulatae..... -
33* 2r. II a******* x x P
34 e Pr. lire*tm*****...** x P .......* P
350 *emmesria lriea....o..** a a

3?. eliemouiu fJtt&e*e*e**oee* P 5 a



S P be Ir Swurhee Nw- Arbr-
anean baees u al





S sb.alara l *tt Ge*al*ss.. o

5S pwratlr..............
be t~inl Io4..***************.

letruers gulasee...***..******.
XpLfteraasx pwouwini fleridfa

UXra 1*w i*alBlaO** *********

B~itSffB Iwltis** *********
as ltin bakl................
U p. t *llflt.eueeswfeeeoeeoeo*
Un.. ,-nrelgtml..n............e.

UP. pulehell.*****n.**ew.......
ta~nayrm isepitotrtio.ooo

an.lrahrSA ptulatW9*.*.......*

lr.Lt tUmlMB s.me...ese.*eooeee
iMurqmaS paraon f6lnayep4est*

g0 aWaaCall fn0o1ar1 B***.....
feratreria girnu**does*l*
n. l(uelee pusis t.o.........
] lsdam vueoemo *esagg0e0eeeo

aremsma.e.st s... so**r*e

V. iansaekUssl...........nn....
1* *hl*tauftaII*****L*t*...*.o*.









r amy not have beena elelaee they are ladisated with a questie ark

The 10 ants tar uhih no data wre obtaied and the ruderal fte, alaon

with the questinable solleetimu, wr nort included .i arriving at the

dt tributioae data e page 38. The aber at ants ufeaerned ws theretere

64. A singe "" d i sdltes that the ter was eolstedt te tow times

ter a praereaMs to be reanegid ia Table III.

Distributin eereordAiC to nesting sites wa as ftll iu

open andt 21
a rates 12
rmdientary eraters T
sasuplete eraters 6
oimplet centers 13
mter lg. 10
in ae4/r maer litter 31

There we 34 te Sab~ih lived udter eeer o either lgs or

Utter. Newt of 9 fte wre tend wrder and in lgo

in litter 13
Ia ftle los 32
in palmetto lag On ground 9
in liviU paiett reo/trunk 16
i dead sntp 22
is bMe ot living tree- 19
in base at grass elap 7

between sagrass blades 4
in tall grass stemn 9

Arbmaral rama

mallm braah 14
all 3
MkUl taruh -1


Only 1 ant forms were found in over of the possible 16

nesting sites, The highest number of nesting sites (14) wa oooupied

by a enetu l m i m Nexi highest was 12 nesting
sites occupied by Phidole dA ad es atreMnlthMi a u. It will

be noted that these three ants are the same that occupy all of the stations

With the exception of fthidole dM L etat which oooupies only 3 strata,
they oeupy all 4 strata also. Lraltthorax egSJadg fLoiedanu.i whieh

socupies U nesting sites, is the other ant found in all strata. The
distribution of these ants in stations, strata, and nesting sites points
to a direct correlation between the number at stations oeoupied and the

number of strata and nesting sites occupied.

Figure 6 shows the relation between the number of stations
occupied and the number of nesting sites occupied for each ant collected

more than three times. It is a scatter diagram ln vhich the number of

stations any given ant form occupies is plotted against the number of
nesting sites that form ooupies. An examination of this figure shows

that a large number of form are limited to from 2 to 5 stations and
from 1 to 3 nesting sites. The diagram shs that the number of stations
occupied by any form increases fster than the number of nesting sites

occupied, indicating that the ants are more likely to be confined by
nesting sites than by stations. However the diagrm goes to substantiate
the praise of the preceding paragraph, in that as ore stations are

occupied, mre nesting sites are also occupied.

0 -

o e

a o0 e

D 00 0

C0 4


Number of Nesting Bits

Fig 6 matter diagram to shew the relationship between
the aUmber of station occupied and the anmbr of meeting sitae o*upied
for meh ant form seoleeted mere than three times. The Hmber of ferms
involved in 52.


l r



Activity Relationshins

The speed of movement of each ant form varies to some extent

with changes of temperature and relative humidity. During the course of

the present study, this "amount of activity" was estimated subjectively

for individuals. The speed was then correlated with temperature and

relative humidity readings taken it the ground surface.

The data on this subject collected during the field work proved

to be complex when all of the ant forms were studied together, and in

may cases when merely one form ws considered. Some ants chose one

extreme an physical factors in which to forage, whereas other forms hoese

the opposite extreme. In general, the diurnal foragers displayed a

moderate amount of activity in their above-ground activities when the

temperature was above 20C. If, on the previous night, relative humidity

was high and the temperature low (below 10C.), the ants were slower to

resume activity the subsequent day. At the other extreme, activity has

been observed from nests of Campaoetu abdaonalsa loridagus at 530.,

and ost of the ants have been seen foraging at temperatures above


Seasonal variation in the foraging habits of several form has

also been observed. Many ant form remain in their nests during pelrids

of cold. On the other hand, during the winter months many form will

remain idle for a short period even though the temperature remains mild,

and no frost appears at night. A notable exception is o dog den ata,

which ean be seen foraging even on chilly days.



h the fllowiag saI tateld list, the diseussies at wry ant

tern has beoa srraued that tpfl appear I the sam order. Aa

pelats of taamq aeih are felt to beiqrtmat re discussed first

lh distribution tEugh plat asseelkats, strat, usa amottias srit

are listed mat. Cmpariss are ado with the ant's d4stribatia

Iaiaesvillo or ether reglnsp, r with esther aat the Reseve whlk

y replace it Ia se of the p2ant asseelattem, It Ism a d slses

is felt meeesary for a better uderstedim g of the h ite of the mat.

Ites as to ita life history re olled by othes en its aeAvity.

Is*eellaaeoe remak are added in a tfil parraph.

As AiaUiatedl 1 the IntAreuetim,* tuhe tazm ey t tlhe ants

the prwset study is hasd ma CreiAghtms rooms wr (O9) in wAisd he

redu ed the qu miala e sstea, prewalet util 3190 ia the tmdl

reteAae, t t he trianmial isyts sed ia the jp t. imr of n-mnrl e.

Aq departure frem the nmems whis Greiton uses s arplalmd aI the

trt of the Antated List nuder the eat seaneraod. Sm team wer

feean darin the stdry whi **eou met be deaLiteLr dmtlte. S
ftea that were reegaie bly differat are listed, adl ememis are ae

esenemuag their teaMemae stats.

Ia prweeti the life history data atteemt -s de to

determi a avwrge umber oa workers preset in a floarlshing olr

at eh aut term. In Mm eases this hs been impessble, or has bee

deLried frrm the oeuntimg of my anest. In addition the seamal

appesranse of msturesn, Ma am tfumnes is lnadiated ttr eash tem.
rasuremets have all h- m mAe frm the ateral vie. tetal

lenth is the sm of the distmoes tfrem e bse a t the ma ibles to t h


batk o the head, fom the most anterior part of the pronotlu to the
bass ef the prepodam through the abdinal pedicels, and from the
saterio to the posterior of the abdome.a AL measurements were the
sortest straight lines severia the give distances
Feorteen ant form were taken during the present study whish
had not beea reserded from Florid. They are a felloes

Phan ator cfat
Crp|A S mtr M yearetatyp Teraflat"A
alrnar s alrtulm I t see- uamtated list)

a agthrU iarM aniai

fmfthistr-m SeUtisjtem gnMilk"
ra rashar
tltSthietnt o Jk i

several aat ferm taLke I, th. Sa telr le Regen were net
teoud during the present sta the Reserve,. hese are ax tollem

taitMI -fliuau&
-50anklas nfmmaeAd
BHHrr goI a g amar luf antIe (Ult.)
S.UM ma5lemblu aml
Gr .-mt-j i-a-t,- -- mlintUa (drt. t)

0ther sate taken In Weoat4 but mot In Gaineesri e ares
Jiu* asitas aiLI

SBthael tealma
OU~r-ta ak- n e~k e taf nti 6leailea


the toeledlag
be" silted In

mal dat Amaunk

Oal SAl lMWrfA *

abmirar Jtefl

anto, take within serraty mlwe of the Resrrve bave
the literature
ndsl a minala (St. Aqg,) (mas luted by areawitem 1950)
LthBeraim rJr (Jasmbwillet piame spoelam)
TIMnI r Um, I iSa-ea fr Jameksemile)


warnn romtei-I

Subfamily Derylime

AlU^M flarMseem (Creams)
a July 5, 1948, the single sellection of asJ s ade on
the Reserre w- recorded for mese haamoek. The nest u under litter

whish had gathered in the center of te tbae of a stump rotted so that

only the rim was left standing. sh neat extended into the stump, but

the major portion as in and under the moist litter is the stmp sad I

the nearby chambered sand.

All of the workers rwre huddled in a tight ball. Do activity

was observed until the workers ere disturbed, but then the workers ran

hurriedly il all directions. No individuals of the reproductive eate

were sees, evea though the oest as dug inte, and returned to later

Cole (1940138) md so ea observations eonsering the nestiag

habits e this &at in the OBrt oaeky MIentalms. eo celeoies e found

there "ere beneath large, fiat stone, leseely applied to the soil, in

epen rassy areas.... Deep within the soil the ants osupied large reed-
filled homers seastrueted around labedded and partially delayed tree

roote....The soil, re at chamber level, as dry and tim."

Iresa alhrhar herr
emN aith wu feuad e eaasioally in loagleaf pine flatwoods.
All mets were under the bark and lose wood of stumps or leg, and extended

ite nearby litter. All legs ftr which this ant us taken were lueales

pine (nnla ~St ). ea stumps the ant esupied all available space
under the bark ad all suitable ereviese in loge the art nested in a

length of eaweal feet of woo.

One nest in a strqp m stated to sentain between 40,000

mad 50,000 wrkrs. The nmbers were obtaaed by plaelg a.U to the

sats ia vials, eountiag the aber in me vial, and masuriag thi vial

against all the ether.

Meureu limdiidmid of Jfl were taken at the epealag ef

a mat t of ljMagf i in the send me adt eae-half feet fre a

ruqmp in 0hish th eolm ef t aditham mr lesated. The alan aest

abutted a meot sf a rj aJ &uL uand pwrtally seup ed a met

t SPrmtesut kuriur nsl is the rfst rupve f &t DM were alse

taken from temite galerie in the stup. kLitha paras

ikflr and a m-mUfer mar were for d wandering mar the
tap. The fellewlig arnl- s were taken three the wleswe ftamel trm

the Utter at the ADg ame ts

beetle larwee
rundl Bwrm
heads an tlheraes t Snihmif eia mihmt Amltr

aiated temple of a spies oft S m ia lm
wasp tf the flxly Bethlidme T

Fram anther neet the follewn wre takes

A large pwtie atf a eoely with its aet Ultter wa played ia

a large lard -a eand bright iAe the laberatery. Te priet the eaHpe

ot the iadividuas, the lard eau ws played ea a platt e surre aed by

ate. Very few workers hemwe, were eeerved materinig e the platten,
although workers ewrtll played the dead or injted imatividmI ia a

pile eatside ot the lard em a the platterO


Subfamily Pomnrime

Amnblonone p ie (Bald ea)

Previous to Bron's paper (1949). naU im considered a

speoaes of SbimntMa Brown, however has given reason to place

JSm Eaum as a suboens of rblrso. It is treated a sueh in thi

One olletione of wAmblvs u ad* during April in bayLhead

several ants ver gathered in s mlt litter near and n fern root.. A

eareutl amud4l tion of the roots sad litter nearby revealed a additienl


Cals (1940136) has the ftlle ine to say eeneerins this spseie

in the Great Srky Iunmatais The nest eoarists of eo e or two opeain

beneath or beside a stone or uder the topmost forest litter. Alest

perpdieular galleries ooeanmt ith small subterranean chambers never

tr beneath the surftee...These ants are nowhere abundant in the Park

but sem *ee oupy rather eireserlbeo arms where n virmw tal

ooaditisem, particularly aiture osad deep shade, are faverable. Colonis

were most amerous in seeoea6 reuth pine woedsu.

The colletion n the Reserve, mae on April 22, 1949, yielded

eme ml. the worked are Tvry relusive, mad quickly find erevices in

ihish to hide. Their soler blends with that of the sell and duff.

Baskins (1928) has reported on the behavior and habits of this at.

f*rafau -am (arew)

Z* mm -s U**eeted eseiellm u i le Ileaf pie fatwteed,
ea rarely in abluejk mik A e it nesMt vrwe take il the swnmr

strat fren bis ionitl pine loge. Thee lg uwee 4ittw m t or
wtl ithi U.o wed pl, w or eft eam separabls betm en the aiuwA rip.
Ihe nmets etae teard the member ofr the leg.

tt olndiAle were ess d. Goe estal 2d 24 wrwrs, 32 a.tl,
amd 1 nme. the ether, sONaS7 oeqlt had l 3 w ertes. here
we a quesm n nsh s Ot these a~ e mmAe m at-roes weoe eS. ihe

mIU wa ta km i Ni mbe 23 14, 1 te m et t t to e kftmI
the met, mad slNa other mw takb, it is piselbl that a
flight had rewoema take pmaee. Uerkers oa we weo amaggaiA is
their rrmenmt, .io the m. a s elert and merd qulakly.
0ele (1940f36) taootl that hs sl i* *olletie of this
spei s In the r lnr Soy MNteto tas a ir* In wet, dese ara or
ize owve hardmedu. o e s da tt the a e g In Whisk the uteo weer futem
was uetly Lretm apart late fin% wab piues. e sMost as wnll tamed
thb eontw of the lot In the mmre ftri owe ned an had am11

pformes and aa bes shiBfly with sleaitudial pestratlsa h, ll
the mst severd a leMgt of [mly] abIet 4 inehs....So e e* v
rather mrUl baeig smpeed of abet 30 vwkers. ea thbe 09 CQi are
reqg (1944461o) ewor the presunse thfs splpas ei aIt dge

SJU m. ncm. a l Rose
We mery*s reseeeorltis et frlantim J m, the fem
dealt with khre Wm to be else o to lhis latte speoaesL. weOe
3. 16. f ,t to ep were eat, Wra mW6 *n, Pnise i1t fte


beyond genua. In a attempt to revise the gemus he found (in lift.)

that The previously mentioned sharaters for separating the two species
did not appear dependable and I ceuld at discover any Ma oharaters

that were any good either." Ths the foram i siven an ueoortala tazo-

node states.
One solleetiom of thim ter was mu e ea Otoeber 11, 1948, from

the base o a slash pine. The colonr wa nesting la bark buried udr

the eoil surface. Sixs tdlT l s were taken. As in Ze* t ,

workers are sluijh is their mevmemmt.

AM u (lRser)
hM Ialsa was satMed in its distribution e to thmoist

or et amek areas. It uw taken use I male hommek, sa sea isally

is hydrl k himeek.
to nesting sites wee i ll lls egp. A typimll met esteaded

fer tw aid nem-kalf lashes a debrfla uer the bark f a Ug Speealme

have alo been take from liter, sad from the debrt deempe ng between

the roetlstt i aud urer the ltter.

A mrst from phydrie omeek sentan 26 weetkee ad me queen.
the Mp, aurvme (hish are wel equipped with body spike), sad pwge

were aberved Ia pparte plaoe is te ametsl, with the pVpe W ally

me tewrd the aretaM, r teend thU eotsidaes lneg ses. tae i s
tew ment rer seem ** touther lfe history data were obta-ed.

Althteo the as t are slo 1 their moments mast f the tin,

they re quiek to flit seamelmoat. air eiiAvemMs is Lareaserd by

their molor tueih Is aintar to that tf the weed4 ahr they live, art 1
their ability to bhde mottnilems Ia way mar ereelse.


Saith (1934562) records c n from KaiLssippi, Aabom.
and 9aMses I"is bservatim an the acting site esiselmid with the
abhw. I states that its asts "in some isntanese e taia s- Ma a
from o to several hundred wWker and ften a muy tna or rwe
dalated quaoes"e. He remrks tlrther that OCrightoa hua foud flly
d~elope als~ ad s .aaged f~ l o Jm ie 20 s On atherm laam.

esrtion needs to be med f a st of r mll spesain

o oEtrf A aelleted oa the R rsr These wrker are nl all
mrswreaots moere diminutive than speelme take in Mh CoUaIy, e LPsI
ad are likjrse smil than other o tandria tafke the B IRse
Ule the latter spee Osa fit the deseriptis eft aS fhhla
Smith give (1936s425), the amllr workers from the ReseWr differ It
tetal body length. mith lists the body length as 2.3-2.9 e the
mrlsr workers on the Reserve maure only 2*0-2.1 m. m ear e, the

wnrtal portion of the petielar teoth is smooth in the larger speelme
ual se@m te It the mller speela es. Sath (in litt.) says that he
has noted meah variation in the workers etf rmtnls a aud easidol
all oa the speoimn from the Reserve as of that speies. oe Maler
epeona have been foud e aly in meess d L7ari hmiment, eamas the
large spewiss ne O sprea simly owe dried areas. Beth virmiat
will e treated together in the tollwiag disemsiems
G. ratir ta solonees were taken seaMiMlMly In hLydre hameak
sad uasis basm l sem rarely in turkey ake blhdm oek, au M at pnM-
etterbush flatfeds. A typseal nest m takes frm nder the mas Bar th
base ef a liTin aak tree in hydrie bamoe. lAfW hiety daetaMw ald.


aas aoeassesao tyr
A disesion concerning the variation in the shape of the

petiolar seale in n f saJ j&gg sjL o and in this fm eaan teufnd

under Ls ia k otgier. Many of the nests of efa ento especially
in areh, contained one to several individuals whieh are wevidetly

aberrant workers These insects bare large, eoupound eyes, emperable

to those of the queen, aad the petiole is aere slender than that f the

normal worker. It to perhaps ignitisat that quees were not found in

nests ih contained these aberreat forms.

Thisa peiese prefre the wt or flooded areas of the Reerve.

It has been taken abundantly n arshg enmonly t hydri hamoeek aad

river semp and rarely In Rutlege sl2mh pine flatw ood, bayhead and

aerie hamoek. If the sharaters now used to separate o ena eee

fran fg&M ga g prove to be mialeadiaS, a sae workers believe,
the s ipoeias taken in series banwek d assigned to jo. m iagr my

be estrFe variations of J. trgai fgg a T form whi e prefers high,

dry arems. .. rSAu&m oeeurse lost ezelusively i the wetter portion

of the Raesrve, Ba tends to replace e. ritSS nas there. In the

Sainaesille regional F a s us taken in longleaf pine flatwood

ooere there are nore falls legs tbanthe sane plant assoeiaties e the

Reserve. Beaue of its prf eease for ot areso, it ought to oser aoe

in at least the loer portioe of see i halu oek.
eet onte thi at neat in the bsee f sawnras plait

between the appressed leaves. any times the ant e be found in the

wet or satrated mos-eavered atump of the plants vher thwer is a
iznterma glln of roots in the deemwpsi g, appressd leave an wet
debrs, tih other nesting aite, in erd of preofereme, area


1. fliu leg
2. deta st~
3. ubasm of living tree (urler mm ua li ter at ate
4. Ia Utter (wt)
5. piamtsr reto sm ar -M
61. uSr mt of palmetto re"e
To uSer at of palmsot tomas

la germal th neets ar wetd to aatfate d l blit lA debre rt of
the neste espeslall these nl an assU areu at the nter sumrtee or

j t above or balm it. (h this latter ease the Uight greth of the

plant parts s em to keep te after ftem the rst.) Zh sitatiim I~at

are less w6e, t t iset ontimB to sismuate the above-omieed nestitg
sealitiw in itts lhode of t, paVpy wood of lgs or the debris found

wRder the bk or f lew sr tws.
Ot 5 nests ounreod the m er oa wlrers varied rtem 1 to**
with au amarage of 40 per nst. of th arr nemsts osmtaimno fr, -

to three of the s beurrant wfkorf desLth abes, and ae e sa lmed a

quest. mature form prehabn euse' In all. asnths, but Septilab
through rmblr veory fwer Were nated In the Imbst. F'emls lae predeed

rm September to Unrlber, ant ales hum Ostter to Nwolmbe
Mthi is a est m ain aud emsiv ant lbIh blent with the
oeelr of its suarrae. 1t is mo loes active iSn wintr nuts,

alsoug this is th perled wlged ferm are In L h nst.

Fron an eandtim of the spospe s of this form US otf

aMi In the usm o eamf eoarative Zoleg, thwee appears to be a
gr at deal of overappin variatiMn in t he t er s. It sem oel

that, in the nmemo eosoiea, the hraf ter orf th shape of th


petiolar seale, which is used b Smith (1936) to separate the two fors,
is set distinctive. alu o the Spe s labelled as one farm are more

like the description of the other ferm. The speitmns of a n and

of trioaMa a ai solleeted trm the Resere, however, tall late two

distinct classes an the basis of the petiolar seal Perhaps the shape

of the petielar sale will be shown to be dependet on the environment

Sthe nest, and thereore o no use s a key sharater. On the other

hand, it i possible that the species In the N. C. Z. have be ais-


In all respects ueppt total legth, the Welaha spe imeno agree

with Smith' description (1936) ia which he eites the length of workers

of onmiA as 2-2.3 Workers ftrm the Reserve measure 2.4-2.7 m.

in total length.

Z. kiss2 ogaioa tends to prefer the hiher, drier plant
asseelatios. ItMa taken eoomoly in xriea hamoek occasionally to

somealy i turkey eaj oeeasiomally In bayhe and a Plrer *asuh pins
flatwroed, in all well-drained areas etoopt PeiUo scrubby latwooeds,

and in the shamaek and rarely in the other flatwoods station. No

oolleetions have been mad ftro Peello scrubby flatmeeds or the saseally

flooded areas of the river sa and marsh. Oole (1940s37) points ut

that in the Orea aory eanatai the at does ent nest I dse vwet weds,

but prefers rather open area where the soil is able to contain an
appreciable amount of moisture.

A majority ef the aet et this ant ecupited the surface stratum

The several nests recorded trm as na oreever, did net atead mre than a

tfw inches lite the sand, but mre mn tly under litter. She asts i the

surfae stratus were usually associated with debris, although sem nests


were found with little or as debrls. Seoral fa the aots takes in bale

lp e were fundA uader the balr ajit f rly hard wood. sh order of

prefer eme f ests ia the surfe state= is as ftolo]
1, hUl lgo
2. dIad step
3. as of living tress
4 Utter
1 palswt rets -a grou
6 erw =a of Palm*me rests
T. wader at of paintte truth

Of ur mests taken from weode the imber t wor a varied

frmn to 21, with ua avasge of 23. ne of thee meets setaine quems.
atur tfems hav bMe found in all miths. Ile haTv boa abered

in flight i b-sembekr ada Febuary. No intormtion hu been obtained

Uemesraing rmils.

*. 9iaM mais is relatively ft mvims, and smharmtristie-
ally ive. dividual are diffmit kto w beeawe they are very

nearly the eelr of the wev or litter surrounding their Bests. t

la/meiately sek the first available er"Ies n whish to hide
MIsts are oeeosionilly foamA a the same l sadt tIs nests of

oii-fcly. In iste- la rms* plmr ita o

s. Ml S AMMiMr s a widespread at an the Resrve, and
is wll ropre ited in nearly all of the state iemr Opopt m k, whe it

ke met tbee fotun. nI esour aba n tly is bsk pino-ftterbm fAtwdMa

adt mre rotI-g emoldy to abamantly In tw y oak and hydrie beINIn

emmaly iA Lm srubby flatwods, loaimst pine fatweeds, Pimr sl

pine flatweeds, mrrls baimek river s p and bayh.apt at oemsadIOlly
in Ua eack ak, sermb Pelle scrubby flatmefe, adt rti *lash P



A majority of its nests have been found in and, almost always

under litter or logsp The reminder of the nests were taken in the surface

stratum. Where there are suitable logs or st s present, this sat shew

a preference between wood ad a and. lwerer ea the Reserve, because

of the existese of relatively few suitable legs or stmpa, the mot favored

meeting site wa in sand uader litter. In the Gainaeville region meet

of the neets eft s o hal ateda .llr~i weroe taken in les.

In order of preference to the sat the meeting site in which

2. Msnteda iuanlaris as found Ai Welaks aree
1. under litter
2. under logs
3. in and under legs
4. I dead stumps
5. ifallem log
6. under at ef palmetto truck
T. Ia Utter
8. in bases of living trees
9. open sand or with very light litter

Rest nsts in log and stumps were in wood of an advanced stage fa doay,

although nets were found in weed in all stages There was preference

between pine and broadleaved wood, built all nests wre wet or moist.

Charred woo wa not rejected. Many of the nests in los and stumps and

under leg, ratified into chamber tn the nearby sand. n the black pine-

fetterbush assoeeatin, several nests were found among the reets of


Sseverral oceaosions 2. haema da lsaril has been found in

the saiM stup or leg with Rmuastma absmsia ll D lSrimdanb. but the

association probably depondm a a eomn an suitable nmeting site. Both of

these ants safeties eted their eosts ato saand near the woed which

sentains the ajor partieo ef their eleomles. Beth, moreover, lie under

legs, but o. Au tslars sometimes lives in sand aleme. The


hl-ber ofa thees lango aAt are aer very adep, ad uatally appe to
be reat amde ev aies iAtae whtle the ant nsve e Wa hev asoo peetiaills
1a eamcnata to th degree that the tr en Wter tfw hlwe. IaW of

the pauseages tee, smo to have boee eosmtrneted by sme ewh agenr
tha~ the wrkeneo, sa.w the arn in met eaes moh tee torge tI e s tse
of the amt. the pirtiem Of the astso in s4d, tewer, are eamllr

mupport by a aSld e t Uitter
Large mt eot o. M in JM heo met Wbee. see the
beeoveo. 0 smet, pepe allg t my Msli. tUm average satai 20

workwe an& 3 m llw workers. ntwe' bwe bme8 Oseee rr It s n s
ia all amths, but mt derig lmi periods. O nmesus sae Lons ia0s
hw boee take mi fl ht *at i the m ta flren y throut earla a4t,
but -e la-ntusam ks been gatherd oe te te fenmlms.
fhu the so l s matated drnag the e-ame slq 0 0sas
the wkers- otM brin the r imatewr to the aurtee ard pla- th

udwr lmes. igle workers a Na be sea rating smW the ewar
of a lst dring these period, as well as twi the sode math aof
tas Year
ths amt i eme of th eat eeMIease Ias a ajertv of the

past amseelatie as the Bo rve. It io quite aSti above wr i
eeelally dwing te mMr m le at Urge wwrken, tfragbg alae,
are eemmly eaom. th eld poAida, O hewer, aativity, be t ao
greodt sa in the met, tAo r t o e taa Sam, eat t shaneoo a
grma is quite uttnemabs

RJ ani wmm s m to tred o*m anlse.. mb&s
lange Isest a"e aughP, sweral workere soeperate I e arrtng h lw6at
beodi to athe a~t epea e Waer he bek tte te to the poeaa
butter eat ataolt lait me a ns imm1 trap.


s. ets which have been found living near 2. hbaeImtod inauari

In the sane log or stump areas

Casmonetus IabdMimli S;eoris mls
Paratrekrim narrula
Reti euiterm (flavi 1t) (Iseptara)

In several istaneese items hav been found lining to workers.

They have been found on all parts of tho body, but especially a the had,

gaster, and propedeum.

Foraging workers have been found in association with several

other species a ants. Neither the aOdntemahus nor the ether ante were

maeh disturbed. I one instance as OdMgjaagfhu a worker ms very inquisi-

tie eoneering the activities geing within the erater oe a nest a

STr~ahwmarraa ttriaalish The worker repeatedly ran to the

nast opeaig with uving antenaeB, but neither the visitor nor the

Traham gave m c attention to the ether.

Subtamily Pseudamprainae

Ne Am Wka ug F. Smith
bruea naets were taken occasionally in turkey eak, Leea
scrubby flatweeds, Poelle scrubby flatwoodsI, mesic hakmok, bydrie

hmeaek, river sumap and m rrst and rarely In sarub Rutlege slash

pine flatweods, eri e khmock, and bayhoad. The ant shem a preference

for river s up, hydrie haImeek and the dense Poello sorubby flatweods

Os the other hand, it has bee collected only one tI any type flatweeds

ether tan the scrubby flatweods. E. arua thus replace I. &Uita

I the vat or seasnally flooded areas, whereas e. BslkS replaces


b3aMA In the flatwoode area. Sh differase can be attributed to the
fatt that Ml is a ble to live in tall pgrae st wbhres bIre

is neot, ioresor, kcas prefer the mar demse wt weeds, and jJLjt

the ere spem areas.
A3lmot all ot the eelenies ot haa have bee ellested in

the arbreal stratumb Ieets ave been equally divided between true twig
and sml brnmhes. A single sllletims from the herbaseoeu strata nua
nde mis feet above the ground in a fiewr stalk ot a omrasa plant.

Wee large neUts t this species were taken, me with 79 workers

ad 1 queen the other with 79 erktee and 8 queam. Other nests stated
18 workers and 1 queen 9 workers and no queea and 7 workers and sm

queen. A nting flight occurred on June 17, 1950, and wiged for were

oberned in prevrim years from June through Septamber. Z tur -fef:
eer in the nest a2a et all year, and usually there are a large mber

of larvae, ie., 30 to 65 lare larams ad may are mal ems.

SIgtnMe is agile and s able to disappear easily e the
ther side tf a bra mnh It Seem to prefer foraging bn temparatre

and humidity are high.

fiman a 76 v faiteh
totll Oreoghtsa's paper (1950), Zs Msla aS e nlUhMa
wre roseog sed u separate spees ea the basis of the preease or
abieae of black peoto am the bas aft the abdaem im n l&rdjlf @rebt

Mhas Iaynamied la~M, sine he hae fend that a mot Serie et
suitiaimet length will eetaia indiTidalr with and with=t blaCk spit.
a their gastew. Nest i erme ftre the Reserve alse have hem thee

ehaurteristi e


JE. Illi as found in eight statloas. The black pin-
fetterbush association affords a great may sAtreo b tes which are

suitable nesting places for MJUJiL Am a oomequenoe, the ant is
found abundantly in this station. It oeeours oeamaly n leagleaf pin

flatwoods and Leon scrubby flaatweedes oaseiselly the andbiU area

and the slash pine flatwoodsi and rarely i series bamsoek

Because of its preference for tall gasse tem as nests, .

wllid& as found amt often il the herbaceous stratui, but M also

taken arbereally. It was absent fro the other strata.

The nesting mitee of M Ji4 were almost alLys true twig or were

twig-like All but a few eselltioM were mad fri o tall grasa a tfw

*the ware ade freu the twig of pine and serub eaks and the ant ean
ft* n be found meeting in the stms ef planted beube. Several elleetion

were mde from twi-like s ll brashes.

Of 12 colueai take, the amber of worker varied from $ to

25, averaging 1. Of these coloaie T Iontained no queleml (These l,

queealess aggreptes my really be seetieae ef a larger group seatered

around a queen. See gmraltmStar JMM a MSS. em SI ut m miMsiamIi)

Eggs, arvae, and pupae are present i all morths, with a peak of abdawe
indicated in Aagnst. Winged form wer take frt the nests r August

through Novembr. Heo nst soatainet both ales and females
This aile at bhas kmaak of disappearing behind a grass stm

or a twig whei disturbed, Ihe a nmt is broksm ops, mra of the ants
will rm i pwfrtetly stil atil toohed. Normally they ushibit a

moderate to seaiiderable &re-grnud activity. Serve ral worker wee

ftend, evidaBtly foragig, with a eseem eO a dead bagewra (ThwrieUtf

subiaeMt ma Inerth) hanging frem a fttterbush

heo Ws l2arae, nt papae of this at are nualy more or
eIa segretetd A typeal meet eantalmnd eq ad sea larae in the

baoo f a mra stm, other larger larvae uar the middle, nda pupoe s

a few es near the top of the ste. Man timo the queen is ted mear
or at the top of the stalk.

As the Adrm a m I the f 1 nd the ate bem drier

andt les habitable, te ute an re tweret m n mear O ite the bseo tf
the stemo or *ate pertiems ot ste tat have been bokra fun the

plait t whih we still uppertet by veselati. Their at edamee

beeme smeahat less atUl the sprin growth Of r Ms rate e ar
aesting sites. I this rpepest thee anut, like mfhiuMm Ma

in mrsh, shew a smasel ariatim in seeor me lteih iL daepedt as

the snuoel varkltim la oeureTafe to the meeting site plant.
It miht well be peoited out that tie rst thh Pt o

I alBMMthgmb asmeelatiea, ahich this ant oeolpies in the mot
abmua t, gives advantage t hee gr as tm ants MI the smae,

Just u it erecto a dlaAvutage ftr the rat wh tehe Aear .a die

nl the twiter. h rln the height t the raiy see frem early July

Late Lagnot the uvter leeT my rasv witala lashes at the sel suawtee,
wr srm aset it. Deep bwrros fterns ioh sasu t witlhtand prel-eag

perid ot umarwme will be k aept at a mSiaml lim4 tOd A tfe
fers, aush as- liagrg afaj g st j abl san withstart
the atamrgwa e of their lw r allris, and undoubtedly flastate the

aptk of their ga riwes with the rise and Ell of the wte tabe The
grag ata et e -s the rter heat, ren relatively matfetets by the

water level bhasn, are free e efpetitie fer their aestting sit sM

at the ame in are adapt a to prure the ab*e- grrn tfee qply


Subfalily lBtrnieiame

Pegonera s fldAu (Iatr.)

P. diu i one of the meet restricted ants of the Reserve
as far as oeurreane is plant associations is eoneerned. It requires

open areas i whish to build its dam-shaped found, and only a few

situations suitable iA this respect oeur in the station studied to

the present robl. Xe h prebl s ha k referred and nests are ound there

emoeanl. b J & nests were taken eeeasionally to cemanly ia turkey

ank, sad oeeasinally in blaeJaek ea. buy tests are found ea lwas,

around garden, and in firlanes. All o its nests were eemplete, dted

eraters. Chracteristiaally, the ares around the openaiag o the nests

aro always bare of vegetation v ell-established eelenies. May et

the areas are edged with ebrred pieces wooed, seeds, ptwig, and uther

debris Trhe haroeal ri at of y of these mounds is a seoapifous feature

of the meets. Wray (1938), giving an ao runt er the ant in iorth Caroiam

mentions that aests in that region hav the sase features. He also gives

a description eo the internal structure of the nests.

Observatios were me n a nest t this active aat beginning

in August, 1949. The nest, whih was situated ia a lawn, had been amoed

perhaps three feet Imediately prier to the first obervatio. Surfaee

temperature, temperature at three iaehes relative humidity, and the

number of workers emerging freo the nest within a period of te minutes

were recorded daily for 830 Ai.J, 11830 AL., 2:30 P.YM, and 5t30 P.M.

Activity et the eoleay abere groud mer began before 8130 A.L. ad -as

usually seepleted within a fw minute of 5330 PM4 la Febrary, 1950,

to neet opining uW agnia moed, this tie only a feet. In eeh o

these inataes of rftaging the sit of the nat opening, it is possible

that ae of the oldU hbabers d galleries wee continued in use.

Table N show the tnumbe oft PIr~mrra that mered

fin the aest during a um period in Auus o four sue sive days,

san during tour days f a eeld period in Noveber. On August 12, n

arte were seem above ground. Although the te perature this day w mi,

the relative humidity remiand at 10% and mowt of the day w rainy.

Other coloes have been noted to aenti e o action during very light

rain, but when the drop beeom eeonrtnt, activity stepped. The nmts

hnw a teadey to avoid hihu bu dity, although as ea be soeen

August 14, activity entimed during 100I buidity. Ooversly, lower

humdities are eerrlated with the greatest activity. twoere, haen

te hur dity beoms very low ad tmp rature very hih (50%. or mere)

AmJuns and July i Bidday, a sessation of abovsmground activity osmuw.

tho temperture at three inches belew the surface w first

rorderdd Augst 14. uring the rest ef Auust, while these tempeature

wee bea g take, the oats opened and lolsed their oest at a three inmh

tem p ture ot bout 2T% ., i isted at th table. I n wmbe,

hwver, meet of the tf mratur wee bmel 21 %., saM epmiIg bOegU

at a three sh t nature of about 10 %., rer closing started at

sabut 16%". Thrwshlds of surfoo tperaturs were more obscure.

Besides the fftt of the twmpe turo ao the opeang a ud losing

cf the ost, high h ity, as Indicated abroe, seems retro t the spring

ant speed the losing the ats are slow to start work on morning with

a gooe deal of mixture in the air. In tIh viewing, Wh the ri dity

riLses t are usually ll along in their closing operations Imen it


date tUime mp. at rl han ao. in ramsr
3" air. 2 diaa

8/12/4 0830
8/13/49 o830



8/5/49 0830o









11/1/ 0830

1/19i/49 0830























Viadyr s-ar
widy, clear

lda, r lr
opwed o045

otivity starts at 0830
elissag starts at 1730

olear, nativity sluggish
moderately ative

sumla p *law

asetiity mderte
e*swing starts at 1725

eleur, sum
quite native
slesiag start at 1730


reaehe 10%. Ina addition, slowing S ams to be ainflueaed by the inereasag
darkness, anad the aset usually Closed by aAset. Controlled labratory

emperiatt would have to be carried out to deoterin the importance of
eah of these physioel factor am seoloay ativity
A typical closing operation as carried out as tolle s Cortai

of the workers started the procedure by picking up pellets of saad lying

ea the meoad, and eurrying the to the Bost spomaig. Sm arrivedd this

satu boteenm their edibles, atd other peahd the pellots between their

hind legs. Oeo at the opeoaia, the wor ke packed the sad into the

arifise a.ll. To whkol proset r r net eonemetrated, atd aR indi-
vitdal lost inttor% t in their werk. ttl bty little, hewer, the opening

s ad s ajlmer. Soe of the a ts brought pies of grus and sall

trlep instead of saat, at these aeted as supports. Daring this wholo
activity, ether ants were triaging pellet to the surfthee. Who the

opening e finally elesed, there remind a all are (two inhe in
damstor) cleared of sa pOllets which surrouea ed the pile of sand at

the opening. Al th h tho outside a eleoed, ment of the saa4 at

the p3lae of thae peming Intiated that the arte were still puaking at
ateo the pae s ga y from the inside. The pile of sad wer the epe*tai
sometimes beae veray large, reaching -a emo esimon a heigt of samchalt

Ioh, art a disaster of o~e-half lah. This turret contained a puo agey.
The net -aa Oloed in a similar fashion every mifht, atd in rraiy weather
ametimes reamidt closed all day.
aI early De ber, the ants broke through the m t, ever a

period of days, in ine plaes. Titin a feo day all of the hole wore
plunged an the uate wO merging tfr the oriOal opeBin. Sowero
am hs ben melted, in ebrusry the ats aleled their erigial opeaing,


and nued a anw oe appreimately a toot fro the former. inme the latter

opening wa in lawa, the aats went about their sharaletristis habit of

cutting the gras around the opening and covering the sheet left standing

with saud.

A eating of the ales and female frm the smi neat took place

at about 1000 A. an June 20, 1950. while samo workers were carrying

on the normal net activities of bringing seed husks and sand pellets to

the surface and carrying seeds below, others wre attending the mting

individuals. These ales and files wer two fet to m side of the

neat opening, In an area about two feet in diameter. The mles ra very

speedily over the ground, or ele flow for short periods si inches to a

foot above the sting area. They were probably equal n abundance to

the combined nabers of eales and worker within the area.

Three or four ales approached a given ftmle at one tie Within

a atetr of seconds one of the ale had entered into copulation with the

teale The period of copulation lasted up to and oan-half minumte

eh ferle mted with three or tour different ale. Because the ales

ere so very quick la their evements, it was difficult to tell whether

a given aloe ated more than oae.

during the sting t th aut moving workers could be observed

pulling at the mles wherever they happened ontoe ev They pulled thr

amy from the foale, eren during ating, an when a ale wandered back

turd the nest epeniag, he was arrived or pulled away. Probably the

same tisulue as involved in all of these activities.

After iech mting, eaoh ftele stroked her antenae with her

foreleg, and remained the tip of her abdeman with her meuthpart* When

several mtingo had taken place, eash femle began a slw flight upwar.


the mal, which had been flying swiftly around th mating area gradually
flew auy alse.
The following seeds have boon taken from noats of te ra m

dAM'Ias Ama lEkM hus 1 Ta-ras BlueV IMaa spo., lEru
Walaa (mandpur), SaL al lt (eabbra, palm), qMU lh ta

(bftteu ed), and seatiped grass.
The aats we able to arry all of these seeds, aept these
ft the abbags pal, One of the aItter seds premated smsruht at a
problO althouIgh the auta were able to carry it fer short distaaose

n their mandible. Mhen they had transported it to the mound, however,
several ants been mdigi uader it with their foreleg until a rater
m fonrmd with the seed in the senter. Whe the seed a rmeowed fen

idontifieatiems the rate m buesmiag deep and the aats were maki
me progress. It wa observed that ants man earry seds for at leIst
100 feet. Cole (1932s144), however, noted that PZsemrgrai sutfla

ia the western United State earries seeds for as meh as 0.T7 0.4, 1.35,

and 0.25 miles.

IAaomaster uahmaU nuewy

A. mimr prefers the areas of the Reserve which offer
zersea i eonditions in the subterranean stratu. t is found oseasiemlly

to emen ly in zerie hamUeek ama Leon scruWbb flatwoods oseeSaiOally i
bluejack eak, serub, and eie hnaomcka; and rarely Ia turkey akt ad

aT ll

is confined to the subterranean stratu.o a all

1 DtelmimatiLm all seed were madr by A L Iasesle BIpartmst of
3f.t1, tuiverity ot neads.


cases it nested in sand, and most of its nests were under litter. Ono

nest, situated where there wa no litter, had no resognisable eater

and two nost openings.

The sise of the nest is apporainately the sae as the eloeely

related A tr 1 One nest contained 326 workers, T sallow, 250

pupae, pls eggs, larvae and a queena Wiged ferwm hae been found in

the noest is June.

he abeve-greund activity t this ant is moderate to consider

able es elear, sunny days when the relative humidity is belov TO7 It

has aet been taken foraging whea the temperature m bleow 20C% Aloen

with ether ants, A ambadS shows a tendeney to become very native

above ground during the winter. The ferm is carnivereus, end is attracted

to raw liver it has ben seen carrying dead ants of other species,

especially odentallmebaul h ameod Itaulam .

Apamoemasgter ru am soa '. Smith

A, ridELa was taken oeeasionally in turkey ask a the Relerve.

In the Gainesville region, it ws alse taken in ruderal situations, such

as open, sandy readeides. Nests are either complete craters r rudimentary

craters around small elump of grass,

A. frid&a is a fairly fast moving insect. stt of its
foraging it dene at night, but it is sometimes native durian tr day5

especially during erereast weather. It is attracted to molasses trape.

Ahaeaemasater fI Reger

Within a given nest ef fulJ there is great variatisn in

ebaraeter properties of the workers free the incipient to the nature


Colony. Of the specimens sent hia from the Reserve, Dr. Smith (in

litt.) oays, "t esmaller workers with more peateriorly rounded beads

sad longer antemnas probably beleag to young eeloie. As the solaies

ianrease in aise the later workers acquire shorter atenme and e1s8

rounded heads." Bess e ef this Lhange ln eharasteristios, it is

important to rcogngise worked of an incipient felony, so that they will

not be misidentified as a elesely related torm.

It an be amntioned here that individuals with shorter spines,

keying to gudi in Creighten'a paper (1950), have been found on the

Roeerve, but are not included because of their sall number and uncertain

tazonemio position

A. fg praefeo the lower armss of the Reserv. They have
been taken commonly in river swamp; eeasionally in serub, loaglef pine

flatwoods, hydrie ha bk, -at bayb adl and rarely in atlqege slash pie

flatwoods, zerie hmenek, and marsh It taeds to replace j. usiMMd

in the wetter areas.

rats oe this group have been founa in bWth the subtarrauae

and surftee strata. tests ver equally abundiat amder legs, i litter,

in 1ll m loge, under the mst oe palmetto rsts and tsnts, sad In dead

stumps. They aloeo hv ben found n and under lqgs and in the bases o

living tree. Logp which contain meota are uaally in the last stage

of deay. One neet w between the bases of palm frotd sand the truak

of the paln in the debri gathered there.

Of the 2 neats counted, tbho e frh scrnb sentsaimd 46 ~uwrks

10 worker upae and 1 queen, while the ether frm river smp natatind

65 worker, 3 allun., 15 worker pupas, and 1 quOes. turrs wOre ia

almost very most ollected. Ihles vwe found in the anut in Iby threug


JulyI so integration was obtained concerning the retales
The ante of this group are quite active. The workers are

attracted to a mixture of peanut butter and oatmeal. They have been

noted living net to nests of termites (Retieulitermes jiflz ai )p and

have been seen carrying live termites I their msadibles.

Ahasemoaster lamelldt Sayr

Only one collection of A. ll ml t ade on the la

Reserve. This nest, n zerie hamoek, occurred in the base of a broken

limb uhieh had decayed differentially. In the Gaineville area, the

author has eolleeted the species in meeie hamocek in fallen logs. In

the Oreat Soky Mountains, Cole (1940s 2) has found a few colonies

Ot wet rotting log in a deeply shaded fores~~t

Although eelleetions in other regions indicate that lJamllisa

eeeure usually i the surface stratum, its collection on the Reserve roe

the stamp of a limb 5 feet above the ground places it in the arboreal


A*paemnater paeroeipn KL R. Smith

A& i as taken oeeasionally in bluejack eak, longlest
pine and Rutlege slash pine flatwoods. All of its nests wre in the

subterranena stratu under litter. Its distribution on the Reserve

shows a prefere ee fer pine rowths.

This is a moderately aetive ant. Ga a number of oeeosions, it

has been attrated to molasses. One nest counted contained 65 workers,

10 worker pupes and 1 queeae Attention us dra to the net by the

capture ef individual of this species in a melassee trap. Part or all


ot the 44 aut smugcht t he mIeolau tp my have beleage to thi

a~ans Amm 1mm,

A. m munts sersseisally l werub, and rarly s leasntgl
pin flatweeds, aSortba mokm and mus s hoomako. lsts have beemn tk
soly fre the asrta status is wet to msarated lUog I the last

tause of demay. oe hab&ts at this spoeas are ma the sme as thUmse

omt .e

I-sts f A. &tuLIN have beem fouid ea1ematly i L serubby
flatwemo, ad rarely in serab. Although it ha boen fell Sn Sly thee

te plant asweoitie~Ln there i- a apparent reason why it shoul mt

ear in ethr area with relatively liUgt lfst litter, as des 4

All of its amst have been foun in the smubteraam strata

wtar litter. Of s ast eontalmedt e ,Pg 20 larme, 81 ppa, 20 allm,
292 mrtkos, sat 1 queen. TUo diplpedo w rue remTed trm the dirt

urrnoudim the aMto

A. zmtCu> Is a mtdarately that airing, tiLS i ost. WNrkwe
have bn mted arylai larvae ot vri ki o into the i ests. A
Mes-hopper pgh w rAU ilmy ate wto Intredued rlAte a ast trmm-
planted iute the laboratory.
Thi labkratwy mot resisted of th quee ad three wr s.

he quest laid p witbi tree days f the tim that she as played AI
the eet. All of these a m m kpt near a dm sp ne in the MOt,


and were armed for by the workers. The queen rested tho speo*e, and

pad little attention to the el a of oeg.

A ktrke has been taken froe the Chicago ar (Gregg, 1944)
and from lm (DureFa 1943), and Osl (1940&50) h the folleis to

ay eoneerning nests in the Great Baoky Mountalass "asariably, it -

found eelonizian opeo woods (usually piae) or less ftrquntly rassy

filde and slopes. All nests were beneath stolen of varying i s and

msh nest possessed a single entran*, either beneath er beside the stems,

leading by a gallery to a series larog interenMeted chambers deep

in tho soil., za all eases, however, the sil was rather moiet.,

It st probable that the "ope woods" and *rassy fields and slopes" of

the Great Smoky Mountais ofer oonditions similar to the ape ares fe

the aRservoe. ai there are few stones on the Rserve, the an here

mrt be satisfied to ue leat litter to ever its meet spea s.

hasls amtita Mrra
z. alr nests are vell represe ted in all of the statisa

a the Reserve aeept mash It a taken meet ftem in the better

drained areas, as ell a the h-bamoek river suqp, and b2aek pine

etterbush flatwoeeds. Coleies eeur abundantly in serub Len scrubby

flatwoods, Peolle scrubby f2 twoods, and river swmp s; e aly to

abundantly in biU jask ak, zerie hamok, es e hm meek, and blask

pin-fsttwerbush tlatwedi ememaly in turkey oak, lanlaf pine flatwoods,

Plumer and utleg slash pine flatoeds, aad hydrio bhaoektg s siemaly

in bahea4 eand rarnly mauk.

Over twtirds f toe mtata aests take were a the seil

srte, amd, wit. the septic at ems eoeletim frem a sm ll beaah,


all others were takes frem sand, ety ader litter. Wests umaer litter,

sad nest in loeg and ostup are preferred by .l o The ethe

meeting 8ite in WLGi it wa found, in eorer of jprtmane for the a t


1,. a litter
2I ea er t of palmetto rest wat tump
3* in bases of living tree
4. nadlr lpr
for I and aoder lep
6, Am grase elmps
T open sauu (ratdmtary enrtes)
palmeott rest -a groutd
9. in slee brash

OBher selletium were m ade s d mar a a saw palette reeto ad

several resrtds were mad of eats in fers rests.

In Gainesvlle, I flat found to meet seqlly often in

leoe and in rudiamtary craters On the Rerve, probably due to the

pr9esee of litter and at least oas wooeed in aost aU mituatiesm, eater

of this ant were sldeM fuat. urea though other ants, suh as PZauamkrsa

diua were able to build erter nests only, j Afat sshoeet it

prefotwse for aets in wood or under sever of weed or litter, by aveoiua

the sop areas

eosts were resorded in wod in al ostag of deeay, and in weed

that varied frm wet to dry, Moet of the neass in leg or stumps were

in pine, although a number were fe a I brea dleaved weed Often thes

nasts were under the bark, but a fe nests In estfp estoaded den tate

the rest syst-m Burin the wet eseasore, msts h beeo feod several

oot high in dead treo trmis.

ests of this ant usully stanoot a slaro m ber of itadidumb .

OAe rather arll aoet saprised 62 worker, 9 sldir'o, and 1 qenom

ummture form are present all year sept Iari *old period. Rlaned


form have bea taken in flAht in aky nad Juae, and a dealate feaml

was recorded wandering in february. Reeproduetive ter p upare mre s

in the anest in April

a y timsa especially during th ralay srasmon whe the ground

beeUom very wet, the iluatures are brought to the smurs and laid

on or between laves. On other esAionsl in leg aeets, the matures

were scattered throughout the log without ay me sig order. Similar

nestse however, proved to have all the og lamrve and pupae ia ae spot.

During several periods of sold weathers worker of AjfL were

the only ant s arryian a seoaUpicuous above-groa activity. A poiat

which further indiatee its adaptability to adverse eoaditioes i that

a trAs one of the few ants which regularly forages Ia s p during
the periods of high mater whon very little sell ic above mter, and

all of the soil is saturated.

The feeding habits of this emergetie fLglir are diverse It

is attrastod to a mixture of peanut butter ad oatmeal used Is nmaml

traps, to liver, aad to melasse. these ant have been sea carrying

aellabola anda teorite. Wh a most tf tiaSlltrma fliUAaR ue

capped inte, they were almet iediately s- the sea, carrying termites

any. MA time passed, more ante watered iate the aeivity. the termites

were either parlysed inte stillaess or illet, or were able to more ely

slightly while being arrived. mst semo. fatally injured after they bad

beoa carried by us an .

the ellowid a have bee take in the aests with a srs

iseptera, various epp.
I Pssibly 7 r rtmal9& (dt. A. Am halsa, U. s. 1. n.)
(nzS ert v (i) ()o).)
Bnni reberte Gahua


e. AASmiA a Ws 1 a s oa me t an Wo leesm &e it
take in 8 I f the i statLem. Ito mat we tfeuas emmu ly to emamlaly
nl miae eaF hydride homsck emasimlly ia wersb, PmreU swubWy
alateods, Pnl slamh pgi nfateds, xarie hmmenk, m.d bayhese d
a qumstialo reoI ws ade M it basis of wrker arle ftrom hetu ge
82as piMs flatwmods
AIL imept eost, take unr litter, were ountd in
swftas strat mfe Jt. ids pretenrd maswt i lop aud i tL e bark

at th base orf iut tIreem tat it a also toOd a Istimt uae
hitter, Mau seM *olties a- l ma ftr. ftran r tw Ibesrts Is rwod
wee almost oq ly avoided betw. pli ad brledleaved la.op ~ utp
UbKi rnuged ferm molit to wtA MiEt of the ants were In seft wel
dmaye wood0 but way m sts wre baked by bard wood
heo aumbr of ldividmls in lthe asts varid wid ey, altheu

a were large Aa aver IM t esntaiod 85 warer. un IT soauirs
(AmlantiS elllem), ad 43 morwk papte aad 7 soldier ppme. ruet, bot
atg all of fth mats bat a queen Imatures were prnst all year.
fam n wwo tfemnd ea wtig in Ju3 ad5 in t. me-ts is Sept abr
Mad mal wer takes in the nests in August. am nost seatalld aefm
tewo wofers, but had eggs a larvae

b* Am IamMa es one of the spies with whoh j1alama tn
has bee found asoeolated. In odities to the blenasi. &Ar lm

MrnM wus takes with Tflg j*taia fri. taSer littew


Pheidole, near florida n Emery

Saith has compared specimens of this ant from Welaka with

those of fl oldan in the o National JIusem He mays (in litt.)

that the Welaka specimens 'have been eoapared with speciaens from the

original series and although lose to fleridam they are not typical.

lorifdn has aush more of the posterior part and side of the head, and
thorax leos heavily sculptured than your spesimens. The potpetiole is

alse larger and less angulate on the aide"* The sculpturing and shape

of the postpetiole have been found to ary to only a negligible degree

on the Reserve. No specimens have been taken on the Reserve which apprateh

individuals of flj&dyM collected by the author in southern Florida*

This fhebSdo replaces ionsarium Dhnjenui prevalent in the

Gainesrille region, in and around the houses of the Reserve. In non-

ruderal areas, it shows a preference for turkey oak and bluejack oak,

where its nests secur smmenly. Meet are also coon in Poaello scrbby

flatwoods, this ant is occasional to coon in neeie bammoek, and has

been found rarely or occasionally in scrub, Leon scrubby flatwoods,

leagleaf pine flatwoods, Plawer and Rutlege slash pine flatwoods, blaek

pine-fetterbush flatwoods, zri and hydric hasmocks, and river swmanp

Rests of this form have been found most often in the surfaee

stratum, but almost a many have been taken i sand. It occupies a

variety of nesting sites. In order of preference they areas

1. in dead stumpn
2. uner litter
3. in faUes leg
4. under lep
5. in litter
6. epn saud (rudimentary eraters, empleti crater)
7. in and under legs
8. In bases et living trees


Oao eoloUatn ma mado from under the mat of a palmetto rooted
IMte in sand have all showed a tandmaey to be under sever of

see sort. Although sae nests had well-fomeod rates all wre covered

with ne er several leaves. The rudimatary raters were all faond agast

the fueudatio i of building, and it is possible that the ant here lived

in erevites in cment or under pieces of emenut Those nests n wood

were ueally in vet logs or stumps ad although nf pt seurrad in owed

in all stage of domay, aore ore in tho later stages. Lay colleetieas

we edo under bark, and neither bromdlaved nar pina eed ua prfnred.
Nests of this form are not populous, and seem to be mll-r

thfan JIfalaa. A nest, perhaps lightly salle than average,

ontainsd 35 workers and 6 soldiers along with imatures. atur-e

probably oeour all year, and w ingd for are present during the samer
maths. In some nests in wood it i5 difficult to delimit the boundaries

f the colony. aIdividuals in these oases are found throughout the lg,

sad there is no single oaneot moet group.
This moderately active PMeidi is attirated to grease in

kitohom. Oa several ooeuioa it ua taken eating the peanut bette

and oatmeal bait of a al traps, and in other instance it r found

between the sept of large amhrtooie. l. J. Moore eound this at an

the Resere in several fteo squirrel nests. It continues its forging
activities into the aight,
In ona ant a beetle of the fmtai LthriidKae e found

sueee9*te with the ant in a step in turtay oek.


Phaeel. metdallesens Biary

.E cltatleseaene prefers the higher, drier areas It occurs
abundantly t eomaonly in turkey oak, Leon scrubby flatwoods, and zorie

hamoekl eomonly in bluejask oak and scrub; occasionally in mosi

hamoock and has been found only rarely in longleaf pine flatooda, bat

my oeour more abundantly there. It is often found in firelanm.

Appraxmately equal numbers of nests have been found in the

ubterranean stratum and in the surface strata. Oftean especially is

turkey oake nests have e orater, and the nest opening is entirely or

partially covered by a single leaf. Some nests can be found in and
around the root systems of herbs. The eaMplete crater is characteristic

of open ground, and in this situation i eamplete oraters ean also be

feund. Meats ef this latter kind vary in outside diameter of the crater

froa 2 to 3 iashes, and in height from 1/8 to 1/2 inch; all of these

meets have one opening. Iany other nets oeur in sand under leaf litter,

amd ocm of then maintain elementary craters.

The loeatines of nests in fallen logs vary from near or on hard

wood to wood mrgig with the substratuia either the bark amy still be

intact or it my be absent. The weed may be dry, or moist, or vet

A nest taken from a lg in scrub contained 50 workers and 29

soldiers with I queen. mature occur the whole year. No inferatie

soncerning the time of appearance of winged form m obtained* 0ne et,

taken in the middle of January, 1950, frm a firelane, contained large

Chambers of workers within si inches of the surface.

This fairly fast moving ant has a varied diets It is attracted

to liver and te molasses, Foraging activities etndea into the night.


L. gM is m ether et the antes hish prefer the hidghe, rwe
open areas at the Remr ve, o seeurs seesimallly to i- y lAIs tuike
eak ad zerie hmesek, and emamismilly In bi mjak ak atd Pemlle and
Les serbby flan tweeds. ShmW atwis fll its nit appear alM the

dirt shoul os t reods, is firelanes, and in the areas areoua hose
All o the nsts at this spMlas were I the shakwrramma stratm.
Mist of the nrets war built ia epM se t, bt -WN wero eoatrstWd under

lt litter. al m of t estsm ha m n ramter, a the ether hal wer

built around a rass tuft a isr am, are a rdlanmredy entera
thrnam p beside the plats. SI amnm Uthese antwr were bilt beside
a tlleU leg umter whih tIh colony emdU b fe nAt. OateWs of ma
built in the ope wwre about 4 to S iakhs i diuamte, esa 1 /2 to 2
ahoe in height. A rarity a meets had only m Mpuag M S there
wre weral with tw, nat a ter with three, apen ig.
a umawally large nmet of migMi ontainel 3OD wrkew

ua 350 soldiers A average nest probably sostais 1000 i=AividU ls.
The IM nturo 't are Seammt fr the maets r-m late Besmber t
reruary. Waged fain have been taken in Jtl

G. Si is a active at, and eah e**~sI elFwis m, rOU
speedy wraerks f' feragira Frag t aetiti e are Stri m at
aiht. It serm, hLo ee shew rr semseal rolatiroldp in its abe-
grpoa activity. Za the wirntr muths tferagl mes almst alktethl ,
snd the ant remi in the net,, a et three tes bem te t greod auras.
Molas se attrtst Z' SiLoo i1 hua beem smm pinh o sP

at larvae ant oa worker of rSlms 1 bat i sPr
tation at this ativity is att l her.d