Title: Personality factors related to underachievement in college freshmen of high intellectual ability
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097992/00001
 Material Information
Title: Personality factors related to underachievement in college freshmen of high intellectual ability
Physical Description: iv, 51 1 leaves. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Corlis, Rahe Bassett, 1933-
Publication Date: 1960
Copyright Date: 1960
Subject: Personality   ( lcsh )
Prediction of scholastic success   ( lcsh )
Grading and marking (Students)   ( lcsh )
Psychology thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychology -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Thesis: Thesis -- University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 50-51.
Additional Physical Form: Also available on World Wide Web
General Note: Manuscript copy.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097992
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000570735
oclc - 13723265
notis - ACZ7717


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january, 1960


The writer is greatly indebted to the many persons whose

cooperation and suggestions have made this study possible. As it is

impossible to mention all these persons by name, the writer wishes

them to know that their assistance is genuinely appreciated.

Special thanks mut be offered to Dr. Richard J. Anderson

who has bee extremely helpful from the beginning of this work. Mr.

R. S. Johnson, registrar, also contributed to this study by giving

the writer access to the records in the Office of the Registrar. The

writer wishes to express his appreciation to the other members of his

committee, Dr. E. P. Horne, Dr. M. H. Robertson, Dr. J. E. Harlow,

and Dr. O. B. Thomason.


AGI NDB TS. . . . .

LST TAES . . . .




II. R LTB . . . .


APP ES . . . . .

ZIUITAmIT... .....



* 0 0 S 0 0 0











Table Page

1. Pearasn Product Mement Correlation Coefficients
btwen HPA and Other Variables . . . . .. 18

2. Pearson Product Mement Correlation Coefficients
between Rating Scale Items . . . . . . 20

3. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients
between MPI Scales and Rating Scale Items . . 23

4. Significant Correlatiens between Rating Seale Items
and Checklist Items . . . . . . . . 27



The purpoee of this study is to investigate the emotional fac-

tew that are involved in the underaehievment of people who have the

intelleetual ability to perfera at a high level in college. Educators

sad clinical psychologists are continually concerned over students who

fail to fulfill the premise of test scores of intellect. It is a fact.

that many students hoe eeme to universities, and who have the appro-

priate intellectual ability, do not sceeod academically. M are

failed out or put on academic probation because of peer performance

in their eorer work. Others voluntarily drop out before the first

emester eemee te a close beceaue they realize they are going to make

failing grades. Some are allowed to stay, and do stay, but make grades

below the freshman average. Many of these students continue to make

peer academic records throughout their eellege careers.

Why is it, that students who have the intellectual capacity

te seeesed in college, perform at senh low levels? Realistically,

there are monW peesible answers to this question. It is possible that

the student ha. udaergene extreme environmental preeure which make

it difficult for his to put in enough study tine. Personality factors

als lee as likely answers to the above question. The term personality

veros a mIltitde of factors. There is a large number of possible

aisners be the above question in this one area aleme. One might ask

many questions, such as, does severity of emotional disorder differen-

tiate achievers from nonachievers; is there a personality type which

differentiates achievers from nonachievers; is there a certain psycho-

dynamic pattern which differentiates achievers from nonachievers; and

many more, All these questions will be touched on in sme way in y this

study. The emphasis will be on the psychodynamics of achievers com-

pared to nonachievers.

Some psychological clinics, which are associated with univer-

sities in ome way, offer psychotherapeutic treatment to such under-

achieving students. Of course, only the students who come and ask for

such treatment, or who are referred, get it. In some such cases the

client's grades undergo a dramatic change. This would lead us'to

believe that, in at least a recognizable proportion of cases of under-

achievement, personality factors make a significant contribution. The

present study is an attempt to investigate experimentally the contri-

bution of such personality factors to underachievement by college

freshmen who have the intellectual ability to succeed at the Universi-

ty of Florida.

The writer wishes to acknowledge that he understands personal-

ity as a configuration. He believes that isolated groups of specific

traits may be used in describing personality but they have meaning only

when the person is seen as a whole. An attempt is made to evaluate

the person as a whole person and not to dissect his personality into

parts or sections.

It is hoped that the information derived from the results of

this study may be found useful in counseling students who are net


fluntiening up te their intellectual level. There is alee the long

range pesibility that this information may be used in detecting,

ahead of time, the students who are likely to have academic difficulty

and thus allow preventive action.

Proevie studies of underaehievers have generally found that

payekeetrie data on personality have net significantly predicted the

underaehievers, or differentiated he underachievers frem the achievers.

The few studies which have found pschometrie dAta to differentiate

are inaosistent in their findings.

Jeann (11) gave the MiLueeota Multiphasic Persnality Inven-

tory (IMPI) to freshmen at Brigham Young University. Using high

sehel grades and the American Couneil on Education Psychological

teet (ACE) as criteria he t vided the subjects into four groups:

achieving students of low ability, nenachieving students of low

ability, achieving students of high ability, and nenachieving stu-

dats of high ability. Ja en was smet concerned with the first

group mentioned. He compared the mean scores on the nine clinical

sealed of the PI between grope. He found that the latter two

groups differed at the 5 per eent level of confidence on the Lie

(L), Maealinity-fetninity (Mf), and Paraneid (Pa) sceleo. Nen-

aekineve of high ability ade higher L seere but lower Mf and

Pf nepee.s Friek (6) gave the PI to 267 college freshman girls.

He serealated eoh WNPI sale with the ACE. Gerrelatios ranged

from -.20 to -.02, ar3 all wre minus. He also correlated the NPI

sea31 wIh grades and fend that all eerrelatite were minus except

for Pa which was in the positive direction and significant at the 5 per

cent level of confidence. Other correlations found significant were

the Hypochondriasis (Hs) scale at the 5 per cent level, and the Psycho-

pathic deviate (pa), Schisophrenic (Sc), and Hypemania (Ma) scales at

the 1 per cent level. He found significantly better prediction of

grades using the ACE and MI than predicting grades solely on the

basis of the ACE. He concluded that emotional factors significantly

effect performance at college. Stone and Ganung (18) administered

the IMP to 317 women freshmen. They divided them into two groups,

normal, and those who made deviant scores on the MPI. They found

that there were more graduates in the normal than among those in the

other group. This difference was significant at the 5 per cent level.

The deviant group also had significantly lower grade point averages.

The M.PI scales which made this differentiation mest significantly

were Depression (D), Hysteria (Hy), and especially Ma. Drake and

Getting (4) found in one study that the Mf scale may be measuring

intellectual as well as personality variables. He found that the D

scale was low in the profiles of students judged by their counselors

as "lacking in academic motivation." He showed that the differentiat-

ing profile is one in which Sc and Ma are ameng the three highest scales

and Social Introversion (Si) is among the lowest two scales. This was,

however, found to be true only when Mf was also low.
b In a later study Drake (5) administered the lMPI to 3,480

male college freshmen. In this group he found sixty-nine useable pro-

files which fit the above described pattern. This group, "lacking

academic motivation, differed at the .001 level in grades from the

rest of the freshman class, grades being lower in this group. Since

Mf had to be low also, he postulated that Mf was acting as a suppres-

sor variable. The Mf scale was not significantly correlated with

grades, so therefore, he concludes, does not predict scholarship by


Assum and Levy (2) tested the significance of the difference

between the grades of students who had come to a university psychologi-

eal clinic asking for help and students who had not made contact with

that clinic. They found no significant differences between these two

groups on the ACE or on reading tests, but a difference at the 1 per

sent level on grades. The grades of people who came to the clinic

were significantly lower than the grades of people who had made no

clinic cetact.

Diener (3) differentiated two groups of college students,

ahievers and underaehievers. He tested for significant differences

en age, time spent in extracurricular activities, Kuder Preference

Record, Edmards Personal Preference Schedule, Breuu-Heltman Survey

of Study Habits and Attitudes, ACE, reading ability, high school

grades, heers per week spent in studying, work for pay, class attend-

amee, and plaee of residence. He found no significant differences,

with bet few showing trends.

Teoug (19) eenstructed instruments to test parent-child rela-

etieships, and found that freeman "aohierwment metivatien" was net

signifieeatly influenced by the relatioehip of the subjects with

their parents.

Several wkers have attempted to construct specific MPI

sales wideh would predict, or differentiate achievers from noma-

chievers. Qi (16) correlated es c WI ite with the ACE and grade

point averages ef his abjectts. He constructed one seale of these

itms that correlated significantly at the 1 per eent level with

grades, and low with ACE. He eenstructed a larger scale of khe item

that correlated at the 5 per ent level with grades, and lev with ACE.

He then ecss validated his sales en three additional freshman

classes. Both seale, however, showed only a weak relationship with

college achievement. Neither seale offered a agniflcant increase

in prediction. He eencludes that MPI sales are net werthwile in

trying to differentiate college achievers frem nenachievrs.

Altus (1) alse attempted to eeastret a similar seale en the

fMP using a smaller N. Me found no significant seale bt states

that he believes ~ueh a scale is feasible.

Meehl and Hathawa (15) demnstrated that the I seale is

correlated with edueatinal level. They alse note that college si

dents make higher I scores than the gueral population.

Another appreah is et study u deraehieving students using

mainly clinical evidence and et relying on psycheetric data as the

major maure. Sarrof and Raphael (17) intensively studied five

students wke ee te the attention of the Dee's offiee for failure.

They interviewed them weekly for met of their seesd meter. They

also admnistered te the the Iuder Preferenee Record, ACE, and M higan

Sentence GCmpletion Test. They reported their results as five complete

case studies.

Case A severed at the 97 percentile rank on the ACE. He earned

a power aeedemic record. He was suggestible, mature, naive, and felt

inferior to his brother. He seemed afraid to try for fear of failure,

Came B earned a 41 percentile rank on the ACE and was impulsive,

oegeentmri, showed a low tolerance for frustration. His father suffered

a heart attack during the first semester.

Case C earned a 99 percentile rank on the ACO. He was involved

in may extracurricular activities, showed a psychopathic trend, flat-

nees of affeet, imaturity, and engaged in may escapist activities.

Case D eoored at the 29 percentile rank on the ACE. oH seemed

iaueo're, shy, passive, imature, and had many tensions with his reem-


Case E seared at the 78 percentile rank on the ACE. He was

sehimoid, harbored deep-seated hostilities toward his mother and step-

father, and seed to resist passively his parents by academic under-

aehioment. He had difficulty studying because of his ubiquitous

heetile fantasies.

The above eae studies indicate a maltiaeusality for failure,

shew that crisis sitatien may be important. All were judged as very

matuare, and rebellion against parental authority is sometimes ex-

preaed by resistamae e study.

STheee studise suggest the need for a study which eoSiines both

Seliteal and peyehoetrie data on a large Aber of people. The present


study is a attempt to combine psychometric data and clinical informa-

tion in order to understand the psyehodynamic patterns underlying under-

achievement. The hypothesis being tested is stated in general terms.

This hypothesis is as follows,

Hypothesis: There are discernible psychodynamics underlying

underachievement in college of students with high intellectual ability.




The subjects were drawn from the entering freshman class at

the University of Florida in the fall of 1958. Classes began in

September, and the subjects were selected the following November.

At this time sst had had the first round of progress tests and

many had had at least some of the second round of progress tests.

All of these freshmen had been given the college ACE during orienta-

tion week, the week just prior to the beginning of classes. The

reeerds of the group of students who earned a percentile rank of 90

or better on the ACE total were separated from the rest of the fresh-

man olass. This is a 90 percentile rank on local norms which are

slightly higher than national norms. There were 271 freshmen in this


The writer then, with the use of the Registrar's records,

formed a selected group frem ameng these people in the first group

who had made a 29 percentile rank or less on any one, or mere, of

their progress tests. There were seventy-seven members in this group.

The object of selecting people who had made a 29 percentile rank or

lower on any one progress teet was to insure the selection of a group

of people with high ACE scores, many ef when would not likely make

high grade at the end of the semester. It is assumed that all in

this group have the intellectual ability to perform at a satisfactory

level at the University of Florida.

In the group of seventy-seven, two people dropped out of school

before the close of the semester. One of these two was not available

for use as a subject, having left the school. The second person

returned the second semester and was interviewed and tested at that

tine. As no grades were available for the first semester for this

person, she was not included in the statistical handling of the data

but is considered in the clinical report.

Another two subjects completed the first semester but were drop-

ped from the University for their poor academic performance before they

could be contacted as subjects in this study. Both were contacted and

asked to complete the checklist and to write, in as much detail as

possible, the reasons that they believe lie behind their failure at the

University. They were also asked to write something of their background.

One of the two replied. The one who replied is considered separately

in the clinical report. The other was listed as unavailable as a sub-


One in the group refused entirely to participate in the study

for personal reasons. He was asked to participate, but his insistent

refusal was honored on the belief that a person has the right to dis-

close only what personal information he wishes. He too was considered

unavailable as a subject. Another of the subjects took the MMPI and

then refused to come for the clinical interview. As the data on this

subject were incomplete he was not included in the statistical analysis

but he is taken up in the clinical report.

It was not possible to contact one other subject after exten-

sive effort. The writer did interview his roommates, and this infor-

mation is treated in the clinical report.

A total of seven subjects was unavailable regarding the statis-

teoal analysis due to no, or incomplete, information. Of these seven,

eme information is available on four. They are discussed separately.

This left an N of 70 in the group which was analysed statistically.


Each person of this group was sent a letter asking him only to

appear at a specified place end time to participate as a subject in a

research study. The subjects met in groups ranging from twenty-six to

twelve people due to practical considerations. Some had to be con-

tacted as many as five times before they appeared though most attended

the first group to which they were invited. At these group meetings

the subjects were told only that the experiment involved taking a test

and being interviewed. They were left as nave as possible prior to

the end of the clinical interview. They were told that the study would

be explained at that time. Individual appointments were then arranged

with the writer en the besis of one heor per interview. The booklet

fer of the KPI was administered to each of the groups.

A eheeklist (see Appendix A) was devised to obtain the sub-

jects' report on certain variables which logically would seem to dif-

ferentate students who de well academically from those who do peerly

ae"emically. This oheeklist was filled in by the subject at the end

of the interview.

A rating scale (see Appendix B), for the interviewer's use, was

also constructed. The items on this rating scale were selected as the

writer felt thy might well be variables which would differentiate

achievers and underachievers. This rating scale was filled out by the

interviewer at the end of the interview on the basis of his clinical

impressions of the subject.

During the interview the interviewer, ho was the same person

in all cases, took extensive notes on what was said. He also jotted

down his clinical impressions and any outstanding personality charac-

teristics of the subject. An attempt was made to understand the per-

sonality dynamics functioning in each subject from this interview. No

standardized or rigid procedure was used in the interviews. The inter-

viewer, rather, felt his way along according to his own feelings and

clinical understandings. Th interviewer asked few direct questions

and generally let the subject choose his own direction. At times speci-

fic questions were called for. The subjects were, for example, usually

asked to tell the interviewer something of their families. At the time

of the interview the interviewer knew nothing of the results of the

MMPI or of the subject's grades.

After the interview the 1MPI's were scored twice by two differ-

eit people as a check on the accuracy of the scoring. The only three

disagreements were rechecked by a third scoring. Profiles were then

drawn up for the nine clinical scales, the L scale, the F scale, and

the K scale. The question mark scale was not used, as all but one sub-

ject answered every item, and in this case the score of 23 was just

below the mean. The T seeres on each scale for each subject were

reoerded. These T scores were used in the statistical analysis as

they are compatible scales and the raw scores are not. The T scores

were taken after the oerreetion for K.

Only after the interview was completed, and the fPI's scored,

were the grades for the first someter obtained. The writer acknowl-

edges the fact that there is not a one-to-one relationship between

grades and achievement. Grades are, however, the beet indicator of

achievement available and so were chosen to represent achievement in

this study. As is customary at the University of Florida, quantifica-

tion of grades is accomplished by dividing the number of hours carried

into the honor points earned. Honor points are assigned on the basis

of four point for an A, three points for a B, two points for a C, one

point for a D, and sere points for an E. The distribution of honor

point average for this group of people approaches the shape of the

norml curve with a slight aeewmulation of cases below t mean. Of

this group of people of high intellectual ability, thirty-seven made

HPA's of lees than C. This is 53 per cent of the total group.

The results ef the twelfth grade Cooperative General Achieve-

ment Tests were obtained from the Office of the Registrar. The Coopera-

tive General Aehievement Tests (Co-op tests), and the high school ACE

are given to all high school seniors in the State of Florida. The

Co-op tete and the high school ACE comprise the placement tot series.

The quantitative data in this study were the HPA, placement

test total, number of hours carried, all the items of the checklist,

all the items of the rating scale, the 13 MMPI variables, and a coding

for the selected pattern of courses taken. These data were punched in-

to Hollerith cards. The services of the Statistical Laboratory at the

University of Florida were employed. Programs for intercorrelations on

the IBM 650 computer were available only for a 30 variable problem. It

was decided to do preliminary statistical work using the IBM 082 sorter.

The deck of cards was divided into the upper, lower, and middle thirds

on the basis of HPA. Then the upper and lower thirds were individually

run through the sorter, sorting on the punches in other columns accord-

ing to the choice of the operator. In this manner the distribution of

the people in the upper third of HPA's was compared to the distribution

of the people in the lower third of HPA's on each of the 55 variables.

In this manner it was found that the distributions were identical or

very similar on 26 of the variables and that 29 of the variables looked

worth subjecting to more refined statistical handling. These 29 vari-

ables, along with HPA, were programmed and run through the IBM 650 com-

puter for intercorrelations, means, and standard deviations. The

remaining 26 variables were discarded as not differentiating between

the achievers and underachievers on the basis of inspection of the

results obtained with the sorter.

The interview material and MMPI profiles were arranged in rank

order according to HPA. A case sunaary was extracted on the top six-

teen subjects and on the bottom sixteen subjects. These case summaries

are the results of the clinical interpretation of all the information

available on each subject and are attempts to describe the most

important psyehodynasie aspects of each person. There was no attempt

here to subject this material to quantitative analysis. The writer

believes that this kind of information is not amenable to the methods

of quantifieatien available at present. The distinction between sub-

jective and sabjectivima is important at this point. Subjective data

are data arrived at by description or interpretation and are not mena-

ble to analysis into numbers. Subjectivism rers to the interpreta-

tion of observations based solely on the personal distortions of the

interpreter. These two cannot be elearly distinguished freo each

other in aso eeaerete way. It is hoped in this study that the clinical

data are more in the class of data labeled subjective, and that little

eubjectivism is involved.

Oeneralisations are drawn on the basis of similarities and

differemees amea the eases of students who made the sixteen lowest

HPA's and similarities and difforeneos among the eases of students

who made the sixteen highest HPA' s. These two groups were also com-




Statistical Findings

On the basis of the preliminary statistical work, the follow-

ing 30 variables were selected for more refined statistical analysis

as they appeared most promising: the 13 MMPI variables, the 10 rating

scale variables, HPA, high sehoel placement test total, question nm-

ber 13 on the checklist and the explanation following this question,

the items "hobbies" and "doing things alone" from the checklist, and

the item on the highest school grade reached by the subject's mother.

All other items were disregarded a they showed no significant differ-

ences between the people making high honor point averages and the

people making low honer point averages.

With the use of the IBM 650 computer 435 Pearson product moment

correlation coefficients were computed. These were the intercorrelal

tions of the selected 30 variables mentioned above. Thee correlation

coefficients ranged from .900 to .000. This study dees not concern

itself with all of the obtained correlations, i.e. correlations between

MMPI scales. The range of correlation coefficients with which this

study is concerned was from .600 to .000.

There were 73 of the 435 correlation coefficients significantly

different frem zero at the 1 per cent level ef confidence and 45 signif-

icantly different from sero at the 5 per cent level of confidence.

This study is not concerned with all of these correlations either. Of

the carrelatimes of importanee in this research there were 29 signif-

ieantly different frem mre at the 1 per cent level of confidence, and

19 significantly different from sere at the 5 per cent level of confi-

domee. Many of the significant correlation coefficients in the total

graup were between MMPI scales. This study does not concern itself

with these eorrelations. This study does ceneern itself with the corre-

latin between honer point average and other variables, intercorrela-

tions between rating scale items, correlations between rating scale

iteu and MMPI sealee, and correlations between rating scale items and

checklist item.

It ean be seen from Table 1 that only 2 of the other 29 vari-

ables e relate significantly with HPA. The only correlation coeffi-

cient significantly different from sere at the 1 per cent level of

cofidenee was between HPA and high seheol placement test total. Of

the ravdable eerrelated, plaeememt test total is the beet single

predieter of HPA. Npen though this correlation is significant at the

1 per cent level of eentidene it is low in tenms of predictability.

WIem r is .317 there is 95 per cent of the variance unaccounted for.

It is reaemable that students we do well en ehievement tests at the

high sheel level are also by and large the students wse de well their

frethmn year in eellege. In a selected simple of this nature, this

is mBtenrthy.

The only ether variable statL;tisally significant, this at the

5 per cent level, wm HPA with the it em the rating seale, severity



Level of
Variables Correlation Significance

crisis situation
reason for crisis
F scale
I "
L "
D "

Mf .
Pa "
Sc e
MePI total
anxiety level
expression of hostility
type of defenses
feelings ef inadequacy
resistance to parents
severity of the problem
hew seialized
need for social acceptance
doing things alene
relates interpersonally
placement test total


not significant




5% level
net significant


1% level









of problem. This eerrelation being significant suggests that severity

of metional disturbance might be a factor in highly intelligent stu-

dents doing poorly at college. The more generally disturbed a person

is the ore difficult it is for him to produce at a college levl, even

though he has the neesooary intellectual ability.

The inter-item correlations of the rating scale are presented

in Table 2. Manifeet anxiety level is correlated, significantly dif-

teret frm sere, with hew well a person relates interpersenally (1 per

cent level), with the severity of psychological problems (1 per cent

level), and with how seoialised the student is (5 per et loevl). The

are awears the student, the le well he related interpersonally, and

the mre severe were his problem. The mere anxieou he was the less

seeialised he was.

The student's manner of expreeesng his hostilities, from pas-

sively to openly, did net eerrelate significantly with any of the ether

itaes on the rating scale.

The student's oharateristic defenses, on a continuum from

hrsterical through intelloctaliing, oorrelated significantly (5 per

eat level) with the degree to whieh dependoney is a problem. It

appears here that the ore hysterical the student the ere apt he is to

qperiemce dependeoy needs as a problem.

The degree to which feelings of inadequey are a problem

Serrelatod significantly with resistanee to parents (1 per cmt

level with the degree to which dependency is a problem (1 per cent

letl), with the severity of his psychological problem (1 per ocnt



1 2 3 4

1. Manifest anxiety level.

2. Expression of hostility
(passively to openly).

3. Defenses (intellectual-
izing to hysterical).

4. Feelings of inadequacy
a problem.

5. Resistance to parents
a problem.

6. Relates interpersonally.





Dependency a problem.

Severity of psychological

How socialized is he?

Need for social

a 5% level of significance

b 1% level of significance

.106 -.003





TABLE 2-Continued

5 6 7 8 9 10






-.20 4


































level), with his need for social acceptance (1 per cent level), and

negatively with hew well the student relates (5 per cent level).

Resistance to parents would imply difficulties with parents and prob-

ably many of the same difficulties which cause a person to resist

also contribute to his feelings of inadequacy, the severity of his

psychological problems, and his needs for social acceptance. Depend-

ency needs may be one of the basic problems these students had with

their parents. As we would expect, the less adequate the student

felt the less able was he to relate in an interpersonal situation.

The degree to which the student was resisting his parents

correlated significantly with the degree et which dependency is a

problem with him (1 per cent level), with the severity of his psycho-

logical problems (1 per cent level), and negatively with how well he

related in an interpersonal situation (5 per cent level). Not having

been able to work through a dependent relationship with one's parents

and struggling with these dependency needs is a major way of resisting

parents. On this theoretical basis we would expect a high correlation

here. The same struggle, resisting parents, is sometimes a disturbing

conflict se we would expect a high correlation with severity of psy-

chological problems. The mere an individual was resisting his parents

the less well he related interpersonally.

As we would expect, the less well an individual was able to

relate the mere severe were his psychological problems. The better

he wa able to relate interpersonally the mere socialized he was.

We would expect that the more dependent an individual, the

mere severe would be his psychological problems, these variables corre-

lated at the 1 per cent level. Dependency needs ma be a basic psycho-

logical problem.

Severity of psychological problems was correlated significantly

at the 1 per cent level with how socialised the person was. We would

guee that severely disturbed people would hav fewer and pererr social

relationships than well-adjusted people. This is confirmed by the

negative correlation.

Other significant correlatieno of interest are discussed in

the nuet few paragraphs; se Table 3.

The F scale on the IMPI correlated significantly at the 1 per

sent level with feelings of inadequacy as a psychological problem, the

degree of reeistanoe to parents, the degree to which dependency is a

problem, and the severity of psychological problem. We would expect

severity of problems and the F scale to correlate significantly as we

knew that severely disturbed people earn significantly higher F seale

seres than well-adjusted people.

The F *ale is a group of its that are rarely answered by

people. A high F sale may indicate isunderstading the directions

or a person who is very eenfused. If the higher F score in this study

indicate confusion hen we would expect the significant correlations

with inedequaey as a problem, resistance to parents, and dependency

as then ec ntribate to conflict and senfusion. The F seale eerrelated

sagnMoantly at the 5 per cent level with hew socialized the student

we. Gontfsed and disturbed students secialise lon than well-organised



a ) a

a I I a a a

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0 a 0 0 0 0 0

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E d= 0. H ,to C 0 0 0 0 C -I
Z 0 ca

8 M 4

rt 0 0 0 0 0 0 o

OH C M cM -O c

n l cli I m I" m

S0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Co- _O cO U
o H 0 r 0 H 5

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The K scale correlated significantly (5 per cent level) only

with the degree to whih the student was socializing. There is a rela-

tisene ip between being the kind of person who socialises and having a

deancive tnt-taking attitude.

The hypoehendriasis scale on the l1 PI correlated significantly

(5 per sent level) with the rating seale item on manifeet anxiety level.

The. ee i of hypechendriaeal defenes the more mani'est anxiety was

hemn by the student.

The D seale on the MMPI oerrelated significantly (5 per cent

level) with reesitaneo to parents, severity of peyehological -

lam, the degree to which the student was seeializing, and hew well

he iwa able to relate in an interpersonal situation. If we take the

Sseeale to represent hostility, anxiety, guilt, and general upset and

disturbanee of a ne1retd nature as well as depression then we would

epeet a significant sorreation between D and severity of problems,

B and hew seeialied a person is, and D and hew well a person relates

iaewpernemely. A high D meere alse seem to indicate in ae degree

difficulties between the person and his parents.

The Pd seale eerrelated significantly with degree of depend-

emy (5 per ent level) and with degree f reesitamee to parents (1 per

eeat level). We weld expet a high eerrelatein between the degree of

re*eteineo to pmente and the d seale. Psychopathic people reaet

against the sperege structure derived mainly freo their parents. Due

to the aleefaWe ef the peren with a decided peyeheopatki tried in

persility we weald eMpeet an alienation of dependency problems, yet

PF and depedency are significantly correlated. Possibly this repre-

sents a group of people who have a psychopathic trend in their person-

alities but who are not pathologically psychopathic and who maintain

enough superego function to be dependent.. One interpretation might be

that extreme dependency underlies the psychopathic trend.

The Pt scale correlated at the 5 per cent level with degree of

anxiety, degree inadequate feelings are a problem, and resistance to

parents. It is theoretically consistent that people who make high Pt

scores are anxious and feel inadequate. Many of these problems origi-

nate in the person's relationship with his parents which would account

for the correlation between Pt and resistance to parents. The Pt scale

also correlated significantly at the 1 per cent level with degree of

severity of problems. The psychasthenic scale measures ebsessive-

compulsive behavior, intellectualising, and general disturbance.

The Pa scale correlated significantly at the 1 per cent level

with resistance to parents, degree of dependency, and severity of prob-

lems. People who resist their parents, yet are dependent and fairly

disturbed, alse td to have a paranoid trend in their personalities.

The Sc scale correlated at the 1 per sent level with degree of

inadequacy, resistance to parents, degree of dependency, and severity

of problems. As a high score on the schizophrenic scale indicates a

relatively disturbed individual we would expect the above eorrelations.

The total of the T scores on the 4MPI clinical scales excluding

Mf correlated significantly with degree of inedequacy (5 per cent lev

el), resistance to parents (1 per cent level), degree of dependency

(1 per ent level), and severity of prablema (1 per sent level). The

MWPI tetal eere is sometimes considered as a general measure of degree

of pathological deviation. It is far from pure because ef the cancel-

ing mat effects of high and lew scales. The above correlations are

understandable and evn expected if the MPI tetal is a general ma-

ure of adjustment.

The eerrelatiens between MPI scales and rating scale item~

are semrised in Table 3.

As seen in Table 4, the checklist item on "time spent doing

things alee" correlated significantly with resistance te parents

(5 per eent level degree ef dependency ( per cent levell, and

severity ef problems (5 per cent level). People wh are dependent,

reeiet their parents, and are fairly disturbed, tend to spend nre

tie by theweelvee away fre interpermnal relatienahips. Alee the

tim spent with hebbies correlated significantly at the 5 per cent

level with severity of prebleu and with need for seoial acceptance.

eeple who are very dependent sometimes attach this dependency to a

hobby that is less threatening to thm than people.

All other correlations were statistically not significant or

met at all relevant to this reeeareh.

A Hatshamy and Mekl (10) report, the Ma scale on the WPI

at college students au generally higher than with & non-e llee pepu-

latien. On 31 ef the 72 IPI profiles the M seale was the highest

single seale. This is 43 per sent. No theeretical explanation is

efered by Hathaway and eeh1 and none by the present auther.



Rating Scale r Checklist

Resistance to parents .291a Time spent doing things alone

Degree of dependency .288a

Severity of problems .252a "

Degree of dependency .377b Time spent in hobbies

a 5% level of significance

b 1% level of significance

Clinical Findings

The evidenRH ef a clinical nature is enlightening on the issue

of the underlying psyehedynmics o* highly intelligent people who do

peerly in their first semoter at college. Case studies ware drawn

up en these people re made the sixtoe lowest IPA's and en the people

whoe Me the sixteen highest HPA's. These will be presented individ-

mally. In formulating the ease study the writer has attempted to e

all the infoeration available to him and arrive at a picture of basic

parehedyamesa rather than emparing these people on a pinpointed,

atemised basis. This resulting picture of the person is presented

rather than factual material.

In order of PA beginning with the lowest, the following re

the ease smmries of those sixteen people king the lowest HPA's.

The basic dynmites and eharactorizatien of the subject was

done immediately following the interview, before the interview had

knowledge of the object's MMPI or grades. The final ease suiaries

were prepared using all available infornatin about the subjects.

Tese final mmu ries are presented bhre.

Case A This ease my be ~ot of sequence. This person

dipped eat fet seel during the first semester in rder to avoid

extremely low grades. She my be described as a hostile person whe

minly direets this heoetlity toward men. She spent almost the

entire interview talking abt her hostilities toward her parents.

be is met, however, at all able to express theee ostilities eply

for fear of her parents rejection. Se can oely eoress theae

resentments indirectly though she is aware of them. Because she is in

touch with her feelings and with reality her MMPI profile is rather

healthy looking. Successful performance in college is very important

to her parents. She passively resists her parents and expresses her

hostilities for them by performing poorly in college.

Case B: This is a very dependent, defensive, intellectualized,

and constricted person. He feels alienated from his father and is

very frightened by anything representing authority. He has a need to

be accepted socially which sometimes prevents him from studying. He

lacks self-cnfidene and has developed some counterphobic defenses.

A great deal of his energy is spent in strivings for independence,

away freo authority. College represents authority and dependency

which puts him in the middle of his conflict here at college. The

ensuing threat causes his intellectual functioning to be highly oon-


Case C: This person is suffering from psychological problems

of lng standing. He is a oold, rigid person whose intellectualizing

defenses keep him from experiencing any warm interpersonal relation-

ships. He cannot express his real feelings in any warm way. He has

no insight or understanding into his own difficulties. He is an ever

controlled and socially inept person. He is a very tight, rigid per-

son who cannot leesen up enough to produce in a flexible and eon-

stractive way.

Case B: This persn'is somewhat washed-out comtionally. Ske

needs to please her parents as a cover-up for eme deep-eated hostile

feelings whikh are empletely unacceptable to her. She is dependent

and ca~ et aeeept responsibility. She also has needs fr social

aseeptamee which aleag with her dependency and wi hy-washinees ake

her very sggestible. Friends pull her along into special events.

These dymaies keep her frm studying, which in turn fulfills her

mcial needs, and allow her ver indirectly to express her hostil-

itie for her parents by not producing in college.

Gae E: This person is very dependent and tied to her hoe,

esepeially her mother. She tries to break away and fights thi strug-

gle vew intwensy but e*mpletely denies it. She has a marked

pesive-aggre site orientation toward life. Depression is about

her emly nweretie defense. Education is very important to her

father teMrd mwho she surt express her resentments in her own

paosive-eggresive maner. The passive-aggressive expression of

heetility is marked and characteristie ef her entire personality.

This is mainly in relation to her father and her need to have his

love while at the sa time she feels she deea't receive it and

bkbera deep reentments ever this.

G F s This is a highly axeud s and hostile persem who is
able to wroeu little warth fr people. He is always angry. He

has a histery of having been epletely rejected by his entire family

all his life and wry rmh a*eds aseepte ae. Hoe entineally let

himself be -s ed by theirs eping t be aeeepted by the by se doing.

Xe is, at the smr time, afraid of net being mated, s rejects pee-

ple beere they have the chance to reject him. Be eemsequatly

receives little warmth from people and gives none, but constantly

hopes to get warmth. He has no insight into his difficulties and

denies problems. As he is constantly seeking social acceptance he

spends a great deal of time trying to get near to people, but never

accomplishes it, and s has little time left to study.

Case 0: This person was very immature and showed little

spontaneity in the interview, When she was young she was often ill

and developed any hysterical conversion and hypochondriacal defenses.

She uses denial as a defense along with naivete. She is terribly

afraid of failure so uses her hypochondriacal and conversion symptoms

as an excuse for doing poorly at college. There is a basic insecurity


Case Hs This is a fairly disturbed person. His father is a

loud, hostile, and threatening person. He has developed in an opposite

fashion froe his father. He has little-girlish mannerisms, is immature,

feminine, dependent, and passive. He can express his hostile feelings

only passively. He also harbors a deep hostility for his father. This

looks like a basic passive-aggressive personality problem of long stand-

ing with schizoid features. He expresses his hostility for his parents

indirectly by doing poorly in college. The schizoid confusion in his

thinking also contributes to his poor college performance.

Case I: This person was tease and anxious in the interview

situation. He is effeminate and feels awkward socially. He is not

a very sensitive person. There is an almost classical psychopathic

history of exploitation and manipulation of people. His MMPI looks

like a fairly disturbed profile. There are decided difficulties

areund values. Xe does not readily accept social values, including

values en education. He has a psychopathic uneenoern regarding

eellege aid edusatien.

Cae J: This person shews evidence of pIechepatkic charac-

teriastee from present dynamics, history, and MMPI. He has no cloe

relationship and has little sensitivity in interpersonal situations.

His heetilities are open and accepted. He has never dereleped a sound

superego and feels very little guilt ever his epeR aggressive acts.

He aets eut his hostilities and readily aeeepts this behavior in him-

self. Having an ineheate superego he is met able to diseern what is

of value and what is not. This makes his performance in college very


Cae K: This is a fairly disturbed person. He is constantly

fighti to be a man and to be masculine. At the same time he feels

great abivaleBoe for his father. His struggle then beeomes one of

trying to be like his father aw& at the same time trying to get awey

frea the father by resisting him. oe is resisting a dominating and

rejecting faser and at the Sme time leFgs for his aeeeptance. This

oeoflist argues may heetile and esafusing feelings in him. There

is a slight seisdd trend also. e eanet expreoo his hoseetility for

his father directly as this would thm aliemate his father and this

weold be tee threatening All the eonfasiea in his feeling aad

thiM dag make studying very difficult for him.

SCa Lt This is an intelleetualised, eetrolled, and smekhat

effeminate person. He has good defenses that work well for him.

His parents rejected him a child. He has developed an intense

need for social acceptance and spends a great deal of time seeking

acceptance and recognition. He became very involved in a social

extracurricular activity during the first semester which left him

very little time to study. The need for social acceptance is uh

greater than his felt need for an education.

Case Ms This is a very tense, rigid, rationalized person.

He is a fairly disturbed person. There is a decided paranoid trend

here with projection being a major defensive measure. His relation-

ships with his parents are disturbed. A basic conflict within him

is his struggle with masculinity and sexual identification. He is

basically identified with his mother and fights this, struggling to

be a man. He has strong ambivalent feelings for his father and at

times finds it difficult to identify with his father. His father

very such wants him to complete college. College symbolizes ascu-

linity to him and so college represents his problems. He struggles

with college work as he struggles with the masculine role.

Case N: This person is very affected, sarcastic, dependent

and has intense status needs. He fights for his mother's love and

feels he is in competition with his brother. He streagly resents

the father and denies this. He has deep feelings of inadequacy. He

is quite tied to his mother but in many ways attempts to break away

from her. He cannot express his hostilities, instead tarns them on

himself, (he reports he has an ulcer) or expresses them indirectly.

His low grades in ellege upeet his mother. He makes low grades in

aellege am an expression of the hostility which results fre his

frustrated needs for nurtaranee.

Case 0: This is a fairly disturbed person. He is shy and

fels inadequate. e has a great deal of free-floting anxiety and

feeling of being apeet. In see ways his background i the back-

gra nd f a spoiled ehild. His parents decided for him that he would

eme to the Univernity of Florida. He has mny defense and is using

them all atensively. Me has periods f depression aseempanied by

anxiety. e also uses hypeehandriaeal defenses and hs hysterical

hadeshes. His major defense are rigid, intellectualizing ones.

Non ef tWse deetoes are able to eentrel his anxieties and he

remsim upet, auxims, aMd enfused. He is used to having things

dne for him and yet is reacting against authority. This embina-

tim of fastens mkes it wry difficult fer him te preduee in college.

Cam PI This pners is affected, has mrny peculiar effeminate

manerimm, and is very mature. Me is highly identified with the

femal figure and is struggling with a base cenfliet. At times he

aets little-girlish. tis defemes are denial, repression, and noavete,

at tin e he is histrienie. As a child he was e*,rindulged and feels

leas and amius an heis w away fro hem. He would be very happy

to return herie to ds nrther's waiting arms. Maang low grades is se

WAy be de ibis.

The fellwing are the sew se n ries of the people ie -te

thu eir-*A highest NPA's from te highest on dom.

Case It This person is somewhat passive and slightly dependent

but not pathologically passive-aggressive or passive-dependent. He

is pleasant, affable, and capable of deep interpersonal warmth. He

is somewhat tied to home and sometimes has some difficulty in assert-

ing himself. Basically this ease study is normal. He has good ego

function, is integrated, and expresses much warmth in his interpersonal


Case 2: Tis is a dominating and controlling person. He is

basically identified with his father an has conflicting feelings for

his nether. He uses both hysterical and intellectualizing defenses.

He is fairly dependent, and fights th needs in himself. He does

however have a great deal ef insight and understanding into his prob-

lema. He has a strong ego. He is somewhat cewpulsive and is oempul-

sively driven to achieve in college. There is a sound basic person-

ality organization here.

Case 3: This person has had some problems in her interper-

sonal relationships at college. She is quite tied to her parents,

and her whole family. She is, however, very much aware of this and

accepts it and thinks it is good. She does not fight her ties to her

family. She has a very realistic view of being at college away from

home. She produces at college in order to please her parents. There

is expression of warmth and a basis aeeeptamee of self here. This

case study is mainly normal.

Case It This is a very disturbed person with highly developed

intelleet~alizing defenses. He is a tense, anxious, cold, and ungiving

person. NH is very threatened by people and avoids interpersonal

situations as meh as peesible. .I is iAneure nd frightened by

atherity. His reaction to authority ic, however, passive rather

than fighting back against it. He keeps away from people at college,

and amercima his intelleetalising defenses at the sae time by

pending mseh t e studying. He is held together with his kind of

defenses wll eaugh t retain what he reads in a relatively undis-

tteed way.

Ge 5's This is a wara, affable person ho relates well in

an interpersimal situation. Se is a mntre individual. She feels

clesr to her father than to hr mother, knows this, and aceepts it.

She an realistiealy express her feelings for her parents. Inferi-

rit feelings are remnhat of a problem for her but her streg *go

deals with kis easily. She eaters interpersnal relattenhips

easily. his ease study is basically normal.

Cae 61 This person is friendly and amewhat pasive. In

a relatiemR ips she is at first somewhat guarded and defensive but

ein 1seems up and is ere able te exress wrath. Just belew the

level of awareness is a great deal *f reentment for her father.

There is a ibeliaieal skhisoid tread here but mee retains her

warmh ad ability to relate. There is a od ego fmetiening here.

Cua 7t This persn is dependent and plrhelegioclly tied

to home evn thegh she has broken with hme to gt married. She

esit eqprns her hoktliiee Tery well ae they are threatening t

her. She des net have deep-eated reeentmts of long standing

though her primary defenses are hysterical ones. Basically, this case

study is normal and none of the above mentioned characteristics are


Case 8: This is a highly intellectualized, cold and rigid per-

son. She gives the impression of being a strong, unyielding person.

She has intense status needs and needs for personal and social recegni-

tion. She sees her parents as inadequate and inferior. She needs to

rise above the. She is satisfying this need by doing well in college.

In a sense this is a way of resisting her parents by attempting to

become better than they are. Other than this the case is normal.

Case 9: This person has any of the adolescent's problems.

She is experiencing an adolescent rebellion against her father. Her

father is compulsive and she is somewhat freely disorganized in her

living. She is conscious of this ~eflict with her father and aeeepts

it. She does have a strong ego. She also resists her father by doing

well in a field of her own choice rather than in the field he chose

for her. Over-all, she looks vell-adjusted with a strong ege.

Case 10: This person is somewhat immature, tense and intel-

lectualised. He relates well interpersonally. He has good, but not

rigid, defenses. Success in college represents a higher social level

whieh is very attractive to him. This ease is basically normal.

Case 1i: This is a rather disturbed person. She is a very

masculine girl who is highly identified with her father and harbors

deep-seated hostility for her either. She sees herself as eepeting

with her mother for her father's love. She sees herself as the loser.

Se is anxious and hestile. She expresses her hostilities openly and

aeoepte tkhe in herself. Her problems are very near the surface and

eease her meh anxiety. By doing well in scheel he greatly please

her father, le, in turn, highly praisew her for this perfenuanee.

Case 12s This peraen relate. well and is able to experience

and express meh interpereoal warmth. He is a little flat and eelor-

les in his ewpresiom at tims, but this des not last very long.

eoesieoally he feels inadeqate, but this is net much of a problem

fer hi. Basieally this ease is normal.

S133 This is a very disturbed person. He is very effm-

inate and highly identified with his mother. He vry mueh needs

seeial aeeeptane, but is net a very secialised person. He has a

great deal ef hestility for his parents that permeates his entire

persality. K e resists his parents openly, but undereath he is

very dependt. These problema are very near the surfaee and keep

M e teee id aanxieus. He trie very hard to do well in college in

ier it please his meher, but his anxieties will net let him fme-

ties at the peek of his eapilitlees. While he did fairly well de

to his hard work he has the eepablity to de eve better.

ee js This person pressets a rather sld frot but is

eepable of eaperiemeag wwath. There is a decided pyaeepathic

treda here. He also utilises nany neuretie deteres seeh as depres-

eAM., iinelleeotlising, and dteal. He reminA erganised aad inte-

grated at thi pint hAile n y of his problem are net preeeing at

this time.

Case 15t This is a ,h pleasant, warm, well-integrated per-

son. She tends to react passively to authority. She is slightly naive

in her a oah to life. She relates well interpersonally.* Basically

this case is normal.

Case 16: This person appears bored and passive. He fears

authority. He tends to pull away from people and shows little sponta-

neity in interpersonal relationships. He has little intellectual

curiosity. He does have the basic organization and control to study

and produce. These problems are of a character nature and are t

accompanied by a grat deal of anxiety. He is not resisting his


In addion to these thirty-two case studies, certain other

cases require eoment.

One subject the writer was not able to contact, because he

refused to answer any eerrespendence and because his reemates in the

dormitories had informally refused to allow him to stay in his room.

Their stated reasons for this, obtained in an interview, were: he

refoed to wash, change his sheet, go to his classes, or do any of

the things necessary to get along with roomates in a dormitory

setting. There was also a report that this subject was in trouble

with the local authorities. By reports, he is a chrenie braggart

and liar, and was do-pledged from a fraternity.

Another subject came to the.group meeting, toek the Minneseta

Multiphasic Perenaslity Inventory, but then refused to oee to the

individual interview. His Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventery

profile show peeks on D and P; but these seala fall just within

the normal rag. The pattern i1 *M of mild disturbane. This is

net eneuh evidence oa which to base eonclusiens.

One of the two students eho left school and were contacted

by ll replied. The one striking fact in this reply is that this

is a pMers 1he was very yeong, and eame to the University by being

mearaged to skip his senior yer in high sohol.

hmtinng the over-all view of the ease summries se gmner-

alisatirns san be drawn.

In the lower sixteen sai ries there appears a preponderance

ef relatively disturbed people. In this group many of the individuals

are people wkse psychelegieal problem are of long standing and are

of a skhreter nature. In six of these eases we find a passive-

agrroseie erieBtatie and am inability o directly express hostility

temaj their parents. Aeeepanying this is a deep-seated reentment

for the parents and the streo on subjects' grades by the parents.

In two of the lever sixton eases thr is a psychepathie

elemet of net being able to distinguish what is of value. In eaoh

f the re ning e ses there is a psyehedynmic ndenrstading of the

stamt's peer eelleU e perferMee, but these are individualized.

In t paper sixtb ease series there is evidence for

mere interperal mfth in the greop as a wele. There are sme

ar disturbed people in this greap however. In eeh ease of a dis-

tarkbd persm there is an undertandable pwyehedymrie pattern eperat-

rlg khSl makes toe highly sueeseful sllege pofemaee of the

individual involved just as neurotic as the poor performance of the

individuals in the lower group. It becomes clear that there are

neurotic notivatiens behind some individuals who are pushed to achieve

at high levels. The degree of ego strength seems higher in the higher

group than in the lower group. The basic character structure is more

integrated and organized in the higher group.



The only statistically significant oorrelations between HPA

ad other variable were with placemnt tost total (1 per ent level)

and severity of payehological problems (5 per cant level No sale

of te MrPI correlated significantly with HPA. In this group of

highly inteligent students the placement test total was the best

single predictor of HPA. While this correlation is statistically

significant, it is small and leaves 95 per cent of the varianee

wumeeuwntm for. Thee fere, prediction on this basis would have a

high degree f error in the seleetion of high ability groups. This

gromp of subjects is relatively hemegenoeei, which may act as a cen-

strietim eon the serrelatioan. The Psyoheetric devices used in this

study and thse in past studies all have been found to be inadequate

in predietin which students will underachieve in college. Frm

the ease swmry reklts we see that there are sme very disturbed

people in the gup of stmients wsh de wll. The pyehemetrie tests

do net differentiate hese disturhwd people from the people whe are

diAsued and d peerly. The elinieal interview did offer premise

of differentiating the people As de well aeedaieally from the peo-

pi~ whw do poeoly admioeally. One ream porpkmetric deviee do

met differentiate thee who do well amd thee whe de poorly is that

there are disturbed people who de well in college for highly neurotic

reasons. The clinical interview which takes into account each person

as a whole functioning person has promise for an understanding of these

underlying problems. In drawing up a case summary the individual

motives and dynamics take on meaning and importancin relation to the

other motives and dynamics within the individual.

The rating scale items, individually, did not differentiate

those students who do well from those students who do poorly in

college. This, as an attempt to isolate specific factors, was not

successful. The rating scale item on severity of psychological prob-

lems did, however, orrelate significantly with HPA at the 5 per cent

level of confidence. This item is the most generalized item on the

rating scale.

People do poorly in college wrk for different reasons. These

reasons are understandable when viewed in terms of the person involved.

These differences cancel each ether in psychemetric techniques. A

peresn might score high an item A of a rating scale and the charac-

teristic behind this might underlie his poor performance in college.

Another person might score low on item A but high on item B and the

characteristic behind this might underlie his poor performance in

college. Both items A and B uorld not correlate significantly with

academic performance at college, yet in each case the poor performance

would be understandable when viewed as phrased in the following ques-

tion: "what does this performance level mean to this person?" A

person's performance in college is just another aspect of how this

peren deals with his enriremmet.

This point of view raise the question; "are there any simi-

larittie between people who underachieve that are unique to that

grap and that would allow for prediction of college performance in


People iwh have achieved at a high level in the past are, by

nd large, the same people who aehieve at college. There is generally

ore metional disturbanee, in term of severity, in underachieers

the in theee wre achieve at a high level. This disturbance is mere

of a eareater nature than the disturbances in the greop of people

Se perform up to their level of ability. People who perform at

their level of ability hoew mere intperpernal warmth, are mere in

teuah with their feelings. There may be highly neurotic reasons for

a peruse's high performaee level in college just as in another

peam's peer perfezaee. People with high ability who perform at

high aehie int levels in college shew re ego strength as a group

than do people wh underehlieve. The psyehelegieal problem of high

aehiwrrs se loee ingrained in the character structure ef the

inMvidals than the pye helegisel problem of people who under-


There are elinieally understandable payehedywames wder-

lying the wAsrer ievit eellge student of high intellectual






Pleae answer the following as accurately and as quickly as you can.

1. I live: derme, frat/ser. house, off-eampus, home.

2. I am single, married, divorced, widw,

3. Wy parents are: married, divorced, separated.

h. There have been, er are, difficulties between my parents in tke:
past, jreem t, beth past and present, neither.

5. rY parents: teld me tkat veeatienal objective te prepare
for, eneuraged me te prepare for a particular veeatieoal
objeeUv, disemused this with me but skewed no preference,
don't care 6 hat I majer in .

6. I: belong te a frat., wasn't asked te pledge a frat.,
a en dging a frat., was rushed but didn't pledge,
dan't eare about frat.- eeial fraternitie onlyy.

7. I feel olseer te y: mother, father, esm ether
maber ef y family, a person not a relatiW.

8. I have: may friends, ome friends, few friends,
ne frTes.

9. I'm sure ef tke veeatiemal gal I presently have, I
k I know nhat veeation I want to purse but mlght hrge
wr mad, I'm net at all sure of a specific veeatieal goal
bet knw -Wmajer area ef my interests, I have no idea
were Tm interest lie.

10. I have dropped eernee, added eeurses, beth dropped
and added eerses, __ either :Wreed mer added eeursee.

11, Briefly state your reason for your answer to question 10:

12. What were your alternatives to coming to the University?

Father's occupation:
How far father went in school:
Mother's occupation: ______
How far mother went in school:

13. Has there been a crisis situation (financial loss, fight with
boy/girl friend, unusual family difficulties, etc.) in your life
during the fall semester? yes, n

If yes briefly identify what

14. Estimate in hours per week the time you spend in:

Reading er learning things
to course work
Doing things alene
Extracurricular aetivities
Frat./sor. activities

not related




1. Manifest anxiety level:

1 2 3

2. Expression

1 2

3. BeesseR :

1 2

4. Felinlg of

1 2

,f hoetility:





4 5
flexible )

a problem:

5. eAistamee to parts a problem:

1 2 3

6. elatLes SaterperPMlly:

1 2 3 I

7. bepeate~y a problems

1 2 3 4

8. rtvrity ef pyhoele ical

1 2 3 I

9. ew neislisad is hel?

1 2 3 4



10. Need for social acceptance:

1 lowest
$ highest


I* Altus, W. D. A college aehiever and nonachiever scale for the
Minesota Multiphahic Persnality Inventory. J. appl. Pychl
19148, 32, 305-397. .. J

2. AmaM, A. L., and Ley, S. J. A oeimprative study ef the academic
ability and achievemet of two groups of college students. J.
educ. Psychel., 1947, 38, 307-310.

3. Diener, C. L. A oeeparimen of
students at the Univerity
1957, 17, 1692 Abstract.

overachieving and underachieving
of Arkansas. Dissertation Abstr.,

4. Drake, L. E., and Oetting, E. R. An MMPI pattern
variable predictive of academic achievemnt.
Payehol., 1957, 4, 245-247.

5. Drake, L. E.

and a suppressor
J. oeuneel.

Interpretation of MIPI profiles in counseling male
J. eameel. Psychol., 1956, 3, 83-88.

6. Frisk, J. W. Iwpr-ving the prediction ef academic achievement by
use of the ?PPI. J. appl. PEychel., 1955, 39, 49-52.

7. GsOrh, H. G.
19464, 2,

Diagnotic patterns on the MMPI. J. clin. Psyhel.,

8. Hathaway, S. R., and MeKinley, J. C. A rultiphasic personality
aseidules I. Censtructien of the schedule. J. Psychel.,
1940, 10, 2L9-254.

9. Hatbawer, S. R., and Meolnley, J. C.
seeedules III. The meaeurewnt
J. Payghol., 194-, 14, 73-84.

A multiphasic personality
of Wyuptematic depression.

M. zM~tmmuar, S. R.,
of the NMPI.

and MePe, P.
nimnepelis a

3. An atlas for the elinisal use
Univer. of Miameeta Pres, 1951.

11. Jeasen, Y. x. Inflames of perouality traits on aedemic success.
Pereenml and utidmnce Journal, 1958, 36, 497-500.

LU. MeKinley, J. C., and &Hathaw S. R. A multiphasic pernoality
~sedule s II. A differential study of hypoohendriasis. J.
Py3hl.,1* 1940, 10, 255-868.


13. McKinley, J. C., and Hathaway, S. R. A nultiphasic personality
schedule: IV. Psychasthenia. J. appl. Psychol., 1942, 26,

1~. McKinley, J. C., and Hathaway, S. R. The Minnesota Multiphasic
Personality Inventory: V. Hysteria, Hypemania, and Psycho-
pathic Deviate. J. appl. Psychol., 1941, 28, 153-174.

15. Meehl, P. E., and Hathaway, S. R. The K factor as a suppressor
variable in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.
J. appl. Psychol.,.1946,.30, 525-56h.

16. Quinn, S. B. Relationships of certain pursoiulity characteristics
to college achieTment. Dissertation Abstr., 1957, 17, 809 -

17. Sarnof, I., and Raphael, T. Five failing college students. Amer.
J. Orthopsychiat., 1955, 25, 343-372.

18. Stone, D. R., and Ganung, G. R. A study of scholastic aehieve-
ment related to personality as measured by the Minnesota
Multiphasic Inventory. J. educ. Ree., 1956, 50, 155-156.

19. Young, L. R. Parent-child relationships which affect achieve-
ment motivation of college freshmen. Dissertation Abetr.,
1957, 17, 3111 Abstract.


Rahe Baeeett Cerlis was born in Cincinnati, hio, on August

30, 1933. he attended public schls there until the age of eight

at khich time his family moved to Melbourne, Florida. He graduated

from Molbourne High School in June, 1951. He entered the University

of Florida the sam month and reCeived the Bacheler of Arts degree

with a major in psychology in June, 1955. He continued at the Univer-

in the Graduate School and obtained a Master of Arts degree with a

peyehology major in January, 1957. His future plans are to work at

the Celumbus Psyehiatric Clinic in Columbue, Ohio.

This dissertation was prepared under the direction of the
chairman of the candidate's supervisory committee and has been approved
by all members of the committee. It was submitted to the Dean of the
College of Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate Council and was
approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.

January 30, 1960

Dean, College of Arts/apd Sciences

Dean, Graduate Sehool


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