Title: Decameter-wavelength radio observations of the planets in 1962
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 Material Information
Title: Decameter-wavelength radio observations of the planets in 1962
Physical Description: xv, 214 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lebo, George Robert, 1937-
Publication Date: 1964
Copyright Date: 1964
 Subjects
Subject: Planets -- Observations   ( lcsh )
Radio astronomy   ( lcsh )
Physics thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Physics -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis - University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 210-213.
Additional Physical Form: Also available on World Wide Web
General Note: Manuscript copy.
General Note: Vita.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00097933
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000565582
oclc - 13554772
notis - ACZ2000

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DECAMETER-WAVELENGTH RADIO

OBSERVATIONS OF THE PLANETS

IN 1962












By
GEORGE ROBERT LEBO











A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY












UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
August, 1964













ACGIO 7LEEJDGIEITS


The author wishes to express deepest gratitude to his commit-

tee chairman and adviser Dr. Alex G. Smith for his capable and patient

guidance. Without his help this project would not have been possible.

Thanks are also due Dr. Thomas D. Carr for many helpful suggestions

and discussions, and Drs. F. E. Dunnyam, G. C. Omer, and R. G. Blake for

serving on his committee.

The data in this thesis could not have been collected by one per-

son. The author wishes to thank the following staff members for carry-

ing out routine observations during the 1962 apparition:

T. Anderson R. J. Leacock

J. Aparici J. Levy

W. F. Block E. J. Lindsey

H. Bollhagen J. ay

G. W. Brown W. Mock

I. Cain C. II. Olsson

T. D. Carr I. Shever

I.. L. Fagerlin I'. F. Six, Jr.

S. Gulkis A. G. Smith

A. T. Jusick C. F. Tiberi

G. Walls.

R. R. Hayward, C. A. Arlington, and S. L. Danielson proved to

be of great assistance in reducing the data, and W. W. Richardson de-

serves highest commendation for his untiring work on the drawings.










The expert editorial and typing services rendered by Mrs. Ruth Pierce

lightened the publication burden immeasurably.

The author also wishes to thank R. A. Smith and the rest of

the staff at the University of Florida Computing Center for their ex-

pert advice in writing the computer programs. Without the use of the

I. B. M. 709 facility at the University of Florida Computing Center, the

data analysis in this thesis could not have been undertaken.

The writer expresses thanks to Dr. S. S. Ballard, head of the

Physics department, for supporting him in the form of teaching assist-

ships and to the U. S. Army Research Office Durham, the National

Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research for their aid in

the form of research assistantships.

The author is indeed grateful to his parents and to his wife's

parents for their encouragement.

The author's wife deserves more than appreciation for her pa-

tience, encouragement, and hard work during six years of school life.

Her devotion and understanding helped as nothing else could. It is to

her that this thesis is dedicated.


iii













TABLE OF COITEIITS


Page


ACKI uEL ITS . . . . . . . . . . . . ii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . .. . .. vii

LIST OF FIGURES ................ ...... .viii

Chapter

I. IIITRODUCTIOl. . . . . . . . . . . .. 1

Instrumentation . . . . . . . . .. 1

II. CALIBRATIII PROCEDURES. . . . . . . . . 4

Easic Concepts . . . . . . . . .. 5
The Florida Calibrator . . . . . . . 7
The Chile Calibrator . . . . . . . . 7
Calibration Using the Chile Calibrator . . . 9
Use of the Calibration . . . . . . ... 9
Receiver Characteristics . . . . . ... .16

III. ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES. ..... . . . . . 21

Data Reduction ...... . . . . . ..

Data Reduction as Performed in 1957-i901
and Continued in 192 "Old Analysis" . 21
Data Reduction as Started in 1961 by Brown
and Continued in 1962 "ilew Analsis" . . 23

Jupiter Programs for the I.B.l-M. 709. .. . . ..

The "Old Progrsam." .. . . . . . ... 26
The "liew Program" ................ 2d

IV. PROBABILITY STUDIES . . . . . . . ... 37

Gross Statistics . . . . . . . . . 37









TABLE 'OF COClITEiTS (Continued)


Page

Probabilit' of CObserving Jupiter Radiation
as a Function of Jo-:.ian Longitude . . . .

LDta from Individual Charnnels . . . .. C
erged Dt . . . . . . . . 45
Irrift Studies of Source A . . . . .. 62
.Drift Studies of Source B . . . . . .
Possible Correelation of Radio SoLurce Drift
with Red Spot ETift. . . . . ... 7

Frobabilit' Velrsus Hour Argie . . . . . ..
Frobability Versus Uni-.ersal Time . . . . . 2
Probabiiit-' Versus Time From Sunset . . . . .
Probabiiit' Versus The Time From Sunrise. . . . 89
Frobabil-;'-i -ersus J.upter Elonr-atioi . . . . 9

V. IiTEliSIT STUIES. . . . . . . . ..... .. 97

Interisit, Distribution. . . . . . . .. 97
Gross Statistics. . . . . . ... . .. 101
Determination of Calibration- System Reliability . 105
Intei-nsity Versus System III Longitude . .. . ...
Hour Angle Studies .............. ... 115
Dil.ui'rnal Studie ... .. . . . .... . . 117
Time-From-Suni set Studies. . . . . . . . .
Ti'me-From-Sunrise Studies . . . . . . .. 12
Elongation Studies. . . . . . .... .. . 121
Search for Periodic Recur-renjces .. . . . ... 12

VI. SCLAC ATD GECPFhYSiCLL CFRELLLTICOIS WITH JOC'TAI
l- SSI !ii. . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Log-em Ef.fects. . . . . . . . . . 32
Short-ITerm Correlations . . . . . . . . 13

Correction of the 196i A-nasis . . . .. 135
Changes in the Solar Flare Program. . . . 143
Chree A-na-isis Results of the 1962 Solar
Correlation Studies. . . . . . . 147
Concl1usEions and Suggestions for Further
Studies . . . . . . . ... 1 5

VII. DECAUL iTE--UAVE-ElIGTH OESERiVAIC'IS OF SATUFil, I-M.RS,
AiD' VEHUS Iii 1962 AlD 1963. . . . . . ... 192


Saturn. . . . . . . . . . .


192









TABLE OF COiTE1I1TS (Continued)


Page

Introduction and InstrLumentation . . . 192
Eata Reduction and Analysis . . . . . 193

Venus and I-Mrs. . . . . . . . . ... 197

VIII. SUTR. ARY AIFD R' ARKS Oil THE COI2PAF.ISOI0 OF THE
EXPER,~IEiTAL RESULTS WITH EISTIllG THEORIES ... . 202

Theories as to the Origin of Jupiter's Decametric
Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . 202

Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . 204

LIST OF REFEREJCES . . ................... .... .210

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . . ... . . 214













LIST OF TABLES


able


T


vii


Page

3

38

39

60


112


1. Equipment Description . . . . . . . . .

2. Gross Statistics . . . . . . . . . . .

3. Activity Correlation Study . . . . . . . . .

4. Source Position as a Function of Frequency . . . . .

5. Criteria for Determining Reliability of the Averages
in Figs. 47 and 48 . . . . . . . . . .

6. Days of Peak Activity used in the Chree Analysis of
the 18 Mc/s Data in 1962 . . . . . . . . .

7. Days of no Activity and Days of Peak Activity in
Jovian Longitude Regions from 00 to 900 and 900 to 1900
for the 18 Mc/s Florida Data in 1962 . . . . . .

8. Days of Peak 18 Mc/s Activity in Jovian Longitude
Regions from 1900 to 2900 and 2900 to 3600 and
Days of Peak 27.6 Mc/s Data in 1962 . . . . . .

9. Gross Statistics for the Saturn Observations in 1962 . .

10. Pulses Labelled "Possible Saturn" recorded in 1962 . . .

11. Gross Statistics for the Mars and Venus Observations
in 1962 . . . . . . . . . . . .


172



173

194

195


200













LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1. cSiple noise generator based on two Sylvania 5722 noise
diodes. . . . . . . . . . .... .

2. Amplifier used with the calibration system at the Chile
station during 1962 .. . . . . . . .. 8

3. Block diagrams of calibrator Systems "A," "B," and "C"
used at the Chile station in 1962 ............ 10

4. Examples of Chile calibrations. Top: Systems "A," "B," and
"C" calibrations at the Chile station (Calibrations using
syste:.;s A and B were not normally this complete.) Center:
Florida calibration. Bottom Systems "A," "B," and "C"
calibrations as they were n:-io.ally performed at the Chile
station . . . . . . . . ... . . . 11

5. Visualization of the gain calculation using the Chile cali-
brator system . . . . . . . . . . 12

6. Receiver-recorder response curves used as an aid to calcu-
late the gain of the amplifier in the Chile calibration
systems (100 chart deflection units is full scale deflec-
tion) . . . . . . . . .. . ... . .. .15

7. Systems "B" and "C" calibrations made during the watch to
determine the noise contributed by the Chile amplifier.. 17

Receiver-recorder response curves at 15.0 Mc/s and 22.2
Ic.s using C. .lins receivers and Texas recorders (100
deflection units represent full scale deflection) . .. 18

9. iHarriarlund and R;odhe-Scharz response c.i..es at 10.0 and
5.0 lc's, respectivelyl. .................. 19

10. Average probability of observ.inrg activity at the Chile
Station in 196. . . . . . . . . .

11. FProbability hiistogra! for the 1I.0 Ic "s data taken at
the Florida station in 1962, plotted in Polar coordi-
natess . . . . . . . . . . .. ... 3


viii









LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)


Figure Page

12. Probability histograms for data taken at 15.0, 18.0,
22.2, and 27.6 Mc/s at the Florida station in 1962. . 44

13. Probability histograms for data taken at 5.0, 10.0,
15.0, 16.0, 18.0, 22.2, and 27.6 Mc/s at the Chile
station in 1962 . . . . . . . . ... ... 46

14. Smoothed, merged probability histograms for data taken
at 10.0 Mc/s. . . . . . . . .. . 48

15. Smoothed, merged probability histograms for data taken
at 15.0 Mc/s. . . . . . . . .. . 49

16. Smoothed, merged probability histograms for data taken
at 18.0 Mc/s. . . . . . . . .. .. . .51

17. Smoothed, merged probability histograms for data taken
at 22.2 Mc/s. . . . . . . . .. . 53

18. Smoothed, merged probability histograms for data taken
at 27.6 Mc/s. . . . . . . . .. .. . .54

19. Smoothed, merged histograms for all the frequencies moni-
tored, using only 1962 data . . . . . .... 56

20. Smoothed, merged histograms for all the frequencies moni-
tored, using all the data recorded since observations
began in 1957 . . . . . . . . . . 58

21. Variation of source position with frequency (The dashed
lines provide an alternate selection of source posi-
tions. The point labelled 7 may not be source C.). . 59

22. Probability histograms for the 1960, 1961, and 1962
data taken at the Florida station . . . . .... 6

23. Yearly variation of the position of the 18 Mc/s source A . 64

24. Variation of the position of the 18 Mc/s source A since
1960 using partial apparition histograms. . . . ... 66

25. Probability histograms for the 18 Mc/s data taken at the
Chile station in 1962 using the "old" (TIII = 91 55" 29335)
and the "new" (TIII = 9h 55m 30970) periods . . .. 70









LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)


Figure Page

26. The 1957-1962 smoothed, merged 18 1.c/s histogram.
using the "old" (TI1 = 9h 551 29s35) period until
1960 and the "new" (T'III = 9 55" 3070) period af-
ter that date. . . . . . . . . . ... 71

27. il I1e/s source B drift studies using 1961 and 1962 data 73

28. 18 lIc/s source B drift studies using the merged 1961-
1962 data . . . . . . . . . . . 75

29. Time variation of the System II longitude of Jupiter's
Great Red Spot . . . . . . .... . . 76
9
30. Time variation of the longitude of Jupiter's Great
Red Spot for a period TpS which maintains the Red
Spot longitude constant from 1945-1958 compared
with Fig. 23 . . . . . . . . . . . 7.

31. Time variation of the longitude of Jupiter's Great
Red Spot since 1835, using a special period T = 9h 55m
37158. Eased largely on Peek (16) . . . .... .. 79

32. Probability versus hour angle histograms for the data
taken at the Florida station in 1962 . . . . .

33. Frobability versus hour angle histograms for the data
taken at the Chile station in 1962 . . . . . .

34. Probability versus Universal Time histograms for the
data taken at the Florida station in 1962. . . .. 84

35. Probability versus Universal Time histograms for the
data taken at the Chile station in 1962 . . . ... 85

36. Probability versus time-frmn-sunset histograms for
data taken at the Florida station in 1962. . . . 87

37. Probability versus time-from-sunset histograms for
the data taken at the Chile station in 1962. . . ..

38. Probability versus timee-from-sunrise histograms for
the data taken at the Florida station in 19'2. . ... 90

39. Probability versus time-from-sunrise histograms for
the data taken at the Chile station in 1962. . . . 91









LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)


Figure Page

40. Smoothed probability versus time-from-sunrise histo-
grams for the data taken at 18.0 Mc/s in 1962. . . ... 93

41. Variation of the average monthly probability with
time and Jupiter elongation, for data taken at the
Florida station in 1962. .... . . . . . 95

42. Time variation of the average monthly probability
for data taken at the Chile station in 1962. . . ... 96

43. Intensity distribution for the 18.0 Mc/s data taken
at the Florida station in 1962 . . . . . .. . 100

44. Frequency variation of the average flux density, SA . .. 103

45. Frequency variation of the average flux density;, SL .... 104

46. Comparison of the S versus Systemi III histograms
for the 18.0 Mc/s data using calibrations ("with
cal") with those using the cosmic noise level as
a reference ("no cal") . . . . . . . . . 108

47. Smoothed SA -:ers..s System III histograms for data
taken at the Florida station in 1962 (The dashed
lines represent regions of poor statistics.) .. .. 1.09

S4. Smoothed SA versus System III histograms for data
taken at the Chile station in 1962 . . . . . . 111

49. Smoothed SL versus System III histograms for data
taken at the Florida station in 1962 . . . . . 113

50. Smoothed SL versus System III histograms for data
taken at the Chile station in 1962 . . . . ... 114

51. Smoothed SL and SA versus hour angle histograms
using the 18.0 Mc/s data taken in 1962. . . . 116

52. Smoothed SL and S. versus Universal Time histograms
using the ld.0 Mc/s data taken in 1962 . . . . .. 119

53. Smoothed SL and SA versus time-from-sunset histograms
using the 18.0 Mc/s data taken in 1962 . . . . . 120

54. Smoothed SL and SA versus time-from -sz.urise histograms
using the 18.0 Mc/s data taken in 1962 . . . . .. .122









LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)


Figure Page

55. Variation of the monthly average activity index
rate with time and Jupiter elongation, for the
Florida data taken in 19i62. .. . ... . . 12

56. Time variation of the monthil,- average activity
index rate for the Chile data taken in 1962 ..... .. 125

57. Iaily activity index rate for the 5.0 and 10.0 Mc/s
data taken in 1962. . . . . . . . . 127

58. Daily activity index rate for the 15.0 IMc/s data
taken in 1962 .......... . . . 125

59. Daily activity index rate for the l,.O lc/s data
taken in 1962 . . . .... . . . . . 129

60. raily activity index: rate for the data taken at
22.2 and 27.6 Mc/s in i1962. . . . . . . 130

61. Comparison of the width of source A and of the average
probability of emission with SLinspot number . ... 133

62. Comparison of Jupiter's solar latitude and the
apparition average activity index rate with sunsrot
number. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

63. Chiee analysis of the solar flare activity index in
,groups one, two, and three, using the 20 peak days
of 18.0 I-ic/s Jupiter emission at the Florida station
in i9'i . . .. . . . . . . . 13

64. Regions on the solar disk as viewed from Jupiter as-
signing flares to groups one, two, or three ..... 13

65. Chree analysis of solar flare activity index in groups
one, two, and three, using the 20 peak days of 27.6
MIc./s Jupiter emission at the Florida station in 1961. i4

66. Chriee analysis of solar flare activity index in groups
one. two, and three, using the 20 peak days of 18 Iic/s
Jupiter emission at the Florida station during the
three months around opposition in 1961 . . . ... 142

o6. Chrlee analysis of solar flare activity index in groups
one, two, and three, using the 20 peak days of 18 IMc/s
Juriter emission at the Chile station in 1960 .. 144


.xii









LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)


Figure Page

68. Chree analysis of the solar flare activity index in
groups one, two, and three, using the 20 days of
peak activity of the 18 Mc/s Jupiter emission at
the Florida station in 1962 . . . . . . ... 149

69. Chree analysis of the number of flares in groups
one, two, and three, using the 20 days of peak
Jupiter activity at 18 Mc/s at the Florida
station in 1962. . . . . . . . . . ... 151

70. Chree analysis of the 2800 Mc/s solar flux, the
Zurich provisional sunspot number (RZ), the geo-
magnetic index (Ap), and the Jovian daily activity
index rate using the 20 days of peak Jupiter activity
at 18 Mc/s at the Florida station in 1962. . . .. 153

71. Chree analysis of the solar flare activity index
in groups one, two, and three, using the 21 days
of peak activity of the 18 Mc/s Jupiter emission
at the Chile station in 1962 . . . . . .... .155

72. Chree analysis of the number of flares in groups
one, two, and three, using the 21 days of peak
Jupiter activity at 18 Mc/s at the Chile station
in 1962. . . . ... . . . . . . . 157

73. Chree analysis of the 2800 Mc/s solar flux, the
Zurich provisional sunspot number (RZ), the geo-
magnetic index (Ap), and the Jovian daily activity
index rate, using the 21 days of peak Jupiter activity
at 1o [c's at the Chile station in 1962 .. ... . 5

74. ChLree analysis of the solar flare activity inde:.:
excludingg subflares) in groups one, two, and three,
using the 2'?. days of peak activity: of the i.d iLIc/s
Jupiter emission at the Florida station in 1962. ... i61

75. Chree anai,-Lis of the rn.,mber of flares (excluding
subftares) in groups ore, two, and three, using the
2., das:; of peak Jupiter activ.it: at the Florida
station in 1962. . . . . . . . . . .. 161

76. Chree analysis of the solar flare activity, inde: in
groups one, two, and three, using the 2'. da; s of peak
Jovian activity (Florida plus Chile) monitored by:
both stations at 1 Mc/s during the three months
around opposition in 1962. . . . . . .... 3163









LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)


Fi guire

7. Chree anal,-sis of the number of .solar flares in groups
one, two, and three, using the 20 days of peak Jo-
vian activity (Florida plus Chile) monitc.red by b.th
stations at, 1 I-l'c/s during the three montlis around
opposition in 1962. . . . . . . . . .


Page


7S. Chree analysis of the 2500 i.c,'s so lar flu., the Zurich
provisional sunspot number iF;), the geomagnetic in-
de:. (Ap), and the Jovian daily activity index: rate,
using the 20 days of peak Jupiter activity (Florida
plus Chile) monitored by both stations at 18 I-ic s
during the three months around opposition in 1962 .. 1.66

79. The solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic
field. After Parker (25) . . . . . ..... 68

,o. Chree analysis of the 20C0 [lic/s solar flZu', the
Zurich provisional s'urspot number (RZ), and geo-
magnetic index (Ap), and the Jovian daily activity
index rateusing the 29 days of "no activity" at
both stations during the si.: months around opposi-
tion in 1')62 ...................... 170

:l. Cti'ee analysis of the 2:00 I-ic/s solar f l.:, the geo-
n.-gnetic index t.'p the suni'pot nLumiber R., and tlhe
solar flare activity indices for regions one, two,
and three, using the 11 days of peak Jupiter ac-
tivity received in the IO to 90r i'.I interval on
the 1 -; lc/'s, Florida channel in 19o2. . . . . 174


:2. Chree analysis of tlhe 2500 e.cZ s olar flux:, the geo-
magnetic index Ap, the sunispot number R', and the
solar flare activity indices for regions one, two,
and three, using the 17 rpeaI days of Jupiter activity
received in the 9.30 to 190' A interval on tihe
l ic' zs,. Florida channel in 192. . . . . .


LS. Chree analysis of the 2b00 I.-c s solar flu-:, the geo-
magnetic index Ap, tlhe sunrspot number ?R, and the
solar flare activity indices for regions one, two,
and three, using the 19 days of peak Jupiter acti-
vity received in the 190' to 2900 A II interval
on the 18 Il-c/s, Florida channel in 1962 . . .. .


164


S 175


170









LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)


Figure Page

S3. Cnree analysis of the 2500 .Mc/s solar flu.:x, the
geomagnetic index Ap, the sunspot number R7,
and the solar flare activity indices for regions
one, two, and three, using the 21 days of peak
Jupiter activity received in the 2900 to 3600 A-
interval on the 18 Mc/s, Florida channel in 1962. . 177

85. Double correlation studies of the 2800 nIc/s solar
flux Chree analysis with the Chree analyses of the
solar flare activity indices in regions one, two,
and three, using the 20 days of peak Jupiter acti-
vity monitored at 18 Mc/s by the Florida station
in 1962 ............... . . . 179

86. Double correlation studies of the geomagnetic in-
dex Chree analysis witn the Chree analyses of
the solar activity indices in regions one, two,
and three, using the 20 days of peak Jupiter ac-
tivity monitored at 18 Mc/s by the Florida sta-
tion in 1962 . . . . . . . .... .... 1

7. Cihree analysis of the solar activity indices (FX1,
EX2, and FX:3), using the 19 days of peak 27.6
i.c/s Jupiter activity received at the Florida sta-
tion in 1962 . . . . . . . . ... . 182

38. Chree analysis of the solar flare numbers (Fi1, F1i2,
and Fli), using the 19 days of peak 27.6 IMc/s Ju-
piter activity received at the Florida station in
1962 . . . . . . . . ... ...... .183

89. Chree analysis of the 23j800 Mc/s solar flu.:, the
geomagnetic index Ap, the sunspot number RB, and
the Jovian activity index rate, using the 19 days
of peak 27.6 Mc/s Jupiter activity received at
the Florida station in 1962.. . . . . . . 18

90. Location of Saturn bursts in activity longitude
systems plot ed for rotational periods of
1'h 5m.6 and 11h 57m., where the longitude
was assumed to be zero at Oh U.T. on May 10, 1962 . 198













CHAPTER I

IIITRODUCTIO1


The decameter radio emission from the planet Jupiter, first ob-

served accidentally, by, Burke and Frankrlin in 1955 (1), has been moni-

tored by the radio astronomy group at the University of Florida since

1957.

Such extensive "coverage" can be justified merely by, noting

the existence of numerous conflicting theories purporting to explain

this strange electromagnetic phenomenon (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7).

These theories rill be discussed in a later chapter. The results of

the 1962 observations are offered here as experimental evidence to aid

in deciding which, if any, of these theories is correct. This analy-

sis must, of course, be considered as a continuation of the analyses

from previous years by T. D. Carr (o), II. E. Chatterton (9), and II. F.

Six (10). Details of data-taking, execution of the watch, and data

analysis that were not changed for the 1962 apparition (observing sea-

son) are not discussed here, since II. F. Six (10) covered these in his

dissertation.

During the 1962 apparition observations were also made of I-ars,

Venus, and Saturn.


IIISTRUI-Eii'TATiOII

The 1962 observations were made from two sites: one at the

University of Florida campus in Gainesville, Florida, and the other near










I-Iaipu, Chile, about twenty miles from Santiago. At the Chile station,

observations of Jupiter were made in 1962 at frequencies of 5, 10, 15,

16, 18, 22.2, and 27 .6 .Ic/s, while simultaneously observations were

being made at frequencies of 15, 18, 22.2, and 27.6 Mc/s in Florida.

At each frequency an antenna was connected to a commercial communica-

tions receiver and two pen recorders. One of these, a low-speed re-

corder, ran during the entire listening time at a chart speed of six

inches per hour; the other, a high-speed recorder, ran only when Jovian

activity ;-as received. The chart speed of the latter recorder was

5 mm/sec, 25 mm/sec, or 125 rnmm/sec, depending on which speed was needed

to resolve the pulses. The data analysis, as discussed in this paper,

primarily involves data taken on the low-speed Texas recorders, except

at 15 I.c/s (Chile) and 27.6 MIc/s (Chile) for which the low-speed data

were taken on Esterline-Angus recorders.

Pertinent information regarding the antennas and their receivers

is given in Table 1.















V VVVVVvVVVVV


V3 (.3

.-i *,-i


00
0U


000
- .-I


r.I
r- r00

00
0D L)


o La in 0 0 0 cI i o [(- 0
--I -Tr [r-- U-\ b'\ 0 0 C' U\ r-i
L-,\_T u- 'L\ %O \D \C, %% mn ,- -I C-)


-r -- r-i\ O Lr\ L.-\ CO i\ r- [*-


4-.

1u



(.3 0
'0

n0
fiO


.) 11)
30 "0

00 cd
00 P
i"
O PQ
(tf


III
III
III
I I I


.3)
*,4

,-
o


0)


r -'
E
*r-1




S0- I
..-4 -I


* .-4



CSd I

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Lid Li


t> tiU ti) tit tu
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-.-4 0 -1 *
ccxxx
00000 AA
L> U G) U 0
iG .1
'*i !- '*i 'H '-


Li --4*Ht C
Sc: CO o )
L%\ .i) 0
Hi L'I rJ cy' *)


LiO

*.-I (
O -.--

'0


Hr *H


'.~ 1:4
H -
C) C)7
ri i~

~-,4~)-1


rdrd



-3) .L) P-, P
QU-,z.,


lU\ 0 LI\ U-\ \10 CO CO CO
rlrllHrrlrl


0JOJLJ

01010
imiU(


' o

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4,



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0, 0
MO


.,

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-4





.-,




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4-.0

00 G
,>0

S 0 C) H.

) p .,- 0
0 0 aj

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cd
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1-1 f-












CHAPTER II

CALIBRATION PROCEDURES


The analyses of preceding apparitions were used predominately

for probability studies. If, on the other hand, accurate intensity

studies are to be made, the received signal intensity must be known as

a function of time. By dividing the activity periods into small inter-

vals and determining the intensity for each interval, this time depen-

dence can be established, as was done by G. W. Brown (11) and T. D. Carr

et. al. (12). Calibrators were installed at each station for just such

a purpose. At the end of every watch each channel which had recorded

activity was calibrated with a noise generator composed basically of two

Sylvania 5722 noise diodes connected in parallel (Fig. 1). This calibra-

tion was necessary each time radiation was.received, since the gain of

a receiver might drift from day to day. .------

SRECEIVER

I I-


S5722 5722 R R

I

B+ J_ ,
0 0- L--------

VARIAC

Fig. 1.--Simple noise generator based on two Sylvania
5722 noise diodes






5

BASIC COUiCEPTI

llyquist's Lai,


P = kT Af, (1)


where k is Boltmiann's constant (1.38 x 1,'-2 joules / K), T is the re-

sistor temperature in degrees Kelvin, and \f is the range of frequen-

cies over which the noise power P is to be measured, gives the noise

power produced by a resistor at a temperature T. What would the resis-

tor temperature have to be in order to yield sufficient noise power to

calibrate a typical Jovian pulse?

Consider the flux density 3 (power per unit area per unit of

bandwidth) as being received by an antenna of effective area A connected

to a receiver of bandwidth Af. The power then can be written as


P = 1/2 SA Af, (2)


where the 1/2 is introduced because the antenna is sensitive to only one

of the two linearly polarized components of the radiation. Equation (1)

with Equation (2) leads to:


T = 1/2 _- t (3)
k


Substituting 720 mru for A and 10 -21w m-2cps for S (a typical value for

Jovian decameter activity at 13 i.ic/s), one finds T to be about 2.6 1.: IC K.

Since a resistor temperature this high is obviously out of the question,

a calibrator based on noise diodes is used (Fig. 1).

If I is the d.c. component of the plate current, i the r.m.s.









fluctuation of the plate current, and R the terminating resistance of

of a Sylvania 5722 noise diode operating over a frequency range Zf,

then by Schottky's Law:



i V2el Af, and (4)



p 9 R=- eIA (5)
22


In the above, e is the electronic charge (1.6 x 10-9 could ) and i/2

instead of i is used in Equation (5) since only one-half of the a.c.

plate current reaches the receiver. The other half is dissipated in

the terminating resistor h. Using Equations (2) and (5), one arrives

at:


I = SA/eF. (6)


If one substitutes the same -.alues for S, A, and e that were used in

Equation (3), along with h = 50fl, I becomes 90 m.a. The maximum d.c.

plate current that can be used with the Sylvania 5722 noise diode is

35 m.a. Even with two diodes connected in parallel (I = 70 m.a.), one

would not be able to obtain a calibraticn deflection equal to the deflec-

-2 -2 -l
tion resulting from a flux. density of 10 w m cps oteworthy, also,

is the fact that radiation from the giant planet often exceeds the cited

flux density, especially at frequencies below 18 Ic/'s. At 5 Mc/'s, pulses

have been recorded vhich correspond to calibration currents as high as

70 ampsi Such currents are certainly not readily created by connecting

additional noise diodes in parallel if each diode supplies no more than









35 m.a. Since higher-current noise diodes are not available, the only

recourse is either to amplify the noise generator signal or to attenu-

ate the signal from Jupiter. The first alternative \as tried at the

Chile station during the 1962 apparition.


THE FLOIFaIA CALIEFATOR

Fig. 1 sufficiently describes the simple calibrator used at the

Florida station. Regardless of how limited this system proved to be,

it \as a step toward better calibration and a still better system is

being used during the 1963 apparition.


THE CHILE CALIEBATOR

In Chile. the first improvement was to replace the plate resis-

tor R, shown in Fig. 1, with a higher value (- 450fO). 'This was done

simply by inserting a 375-1 resistor in series with the original 75nI

plate resistor (the receivers were tuned to 75 Sf input impedance in

Chile instead of the C50! input impedance used in Florida). The re-

sulting calibrator-to-receiver mismatch i.'s corrected by connecting the

two with a coaxial cable cut to an appropriate length. This procedure

made possible an equivalent noise generator gain (K) of about si-:. With

the additional resistor and the appropriate matching cable inserted, the

calibration rwas latelled "high range," while, .with the noise generator

alone, the calibration was labelled "low range." The calibrator in

"high range" still generated insufficient noise power to allow calibra-

tion of the stronger Jovian pulses.

An amplifier (Fig. 2) -was, therefore, inserted with the noise

generator in "high range," thus producing a calibration system known as







RESISTORS OHMS
CAPACITORS- Mfd


6800 Pf
6800 Pf


SIZED FOR A RANGE
SIZED FOR A RANGE


OF 15-20 MC/S
OF 5-10 MC/S


V2


INPUT

75 1
OHMS


.025


L2


.002 -


+290 V.


+155V. REG.


VI V2


.


AM PLIFI ER


OF CHILE CALIBRATOR


Fig. 2.--Amplifier used with the
tem at the Chile station during 1962


calibration sys-


6SG7
6SG7


V,
V2
C,
C,


470


TPUT


75
HMS


LI









"System C" (see Fig. 3). This made possible pen deflections correspond-

ing to nearly all of the pulses of Jovian origin. Obviously, for satis-

factor- calibration, the equivalent current Ie (that current through a

noise diode which would produce the given pen deflection) had to be

Known, since the flux density S is fouaid by inserting Ieq into:


S = eRIeq, (7)
A


an expression arrived at merely by rewriting Equation (6). In order to

find the equivalent current, the dependence of the amplifier gain (G)

on the calibration current (I) had to be measured as described below.

As a further modification of the system, an attenuator of known im-

pedance wa s inserted into "System C," thus producing what was known as

"System A" (Fig. 3). The noise generator alone in "lou range" was known

as "System B."


CALIBRAT'OII USIIG T[E CHILE CALIBRATOR

After each %watch the receiver gain was increased, so that full

scale deflections could be obtained with "System B": calibrations were

then made using Systems "A" and "B." Fig. 4 shows these calibrations

as they appeared on the Texas records. iote that the calibrator used

in Florida corresponded to "System B" in Chile. However, the Florida

calibrator was used during the watch; hence,it %was used at lower receiver

gain than that used for the "System E" calibrations in Chile.


USE OF THE CALIBRATIO1I

Fig. 5 illustrates the procedure used for finding the gain (G)










SYSTEM A

HIGH
RANGE
.............. -- 7-

NOISE AMPLIFIER ATTENUATOR RECEIVER RECORDER
GENERATOR




SYSTEM B


LOW
RANGE

NOISE RECEIVER RECORDER
GENERATOR




SYSTEM C

HIGH
RANGE
14 1 I 1 I I R
NOISE AMPLIFIER RECEIVER RECORDER
GENERATOR
Fig. S .--Block diagrams of calibrator Systems "," "E," and "C"
used at the Chile station in 1962












I.-

II-


-* ""t : : _t,. m
-, ,*

T _
.. .. PO__- r- .,i ---


II

'I-1-


T-
I 2

i 4


-.-


Y L L ... .. _, . ..


- r- 0 -
t. -: J| .-.. __

. .. ..








Fig.. ).--E:-anilea of Chile :alibrationp. Top: S.- teams "A:" "B:"
and "C" calibtrti.-rns at the Chile station (CalibratlionS uing S, stems
A an d B ..ere not nr;.,ii:all, t-his ':o.mplete.). Center: Flori'il calibra-
tionr. Eottomi S-.'stemics "A1, "BE" and "C" ca vibration, as the, ':ere
noroimall., perfonTied at the Chile station


I- .
~i~








SYSTEM A
HIGH


I I 1 I I --
NOISE I AMPLIFIER ATTENUATOR
GENERATOR

SYSTEM B

LOW
I 1 RANGE I i


RECEIVER


SAME E L
REFLECTION


I I_ I_ A _&
NOISE BI RECEIVER RECORDER
GENERATOR
PA ,G + PN
w PB,


.SYSTEM A
HIGH
RANGE
I-- 1> -E- -----I-I -- I
__ ^\ I -- s i i ^ -
NOISE A2AMPLIFIER ATTENUATOR RECEIVER REC.
GENERATOR

.SYSTEM B

LOW DEFLECTION
RANGE


NOISE "2 RECEIVER RECORDER
GENERATOR P G + P
A2 N
= P,


Fig. 5.--Visualization of the gain calculation using the Chile
calibrator system








of the system. G equ-ls the product of the amplifier gain and the

"high range" over the "low range" gain (K). P,..... are the re-

spective noise powers created by the noise generator with currents

S......I ("System A"), P.....F are the respective noise powers

created by the noise generator with currents I .....IBi ("System B"),

Pi is the noise power inherent in the amplifier, and CC is 0 the attertLa-

tion coefficient of the attenuator. 'With current I, in "System A" and
1
1BE in "System B," a deflection @i is obtained for each system; thus:


l G(P + P P1 (8)
OC

By changing Ii to I12 and I t I t to obtain a deflection "p for each

system, the relation

P, G(FQ ) p. FE
`2 k 2 + i B2 (9)
CX


results. Subtraction of Equation (9) from Equation (') leads to:


P C(P ) P1 G ( r) = C( P (i0)
A 1 i A-


But, from Equation (5) we see that the power P. is proportional to the

current Ii: hence Equation (10) can be -written:


IA, GIA) G(IAG = C (IB I)* (


If G(I-1 ) = G(I )=G( IA- an appro:ximation that is reasonable,

if IAl IA is small, Equation (ii) reduces to:










G 1 2 1 ()
S / ,- 1I,'



Fig. o is a plot of the 15 i.Ic/s "System A" and "System E" calibrations

shozi'-n in the top record of Fig. 4. From it can be found values for I'Ai,

IE1 ,-.. and IB.' Equation (12') yields G(1:.6 i..a. ) -b if the values

used are: A1. = 43.7 m.a., I1 = 15.b 1:1.a., IAs = 29.,0 m.a., and IB =

10.0 m.a., as selected in Fig. 6.

Unforti.uately, most of the "S.yste:m 1" and "Systemi B" calibra-

tions appeared as sho.-n in the bottom record of Fig. 4. Hence, it .-as
Jl I-+
iripossible to' draw the c.arves needed to calculate ( + U .Values

for I' 'A, I I 1 anrd I r.might then be selected as follows:



I = I = 0 = min + E ~' p min

I = IE-, = ,", = ,' r:in
(13)
I = = i :1m.a. '.' = ma::

I = B1 = suiif'ficient current to = ma::,
produce p ma::


'..here E.. represents the small additional deflection due to the noise in-

herent in the amplifier. Using these values in Equation (12), one finds:


I,
( ) -B 4)
'A


where the additional subscripts have been dropped. Is this value of

gain a sufficient representation of the actual gain to justify its use

for cali'tration?

j study of the curves C(IAi) versus IA, obtained from the few





15







< SYSTEM A
50- -60
SYSTEM B "
-0) /


25- /50
LLI / LuI




20- 40=
I-I


/
15- B30


o 0
-0 /ao -


0r /



0 I I 0
5- 10 -10




o ----- ^---i--------- '--L o
0 20 40 60 80
CHART DEFLECTION

Fig. 6.--Receiv'er-riecorder respon-se cuLes used as
an aid to calculate the gain of the amplifier in the Chile
calibration systems (100 cart deflection units is full
scale deflection)









calibrations having enough points to ailov.r curves to be drawn, sho'.ed

that -G(i. ) scar'cei;, ever varied from (i1. /2) by more than 20 per cent.

Since slight antenna-to-receiver mismatch, antenna pattern change vrith

hour angle, etc., account for variations of this magnitude, this 20 per

cent gain variation should not be too objectionable. Also, the amypli-

fier gain variations from da-y to day were small (less than 10 per cent);

hence, amplifier gain calibrations ..ere made only veekly. We shall

drop the ir. io the n atior. the fuictic.nal dependei-ce of C on IA remembering

that C really means G(-= i2).

In. order to find the actual equi.'valent current (leq) of the

amplified noise po'.er, one need merely to calculate:


iq = G 1i + %i, (15)


'here ..as the curr~-nr.t in "System C," G -..'s the gain, and i x.'as the

"equivalent current" necessary to produce the noise over present due

to the amplifier. i -w.'as easily read from calibrations involving "Sys-

tem C" and "Systerm B" made at the same receiver gain, as sho-.m in Fig. 7.

Ini this case !l is a little greater than 60 m.a. Unfortunately, the am-

plifier noise at 1., 22.2', and 27.6 [Ics .-as equal to. or greater than,

that due to the cosmic backgroL.und noise. This excessive noise -was

naturally a disturbing so-rce of error.


RFECEI V CThl ACTEI ST CS

Also needed for accurate calibrations iuere the response cu-.-'es

(deflection versus voltage) of each receiver and recorder combination.

Figs. d and 9 sho..' t-,pical response cur-ves for the Collins, Harmmairlud,.







































o
'0


'04-








.0.+<


,-4
I ."




.4-, .-I





















, *., ,. I







,- 4
h -' -
Ic' >!'

~
















22.2 MC/S


GALACTIC AVERAGE


.1 .2 .5 .4
INPUT VOLTAGE IN pV


15.0 MC/S




CTIC AVERAGE


.2
INPUT


.4 .G .8 1.0 1.2
VOLTAGE IN !V


Fig. 5.--Receiv.er--rcorder response curves at
15.0 Mc/s and 22.2 I/' s using Collins receivers and
Te::as recorders (100C deflection units represent full
scale deflection)


40

30

20




















10.0 4 C/S


AVERAGE


50 100
POWER IN U


NIT


150 200
S OF I019 WATTS


5.0 M C/S


CTIC AVERAGE


15 30 45 60 75 90


POWER IN UNITS OF


10-9 WATTS


Fig. 9.--Hainmmar1lmd and Eodhe-Schwarz response
cirves at 10.0 and 5.0 I-Ic/s, respectively


1

I-
z
=)


120


100




0.

JO
LI
2
20









and Rodhe and Schwarz receivers. Note that the Rodhe and Schwarz re-

ceiver (operated at 5 Mc/s in Chile) is the only receiver with a linear

response if power is plotted versus deflection. The rest of the re-

ceivers show a linear response if voltage is plotted versus deflection,

or if power is plotted versus the square of the deflection. As might

be expected, the response of a given receiver changes with frequency.

For the most part, the Collins receivers showed a linear response (de-

flection versus voltage) for all frequencies, if only deflections above

the galactic level were considered (see Fig. 8).














CHAPTER III

A1IALTICAL PROCEDURES


ILTA REDUCTIOII

The data -.ere analyzed with t..wo ends in mind:

A. To continue analyses started in 1957 and used each

year since;

B. To start a new-1 ana lsis that -w-ill provide better in-

formation about the intensity.


La.ta Reduction as Performed in 1957-1961 and
Continued in 1':- "Old Anralysis

In his dissertation, ii. F. Six (i10) explained this analysis in

detail. For that reason, procedures used in the 1957-1-961 data analysis

..ill merely, be listed and defined.

Records of all frequencies were reduced simultaneously, :ith con-

stant reference being made to the logs kept b' the observers. Since iden-

tification of the radiation rested originally, with the observer, the logs

and siutad eous rec ;ds assisted the -erson reducing the data in check-

ing the validity of the observer's decisions. On the whole, the ot-

servers seemed to be quite accurate.

Information taken from the records was:


Li stening Feriod

The listening period .as that period of time (U.T.) -.ihen the









receiver was working, Jupiter was in the antenna beam, and interference

was not excessive. The beam limits of the tracking antennas were de-

fined to be five degrees above each horizon. The beam limits of the

fixed antennas were:


1. 5B (Chile) + 4 hours from the meridian

2. 27C (Chile) + 4 hours from the meridian

3. 22P (Chile) + 3 hours from the meridian

4. 15C (Florida) + 4 hours from the meridian

5. 22P (Florida) + 3 hours from the meridian.


Activity Period (Storm)

A storm was that period of activity not interrupted by more than

8.3 minutes (five degrees of Jupiter rotation) of no activity. Note: The

listening period was divided so that each activity period had a corres-

ponding listening period.


Date (Month, Day, and fear)

A day was defined to begin at noon on day X and to end at noon on

day X + 1. The date recorded was X + 1.


Intensity

If D was the pen deflection of a Jupiter pulse and G was the pen

deflection of the galactic background, then:


Intensity = K (D2.) (16)
G


where the indicated average was performed for the three highest Jupiter






23


peaks in any given storm. If there were less than three peaks during a

sto, the average s perfoed ohe .erae perfthe existing peaks. K is the

normaliziation constant defined below.


ilonralization Constant

The normalization constant \.as that constant which normaliizes

the galactic background to the galactic background of our first observa-

tions in 1957. This constant is necessary. since, as Jupiter changes its

right ascension (two hours per year), the portion of the galax:., that is

monitored also changes.


Coin[Lients

Co:rnments were remarks made by the data reducer as to equipment

condition, calibration, listening conditions, antenna direction, etc.

As a continuation of work already- performed, this analysis .as

necessary. but it is easy. to see that in order to impro-.e our grasp on

the intensity:- we must di-.ide the storms into small time intervals. G.

U. Erouwn (11) of the Florida group first did this by di-.iding the storms

of the 1961 apparition into ten-minute intervals. Extending his work, we

divided the sto-rms of the 1'62 apparition into five-minute intervals, as

shown in the next section.


Data Reduction as Started in i'19l by Erou'.
and Continued in 194o2 "iiew nalysis

Information taken from the records for the "new analysis" can be

listed briefly, as follows:


Date

The definition of the date \.as not changed from that used in the

"old analysis."









Listening Period

The listening period was that time spanned by the Universal

Time at the beginning and end of effective listening as defined for the

"old analysis." Again, it should be pointed out that the listening

period is split up so that there is a listening period for each activity

period.


Activity Period

The times of Jovian activity were divided into five-minute in-

tervals. Any remaining time less than five minutes in duration was

considered to be a separate interval.


Intensity

The pen deflection for the highest value of Jupiter activity,

and the pen deflection for the average galactic background were read

for each activity interval on the record.


Jupiter Transit

The time of Jupiter transit was looked up in the American

Ephemerus and Nautical Almanac. Since the stations were not at the cen-

ter of their respective time zones, corrections had to be made. The cor-

rected Jupiter transit time (local standard time) was recorded in the log

by the observer.


Pulse Quality

The antennas used by our stations have relatively broad beams,

so noise from other sources comes into the receiver. Our identification

of Jupiter activity depends mainly on the judgment of the observer, who

with experience can become quite proficient at identifying Jovian pulses.






25


The interference most difficult to distinguish from Jupiter radiation

is that caused by a weak radio station. The observer logs each time .

Jovian activity, is recorded and estimates the certainty of his identi-

fication of the activity,. With logs in hand and records taken simul-

taneously at the Chile and Florida stations, the person reducing the

data decides whether the activity in any' interval was "definite,"

"possible," or "dubious." By the term "definite" is meant that listen-

ing conditions were good, the antenna -as pointed toi-wrd Jupiter, ac-

tivity was recorded at the other station if it -a.-as listening -ith good

conditions, the observers labelled it "Jupiter," etc. If any, one of

the conditions named above was not met, the data reader might have

chosen to label the activity "possible," depending upon his confidence

in the observer. Pulses getting a "dubious" label were often short and

isolated or buried in outside interference.


Calibration

The Florida and Chile calibrations were different, so the in-

formation needed to calculate the flux: density of a pulse would also be

different.

1. Florida.--The records 'were calibrated directly with noise

diodes.

Lumbers read from the records were:

a. each calibrator current value

b. the corresponding deflection

c. the total number of calibrator current

values used in any one calibration.









2. Chile.--The records were calibrated using calibration

Systems "A," "B," and "C" as described in Chapter II.

Information read from the records included:

a. each "System A" current value (one per calibra-

tion)

b. each "System B" current value (one per calibra-

tion)

c. each "System C" current value

d. the corresponding pen deflection for each

"System C" current value

e. the total number of "System C" current value

per calibration.


JUPITER PROGRAMS FOR THE I.B.M. 709

As has been indicated already, the 1962 Jupiter data analysis

took two forms. We "shall call the program used in the 1957-1961 analy-

sis the "old program," and the one used with the "five-minute-interval"

analysis the "new program." The data described in the preceding sec-

tion were punched into two decks of cards, one to be used with the "old

program," the other to be used with the "new program."


The "Old Program"

N. F. Six (10) gave a complete description of the "old program"

in his dissertation. We will, therefore, be content with a list of the

input and output.


Input

The following information was punched into cards to be used with









the "old program":

1. station

2. date (month/day/year)

3. beginning and end of listening period (U.T.)

4. beginning and end of activity period (U.T.)

5. intensity of Jovian radiation (average of the three

highest peaks)

6. normalization constant

7. Durich provisional relative sunspot number

8. System IT longitude at 0h U.T.

9. Julian day number.


Output

The following information ias printed out by the computer:

1-8. all of the input except the Julian day number

9. beginning and end of the listening period (System III

longitude, Jupiter)

10. beginning and end of the activity period (System III

longitude)

11. daily activity index

12. daily activity index rate

13. monthly average activity index rate

14. yearly average activity index rate

15. monthly average sunspot number

16. probability histogram table.

This program also stores the daily activity index rate and the daily

su-nspot number on a tape to be used with the solar flare program.









MIention should also be made that, for the 1963 studies now

under w\ay, the sunspot number is not read into the "old program," and

that the intensity (average of the three highest peaks) is calculated

by the computer--not by hand as before.


ThIe "liew Program"

Since the studies proposed for the "five-minute-interval analy-

sis" were far afield from those used in the "old program," a completely

different program wa\s written. However, parts of the "old program"

were incorporated into the "new program" to save computer de-bugging

time. Again, we will divide our discussion into two parts: input and out-

put. VWiere terms are identical with those in the "old program," this fact

i:ill be noted and further discussion vill be eliminated.


Inrut

The total number of input parameters in the "new program" ex-

ceeded that of the "old program." Therefore, to save space on the cards,

parameters that did not change throughout the apparition were read only

once from a single card at the beginning of the execution of the program.

These parameters were;

1. average effective area of the antenna (taken from

0. W. Bromn's thesis (11) or calculated using in-

formation from p. 16h, American Radio Relay League

(A.R.R.L.) Antenna Book)

2. transmission coefficient (b) of the transmission line

(assumed to be about .75)(Since the noise power to the

receiver has actually been attenuated by this factor,

Equation (7) should be written:









S elR ) (17
bA


3. equivalent current (I) of the noise inherent in

the calibrator amplifier

4. attenuation coefficient of the attenuator used in

"System A"

5. Julian day number of the first day of the appari-

tion

6. station

7. frequency in [.Ic/s

8. equivalent current of the average galactic back-

ground noise for the entire apparition (used as a

calibration reference when no calibration was per-

formed on a given watch)

9. year.


Input parameters read on each of the succeeding cards included:

10. month and day

11. beginning and end of the listening period (U.T.)

12. beginning and end of the activity period (U.T.)

(never longer than five minutes in duration)

13. deflection (G) due to the galactic background radia-

tion

14. deflection (D) due to the highest Jupiter peak

in the activity period

15. quality of the pulse (definite, possible, or

dubious)









16. time of transit (standard time at a given station)

17. time of snriise (standard time)

18. time of sunset (standard time)

19. AOh U. T. System II longitude of the central
II

meridian of Jupiter at Ch U. T. of the date (X + 1)

in question

20. number (ii) of calibration points

21. "S:ystem A" calibration current (A -.alue of one was

entered in the case of Florida data which had no

calibrator amplifier, and zero was entered in case

no calibration was performed.)

22. "System B" calibration current (Zero was entered

in the case of Florida data, or if no calibration

was performed.)

23. each calibration current -value ("System C" in the

case of Chile)

24. the pen deflection corresponding to each calibra-

tion current value.


COutput


.What did the computer do with these input data? It used them to

calculate the output information that is listed below. It also printed

out most of the input data along with the calculated parameters to guide

the person reading the output. In fact, all of the input parameters

listed above were included as output except numbers 5, 6, 17, S1, 20,

21, and 22. Output information calculated by the computer under the









control of the "new program" was:

25. equivalent current of D

26. equivalent current of G

27. flux density (S) of Jovian peak

28. beginning and end of listening period (System III

longitude)

29. beginning and end of activity period (System III

longitude)

30. activity index (the product of the flux density

and the activity time in minutes)

31. beginning and end of listening period (local hour

angle)

3. beginning and end of activity period (local hour

angle)

33. daily activity index rate ( i activity index
total listening time

where i runs over all of the activity periods of any

given day)

3L-37. daily, activity index rate for activity in each of the

System III longitude intervals: C0 to 92o (no source),

900 to 190 (source B), 190 to 2900 (source A),

2900 to 3600 (source C) (The term "source" will be ex-

plained later.)

38. monthly activity index rate for all activity in a given

month

39-O2. monthly activity index rate for activity in the longi-

tude intervals listed in numbers 34-37






32

43. yearly activity index rate for all activity in the

entire apparition

44-47. yearly activity index rate for activity in the longi-

tude intervals listed in numbers 34-37

48. daily listening time in minutes

49. monthly listening time in minutes

50. yearly listening time in minutes

All of the above output .as listed for each data card with daily,

monthly, and yearly averages being written only uhen they ,jere needed;

i.e., daily average at the end of a day, etc. After all of the output

data had been listed, several histogram tables were generated. each of

which contained all of the parameters in numbers 51-55 listed as a func-

tion of one of the parameters in numbers 56-60. Every table was divided

into ti-hree sub-tables, uhicih jer'e generated using different restricTions

on the data. One sub-table was calculated using definite data only,

another using definite and possible data, and the third using all the

data.

51. probability of observing Jovian radiation

52. average flu>: density (SA) (averaged over those

flue-: densities actually detected)

53. average flux density (SL) (averaged over all

intervals, i.e., letting the flux: density equal

zero uhen no activity was received)

54. total number of intervals during uxhich activity

was received

55. total number of intervals during which listening

was recorded









56. System III longitude on Jupiter in five-degree in-

tervals

57. local hour angle of Jupiter in five-degree inter-

vals

58. Universal Time in ten-minute intervals

59. time with respect to sunset (one hour before to

seven hours after) in ten-minute intervals

60. time with respect to sunrise (seven hours before

to one hour after) in ten-minute intervals..

Some of the output needs discussion. Equation (17) gives the

flux density of a pulse -wihich has an equivalent current I. Since the

activity from the giant planet is superimposed upon the cosmic radio

noise, the deflection is not entirely due to Jovian radiation. There-

fore, Equation (17) must be modified to give actual Jupiter flux den-

sities. If SC is the flux density of the cosmic noise and Sj-j is the

flux density of the cosmic noise plus Jupiter noise, then Sj, the flux

density of the Jupiter noise, can be written:


Sj = Sc SG. (i8)


Since the equivalent current is proportional to the flux density,


Ij = (1-+ IG. (19)


Equation (16) becomes:


SJ = (I +- IG). (20)
bA

Another problem encountered at this point was that of determining









I,+J and IG. These were found by interpolating between the values ac-

tually appearing in the calibration. This interpolation was performed

with the characteristics of a given receiver in mind; i.e., if the de-

flection varied directly as the voltage, and thus as the square root

of the flux density, this non-linearity was considered.

On some of the records calibrations were missing or, for sane

reason, were .unreliable. When this occurred, the average equivalent

current of the cosmic noise for the entire apparition, which was part

of the input data, was used as a reference. .Etrapolation to the Ju-

piter peak was made by using either Equation (21) or Equation (22).

Equation (21) was used for each frequency except 5 Mc/s, for which

Equation (22) was used because of the characteristics of the Rodhe and

Schwarz receiver.


c - c 2 (21)


eI R
j D (22)
bA C


If any part of a five-degree Jovian longitude interval emitted

radiation, the entire interval was credited with having emitted radia-

tion. This practice could create problems. Consider this example.

Jupiter's System III longitude is divided into five-degree intervals,

each of which we monitor for about 8.3 minutes as it rotates by the

"central meridian," the "central meridian" being that meridian bisecting

the visible disk. We shall assume that from 0553.0 to 0606.3 U.T. a

given ( XIi) interval was on the central meridian. Assume also that










a storm vass in progress and that iwe had divided our five-minute ac-

tivity intervals in this manner: 0555.0 to 0600.0, 0600.0 to 0605.0,

and 0605.0 to 0610.0. A portion of each of these activity periods is

included in the 0558.0 to 06o6.3 time interval associated with the

five-degree rotation of Jupiter. But the computer credits each AIII

interval with a count each time any portion of an activity period falls

within it. In this example the \III interval in question received three

counts for one storm. It is easy to see how the five-minute intervals

could be chosen so that only tuo count-s were credited to this III in-

terval. With the "old program" this multiple counting vas eliminated

by requiring that two storms be separated 8.3 minutes in time. But in

the "nev program" one activity period (five-minute interval) often fol-

lows ruilediately after another, and thus it is possible for multiple

counting to occur. Therefore, the "new program" allowed a five-degree

longitude interval no more than one activity or listening count per day.

Another provision would have to be made if a watch included more than

one rotation of Jupiter.

After all of the output had been calculated, an attempt vas made

to get more reliable flut: density values by performing an iteration. As

mentioned above, an intensity versus hour angle histogram vas plotted.

Since the effective area of an antenna and the ionosopheric atteniia-

tion of a pulse would change with hour angle, the assumption of a con-

stant effective area in Equation (20) might lead to erroneous results.

Therefore, each pulse ras normalized by multiplying its flux density by

the ratio of the average flux density (SA) received at the meridian to

the average flu;.: density (SA) received at the hour angle of the pulse.









This iteration was performed three times; once using histograms plotted

with definite data, once with definite and possible data, and once with

all the data. After inspection of the intensity versus hour angle his-

tograms, which showed very little structure, these iterations were

omitted in the interest of saving I.B.M. 709 machine time.

Mention should be made, before discussing any results, that the

calibrations were made quite some time after the Jupiter storms, and

hence at different receiver gains, since the gains changed with time.

Furthermore, the calibrator's impedance was not always well matched to

the receiver's impedance. These two facts were indicated by unusually

great changes in the equivalent current of the cosmic noise level during

a watch (nearly one order of magnitude in some cases), and by the change

in the equivalent current of the cosmic noise level from one part of the

apparition to another. Since Jupiter was well away from the galactic

center, gross changes in the cosmic noise background would not be ex-

pected. Therefore, the data were also processed using the cosmic noise

level as a reference throughout the entire apparition. Equation (21)

was then used for calculating flux densities. When this was done the

data were labelled "no cal." When the calibration was used, the data

were labelled "with cal." Later, when the intensity histograms are

studied, they will be so labelled.














CHAPTER IV

PROBABILITY STUDIES


Since the 1962 data were of better quality than any recorded

at the Florida and Chile observatories up to that time, a more mean-

ingful analysis was possible. The studies which had been carried out

for the 1957-1961 data dealt mainly with the probability of observing

radiation from Jupiter. The extension of this work is important;

hence, the probability studies are presented as the first of our analy-

ses.


GROSS STATISTICS

Table 2 shows the extent of the observing season, the number

of hours of effective listening, and the number of hours of Jovian ac-

tivity.

It is striking that the number of hours of activity reaches a

maximum at 18 Mc/s. The decline toward the higher frequencies can be

explained by the fact that Jupiter radiates less at these frequencies.

The low-frequency decline is probably due to increased ionospheric re-

fraction and scattering of the low frequencies.

Of interest, also, is a study of the correlation of noise

storms between the two stations ("storm" will be defined in the section

of this chapter involving data reduction). For each frequency, Table 3

shows the total number of storms, days of activity, simultaneous storms,









TABLE 2

GROSS STATISTICS


total effective
freq. observing season listening total activity
in tIc/s station beginning end time hr. time hr.

5 Chile 6/10/62 11/26/'2 205 2
10 Chile 5/8/62 12/7 /62 382
15 Chile 4/ /6 1/20/62 1099 166
15 Florida 6/17/62 1/25/63 625 45
16 Chile 7/26/62 12/21/62 516* --
18 Chile 4/1/62 12/20/62 1192 197
18 Florida 3/20/62 2/26/63 080 165
22 Chile 5/ 1/62 12/20/62 --- -
22 Florida 6/6/62 3//63 108Cr< 67
27 Chile 8/21/62 11/27/62 90 6
27 Florida 3/20/62 3/6/63 944 25


.Polarimeter Hlew program not
E-E rata from both 22Y and 22P
-i-* Possible and definite data


used so total time not calculated


days for which simultaneous storms were recorded, and storms received at

one station that "should have been," but were not, received at the other.

By "should have been" is meant that if both stations were listening with

good conditions, simultaneous activity "should have been" expected at

both stations. One can see that for the frequencies using corner re-

flectors (15C, Florida, and 27C, Chile) the correlation was the poorest.

However, mention should be made that all of the ten storms heard on 15B

Chile, that "should have been" heard on 15C, Florida, were recorded be-

fore August 23. Until this date the impedance of 15C was 141 + j33 ohms,

when it should have been 50 + JO ohms. This unintentional antenna-to-

receiver mismatch undoubtedly caused a loss of sensitivity. The other












4-'
S
Cu

a)

-4 r. '2r
aa C C
0E 0 o L c,




CJ .,I z L


U 0 CCO -
4 f r, N C
' -- ,- 0 r U

*-i B *-1 i-l Cuj Cd .-4


c,
C-



0










4J
'-o













oj






OO
0





,a


4-1

















Oj
4->





0
4,
00
O





>1


















03
'o
4-j










'0


,-.



+03
L2)
'-





SC)





03






CO
r,


00 o'l


( 0a) 0






< i 3 OC
C-r u)
Cu


If\ ,\ 0 u-









'1-



"- ['- -r '
Cun H
Cu i -i


UI\ 1 -4 -X LP\
-a C rC D Cu






uI -r 0 'Do 0
-r rni ON
CtJ


I -


0)



E-I

H








H
E-i

<;


4O- 0 -1 --















0 0 0 -1


I
I
I
I












I
I
I
I






I
I
I
I






I
I
I
I









frequencies show incredibly good correlation. All in all, simulta-

neous listening was recorded for 6 months at 15 MIc/s, 9 months at

18 Mc/s, 7 months at 22.2 Mc/s, and 3 months at 27.6 Ilc/s.

Fig. 10 shows the average probability of observing Jovian ra-

diation plotted versus frequency. Every point except that at 27.6 Mc/s

was taken from the Chile data. (The Florida 27.6 MIc/s radiometer was

more reliable than that at Chile.) One can easily see the tendency of

the probability to peak around 10 Mc/s. However, this was not the fre-

quency at which the greatest number of hours of activity occurred. The

difference was probably caused by increased ionospheric absorption, and

hence poorer listening conditions, at 10 Mc/s as compared to 18 IMc/s,

where the total activity time reached its peak. Iote should also be

made that the 15, 18, and 22.2 Mc/s data at Florida yielded average

probabilities lower than those at Chile for the same frequencies. This

discrepancy was probably due to the fact that the Florida observing sea-

son extended closer to the time of conjunction than did the Chile sea-

son. Some of the Florida observations were made when Jupiter radiation

had to pass through the solar corona, and hence suffered attenuation.

The only frequency for which the average probability at Florida ex-

ceeded that at Chile was 27.6 Mc/s. The 27.6 IMc/s antenna in Chile

(a corner reflector) did not work well, and thus little activity was

recorded on that channel.


PROBABILITY OF OBSE.'EVIiG JUPITER FADIATIOII
AS A FUNCTIOi OF JOVIAJI LOGITUDE


Eata from Individual Channels

One of the first major characteristics discovered in the


















X POSSIBLE AND DEFINITE DATA

0 DEFINITE DATA ONLY


25


FREQUENCY,

Fig. 10.--Average probability
Chile station in 1962


MEGACYCLES

of observing activity at the


0

cs .20
cc

0
0
o


LL.
o


o .15

>-
I-
_J


o .10
o
0.
0.
U


Qr .05
w


10


50









decameter radiation from Jupiter was that the probability of its occur-

rence depended on which Jovian longitude was on the "central meridian."

The histogram in Fig. 11 shows that four portions of the planet exhibit

a relatively high probability of emission. These portions are called

sources B1, B2, A, and C, as indicated in the figure. Sources BI and

B2 are often thought of as only one source, "source B," but as can be

seen in the following histograms, the bifurcation seems to be a perma-

nent feature. However, unless a special study is being made of sources

B1 and B2, they will be referred to collectively as "source B."

Let us take a closer look at the sources for each frequency.

Fig. 12 shows the probability histograms for the 18, 22.2, and 27.6

Mc/s, possible and definite data, and the 15 Mc/s histogram for the

definite data only, as recorded at the Florida station in 1962. As

has already been mentioned, the 15 Mc/s channel was in something less

than perfect operating condition for part of the apparition; hence,

we see less source structure than might be expected. The peak at 1150

is source B, the peak at 2400 is source A and the peak at 3200 is

source C. Note that the shapes of sources A and C change with fre-

quency.

For 18 Mc/s, sources B (1050 to 1700), A (2200 to 280"), ard

C (2900 to 3450) are all quite well defined. Source B has a weakly-

defined dip at 1300, thus forming sources B1 and B2. Another feature,

of which we will keep track, is the general null between 20 and 55 .

Sources B, A, and C are evident at 22.2 Mc/s, though source C is quite

poorly defined. For the 27.6 Mc/s histogram, sources B and A are

evident, but source C becomes quite diffuse.

































C)



,1



*r





0 C0
, - '

















CT





1 ,
1
..-I















'1' ,.







FLORIDA


00 90 1800 2700
LONGITUDE, SYSTEM IT


360


Fig. 12.--Probability histograms for data taken at
15.0, 18.0, 22.2, and 27.6 Mc/s at the Florida station in
1962


1962









Fig. 13 shows the probability histograms for 5, 10, 15, 16,

18, 22.2, and 27.6 NM/s in Chile. The peaks are less evident, since

the vertical scale had to be reduced to get all of the graphs in one

figure. Note that at 15, 16, and 18 Mc/s source A also seems to be bi-

furcated.

What general trends can we see in Figs. 12 and 13? Easily no-

ticed are the facts that source A shifts to higher longitudes for lower

frequencies (at least up to a point) and that the width of Source A in-

creases with a decrease in frenquency. Which peak is source A on the

5 Mc/s histogram might be debatable. If we choose the general null

at 2100 on the 5 Mc/s histogram to correspond with the one mentioned

earlier, the peak at 2600 corresponds with source B and the peak at

3400 might correspond with source A. Another interesting feature is

that the ratio of the source C maximum to the source A maximum in-

creases as the frequency decreases.


Merged Data

Before making further studies of Figs. 12 and 13, let us look

at the composite or merged histograms for those frequencies which were

monitored by both stations. The merging process is described in de-

tail by II. F. Six (10), and to maintain continuity in ou- analysis,

these merged histograms will be presented in much the same manner as

he presented them. Therefore, we used the three-point smoothing tech-

nique in which the probability for each five-degree interval is aver-

aged with those just preceding and following it. These points are

then joined to form the smoothed histogram. While the smoothing proc-

ess may smear out fine-structure effects, it also rids the histograms








CHILE 1962
627.6 MC/S'-_ S DE F.

.4 22.2 MC/S

.2 POS. AND DE.


0

y" 4 18.0 MC/S
|w POS. AND DEF.


0
0 -

S.4 16.0 MC/S
S POS. AND DEE -


"-i 0
> 0 ---
Es
-j
m0
< 15.0 M C/S -
o .2- PC S. AND DEE



.2-
10.0 MC/S POS. fLnrr
.2 _n-J^Lr AND DEF
o---------------

5.0 MC/S DEF.
.2-


00 900 1800 2700 3600
LONGITUDE, SYSTEM II
Fig. 13.--Probability histograms for data taken at
5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 16.0, 18.0, 22.2, and 27.6 Mc/s at the
Chile station in 1962










of much of their roughness by eliminating bumps due to minor statis-

tical variations. The merging also tends to minimize bad effects

caused by local conditions, such as equipment failure, atmospheric

disturbances or an unattentive observer, and makes possible a contin-

uous run of observations not attainable at one station.

Fig. 14 shows histograms for the 10 Mc/s Chile data. The 1962

histogram is shown at the top of the figure and the 1960-1962 merged

histogram is shown at the bottom. The sources are labelled as II. F.

Six (10) chose them in 1961. We will later see that another choice of

labels is possible. Source A is less prominent in the 1962 histogram

than in the merged histogram. Also noticeable is a small but definite

peak at a longitude of about 1400. The fact that it is shifted to

about 1430 in the 1962 histogram will be discussed later.

Fig. 15 shows the 15 Mc/s histograms for the Florida-Chile merge

for 1961 and 1962, the Florida-Chile merge for 1962 only, the Florida

data for 1962, and the Chile data for 1962. In the bottom plot each

source is clearly defined and we can see a very slight hint of a bifur-

cation of source B. The 1962 merge shows both B1 and B2 and a defi-

nite splitting of source A--this dofublet structure of source A is ap-

parent also in the 16 and 18' Mc/s Chile data. The plot for the Chile

data shows the source A double structure still more clearly, while the

plot for the Florida data shows little identifiable structure in this

region. Noticeable, however, is the marked difference in the position

of the source B peak in the Florida and Chile histograms. It is hard

to argue this shift out of existence by the fact that the impedance of

one antenna was not correct, unless source E shifts during the year.










CHILE.
1962


10.0 MC


CHILE


1960-1962


I0.0 MC


00 900 1800


LONGITUDE,


SYSTEM Ir


Fig. 14.--Smoothed, merged probability histograms
for data taken at 10.0 Mc/s


.20





w
.10
Z2'0
0


c)
0


>-
-J



o.20
a.


.101


2700


3600
















0 -.3 0


, -A .20

Sz CHILE '

/ 1962 .10
o 15.0 MC

.30 -0
o CHILE- FLORIDA
20 1962
>1.20- 15.0 M C
I-

S.J10

m
o
a.A

.30- CHILE C -
FLORIDA
1961-1962
.20- 15.0 M C






00 90 180 2700 3600
LONGITUDE, SYSTEM II

Fig. 15.--Smoothed, merged probability histograms for
data taken at 15.0 Mc/s









If source B does vary its position during the year, this apparent

shift could be explained by the fact that the impedance was incorrect

for only the first part of the year. Since the data from the first

part of the apparition were therefore probably incomplete, a shift

such as the one seen in these two plots might then be expected. This

study will be pursued later in detail. We also see that the source B

peak on the Florida histogram is skewed to lower longitudes. We will

find that the source B peak is generally skewed to higher longitudes.

Since 1957, 18 Mc/s observations have been made by at least

one of our stations, making this frequency that for which we have the

most data. Fig. 16 shows the 1957-1962 merge, the 1962 merge, and the

individual histograms for 1962. IHotice the difference in source struc-

ture between the Chile and Florida histograms. Source B2 is better de-

fined on the Florida plot than on the Chile plot, but source B as a

whole seems to be easier to identify on the Chile plot. Again, Chile

shows the slight splitting of source A that vas noticed for 15 Mc/s,

and the Florida plot also shows source A to be skewed slightly on the

high-longitude side. Also of interest is the fact that sources B and

C in Florida seem to be shifted to slightly lower longitudes than the

same sources in Chile, while source A seems to be located at exactly

the same longitude. As with the 15 Mc/s histograms, the 1962 merged

histograms show the sources to be shifted to slightly higher longi-

tudes than those on the 1957-1962 merged histograms. The 1962 merged

histogram shows the basic source structure, including bifurcations,

very clearly, while the 1957-1962 merged histogram shows the sources

without the bifurcations. The reason for this smearing is probably

















FLORIDA
1962


.20






z 0
Ll



0
.40
LL
0

>.30

- .
m .20
0C
0
a. 10


1962
18.0 MC


CHILE- FLORIDA
1957-1962
18.0 MC


0'
00


1.10


3600


900 1800 2700
LONGITUDE, SYSTEM 1I


Fig. 16.--Smoothed, merged probability histograms
for data taken at 18.0 Mc/s


.30


F CHILE- FLORIDA


.10









an apparent source shift to higher longitudes or, effectively, to an

increase in the System III rotational period. This change in period,

which apparently began in 1960, is also the reason that the 1962

merged sources are shifted to higher longitudes than those of the all-

time merge. A special section will be devoted to a study of this ap-

parent change of period.

The 22.2 Mc/s smoothed histograms are shown in Fig. 17. Again,

we see that in the top two histograms the structure of source B is dif-

ferent at each station and that corresponding sources seem to lie at

about the same longitudes. Note that, as for the 15 Mc/s Florida

source B peak, the 22.2 Mc/s Chile source B peak is skewed to lower long-

itudes. While the anomaly on source A was on the high-longitude side

for 18 Mc/s, it appears on the low-longitude side at 22.2 Mc/s. In the

merged histograms the bifurcation of source B is less evident. In fact,

if any splitting of B is to be mentioned in connection with the 1962

merged histogram, the source should be referred to as a triplet, not a

doublet. Again, the shift of source A to higher longitudes in the 1962

merged histogram is noticed when it is compared with the 1958-1962

merged histogram. While differences in source structure between the

Florida and Chile histograms were also noted by N. F. Six (10) in 1961,

these differences were not the same as we see in 1962; hence, we will

not try to draw conclusions from any but the most obvious details.

Even though the 27.6 Mc/s data are scant, 1962 is the first

year that we have had even this much activity at this frequency. Fig.

18 shows the smoothed histograms for 27.6 I-Mc/s. We notice again the










.20


.10


.50


.30

CHILE
r 1962 20
cr
D 22.2 MC
C., .10
0

o 0

A
S.30- CHILE-FLORIDA
^- B1962

< .20- 22.2 MC

SB
10 -




.20- CHILE- FLORIDA
1957-1962

.10- 22.2 MC


0 1
00 900 1800 2700 3600
LONGITUDE, SYSTEM II

Fig. 17.--Smoothed, merged probability histograms
for data taken at 22.2 MTc/s


























































900 18
LONGITUDE,


0


0 2700

SYSTEM III


Fig. 18.--Smoothed, merged probability histograms
for data taken at 27.6 Mc/s


.05


0

u
O
o
z
LJ
cc.05
C.=

0
0
0


>.-
I-
-J
- .05

0

0


.05


00


3600









shift of source B on the Chile histogram with respect to source B on

the Florida histogram. As with the 15 IMc/s histograms in Fig. 16,

we can argue the possibility of this difference in peak longitude if

source E shifts during the year, since the 27.6 Mc/s channel in

Florida operated during the entire apparition, while the 27.6 M1,c/s

channel in Chile did not begin monitoring Jupiter until August 21,

1962. Since opposition was on August 31, 1962, nearly all of the

before-opposition data were missed in Chile. This argument still seems

weak in the face of the large shift (approximately 20 degrees). -When

we compare the two individual histograms with the 1962 merged histo-

gram, we see that the apparent shift of the Chile data scarcely ap-

pears. This is probably due to the fact that the Florida listening

time was so much longer than that at Chile, thus minimizing the impor-

tance of the Chile peak.

Let us look at all of the 1962 smoothed, merged histograms to-

gether, as shown in Fig. 19, to see if any characteristics of the

sources change with frequency. One marked feature is the appearance

of the anomaly on the high-longitude side of source A at 18 Mc/s, its

increase at 16 Mc/s, and finally, its smearing of sources A and C at

15 Mc/s. Also noticeable is the decrease in the ratio of the source

A maximum to the source C maximum with frequency.

A real problem arises when an attempt is made to locate sources

A, B, and C on the 5 and 10 Mc/s histograms. In his dissertation, II. F.

Six (10) assumed the sources to be as shown in the top set of letters

on the 10 Mc/s histogram. Credence is given to this choice by noticing

that it maintains the source separations fairly well. However, a

stretch of the imagination is required to keep the source spacings







CHILE-FLORIDA


90 1800 2700
LONGITUDE, SYSTEM Ir


Fig. 19.--Smoothed, merged histograms for all the
frequencies monitored, using only 1962 data


3600


1962









constant on the 5 Mc/s histogram. Another problem that arises, if we

assume the top set of labels, is that the height of source B seems ex-

cessive on the 10 [Mc/s histogram in light of the fact that its maximum

is less than half that of source A on the 22.2, i3, 16, and 15 Mc/s his-

tograms. For 10 I-cl/s the bottom set of labels provides for a drift to

lower longitudes with decreasing frequency at frequencies below.16 Mc/s.

Table 4 lists the positions of the sources as they occur at different

frequencies. O.nly one choice for each source was made for frequencies

of 15 Mc/s and above.

When all of rhe data that have been taken at either station are

merged and smoothed we get the histograms shown in Fig. 20. The graph

has been labelled "Chile-Florida 1957-62" but not all of the frequencies

have been monitored over this entire period. The 5 IMc/s histogram repre-

sents only the 1962 Chile data, the 10 Mc/s histogram represents the

1960-1962 Chile data, the 15 IMic/s histogram represents the 1961-1962

Florida-Chile data, the i6 Mc/s histogram represents the 1960 and 1962

Chile data, the 1i [Mc/s histogram represents the 1957-1962 Florida data

and the 1960-i162 Chile data, the 22.2 MIc/s histogram represents the

1958-1962 Florida data and the 1960-1962 Chile data and the 27.6 Mc/s

histogram represents the 1958-1962 Florida data and the 1962 Chile data.

The 10 and 15 Mc/s high-longitude source is better defined in

Fig. 20 than is its counterpart in Fig. 19, while, as should be ex-

pected, anomalies like the one on the high-longitude side of the 15

Mic/s source A in Fig. 19 are less noticeable in Fig. 20. The positions

of the sources, however, are about the same in both figures.

Fig. 21 shows a plot of the values in Table U. The dashed lines







CHILE-FLORIDA 1957-62


360


LONGITUDE,


SYSTEM =m


Fig. 20.--Smoothed, merged histograms for all the fre-
quencies monitored, using all the data recorded since ob-
servations began in 1957




















A C


25






20





15!


i'


10 -


/
/
/
I


I I I


S. I


3600 1200 2400 3600 1200 2400
LONGITUDE, SYSTEM IT


Fig. 21.--Variation of source position with frequency (The
dashed lines provide an alternate selection of source positions.
The point labelled 7 may not be source C.)


0


1 I


2400


1 1 r I 'I I I


30 -


5k>4
& .0'





,p.1











SOURCE POSITIOII


TABLE 4

AS A FE-UCTIOi OF FREQUENCY


Source A Source C Source B

27.6 232 10 2 + + 5 128 + 50
O C C
0 0 c
2.2 2 37 + 5 31 125

18 250 + 5 3l + 3 140 + 10

18 Mc/s 252 + 325 + 50 148 + 10

15 Nc/s 260 + 150 327 + 7 140 + 10


322 + 6o + 8 20o7 12
0 0
5 1c/s o-- 107 i 277 + 10
107 + 15 277 + 10 ---
107 15 ---- 277 + 10



(odd numbers) provide for various patterns of source shift to lower long-

itudes sith decreasing frequency, and the solid lines (even numbers) show

the possible identifications of the sources for shifts to higher longi-

tudes with decreasing frequency. ilote that since there are only two ma-

jor sources at 5 Mc/s, it takes only two lines to describe the 5 Mc/s

sources. Redundant points are plotted for 5 and 10 Mc/s, since the scale

has been folded at 360 to allow continuous lines to be drawn through the

sources. If we assume that all of the sources shift in one direction as

the frequency is decreased from 15 to 10 Mc/s, we can choose the sources

to be represented either by lines numbered one, three, and five, or by

lines numbered two, four, and six. However, we see that one of the

sources disappears as the frequency is decreased from 10 to 5 Mc/s.









(One of the sources presumably either decreases in intensity or merges

with another source as the frequency decreases below 10 Mc/s.) We see

that even if we restrict ourselves to the assumption that all sources

shift in the same direction, there are four pairs of points in Fig. 21

that can represent the 5 Mc/s sources. The lines running through these

pairs of points are numbered one and three, three and five, two and four,

and four and six. notice that source A is present in all of the choices

and that either source B or source C is the other.

It is the opinion of the author that source C is one of the

sources at 5 I-c/s, in keeping with the prediction by Field (5) that the

effects of source C should become more noticeable at low frequencies.

Also more palatable to the author is the shift to lower longitudes with

decreasing frequency, since this allows sources A and C to continue to

merge as they do at 10 M-c/s. Therefore, the author's choice is repre-

sented by lines one and three. The 1200 source is presumably a combi-

nation of sources A and C and the 2710 source is source B. However, the

shift of the null between sources C and E seems to dictate a shift to

higher longitudes. Presumably, this dilemma could be resolved by ana-

lyzing the polarization at 5 and 10 M1/s, for both Field (5) and Carr

(2), maintain that radiation from source C comes from Jupiter's southern

hemisphere, and hence that it is polarized in the opposite sense (left-

hand elliptical) to that of sources A and B, which they believe to

originate in the northern hemisphere and which are of right-hand polar-

ization. Samuel Gulkis (13) and C. H. Earrow (14) have found that the

polarization of source C at 16 MIc/s is predominantly left-hand polarized,

a phenomenon not so clear at higher frequencies. Presumably, then, it









should be more evident at lower frequencies. The 5 Mc/s polarimeter

to be built at the Florida station will be used to identify the polar-

ization of these sources.

Looking again at Figs. 19 and 20, one can see that the source

width seems to increase as the frequency decreases, as discussed by

N. F. Six (10). Identification of the sources for the frequencies be-

low 16 Mc/s, however, makes quantitative analysis difficult and super-

fluous.


Drift Studies of Source A

In 1961 Carr et. al. (15) established that the rotational period
h m s
of the radio sources on Jupiter was 9 55 29.35, a value that closely

agreed with the period obtained by Douglas (16)--9 55 29.37. Upon

analysis of the 18 Mc/s Florida probability histograms for 1960-1962, as

shown in Fig. 22, even a casual glance shows that source A seems to be

drifting toward higher longitudes with time. So unexpected was this

drift that all preceding calculations were checked and re-checked. The

1963 data for 18 Mc/s were reduced, analyzed, and plotted. They, too,

showed the apparent drift.

In order to determine whether or not the drift was just a

scattering of the points, the source A position was plotted for each

year beginning in 1951, as shown in Fig. 23. The bars indicate estimated

errors as determined by the person analyzing the data. The two points

close together at the top of the graph were obtained by dividing the

1963 data into two parts (one hundred days before opposition and one

-hundred days after opposition) to get partial apparition histograms.








18.0 MC/S


o90
LONGITUDE,


30 2700
SYSTEM I


Fig. 22.--Probability histograms for the 1960, 1961,
and 1962 data taken at the Florida station


360


FLORIDA











a *_ 1 B


1964.0 1-


1962.0


1960. 0


9h55m30so52 --


.1-O-

_C


1958.0 -


1956.0


1954.0




1952.0


'-0--


-9-h55m29s35


a I


260


a I


2000


2200


2400


LONGITUDE OF SOURCE A,

Fig. 23.--Yearly variation of the
18 Mc/s source A


A r (1957.0)

position of the


280.


__ I __


I


fl


I


. I


I









At the time of this writing the data had not been analyzed for the

entire 1963 apparition, since observations were still being made.

Fig. 23 clearly indicates that source A did begin to drift at some

time early in 1960.

Further, each apparition was divided into tree parts, begin-

ning with the 1960 apparition, probability histograms were plotted for

each part and each station, the histograms were "shuffled" in an effort

to eliminate bias introduced by the person anaj,-zing the data, and the

source A position was plotted versus time as shown in Fig. 24. Tie

points labelled 1 and 2 in the figure were highly uncertain due to the

poor statistics of their respective histograms and were not included in

the least-squares calculation, even though they probably, would have con-

tributed cancelling effects. From the least-squares line the apparent

drift was calculated to be 10.45 degrees per year or, if e-pressed as

that change of rotational period necessary to maintain the sources at

their o960 longitude, plus 1.17 seconds. This makes the new System

III rotational period 9h 51m '52. The calculations above were made

using the relation:






where AT is the difference in seconds between rotational periods,

A A is the shift between longitude systems in degrees/year, and T

is the mean rotational period in hours. If T is near the radio period

(9.925 hours), then Equation (23) reduces to:


LT = 0.112;.AA.


(24)



























-0



!00










*0






O I-
0 .
OZ <
9_ ro


O)

L-






0
3 -p



a m



0 -1
O> O



oo



0 0
< oCd




*H


O--



o o
C cd




0 .3
I W


o 0 0 0 0
'r- 6
CD CO (D (O D
O' 0) 0) O) G)










The sources are probably linked with the magnetic field of the

planet; therefore, their rotational period is the same as that of the

planet itself. Since it seems unlikely that the rotational period of

the planet has changed, then the sources have apparently changed their

positions. How could this happen? Suppose that one of the sources is

located at Jovian System III longitude (X) and that this longitude

does not change. However, for radiation to reach the earth, it may not

be necessary for longitude X to be that which lies on the "central me-

dirian." if the interplanetary magnetic field is curved, as indeed

it may be (see Chapter VI T then Jovian radiation may be bent by it.

For bending of electromagnetic waves we also need electron density

gradients. For this study we assume that the necessary electron den-

sit, gradients are present. Tf the rays are bent, then some System

III longitude, which w_ e w-.ill call Y, will be on the "central meridian."

But if, due to the change in solar activity dur ing the sunspot cycle,

the interplanetary magnetic field shape is changed, thus changing the

degree of bending of Jovian radiation, then not i', but some other longi-

tude 2, will be on the "central meridian." But the longitude region

which is on the 'central meridian" when we receive activity is that

which we reckon to be the active region, so we see an apparent (1Y-Z)

drift in the position of the source located at X. Carr (17) has sug-

gested -hat the observed shift of the emission pattern, toward higher

longitudes at lower frequencies, results from a tendency of Jovian

magnetic field lines to cu'rve west.ward with an increase in radial

distance, due to a drag on the rotating field. Since Jupiter's

magnetospheric electron density presumably also changes with sunspot






68


activity, it could also be responsible for the temporal change in

source position. It should be pointed out that, if the interplanetary

medium bends Jovian radio emission, the positions of the visible disk

and the radio disk would not coincide. However, interferometer meas-

urements show that they do coincide so the magnetospheric bending seems

more likely. It is difficult at the moment to see how this could ac-

count for the sudden change of source position shown in Fig. 23, or

the fact that once the source position did change, it continued to

change in a linear manner as shown in Fig. 24. In addition to this,

the fact that Jupiter's Great Red Spot also began to drift in its

longitude system (discussed later in this chapter) weakens our argu-

ment even more, for electromagnetic i.aves in the optical spectrum are

not influenced appreciably by the interplanetary medium. ii.eertheless,

if an eleven-year period could be found, although a wild stretch of

the imagination is needed to find one in Fig. 23, then an obvious con-

clusion would be that the drift is caused by the change in solar ac-

tivity. UnfortLnately, there are insufficient data to determine this

now, but if the source A position starts to move to lower longitudes

in the ne:.:t few ;,ears, a variation of the source longit-ude with the

su.nspot cycle may, be established. Interesting also would be a stud,

of the drift of the sources others than so.u-ce A at 18 McI/s, and of all

the sources at frequencies other thar, 18 Mci/s. Robert Hay,-.ard is cur-

rently making just such a study at the University of Florida.

Using the partial apparition histograms, a subjective study

.-as made of the source structure to determine whether or not it

ch-anged in a regular manner during the year. As far as could be









determined, the sources maintained their relative intensities quite

well during the apparition, as should be expected, since Jupiter does

not know where the earth happens to be. Further study of the drift

of source B will be discussed in the next section.

In Fig. 25 we see how the change in rotational period moves

the source positions. The rotational period w.-as calculated to be

h 55m U.'T from a sk-etched curve, dra-.-n before the 1963 points were

put on the graph in Figs. 23 and 24. This period compares quite well

with the period of 9h 55m 3'.-,52, ich .-as finally reached by using

the least-squares curv.e. Therefore, the histo.gram for the "new." period

(T = 9h 55 30'70) in Fig. 25 should be representative of the ac-

tual "new" period (Ti = 9h 5 50.752). Is source A better defined for

the "new" 9 55 30.7 period than for the "old" period? 1o, if anything,

the opposite is true. In fact, none of the histogramrs improved in de-

tail when the period was changed. The 'widthn of source A at 22.2 I-Ic/s

in Chile actually became greater when the 9h ; 30.7 period .as used.

Carrying this study further, let us e-xaniine the 1957-1962 merge

for i c/s using the 9h 55" ',:,.72 period, assuming, as sho.mn in Fig.

23, that the period abruptly changed to this value from h 55 29:35 on

January 1, 1o60. The smroothed, merged (1957-i962), 1 IIc/s histograms

for the "old" and the "new" periods are sho.un in Fig. 26. The peaks

of all the sources in the histogram using the "new" period are higher

and the sources are sharper than those in the histogram using the "old"

period. liote that sources C and EB become more pronounced for the "new"

period. This is the only frequency for which so noticeable an improve-

ment was effected by the period change, which makes sense when one





70
CHILE 1962 POSSIBLE AND DEFINITE


900
LON


1800 2700
GITUDE, SYSTEM TII


3600


Fig. 25.--Probability histograms for the 18 Mc/s data taken
at the Chile station in 1962 using the "old"(TT I = 9h 55m 29?35)
and the "new" (III = 9h 55m 30T70) periods



















































00 900 18
LONGITUDE,

Fig. 26.--The 1957-1962
tograms using the "old" (TTIi
1960 and the "new" (Ti11 = 9'
date


Oo 2700 3600
SYSTEM I=

smoothed, merged 1~ M.c/s his-
= 1h 55m 2935) period until
55m 30T70) period after that









remembers that this is the frequency that w as used to calculate the

source drift. Eobert HayoNrrd of the University of Florida is examin-

ing the source drift for different frequencies to determine whether

or not the source drift varies with frequency.


Drift Studies of Source B

In 1963, Warwick (4) suggested that source B drifts to lower

longitudes during an apparition and he showed graphically, using his

1960 and 1961 data, that during the time from 140 days before opposi-

tion to 40 days after opposition the source B center shifted from ap-

proximately 132, to 1000 ( 1ii,' 1957). Since this .ias the first time

such a drift had been proposed, a search of the 1961 and 1962 data is

a.-rranted to see if this effect exists in our data. We do not include

our 19yS data, since splitting it intc several parts wouldd result in

unreliable statistics, and since Warwick's conclusions were drawn

mainly from the 1961 data.

Fig. 27 shows the variation of source B in System III longi-

tude as calculated from the 1961 and 1962 partial apparition histo-

grams, using the "old" period (91 55rm 29735). Ho error bars are shown,

even though the best values should be regarded as accurate to no bet-

ter than + 30. For both years source B- apparently drifts to lower

longitudes mntil opposition, and then drifts back to higher longitudes.

Source B2 seems to maintain its longitude quite well throughout the

apparition. The center of source E, as a whole, seems to behave some-

w:hat like source B. Mention should be made that the position of

source B -ras chosen as midi.ay between the minima at both ends of the













S h- -


-- O B2
x . . .. x J


0


.X


CENTER
OF B





Bi


f' .. -


MERGED


FLA.-CHILE, 1961


600 -0- MERGED FLA.-CHILE, 1962

A


-10O


-80


80


160


MEAN EPOCH W.R.T. OPPOSITION IN
DAYS

Fig. 27.--i8 I /'s source B drift studies using
and 1962 data


1600


1400-


fr-
Lo

.. 1200
#, .


100ooo


800 -


191


S


I









source. This is the most expedient, but perhaps not the most reliable,

method for choosing the center of this weakly-defined, skewed source.

The centers of the sources B1 and B2 were chosen by sketching gaussian

curves which approximated the sources, and choosing the centers of the

curves.

In order to get more extensive data, the "before," "around,"

and "after" opposition partial histograms were merged for 1961-1962.

This was done for both the "old" period (9h 55m 29S35) and the "new"

period (9 55 30.70). Studies similar to those in Fig. 27 were made

and these are shown in Fig. 28. The probable errors of these points

are less than those in Fig. 26. We see the "eyebrow" motion of source

B1 for either period, the irregular motion of source B2, and again,

the "eyebrow" motion for the entire source. At any rate, our data

fail to show the extensive yearly drift of source B to lower longitudes

that was seen by Warwick (4). Incidentally, Warwick's data do show the

apparent long-time source shift to higher longitudes that was mentioned

in the preceding section.


Possible Correlation of Radio Source
Drift with Red Spot Drift

The University of Florida group compared the rotational period

of the radio sources with the rotational periods exhibited by various

Jovian optical prominences as early as 1957 (18). At the suggestion of

A. G. Smith we again conducted such a study, this time to compare pos-

sible changes of the Red Spot rotational period with the observed change

in the rotational period of the radio sources.

The System II longitude of the Red Spot is shown in Fig. 29














MERGED FLORIDA-CH!LE, 1961-1962


1600





I-0o.- B2


O- 2' 0'
S1200'
> CENTER OF B
/ x


100 "
o



800




600--0- "NEW" PERIOD (9 55 m 3070)
---X-- "OLD" PERIOD (9h55m 29 35)

-160 -80 0 30 160
MEAN EPOCH W.R.T. OPPOSITION IN DAYS

Fig.26.--18 iIc "s soouce E drift studies using the
merged i961-1962 data














MOTION OF RED SPOT
1965- IN SYSTEM 1
0
Ty= 9h 55m 40%632 o

O
1960-
6T= i.71S


1955 -




1950- #


/O T=0.E98S

1945 -



200 2500 3000 3500 40'
LONGITUDE, SYSTEM 7
F'ig. 29.--Tne -.variation of the System II lor ni-
tude of Jupiter' s Creat Red Spot


Ld
,>Y









as a function of time. The solid line represents a drift of 7.750/ .yJear,

or if expressed as an effective period change, 0.393 seconds. In about

195 the Red Spot started to drift 14.,,/year in System II. In order

to examine this change of drift more closely,, we plotted its longitude

for a period of T =9 t= 1 551(30 (System "Red Spot"), whichh was

arrived at by adding 0.898 seconds to the System II period, TI =

9 5m ,63o2. The graph shown in Fig. 3-0 resulted. (The plot in Fig.

23 is also shorn in Fig. 30.) As can be seen in the graph, the Red Spot

started to shift to higher longitudes about one year earlier than did

the radio source. The Red Spot started to shift 9^/y.ear in 1959 and the

radio source started to shift 10.~ /year in 1960, in their respective

longitude systems. The fact that the slopes of the tw'o drift lines are

so nearly, equal and that they.' match so closely in time suggests that

the drift motions of the Fed Spot and the radio source, in their respec-

tive longitude systems, must be related in some way.

In an effort to find the best representative period of the Red

Spot, Peaek (19) tab.iulated its longitude in System II for many years.

Using the tabulated data, he arrived at a best period of T = h 3 .

Fig. 31 shows the longitude of the Red Spot versus time using Peek's

period, assuming that the longitude in this special system w.as -26. in

189. Equation (2 ) gives the longitude in the special system as a

fu action of A- (System II longitude) and t.


A= T 26. + ,+?62 t, (25)


where t = (time in years 19kh) : 365.25,-/398.. (26)


It is interesting to note the difference between the Fed Spot period










DRIFT

RED SPOT


STUDIES

RADIO SOURCE


2100 2300
SPECIAL LONGITUDE
SYSTEM WITH
Ts= 9h 55m41530


220 2400 2600
LONGITUDE, SYSTEM
I (1957)
Ti 9h55m29 35


Fig. 30.--Time variation of the longitude of Jupiter' s
Great Red Spot for a period T;S which maintains the Red Spot
lonpgitude constant from 1945-1958 compared rith Fig. 23








196


195


LONG-TERM
OF GREAT
SPOT


DRIFT
RED


T = 9h 55m 37s58


1860


1S50


1340


-480' -240' 0' 240" 480- 720-
LONGITUDE
Fig. 31.--Timie variation of the longitude of Jupiter's Great
Red Spot since 1835, using a special period T = 9 5m 37958.
Eased largely on Peek (16)









h m s h m s
(9 55 37.58) used by Peek (19) and the period (9 55 41.530) ar-

rived at by using the data since 1945. This suggests that if the Red

Spot drift is related to the radio source drift, determination of a

period which maintains the radio source longitudes constant may be im-

possible.


PROBABILITY VERSUS HOUR ANGLE

The 1962 analysis initiated several new studies, one of which

was an examination of the variation of Jupiter radiation with hour

angle. The computer tabulated several parameters with each five de-

grees of hour angle from -90 to 90 (east to west), but the only param-

eter that we will discuss here will be the probability of Jovian emis-

sion. These histograms also can be loosely construed as being proba-

bility versus elongation studies, since most of the activity received

at hour angles between -900 and 0 occurred prior to opposition and

most of the activity received at hour angles between 0 and 90 oc-

curred after opposition, although it is easy to see that this 1ras not,

by any means, arlays the case. U-eren any interval iras listened to less

than 30 times no points were plotted; hence, the sharp cutoff on each

side of the histograms.

Fig. 32 shois the probability versus hour angle histograms for

the Florida data. We can see the effect of the impedance mismatch

early in the apparition for the 15 lic's data by the fact that the his-

togramr is skewied to the west. It is very interesting to note that both

the 18 iic/s and the 22.2 i.-c/s histograms reach maxima at approximately

3,0 east. Perhaps this is caused by the fact that the ionosphere is








1962 DEFINITE


-80 -60 -40 -20
HOUR ANGLE


0 20 40 60
IN DEGREES


Fig. 32.--Probabilityr -ersus hour angle histograms
for the data taken at the Florida station in 1962


80


DATA


FLORIDA









much clearer after midnight than it is before midnight, thus making

observations before opposition more favorable. The 27.6 Mc/s histo-

gram also shows a tendency to peak in the east.

Fig. 33 she .s the probability versus hour angle histograms

for the Chile data. The 16 and 22.2 Mc/s histograms are missing,

since the "new" analysis was not performed for the polarimeter data.

The 5 Mc/s histogram shows the beam width of the fixed broadside an-

tenna. The rest of the histograms again show that the probability

peaks in the east. Note, also, the dip at 50 west on the 5 and 10

Mc/s histograms. These are the only histograms on which this occurs.

It appears that some special phenomenon is causing an attenuation of

the low frequencies incident at 50 west. We shall examine future

data for this effect. The 15 and 18 Mc/s histograms show slight minor

peaks between 400 and 500 west. The 27.6 Mc/s histogram is not in-

cluded, since the data at that frequency were very sketchy.

Another possible explanation of the skewed nature of the histo-

grams is that the 00 to 900 intervals recorded many more listening

counts than did the -900 to 00 intervals, thus including more bad lis-

tening time, i.e., time close to sunset.


PROBABILITY VERSUS UNIVERSAL TIME

Since the dependence of the probability on Universal Time has

not been studied, it seems worthwhile that we should include it here.

Figs. 34 and 35 show Florida and Chile histograms for just such stud-

ies. The statistics become poor at each extreme on the curves, since

the listening time decreased for times close to sunrise (1200 U.T.)

and sunset (2300 U.T.).








CHILE 1962 DEFINITE


10.0 MC/S


5.0 MC/S


-80 -60 -40
HOUR


-20
ANGLE


20 40 60
IN DEGREES


Fig. 33.--Probability,- versus hour angle histograms
for the data taken at the C:ile station in 1962


80


DATA







FLORIDA


27.6 M C/S


22.2 MC/S


18.0 MC/S


15.0 MC/S


POS. AND DEF


POS. AND DEF


DEF


DEE


0100 0300 0500
UNIVERSAL


0700 0900
TIME


Fig. 34.--Probability versus Universal Time histograms
for the data taken at the Florida station in 1962


2300


1100


1962







CHILE 1962


POS. AND
DEF.


18.0 MC/S


DEF.


15.0 MC/S


POS. AND


5.0 MC/S


DEF.


0300 0500 0700 0800 1100
UNIVERSAL TIME


Fig. 35.--Probability versus Universal Time histograms for
the data taken at the Chile station in 1962


.04
.02


.2 F


. ^sr-


DEF


000
0100




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