Group Title: Isle of Pines, Cuba
Title: The Isle of Pines, Cuba
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 Material Information
Title: The Isle of Pines, Cuba a geographic interpretation
Physical Description: viii, 209, 2 leaves. : illus. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Winsberg, Morton Daniel, 1930-
Publication Date: 1958
Copyright Date: 1958
Subject: Isla de Pinos (Cuba)   ( lcsh )
Geography thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Geography -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Thesis: Thesis -- University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 206-209.
Additional Physical Form: Also available on World Wide Web
General Note: Manuscript copy.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00098019
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000574378
oclc - 13855690
notis - ADA1744


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June, 1958



3 1262 08666 483 5

...::: i:. ..
: ,**:: :;i i ilJ .. iiiiiiiJJ.Jiib


The author vlshne to thank the -mb- s of hiLs se fr iry

cemittee: Dr. Rayead 5. Grist, chabsi ; Dr. tiSksm Id~r

DiBttrich; Dr. DBald R. Dyer; Br. T. Lyne SBth, and Mr. $illiam t.

Mclheosen, for the invaluable criticism and oepme tien tiha luni e

given. ik is particularly indebted to Dr. Grist, h nmet eely lgey

uaspariagly of his time in petik&t guidmnes dari n the actual writia

of the diaertatimn, but visited the Isle of Pined during t period

the author me doing his f ld vwBk in ordel to mmist hia its admWig

a better umdrstnading of lbe peebloe of Ote Sein. fTsieh atls si-t

go to Dr. William H. iseoan fer his eeual with sempeat to the

cartographic aspects of tb& dtai6rAtties.

To the '"ineroe" on and 11 the anuthr i"teS to e#psef his

manst grntitaft,. fer wite.ut their eeepealen umdat oeaeflems

questioniag field wefk rifL nS lr haw bem alslebd. Partiular

thanks met be &ivea to Mr. and zmr. Mamall kWi r of IMean ame*,

Isle of Pine, Owh k heepttallfy e bributed amwtty to lt lg thbs

aether's the ns m1tse on the isilla happy aes.

TASfLs eO aumm


LI f M W itM

* 5 S 5 O 5 U OS S 5 5 O S S

16tM LLwtUTWPmM ......

. . . .


1. I.xi rsW

. . . . . . . . . .

II. Fm mSmIwAE AwIMMrlll
mTa Lamafra
Thet tfettau
The Climfet

the f PaU

S S S . S .

in. MllemY OC wfiamftr . . . . .

w*pCllwbia HMisery
MyIwaMay of fte eIlat- ad S.ett:lmnt of
blH balhk Gesit t o Li
eta6taL- Ms weyt TKe m erh best
Th AM wriLa Iwiredt: 1809-1935
'Te ahR SWioed: 195 tho tpe ant

Iv. Trm Wn e . . . . . . .

Tbs ,e3lh of Ntpyaaemn
Bittfilbwitt ard Mality
PI-ft of meatsme
athide OS..nageaEa

V. ga~lEuS ...... .

of wPoplatieo

. . a .

&ind fte
a 9: o 1 Ml6l

. . a .

TAILW O 0MMSiF (Contimted)

C hapber Pge

V. AMRICULTfUR (Coutinued)
Land Ieeura
Propery BoudaerLri
Type of Famem
The Water VeeItable Industry
Lhwetnek IEaEstry

VI. KTRACMTI IM 1 Ift l . . . . ... . 146
The Fishing Induftry
The Farestry aflrtry
The MUning Industry

The Tourist IAndetry

VIII. .. .......... . 197

BIBLIr lPiT .. ... ... .. 206


1. Deafy pw snme Rilo of hsriee, Iale of iLOe,
11 .. . .... .... 84

2. Paweimg9 ef* BmIps by KfaMi, 19f3 . . . . 9e

3. Il1UWAatmr CA(y mI Mnt) is tbwe opukatia of 0Cub
irn .ta laN* *if Ama. Ag- Tein ad m ew, 1953 96

4. ?as kee*dl nt Tlamm, II of 1Vs, 14 . . 105

5. Tyfgp of Fa Hat m the ksl of Piri 145 . . . 113

6. tI. e 1f Flh LlLNdi n Ohe Ia of, 1992 . 140

7. Timer Irodes9ies oa VhEl Ile of Pia, 194 beo
1951 . . . . . . . . . . 163


Fia r fPe

1. Location ap ................. 2

2. teferosee Map of the Ilel of Pines .. . . .

3. Aerial lhoto of the Island Morth of Laiter Berl 11

4. Ave n Monthly Toempwture and Raitall for
Sat ita ellan*, le of tS, Gabs . .... 15

5. Palt Snveana tear NlcKiley . . ... . . 21

6. Cleeo-wp View of the HMal Pets Grael Fobnd
Xfensively mon the Sekit Pliaa ........ 21

7. Hardwood Forft on the Boutmrn LiMiesten Plain . 25

8. The OkaOtaL Smp Newr Los Indie . ..... 15

9. Pie Bameeam N MTr emnc Uaw.bem . . . .. 17

10. Thicket tSaems Hear Lee lIndne. Ganadts aMge ay
Be sea in the BKeum ee .. . . . . 27

11. Map Published in 0l2t Sy mn Americea Lead IGa pm
to Promote skle of Lad . . . . . . 64

12. A e m Tyypial of Mmy Beilt by lawurean BeeaIam
1193 Mmd 1917 . . . . . . . 67

13. The Former INational Lejt ad Trust CW Mp. of
Sasa PFt. ThI4s ga bank built in L1 by
Aevri4ses; it is now 'wed as a bar. . . . 67

14. The AJmreem arntral bcheul . . . . . .. 71

15. Tbe Natieail Petlantiety . . . . . .. 71

16. Rwal of a Oes a Platial Ah Arm bW' It.a
lamrsa . . . . .. . . . . 75

17. Billbemefi r ref ta Lirmf Airpoet Ai X etWiltft-
IW SldtLadea . . . . . . . .. 75

LII! N ~tiISRSYU (Oat Si-nai

18. Wm"iUi Ste6e4t4. she Isl et. rFnM.
17t1 SI . . . . . . . . . 7

1i. iithasitha 6s t I PfP;, 1I5S . 79

l tWU.le iVlsi, "i ihisa oames of lie oa n . W

St. AM&tiewl f iL a .t I. . .. ... .. 89

*1. li OL e a.s usifo 9emae ooaMa ai.s a a

t ............ ..... 111

93. *lgdum| Suge Sar Speat Hir ts . . . 118

ae. irEssetiag lnrageti onits wa se itl r-nbri iiass
U. e em . . . . . . . 118

5. pat of otrutrotit two tche 14t of PL$a . 120

a7. Jasafts s 8ame ftakb amIM fEo sIiLpht

2L. aee b.......I........ a13
a.. s ga w .t0 O a" iM . *. . .. . . . 130
Njh| ml .MW moelC m sl m ifl a *

3. kur4 Geae See h Ile f nusl a.n. . le

3,% SeAb0 ooeta 80man in "Cu"l i&MM14 . 134
S. n11ilmii 7 e10 as L irn oS l e . . I13

I3$. T5l6.St a fSt# 08i0. Thi .olD
i i4 JHIpW Kas ^^KW emes mesipmrdn^Bvfr as raffq l ** a
of t S e ... . . . . .

3a &A mana .itl Ia iLea auills l at awI iili

tES il do i B P f t .... Tm l l 47
C- .. .. .. .. .. ..H7


Lit F ILM MATIM (ContinLed)

FiFpmu Is1

36. Two fMrblfe Cuttcig ae in Mfas hnon . 167

37. The 6ld Mi. Thi s Mia is leratly
Abiedmone d... .............. 170

38. Smiill and Crate Fastery Maer Mteva Oaems . 170

l. Marismes del CarAte. This TEm. gaitag
Factory hpleys @Oer 125 sepl 4 in Lao- . 177

40. WPvdues PMakins Plmut We r Imi SOevens . 177

41. Airview of the Mernh of ts rLa S pae t ir.
dMigde in FoewgroMd is Swepeing the
ChaMi to NMewS Geae. . . . . . 1M1

42. The SeIr-mhip PLimewo a I3Kth in Mwesw Gaens
for Casiri . . . . . . . 1. 81

43. TransperettioL~e Ma f t Ie le of Pimne . .. 1.5

46. A tIw Rosd Mte ilUna Mei ity to 6b Sied.
Read Mateial iU geWuMd airbli . . . 18

45. Niw omeal seeontly Completed in mat.e f . . 157


armm I

The TIsl of Pi as is a lacij itlaid (1181 wquar miles)

lying thrty sil S off tIe eutilosea seeet of SQbs. Although it

is the h attlh lasast isa1ad in 40 Carleb a, in 1957 it rha a pepu-

lasiie of osly 11,000 people, of whieh meetly 2,000 were primers

inteimw d in a pfoemnm t paiitnMiOry on tbh itslad. The umber of

inbobiamits is atewmeuly Mall hIM sempAwed to vilhuelly very

idled in the Omaibbam. >Aibedes, eith am ate barely ona-tMth

the s t of tih IseI of IMlna, hbo peyPl4pia of ow 200,000 end

a dums y of 1260 .petLe pw omge usite. uwroas ether eumples

sMSht be *ietd ime t eskibap lly wlarl nmbelr of people a-e eanens-

tteSl eon fMll GrliML il~akI; in ha t" eem.ftiv"4 to Cuba, tke

islaMd St0ts out as ep.matily poulated, in marked setrott to dmnesly

peslated saMeilp tfl ameby is Owenm oad PHmft del Rio i revinmee.

The 6peatsil of pep.letiL on this island, comesieast with

ei6 lates mer m sia it unique in a reSgi of the warld were

aMMaLs lo beIgi foeWosed es the pue leafi .eesOlad with the

pnfrime* of popelliti. oe- e da t. In oe d tos a idef*mi al idle

el sli an att mpt huo bms fiu to SAs-resnt a Ore d aee fst its

sH 9 popdi ion earnd slow eememui devwbpiM 1y M it0 mO t me etbherf

ei t e b bef as rll As as the rwe of thie "ufti sn islmma.

The "glabs us to s .e eM& iha befe f hsely e*pihmur , taut




La the pae f gUtMIa|es thMe o0eem pDnrl .MemMfe 0atsMc
Csft Bt orfeat of t~fntl amten bfst b ut eaue-tme Mb4lk MA

alileaste Igereeosr e IC*letMi. T6he S-tlf4, s -d4

cultnwl .epdae as MWiA buM boo IMat aedM, and

lbhoig ml cftese *o1 6iaef64 as LmJs* Lta S4OWt to better

ftasaps te ioamftn eulantal ladftdtfet.

amtirt 1

Tn eMrant suainuw

tI h"ndamn

The ZIle of Pins hla a lee Iad flEt Wseain inirwupnd by

reeddeJl hills that wise ab fptly fwn the plain to altituel &aL highl

as em theusad feet above Oea level. Issutwually tbhta dAr six

pholtgraprbic pIlMlMt sa the ilald: (I) A low camtal

plain whieh beers me=t *f the s4hor e e h of tle LMar 9Smp, (Z)

a higher interior plAia, (3) a heriS of rE1sdal, seintea hills

that rims frt tir interior plain, (4) bwo tnaga of reidual mal* p

nmstaLmf ia prexmisiy to eeah o:tsw that w Ie fim the S ml plia,

(5) a immp that partly bicEts the iWland l 1 n an t4t-wet di.vstis ,

*se (6) lew, wid plain msuth of this sump ampeeW of niL 1Ai


The low coastal plait that bewdowr th* Wlr peats ot lf fe

islemd nmwtth of Imater ft"mp vir.ieIs *i 4th k f S me b Iat SAl6a1i

The the beLe ealemts riut fer ti r seaml t n pai as &ilyL~ a

walnin samdp bech- at tuhe lsh danc m=w t* u be bo ,bl

SUIhS, Mid a ll* alluril pAUAn bsyfld IM Omfp. OIly it s Ow fil M -

at t gl a..; both an s et thei teeflR f Me bedasMhr S

tiI amba hills A d ma eln s Mtal m weehl phtu "t y

m aee masp e.4 Ma m :mteAma *abe 6eO sa eaent oe

hobwnei ew bd l te Ma mf*l1 p1I Ste4 IlMM4 by go dtegt u ei

ef asw *ed d ebd off t Antense plai M t arasw St by a eat d

ettLa.. Oakl de tWMIe b90ah atn4d sen tahuS n f M pfw i.adlm4d.

*SSea ctb -a keek Rt hi d*g easn eli

ngqp Iuenaly E tSh6 Ia ibmid J s edflS *t, SllO in ple# s t
iNIes a *1tk &IL. sit M e Cene Sl. the tAem ir t 14 smeti as

tOh eapeae ef the "u, fSt Ibi s -mOp gpSudily bIeia

paterd eNi4, a s*land0I4 v pOsM4 lSa by 1itAIM off oft isial a1.
mtewoqr plAte ieft ete se. ten. ebtik F*dntl p#Ited beMpnd the

some leta spes iarmt b i, eaWr Sa yj4, bias e~ iat2fy Erimnded

by aibp emigaol. kla OtLr p6are hta bad to be l aneide IA d4ar

acMt thmr a 6gN relate heSeir PtMie e ti anviwbe eanes.

la*MSSI|, beMUd dhM iftsmei :AuI, the e6seta pla aew-

temm* is a low llitet l aLi. flite pa&ta is m* lM -MAd flat chat

*fSwr hMeay ias s alsie hmqma&ly bheam inuudelnd, fvcral

Li- mml,1gea1 bal*fe aft aetss aer m i ub be mol tt ieob the weft

e& din ft off. lft tUbt of thd plUta glaiatlly it a &e tbem a

iL6*, I. In pi"te the nCebaluee> n O*e O1 the simd it PaeeW

ev. ma *ile imnm h 6 anWtder beWad bhe esapere RWg. Them

t "S itel dedimt4 bSoatI biSm She e0t11l pltn a.d fta
OllAt plate. A t6IMtate 4me 6eeail at a gllni ltmRily ifty

Il above sea MMnl ISft We aOelm I *lluvial di. is iWfe
fte WWAtWl lhe *. do ieteater.

Slte tana.Tt gme *a t" etat JStI i S 56R^ -*WSe "
abs Sq and4 mflaga agt o tag ipifpat 6n I e S~atat waS bE

Iamiar etnm. The pLat it g enrally rolli amdl rmSeM frm 50 to

SO0 fat asntw le rtvl. GreQatt n*lati. "lwAf esauss in the

arw ernusrding the r140dml hills. saes, wols tehe ISlnad'. mjor

Setwnm orisiesta, n ianeemfiv deerictic sctuS pseteon bme de"iWled.

Bedease of au t intenity of the tweme patteof ekte aterflvmos w. tdHa

this uome ace *harp, and Obe 14ee01 litf iv pOemem-ed. 1e~td the

ottoe peeriStr f ta iosld mbe ede of th Lteitirw plati beemns

flaetis with Oes leeI al ftle mAd tct beedmas e:f the teeIwfla-W.

TIe chiktes c hill ome rdl ml is the oemste of the fl*efter

plin is seeepi of M lare of r g p f hills mtd sevfn l ieola d

kills a fe L f6.e ils m befy. 1W Tho tra do 1I

Cmd8 N emSt daL Mae, -and Ceowre de I eMib are the eitIm sfIeN

of hill*e whb rt sW uap the 1awg veS i TosepO r tbey Aes a cbt

fiftos INLNt is laugh ruIm:iti aa s .rt mit-scthse t irss.

Cawn tdi e Jmn, Las b4gadme, xa" Last Aguila &ts tie t ilaO4

hill* the eeo smpested iwe the wia fOSag .

Thm meapg 614eathem of the mental hills tid se gIom.

e lda do theL esmd bighte of f1t hlmn*r4 feet w4 hb e pm

cipitem6 elepe. Thk cuee*m to th its i tbe alCab iM iIW

ugen oeasiomnil 0leeaKm oef e H t egawad *6t era ,NaieMh, 9 A o

sops of Cos hills l: se ften sLWp. lte hiltimi point tf eL"A en

ae Lwee s 6a mm.d Otte hit as nLe. 1,017 bs oewve Oft lwS.

T"6 a* Im memge lebd a 4eMaer side of maq *flta

M bi ftl a a fte ng m s- 1O ta-e -m i lE r w^I g MS e Ito&

amb pesfmt y e t se 0lte. Taft itiM, do S m**enA 4 4 Sds tom

heat of s0 soas I&t" ek t tepe 4w 6660416% atI" ag 00

true smuadoakck; they rim abruptly from the interior plain and in

many wvys appear similar to the famut residual limmetose mogp hills

found in the province of Finer del Rio. In places Ibhse hills attain

a height of one thenead feet. To the casual visitor who arrives

at huten Geroa the imposing shape of the two ranges often conveys

the erroneous conception that the island is mountainous.

The fifth physiogaiphic region is Lanier Sump, which aewrly

bisects the island in an east-west direction. The swamp varies in

width freo one-half mile to almost four miles. Although may ape

have been published showing this swamp as completely crossing the

island, it is actually broken in approximately the middle by a narrow

strip of the limestone plain which lies to the south. During the

winter, when the ground water level drops, this pee is dry and it

is popeeble to cross the nwemp with little difficulty. In s mer,

especially when the rainfall is heavy, the low limestone bridge

becomes inundated and land travel is impossible.

Physically, Lanier *ump and the mangrove swap that borders

the northern part of the island are similar. As Lanier Swemp reaches

the be on the eastern side of the island it limply joins the coastal

swamp without any clearly defined boundary. On the Western side,

near Lae Siguana, a very smll strip of th1 alluvial coastal plain

eastees th se a, separating Lanier leam from the coastal sewp.

In many ayl Lanier Swamp can be thought of as a san linking

two sep aste islands, beeoow the pkhysiaegphy of the southern plain

di tae so much from the tews orthesn plains. Tihe sutheTn plain is

Mr.. -

;~ CC'L O *:t 9AniJAJ '~ rC'


P:"' "


P1\: !









__ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ ___ _ _ _ _ I __ _ _ _ _ _ _

Fig. 2

,'" I -\ .

r\ ,,. .'

i- ..:, . -.?

'' .


/ --

de to

co~pe d of limE-tem. Allthmag itsa umdira mliaf i *ligte, in

dusail it is quite euSwg. A l-amp uftl m f selati6a ifateas a"k

aH siakhelIe aId setp pim elea oee r thw ie ISia, and Leellyj te

topegavphy has asLquled thue se 4crldAM a (ap (lst'a MEkt).

StlAo se plaia heb a uekMH toeasiaphy thlaie an0 me Wu)wftW tgeam

or my fviabl*e pMatra of surfii d tlteagi. It my be & mudI tLat

undeirsound drainage ptftils.

Thu 'U.efiavlwm

IEsentially the aj r pertian of the ildoMd, thet if, iLs

inner cowe, was forced under th tectonic t rescues of a L tpg

unlgatie intrusean whiah fcecc the eoersBr d nedimatsry lapyw up.

This intsoMie it believed to hIve oeaeredl d Arii the Samflke Iab,

at the close f el O1Lscnf ftario.1 The dMa whih I" eamUad

by the upthrust, coqoesed of hilbly abmsndpseeI d ashis@ mcad ~ Sfllt,

m oblog a a shape, with a anethroeasteEut stirlU ihb smemt-

mdieen termin s belug 8umCs~ Ld ander tib aWll of SMhmrl.

The height of this muMMeeks ant uidsul hill a th laMhri

euggoet Utnt rheb is a double eaumwdsi e et i almAslu. t ft ea-

odfMaie is at uppitmefly onW themamid kutt. The ot* h O

in the nerth aMd ted hEc1 hill 6ft tl& Afllarl ubuaee 6tpi

to tie mup:a all hbe rve eas tat -a beimMU a-ae Ibu sind -e

tbeemasd et. The *tes .anore l bes um e f medEe sdi

NtU hifert fMtm. Ue ft dte wasMtl Mt9ltm of tallMWIf *LI of

Ij3. lAMu Leu .. "t Oig d On hg" a

Nn .ea tIelSm tkta Ike a* 4. 4S& Iefl I.
Ibti desh -Sisme ,eq $gM

iKf fe*te shA W iN4 s0ok flle pI *f l' low.:i wRh
- sfl' Sm, sLwa&sian peBvde *4 snas a. mate 4 innb9

S i "V L. .. 44 I 864i 4- .. b
.N .* MMWN$ njfll w4 RS"P SiS OWN.#*" 1

flU Iatse e te eawsa, eaei U.. : w iw ,,, we
th sateSd -d the Inae shee tahse bee-te

a. a aha -. -i & ia jmi00 i ij hu s *

iiii :ii IiiiiBiiii es to Mis I "iit 1 iiiiii, Ameii seve ir i
.(w Am =La sea'.* &*I*.w ha== U= n ap '5fis3l a-

AMiS.r o ailyf ntm w ONNm I na mi, h L w u *p. .ml S I Ia A
iiiii ,iEiii Wui -ai etiiis --p9f r --iii 0ii S v -f i
as aI0 iljl0 a .i.n a I*fS P

is me n -e tis. so *m-l6 'ma e a r i
Alte oumao nI" pan, am s ayt u at al .. .. ....
oO-lll awi*~ VMIIWR 11iHmy a f "HRri'* -os Iam tIMMIf am&1oil *a aw o''

46Mi woo ad me. en s iwf
^____ ^ _^^ ^^ -j: -.ajL_ M|T i~ft LE~MMA&&& iiHiUH lSH
MO.f ..l^ ^' .. ....... *^ ^ *^^ *y.^^ p !^ ^ wp ^ i




Sf n to fdltetS. ItWme sa4lAts he a MWb ea*ueiuw*l "* eof

4ifle0w0e sialel ethlm e eh ncebi t ht vadwuly ab pLate. ah to
tsafm fet te tsiy he tbegw Ome relt.uf ht teo elMb l na 96m eam

tedw mtead, is pie, ev ~ i taseed "mt abu it.

Tbhm e paemllel amble s~ Meam tiaemw U4rns. ma waoo

climl rtdwr with oesthb.eUtk i setbs, bCatme s ameely d6p of

ppseiamelhly thirty gdwnaes The tUhie o eof thee bedS: i

stnedt6a to N at"o ethled let.

2M wn e f tihe a*iRftL p iai OkMh I* eaM pio of atllVtm

oeee its e*aIs fe #ist mitd4 f-ee mle I Iai3be pIblm. This

Leo Iltaes % fwe|bM by dlpmetlelf off highly d4 nrm hm)bsleadel

*chit. A&t 366k40&, eiSStei eT iMaWgfte, is a biech ef

black wmled aimd thlAt Ihe e. wgtAftd fnem Ale *WfpebF t d.Mr W

SS6eM of dM bloes~maw POtWS.

eturia te nl. t tlMma li-e Enaint M 0 0Yeb9y wme a ani tel

eanmp W"t Aem toe t M o S*Sas1 ate of am. ipl &d At thee

atbn Same aft okdge meAl abS eeas Vefaed, spv ta aI wo'IEs

tns. uape Twm seAnis st wfsif, waam* LlmLe niAw nm ai

Me p*aNi iPO l. ttag 04 bumie gam I* m O ael gas. MimA.m
2%g do pla. iitiq east0 h 0 e0nS U -e &MOW -ft 10i f1 ft O1%W

aet*ad Aldeet te the 00 of tie GAhen pLatnes. its pgrea had

ban oauapwd by do do", sow sh "Ads ugg v s" ham a1l*bhuq
Seil mnef *d 9MlitriL e endiaLt seet t r awLy pliitew

The gatlies&teal UtL *f 1He 3A Oi el M eti Cmly
mlat6d t that of uMe. The ablmed beaes to the eum i aAg$~

fad iem me a anlly a swa;he .tmotpme Wa ob* dAbe pa1a of
mwe Vf sm, Os fl eM Wl f t elef m tan"d te in uAley.

The a*bmm of Am tainAlts ai etm .Sd&f 4a as Ce to iaesut
m*canMich a durl the IMueMus VAe i dt f lt LO U VenflLal

*riaksl ba" ueema m all fel ee tile. i M WMti, i bar iiM 2

aftious of ebters and goal"es that sweep I ub&* e dl asay

e.f P au dL Ito.2

Any rMtAlI diseavkeln .meeShtma th* clies s9 tae UiM

of 6mUes mat be pat nd by Mwnltmagf eof gMahul dotw w thbalk.

as Enattdo WN ds e 0 yASar e 104, bie ltm1 Ofe -w asmn

%a* bon f t t ata ieelaueb) am be a emiMl. In eft*
lSgIlMg0, a fall Tv116)Ol am tihe asunliMII 8M6 ofe the Islerd,
ltalri da. a ee llO~ Yth 3918 to W923 "Wot t tiilmfme

4. b.. 1915. .. 6l f6
ee -e a*Le4 sflMe mmewa a Ms .mab men,

s abba* i f aM.

136d. bana tlnme am saiblo er y eme w e W,
nsoe IWWw ets e am w amuiellc hwt trggWawe 1M11 t*s MS00. 1
hE & AIM S i r mle ie t Mouf so" f966 em s 111 al ,Tm t
aft" V%&~ 11 VOWAmfANam 0* .e4. It am b
desenM as NO nmel, nAose %n da. uLO W. a% 6 Sem
tinasb gIS te 6.w Mfag e A. eki n .At e WaOli9i s15a a .

@*Lm tAbb. *S3S fs SiSiJ e, UuV a and
"h 4a hisbh inm i tr lll swlial polse tw too auL iPvate
as n ain N yo Sa" iSt abtie tsw S buwt jamst"* ie tlfavi a

41iE b l ,eia IeON 'e Sea b iSaiB t nwmenk AinOd t ast InsIC usesa
k*s ta n seaOMM as 74 .SF. 40Wl.

&.0 9. Wilsds Ul hfl, pei g it S prf0l 0eir egg, 0E 10 1 1 .
Mgt s as&1 no miiLy tawast b amo t pS wfl s* n 'lt
a ak n a aI .e .... I Q. a.. dg a.

sagp anewnm-t tei& vw $ 1. iSMS i
ess thme ii.gpaiiiil secon un vm80 I a ew nM


Fig. 4










F M A M J J A S 0 N D

MAXIMUM ( MPERATUR( D.P E .aeceI oll 15*l ** "e-per. e ar *.e
TT(UE RATURP 5DURCS5 *. 'C,.-e col e' D I** '* Ir ee e I* ,
MINIUM TE MPERATuRIE r*ol" 1 i* l l211 SI


B m A


lAEglrni.ty. A"llerI*| *L *ks MISL iW Iiar 60964

ell he -e eonpn Usb v om -c.m
0 doe a esaeim ..A me.fl "at *doom aans
m a S .L, *w4anAit"" t thit Aubjb *AaAt&*am m.iat-
satS. f UeYlRmUby emage gue tmY agm ea anames Mqua

s2e eeab a vsti., yTeeMt, by as sw sep meit hs IsAle oi Pl ae
alMy hta nb4e Wgqmft Iu t t I A es H of tfhe *ii of M.ntle. Wnioy
sledfy 40 Ie 1 eW Vfto shmmASy gtib Satek Umy awa lti1

3m 146 s Go vi u m ed PA"# a *Wf
taoe M aft" hnam m em I a, 4 a& a Ilo

fau am &*Low e.meahsan. 9ea .ewml he* ahv Was emene PtA

oi *rA, ilfm s .ol tet WtaL d"tst eMj liO *lw sod1 wipa

Nou p"". Afteb" ro4wm, Sy M 0 ifIas. 1 SKllIi 06 i Ilku MW,.
efI smwI *aeas AWNn a am ir am an rtmmm fl "ale. 6S06

twor daeane. so*, wa e anery. mea: at O&OWeW
I"* a *sa Uw mo ust1 *A: *Oa. ate "e to #.
. a a te a a br. a
Wense one ne afe ed e4gi l flung.te %1W au gifcali e
Sh. a aft A3^AA a fte a0U0- 1 ....... .l f
iin~t aiif~ tt fl 4U-*Jc 4 S.L Ohs|^L fA RM ^-^J-^^^^^ki^Hfcjh J~e KJL kBf

oqpeneagely hemid wnthr eems fIs July to S~pPHL cusd is
empe ictly tryi4 in Aiuet. FowfuMNfely, boiNme ad t trade wbs,

the blt bu nd aomdLtAi~ re nt lee dilItealt tf eminy. uewv,

shme ehbe bmMeme dit dae bthe amAet mmappenmueno rSoet

eppmemPefe batoes.
Yvm 1P90 to 1213 Afr* mIsrbe, she LiSi*11l geieft am the

aeTtklMesnsam sAd of .1 islaM6, had lhe l s gI t maMsMl wIt&ItF6sm

of ay stetioin Is. O., XtU. a .wasmp o 7k M Se lrm

metafall at Amea 5afbt e a a te a e ns, a ay

w4eftw rend a hrmld smm. flshner thbem*J Pita heb mnLy 7.4

Pb ea of tihe aMl avAmap eMdtll, AtLI d6mq aO *mntm

emstl e thean an g ust Si6 pwr aI isi pv 1teesb. JAkU n

te mae adEt baheflet i i d11 (11.96 mlb4o) md JAuiry ts the um&

of lemge (1.74 IJsese).

Laewl vweMti"S apper is the 6ade11 v*swamM *lW

gOeapebSly 7only be a* eawmal ae~g el 40A 15 ltekbm of NwaIn pee

yew, C1no 1 d v IEshr dso .cmpty f"o dwSe Nsem The 4wf.bim wha
90 she JtAELimms& beaL llI tJhe aSe Lb m t the se0 MA l tj ~-

Dasftwet ti al U 0e40" leo olet tl e is beem poI stean tso 2l

1am* 9 sam ietalo smu tnM 81a Uapaw, eb b LA

lame mthe tle ewi ed e o the is mead.

wtyee type of petem emnmeOb6 am asr d sbe nmei

WaA m 1, mnfalll a* 1, efell by gNucuMOat imm ii

srA saboIMLe rlOllha1. 11M tkWm I4r "d eUsm ~ s& f lma

Ae fa ittmSn e Ot SIuniii (te s rm e*L M Hm Inut ft

74"., *e~g ei p ~ s baWsB M* a ft| IfSt o1 "dag 00

ohnm 4ltis matnS. is .esng. ia Is* jMt efl aem l of sti

nm .lsttikees, te& AeeS Va fat S of pis ea! the Seared

twtGo, aed the awOst4t emwOeaI ,wtMt Safl MkW i tie SMth

of h~bviat petptaet"ae at tfo" eau1hAlb.

TVh **s A ewme d tpe of e Aei*ll to tat noseed by

tnve"t eoase. Mnvieoma Inso We the d4~ e4 ibsl tihMbiftS

ef 5l Ii T t mf ha aftie tu, eauldt din of aole atMSti. The

Istmd liM i n a mob fteqmsntd pa1k of tleml4 temMfL *ad it hae

ta:t tel eftse r my. i"ee as smly Milre duirts the

sith of AmuMst, bfs o Omd Oneirrw. jinae 1878 the.e bve

of Isha SleI, dt isU eully Se sIpensenm son tbea I mesn t
Wkib se-m 6omnt oe1aslelly. Tftem She tt6sftee yfun e.
S--ma ewma SWet a $eins Maht pIu fp Tiamw iIete $um W

9b.4 am aa to 19a. a. b.54 ".55 i~ 1P13. n%% pan96 diti

me bheus b" sedhaiR darttems oif tm IAN r aft S m 9s e

engoAp. b a pipantol W*a lent ass"ems aI tme i
Altshah girel 'u Htwa cthmilr fwap in thie fnlei aeir seiylt-

"moh. fmlm", smo Si SfeMbsv mi twoa" adn MU S woo""
* 0u66d t fa -opm as oat am*4 a Imu asAN bhe I "ama&A

p10b1 m- phoesmp.
W^^^^IA rr W JLURXCR&1 W 4fpX* C B -^imWu--

A detailed m4edy of sth meilw tas do Ile flmep Is yet to

be ade. The snly sMk of MWy flue e$ bee a beWt somi le

dee. in 19I5.3 k This vsemAtMmes elom&Eft4 tie 4t*1 aserlive

to anltes ad O0fl and was pa*1 em'rallMS m Alth

lnmetLUemally reegatjnsd Jo ups.

Theb a eenm baets a*il4 gIrm" an tboe i6nd. Tbie o*f

these ae fatmliev kf*ik my be fomd aimIs" she Atlante eateal

PlAin of ebh Uited States; tese M r thew erfts"e ther .eiltns,

ad tihe Mraemms. so feoth Sf mlly, bmse t8 s ift mheEMB is

6bmUsseseletl eMlly of gae.

The Refoelk Atsly, 4 tNca etof te y3Tll l pedT *eil

IseJe, O**epU s the lTma mie of miy eiLttl ftawka e tMp a Sk

It iea ea4deal mlt y,low in fdiutLLty, eAu.ip b liy 4arml4,

aed sMweegly aeid in SMeetiem. It Ih bt il LMd I~ alft -a tm

beest plain. The ILte *f Ptse aiMmt. ets friable sto le4 is

tebu Md O e ur l beI61 ape S lki*e *me to ee jdm of j an

-a mbe pesity of e1e 0el16 be1t" amd emw ar ai, beta.

wtaji meewtelly dweKd, aIsJhiuSg t siA n k O S Otdi msearM' bkw

bat ideUae Uppeesamty t m"beiYp.

Thoe nwo f ew seek of aInmkl setl ** ae $Ct. L it: the

bmao* son be., m e t Awtma, the L. beni, awd hs Wblfta.

40e it. moo dio aS b tt t. tAa.i, Jn s At AM
Tgagpei Nie 1a1 1Amono N I4T7

I" usa1, bi 8m lue. it iNSi &f n* *E, aemis

-9*tnM L aN "Oft Of (p lMMt M& ftOidi"hDglia 4t

I"Ms -Ii"r Uaall ei e. niesP "a vM IM I i Im aSs emop.. 0ISs
jtawim he Pt-a*t AE:1 mt at S iitn*'s *eal amr

aow a*^ac atl a1,1oP

6 Th4 S Sb 1t *t5aA te t.a iaeat teo So tS mlmg

l48* ~me ao aW ea *4m M I wft l0alasf th *sets

-l owy smf^is l b ia moiri:IM -i fll: ai &6M RfS f 1 0=e

aMogik I'k s I CrrklgJe 'al la algle r $11gagg ^^^^dlL^(Igg ^^KSliLJ esIIIhwI^ aq4k lgan

hgami ftm w1at A B .liAmmil rlt A tt

n1kt *Ia issi #ao
jb aa ee he eOuf WA at a. m- al0ge 60 a nmmw tefann

ties f damedma i*No "MN xb"^ Askent opowility nw". NY so
ettmen^^ki^^'^DI .i" tou e oAme B e ft Ls 06*0 VMS"n illolmt"tf
a Ia too ea game old" f. 06AWd Uw SlS.

40Mp. s. s m m- am : e| aAsa
-610im.6assa h a. fta rll ottft i-' *4-**o** 1*0
to^ anagee^Aj. e| agendless an ase a^j^j~^ ^__ ag |^fat|ia

14. 6a S l tiwf Val ma. $Mil
Feed BAuJmmlry 106. t0~$e ?im.

P.,W 1.-*a1t mni lteW tat

aseuai, tE nim iiinin ma IM iar s igisr *b ia n A
aSwe ft m 4 n4V^iO wit S00"1 fl4 009 S

a s 40. AWth0g tl nnAEW pIBMM 0s I' 18g0f *A
...l .. .. Ai-i if liWM i.

4*tu1 bo fl ., a 1 .i tn1 1 j
IMa~nilen~~trl :a II 1111- :M Iare bMIt-ai goe e

alt ag.t4glt asia pLj a4 ao smar sennei and ao
.er meausat se L h S fl if 3u Is
r -r fl fl. .am. .a .. M sews a

fl in n Sme S Sflj fl4 a diss yesHI n
"40te sawM ft pop: sefts loan SS 1.

S SflA. U 00 1 3L 440 MS

genem ea hi m en Sm cm fan in. -wins
ia a": m aw Prsof flS "d nA

$ i.. BN a -qua 1$vib mmm" Is om A"

ows eSly a cseet ASse bkme ekte mw IlW 4do ts (1 b fl I Me)
vas flqS. dir piagmnrl an A1rWa had be a seamS 61
Iteo A&Sm4, .m 'M
-ug s a mItets aa ilr "gdoIiag bL oa ai ie w is

JYII ateamm:s *Opuw I"IlgA~ Irm we1m@ bow "ik to, be
o ait4 514 S 3S ~I. U l gS S eSkmik 1gS
es..nstssm m pMbes ** ik u$ a t .Mw' as
emdeet M a SaMoe eMl nla gaesum o *me as aWw n
an4 efail HsawMela SiYag esr ldW glek S gemei s ellne .gmI.

Lers, diA rt l* lerly tfl if the mmgit sariitya, fit Jlll Mamrm
Lvvbwmy we" felr&BA wMif ps qathtlity dl 4agACli% the
stf~r, but te y lid to Ad% is le A d t loUa* th* d pm8 O
seXidof 00 00m0901 lo ote gtms. amS 0114e "H W""time $AeM$
tio *4 of the aMA ss Ia mo M Sfal

* flupflil SkitiB, l eMtu bsp a ftle ajg *i y
*ieat I1Tsr a.rn o m llgg a SiAw asN As Lai* ad
we" opmknts es a is

a r lilt r 1S0la 11 Slibok eIg i wisll S o Sa
- 4 nMIMI

gg smoim Inelp Anehts.a f eof agAStteeas 4ISb

of eA Wsiss iUM ass0 0s. a 4u laWan a, m
i046 a M elm 6a o AM er M an I 4 a z -oi

Mr bn n a amn la AaM m .0da IS&My


attly wSata l ait*ah SIt Il l II t tIS aUt h*a
w*a adw*- ene a...M ai a-T,- ei a a a i..

ane pwm a shaun sau" lwenao pmsaaa6 ntns news pmoelly
flt iMts MWti IS AWiMeali:i kIMfk Mflki U Sft
emoarr Athie hM INmoe fi k 0ll:k Im j|i"Lgp a Cfmnil-M& Aral
6U dmm n--.Lb: APIMA-1011 to1110116411l s *A ; ilt& 40. 4 me ***a m*t

s mtieM, 1a fl! r i.
iONumi t aft a i 4 mmillNM fm & iM at si a sw- ml

a4 Asjst" bad as G. a 3 bf s Iea. ft
9Se t- rit i e g Otl & il li il V p -* a M pib at U el 04do
*W a am ing **aff d as AM: 00 *ma8 g 0006- 114 WgMM
...m .... .Ains .sm a. su.,. .

A4nah ae. 7.1s.
in' mdma,, 3Ku 4a4b oi | t e

saimrb iMi Kirr Smt k,
*Yl..r~p.. -H-pl **-y W K

aI&. in~i~rb. s :'gle--T f- w I"r a III

a ft ni sete m a aw 0ggmeOl S 0 Agm iGMne
Aftn as SMU. AUMW aP ages eniG a W

os Af so VmI* n o .* IfhW4
*ad' i nnse a* ap pu a niiuga, 0#0i a

thalt69 g Abi apbiem -M aS.Oai daIt iHim md

naot> ease to a %A.mW tn 4 awes ont: SIM ft mom& w -t

slow I1ftlll pki III9 soI IlHII i fllMM|lk *IYKSlllH I"a-*A rO
o# am AM a.. Saw ame *a ean am a2e

OMb- mwb 1it s -v~ -il
asIAs ee ma n
e -------- a we

uMts, ease no a a a

rFIs. 9..* *S mM Ir A~m &ul w

.Sb bs

*uafl0mNDA" ms t-he L mms 0e adt: e: 9tf tEe). tihe st *'SKIM
0t "Say IeS b OWe isAM ae JlejA 4oie et
of wgo at aomt mibes 144,a6 i1nhSitfag a"" me,

Ova" *WS am- W MAA
aar s atWI, Wt we OaN -OM 4ae
thf. Ihbhohft thi Ub
i1 fl0 tet tQmM Smb us, fl

M MOMS 6up &s higgal AM 90 M&, bUPtttu p Ck e
'bilk". ol ft mavabow, A-ilbasS mfl| am pommunt.

a&d 4NO am NS n .. m.. MW sl%" b&um. .o*.o
etIn aftmpt tA Y blrle IB. asoi**i 'Any anlf eoiMi en a.ll

ek I*Mew A" bi aft7 AM S eIUMt N tOWM P Ih St&14

A"eMM bt mm. : i M LA the iha A SirIA

F e9 *r .i-en r I 1 at 1WiAL f4 Onnegfli
Ih iSS rAW avow 4e a %I*tiflll "ea IA as py ftlW W

boao m Iisn saagumnta. tile Sn pmm

aet mm^ns &semsin pollusf l .9 pme, ofpspOuh is the too&
1s stes ad 1Lb p4t&aMeJ, U~ boo abe tog .&O as teM
baIsu ih Iitftel is to 4asimaoe syr ONa & na iufto tn
Seaso nmo Is tofno ga"It. wAM places a twa beoo pbsd
a m0en16d ish Utfl, 11 8o tu p Lkb SA Sitfr We# a$f s

ty eI i*Efuc. 10100i0006m a li LOl mow ai Ml ragap.m btea i
Nae easse a0d qs0a It.

In gfmet a INMAN& semAstm tA peah4As go,
-na 0S the pausat aG t6q14wse* ha Ow "t emasn -am*

o*I ta Sctad tfOles. MaAfw pmNO Lu. Ni 00 S s*if SeVe *MeI
flin*Med with vwias.0 saAt em aaum&1 pt he

p Vma ey, maImm, aswO 9"* WO so lSmaeP, isn fako le"40
# thi to" ag a wm law udhas soSwp % sa r"$s We 9gen at 910 l ,u 1b10g, fme Uet adu
CGaSft.w tj, aeaUib -M J. AMliA. At tte "m I fi S!

sammar Mom gifteo. a loaf', Aft"JH^ *a* I*"md 44saf d" ibart

6esa is Ow "t"e at*esq sta, agew sun A" em ptta s h

*a" asent Poom

kthe m do 1 gO -e S RM $
bkWa mOftitlW 1 OIS 0i ih AUS W, *A@"l S" fta m $4ft u A

IMe b Lae on senss see **** seas namester .aSee as
- -%Sa aw aus as t01. No s wis na *wpos
dkA,&4 krrrAri^ -^ L -" i fc. r^^j lt.l^ wfllR Jb l 1 Ja m b" Ja" fw w M

altaraed by the WWW" eotm ft a MlA& seai. mI.' ---, asMRt

* m alpw ainLMp tI* $A aMl as g it W*e s semds of

stalk a.m. mea a Shill oft e Ae9 e00"p Sb *w ei*
i li:Wir n6, Siri ~ V>l- 1 &Mftk Vkt %*MUlA t1,B

P nas aslo &eli "A 3 ,a Fmft
lte selew6ee an msi lhmkI ew ,u&a id eab Se be Wi- w OUap
6s Mti4y aeaMeftea by S dmes tslha faWS. Is rh peat
4b4e6 *we twoas of e6e0eM0t s --ee-ea Am 0plae Thead
tames oft an 4 a D an a ms at, gamMs ai OW amw173.
wjftj Mll i t. Tkhe het !wfelt! lit i et 4n M beael thie

afMll a Op ea it iLU N of the 4I4e. IafeewP peoset

am -^ a puag agwe w~Mim." eU e@4 q sl tt. VA fWea

ei f0 wasn sai ii o a eaneitems e6

seea tas ea iem.7 aseo ter we asemS ue en eamrn
E Mlamta I nm s ge ft te sl ka"le earene liffls s iesm, s

.a Mesa. .. I.n s a 9a sen eb a. -.. "s...
7nMW a.s aen, a n nA~ mee mm
7ag XS.e wk -d Is
^__.I -^-- ----- A w l- | --ow j6M_ ,- ^|
11*1~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ i *M M lil uuj"Il&JI"iW l~k^~t~, &^rk*~.IA^lb

evr 19,me9 Mgne eMf pkSM kes, M*C lmes m h O4 cet uminMMAq

free a nll W ----- n p~lelmem .

>K.^ mi ,,^ i j ll(Ir It] l.w a^ & j C k
IeM #6SyA SSiL m, SP g frme o

TI am St* the ira Aml. Mrbi PmIlry tom be iN e llh ellMl rT

?day tbhe Smmis #4 V* ik4 hli hed 4 t5t0 IIa 1* the M

a., l ^sun e iin Now a SsM sleah oi W VljllMj4i of mM. WlAA0

h1e aN bkow ,ly 11 0smd t fl9.00, o* sw phIMgn el 0
eda ase W8 InP MaINA, a.- weesnswal vmacadBe is lbaes w

bme walla smal mj -I aw i llugeItt, tl-. ll e

S .. . ,, ..... ..i.
h am aI a eMaetl w bA.e- a. *mis $ tedma tee*ly is ah,

aeMr *Of 0 MA5. fty 06 C bU fAl, fta u gm 0y o Ohs

dummi s 0n4P- *y SWA6 tt i lilmr ~s ammed as gi f

UeEmftl AGM so. IIIa **n o mu %

IE- No ftwwe 'ilNP *eMmPt fbwM~ 4ee o asM "SofMt

#9 b t fA "*oft& Ift 614H a# tno" 0m304a

In Jkot gel 99%ej^ e Wagab i j jtAj etB t (sandbe 3 1ae

fam ba bela me urn 1 u mlw. tIe na 0am1 at &1ge iwee
nmuw^pew jw wA&:MP 2,1fi0 luapim *W* 4W MAPIMOWys 6M-lOWO
H efs '-e4s'. e aL. Na o" aN a es
stak a* S be at"& a* as. le6A booed ba SaClty
ofee bmn te4 USa E $.bq ,. u, flS. II m ed I.*,

t .eB aem, iSbe-' -L^. hw sI, rLs H B' roun .Mia,
sIt* ItES, fl fl f, t -- elt Oft m t h1
dfy Wie j r & at AaLilL s tgli s- t Age ON y.,,; -ty
bunes tit ami aftwe eq as e SsmL 1fl at, s, g
bI m"ai", tim i .LIm "m a, II a: Ol l k kl eao dmws
embsm fl 5M I m b* 6d Upalem oaf

felom oef fwlt. r tesv a momusas ,leenWe

ASem oe ta i S S die e t joeS 4 a pnrsanW.
0 temem-sab e"saps Ot wa w 61 so Orats".

*ast gosamen a" ta wa 0** 'Wis: 9 tw* atEia 40 Onomm" e]Mha mess.
vim"q nxqg 68 6 hmmis Ms M~ ft id. mat umgnal
So ben Sma sa .ii m. .... em.i.n. ..i.eiea,

**.... S I.. S fyl.. S. S 'i..0..tLI. Ill d I*il 1M: 0P-
tr42l6 MW al"iN 1A 1400 1. 1M I" r *

tiiAf ftaR k 910 nAwm Aft of vim": it is,""

at m)wLegs of tmptst 4 IeiMsa. CtwLWt Ly th fml bIjlill

aSd tab a Maa miNm n9gmees&N *Itfb newy minIaM aOW ple laom,

roentiswily, sm* anANls a et m foothel. a o tbh iea. WHetg

thef eletal pwted t6l iLl]ad a*e4, ,w I tC00, a see oelt ttlam

cesteoe Am to spot f ~ elm jea do wm as b ~bll i A 0L*h.

Today be isqumagfle ai a babgly emeSIb a Mlt p*S g W07 ll

Shet Ltad a. %W esultl emSa, a" a ia "aier omfp. Wt a"

raBtly esM or felt on ths iiftile pIle b6OM the qnaaIIIIl

dm mg "d eom umoe m wea me* pewudmfas sas ii

sinttatbl* h* betr pwepfla M.

3h M4 of pie imo a Am mMnd flet pviaBs SilstiiM t y

nSiral bilts snt rtIs aiUtly f(rm tea iOn. SI emally

she Aa04 fo iAAed am nte ~ a as lM b~m tlat A

swam this amemly bas--toe I. rMsOw lU.ati.Uly. Ioth oa c9bS

sm*p 4 a plan 146 1mSet by m f &**N *ep mabt tom 6 n ow IS I S

a obM lMuGmNi plaei b'MpqS d iB a no6 emSNt A9,. Sad& 4t

Liaw & $WntUtty a- te* aWtrnM gMsiaa Ni Ae0s4 NUMNf aI

~abmpn sem e&I e tSeo 4amb in smeow tpev iLm en Ommes6ee so
a" SMit a lA" % l hfB W&* w l e Ob m *7 Ie &med
& ~ ~ ~ iil r^^g^j j^^^^^^^^^ AJ^kk ^^^^^&J&. ^ lfkJ. d^^^^^_~i~ l.hiiB .^^J~lk.^& dL^^^ril~b^b^ rlifcAl

^^Jl^l^ l^^^ft Ji^^JHrj^^^ ~r1Y~ ^^^^^H^^^^ r.S^ J~ ^^l^ jl^^^^^ i^^^^^^^^^^^^^A J^^bi^^^h~


aylyw Lt r it e
MitteLi l4 is ame1Y If Mll at ie gna pa iA l
Un14 m InsleU at t h boao a" Zsoa *I g th-eMft.

It Is les Ilo thew tie1d fis llsl Sld m-rae by ak o me *gia asl

l to a Aim. OR M. en. mA, a e
ij -bp teof 4mesiaw dga d nI6 *ise a by the

.e o onet.amp. l s No llSha b a soeef 09gi

miaed tMs H itttr -Ml *. ,a ama -

a*ft., lt),. ,. K

So toe CiameMy pele of e iSRim ,o.2 The gibar y, -n od se

lwom aie osnd *II t .he e tlIimAa sie, ,delm 6* lived is

ewam aem abs *shim, efp ally I F the ae, aal a Mt mly

nc9ty4d wihfshtilahg.

The ledih 414 a eeuervi lto ,,'er th t a animil, ntwi .

By SIM se mantle is *ii of Il ofi thhen hdiatg. Lem1 l adi
hak it thate a te ame I uppe eas ted fnSo Nlb. maiut Atd "eh O,

tb IndlAe we r passed to tb gwe atb d tl. te*t, juim t mhe

serth bof l, lmp eaa Me filI hm ea ses s ee is gee g e
a Tait IsiAal (the isdaM). Loal1 fejtO"" h"I it ithe ths

1NdSm am pWusv iW thiMB, itA Mly NeP" enA ae IaNde AM*R

* Jiaifiesot ian le*t MaSC1 eaOl fnlepnit OW ft M tl4.

vs Ies of Sines ma asoefh the atnea tm *I anW,

14H, hrieg the Seed wflay 6 e44 bi *s a. SWw Wm U. AS M

wa5 epc" sleag a"s smnhem 0a of eO ,b ha sew S %me apag m

Swe. Ui5aefa t loas Ulm sI may 4)mIKd sw e41 S bs a4b. he

s ahmeida ;e won eE an apy *&mi.. it Lb ent #WB

he SewMd sonm *ad aamg ~pas mlg -v, on a h Wipatw-

*AWAlL^ aj pykj a iw f I 4 .illllliin *Ia piJt if lr r ii Iff
------- imrR rfS-w ^ i--r --- iR iW I- I p-- ----- ----- JijMW

Maim Ti angeigi, *1 fl Wmfl W -

80 e ii Ush etSo a6 Se 919
on o": Ask^^ct b mw~wg Oflva"L 446rw..t tdt i bmAiAd^ib*
^a ^^~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~- O^^ ^ A ^ h | ^ k ~ t| i ^ ^ ^ I ^ ^ ^ i ^ : ^ ^ ^ y ^ ^ A O .rj ^ t r l A $ ^ f O k ^ wi "
OdOO VA^^^ft #9l~^ :Wftl^P SOW*,F 41 MI^P4^.^^B'*^^* ^^yy ^pf^ f|

ISUft iSe of the mIl.ii AMfte 0 *Steu Mi6 *iM tbe w
adlo a ste .leeiLs Kir v ~y ofJ ser me atos s M & en a& .r i
emhfL* owes "a, -iems eNw me"" amm eep seh of nm&,
ula ho LNt et 6amg o ItseUt.4
aiSW elev*U 4e *A he W .me" it *vSamps.*%e. TiI
nl alue affixed bUeN*l 0. tof ppoMoa & $ a g MelM e4 e eund*e
mlen Imq on met, as b* 4t h 4 m a- Mased vegpmg. 5

Ito -i a q~rmi4& Al lilse1et sUl6 It ealf mialas6 w se
erNliaM dbftse *s tW aaNW Od UkS, dn4 wO n mrM lbInd by
iiE aof IlA d4 t (fM e4 O PAOa), b *ub ISu r El eiasmIa e
usilsie 13y.
Bwift tme ewty psa g el tih te apmthS IEnqemi ef te,
1111011t fl 1IA MW 4INd ':" i 1* w1h 7l,07, the%
t 1#i mdivd eOf IW* al"6 e Vts ISo fl flmo* t wa Le

MeaA tes l ei"bO e #" i l0t is* b". inae, e" lsl1I
tlmtel id bL RS* bWIbi. idh ml m oSDI# f lr 0r deo to silla it.
4A sO I00 04 NAft" b t wi -ely ni empte6eod d pitOst &A ies
ImSna is 4*4 am 1pp9f S Jmetauitsig ad oe, an4" afmfitbb asn.
MadAS. sass h n aaeR@ fMl MjS tinot ia leftda eas edI
e. h4!s Ma1e4sy w ettne be th-ef amd s mesae

n u &tget. b AHS b o. 7.

(n, 55) = -p7.

06..m ale 40 M, am*

mmeh ore satractw .a r J lelaia& ioea thLm Gube; this ws rempeosible

for t1e extremely slow growth of Cuba's blemish pwplAtioa. Ta 1537

ther Wms oaly thae hIa*R41 IpeMt s, fi heMded L*rvee, and

appee&mii ly five tebheuoe IndeaE is eba. 7 IAs ato* u. a

Ompla taply of ood land ia euba ur s ewILble fr the

eolental rgovnimet oee wgeat, it We soet unail 1572 tbst phe Lead

of the Isle of liee boseamb rivaely iemid psQl ty.8

During the sinSeebh eoteay, as teb grip eol ain tifhtmed

on hr poseesLone is the Am World, GeEral ~~eaiM IWMkh

Anerica, gallwee ladge yifh 1e q uaiptm CI of gold, aillrv, med

precies stors lfAMs to mes: teMtr r tsla. As oefly as 1533 PfLeat

privafeers cemo ed iLtenapt ag l Spial Ak s e a nd teMy e n use

joined by Iritiat rad )cael reqiror; e ethem tbhe the tok a

bhevy eoll -em Symltsk obippie. The peMitab quietly walit-d theft

if they wen to ae tliMn esri"nia oueI Alualkti l erge bepW e the

nMr Iorld a ani sio, Mthy wurld biww to id: a m t UI gotect their

shbp foe at teae. LMaxe my~es of the 1 fll es. uer orgonie

whiek e t elled bo tme Ha*mta -ind lrwilla, li avlmr 0a p n Mw tee

of Spatial f&Val viMele. The *lt that tbhe. tweass? e lAd

ilKMes oew to e te:llnt i MAfIm f Sq trip hcWy IMn tiblt the

bedt ew eesiey Nao piae WEA o*f *AtRa dft llt*l I mea wrl n

tnfallU ftalm Ce ElCm on of t OtI A btiu I an Goiteal Awm yUn,

7bdvi IRa ai I (h* tsb s, lMi), p. LA5.

"hot f.tO AiHJaSgi I Jf| (O1 Tewtk 3wm"Llad,
1914), P. A1.

eo lletes parts te RiCfts.

The mAjority et iraish *ihlppi in Lta SarMil h ieNVEaly

fumelledl throsgH the tirt4s of metancY in abs joumeal to mpIwsm.

t to FthlS fet IMt Islea el 9fml, lyt0le j*SLt sIwmitb of Cius,

ba ome elmltnt to ILk pgiM Ube opnerlLtd alous ik shifppr .

lawsm; a Cip lre6:tg ebb Isle *tf Fise. as. ily one or two stllSf

ldays 4dnLat Icel es lbM p ly tswllehd StS Lts of Ifestef. Furthler-

man, a wek'd jeouemy c A that be piitwe sa44 to lwek VTOn

Cwe, giAmpcis, or tjille, ptw ea te eawatn lr t bim tlht ballim

was a-11eetfta fr w mment to It me and ween"lly te |pati.

fartiag te asee.* btl eof beZ slaskt h seminary pAcent etoeo

Mb ohert atoepe t ma island, ia iaUl lueledia for a eo t or re-

Cfttti *tttcion, stles it u i a*atmly plopultead &ad f ftwi

Spantoih euri illiam. TIes wosi me owme Vsaki the t isnd

de6ig to S6aitlise and IneismlELh eimturltS but the eM Seiwr

of lUe poeplatiein wa s Iemi, e4ft up as it "a0 Ot afsusglaws who ibed

maiee bait WO Satb tSitt sbip ard dpafrt, 6lhgssa hrow Wracted

mh4ps, SagtM conviuets heI 0b0, aM 6ts4tive mpgse slaves. the

Laens, e 4led sAstE by tle Spme h or "meenas" by the lifUtls,

nwe*d ftoe Spauint a6ttlmeti ta e96s. rliahy, ft Ms we "ase

M4e, as pmAetulmet, hMl ehM "waewme," that i1, had been pet
hi es tCe fad r 0t51efl e .Mre i df le. a1 f msg tl8he ems..

flh teler0 41elgaM 00abiy tetk gdso tm a eSw wo te

hnam d OSe mif o.at6 t n *tag I ma m bagg L l r I agst

wey =a *=t ivimmA. tiey 68mad oe th ei aWtahA bt $ie,

*04 esimIsnese *4 she ewemiiead II sawilJ 8a>atiL a, set i

avd provide mdSt for Spanish shipe theL algt step tb rt t o ke ak an

peovisto a.

Iuriun tshe istaieth sntury the pinrae 0m 1 d CtAe 4ebRt.r

island, but teOrd the eloe of the ceatury themy cemmsemastd he:ir

actirittl.s seuth of Lanier tMin. liet abt4y Somnd A kart btrtmltius

cotiuation of wgeogtphic aiomeausemi CftiL a*k it Ill neLttd te

be uSd as a base o* ooperm tGmi. ThEws mlnu offso.Ie ban r wui h

bleeked tkh lag.eom. loag its slerr to the da*p Ipiaish Matl?

abips, but allowed the shallow draft "flybeate" of the pirates Oo

eater. Thl se lanes wri elm* by, *ktiig it pmsitblq for til

Small cousairs to hfasmet quick attfaks ea lhipplii and to risemi to

the safety of the ebove bhlAs the bLttser t*rl*d pliteilh aiitp idld

reach them. Furt-mmre, their pMwitias lnt fl tt~~ t ly tarlvIrt.

to atta ek by lIad free the north, atise Iamiqty bfi mpl d a A*

peaserable jumhlb epmnteed their bases two amb amntbem phate.

In addition to pirate ItivLities, tihe Stitbbe beedi tie

eermw of usemi Amble seeotaea lltrade, dIreri the seeiau~n trLb ne y.

The W*s baGsfnIflteaetwr in l*tills, # the I||i|M II*gemy 4100110r4ed

to soteeiol eeameas with tbi ISaiti Sw I Ield, lwtrmtly lmS*ild

eesMate eskptp t f the Spea2ei6 sol0ele aM0Ie of ilak msm-

tilsit polAe. aSftatve utis wtre e*i*d as "O ssi

eery 4*tnrL me b oi SEtr caeleel60 s tu I WO tbeusmh sis 0E0r

do cme"e teesen.

Tf *tasul!a h be"s. s tetlmfll16 oe tm ewiS e ls

In Gi lat 4&&, Motbh, 6 as nt uai eta al e to

thtr lmemwntus, veu. bJi tI trry i a & bls|EMl illieic tnfEic

to aem u4bsd4e wLSb thkm Wot IF ths flteAS vpvqvnwA did

amwsbift wtshE tL LpeeO a.t pms re tE* ~i ., labk u4Ired

Lthe VfnO* eof IM Canm. Cf:W it e ii Mflen ly Lt3iieLt to

rpNMOM. Thu seeats of *bir:, sad lor Eht miat of IW Set.n

ceatimandut of Aumh fiWler~ we e lg to be 0 ea 1106L by hbe

*senfi Wisy. Al*e nps eE of snoeWtedA head.-Rs m Stelt

hIbeIt tf the etitMuy of: E* #SMh aeloel *oSkls,, wkni

awai auafliIat bwQ*, tiel.aSed, ian *e*fr a"rnionk the trale t c.

Ao as.m elhW.e eiB0S01d paet1$elly leWas ae geouitlem

abs of Ou bte t0t MW Of A04 W P Jul O ppaeMt oa bO "r the

OM*bytimf of itk i# Ati. Vt o .Feau wamdily ttu Wiege

Jmiuea ~il1 as bbe tsitjIp. bvt *mea hlIewoll, weS JaMgda

beeM tvim eSMer of ilo pl anIera in she Caibbeimi, the IW e of

Mte. sties d to beld A p oiasnt pelit ia ltf e sfte. lftay

phtps vumbed &eIg tig aoetibie she.e of M aLad ie the eewAsibtk

century, #amI 6felq ANTy 0 A* q *if, oef*u lejais fo r masy BmaBe:..

16U tihisatida 1SLe ils Mat lee the 1ennhfbflitte*k tto mtneaM

betrftesw-aid tiAebt*

in Us saeshime 00 ptheU ifL tmtLmne tA vat smtd. Thubw

*AM 4 o4ft i l grcp vMmb pedra46*fH Ur AtM timicr beas of

*ef &leM thefta, at Mtbh by emt t as a.ft sptm m W Wet On
, .... . ". . . .. ""- ....._.^.... _..... ..
a. L r4.. Jia i Abmft MMa (bfw tbk:
a Wlf~fm~,yOrs
 aid Tortuft. Ift~ia the sevenmtent eetary am illuueried

pintee clhemeA to -ea the islod. In 169P Cenealius "keg-l" Jols,

a fameme buth seefeair, spiea the JuiaW 14eI the sn t ura obeea,

and in 1668 Iemy migsm, phebobly the amt ftema p4ts tSe ""il

the awLbbesu, urnd she ieled lM lremeh his psmeesiul eatlf

aliMst ph fte Plai4a, in Ot. 16

Today thAJs sett: of t~i UelaM s haMs ai l Mcovs whisjk

bear mnae lives to SIMI drltn tWie ae. Thets if a t.J hd6 p"

torie (PnFtomry see), fletso del Stable (belil ean), nAd Gflisa k dB

AugeStia Jol (Aeigetif Jol beve), irmel 6Iotr 4 relldiea eof G halls

Jol. Othet manI are beIlgu tl Teoere (TnemMI LIWag ) and Se

salt mars s named s@ta~i andl Numer ar. It IHa beim t si thtt

dbaert Louia Stnavees see the locAle of his boek "towasmle Wted"

on the iLasl; hMeMvur, tMs. 4ss sewiupl Otatr i4alMds La rieus

prer. of lbs worl wSlhl *1i cl0ip bit Ciabinws basr.

In the eighteidmh asmeawsLy e a ub t GCefttc of aet flLt of iftee

eaotiamed eo be a lair for mUll*eall i pirate* ad mnlnbLums, litemlI

they wew at te .eW oet aL tarM thm i tbe i peedm mIi.P hers Im

beWsA. I e4ditife a t ? b*ib S aMilel *igA eWitlee, sWe efeiviy

mue added early i the atSuty. Jsadimar and eam TiUloS

began. to fell the l[s8" eafelt .Lof uhm y a a"S aW tEIn whisk gtew

pea l6 a tl7y -o qs lteAmsinmm pl, bloW 00 th s eemi s't e Whip

be ms tumagmeet hee th e see 1e6 .e 4a4 W" of is

tl90bBe h 1# Nls p.uag M a th ha k SAM 1 b *11
(aldeid, Uilly It411*$L- ) LOS), V. 41.

6wsemblhy Seoed its waj to bgltand. I*n keat, it so H be tt that

the ktitish wem driving a bihLgr profit from b) ilblegl epiati-

tatian of the stiUOr nunage s of aba islaMd bs thabe Spealk Wine

gplaig6 from their unmelie o eke sbebiLta Sid of Mi e ISlAnd. Paftbr-

me.e, thi activittee of those sdmeeakrn f J LaMs .adt the OS-yn

Izlleks wVa not emati ed to Ivg4egel li UWii taEW e els ed In

posekita g8ptem a"d Ueibill seftles *bat wea no*4 &Lqg the

huees of the Idied.

At the olpenma of the niiusemfeh eottny the mltfe 1sl4 of

Pimes as uarew the -Way eof p trae and eomaiger kanmme s el*I

il1lewquin. if ami hs ea sea eitM d reLeMav l n eel*ty fr LMir

eauseiei acttAkS a tias easmet Ses *hipfat. rattlr the l Spye

May wsq et le su pb.l t emo 1Jom de*ling In amatiwed.

Theiff tteek *ae *hiyd* piag e.'asuilly bumehbt their fad.

Is 1&8 6bty se* pafiiue by Ie )lnu lb iMti-e 'f n up tM Sa ns

ierx on the untemunaes i14d of ats Wle of Ptna.. Tf7e iglith

d"pleewed a paity *& am fem t~Lt sb&l a" esiSlaelrely amaevns-

e.l t4 ab &msa e pibatl S g tLledng f 1.1

ThAt SaVAiflbS IFSW 6 t AO d &LAUMtoAM on She Ile of flwes

after ueeuwias of n eU Tg W iAsh., after tne battle, m. iSLed

the ipfteh mIa901sm1t 4 a IL it pmlqW stisE S e0s9ttisA the |l *fi

notw to e Wautel to t4 tb latir ed *4i fitM 4 hu b4rml trrp Walt

tal ia i it I at-s atiith ta,,o and lmr ist a th0 Laow"4 oemaft

.M.nw v., nn .ai/, t .. .1. I (L .m..a ,
aae ",tWra .,," 1), .S~~--

This ultimcatm, am n otLher eaOmmu pary oev mn, im aed the

Spanish govrrmNt to aend a military fboir to the iLlasd. The

arrival of this detasebmmt in 1828 brought to a close the oaeturis

of piLwte activity, *ad the islad aehievd a stability uhlho it had

never erpricaed prtviou ly.

Throughout the rsLmiden of the niateomth ea tuty, the

South CGast, whisk lad u ver bkma offeiially e plterd, sinml d to

be igaoaed. Althogh it bid paeeed into print dremia early in the

vaftvtuath century, it Marely uo naoeemieally wepleited by Any

eonr. Titles uMtn paesn d on by inhritanse 6r aold, but fow

owmers dimd it of seht value &A to awrrant devellpfet. IWa

after* the lalesms leomew had boon semvd, it lagulened in virtually

the same state that it kad empwiseued in theI pro-Columbian ported.

The only legitie ste seram i activity in the *aas ue obeasml

mling and the being of poles to be used as tobeese Peas is lCa e.

foe rpplel resided thews pelalmntly, and these rs did wae Mfinly

Cay m Is lenders. These people meined a prteorioue snAteufe from

fishie or euttinug wed. The aMerieou vilits by Jftslesm e -a*

Ca unR Islandrs, who nsetim ae yeac4hi g turtle mnd sattlig S*laniMb

timber, pa oissis throuef3lt wbo century, thegh in a nank mf

mdtu fi.d seals ban previously.

Ietla ALf e ud ry: Tl barh 64em
the eLkteosl hlt6ry of the Bkofh Gfs bittt 1*tl6 a*fakfbaty

to utp asmatle kads y e. of5 s ef st e t. Alabume $ pnieaikalty

it 1a bwe e Alm-satd by thi flkaf e eligt tibt 1H2r1iime sChe

m hebi Bleete of tbh iAlled, lAt On e eql i ly la0t1e d to 6
ftte* of deaed .me da4eypee, ipmead by the ee4danm

pgyvegma"R in 5.60k.

fT4 antei*e Miland Wse Weft" ed a ig 1572 ts Aou10
hA 1aja4, A k W i if 6 LMtk la.d a ll1 InML M1,t I MA Mi.. Little

aetti;e.lmn w p i to it daritg this peiaed, and it it eat Ihaem

Aent 1ej8e &a 1 ts peeperly welbic ess to a vitt.
te t14 SMMI *um breo raiwres toel Its m a h ew PSue after

Rojefi mertiL it, Uer to 1t07 em veiim ie gs t tof

out iLe islaml to Im uIr pvenmnst linbelMer s t lag ta Ranwem,

n.. as nasse.

hutitq ae fimal ai6L od the ataiiftb ofrteCy the mpnsk

Iuair#rm Veugim a ftot i W p tIh ptNA h visiatd SeM Xte
.e fai bMHd lneu taehts IIatewS E. The $pi es -n ai island ue

ideftly etIa NL tas .i1' ea%. IAltefr psa's8 leatl mmn o mwed

Lr e*fgld' ie0 e ekieSAd thee, bersse of t stdllt fin

P tl.g, oigdm taee a'tagled to ie Ie nerirriam fl asA t* ali

ImeatpoImat to 4 -Seame eto tfer & da s wb ated. A fiutmwl*
-fiaHt V" AIiftClly mioitid, bIt tM iti 'fllleaii iLI lf el'g

ts utsueil mae agible n-aketa a r -ciiu a sta *Id Sig
t.o *iw a mestNa 11 aO ea s a UC 0 8 of
lo Ime an mte am m tnt i o14
uasely S* hwAsis flaw Idd Siflm it i a ,a S9ta

L.i.lw M t^ fl a a ....fl.. ..S.... ..* ."
Amm .go

grant to pa eme and the tle Imt t mie attempt to initiate II

activity on the sland.. In Ibe inttwin the island bad pasnod frem

geaervetem teo a eflie of lmdNeWlders uetil 6t me time propety ao

the island had been broken tnte at lease nine diftest heldigr.

In 1717 Nicolae Derts, a dimteat welatW of the original ewmer,

mmeu d to coasolidate all hlelRns eldr ItlM seel. Yat tbhem h

the nstirv oem humndwd yeat which laipted batMs lr I ftde gJSiat

and te6 vaeonuoliJdtite of holdidae on the Ltlal d by WicoLse IMfee,

it 1i doubtful if oem of the ewmws felt his beldfimg theaw worthy of

a visit.

In the year that Beatte gaitod eeewel of the isilad bh

omiseu iomed a PFumeh ea:tl em*Wrt to develop f e attle wedslM

oa his pqepesty, me aoertheaSt of iLoaer I* and Sthe olhew alag

the nertchea skhoe net Las vu-ems River. TheS*M *amh> l6t wIS d

Las lutMee and Satea ys. At atlM;*iMelly the s~a tAst thalt be hk 4

camwLetomod the development of te first ste Irsambe ht6d -melt

as to orgaism five nmt it the noefltb d raeorhlt. Then mhrmes

ewe numd Sia J3a., iNM IMAei, bi Jamg., S*MM do CamiS, a d Dase

Iosllie. In 175M, rat yen of his death, lla seemlm frgI A

en diLv-idd weu s hiU ~se sn while the gaut Sa oet ai 1ind In

a sause of mauo uaSo, g. t of tWt e*.m se s hba ni ff t eqo l shnu

in Ls aeN ra*" ad

to 17 3 a- of the so=m, Pwmwe.lte Suetai, at a*pgAe 4

eMlAIe A of UMhe le*,,. Wo .livit hVa wggeSimt hAi the

geessw etof eb* Se V Prae ms aed eoetc htf isi, fe t Uug, iSMl

tcter ts tpiflyt to dess ain Sttlmm of t iBigM, he phscatlef

t -h isboa aoM am 0 smto r*4 gC h am -alhw ej" n.failhe'.
b 17196 rramae, a b kf eaf intAImet, setMl^ilap MNS to
agftiam ca omy and 4"Ka"t too So pMiont of *a"a le 0r *agnlS-
isemhe a9f Nlo bflS ?.P&W t4i So bf4s .0 of ah pN*"SIsltlmoe
sasmeswn ai IMW af::yi* ar ss" 900m0 ie s. 13o

ee *-.** d bp aseMwo rtfi n tUt&mt Aine! ueatLamm
mioK iny I Omenge *9 pd be ks oCotnm; :at gomit thk Ot Na. a In
- 1its&n to dao& &be ot AIbs.

ts Ste. osqam M ag peae to a fle of nmWU t at
t ItMU tIe S Cb *iAlll *Aftd O ft NOWl tf iuPW64

fWSgrittis j ak^^^k ^^fa^,dk Miinfr ~I rr^^as^ an to:* tjt "me & Paim t *n a "PW
Xems 0MM *r fI *l SeW Wfsragemen .2 WN. SMSt

J.rlim I mw *es mapma Wmn me aab*s mae ab

asiiiiiiiinii *ataw sha uRtiiH& n *in "*l*M d" i ohi a nie7

wlp* M **-"e uoBa a ge ba een

wealPfl a wF SUhe: eB 1 a. fhmeb of s

a f i Abli i1n uc .t a m~na6 e

Is 17ir MfaieteWo Fra Af9mitly erlsatey eo the Vte Wy of

Ltm, wis ePt ftes the itl-ud by thW rriftlak bad etpmwed MW

*ship. Mf illvslad Shei six woumk and .duilI tbis iae3Uw, puimbely

only fet kim aM 4aMnIet, d"W up tei fi Sst WgpIt star Ma ft

seeoemmi seditew dha. S 5

The epyat wmr Met omAl emafty to the mariW lteit steMat ie

oa the islead. Fameo related Ihe be see castle mad bgs nlLek wme

allied to rerm the isllad mwratl, tbh lesl eitisime lpreVpekly ambMl

no imfatet in their actual OWMaInip. At the tsi oef kt vi~it NMte

wem amMay meshes emad by three, all weLled by imatagr,

bet met liv6ig e- l Ailmrled.

Gatrtl pmeciaem n f the eOly appesrr t breMlate of tle

*cheryati. peegle he ieated, ineMld igs is' 0 IMA., e L aetfte..

and qwles6.16 1u his mn4Re vwit an the isaled be mtsed thet

the aly land he sam fdeom d to e us agrltllvlmtf iam 4le amIl VW.

table plete of the eqmilttd and iLabsle. WI lifWltas in sey 0a

eperwtm to Cub al es ash dIS pe eo befag in Enwe ume ai sly

Ltarrib 66ifg Faen''e wicsh, csttI- pEItes a SpflWS,

Ad daed beef 6sid Oet em-mfh uy low peal.. A# SWt tfle tmeen

to Jeaw-paw old lm1t e t ftSa exttd *we bdiqt iold et* m to

atlm kla llamu pWe ti s e nPw mseka-. Mar-"W e16a w er

mldEttlg trw tthiLen m ft tSle ellSfs. imal lll Ib m"Lsa eof

rgit wad Out apmidAlny bedah o*f ttA e mavwg i ii Iamll

kftmth, rA attML. a. A nM. I


4ertMs tkw deIl get held b g"e N b6a 0Sr att dp e*M *-m
rba t1y eof sePse a. Mensm, em. menmi pasl e| cesC-
pASOe nflmegs r Sgtasp wMl ee V teed 2 B to6 delO" N pe r
hlea, IH fmld.tlt as te lr Mstiff wmnmt p 9 b? iJstfy oew
par bmed Sm lwaM Sbw ds69uq bhe esato oe an m a. NL.
e only &eM s0e tSMP$ h. Ig L St atit eis it0 *Io*S Pai
iaurl IL et e a d* 1 M Mik i2 Ua me tt, ft., tH4 estle ai"t
90Alj oECt1ed tally aw0bea at emhme LIt* fEl iA Ub t ils tia

aWJLe fhEbh 0lMe tawmed ms ma flm user IbweS. At the IM *of
Ma witoi-, es aS sat ae 010n0 9M sffiHag *ef N*t-
amely Mhe fmasai mem of si6fs 9* 9Sr, tL galy s searn tth
cub4. IV

I a A met *JWMa~ui Si L19, b jl A9at tl y bep awtf tew6
ete fit lvenfted po~SptsG |VAs kland me , | hW of 019aaf,
3,MS hap, all 111 h-wM I.1 rWpM *tl mv slh ker ale
ap"esbh p"liumSn Se. w S0InuS the Val. ef db h itWe stwer
Smm* iaS use a*4 il-UIp' me aed U asl se*, #si. ilji y
. ae tr ild ad Lie palbaMsLkMISt. We Iiifr:
tb eumtqy is md l S i rliiP it Si I wAMbbe t
agetalmaeKsl ^^r l^^^t, tll~llnee1^1g!pseth 1, the sIriuI t 1*^^* ..a, trih il l ^
aS It ad *0 0h t fSle M eb. A "old W Mt tin
A pMies a- Al isuai -iAt A .91 e 6n34 :k "M a4i he
to im, -entpaa aM th n.. a lm. 6t paeewt m~-sm

"* s--- *--plHMW^I, *fIr/ ** tM*------ "Eas ****Us s
ImF":a IIMl.S 4 L C,
l.;i a .4 .a. a4 MN
,M- ea *.1 t***OA **us ea-,Sw

lW1. oSt
*|ft. Ut"

eultule, "d espne6tie *of bard weeA an thr e li.s of
Ladu4try I believe emald b prefiltble; they would is er is
140NeM -e. .. It .mild iadeSd be a pity so 14et desolas
aa Ilard that bet riaVW tv water its t i ., VLe* 4s bo
ami6tble fer auLttictla; thet bee eo-es A /aihk liJtber; k t
with oe little ASSeajsmes wmt1 be Nsde I bhWMly pufitMbLe.
For . La gmmeam . trShe soi of 9et lt4 ait hesy to
sul*ewse, themgh tkhine rb Ma"l Au ea the pA1I*m kiebh rae
in teth quit* welssif.l

Over twety yeArsl elapd between the tim Tinry SbanIter

his report to the eelolil govresa mt and the tih asetin Me Ubgn

to amlitase easouie aettlusm on the IUainSd. The ImedmAt thet

inspitwd satioe was tae British tSeet ldedJ after the deJelt of

Ppe 41i MalleatqL and his pitys be4a, Sher 1if the Speani dld eot

rid th Isle of Ptie of painted and eewusfbeeMret thy amild saoe

it umder Ithlir oem wsrereiwi y. mnSlr, *Im* at this taim the

Slelati pI eMrin t, rened4 to etivrity by the slave wvolt is Iatli,

hal begls to enablimh eoeLowte o wkhi peo*l is viorse pfte of

Gube. A e. ma --tn, the Jmn doe bl6oa Bleatieo, ua etalbliseld

to oteatiss theWs slea It me thil4 eGmgAla Wh4 e#at a

pefiy ta the lslt af fLtmn to 186 to i urSiftpes psstbilities See

the biriligl of s aglwy Ehaet.

The pflty kedeu4 f wenble wOpet, ad tbhe ollewrda yfa

ab Jbow emn eat wa oasre W A-- o tkeepr sa a umbw el pte *oam

bebk ol emh e the late p e1me o i Mlamd md to e s ml os 9k

on buil dts pwriemt atd admif l atm buLLEts;| fet Sh pu.wes4

soeley. The et hin tm L" -oft 9" W Af wmeM l 6S Otte a*

Shie ae0t M" s t did i Meme tmeu e few abw vWUs i mskh Mai en

1e ., p. "..

N aw Ianw. -leml Inrt 44. oa 4et ad.. gmq -gI s

aS i asRm, a n I a n --n 11n s .S: 1 OI. Ot SI, a4 l e
a. b-mI mt aOtI- An a MM *damg 0p vw MOW* fwut. 1e q
ve* S* Iome a.w psate iad a.o logwe
of of a oss -a en6.i aO em taM 5 1 ft"I aS
00 abwehif boo* 0" bn* Uy 01 lp MOOMO N64)04"A to t Mehm a0
.d as am, MA- in Ag a
bw ""aGo", amn. d. so tMfk ak aIRIs I, 1t abw seamw#
-v kaa laiAA-l adismailt oft si wu. mep'l awmeb 2"J"70

m el st a pw MotSm. atm gaoe aam b "n" se "as

a oft d a1uMs fv.Sm -- asbu .t tW*

bmO dn A" 6Ms. 4m. u i amme: p0Aid W amlsf
pangagt ,e U, as a* fi s weM a

fSom S l6 SIS u amwfl sa hS a 06 40. SM*"
Wmm as num 00e 4 ManEL* 'V0e0 bt* M#
mrlals Wian s-Le ekqu4akE 4Je Jnka i #.nat-t ssue m^iiusitL
Wffr I~~lrnriiW ^ w^W ;" ^^^riyii^^ W llli ^^^H W|^^^^ c^^^ lr^^ ^*^ ~I^^^^^^B^^^^^^m ^^^r^ y^^
^^^^^^tti ^Ajf ^^ibjlr mcj^^i ^h rd~'j^^^^^^^^ H^^^^^ ^^ A!^A> l-^^^dft JrTYkil ^L ^^tft, ^BhrbJ)dftn

eolLbeted r lijft*e yars.tJC

Dapite the ad4mtegame timanLal aexwauml-et pieuvidd by

bhe seleeaal gnver lat, the eseloy did me peepsr; Suea people

arrived tMhe the authoitiot haMd atiufated. TLhe wpetf pl "rns

of westlan seam to have hbe laman eaboewer and stsw&L s alamd

reatdm -m the isLaMd. It in spaWrted tht San. Yre, the saly

frewvded eemmil ity eo the oelami bhJs the Mitoblifhl ot of quim

Amlia eolsry and Nueem Steua, Me alwmt cel.Ittely dqep lated

kthe tist yerT laund g$a6e1d ta thi elmY.211

The mow eeolmey eased e* little &0aes lafate t ift he

inlad that Ra 1838 t1A "l4am ro"eam g easM tily te ie to

wegsLate its purchre ftrw Iaea.2 Belif m jed Je t aeslared

its fuwed eight myars patiE&esy sid w*e* wry came to *oeabtIbe

coleatu thkeughes te rweld, nemapis al O lt it alo ely bdoe br

se-mmie peseperity ne as a cea m elsL -t6m. IaMe0eld I, the

oeenoy's first ewnnw i, e espeeaally asetinaed Mn -etablkhil

a esntetal boe Is SU Saeuta n. 14 LteteW.Mnd lBooes. me to

e*Lee pbOiAbilitlee of plreheAIig she Ur of aPi m. W!hmql tI

pIew 18M &ad L839 aem Rmn e osAwe of oepattlSe dhapqaehwm

eSth tLhe l la*d' 0*ggs a kigm eodm e l bafl,

Mhsaiemft AL A B 0s it lie fs tvaaft of OsaPailpty. mf l

%ssealb. sa.k. .. 44-1a.

%iqcaL. .SIL IWS

6"n Ms tow fa t m ~r eb d t 0tAl 4 9SLOteste a* bnae
b|p|l> eMnem's aeaihessufa f*l* *Iete*s 4se Ofts* fliy
gfve t wek m iy lead *I ohe Sntfalemon at neo peDe of

Owf UW60A a tl A6 Outaf m -It of saa kee. 1 My 3 O,

elbticWe pill CosM fer I b yhOr .- e ta ewp 9ASiSa i .a
eNo bhe6Lg aS Mhseses so few. I did. as 4a 00s to
ab SpMaa g1o em a mass.o aS fS "d 1inI.
mpte wI laok ofd iaMe *of ap .lw, sas 1. aShe
amrljw bem Uo tume A ** ins emdim. T hN gon timt a

hI1 to su S euS, At-I pee "w' ra sl W t* e i ld. ISi ls
ais tef" a. Vimae tno WM 4 smgeme L w mms be mOi b ely

.. d to .... .1 sua iW--L M|i--- KMa4 VMlMaaW by the
*"esity gtvft toe s Ie A IImM f M pa eOM *Ci eeapS. By 17s

,pwrmutaa&I 35 p e6r ofi tu I aiNsMtwend W# tM sleabn
eb. e*a & ielandS, .ma a e .3 pu sag l" sSe'8

The eeLasvswe dlmSiem .4 the 05510 :**ia y as tnae
befite sab rth srtal of .1 ass alpmtre. STe JeaJlery .5 our
aedna -w poe- a mea spn ea ms1 p so a ta Me lifaieLwA
- i begahs Ult panels of .W1 A. 3 .esf oef t4ia pna~fy ctuI ANl
esd t aeA in e*nA aeette tn CaSe S| e 1h S SISI4 dtet
and be d fine t" AM aM kMeasry of te SilMS M Mt @e

The island's isolation from Cuba, which had reiaoded its

economic developmut from the *erliest days, continued to bedevil

it, and transportation to Cuba nemwia d difficult until thko id

1840's. The only boats which called at the island ie" mell

fishing craft which occasionally called from on of the ports on the

southern shore of Cuba, or chartered vue ls.

The first regular transportation service betwmma Cuba and

the Isle of Pines began in 1840. A weekly stelmehip -a put in

operation by an Islo of Pine* mrchsnt who had begun to tap 320,000

pine trees for tuw entire and aval stores.24 The neaml scesl

industry was only a short-livd veature but the shobdlaed beat

service continued with seuh suices that by the 1850's the Isle of

Pines had developed a small tourist indutry.

Before the beginning of the nine itnth osetury it was

reeogaised in Cuba that the Isle of Pines had certain envirmaontal

qualities that Cuba did not posebaW. For ramplse, the incidem" of

tropical disoan such as yellow fnec s each Lawr than in Cube.

The Spanihk colernal lgerors nt, roeeogatia the tiheepetic value

of conditions there for the sick, eeon.L4td the idea of making it

accli-mtion and oeawlnve maet station for its treepe stattioed in

Cuba. In 187 tthe Gmenm r of the B roelaaI FtAgimnt in Gums pee-

poosd to sed to fert isletd:

Oeth Puvatf l se awntOd em diislI oef eIe i.ew, in ordc t to
utilie for their edkmta the virtuem and oaisllaee of etat

24rIaft W*ight, AJI f j a l.fl faA (I il of PiNa, The Il
of Pi ae Publisity ewmpany, 198J), p. M7,

fM~as, ..inarlliLa t hi ma ldtle o e m- a.a tsbsag..

S ane ho l~w atW a bMtle. M ,
il mngal ag"p e bM. fled t 9. Nale -ae"
AM"a. Wa n Se tISh r iv poave. l 1 fr. ~, dA f
1 N pe SL e i asseS

pa oaws ef *1atse 3' *A bl0S 5so a6 I ill a i btbuw
Sa sla 'd bua lth* 1a Ot so= to tmn W fibe
oft.M o. soa "*a NN ... a 96e.., am a.s 4 t. ne. ta...
ta k fl eywt ke apbnn an boS o eLt sr so a&s
tip bstte 4jbghb a"1W A&b 11s 1E b 1 ofl i athel bake ha
St. eke i s *6 s4 41s f* s viab
UMw ot aOta MA aSo Of eWssaO seat a uons 4A 01 410 iadMa
4al aeinft Iaow eaftl Me Ott abS xFlge e5 ak te1e men *w *

SOS th h .8 ifIfle ad A. "* Mm" fl4fl's ma

a e'n i .I She loS me blot bq.hmm E to 141,

*as N ateaW em etin ogeqmg. dAl n aM etoms i* ad OW fm
Ma apt R"o "ab 1Aeii W"ag. i-ly s p..A.. p" e"ate

M Sm, fl a( 8flt o_ tilts. S&

li aifni IA. .. ..).IW. gn ... W ....... a
'*'^f 'I^l~*1^ ^^*^' ^''^p Ab^^y^ L^^f ^^^^ PT^^fKI^" ^l BM^-

aMn't kill ihre [ECalal mm ahn suaoalm tf ea itete.a

At Ntst the il-r&I Ol Isd as a seWnaOea eaOrn fts

eamr ersalmoisa, bet ti 1iSW tWM Ipaitb fwwm-mt bh tu s hb4abah

polittleal puiss ohms,. "a s*iL of the puensi ppolemime Mar

so tpliAy hiat oewn eeAs me heir ftpir *a Uee ie lea IA Am.
IEeastAly MW pulitteIs prfMlaw ShiM C0 W tItlbd as 3M *aaI*I

weve ivns the aobeis of pwovidim belir e bheardt m4d eams or oI

li iua a 3M pri.m t *algt. All eM allu I e fled balgstman

if they ee"d, as onmly sutime npfs.tami bgtae Ohms bhiy had to

SyPPar owr wll e1l awise daily. IT ls" the pasge qubme petwlt
Jbo MVati W" maeld s tie Iashrl Ns.M WS Mi4 fm*l Onpprnmiear

as bat l*fI k b ne a oi Ina bhme 0L e1 fL Sn -e fnl

a* Is 1*l. bedwo hM am pwsdem6 ad lost Ve S l*w.

uciag the huee CaLsil bO a guee of e&m| en1ped

fum FUwuAba ad tes"e a tha "a"Md. T ua e mo o4 gall

samLty oset sant abo a "amrns a LO ieSLas"

(ta aslemy), *hwes thesr 'RsA s in. am 90 abe *W4494l

IAssMse mO e MuMr tarbe. MOwr 3b eWhatO, 554 nbl.E a

pflarsem ''atgo," fmumlpe l l ee "taea," fl fl*lad s Sre h ea
feela amO 9stInS a PS iAB N ISAd tO 3 aM16 M ah.

T1i tele fw iM wioe f r 0e00 paitege Is ONh.

SO. AS S heteOta ab eifha # aAw befaf t meha fl Op 1

96mEEMMON 06

e*peeially in the Prvinee of Pinar del lio, gpreoi of peaol- fled to

the safety of the island. During the period 1896 to 1896 one

Amricnu tobaeeo fivn, Ienry Clay and Book Gmpany, uosvd its

teoaeco plantation fromhe te tuble-toer V*elto Abajo eion in Piner

&d1 Rio Provinco to the Isle of Rifn. Thit fir took up two

the wand scres of llad, trmefering equipment, plant sedlings ead

pecesmal fEos their old Iawms. The movement um not pexsmet,

and the company reaned operations in TVelts Abajo lmodiately after

the raempt ion of peace.

Tobacco and wood products were the principal trade the island

hbd fith Cuba during the Latter half of the nineetncth isetury. The

conditions in euba had mch to do with the growth of tobacco, as the

price be*w so grest Ad to domaie to the coep in Piaar del tie

Province thet the Isle of PineI product could compete .wll O the

Havems erket. For a brief period just before the termination of

the war there ms a flurry of cattle trading due to a rmar that the

SpMaich gove mo was Igoing to cefiseate all herdo. Meet mwre

shiipd off to HiavNl for sale.

Bring the SpAnish-AmrioMn War the inhabiU6ii s of the island

again n me ctivet arinre, although my sm WMt to the adinland

to join the fighting. Imstead of beits a seme of battle it baeMs

a plaes of refrlg for a large nueimr f S ipediavsdW l mwe trying to

s*sepe the bkttie atna. At the tim that the AU~m ieua Snpitlevry

ji.. Cou.rese, ,itl, A *i o -9 4M

SKg ft., 19,9024, soee* tw. 9pv %.

Pees m- Shltes ea n mnumal peepsah mye sat as s w

tabe 30* .5 9lea eomld bfI tel-A4. At tM Sie it e ttSlrllht

that it ueld be wall autimtl a plis ftor 0~L0ag" pImomar of

wS, and as otisere a an&rt taho rbias S al e dates ae Isi pa l-

bili.tden. ThIb puepa tsi dmroo iLam4tleM, bet ltUr amber

offeler wu s to 1ete --0r tih aat soo s i is enfte be

pamible 1t bte a ba eA4ll of twelm themr To qpme fsim la

offheer's I ter to ami sasrNr Sabilth Mowy:

It Wiuld is rll A Meh to a t a Ieaslim. al abs 3816 1 oe U
by IS passe enseW amd- iro ts a&V6 so 0%wr e0 to *o
swamd the imled of Oea amaopt %bse We so. t
Tor im tltp, .ei bem-t am be a Ie.


The n o *i mlpfl-m ne i eOiut, s eo bdiway a*teeedl

bbe Isle of Piamn. Aasds Em a a gm e t of kdwgs 'As giS Ma lt

Cube at t 1iN hb t oe the figu*ts, Sber lft 1iasbI to itm thO

istala s maltMrE *i to e mseflike, eWM Alftem Saf iiJ I Semal

fIncssamd a aM Bain. T heie fWpS m Wue mmes rl ae ot1*a an

theoi aiil tasd igmefiw by the um tboeu jas a6

bh6 had ban oi gd bf te.e stihk; it iw ~6ealil for the to

t"Al rat tMI av the the-ib d of laftt ta Mey Wg weld

he oan mst pmae am amwnhu paled 1. the i&gS'we bis*ONE .

The f~te m -vmlu Sth #&M of Shet Iteo o.f aS 3~1l

og f A" itim"i to Wbn aEtla. MaI k I"s WmSn OWhn e a it:,

etm f4tefay e4 o etftalwmy e fjsebfteod aom.'e The

p. 145.

mnaiasea.. oAf dm Iuimmssa Itj attsg peol d pm nre nI f a
msee is-ne418- w |n af cmtM I" Mpa9nd ifNMins
eln mimgest.ds on .1e pe$ ef eenn I eedtd
emAums of Te MtYef 9 m*I Ft lrk L me i d PM e Sah-

A1I46 m .. 9tm sit aThisM all a Mm t *M smAmu of sy te
4E* UNOhdh *Wb&. JUSA U1& 2W b^W. Us luM s8inin0MOM
dy If~f to Wubs jm t*o af dteulfd. g, m .e as immedu
by $p#in e t be evupmd by ds SI Ld Lstan, ETa SalAd fba.ts
till:, a low as ,^Iepm MMU i S1 RI mS, as a S u -
a. fbli a lTia doeet "ny mOIrS *E 1m-kft LJew 1eIm tuin
ar t ees w 3-IerweM, f h pn neeotwm of 1.66J 6

174 ITta sedr tso 6M I9all aYL "0* a. teULd of

ta Isloe at SAN As au blAnd, fgftlhd ie &Ab% by
angi t. ldeI el id anL II e Ofew T seaM i ~I _1 -l
hu vbh of "Now totfM, 6n 6ft

16e0e Wb bsId" j ilI be S emaSuLue be IWrSf. a. to Ea
a I.O.N .0-__ Lun AfHleM EI f Lse bm&Wad wW eha isMl:e IOW

safe i a teueak Ms"ep in *a foet imae,' a" btt mi d by

aBe. A*siau a.e 1a e&Wr iSanfesim eO IAfral h.sed Sam*e
asee am de s 1is i
at am"r In" t keei p mUes e0 t Ip a~ tae vs a A-M

awer st VW.l-atted ha.t hua-- 0e but IhfamMlalmy htaMmwAn
ImWIyaSy vem bal O a to ams h t tbhw IWs v. *MW wti
lNut S* muiew @ as aoAiat MM N 1 h"d si
e, se, am aOUs. --ae, -pweeme e. mnlS a"S

iof 0.10 Pon aM hee MN Se almE by6" IO M
WMW 4M J. aSw O- Aeasss hA tees 60mi1j, Md l. &6

iMIllJjbai, Alisteat Seafsegay of Was Aitah aie .heif ipts as

that the e laUd bheslm a the lLwatd Steew.31

The lit AmwlisJm i ear e to bh isleta be peeSea p*eerty

eretiJd tn Is" with thb teetlmi. ofe blwyuf a dsillt aSm. mlift fte

thiLS mapoeble, **see She aly ead for stsl ed tin Isgp Srzeee.

Sy 1k1 awernal .twer Aitan arrived t o e te UfA i Prty,

but they also ewsemntentd obu amr pretle. tihes a VpsWnvR Melt

altfrd e peehase tr eet of everw e tlbimdl sals t iea f linl e

ledt AvileUi. IrelisdA tbis.s, theme aie letawd to he gMwred

Staes to obtain fimeejal baektlg. lad .winMAe wsre tiesegoe-*

seed nue vtlet e Msate law is tie iktod Stames, and eaMWs at

ismwM. The dMinseet of StMo eesmptaesd teMt eamnmed to tbe it14

oe ?iel end beg l s pamae ov large bleeks *I lesd. The gmit

Wvih SVkh MMabsy equ &l d pempA y Ps p---WiAL, lmest sen ltMad

ef Nb itoted pf6Ift ion i A me"iG mim lip by 198 ad by 1914

the ad bad rLes tbe ua .tSeate.l

The e ampe hsl VkLb 5t he sjemity oI ab laud mne

the 11 CMel S rt yw the U4 o*f Plan* Sompany, %be 201e *of PIes

LaMd ed 3&Mept ma eGapi the low it Led wove", e ete

Ahem se wiape Jedt leeamsy, bet later at Ien t s meM we

Aes*l. I"6* f imh umtr Wvsmeen Osmee" M4 eemsees, oft61 *am

Wateg tim etwonae Ot es in t *he W.attla V~. -ew

oW .In I* Othe". steed dbanw of stltr g mall em Say 1

as saessr of* ww @am has s its awh g Sin u am loies is

the f.t0ire. Glbt tis fttlly smisDtlL. ALWg Si eae -r
mawAU *ait so s a asoeuiSe. Adsk fhm th peehtt mtle,

Sil S umpwiAe sb4Lmd t6fe ag "eamt theeb Io i 14m1 OS-

teWy; tbey doesied mil sema Lr lobbyTLe nm Waulg hil i se Wmid

pebn.e Cbis eMd.

Pulqtg te thiatial et et 1v sre|im ainfsintistes of kIS -

th 1 iei *f. Ie le Alest*lea e-d 346.ral etee ii t te I.ltld FaCMnM
albsmnuly dad d& adat4ed the ofierts of am puoqoes e0
.ear smferspiay fer the Asklm. At Wte %*e td' "RaPt hAt-
*mue" ts ote TNeo y of Pe u tse emeted d diL tbe relafagiLp
of a. to. MW ese sentee, a samls a linensast afa "bab
empmnlrAy of teu ITAle mfpmee A to be leat t lbtmw diuatesfatio."

flat em ale fld tbh mfltdmemble J* t &* r y k p4y e~ me al

abM Adl but rem pMuIs liHt et naft e1 4 aut Wt beumeM
i% "ad thi utuS 6* Oemt41u eGSae S eea seneS y be1et

*lem s t uI crty. Tb. -Lu4 tat* bi qesn 811alld -thi4
6se7 as eple usmien ilted bet a mumed teeoay ae eoewn*d Oea men
-"r aseth, mLAe emo meit as "r"d by isngS1, W us lmes a

immtmy Wkick bamt smla the SIlami waM 4M.a a A4Mril t, 1W96,

M .eVIAd of ten e mOes

SIhe IM 9lt ae bn r vntp d.oiarte as 4at* Wthi
ea e euu 1 hM 0aeb0 esMw ens et ae p1 pe *.Mf .uplb.

ALsa.d haid iev~ a tih .ae4 tfIn aMw b 1i veMg twSrlp

oal aea bsm N, thee wa emom Ca .khards shea1"t ao

u*wel ebfew at saminlsta 1o abs et vil o1te. thias we een

w0,na9l as it*s of AEN"oem an tbhe Smbe MieL d .m11 ~dl6 eMwe

eflwbhi Aedl SM4ed1ly afte th, 3abe i4-Airele ae" a" tbn a Use

apSwed s shaieu a.p oef hee a as maes. nteame, e3i tim s

Amrs aem kiswmry beh atet s buat feek a sn eeeuasmnd Oltet to s et

haMrieas in a fbteilp atta as tfeet a e- tk4 sol4 dl e Kie. I.

wm t be reawmrmd, of eeues, that tha majeity of setetms en~ ed

wikh tae filial tbhu iAn~tmably it weld be E flieAlly rlmpitand

as katted toeawn aeietimy. toetlirliae, at fl rt thse leowfla

emma-ity on tie Isle 1 flamp hA. tw paliu jls t theI Met"Iy of

AhewS. fl&5ae I ef t Su Sssisa eq b a^ drea s.i

The sery.4 tfis deaqlgsM of t emmMMty edneom s r

the 41AciS d li~teMees paW et byt tn he Lad eguaW M as ateMlias

b esues. Many sta o e oeesampn paAed begebhus ep"sp ulag
udnFagsus of th pL peel&, 0smhu0s, aEd enteem.4 e4sat1 e.. e- bbs

ii-id with a lee be IMEfis s n a Stetwal pIaSMi to sy pwa-

rEtive pweamlr of LamAhk Taey empleed "f Wee kad eL s*dorlpb

aaia emstud ^tfita Ct e t 'Pituse ett flbwk tle ada fiddled ejir
ew &d anqtatLit ado* im lad e-k smeled by Gadi sw

aS S(in2l% ftbsau tt hd Sh S fl Mede r a ol f 111ad 0ln

i gm.eL igh imed setse g6w of abe he)d

moae& ateMn aba sa ~~t ae. t Om is tk*i llt ae J

Asr^las WSWn to sIft in lasp amWM. IS JIs htiiiibu e

0tfl*es Vta anrd WAs meis h e *Aw a" JMt. iu teie *ite IM to

ttnd, e Amenji erm Mass,^t l p -p i It I- a,~s sm.suAr
o ilb a t4w umi ba4. "* Aiten

lks ibm ,ei e t Lnb Cr fl *- i neil vta -
ba1 ltRk La a slkt Xte&^^ ^i e .*.ea.h shed lfhA ea Ai d

, fliP Sneewa 4rner a-slsii> fluetS Sf 1- m fn t.X cn
agm, o np s t a aw e to k* w ,o te t sab .sy 41 arm o

It"A3 My o&it iR ft t I f ek jas tile ttM we AiM bMst
pawrom sihc s %V* &m Ae.e e* pea me nlian en o Una te ar
*14 "ft

itetMl to asf am t eMimt. e$&i& at Swet emo Ce lie gt elrem
ftl fe *Se pmab lr, fipn A bWWsi wsr She wer g6. Wi tt.

A W~~b stm fl.L I to smI. Sta of te MA ba bet t e
moll v6*ad go sta. I ills W e 400 *Nm Obe to .."M ........ of

~ 6e of Msua oNam ao e*A aOf* fophe ~,em
smA so sheas &oft paid. ad sfl er we". S lse a* StaOW

a of lMR Iash I ogwlAiw M p ar mIeLt saj Wa aelflem ht NSel&""

4mofar OmS ea oese FO ehmiges bit as thte6 il infh *AV*a
^^KAW ^Wi^^^^w^^ ^^^ w^^^^j~p l^^^ll ^^F ^^^"B Vip ^^^ ,|J^^^P^^ *^w^^^ y

awtng the peeled f9m IM3 so 1910, wbm abs Lhad omwmiw

we at ith beisht of5 Sadhe a&etitnl, all Nos f*teN.iae a---m

latMr Ipe4d Is tb Fl ride 18md l onm of I Ir1li's m ua-.

TaOM uLe mt a seek nee tWfepwc mntpes, $* FiWnpe~~ s ssiolt,

"d eien eas smed rk-Pmdar-brt-s wee qmteda.Yu ad Smetimue

soe laid ert. liee fSr bemetiful ermn bse:ls ad a:lf eiuean
We iteid out ad *Ars emeed nme6ia the tiamLmiai eo toeftw

eoasteuetea. an& land e. en sw ammnd eemustw tei f a

wmarw ~gue nailay *4bk go* to *eJel o 1i J lel0.

luctJ eatd e .aw.eldrmaftJ its salto eSgAW 14 ra

Opleti te ma of the kied SItaNs, .ellm tIh all wues tAriL to amtl

to ay eghS &Sai Awaget, ,eme, of as. thed e weeg
o n e assee of bthe soieUd wiebh Md btgh eamguwaifleNs e5 3 1
feft dIf mulet pelse ef ete aiskad sIlme. IK the seeaMIfat, am=J

the iam .f mtsaloy, tab wa a f*mMeiatiu Ed 68 from rae

Tie as ad pwund Lad 4 ieea tbe lite of *lw efuti0 In di

hw iUies disaLat Ie I *gM p opf i oilp bI S I al*, elel i minmw i

plea cklfng the ISutefU* lo t1h L eb-il w~I ofi ebLLj eWt pyl li

fm wH eifwa, Illjmol4, pd les. Ina M1el., thm-b. e o*

peOple besfg lead an abs hsaad *me fte sbe Vduhgm heme.
A smme vtisHer ae w"MW&Al em" p~ SLm akaeme bltman u

matess 1mae eotkm a a She telWaD. POW Ohm i4nfev

S i7 e pery o e dIl OA se eAw&e-in ; nSum I, bWe l

-si ir ^^tL ^^ ftam @1 sm am" t hi&* Oak Mftwec issw wml is

SI"AfI to -ete i Nea eso w A6t me An&h to
"* W dms d "do IwMeA.e, ". law mewssw

Fig. 11.-- Map published in 1922 by an American land
company to promote sale of land.

sIilltmtiig fatemnal.o of Igldm el ab, ate AmirLiam Ciub, Mnd

a het *ef seir eage ms ties s whtk wre em h beiMd per eme Amiies.

The last htL ysW of lad eampa r pa-mtem i In la 8510. At

thee tim ti s uim" $S ,9M Iweb of ab w i e i napa Inag At

buildias and $2,9S-,Ues imitm"i in frilt aww.33 By Uthn the

uAmtesm osa ity mem lated of now ahn ft ive he1 d *ion ku011t;

theO wse eAmawsa sasiel, sharshem, steer, mud Ga *a eAmlseem

mwkly awpapef, thlme I. l ta U imfl. It erm ateially be

*sid thet, although the l sland wl s ae poltiUcilly a peat of the

uaimd Iftres, it w- sImu*iarelly a pert. AwMi onme aMn Vtlirmwaly

all burnaees esnee wrise, imlid6g t beairS, and the ihe-r asll
o1enmi*d sIal tfeelr. Thues s1 e *e cairnS siea lly ad

that they had to wo fe The Ameuueame orp ame& Ip I.

The fIs.sI beeamn th. bmeeies aid %he Odom bims *h(e

persed as me *emd&.i Rm ea Smmt w- n8mUmaIUy matag -m beak

sldet. The hmewimee mes waklt mt baiUg to obey Sub Uwe and

mhIrd the Lawso e t o lind, .waS mWa a thait w l h te e ma

Amentem s as dctam offiesaS hL m- euakfity. eedimmi eo I
vtlma woem sma owervg tA6s parted. / h lem mf.t W~N*d

for wabW tig to pLy t er or to buy liampt aM q btamae ;

.. Cmashn. "ACiihu m SMB eoe 0 ]i* -s Fdo ei"
fMMli J, mi i 1If)4), I Be.

its. -m san *5 aw4. *ns a-HW 046", s"e a".

*Y.eN t s 4 1"0 uee .g aume OSw.W me SbW06 1*.ao P" a
P" ma.4 3fee 11e.1 Ma 9 e Offee -.W St ** a eAM*q PeM.

Os tb n S UI anm b ipgmps we o o bm owsap
SO Amaggge AM I usid agma04_-ft Or bOA hd has fte VO of 260
Is-1afmt ft*0 .s 4 .eap had SWet WM the e4beW

Pem ou &V *m30 s 1e toes ot e eavee 4Af in ,4 le 1oe

Ta u IMi, Oa whine .~flg.e &age W Rl i efti 14JIo all Li f aob
nb*a* e.f0s o4 ad fttd ga We g bflq thisb

Ml I 11ge gam*'tf y gem &pur 10* M 1000 IS hmS 4bb 1 u 1917.

es ansumeeObI.y fm Le ek a S iM s 1.18, Mnasm Slem.

a Thi6 aTi atwft n L*M: a 107 Smeagemm b 4a
nVA baFnf ai bn et. am Ms bft *meli u iUy I Lag fteE

ud was. nbmse ta .amv ose. nup ofM enfOJrI n ~i

eneme Amw*t4 n VA* V w ~a "t am"

. ekS" a boEW n O, Idoe. Si: 4an wmag
T^^^^^^^^^ T^^ '^^^^T< ^^H^^ ^lJff^P^'^^^^B^^ ^^R^^^^^F I

Fby iL-* en I U L util.

Te*d 8"0*am 1d flt S- 0 In
ht. A i911 by sm ta he b" uS
Us r bita.

ohmi^ *4lnf f^kviqf -- W 4 #--- WW--" a 4MW|r Mairr

%fteb: dmm^kW 41 t mw a* "goal i- mmiX
es" Anmmsa un awua a ss 4 ms". niamga

%a v md al o I: . . .e
et"Nw of watfat Bly 1& 0I k ik osn*M 40 WVem a1
et i ll It Ag Lgi M gi- Ml listlf fliiab 4 S1 it, ri-

it *A amSe 1a am aeWe ee ffa1e ed iwi-
116,3 eflaft M 7a pa l' em Si as Meg ea in 8.
--.' add lad *5 &WNW, ioum* isOI ^j N& aEz pMa"
11ly da lately lassi. Dy 1Mb uk 1g Lgaga tling e*
04 taAad soa oft lad 00giness *

oupS AWs0 erascs thAw. at tab.: 6m ha
Uamell ed il e l ek ,e sla e tjle 4 ei r a send ,^

b... ...d e a nt a. b e a qgau. IelSk t

olU fA aiofnfw L. g.. Iet ."m l ilil Wmmm s
Mt "a1 "m e*no n s is "nO

Thale Mn Ogal falM1 aM OW *eNr bo ato %AON UMnW.
Se by ahmt s Pleth B li d if i

to :m : 3 p OR pai O. a
. . ... .. ...... ...

liand -MO lte al AeaMd eSAt IS uss sely a ser Go USM beonW tih

UnitSd f~t weld Mll .ed lly --ee ae& Ceui'.s .lal Se tin ib slatd,

a- evens Sateammont be av bmnksukepy flr tsh

In 1SM e IAmSt puplatmm el SMe "UI& w". aettAdiftu

em 7U pop S.4 Thie mjeMty of the uiI gfof a"e aMtiN of ihA

gpeep viek bid ee e been Wilt4 f r IZ o ILi S A boe. of hkis

soup a few MId .AmSIeledt 04A0m1l te pMs ft ses aemoy ea f .e s

* fwr et4rS snesilty MA4 am"a s uesem *of tit attn g*t0ne; tSh

"eSe V S W14ely isMANNUpd oner 60e ene4"t fte881f. U4 90

of Vusawed st a weuWigfity buIeg $mLmN, a stwfty eWriewM

subs's elal as t th island am baiehl& the Bal a n g tee ctoAgse adM
em od seese to pe11 i-ty hMa bu et aki
inflated by speulatLvi bk$dA dr tnlhe warly bem 4b n ad

eWsedn prLete el to a va eM eo aAs staWy had be peewrmly.

TIb bueert spirit mtaiEL e1 by thi pimpl r a Selet4 bI mW 80 l

mpe iwautii elitvel ei the ehind lwael e l gtdegh. tsoi he d1.

Les amfet to Meleaie mnse OWN" q e M S sam-h-d a d seO mad
t e ti alh d *wee" 2stoe np ta to ain la I eNS we.ld ift

bse uwso ves at eWal mMIi 11, #a am*I en dab ib p -

q0ebdf 1e"sy1 of 1N~ fh40"* hin I t SaM *i GO Am 6mi6a
l aq ate fl iLaemad& fly tbih doeM iStS .e i d a4 ai asesia

ptieL, saw, OtM the O tUIAeOfti& oOw Om feay, the llad bge of

.(Smu. ., no M%, #. (

A ^lathen^ Sn a w9-- a^W^^ bt yfli Mr~ SC*iWjmlw t 1WPBWPH"| I
Iensa hai 31esm) ap bwa t Wo tfl .1
#01 cowntmei $ a An0n ofnt vfttp sq "b ow
S1u S" Am oma as UA l ()

--6l6r Ue $i gCeM G IMeI 44 Sllaibie B wlli iIe bgei; (w

tneese al -aigae a ee n =uss6 a

UEWe iat n T w ItgMei as waw---bram *In a a iSi' j- giPKB) |si.e -i^

s fsl ut nA a him. .A .iliairt ii
thSe gow, 61 se itAm as te t" In a:s- 7 P06

a*145l 1 la t t -*AM 3 t IE IO sofZames. it. m lOE
-6S-1a to asfta f-ir -* &bo -rftr es --t-ft WRO
-om OW .Sir 6Ul...... i o ftl ftOw" N Oi1 1-, rgh" f t*

*W he LSA M54 0 SN 0 ilifl t SwI fllflittmSi
n. e ..s .. s utl . ..a


tlil :MloM~ -'lie aM- mima,

"lka 1lI&` kaimsa min......rll ,

of Au bIn de sw nwme*, e at? iil .iiil l f
g*e vpww .MI *ppi * 6 owroa 0061 a eM *fit *t-f-

A w. *ai i( r rL ; ...rl .... ..- SiMI.. ..pi.. i.o.n a.
-a"'* Aw 4il 1 -SAl1f agg Iw

ait a "sftmim anw si ga 0- *a W u1 0i11 1iM tg iw

b"At af 104M a a4" a s

o i.i.i .. i g.I t1
si- t, a gon. A 1 pe a. a saa
st.k "doe. -: Utnft -1 "W f" n

eanM n Wi wn. ".ta .i*n A s a s

fmat ea Tw "mll iliam W OliMUtaS W SO1 UM aa ,mam|

Sa a, a us emt a. .e be aso tn"

lFatOP I IN11a: 'MiO Of t a 1 eift:l NN Ut '^ *M*iT

im*e. *WV Wi S.Smac t itsj fml auge i a
*!!!!jo tm w a in w b ame

aft *e ae ,,u~gagp:f. aAata._s US4 .4 Ow 0 l a
&Ue um4 anewft I(m m. Aftowi seem* w6004146 bows 0"

et ymmanii mi. INs iminii- B.iMmiaigr:Mj igi iae Oag .. t. ..

. .i I .

Amflmie eun aliy fimt Tha peple MaM %We l r. s"0una0"W l piiAe-

f i"t guemms l obecbetim m*Mts a pWtIt abte thu Iola*& hd paum
undrI Csimm entanl, ov WVOfN eifn#s hubtiOSi wou otai~mM to lig

chese beemm tWhey enjapt it tuea-Ut Lty pedhga14 o< g' elm.nt

The pupfoty sfa t h 1k we st 'a 14eld, 1S *tSd a1
by 2h4 eamiua Iulamdut# 0r4 iSaMW, lIft idle, er planE uindr thl

cMeetkenMhl of a Iael nuammt,. kin Wp eshMu, stoiwe naty
values hd &mmft eambdry tIe tin b imgpt *'8 thM taitem RlAd

beo, altntt OW csm wnt fnled pMupety isa G aa itMSIw, fwl *eg to
parschesr iems e the lr I* fL tees. oI to thltW fastow lie Jlma,
as well as & nm, oaf *ech INateiliiM yguInE 0 A tlaro fe 1uqeuty.

Folewtag the And 5of a Amginton "wed% a la6p assent of
ArtLeas Labseso lead me allaMd So bme Ianhuwrpftged iee the

public demla bikuse of .nClMIA -- e aof iMiM& of t hia Irad me

ewsumally seol ao public Aestm ot psivaste **l,, IEn skis wy a awi
Cubm a Adertota leadeompga awwd vgtat heldmgS t-h 16i3"A be

prac teelly aauMltEi ath ILJt e ly doiai sUmr WONE uso fl.m EanO-
ity M sbn r pueepnmq, am NM "baa d teWO as em emaOM dnismm
nft umlk thet AmLg sggagba Chb eSAaA 1N 01M 5.l

At the *tie e l I 8I a litflw naf et:he stlnd mas

ibea r sA bY tIhe Mi ay I'mWlIt nd by clane and O*wl lel

IN "f- to uas Vtians Inans. me TN nmm
enewe `aaSt 0 *6e0 ..s &0".. .SSUe !OpGWi-

b S eflta I. MW Oe W.R M w a s w*MOM obs a WP II

ban fet" of t e .t a asae Iw ONOa qot


geagOsts eemokrmts 1* t00 04005 fMtpo Ond "nowsA ea OVA""t0
]PONg 11 basis, **Ae tk* 000041000000 #omgeaogps #$"I"ge lowt ae 1948.
Gemeetgin )LIM inrase egSM ggg beganto "e

teases to bhe aueda lm imWM en00 mma .oe swae . In ....

ratito v 1* ge*? <*PO* als *$ft beba 4VO eas.W O"

*Wam tot OVA" Weda tealsit*41 IA A*$ **No AeaiuYain $eaft*,

is am"t F~ovids 4"n 1o *a0000 #o" aeat gsbs tm lnia jg of

are *L "MW" he easim lem 4 9941M #woo@ 4w usweek0 'S& LA&W bmfp.

wait"d asseam* NAa *e6g%* vw*Aapages 000AVU4l Wmttswhy a#rt*Am
=*Il op"At bea0e *wooA latoftow6 in 00 lsad na stat 4g

adedtwotku shtso *Asathgk ow wpmpe rsSB4$ uo eme # to

A*9 alIrt *eeasmmt I96mAgt fte umagggle $gAmo OW60aee
go"egg pese ANOWA4ta low hlh 44i 4ANg $No*n w oul IN*

:%we wemwo4w wow lotw4. 16 mtw ow ode@ 9swdmp 4"4 .. lowg

eowpkvwetheo *f wmoseg. u8 to #SAO*t moo" 1606tW a*.watr

VaW WUl meilh o 1amm s tl l

*fVe dt4.M aa -n$*NOW BagB
A d a g g a g M e"i~ ^ ^ a i ^ ip p M g w 9 i i~

l-n Is

1any 64leg *1 bona 44o0 SO kMkit .Aft "m be

embed I. y aI aI 1 P.ilI
eam hnIpy ai, P w *l^e its USl gllKes A^ ego O 4 reialt nt- h

M"6, -4 -i baMl Sne 0 Nieaw tent la 1988 tww
*.0ms maWeMs. p0mpfl&g &M' aM as Od me06 aat th
tAuk$l .u w^ IL -i -sbaft ame -"M-. OW ***0 me g" hatE $CgM
Sibu iMenf aS pflme aitei (53I1 a 4d") ia ald 11ely
aS etat 4UPMni f aSi entssius baw fnitsd Lbs

mages P e4 atm smr ea -sg aw. e" ame SOM of -iw sm
41t04 sPOtag seoon (AMpi, # piaW*t is Soiu aS "Ml to som

luSs^ eass.u o.. .le a n. lj as s e a1 ...e. f eil
so sun a amm spaewn ama I0 ado:lliins w,
fi iS, fel, ht I 1*0e f"MMlai6 semsn Iu* itoi.M
b IMSI hmi awe 2sw.n 1* **** IMla- us A1

aiM -i HI ar s>, at sini :.>.. -i e *n M**I

fl, jmL finest a. sanm as t. nk. ,. .a .. H .ge .
110 Oll^^^p ~lll l'p "! i*^^HHI^I'lppHH^ y IIHRR ^- Elk^J 111M nomlll~p ^ ^^w. -i f k l
_.-*. ^ JctJi ~ .^ ^* h^ i ~e so ,ae m- -. .. .^....;... ^^ ^ .^ f,; & *tt^..... jff 1|i |jh |h

are pEtymh *m<*i* an, iUnt-mesr -as as--me i a IM JamE

emoel'r etb seanS, mblqes amelijim .4 shet pmflheemar absqanagkr*
isltie diftsfmlk.

ALear paheh JA the .&lpW 4 No C ie's pW mfoln
bes bea lms t an- .4 Le Olea.stmml, u*ek owuteet nsm

be a lagal pmn 0A g pw mow &$Iggpia twm t of ol sam&Iljum T
i~lbad i lnp a, i e eily 6 amAl uskr .e1t ala ineaI T Aw
aamemfs bee eed the w e te Malkns etlo dfItlae Smulge 1
RHmmew thI tg *f h ele lmeft am to. eUp he be et 4u
La ploesta Mte dIathed d4flttfee the tlen's ppMa*s. Thta
a te has be* heist O s. tha tao etbew amonge IA na hAe bs &Aflom*
te3rBates. Amvo Me seammag vaned BOMe ht m=g 6 f 1993l, a

pQXtabame m t nkflS be Se Oa IIaS dtstf1 g Aypagby

Blom i 68., 9aI am o gfi's A4 MA wamb eM d10 jolHed. %he
rmetitme uMe (Fhme 16) i4 tsr IMn k msa6i6, le UP Map be

14ge6=ed mwAs a Pagagksit e ""f ,dm n of Aft M et ee "ANN*

Its t n tse ea al o eISM 'O- Oe WO -

"M2lM a Mte MAi Ad ie m ess2W IM t iasqp iftM #on .ltl
rep at np6t ISma fl gin by lbs. i4an a stbS nmtm 6Se t

Alm" mmfkit SA ir 4 e a1 eiam, S m ,on e nmlim* see gl*>
etin sel a^ .* .. .f .... .. ....S
A"^ 60i 3S. M S fl

2 a 0
I llr lr



















m wj

-z I I I
- 0


S ." .

.- .* . -

S" ,----- ."* 2 *
S .. Y
\, i' -" '/ ":;:" c"



0 W




Gf tho
cGch Do0 ROlDgp*glg 10 PeoGDI

0 23 4 567

Fig. 19


---Fig. 19


ad e406Ne2 7tte goup mam qmeaft= ama Mop th.

SM kmdeSd La the blleOGq te eamnese, bee it OmWE be MA1
W10t etlantay, SOme puypslstIem 4*a an" "e 2M*O1lable Mfal 178S.

" *at Nm 14. thoMe of tisi .Meaf e aM 0S and Me awly

Meemm 17 and L8 tbh popslatam Aleutasd by smi 111
Upd, bue 6dre tIn li -tS .ll p*aseda a M -iad 3 l iS tnhe tainad

*MW 326 emt t Whbitfts. S% 0604 Lam- es tiba she Unwe

WA uop au is the qas A1ia seley tchat bI bare aabl 11d

is 1430. 5m 183 eas. an ut nan a meosisly IM
As6flt" el me" abs WMist ame smuat Lneply ea" bjeaud ts an

wa b9^ 1i U let e I r e f tRma el.Re

Th e 41" is puphssse -O as "mim 4awe
betwa 1831 sad lag IU awg. of ON the e tmeal Atsis Me em. th

3lq1 of lame bad me Meo** sea IS -a baambo.. Sb6a S"NSd
oak. m-wap^ hi amB S wla Hp IJ bmW WWE^ -B imi
eSm *gal tane pee s as 0 aL e pw Us8 othl t ei*& l U. m

a senated ease. A UI11 ftibA ot OWN S t* e #A a aL0am6'.

do &. aU Ps. bull at ao p ...... af to

aurubused we the emu l st o. 1s p1viLmge @Ed vemtail.

Ieeanm I1 a 1931, Wn thee pI e lao mletia sIme*md 11 SiN

to 9,419, im Iamp r em lasns Crk samd ato le asmf petM eat*Ut

of the tila bysmi %e thl m of biethbe sr dmm h Thr trot

m sh A kegia s Iand bIee And Ic OIaset was aili oelamatem od

the N0tioeal Pabfl&MI*y.

The Artaen laud b"en, tik bepg I the flear 1 and oee

tim4 unit 1l, s lamlad a lAl Wlassesm in bth ppe lmWim

At tImIs j ft tohe pIriod al ambr eiof a B eims aim iWc se to

thbS islm to sette MI fiid e*at tbaMwrd. Mt rely Aid nIfMt

peoMle .smtaib.e a.I the Ins*em is papaflushmW, ou n"a peInusa
Mhd meM to ~ Mhk hab itMm SB gS1MI 4td 35.0 from Sha e*M*M

.Islab, -od lean Adie at hy iagndt a amil aekgCnetft 1 Jet*r"M&

and eaher alias.

The nemid laster, *tha1 aman.eta of On tLadamL "Ps-

abeawsy, asmsmaa fmo ak o*f Me 5,:1n e iM b sntem

191, ao 191. rtumonn ae baounght S m Sor aamiItaste a

plusmu Ias man J 196I a&W a to week mmameattg the buihdigp.6

The sita af prIse ptamaa me" a" t Yb ae me i osep

1,20e by 61. asme othm Sim it be bul"aftd boSom 1,40 amd
awaw bte nei a. th e tng" eal flof ti "apetsa an Impst

addsifm be 9m N es hWSh. .Mia, bTos a" mrsivel of Isit of pea

1StlC *Le US1, dempImilw, mt ua vd nSw e O L&O emaul bama

ematfacad am*"S an pm rn ws O aitLO pspuefla.

the MK oatig--ttan .4 &os ashnetatre we abbAiiMt

et 00 puem s we t lees oh *o*m' a ts bM)sm dsp mor. o tsXu. Tiday asha ns 1 na ly &a .t. E mmy Im a*h

islad, beavot ma"m by the eaeat ppoil mh Sun in Vhe
wSe a ta m tupamke "m w oLf mW. u om"P, ts, laIf bw bem

Is smb em by th mu I4 ie a 4ahe -.a* @lm r da ,tes, bvsAc

TIa.Sy -u-S f im lft w" e of Itn mme. .s

a slmeta mmpm ethe Sa ema she w1e *IJ mw was se inkmm
b Nw imWm pl-A No Saab a u a omaw 1 ae F of parbates

wema ese m1 sammed OU*k*Aemi^^uk Ub a fgthe lpanJ h M*%a o theriiesj
mrlps the IWist s we ameme atlr dwasew*y. lhSr seat lreem
aw eIwItly emw.d aas a ese, e as 09 a5 -- awll U Mfhbed
wm aSm Ona b a, a r hy paMMly ip eS abM 1 tWaMMK-a ar&

weed IgJs abet l 4 hWAd the whAna. fl etly adm t.e sm ~k
Seom ema to 1be I the beWit L f lalo wm amM nRL pae of bth
utlre w'E l-Jaiemitly aIiseld by m11 I eape of Amep a*la ,
.uS.l., aS p-npbe Eam ea she aee ^^gkSpa p-iant
p6 t be peile thuM. I te M 4 pe tt eSU, J)a*
* to C* teethes w, .Ulobami fts 0ml.. I A 4MIM-as, goe Wa mi~jyr

ad .main flMe UW prFiy .iSe omm W*ith 2Mm*14 as WrL1St*m4.
hWnnf the sempnmeb and s&4lgamSb e*m=Nb e the pqMaetla

* mil iSb A i|Ww -am" aebt s t s OSl, ht m o aa w pc ies p ewin
bmef thie e.m ea- s ge en damd Ieemui l aMM mpoegaeijqy

* y ~ s lbS ebli me ase u 0 Ot i flet aba
ashbid'Lt lv M48, ui~eq SSs ase**** edatt dfinge

eam vWsfa ek l she of eL aeIa plala, thesW mma a e asm em
a *mo wentes be adm dnd sa ms. $am s wtr saI tjaue
eaiumrty, aW at St 0l0 tJaW t a 1lttlte @aM R bM A- aSIgLOGSaI
Wetk khe eAsdmh qef A* 4 y Al e4a6d hw o-En
GAg=su i Is8, ite ItErnthfl of t he telO.It' tiatoismlt koh~m
I A*t tem te Slmfele pf ti: isLed s oe fnw seafm ay sad tBm
amw she Webe swHre. This MMBt mee"Im" p so sohs ofet "
the udmenftm pwrsd4, ul the m $S a m abs=* eeCt e m AmIaStmet
eta So a Stiarl tbha 6 pui mlty so is nMI MXatsea aumt awlm
fitaly ei isd ta k ft a sa kflltlM Alita %ttg Aft a m
of she iAnom gPei I" mummn o an 1 6em~6 aecmm, enV
o5d"y Sen Wldme ad its .t.Sih ame an$mos aS We epem of
aeter na lM f the Mlemd,

The me. B 1995 gfoe ms ptsi eini ed Sh low f imw
as 1 owS r 0.17 pm .ame *t tef 20 ppft Jl ei aiamc thI
sfism a -smm4a s, e. yls Len b m inea e l w
M* minipnr obes a @n *l tSP U ts &auph Mecond smlakf
is ad, 60 aw n& *A 13051 au9en ULU*.
Ste sale as ease he sel 1Femes eque aq 1*SC. kapseso at an

"a Ul, S 'iMMR IM -4 d low& llsy i f Ip afle way

. smel B 1e. wn, e, dk k@.* amens a SMeUH a emwm sxy we ii

b*U en g Ia n s0m a.OM auch ea flu i.uomul ipme

heeeeJI p^.. 14 -"i ane^^, ^-, as d*n^^^^u^ & a dsi owmi

g ao to *n OaMN a aI n So am$ nama.

* OR a&go" rftai. aSt m- b" wem assele agian& w
Me d easStee a I me) anhn Ies 00 meao" emftofa .

gom gt. l eo saP 'k gA Aaj .i flfwplj
is fle. a t^fe l m^.

m" u 1
uirTT It ai m ai a wMUe.,

.- ..


*. 4. -.,

Siei. em.h
,'agm ii
:Mcugean s


g .illl
-- .a

ora ew ONto It )w a n
vj. .n e I a~i wm
epnm d immaaL ,, se a

. , ,- ,, ,,, ,ii,,,,,i .... ... .. .-,u : , -

aeO a n, itta

o i I ...... "

. .. ........

Ai l eft.
B li~kM Lk*

-Ai tm r 0 11s ofl| voom



O-wm. Low tub I.5 per sad the t aulk iet a s14a's

lalO LftlM flfte a l1 wea, Maa the i dmrty Sette to 41p mw

eqofm at. AMtually, the tRle m bet h eer all 6a8.

triCty eo S eweilr Ls vSratrly Ia i< ed gpaeIistes. theo

emSet Jei the pimelty oS peI asim bwet pvtpBsl ald alltuIl.

Lfpteelly, the lea ut of *11 nitleard *m"If i t-h 1limeanme plade
ham peteMbktd ee-lm@tal wrielttmev. cSltwvlly, ste bae

beem entroled thsswh bi6eary by a mai .1 1.S .JiOW

th mo lavadhi nttlchmef & eeR fuasm. At ?a4u06 is t tAd

in its elItirty by a~ I aAmtr, aod he eit ngi A alle 1 to 1fiMm

at h" PtUagM.O

maee t, hmie somad lufme lt i 0a4 eLd bm timaS i M
d*SiRty of lfplt~atm, .4 poft te. TV* aijecity of ~a
'SA in %be amaes pest .sb him-, paet&enteely oa Mt &aWA

the awrenawusl vYwiII *S "ma ft. ams s ai aen da fts,

%te oUfer of fte "AYbdhoe*S of atJttihapl Mm bA I em Wtweei IM by

eFlett 4fMlagflents. 1p^bg aksp sea ftles tha unts

ft, a t obdik .1 saw On.N s empah "a mash

nTawe 4sMe so OW OPlPwi W u6hE W "aM *;ft *s u"p a a SRat. W"-

saned se ban aS i M a. toS imM lis 9 *rl )a

10Og 40mUty of pWtpI*Wm, 4.2 Paw AVON" alb" Magas bo*e

14 1snp n1a, d.e- a1 se l aaa.ewhmientla sUlae.
aian* am e a y, asom"* AM*a me" rna m m
1la1 d&hWk ^^-.A~lt~ rkkmrii *f 1^1 A liA^ t.&1p & h^La en r:^ii^^^^^ flb.Mjtt f J.
onji4^^ *Abu 41ONW ^Hl^^^^I r^^W^Ssm1^ .6*^B^ "a^r'I^B|^M ^^^^^^^~f*

eaup bldiag abQ s so a 7A b U l e

ses a a Lue eamSt des It 4 ta1Iepme see btq k
j-VfLeq If Iitii. illlini mLe IKYkihEm INMI t illI I I

I*tet ie Lla wbe beatm Ias gt MM. tmen

sagmal uomnsba asfe. t is tso hme of Ie. st. m ass. I Md
.pb 1i y MA we delaut p Ms hta peme,. u.d viaen.s e0
an aI ab alOlM. law*" ef am* b a eiasl s 5,184

a0" art gta 0a4" ms pavessw mteC i iv 1jI* s0 la. IIet ofS ti

is as -s esb ar lr inn an.g- a aos. 01 S Wad*
a of se ia.t*Ow Ma. *anftemp mi asame it a&WeLo
lriLl e~s it li iEb 9 IaSt i. oe teit ela IW aeti tof eold

*a n.aS 4p k
p i eails, i a ma .~" a U 0r ji
Sawans S-tVrme64- Clam iM~e ts sf a di1 ri

ige te ttabii ihie istate eiM !,f
agill r a. gEn thek il *f cua ht *M* i yMlM, M 9*1
^^ bJt ^^il^ xjUKLJ^K^ l^B , k*Jk.:^f,17^f *

mw s, uiLth hae hei uwpmditft beyopd its birrS be"uadilas 1
mny peae. AdAdO fes aSttle met periphebWl to DueR t SAen n, thim

i* a enoem tratin of people l alng the Let i Satse i ac in e eopeli

to the bLtter alluvial soils SAu theri e a well ia to its aensl


NUeva etCesa dmesrve little di eu elu in ringed to diiesi-

betio and denity of it ishbbitants, ainee it is only 9te ~qrft

miles in amwe and at the prelmt tin hbs a p lttaeAim of 3,Wl.

The Iaxrr is setiwely rcbm end hars ataiC e smlElltffElMt si tmhe

sas e ibs population hat hod to spill orve into at tie t raeuaurti

bteries of Si owa d Cas anmd $Ses de Gaballos.

The ples of WtiAe is tihe fthU &*put of tie eiamq Y tii

of the pepwlation be be l iMdi, I e l sb N emS m hi i otly

ionewpurwed rqnA&Mey in am nwA3, mshm MW nmJ1. is thle aofrasRe

of 1931, 1943, und 193 pptl# i elaMi Mf6d las ti isn uha smsI

wea tisse who Lt I Is he 16mt hbad s ac- am er, as 11b id

on ( atst Wat Med a a e. In lMi, ila ~b is r l14 fHli*E,

a n-o flAnities It eW. In dSass IP mtuab e MsadW ali ill 1

pipl Living tin asne mtt of LOSe r im ea Ipmopl, ie1i flMi&te.a

ouriat, mtiael rad lerI l tactlities e sem ilmbl w it ImatL -

ties whik "bad a Sm isal vaLas4emwA ow &n seam' s

a toem Ltht aue CAISltui..

3.-e, LI i flflead l,. hIi, m i., p a

biq ma .w 04 atAt a 06wean. in

tOC-* E0 -ASLA m i *h i I ony
go= aw pr ageu ** abs Qest neAs*t doilr g WSO 4INg ton *

6 osa n. Wa16 bgahe" a a pg a be
nmattltetoe tie -bet tat asr thu sea itast a taof
nMCl gareakiagal l fllbms giag tiiLS 1kPam Sn aill spa
Ail s oam abs eow MAS&se .04 IMS aML ga ame, N eo* am
a gas t, enl uastd 41 3i ma taehip. )ag

mUtm sms d has emanntea aa-han-s a o-sse p'Jfe ui adii iaa

as o ar th H aa !s 1 M it$ 6 S ail I I aF al 408"e Ua Ifs t.

f W96f& &SOw &* n. t" W4 &J. -0 itn es nitR
-MM sain aAW wiA n V" mAWl sh 4 AI tn a

0a0 -7 1 -n -ENIIg --111 IMwoI w A

m sI *el nar Aas Sa m "l n. LM m WaI
oa so. ega .a o I Ag1. ..t a. p.a .*4

fle eastIlr n 4illi1- W i l f II tr
-**c m ow, psi nuv., a l4ii iAin a411 . 1o

nim, Wa-elo6 MaMsI, teir wtin
ges"of ifel m oumawn,

~tJIC li~!.-~l~i~ir~ifllC~)rr ~i filkll~i I~CLIIII~II

sew @o of somi ast

Xisle d m-* 11.1 1.75 5.8
stS to ai.4 ,13 A.S

Vn am s mrlm Is Ukheg.R -.Ns o..- mk t.5
_in Ia- .. een qtP. t hw I M ""gum

Th 7.Me of time 10 i A mn to el ipeaamiq,
ovW&% # #4ap puSl des a I mbe tog meagSe MX
-&a fe S f to e aggalaeal M, of -b Wow. Us1 MM
t et ^pMMI S dgWFh lil rsEaF wel stalH it E pI** ,2 <"g

IaAA Tali agr ftlug-. St atWA tS MW? 1ib @@-- gge S
c-moar someimnte aww".W a genams m pw Otent .6
HM W -,b Mw 14.1 1OLL 11wS1119 glo. 00 b" ImHip-

es' a sft6 thl a a(wdt is. amdft -na n la

SI&as n uaao, en Es sk w e 'u. a "a


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