PERSONALITY FACTORS RELATED TO
UNDERACHIEVEMENT IN COLLEGE
FRESHMEN OF HIGH
RAHE B. CORLIS
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNkIER.IT OF FLOPID.,
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
The writer is greatly indebted to the many persons whose
cooperation and suggestions have made this study possible. As it is
impossible to mention all these persons by name, the writer wishes
them to know that their assistance is genuinely appreciated.
Special thanks mut be offered to Dr. Richard J. Anderson
who has bee extremely helpful from the beginning of this work. Mr.
R. S. Johnson, registrar, also contributed to this study by giving
the writer access to the records in the Office of the Registrar. The
writer wishes to express his appreciation to the other members of his
committee, Dr. E. P. Horne, Dr. M. H. Robertson, Dr. J. E. Harlow,
and Dr. O. B. Thomason.
TABLE OF CONTEITS
AGI NDB TS. . . . .
LST TAES . . . .
I. INTRAITIOSN AM SURVEY
II. PUERIM AL DESIGN ..
II. R LTB . . . .
IT. NGLWIONS . . .
APP ES . . . . .
* 0 0 S 0 0 0
LIT OF TABLES
1. Pearasn Product Mement Correlation Coefficients
btwen HPA and Other Variables . . . . .. 18
2. Pearson Product Mement Correlation Coefficients
between Rating Scale Items . . . . . . 20
3. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients
between MPI Scales and Rating Scale Items . . 23
4. Significant Correlatiens between Rating Seale Items
and Checklist Items . . . . . . . . 27
INTRODUCTION AND SWURVI OF LITERATURE
The purpoee of this study is to investigate the emotional fac-
tew that are involved in the underaehievment of people who have the
intelleetual ability to perfera at a high level in college. Educators
sad clinical psychologists are continually concerned over students who
fail to fulfill the premise of test scores of intellect. It is a fact.
that many students hoe eeme to universities, and who have the appro-
priate intellectual ability, do not sceeod academically. M are
failed out or put on academic probation because of peer performance
in their eorer work. Others voluntarily drop out before the first
emester eemee te a close beceaue they realize they are going to make
failing grades. Some are allowed to stay, and do stay, but make grades
below the freshman average. Many of these students continue to make
peer academic records throughout their eellege careers.
Why is it, that students who have the intellectual capacity
te seeesed in college, perform at senh low levels? Realistically,
there are monW peesible answers to this question. It is possible that
the student ha. udaergene extreme environmental preeure which make
it difficult for his to put in enough study tine. Personality factors
als lee as likely answers to the above question. The term personality
veros a mIltitde of factors. There is a large number of possible
aisners be the above question in this one area aleme. One might ask
many questions, such as, does severity of emotional disorder differen-
tiate achievers from nonachievers; is there a personality type which
differentiates achievers from nonachievers; is there a certain psycho-
dynamic pattern which differentiates achievers from nonachievers; and
many more, All these questions will be touched on in sme way in y this
study. The emphasis will be on the psychodynamics of achievers com-
pared to nonachievers.
Some psychological clinics, which are associated with univer-
sities in ome way, offer psychotherapeutic treatment to such under-
achieving students. Of course, only the students who come and ask for
such treatment, or who are referred, get it. In some such cases the
client's grades undergo a dramatic change. This would lead us'to
believe that, in at least a recognizable proportion of cases of under-
achievement, personality factors make a significant contribution. The
present study is an attempt to investigate experimentally the contri-
bution of such personality factors to underachievement by college
freshmen who have the intellectual ability to succeed at the Universi-
ty of Florida.
The writer wishes to acknowledge that he understands personal-
ity as a configuration. He believes that isolated groups of specific
traits may be used in describing personality but they have meaning only
when the person is seen as a whole. An attempt is made to evaluate
the person as a whole person and not to dissect his personality into
parts or sections.
It is hoped that the information derived from the results of
this study may be found useful in counseling students who are net
fluntiening up te their intellectual level. There is alee the long
range pesibility that this information may be used in detecting,
ahead of time, the students who are likely to have academic difficulty
and thus allow preventive action.
Proevie studies of underaehievers have generally found that
payekeetrie data on personality have net significantly predicted the
underaehievers, or differentiated he underachievers frem the achievers.
The few studies which have found pschometrie dAta to differentiate
are inaosistent in their findings.
Jeann (11) gave the MiLueeota Multiphasic Persnality Inven-
tory (IMPI) to freshmen at Brigham Young University. Using high
sehel grades and the American Couneil on Education Psychological
teet (ACE) as criteria he t vided the subjects into four groups:
achieving students of low ability, nenachieving students of low
ability, achieving students of high ability, and nenachieving stu-
dats of high ability. Ja en was smet concerned with the first
group mentioned. He compared the mean scores on the nine clinical
sealed of the PI between grope. He found that the latter two
groups differed at the 5 per eent level of confidence on the Lie
(L), Maealinity-fetninity (Mf), and Paraneid (Pa) sceleo. Nen-
aekineve of high ability ade higher L seere but lower Mf and
Pf nepee.s Friek (6) gave the PI to 267 college freshman girls.
He serealated eoh WNPI sale with the ACE. Gerrelatios ranged
from -.20 to -.02, ar3 all wre minus. He also correlated the NPI
sea31 wIh grades and fend that all eerrelatite were minus except
for Pa which was in the positive direction and significant at the 5 per
cent level of confidence. Other correlations found significant were
the Hypochondriasis (Hs) scale at the 5 per cent level, and the Psycho-
pathic deviate (pa), Schisophrenic (Sc), and Hypemania (Ma) scales at
the 1 per cent level. He found significantly better prediction of
grades using the ACE and MI than predicting grades solely on the
basis of the ACE. He concluded that emotional factors significantly
effect performance at college. Stone and Ganung (18) administered
the IMP to 317 women freshmen. They divided them into two groups,
normal, and those who made deviant scores on the MPI. They found
that there were more graduates in the normal than among those in the
other group. This difference was significant at the 5 per cent level.
The deviant group also had significantly lower grade point averages.
The M.PI scales which made this differentiation mest significantly
were Depression (D), Hysteria (Hy), and especially Ma. Drake and
Getting (4) found in one study that the Mf scale may be measuring
intellectual as well as personality variables. He found that the D
scale was low in the profiles of students judged by their counselors
as "lacking in academic motivation." He showed that the differentiat-
ing profile is one in which Sc and Ma are ameng the three highest scales
and Social Introversion (Si) is among the lowest two scales. This was,
however, found to be true only when Mf was also low.
b In a later study Drake (5) administered the lMPI to 3,480
male college freshmen. In this group he found sixty-nine useable pro-
files which fit the above described pattern. This group, "lacking
academic motivation, differed at the .001 level in grades from the
rest of the freshman class, grades being lower in this group. Since
Mf had to be low also, he postulated that Mf was acting as a suppres-
sor variable. The Mf scale was not significantly correlated with
grades, so therefore, he concludes, does not predict scholarship by
Assum and Levy (2) tested the significance of the difference
between the grades of students who had come to a university psychologi-
eal clinic asking for help and students who had not made contact with
that clinic. They found no significant differences between these two
groups on the ACE or on reading tests, but a difference at the 1 per
sent level on grades. The grades of people who came to the clinic
were significantly lower than the grades of people who had made no
Diener (3) differentiated two groups of college students,
ahievers and underaehievers. He tested for significant differences
en age, time spent in extracurricular activities, Kuder Preference
Record, Edmards Personal Preference Schedule, Breuu-Heltman Survey
of Study Habits and Attitudes, ACE, reading ability, high school
grades, heers per week spent in studying, work for pay, class attend-
amee, and plaee of residence. He found no significant differences,
with bet few showing trends.
Teoug (19) eenstructed instruments to test parent-child rela-
etieships, and found that freeman "aohierwment metivatien" was net
signifieeatly influenced by the relatioehip of the subjects with
Several wkers have attempted to construct specific MPI
sales wideh would predict, or differentiate achievers from noma-
chievers. Qi (16) correlated es c WI ite with the ACE and grade
point averages ef his abjectts. He constructed one seale of these
itms that correlated significantly at the 1 per eent level with
grades, and low with ACE. He eenstructed a larger scale of khe item
that correlated at the 5 per ent level with grades, and lev with ACE.
He then ecss validated his sales en three additional freshman
classes. Both seale, however, showed only a weak relationship with
college achievement. Neither seale offered a agniflcant increase
in prediction. He eencludes that MPI sales are net werthwile in
trying to differentiate college achievers frem nenachievrs.
Altus (1) alse attempted to eeastret a similar seale en the
fMP using a smaller N. Me found no significant seale bt states
that he believes ~ueh a scale is feasible.
Meehl and Hathawa (15) demnstrated that the I seale is
correlated with edueatinal level. They alse note that college si
dents make higher I scores than the gueral population.
Another appreah is et study u deraehieving students using
mainly clinical evidence and et relying on psycheetric data as the
major maure. Sarrof and Raphael (17) intensively studied five
students wke ee te the attention of the Dee's offiee for failure.
They interviewed them weekly for met of their seesd meter. They
also admnistered te the the Iuder Preferenee Record, ACE, and M higan
Sentence GCmpletion Test. They reported their results as five complete
Case A severed at the 97 percentile rank on the ACE. He earned
a power aeedemic record. He was suggestible, mature, naive, and felt
inferior to his brother. He seemed afraid to try for fear of failure,
Came B earned a 41 percentile rank on the ACE and was impulsive,
oegeentmri, showed a low tolerance for frustration. His father suffered
a heart attack during the first semester.
Case C earned a 99 percentile rank on the ACO. He was involved
in may extracurricular activities, showed a psychopathic trend, flat-
nees of affeet, imaturity, and engaged in may escapist activities.
Case D eoored at the 29 percentile rank on the ACE. oH seemed
iaueo're, shy, passive, imature, and had many tensions with his reem-
Case E seared at the 78 percentile rank on the ACE. He was
sehimoid, harbored deep-seated hostilities toward his mother and step-
father, and seed to resist passively his parents by academic under-
aehioment. He had difficulty studying because of his ubiquitous
The above eae studies indicate a maltiaeusality for failure,
shew that crisis sitatien may be important. All were judged as very
matuare, and rebellion against parental authority is sometimes ex-
preaed by resistamae e study.
STheee studise suggest the need for a study which eoSiines both
Seliteal and peyehoetrie data on a large Aber of people. The present
study is a attempt to combine psychometric data and clinical informa-
tion in order to understand the psyehodynamic patterns underlying under-
achievement. The hypothesis being tested is stated in general terms.
This hypothesis is as follows,
Hypothesis: There are discernible psychodynamics underlying
underachievement in college of students with high intellectual ability.
The subjects were drawn from the entering freshman class at
the University of Florida in the fall of 1958. Classes began in
September, and the subjects were selected the following November.
At this time sst had had the first round of progress tests and
many had had at least some of the second round of progress tests.
All of these freshmen had been given the college ACE during orienta-
tion week, the week just prior to the beginning of classes. The
reeerds of the group of students who earned a percentile rank of 90
or better on the ACE total were separated from the rest of the fresh-
man olass. This is a 90 percentile rank on local norms which are
slightly higher than national norms. There were 271 freshmen in this
The writer then, with the use of the Registrar's records,
formed a selected group frem ameng these people in the first group
who had made a 29 percentile rank or less on any one, or mere, of
their progress tests. There were seventy-seven members in this group.
The object of selecting people who had made a 29 percentile rank or
lower on any one progress teet was to insure the selection of a group
of people with high ACE scores, many ef when would not likely make
high grade at the end of the semester. It is assumed that all in
this group have the intellectual ability to perform at a satisfactory
level at the University of Florida.
In the group of seventy-seven, two people dropped out of school
before the close of the semester. One of these two was not available
for use as a subject, having left the school. The second person
returned the second semester and was interviewed and tested at that
tine. As no grades were available for the first semester for this
person, she was not included in the statistical handling of the data
but is considered in the clinical report.
Another two subjects completed the first semester but were drop-
ped from the University for their poor academic performance before they
could be contacted as subjects in this study. Both were contacted and
asked to complete the checklist and to write, in as much detail as
possible, the reasons that they believe lie behind their failure at the
University. They were also asked to write something of their background.
One of the two replied. The one who replied is considered separately
in the clinical report. The other was listed as unavailable as a sub-
One in the group refused entirely to participate in the study
for personal reasons. He was asked to participate, but his insistent
refusal was honored on the belief that a person has the right to dis-
close only what personal information he wishes. He too was considered
unavailable as a subject. Another of the subjects took the MMPI and
then refused to come for the clinical interview. As the data on this
subject were incomplete he was not included in the statistical analysis
but he is taken up in the clinical report.
It was not possible to contact one other subject after exten-
sive effort. The writer did interview his roommates, and this infor-
mation is treated in the clinical report.
A total of seven subjects was unavailable regarding the statis-
teoal analysis due to no, or incomplete, information. Of these seven,
eme information is available on four. They are discussed separately.
This left an N of 70 in the group which was analysed statistically.
Each person of this group was sent a letter asking him only to
appear at a specified place end time to participate as a subject in a
research study. The subjects met in groups ranging from twenty-six to
twelve people due to practical considerations. Some had to be con-
tacted as many as five times before they appeared though most attended
the first group to which they were invited. At these group meetings
the subjects were told only that the experiment involved taking a test
and being interviewed. They were left as nave as possible prior to
the end of the clinical interview. They were told that the study would
be explained at that time. Individual appointments were then arranged
with the writer en the besis of one heor per interview. The booklet
fer of the KPI was administered to each of the groups.
A eheeklist (see Appendix A) was devised to obtain the sub-
jects' report on certain variables which logically would seem to dif-
ferentate students who de well academically from those who do peerly
ae"emically. This oheeklist was filled in by the subject at the end
of the interview.
A rating scale (see Appendix B), for the interviewer's use, was
also constructed. The items on this rating scale were selected as the
writer felt thy might well be variables which would differentiate
achievers and underachievers. This rating scale was filled out by the
interviewer at the end of the interview on the basis of his clinical
impressions of the subject.
During the interview the interviewer, ho was the same person
in all cases, took extensive notes on what was said. He also jotted
down his clinical impressions and any outstanding personality charac-
teristics of the subject. An attempt was made to understand the per-
sonality dynamics functioning in each subject from this interview. No
standardized or rigid procedure was used in the interviews. The inter-
viewer, rather, felt his way along according to his own feelings and
clinical understandings. Th interviewer asked few direct questions
and generally let the subject choose his own direction. At times speci-
fic questions were called for. The subjects were, for example, usually
asked to tell the interviewer something of their families. At the time
of the interview the interviewer knew nothing of the results of the
MMPI or of the subject's grades.
After the interview the 1MPI's were scored twice by two differ-
eit people as a check on the accuracy of the scoring. The only three
disagreements were rechecked by a third scoring. Profiles were then
drawn up for the nine clinical scales, the L scale, the F scale, and
the K scale. The question mark scale was not used, as all but one sub-
ject answered every item, and in this case the score of 23 was just
below the mean. The T seeres on each scale for each subject were
reoerded. These T scores were used in the statistical analysis as
they are compatible scales and the raw scores are not. The T scores
were taken after the oerreetion for K.
Only after the interview was completed, and the fPI's scored,
were the grades for the first someter obtained. The writer acknowl-
edges the fact that there is not a one-to-one relationship between
grades and achievement. Grades are, however, the beet indicator of
achievement available and so were chosen to represent achievement in
this study. As is customary at the University of Florida, quantifica-
tion of grades is accomplished by dividing the number of hours carried
into the honor points earned. Honor points are assigned on the basis
of four point for an A, three points for a B, two points for a C, one
point for a D, and sere points for an E. The distribution of honor
point average for this group of people approaches the shape of the
norml curve with a slight aeewmulation of cases below t mean. Of
this group of people of high intellectual ability, thirty-seven made
HPA's of lees than C. This is 53 per cent of the total group.
The results ef the twelfth grade Cooperative General Achieve-
ment Tests were obtained from the Office of the Registrar. The Coopera-
tive General Aehievement Tests (Co-op tests), and the high school ACE
are given to all high school seniors in the State of Florida. The
Co-op tete and the high school ACE comprise the placement tot series.
The quantitative data in this study were the HPA, placement
test total, number of hours carried, all the items of the checklist,
all the items of the rating scale, the 13 MMPI variables, and a coding
for the selected pattern of courses taken. These data were punched in-
to Hollerith cards. The services of the Statistical Laboratory at the
University of Florida were employed. Programs for intercorrelations on
the IBM 650 computer were available only for a 30 variable problem. It
was decided to do preliminary statistical work using the IBM 082 sorter.
The deck of cards was divided into the upper, lower, and middle thirds
on the basis of HPA. Then the upper and lower thirds were individually
run through the sorter, sorting on the punches in other columns accord-
ing to the choice of the operator. In this manner the distribution of
the people in the upper third of HPA's was compared to the distribution
of the people in the lower third of HPA's on each of the 55 variables.
In this manner it was found that the distributions were identical or
very similar on 26 of the variables and that 29 of the variables looked
worth subjecting to more refined statistical handling. These 29 vari-
ables, along with HPA, were programmed and run through the IBM 650 com-
puter for intercorrelations, means, and standard deviations. The
remaining 26 variables were discarded as not differentiating between
the achievers and underachievers on the basis of inspection of the
results obtained with the sorter.
The interview material and MMPI profiles were arranged in rank
order according to HPA. A case sunaary was extracted on the top six-
teen subjects and on the bottom sixteen subjects. These case summaries
are the results of the clinical interpretation of all the information
available on each subject and are attempts to describe the most
important psyehodynasie aspects of each person. There was no attempt
here to subject this material to quantitative analysis. The writer
believes that this kind of information is not amenable to the methods
of quantifieatien available at present. The distinction between sub-
jective and sabjectivima is important at this point. Subjective data
are data arrived at by description or interpretation and are not mena-
ble to analysis into numbers. Subjectivism rers to the interpreta-
tion of observations based solely on the personal distortions of the
interpreter. These two cannot be elearly distinguished freo each
other in aso eeaerete way. It is hoped in this study that the clinical
data are more in the class of data labeled subjective, and that little
eubjectivism is involved.
Oeneralisations are drawn on the basis of similarities and
differemees amea the eases of students who made the sixteen lowest
HPA's and similarities and difforeneos among the eases of students
who made the sixteen highest HPA' s. These two groups were also com-
On the basis of the preliminary statistical work, the follow-
ing 30 variables were selected for more refined statistical analysis
as they appeared most promising: the 13 MMPI variables, the 10 rating
scale variables, HPA, high sehoel placement test total, question nm-
ber 13 on the checklist and the explanation following this question,
the items "hobbies" and "doing things alone" from the checklist, and
the item on the highest school grade reached by the subject's mother.
All other items were disregarded a they showed no significant differ-
ences between the people making high honor point averages and the
people making low honer point averages.
With the use of the IBM 650 computer 435 Pearson product moment
correlation coefficients were computed. These were the intercorrelal
tions of the selected 30 variables mentioned above. Thee correlation
coefficients ranged from .900 to .000. This study dees not concern
itself with all of the obtained correlations, i.e. correlations between
MMPI scales. The range of correlation coefficients with which this
study is concerned was from .600 to .000.
There were 73 of the 435 correlation coefficients significantly
different frem zero at the 1 per cent level ef confidence and 45 signif-
icantly different from sero at the 5 per cent level of confidence.
This study is not concerned with all of these correlations either. Of
the carrelatimes of importanee in this research there were 29 signif-
ieantly different frem mre at the 1 per cent level of confidence, and
19 significantly different from sere at the 5 per cent level of confi-
domee. Many of the significant correlation coefficients in the total
graup were between MMPI scales. This study does not concern itself
with these eorrelations. This study does ceneern itself with the corre-
latin between honer point average and other variables, intercorrela-
tions between rating scale items, correlations between rating scale
iteu and MMPI sealee, and correlations between rating scale items and
It ean be seen from Table 1 that only 2 of the other 29 vari-
ables e relate significantly with HPA. The only correlation coeffi-
cient significantly different from sere at the 1 per cent level of
cofidenee was between HPA and high seheol placement test total. Of
the ravdable eerrelated, plaeememt test total is the beet single
predieter of HPA. Npen though this correlation is significant at the
1 per cent level of eentidene it is low in tenms of predictability.
WIem r is .317 there is 95 per cent of the variance unaccounted for.
It is reaemable that students we do well en ehievement tests at the
high sheel level are also by and large the students wse de well their
frethmn year in eellege. In a selected simple of this nature, this
The only ether variable statL;tisally significant, this at the
5 per cent level, wm HPA with the it em the rating seale, severity
PEARSON PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS
BETWEEN HPA AND OTHER VARIABLES
Variables Correlation Significance
reason for crisis
expression of hostility
type of defenses
feelings ef inadequacy
resistance to parents
severity of the problem
need for social acceptance
doing things alene
placement test total
of problem. This eerrelation being significant suggests that severity
of metional disturbance might be a factor in highly intelligent stu-
dents doing poorly at college. The more generally disturbed a person
is the ore difficult it is for him to produce at a college levl, even
though he has the neesooary intellectual ability.
The inter-item correlations of the rating scale are presented
in Table 2. Manifeet anxiety level is correlated, significantly dif-
teret frm sere, with hew well a person relates interpersenally (1 per
cent level), with the severity of psychological problems (1 per cent
level), and with how seoialised the student is (5 per et loevl). The
are awears the student, the le well he related interpersonally, and
the mre severe were his problem. The mere anxieou he was the less
seeialised he was.
The student's manner of expreeesng his hostilities, from pas-
sively to openly, did net eerrelate significantly with any of the ether
itaes on the rating scale.
The student's oharateristic defenses, on a continuum from
hrsterical through intelloctaliing, oorrelated significantly (5 per
eat level) with the degree to whieh dependoney is a problem. It
appears here that the ore hysterical the student the ere apt he is to
qperiemce dependeoy needs as a problem.
The degree to which feelings of inadequey are a problem
Serrelatod significantly with resistanee to parents (1 per cmt
level with the degree to which dependency is a problem (1 per cent
letl), with the severity of his psychological problem (1 per ocnt
PEARSON PRODUCT HOIENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS
BETWEEN RATING SCALE ITE4S
1 2 3 4
1. Manifest anxiety level.
2. Expression of hostility
(passively to openly).
3. Defenses (intellectual-
izing to hysterical).
4. Feelings of inadequacy
5. Resistance to parents
6. Relates interpersonally.
Dependency a problem.
Severity of psychological
How socialized is he?
Need for social
a 5% level of significance
b 1% level of significance
5 6 7 8 9 10
level), with his need for social acceptance (1 per cent level), and
negatively with hew well the student relates (5 per cent level).
Resistance to parents would imply difficulties with parents and prob-
ably many of the same difficulties which cause a person to resist
also contribute to his feelings of inadequacy, the severity of his
psychological problems, and his needs for social acceptance. Depend-
ency needs may be one of the basic problems these students had with
their parents. As we would expect, the less adequate the student
felt the less able was he to relate in an interpersonal situation.
The degree to which the student was resisting his parents
correlated significantly with the degree et which dependency is a
problem with him (1 per cent level), with the severity of his psycho-
logical problems (1 per cent level), and negatively with how well he
related in an interpersonal situation (5 per cent level). Not having
been able to work through a dependent relationship with one's parents
and struggling with these dependency needs is a major way of resisting
parents. On this theoretical basis we would expect a high correlation
here. The same struggle, resisting parents, is sometimes a disturbing
conflict se we would expect a high correlation with severity of psy-
chological problems. The mere an individual was resisting his parents
the less well he related interpersonally.
As we would expect, the less well an individual was able to
relate the mere severe were his psychological problems. The better
he wa able to relate interpersonally the mere socialized he was.
We would expect that the more dependent an individual, the
mere severe would be his psychological problems, these variables corre-
lated at the 1 per cent level. Dependency needs ma be a basic psycho-
Severity of psychological problems was correlated significantly
at the 1 per cent level with how socialised the person was. We would
guee that severely disturbed people would hav fewer and pererr social
relationships than well-adjusted people. This is confirmed by the
Other significant correlatieno of interest are discussed in
the nuet few paragraphs; se Table 3.
The F scale on the IMPI correlated significantly at the 1 per
sent level with feelings of inadequacy as a psychological problem, the
degree of reeistanoe to parents, the degree to which dependency is a
problem, and the severity of psychological problem. We would expect
severity of problems and the F scale to correlate significantly as we
knew that severely disturbed people earn significantly higher F seale
seres than well-adjusted people.
The F *ale is a group of its that are rarely answered by
people. A high F sale may indicate isunderstading the directions
or a person who is very eenfused. If the higher F score in this study
indicate confusion hen we would expect the significant correlations
with inedequaey as a problem, resistance to parents, and dependency
as then ec ntribate to conflict and senfusion. The F seale eerrelated
sagnMoantly at the 5 per cent level with hew socialized the student
we. Gontfsed and disturbed students secialise lon than well-organised
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* * 1
^ h ff 3& c^ 2
The K scale correlated significantly (5 per cent level) only
with the degree to whih the student was socializing. There is a rela-
tisene ip between being the kind of person who socialises and having a
deancive tnt-taking attitude.
The hypoehendriasis scale on the l1 PI correlated significantly
(5 per sent level) with the rating seale item on manifeet anxiety level.
The. ee i of hypechendriaeal defenes the more mani'est anxiety was
hemn by the student.
The D seale on the MMPI oerrelated significantly (5 per cent
level) with reesitaneo to parents, severity of peyehological -
lam, the degree to which the student was seeializing, and hew well
he iwa able to relate in an interpersonal situation. If we take the
Sseeale to represent hostility, anxiety, guilt, and general upset and
disturbanee of a ne1retd nature as well as depression then we would
epeet a significant sorreation between D and severity of problems,
B and hew seeialied a person is, and D and hew well a person relates
iaewpernemely. A high D meere alse seem to indicate in ae degree
difficulties between the person and his parents.
The Pd seale eerrelated significantly with degree of depend-
emy (5 per ent level) and with degree f reesitamee to parents (1 per
eeat level). We weld expet a high eerrelatein between the degree of
re*eteineo to pmente and the d seale. Psychopathic people reaet
against the sperege structure derived mainly freo their parents. Due
to the aleefaWe ef the peren with a decided peyeheopatki tried in
persility we weald eMpeet an alienation of dependency problems, yet
PF and depedency are significantly correlated. Possibly this repre-
sents a group of people who have a psychopathic trend in their person-
alities but who are not pathologically psychopathic and who maintain
enough superego function to be dependent.. One interpretation might be
that extreme dependency underlies the psychopathic trend.
The Pt scale correlated at the 5 per cent level with degree of
anxiety, degree inadequate feelings are a problem, and resistance to
parents. It is theoretically consistent that people who make high Pt
scores are anxious and feel inadequate. Many of these problems origi-
nate in the person's relationship with his parents which would account
for the correlation between Pt and resistance to parents. The Pt scale
also correlated significantly at the 1 per cent level with degree of
severity of problems. The psychasthenic scale measures ebsessive-
compulsive behavior, intellectualising, and general disturbance.
The Pa scale correlated significantly at the 1 per cent level
with resistance to parents, degree of dependency, and severity of prob-
lems. People who resist their parents, yet are dependent and fairly
disturbed, alse td to have a paranoid trend in their personalities.
The Sc scale correlated at the 1 per sent level with degree of
inadequacy, resistance to parents, degree of dependency, and severity
of problems. As a high score on the schizophrenic scale indicates a
relatively disturbed individual we would expect the above eorrelations.
The total of the T scores on the 4MPI clinical scales excluding
Mf correlated significantly with degree of inedequacy (5 per cent lev
el), resistance to parents (1 per cent level), degree of dependency
(1 per ent level), and severity of prablema (1 per sent level). The
MWPI tetal eere is sometimes considered as a general measure of degree
of pathological deviation. It is far from pure because ef the cancel-
ing mat effects of high and lew scales. The above correlations are
understandable and evn expected if the MPI tetal is a general ma-
ure of adjustment.
The eerrelatiens between MPI scales and rating scale item~
are semrised in Table 3.
As seen in Table 4, the checklist item on "time spent doing
things alee" correlated significantly with resistance te parents
(5 per eent level degree ef dependency ( per cent levell, and
severity ef problems (5 per cent level). People wh are dependent,
reeiet their parents, and are fairly disturbed, tend to spend nre
tie by theweelvee away fre interpermnal relatienahips. Alee the
tim spent with hebbies correlated significantly at the 5 per cent
level with severity of prebleu and with need for seoial acceptance.
eeple who are very dependent sometimes attach this dependency to a
hobby that is less threatening to thm than people.
All other correlations were statistically not significant or
met at all relevant to this reeeareh.
A Hatshamy and Mekl (10) report, the Ma scale on the WPI
at college students au generally higher than with & non-e llee pepu-
latien. On 31 ef the 72 IPI profiles the M seale was the highest
single seale. This is 43 per sent. No theeretical explanation is
efered by Hathaway and eeh1 and none by the present auther.
SIGNIFICANT CORRELATIONS BMTWEN RATING
SCALE ITEMS AND CHECKLIST ITEMS
Rating Scale r Checklist
Resistance to parents .291a Time spent doing things alone
Degree of dependency .288a
Severity of problems .252a "
Degree of dependency .377b Time spent in hobbies
a 5% level of significance
b 1% level of significance
The evidenRH ef a clinical nature is enlightening on the issue
of the underlying psyehedynmics o* highly intelligent people who do
peerly in their first semoter at college. Case studies ware drawn
up en these people re made the sixtoe lowest IPA's and en the people
whoe Me the sixteen highest HPA's. These will be presented individ-
mally. In formulating the ease study the writer has attempted to e
all the infoeration available to him and arrive at a picture of basic
parehedyamesa rather than emparing these people on a pinpointed,
atemised basis. This resulting picture of the person is presented
rather than factual material.
In order of PA beginning with the lowest, the following re
the ease smmries of those sixteen people king the lowest HPA's.
The basic dynmites and eharactorizatien of the subject was
done immediately following the interview, before the interview had
knowledge of the object's MMPI or grades. The final ease suiaries
were prepared using all available infornatin about the subjects.
Tese final mmu ries are presented bhre.
Case A This ease my be ~ot of sequence. This person
dipped eat fet seel during the first semester in rder to avoid
extremely low grades. She my be described as a hostile person whe
minly direets this heoetlity toward men. She spent almost the
entire interview talking abt her hostilities toward her parents.
be is met, however, at all able to express theee ostilities eply
for fear of her parents rejection. Se can oely eoress theae
resentments indirectly though she is aware of them. Because she is in
touch with her feelings and with reality her MMPI profile is rather
healthy looking. Successful performance in college is very important
to her parents. She passively resists her parents and expresses her
hostilities for them by performing poorly in college.
Case B: This is a very dependent, defensive, intellectualized,
and constricted person. He feels alienated from his father and is
very frightened by anything representing authority. He has a need to
be accepted socially which sometimes prevents him from studying. He
lacks self-cnfidene and has developed some counterphobic defenses.
A great deal of his energy is spent in strivings for independence,
away freo authority. College represents authority and dependency
which puts him in the middle of his conflict here at college. The
ensuing threat causes his intellectual functioning to be highly oon-
Case C: This person is suffering from psychological problems
of lng standing. He is a oold, rigid person whose intellectualizing
defenses keep him from experiencing any warm interpersonal relation-
ships. He cannot express his real feelings in any warm way. He has
no insight or understanding into his own difficulties. He is an ever
controlled and socially inept person. He is a very tight, rigid per-
son who cannot leesen up enough to produce in a flexible and eon-
Case B: This persn'is somewhat washed-out comtionally. Ske
needs to please her parents as a cover-up for eme deep-eated hostile
feelings whikh are empletely unacceptable to her. She is dependent
and ca~ et aeeept responsibility. She also has needs fr social
aseeptamee which aleag with her dependency and wi hy-washinees ake
her very sggestible. Friends pull her along into special events.
These dymaies keep her frm studying, which in turn fulfills her
mcial needs, and allow her ver indirectly to express her hostil-
itie for her parents by not producing in college.
Gae E: This person is very dependent and tied to her hoe,
esepeially her mother. She tries to break away and fights thi strug-
gle vew intwensy but e*mpletely denies it. She has a marked
pesive-aggre site orientation toward life. Depression is about
her emly nweretie defense. Education is very important to her
father teMrd mwho she surt express her resentments in her own
paosive-eggresive maner. The passive-aggressive expression of
heetility is marked and characteristie ef her entire personality.
This is mainly in relation to her father and her need to have his
love while at the sa time she feels she deea't receive it and
bkbera deep reentments ever this.
G F s This is a highly axeud s and hostile persem who is
able to wroeu little warth fr people. He is always angry. He
has a histery of having been epletely rejected by his entire family
all his life and wry rmh a*eds aseepte ae. Hoe entineally let
himself be -s ed by theirs eping t be aeeepted by the by se doing.
Xe is, at the smr time, afraid of net being mated, s rejects pee-
ple beere they have the chance to reject him. Be eemsequatly
receives little warmth from people and gives none, but constantly
hopes to get warmth. He has no insight into his difficulties and
denies problems. As he is constantly seeking social acceptance he
spends a great deal of time trying to get near to people, but never
accomplishes it, and s has little time left to study.
Case 0: This person was very immature and showed little
spontaneity in the interview, When she was young she was often ill
and developed any hysterical conversion and hypochondriacal defenses.
She uses denial as a defense along with naivete. She is terribly
afraid of failure so uses her hypochondriacal and conversion symptoms
as an excuse for doing poorly at college. There is a basic insecurity
Case Hs This is a fairly disturbed person. His father is a
loud, hostile, and threatening person. He has developed in an opposite
fashion froe his father. He has little-girlish mannerisms, is immature,
feminine, dependent, and passive. He can express his hostile feelings
only passively. He also harbors a deep hostility for his father. This
looks like a basic passive-aggressive personality problem of long stand-
ing with schizoid features. He expresses his hostility for his parents
indirectly by doing poorly in college. The schizoid confusion in his
thinking also contributes to his poor college performance.
Case I: This person was tease and anxious in the interview
situation. He is effeminate and feels awkward socially. He is not
a very sensitive person. There is an almost classical psychopathic
history of exploitation and manipulation of people. His MMPI looks
like a fairly disturbed profile. There are decided difficulties
areund values. Xe does not readily accept social values, including
values en education. He has a psychopathic uneenoern regarding
eellege aid edusatien.
Cae J: This person shews evidence of pIechepatkic charac-
teriastee from present dynamics, history, and MMPI. He has no cloe
relationship and has little sensitivity in interpersonal situations.
His heetilities are open and accepted. He has never dereleped a sound
superego and feels very little guilt ever his epeR aggressive acts.
He aets eut his hostilities and readily aeeepts this behavior in him-
self. Having an ineheate superego he is met able to diseern what is
of value and what is not. This makes his performance in college very
Cae K: This is a fairly disturbed person. He is constantly
fighti to be a man and to be masculine. At the same time he feels
great abivaleBoe for his father. His struggle then beeomes one of
trying to be like his father aw& at the same time trying to get awey
frea the father by resisting him. oe is resisting a dominating and
rejecting faser and at the Sme time leFgs for his aeeeptance. This
oeoflist argues may heetile and esafusing feelings in him. There
is a slight seisdd trend also. e eanet expreoo his hoseetility for
his father directly as this would thm aliemate his father and this
weold be tee threatening All the eonfasiea in his feeling aad
thiM dag make studying very difficult for him.
SCa Lt This is an intelleetualised, eetrolled, and smekhat
effeminate person. He has good defenses that work well for him.
His parents rejected him a child. He has developed an intense
need for social acceptance and spends a great deal of time seeking
acceptance and recognition. He became very involved in a social
extracurricular activity during the first semester which left him
very little time to study. The need for social acceptance is uh
greater than his felt need for an education.
Case Ms This is a very tense, rigid, rationalized person.
He is a fairly disturbed person. There is a decided paranoid trend
here with projection being a major defensive measure. His relation-
ships with his parents are disturbed. A basic conflict within him
is his struggle with masculinity and sexual identification. He is
basically identified with his mother and fights this, struggling to
be a man. He has strong ambivalent feelings for his father and at
times finds it difficult to identify with his father. His father
very such wants him to complete college. College symbolizes ascu-
linity to him and so college represents his problems. He struggles
with college work as he struggles with the masculine role.
Case N: This person is very affected, sarcastic, dependent
and has intense status needs. He fights for his mother's love and
feels he is in competition with his brother. He streagly resents
the father and denies this. He has deep feelings of inadequacy. He
is quite tied to his mother but in many ways attempts to break away
from her. He cannot express his hostilities, instead tarns them on
himself, (he reports he has an ulcer) or expresses them indirectly.
His low grades in ellege upeet his mother. He makes low grades in
aellege am an expression of the hostility which results fre his
frustrated needs for nurtaranee.
Case 0: This is a fairly disturbed person. He is shy and
fels inadequate. e has a great deal of free-floting anxiety and
feeling of being apeet. In see ways his background i the back-
gra nd f a spoiled ehild. His parents decided for him that he would
eme to the Univernity of Florida. He has mny defense and is using
them all atensively. Me has periods f depression aseempanied by
anxiety. e also uses hypeehandriaeal defenses and hs hysterical
hadeshes. His major defense are rigid, intellectualizing ones.
Non ef tWse deetoes are able to eentrel his anxieties and he
remsim upet, auxims, aMd enfused. He is used to having things
dne for him and yet is reacting against authority. This embina-
tim of fastens mkes it wry difficult fer him te preduee in college.
Cam PI This pners is affected, has mrny peculiar effeminate
manerimm, and is very mature. Me is highly identified with the
femal figure and is struggling with a base cenfliet. At times he
aets little-girlish. tis defemes are denial, repression, and noavete,
at tin e he is histrienie. As a child he was e*,rindulged and feels
leas and amius an heis w away fro hem. He would be very happy
to return herie to ds nrther's waiting arms. Maang low grades is se
WAy be de ibis.
The fellwing are the sew se n ries of the people ie -te
thu eir-*A highest NPA's from te highest on dom.
Case It This person is somewhat passive and slightly dependent
but not pathologically passive-aggressive or passive-dependent. He
is pleasant, affable, and capable of deep interpersonal warmth. He
is somewhat tied to home and sometimes has some difficulty in assert-
ing himself. Basically this ease study is normal. He has good ego
function, is integrated, and expresses much warmth in his interpersonal
Case 2: Tis is a dominating and controlling person. He is
basically identified with his father an has conflicting feelings for
his nether. He uses both hysterical and intellectualizing defenses.
He is fairly dependent, and fights th needs in himself. He does
however have a great deal ef insight and understanding into his prob-
lema. He has a strong ego. He is somewhat cewpulsive and is oempul-
sively driven to achieve in college. There is a sound basic person-
ality organization here.
Case 3: This person has had some problems in her interper-
sonal relationships at college. She is quite tied to her parents,
and her whole family. She is, however, very much aware of this and
accepts it and thinks it is good. She does not fight her ties to her
family. She has a very realistic view of being at college away from
home. She produces at college in order to please her parents. There
is expression of warmth and a basis aeeeptamee of self here. This
case study is mainly normal.
Case It This is a very disturbed person with highly developed
intelleet~alizing defenses. He is a tense, anxious, cold, and ungiving
person. NH is very threatened by people and avoids interpersonal
situations as meh as peesible. .I is iAneure nd frightened by
atherity. His reaction to authority ic, however, passive rather
than fighting back against it. He keeps away from people at college,
and amercima his intelleetalising defenses at the sae time by
pending mseh t e studying. He is held together with his kind of
defenses wll eaugh t retain what he reads in a relatively undis-
Ge 5's This is a wara, affable person ho relates well in
an interpersimal situation. Se is a mntre individual. She feels
clesr to her father than to hr mother, knows this, and aceepts it.
She an realistiealy express her feelings for her parents. Inferi-
rit feelings are remnhat of a problem for her but her streg *go
deals with kis easily. She eaters interpersnal relattenhips
easily. his ease study is basically normal.
Cae 61 This person is friendly and amewhat pasive. In
a relatiemR ips she is at first somewhat guarded and defensive but
ein 1seems up and is ere able te exress wrath. Just belew the
level of awareness is a great deal *f reentment for her father.
There is a ibeliaieal skhisoid tread here but mee retains her
warmh ad ability to relate. There is a od ego fmetiening here.
Cua 7t This persn is dependent and plrhelegioclly tied
to home evn thegh she has broken with hme to gt married. She
esit eqprns her hoktliiee Tery well ae they are threatening t
her. She des net have deep-eated reeentmts of long standing
though her primary defenses are hysterical ones. Basically, this case
study is normal and none of the above mentioned characteristics are
Case 8: This is a highly intellectualized, cold and rigid per-
son. She gives the impression of being a strong, unyielding person.
She has intense status needs and needs for personal and social recegni-
tion. She sees her parents as inadequate and inferior. She needs to
rise above the. She is satisfying this need by doing well in college.
In a sense this is a way of resisting her parents by attempting to
become better than they are. Other than this the case is normal.
Case 9: This person has any of the adolescent's problems.
She is experiencing an adolescent rebellion against her father. Her
father is compulsive and she is somewhat freely disorganized in her
living. She is conscious of this ~eflict with her father and aeeepts
it. She does have a strong ego. She also resists her father by doing
well in a field of her own choice rather than in the field he chose
for her. Over-all, she looks vell-adjusted with a strong ege.
Case 10: This person is somewhat immature, tense and intel-
lectualised. He relates well interpersonally. He has good, but not
rigid, defenses. Success in college represents a higher social level
whieh is very attractive to him. This ease is basically normal.
Case 1i: This is a rather disturbed person. She is a very
masculine girl who is highly identified with her father and harbors
deep-seated hostility for her either. She sees herself as eepeting
with her mother for her father's love. She sees herself as the loser.
Se is anxious and hestile. She expresses her hostilities openly and
aeoepte tkhe in herself. Her problems are very near the surface and
eease her meh anxiety. By doing well in scheel he greatly please
her father, le, in turn, highly praisew her for this perfenuanee.
Case 12s This peraen relate. well and is able to experience
and express meh interpereoal warmth. He is a little flat and eelor-
les in his ewpresiom at tims, but this des not last very long.
eoesieoally he feels inadeqate, but this is net much of a problem
fer hi. Basieally this ease is normal.
S133 This is a very disturbed person. He is very effm-
inate and highly identified with his mother. He vry mueh needs
seeial aeeeptane, but is net a very secialised person. He has a
great deal ef hestility for his parents that permeates his entire
persality. K e resists his parents openly, but undereath he is
very dependt. These problema are very near the surfaee and keep
M e teee id aanxieus. He trie very hard to do well in college in
ier it please his meher, but his anxieties will net let him fme-
ties at the peek of his eapilitlees. While he did fairly well de
to his hard work he has the eepablity to de eve better.
ee js This person pressets a rather sld frot but is
eepable of eaperiemeag wwath. There is a decided pyaeepathic
treda here. He also utilises nany neuretie deteres seeh as depres-
eAM., iinelleeotlising, and dteal. He reminA erganised aad inte-
grated at thi pint hAile n y of his problem are net preeeing at
Case 15t This is a ,h pleasant, warm, well-integrated per-
son. She tends to react passively to authority. She is slightly naive
in her a oah to life. She relates well interpersonally.* Basically
this case is normal.
Case 16: This person appears bored and passive. He fears
authority. He tends to pull away from people and shows little sponta-
neity in interpersonal relationships. He has little intellectual
curiosity. He does have the basic organization and control to study
and produce. These problems are of a character nature and are t
accompanied by a grat deal of anxiety. He is not resisting his
In addion to these thirty-two case studies, certain other
cases require eoment.
One subject the writer was not able to contact, because he
refused to answer any eerrespendence and because his reemates in the
dormitories had informally refused to allow him to stay in his room.
Their stated reasons for this, obtained in an interview, were: he
refoed to wash, change his sheet, go to his classes, or do any of
the things necessary to get along with roomates in a dormitory
setting. There was also a report that this subject was in trouble
with the local authorities. By reports, he is a chrenie braggart
and liar, and was do-pledged from a fraternity.
Another subject came to the.group meeting, toek the Minneseta
Multiphasic Perenaslity Inventory, but then refused to oee to the
individual interview. His Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventery
profile show peeks on D and P; but these seala fall just within
the normal rag. The pattern i1 *M of mild disturbane. This is
net eneuh evidence oa which to base eonclusiens.
One of the two students eho left school and were contacted
by ll replied. The one striking fact in this reply is that this
is a pMers 1he was very yeong, and eame to the University by being
mearaged to skip his senior yer in high sohol.
hmtinng the over-all view of the ease summries se gmner-
alisatirns san be drawn.
In the lower sixteen sai ries there appears a preponderance
ef relatively disturbed people. In this group many of the individuals
are people wkse psychelegieal problem are of long standing and are
of a skhreter nature. In six of these eases we find a passive-
agrroseie erieBtatie and am inability o directly express hostility
temaj their parents. Aeeepanying this is a deep-seated reentment
for the parents and the streo on subjects' grades by the parents.
In two of the lever sixton eases thr is a psychepathie
elemet of net being able to distinguish what is of value. In eaoh
f the re ning e ses there is a psyehedynmic ndenrstading of the
stamt's peer eelleU e perferMee, but these are individualized.
In t paper sixtb ease series there is evidence for
mere interperal mfth in the greop as a wele. There are sme
ar disturbed people in this greap however. In eeh ease of a dis-
tarkbd persm there is an undertandable pwyehedymrie pattern eperat-
rlg khSl makes toe highly sueeseful sllege pofemaee of the
individual involved just as neurotic as the poor performance of the
individuals in the lower group. It becomes clear that there are
neurotic notivatiens behind some individuals who are pushed to achieve
at high levels. The degree of ego strength seems higher in the higher
group than in the lower group. The basic character structure is more
integrated and organized in the higher group.
The only statistically significant oorrelations between HPA
ad other variable were with placemnt tost total (1 per ent level)
and severity of payehological problems (5 per cant level No sale
of te MrPI correlated significantly with HPA. In this group of
highly inteligent students the placement test total was the best
single predictor of HPA. While this correlation is statistically
significant, it is small and leaves 95 per cent of the varianee
wumeeuwntm for. Thee fere, prediction on this basis would have a
high degree f error in the seleetion of high ability groups. This
gromp of subjects is relatively hemegenoeei, which may act as a cen-
strietim eon the serrelatioan. The Psyoheetric devices used in this
study and thse in past studies all have been found to be inadequate
in predietin which students will underachieve in college. Frm
the ease swmry reklts we see that there are sme very disturbed
people in the gup of stmients wsh de wll. The pyehemetrie tests
do net differentiate hese disturhwd people from the people whe are
diAsued and d peerly. The elinieal interview did offer premise
of differentiating the people As de well aeedaieally from the peo-
pi~ whw do poeoly admioeally. One ream porpkmetric deviee do
met differentiate thee who do well amd thee whe de poorly is that
there are disturbed people who de well in college for highly neurotic
reasons. The clinical interview which takes into account each person
as a whole functioning person has promise for an understanding of these
underlying problems. In drawing up a case summary the individual
motives and dynamics take on meaning and importancin relation to the
other motives and dynamics within the individual.
The rating scale items, individually, did not differentiate
those students who do well from those students who do poorly in
college. This, as an attempt to isolate specific factors, was not
successful. The rating scale item on severity of psychological prob-
lems did, however, orrelate significantly with HPA at the 5 per cent
level of confidence. This item is the most generalized item on the
People do poorly in college wrk for different reasons. These
reasons are understandable when viewed in terms of the person involved.
These differences cancel each ether in psychemetric techniques. A
peresn might score high an item A of a rating scale and the charac-
teristic behind this might underlie his poor performance in college.
Another person might score low on item A but high on item B and the
characteristic behind this might underlie his poor performance in
college. Both items A and B uorld not correlate significantly with
academic performance at college, yet in each case the poor performance
would be understandable when viewed as phrased in the following ques-
tion: "what does this performance level mean to this person?" A
person's performance in college is just another aspect of how this
peren deals with his enriremmet.
This point of view raise the question; "are there any simi-
larittie between people who underachieve that are unique to that
grap and that would allow for prediction of college performance in
People iwh have achieved at a high level in the past are, by
nd large, the same people who aehieve at college. There is generally
ore metional disturbanee, in term of severity, in underachieers
the in theee wre achieve at a high level. This disturbance is mere
of a eareater nature than the disturbances in the greop of people
Se perform up to their level of ability. People who perform at
their level of ability hoew mere intperpernal warmth, are mere in
teuah with their feelings. There may be highly neurotic reasons for
a peruse's high performaee level in college just as in another
peam's peer perfezaee. People with high ability who perform at
high aehie int levels in college shew re ego strength as a group
than do people wh underehlieve. The psyehelegieal problem of high
aehiwrrs se loee ingrained in the character structure ef the
inMvidals than the pye helegisel problem of people who under-
There are elinieally understandable payehedywames wder-
lying the wAsrer ievit eellge student of high intellectual
FILL-OUT F18 AT MB- OF INTERVIEW
Pleae answer the following as accurately and as quickly as you can.
1. I live: derme, frat/ser. house, off-eampus, home.
2. I am single, married, divorced, widw,
3. Wy parents are: married, divorced, separated.
h. There have been, er are, difficulties between my parents in tke:
past, jreem t, beth past and present, neither.
5. rY parents: teld me tkat veeatienal objective te prepare
for, eneuraged me te prepare for a particular veeatieoal
objeeUv, disemused this with me but skewed no preference,
don't care 6 hat I majer in .
6. I: belong te a frat., wasn't asked te pledge a frat.,
a en dging a frat., was rushed but didn't pledge,
dan't eare about frat.- eeial fraternitie onlyy.
7. I feel olseer te y: mother, father, esm ether
maber ef y family, a person not a relatiW.
8. I have: may friends, ome friends, few friends,
9. I'm sure ef tke veeatiemal gal I presently have, I
k I know nhat veeation I want to purse but mlght hrge
wr mad, I'm net at all sure of a specific veeatieal goal
bet knw -Wmajer area ef my interests, I have no idea
were Tm interest lie.
10. I have dropped eernee, added eeurses, beth dropped
and added eerses, __ either :Wreed mer added eeursee.
11, Briefly state your reason for your answer to question 10:
12. What were your alternatives to coming to the University?
How far father went in school:
Mother's occupation: ______
How far mother went in school:
13. Has there been a crisis situation (financial loss, fight with
boy/girl friend, unusual family difficulties, etc.) in your life
during the fall semester? yes, n
If yes briefly identify what
14. Estimate in hours per week the time you spend in:
Reading er learning things
to course work
Doing things alene
1. Manifest anxiety level:
1 2 3
3. BeesseR :
4. Felinlg of
5. eAistamee to parts a problem:
1 2 3
6. elatLes SaterperPMlly:
1 2 3 I
7. bepeate~y a problems
1 2 3 4
8. rtvrity ef pyhoele ical
1 2 3 I
9. ew neislisad is hel?
1 2 3 4
10. Need for social acceptance:
I* Altus, W. D. A college aehiever and nonachiever scale for the
Minesota Multiphahic Persnality Inventory. J. appl. Pychl
19148, 32, 305-397. .. J
2. AmaM, A. L., and Ley, S. J. A oeimprative study ef the academic
ability and achievemet of two groups of college students. J.
educ. Psychel., 1947, 38, 307-310.
3. Diener, C. L. A oeeparimen of
students at the Univerity
1957, 17, 1692 Abstract.
overachieving and underachieving
of Arkansas. Dissertation Abstr.,
4. Drake, L. E., and Oetting, E. R. An MMPI pattern
variable predictive of academic achievemnt.
Payehol., 1957, 4, 245-247.
5. Drake, L. E.
and a suppressor
Interpretation of MIPI profiles in counseling male
J. eameel. Psychol., 1956, 3, 83-88.
6. Frisk, J. W. Iwpr-ving the prediction ef academic achievement by
use of the ?PPI. J. appl. PEychel., 1955, 39, 49-52.
7. GsOrh, H. G.
Diagnotic patterns on the MMPI. J. clin. Psyhel.,
8. Hathaway, S. R., and MeKinley, J. C. A rultiphasic personality
aseidules I. Censtructien of the schedule. J. Psychel.,
1940, 10, 2L9-254.
9. Hatbawer, S. R., and Meolnley, J. C.
seeedules III. The meaeurewnt
J. Payghol., 194-, 14, 73-84.
A multiphasic personality
of Wyuptematic depression.
M. zM~tmmuar, S. R.,
of the NMPI.
and MePe, P.
3. An atlas for the elinisal use
Univer. of Miameeta Pres, 1951.
11. Jeasen, Y. x. Inflames of perouality traits on aedemic success.
Pereenml and utidmnce Journal, 1958, 36, 497-500.
LU. MeKinley, J. C., and &Hathaw S. R. A multiphasic pernoality
~sedule s II. A differential study of hypoohendriasis. J.
Py3hl.,1* 1940, 10, 255-868.
13. McKinley, J. C., and Hathaway, S. R. A nultiphasic personality
schedule: IV. Psychasthenia. J. appl. Psychol., 1942, 26,
1~. McKinley, J. C., and Hathaway, S. R. The Minnesota Multiphasic
Personality Inventory: V. Hysteria, Hypemania, and Psycho-
pathic Deviate. J. appl. Psychol., 1941, 28, 153-174.
15. Meehl, P. E., and Hathaway, S. R. The K factor as a suppressor
variable in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.
J. appl. Psychol.,.1946,.30, 525-56h.
16. Quinn, S. B. Relationships of certain pursoiulity characteristics
to college achieTment. Dissertation Abstr., 1957, 17, 809 -
17. Sarnof, I., and Raphael, T. Five failing college students. Amer.
J. Orthopsychiat., 1955, 25, 343-372.
18. Stone, D. R., and Ganung, G. R. A study of scholastic aehieve-
ment related to personality as measured by the Minnesota
Multiphasic Inventory. J. educ. Ree., 1956, 50, 155-156.
19. Young, L. R. Parent-child relationships which affect achieve-
ment motivation of college freshmen. Dissertation Abetr.,
1957, 17, 3111 Abstract.
Rahe Baeeett Cerlis was born in Cincinnati, hio, on August
30, 1933. he attended public schls there until the age of eight
at khich time his family moved to Melbourne, Florida. He graduated
from Molbourne High School in June, 1951. He entered the University
of Florida the sam month and reCeived the Bacheler of Arts degree
with a major in psychology in June, 1955. He continued at the Univer-
in the Graduate School and obtained a Master of Arts degree with a
peyehology major in January, 1957. His future plans are to work at
the Celumbus Psyehiatric Clinic in Columbue, Ohio.
This dissertation was prepared under the direction of the
chairman of the candidate's supervisory committee and has been approved
by all members of the committee. It was submitted to the Dean of the
College of Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate Council and was
approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
January 30, 1960
Dean, College of Arts/apd Sciences
Dean, Graduate Sehool
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