"SERMO DE DIE IUDICII":
AN AELFRICIAN HOMILY
WALLACE JOHN SWAN
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
For Anne and Johnny
My thanks must go first and foremost to Dr. John
Algeo, the chairman of my committee, whose knowledge and
judgment have enabled me to complete this dissertation.
To the other members of the committee, Dr. Paul Thurston,
Professor Robert Bowers, and Dr. Oscar Jones, I can
scarcely give less profuse thanks for their continuing
help and encouragement.
Of course it would be impossible to thank the many
people who have smoothed the path, and in their own ways
helped with this dissertation. Of these, I must mention
Dr. Robert A. Bryan, Mrs. Jimmy C. Perkins, and the
staff of the Graduate School, Carol MacDonald of the
English Department, Ray Jones and the library staff, and
last but by no means least, my wife, Anne.
A special note must go to Paul Thurston, a good friend,
teacher and counselor through many trials, and one whom
I will never be able to thank properly for all he has done.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
DEDICATION... .......... ........... ............. 11
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS................ ................. iii
INTRODUCTION........ ................... ....... 1
Authorship........................ ......... 11
Judgment Day Theme ......................... 15
The "Sermo de die iudicii": Synopsis
and Evaluation......................... 28
Sources and Analogues....................... 33
TEXT.......... ....... ...... ................. .. 40
TRANSLATION ............................. ........ 58
NOTES................. ................ .... .... .. 76
BIBLIOGRAPHY............................. ...... 135
Complete versions of this previously unedited homily
occur in two manuscripts. Another manuscript contains a
three line fragment, now erased, of what was probably the
same text. The following descriptions of the manuscripts
are basedoon those of 1r. N. R. Ker.
Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 178 (Ker Number 41A,
article 9), pp. 101-114. This aanucscript contains
two books of homilies. The first, for general
occasions, includes titles such as "Do dominica oratione"
"Sermo ad populum" and! "1 auguriis," and covers
pp. 1-163. It includes the "Sermo de die iudicii."
The second book contains homilies for important festivals
and includes such titles as "In purification Sancta
marim," "Die dominica paschme" and "In ascensione domini."
The homilies are largely Alfrioian, and indeed nineteen of
N. R. Ker, Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-
Saxon (Oxford; 1957).
thirty-four (four in the first book and all in the second)
are drawn from the Sermones catholici. Of these nineteen,
thirteen are from the first series, six from the second.
In the "Sermo de die iudicii" the majority of glosses,
both marginal and interlinear, are in the "tremulous"
hand, which, Ker notes, is found throughout the manuscript.
There are, however, glosses by at least one other hand in
the homily, and Ker notes glosses by several hands in the
entire manuscript. The homily itself is all in one hand
(Ker notes two hands for the entire manuscript, the second
beginning on p. 170, well after this text). S in this homily
takes all three forms: low, round and long. Long s is
usual in initial and medial positions, never occurring
finally. Low s is usual in final position, occurring
sporadically in medial position, and is very seldom found
in initial position. Round s occurs sporadically in
all positions, although very seldom medially, and is of a
much lower frequency of occurrence than the other forms.
Mhen it occurs initially it is often found at the beginning
of a phrase, but this is not always so. It seems to alter-
nate freely with low s in final position. Also the spelling
good for modern English "good" is regular here, as, according
to Ker, it is in the rest of the manuscript. Details of
the orthography of the second scribe are given by Ker, but
are not relevant here.
The title of this homily is given in rustic capitals
which are of a different color than the ink in the main text.
The initials of both the Latin scriptural text preceding
the homily and of the first word of the homily are of the
same color, which Ker describes as metallic red. These
appear to be the only colored letters in the homily. Al-
though Ker states that first lines of homilies are usually
in red rustic capitals, this is not the case with the
"Sermo de die iudicii."
The manuscript is known to have been at Worcester, and
Ker describes it as early eleventh century.
Bodleian, Hatton 115 (Ker Number 332, article 4), ff.
23-30v. This manuscript contains thirty-seven articles,
of which twenty-five are general homilies, not meant for
use on special occasions. These include this text of the
"Sermo de die iudicii." Along with this homily, six other
articles also reoccur in C.C.C.C. 178 (see above) such as
"Exameron Anglice," "De Dominica oratione," and "De
auguriis." Also five articles are found repeated in
Bodleian, Hatton 116 (Ker Number 333), which does not
include this homily although thirteen of its twenty-seven
articles are from the Sermones catholici. All these
collections are largely Elfrician. Hatton 115 contains
twelve articles from the Sermones catholici, including
six of the eight homilies for the Rogation days in lfric's
two series of Sermones catholici (articles 2, 3, 7-10).
Articles 21-25 are A1fric's homilies for the Common of
Saints (21--a single apostle; 22--more than one apostle;
23--holy martyrs; 24--a single confessor; 25--holy virgins),
and article 26 is for the dedication of a church.
In this homily, as in the rest of the manuscript as
Ker notes, the hand is very different from those found in
other Anglo-Saxon manuscripts from Worcester. It is an
upright round hand, and a is caroline in e, while o has
very obvious joins at both top and bottom. In this homily
also all three forms of s are found. However, round s is
much more restricted in distribution, occurring only as a
capital, i.e., the first letter of the text and the first
letter after semicolons. Long s never occurs finally,
low s being used exclusively in this position. Long and
low s alternate freely in medial position, and low s
occurs occasionally in initial position. The ends of
descenders curve to the left here as Ker points out for
the manuscript in general, and the mark of abbreviation is
In addition, Ker makes the observation that words
omitted in error from the text and added in the margin in
the main hand are marked by a triangle of dots which corres-
ponds to a triangle of dots in the text at the point where
the words are to be read. This however does not appear to
be the case in the "Sermo de die iudicil." The triangle of
dots does appear often in the text of this homily. It
refers, however, not to marginal additions, but to glosses
in the "tremulous" hand. In addition there are glosses
by at least one other hand in the margins.
The I of "Interrogatus," and the S of "Seo,
respectively the initials of the Latin introduction and
the homily itself, are oversized and colored, the I taking
two lines, the S three. They do not appear to be
the same color, and Ker indicates that initials are either
metallic red or green. The title, which is also in colored
capitals (red, according to Ker), is inserted after the
"autem" of the Latin introductory text, and takes up the
second half of the first line. The second line continues
the Latin text. The first line of the Anglo-Saxon text is
in uncials, a rarity in this manuscript according to Ker.
It does not appear to be colored. However, all capitals
within the homily itself are filled with colored ink, which
Ker states is red.
The manuscript which contains this homily dates from
the second half of the eleventh century, although bound
with it is a single quire from the middle of the twelfth
Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 188 (Ker Number 43,
article 46--fragmentary). This text consists only of the
title and two lines of text which occupied the last three
lines of what is now the last page of the manuscript. They
have been erased. Two initials--I (of "Interrogatus"?) and
S (of Seo?) are faintly visible. The manuscript itself
consists of forty-six articles, forty of which are drawn
from the first series of Elfric's Sermones catholici. Ker
explains the lack of certain homilies in this series by
the fact that quires have been lost at both the beginning
and end (where the "Sermo de die iudicii" appears) and
after p. 210. Also some leaves are missing. Among the
six articles present which are not from the Sermones
catholici are "Sermo ad populum in octavis pentecosten,"
and "Sermo in natale unius confessoris" as well as the
"Sermo de die iudicil," all of which appear in C.C.C.C. 178.
The manuscript dates from the first half of the eleventh
Comparison of the Ianuscripts
A close comparison of the two surviving copies of
the "Sermo de die iudicii" offers some interesting con-
clusions. From the close similarity of the two, it is
obvious that they are descendants of an ultimate common
archetype. There is, however, no evidence to indicate
that the Hatton MS (the later of the two) is in any way
dependent on the Corpus Christi MS. Yet even without such
evidence one might tend to assume that the older of two
such close versions would be the fuller and more accurate.
This is not altogether the case, as will be shown below.
Yet since the differences are relatively minor, and the
Corpus Christi MS is possibly contemporary with hlfric,
it has been chosen as the basic text. Both MSS offer good
samples of classical West Saxon, and the choice is barely
problematical. The following is a complete listing of
all relevant textual differences between the two manu-
scripts. Spelling differences have not been noted here,
and differing word order, where either order is equally
possible, has been ignored, as have equally possible
Mistakes in the Corpus Christi Version.--These generally
consist of misspellings and forgotten lettersv-line 11,
an[d]; line 43, [na]num; line 71, domess; line 75,
b[i]nges; line 106, se[o]; line 117, hundan should be
hundas, as the weak form is not elsewhere recorded (see
Notes); line 218, "abhominationem" should be "abominationem,"
although this spelling reflects a long medieval etymological
tradition; line 218, "desolutionis" should be "desolationis";
line 309, geearnia5 swylce mid forste which is most difficult
to fit with the context, is paralled by getacnia6 swylce mid
fostre, a much more lucid reading, in Hatton; line 345,
Mistakes in the Hatton Version.--line 45, a[c]; line 50,
geglododon should be gegladodon; line 148, his seolan
should be hi sceolan; line 405 winmen should be wifmen;
line 378, and is probably misplaced.
Omissions in the Corpus Christi Version.--The following
(all occurring in Hatton) are almost certainly omissions
from Corpus Christi, and not additions to Hatton. Their
inclusion is dictated either by the sense of the passage
or the alliterative patterns: line 5, dryhten omitted;
line 27, o5be on his house omitted; line 51, mid erased
(see 'otes); line 145, eore omitted; line 184, sume
unnytwurie omitted; line 216, cristes omitted; line 241,
halgum omitted; line 255, bonne omitted; line 276, ended
omitted; line 297, house omitted; line 329, eft ne omitted
(see Notes); line 387, bonne omitted; line 397, is omitted;
line 406, hi omitted. In addition to these, there are
several cases which may be omissions, or may be additions
to Hatton: line 153, bysnian occurs where Hatton has
gebysnian; line 195, gaderia6 occurs where Hatton has
gegaderiab; line 259, secgan occurs where Hatton has
gesecgan; line 354, hradab occurs where Hatton has gehradaZ;
line 363, be omitted.
Omissions in the Hatton Version.--The following are seen to
be almost certainly omissions: line 15, ealle omitted;
line 116, heora omitted; line 136, her omitted; line 228,
bonne omitted; line 263, ba omitted; line 266, bet omitted;
line 273, hys omitted; line 324, biddan omitted; line 389,
and erased; line 397, bonne omitted. Further possible
omissions are: line 281, dwolan occurs where Corpus Christi
has gedwolan; line 356, ge omitted.
By a purely numerical count the Hatton MS is seen to
be more accurate. The Corpus Christi text has eight
scribal errors and fourteen certain omissions, while the
Hatton text has five errors and only ten certain omissions.
Yet, the mistakes and omissions in both cases are largely
minor, and since the Corpus Christi is the older of the
texts, this edition must be based upon it, although fully
collated with the Hatton MS.
There is little doubt that Elfric is the author
of the "Sermo de die iudicii." There are many facts
which point to his authorship, and none which tend to
External evidence as to the authorship of this
homily is limited. There are no references to the
homily in other works, nor is there any reference
in the homily which would indicate authorship. Thus
the only external evidence rests on two facts. First,
the dating of the MSS is appropriate, the earlier
being dated by Ker from the first half of the eleventh
century. This period is considered to include the later
years of fLlfric's life. The second and weightier fact
is that both of the ISS are predominately lfrician. Again,
since all the homilies contained in these HSS have not
been proven to be Afric's, this fact is not conclusive,
but it does point to al1fric more certainly than to any
The internal evidence is more conclusive. Alfric
shows a lively interest in the Last Judgment in the pre-
face to the Catholic Homilies. He uses some of the same
texts there which are included in the "Sermo de die
iudicii," and his phrasing is similar in places to that
of the homily. For example, on p. 4 of the preface to
the Catholic Homilies, we find "[lease cristas] . .
wyrca8 fela tacna and Twnndra, to berecenne mancynn,
and eac swyloe pa gecorenan men, gif hit gewurian mng:
and butan se Elmihtiga God 6a dagas gescyrte, eall
mennisc forwurde." This may be compared with lines
356-359, and 345-348.
A further indication is given by the vocabulary used
in the homily itself. Of 586 vocabulary items, more than
96 percent are either recorded as used by Alfric elsewhere,
or are closely related to forms used by him. These would
include such unrecorded forms as the adverb fuerlice, where
only the adjective fwrlic has been recorded, and gymeleas,
where only the noun gymeleast, "carelessness," is recorded.
How large a percentage of these terms is used ex-
clusively by lfric, or whether he uses some terms with
shades of meaning not found elsewhere is a question which
goes beyond the scope of this work. Yet it is evident
that all authors have a working vocabulary, and favored
words within that vocabulary. This is reflected in the
vocabulary selection of the "Sermo de die ludicii."
1Benjamin Thorpe, ed. The Iomilies of the Anglo-
Saxon Church (London: 1844).--
Finally, the identity of the author is indicated
clearly by his unique use of the "rhythmic prose" style,
which gives the effect of a loose rendering of the
characteristic Old English verse style. It is clearly
seen throughout this homily, and only one example is
necessary here to indicate the style:
menn mton and druncon and dwollice leofodan
cnihtas wifodan and wif ceorlodan
o0 brt noe eode into Dam arce.
pat flod Da become ferlice ofer hi ealle
and eall mancynn adrencte
buton eahta mannum be innan Dam arce waron
swa swa hym wissode god;
and swa swa on lodes dagum eft syban gelamp
menn mton. and druncon. bohton and sealdan
byttlodan and plantodan and beeodan heora tilunge.
pa sende god fmrlice
sona swa loB was of pare byrig alad.
fyr. and swefel swylce hit renscur were.
and mid ealle forbmrnde ba fif burhscira
It will be readily seen that as verse there is a good deal
lacking, yet the style is much more than prose with its
prominent alliteration and obviously rhythmical groupings.
The homily has been presented in prose form because
strictly speaking it is not verse. It lacks the regularity
of alliteration and scansion as well as the inversions
and kennings of Old English poetry. However, the
rhythmical and alliterative features are prominent enough
to print it as somewhat ragged verse, as is seen above.
The question of .lfric's "rhythmical prose" has been
investigated in some detail by several scholars in the
past, so it will not be necessary to go into it here.
Thus, if we consider the scanty, external evidence
in conjunction with the extremely weighty internal
evidence, there can remain little doubt of lfric's
authorship of the "Sermo de die iudicii."
1See, among others, G. H. Gerould, "Abbot Ilfric's
Rhythmic Prose," Modern Philology, XXII (1925), 353-366;
Dorothy Bethurum, "The Form of k1fric's Lives of Saints,"
Studies in Philology, XXIX (1932), 515-533; and J. T.
Algeo, /lfric's "The Forty Soldiers" An Edition,
unpublished doctoral dissertation, Gainesville, Florida,
1960, pp. 29-42. The most recent treatment is by
John C. Pope, ed. Homilies of Elfric, Vol. I (London,
Toronto, New York, 1967), 105-136.
Judgment Day Theme
Alfric's use of the Judgment Day theme in this
homily lays stress ,on the necessity for leading a truly
Christian life, because of God's omniscience and the
uncertainty of the time of judgment. He places little
stress on the actual coming of Christ, on the final
judgment itself, or on the enumeration of punishments
and rewards in the life eternal. Rather he concentrates
his efforts here upon the impossibility of hypocrisy
or deceit before the omniscient God. The "one is taken"
theme provides a perfect vehicle for this task. It
not only provides a valid metaphor for the futility
of hypocrisy, but also illustrates the necessity for
reform both among the laity and in the monastic and
clerical establishments as well. Thisis, as will be
pointed out below, a standard exegesis of the "one is
The second prong of Alfric's attack, and the one
which imparts meaning to the necessity for reform, is
the knowledge that doomsday may be upon us at any moment.
This was especially important in the late Old English
period, as the year 1000 was the millennial year, and a
literal reading of scriptures (rev. 20) gives a date of
1000 years after Christ for the resurrection of the
dead and the day of judgment. This conception gave
rise to a great spate of doomsday literature during
this period, such as the following from Wulfstan's
homily, "Secundum marcum":
Post mille annos soluetur Satanas. pmt
is on english, after busend gearum bi5
Satanas unbunden. busend gears and eac ma
is nu agan, sy66an Crist wts mid mannum
on menniscan hiwe, and nu syndon Satanases
bendas swyoe toslepene, and Antecristes
tima is wel gehende, and 6y hit is on
worulde a, swa leng, swa acre. men
syndon swicole, and world is he wyrse,
and jpot us dereO eallum-
Yet throughout the scriptures, as in this illustration,
and in the "Sermo de die iudicii," the uncertainty is
maintained as to the exact time of judgment. This is what
gives the priest a good deal of his power in the struggle
to reform mankind, and it is skillfully used by 1fric here.
Mention is also made of the signs which are prophesied
to precede the judgment day. Here again we have a two-
fold reason for their inclusion. First, the fact that
some of the signs (wars, pestilence, false prophets,
etc.) have come to pass strengthens the concept of the
imminence of Judgment Day. Second, these evils on the
earth, seen as part of the signs, are specific temptations
to test the elect.
1A. S. Napier, Wulfstan (Berlin, 1883).
Perhaps equally significant with the stressed
aspects in the homily rre those aspects of the second
Coming which IElfric neglects. Some of the favorite topics
of Anglo-Saxon authors were, as I shall illustrate below,
the place of judgment, the judge, and those judged, as
well as the usual torments of the damned and bliss of
the elect. That is to say a complete trial is envisioned,
during which a man's deeds and words are balanced, good
against evil, in order to determine his fate. But the
instantaneous summons and judgment implied by "an para
bi6 genumen, and se ober bib forlzeten." is much more
effective here for lfric's purpose.
Concerning the rewards of the just Elfric has little
to say--"and pa englas gebringap pa gecorenan menn to criste
sylfum, pat hi mid him ricsian on heofonan rice on lichaman
and on sawle gesaliglice afre." There is no reference in
his chosen Biblical texts to the fate of the damned, but
lfric, for a fitting reinforcement of his message, takes
a short passage relating to this subject (Matt. 13: 49-50)
and then embellishes it. Finally, to end upon a joyous
note he makes a last rapid reference to the saints'
bliss in Heaven, and concludes his homily. The argument
of the homily is then seen to move from the necessity and
reasons for reform, i.e., the imminence of doomsday and the
swiftness of justice, to end ultimately with a strong
motivational appeal to the sinner.
Judgment Day Theme Elsewhere in lfric's Works
Although Elfric devotes no other homily specifically
to the Judgment lay, the concept occurs from time to time
throughout the Sermones catholici and the Lives of Saints.
Reference is made no less than five times to the imminence
of the Judgment Day, and its uncertainty (for example,
C.H., Vol. I, pp. 4, 298; C.H., Vol. II, pp. 370,
574; L.S. XVI, 1. 219ff.2). References to the signs
and suffering at the end of the world (C.H., Vol. I,
pp. 609ff.; C.H., Vol. II, pp. 536ff.; L.S. XIII, 11. 289-
299), to corporeal resurrection (C.H., Vol. I, pp. 236, 532)
and to God's elect (C.H., Vol. I, p. 536; C.H., Vol. II,
p. 82) all appear in more than one place, and there are
at least single references to false prophets (C.H., Vol. I,
pp. 405ff.) and to Antichrist (C.H., Vol. I, p. 4).
From frequency of occurrence it would seem that
Elfric, in all his writings, as in this homily, laid the
heaviest stress upon the fact that the great doom might be
Thorpe. All further references to the Catholic
Homilies (C.H.) will cite this work.
W. W. Skeat, ed. Elfric's Lives of Saints (London:
1900). All further references to Lives of Saints (L.S.)
will cite this work.
upon us at any moment. These references may be found in
the Sermones catholici, Vols. I and II, and in the Lives
of Saints. They are sometimes found in single sentences,
such as ". . menn behofiab godre lare swibost on bisum
timan be is geendung byssere worulde. ." (C.H., Vol. I,
introd.). They also occur in longer passages as in the
"Sermo de memorial sanctorum":
Nu on urum dagum on ende byssere worulde.
swica6 se deofol digollice embe us.
hu he burh leahtras forlere ba cristenan.
and to mislicum synnum heora mod awende.
ac ba beob gesslige be his swic-domas to-cnawao.
and his lot-wrencaes id geleafan ofer-swyZao.
He wet nu swibe and wyn6 on ba cristenan.
foroan be he wat geare bPt bysre worulde geendung
is svwye gehende. and he on-et forbi.
We sceolan eac onettan and urun sawlum gehelpan.
Durh gode biggengas gode to gecwemednysse.
foroan be we ne motan lange on bysum life beon.
And bEt is godes mildheortnyss. beah be hit digle sy.
(L.S., 11. 219-231)
These references to Judgment Day made by Elfric cre
consistent with what is emphasized and omitted in the
"Sermo de die iudicii." Likewise his treatment of the
suffering of the damned in his other homilies is consistent
with that in the "Sermo de die iudicii." It is largely
ignored in the "Sermo de die iudicii" and is seldom
referred to in his other works. When he does mention it,
it is given little space or emphasis. For example, in the
homily "In dedication ecclesia," he says only: "So6lice se
be ba heafod-leahtras wyrc6, and on bam geenda6, he mot
forbyrnan on 6am ecum fyre, and swa beah ba sw~ran synna
ne beo8 nmfre afeormode for nanes fyres mlincge" (C.H.,
Vol. I, p. 590).
The "courtroom scene" of the Judgment is another
aspect of the theme which lfric generally avoids. He
makes use of the scene in the Sermones catholici in one
homily ("Dominica I. in quadragesima," C.H., Vol. II,
pp. 106-108). His prime purpose here, however, is not to
portray the Judgment scene, but to illustrate through
scripture the joys and benefits of charity.
Finally there are numerous small details of agreement
between "Sermo de die iudicii" and Alfric's other works.
For example, in "Sermo de die iudicii," it is said, "mt
fyr ponne afeorma6 pas eor6an and hi geedniwao" (11. 77-78).
In "Dominica II. in adventum domini" (C.H., Vol. I, p. 608),
the same theme occurs: "Heofone and eorne gewitao, and peah
burhwunia6, for)an 6e hi beo6 fram bam hiwe be hi nu
habba pburh fyr geclmnsode, and swa-6eah symle on heora
gecynde standa6." Again, Elfric strongly emphasized
Gif hwan tvwynige be mriste, ponne meg he
understandan on Disum godspelle, Dpt per
bi6 so6 arist 1pr Pxr beo6 eagan and teb.
Eagan synd flmscene, and te6 benene; forban
be we sceolon, wylle we nelle we, arisan
on ende byssere worulde mid flmsce and mid
bane, and onfon edlean ealra ura dada.. .
("Dominica XXI, post pentecosten,"
C.H., Vol. I, p. 532)
We find further emphasis on this doctrine in "Sermo de
die iudicii": "1pat hi mid him ricsian on heofonan rice on
lichaman and on sawle gesmeliglice afre" (11. 392-394).
Thus we see that this homily presents no conflict
with and in some places even a stronger affirmation of
Tlfric's quite conservative views. That these views and
points of emphasis were not generally held by other
homilists of the period will be shown in the next section.
The Judgment Day Theme in Other Anglo-Saxon Literature
lfric's approach to the Judgment Day theme is not the
usual one found in surviving homilies and poetry. The
general approach seems to have been along a more sensational
avenue. Anglo-Saxon authors liked to stress the violent
aspects of the theme, i.e., the torments of the damned,
the chaos at the end of the world, or the violence in the
Heavens at Christ's Coming.
Some of this tendency reflects the Anglo-Saxon heroic
tradition, dwelling on prowess in battle, encounters with
fabled creatures, and emphasizing the sanctity of the
"comitatus." In fact many of these traditional heroic themes,
couched in language appropriate to the epic, are reflected
in the literature dealing with the doomsday theme. For
example, Christ is seen as a leader in the comitatus and
an earthly prince in such references to him as "herga fruma,"
"moelinga ord," and "sigora weard" (Christ, 11. 845, 846,
1517). The torments of Hell are likewise reminiscent of the
tone and imagery of the heroic tradition, and Hell itself
is populated with "blodige earnas and blace naddran"
(Solomon and Saturn, 1. 943) and "wyrmsela" (Judith, 1. 119).
This reliance on and continuation of the ancient
traditions naturally led the authors to dwell upon these
sensational aspects, which AFlfric largely ignores. Even
though the approach of the homilists is generally milder
than that of the poets, the same tendency is seen. Emphasis
is laid on much the same aspects as were noted above--the
chaos, the judgment scene, and the horror of Hell. In
the homily for Easter Sunday (Number 7) of the Blickling
Homilies, a good deal of space is given to the Judgment:
Uton nu gepencean hu mycel egsa gelimpeb
eallum gesceaftum on pas ondweardan tid,
bonne se dom nealmcep, and seo opening
pees dmges is swipe egesfull eallum
The author continues, describing the days preceding the
judgment in this manner:
Py mrestan dage on midne dsg gelimpep
mycel gnornung ealra gesceafta, and
men gehyrab myccle stefne on heofenum
swylce Pmr man fyrde trymme and samnige;
ponne astige) blodig wolcen mycel from norPdzle,
and oforbecb ealne pysne heofon; and
after aem wolcne cymep legetu and bunor
ealne bone deg; and rineb blodig regn mt zefen.
After the seven days have passed, God will come to judge
the world and
S... God sylfa bonne ne gymep nsnges
mannes hreowe; ne Dwr nmnige pingunga
ne beop; ac biP bonne repra [&] bearlwisa
bonne anig wilde deor, obbe afre anig
mod gewurde. & swa myccle swa bes mannes
miht beo mare, & he bip weligra on pisse
worulde, swa him bonne se uplica Dema
mare tosecb, bonne he him sylfum rebne
don & heardne geearna) & gegyteb, swa
hit be Don gecweden is: 'Se mon se
be nu demep emm earmum buton mildheort-
nesse, bonne bib bam eft heord don geteod.
The doomed are sentenced to eternal torment, described at
length in a passage here translated from the Middle English
homiletic treatise "Sawles Warde" (ascribed to the author
of the "Ancren Riwle" c. 1237).1
Hell is wide without measure, and deep and
bottomless; full of incomparable fire, for no
earthly fire may be compared therewith; full
of stench intolerable, for no living thing
on earth might endure it; full of unutterable
sorrow, for no mouth may, on account of the
wretchedness and of the woe thereof, give an
account of nor tell about it. Yea, the
darkness therein is so thick that one may
grasp it, for the fire there gives out
no light, but blindeth the eyes of them that
are there with a smothering smoke, the worst
of smokes. And nevertheless in that same
black darkness they see black things as devils,
that ever maul them and afflict and harass them
with all kinds of tortures; and tailed drakes,
horrible as devils, that devour them whole and
spew them out afterwards before and behind;
1Richard Morris, Old English Homilies (Oxford, 1868).
at other times they rend them in pieces and
chew each gobbet of them, and they after-
wards become whole again, such as they pre-
viously were, to undergo again such bale
without recovery, and full well they see
themselves very horrible and dreadful; and to
increase their pains the loathsome hellworms,
toads, and frogs that eat out their eyes and
nostrils, and adders and water-frogs, not like
those here, but a hundred times more horrible,
creep in and out at the mouth, ears, eyes,
navel, and at the hollow of the breast, as
maggots in putrid flesh, thickest. There is
shrieking in the flame, and chattering of
teeth in the snowy waters. Suddenly they
flit from the heat into the cold, nor ever
do they know of these two which is worse for
them, for each is intolerable. And in this
marvellous mingling the latter through the
former tormenteth the more. The fire con-
sumes them all to dead coals: the pitch
boileth them until they are altogether melted,
and revives them anon to undergo again all
that same and much worse, ever without end. And
this same wanhope is their greatest torment,
that none have never any more hope of any
recovery, but are sure of every ill, to con-
tinue in woe, world without end, ever in
eternity. Each chokes the other, and each
is another's torment, and each hateth another
and himself as the black devil; and even as they
loved them the more in this world, so the more
shall they hate them there. And each curseth
another, and gnaws off the other's arms, ears,
and nose also. I have begun to tell of things
that I am not able to bring to any end, though
I had a thousand tongues of steel, and told
until they were all worn out. But think now
by this what the greatest pain is; for the
least pain is so hard, that had a man slain
both my father and mother, and all the
remnant of my kin, and done to me all the
shame and harm that a living man might endure,
yet if I saw this man in the least pain that I
see in Hell I would, if it might be, endure a
thousand deaths to release him out thereof,
so horrible and piteous is that sight to behold;
for though there were never any other pain, except
to see the wretched spirits and their horrible
forms; to look on their grim and dreadful faces,
and to hear their roaring, and how they in scorn
reproach and upbraid each other with their sins;
this infamy, and the horror of them, would be
immeasurable pain; and moreover to endure and to
bear their immense blows with steel mallets,
and with their awls gleed-red, and their
buffetings, as though it might be a pilch-clout,
each one toward the other in divers pains. O
hell, death's house, abode of woe, of dread, and
of groaning; horrid home, and hard dwelling of all
miseries; city of bale, and abode of every
bitterness, thou most loathsome land of all, thou
dark place, filled with all dreariness! I quake
with dread and fear, and each bone quivereth within
me, and each hair bristles up at the thought of thee;
for there is no voice between the damned but
woe me! woe is me! and woe is thee! and woe
is thee! And woe they cry, and woe they have;
nor shall they ever have any lack of whatever
is woeful. It were well for those that
merit this abode through any temporary bliss
here in this world that they were never born.
By this ye may somewhat understand what hell is
like, for, of a truth, I have seen therein a
thousand times worse (than I have told you).
These themes appear over and over again with frightful
scenes like the one above, and pictures of God (or Christ)
sitting in awful judgment. They bear very little
resemblance to the "Sermo de die iudicii."
Because of titular resemblance, some consideration is
necessary of the two Old English poems entitled "Be Domes
Deg," and of the section of Cynewulf's "Christ" entitled
"The Last Judgment." Only a brief look is necessary here
as all three differ in mood, emphasis and treatment from
the "Sermo de die iudicii."
The longer "Be Domes Dag' is a translation of a
shorter Latin poem, "De die iudicii," ascribed to Bede.
Its structure is somewhat similar to that of "The
Last Judgment." Both poems present the signs of the
Second Coming and the terrors accompanying the Coming
in their early sections. There is a great deal of emphasis
on the suffering and horror of that time. Both then
present what has been termed above as the "courtroom
scene," where each man's sins shall be known to all, and with
elaborate speeches and ceremony the damned are consigned to
eternal torment and the blessed receive their rewards
with appropriate and lurid description. "The Be Domes
DMg" is couched in the first persona monologue of Soul
to Body. "The Last Judgment" is in the third person and
The shorter "Be Domes Deg" likewise deals first
with the signs of the Coming, and the terrors of the
damned, as wells the bliss of the elect. It does not,
however, enter into as much detail as do the other two
poems, and does not seem to be as finely wrought.
None of these poems bear much resemblance to the
"Sermo de die iudicii." The three estates are not dealt
with; there is little reference in any of them to either
Lot or Noah, for example; and the judgment itself, as
pointed out, is made into a focal point of both the longer
"Be Domes Deg" and "The Last Judgment." Likewise the tone
of the poems differs from the "Sermo de die iudicii." One
has the feeling while reading any one of these poems
that the author feels he can either "scare" or "bribe"
his audience into Heaven. On the other hand, the "Sermo
de die iudicii" seems to reason, and is given to neither
the fits of despair or raptures of bliss in which the
ilfric's treatment of the Judgment by the "one is
taken" theme then, is a definite departure from the Anglo-
Saxon tradition, as also, is his lack of emphasis on
Hell and the damned. Th..3e are, however, characteristic
of his other works, and would seem to be a few of the
many things which distinguish him from the other writers
of his time.
The "Sermo de die iudicii": Synopsis and Evaluation
The "Sermo de die iudicii" was designed as a "quando
voleris" sermon. This is attested by the fact that there
is no designation of the texts on which it is based in
the Church calendar of the time, and indeed the very
fact that two texts are involved. The fact that the
texts themselves have been edited (several verses are
omitted) and that they are dealt with in reverse order
(the explication of the passage in Luke precedes that of
VIatthew) strengthens this assumption further for the
homilist would not have felt as free to do this were the
sermon designated for a particular day.
The homily is composed mainly of the ~ adding and
explication of two scriptural passages. Each of the
texts is set forth in Old English, and their lissected
phrase by phrase to bring to light the "inran digolnysse"
or innermost meaning for the congregation. Other
quotations from scripture are liberally used for
illustration and clarification, but the main subject is
always at the fore.
The sermon begins with a reading from Luke, which
describes how the Pharisees questioned Christ about the
Second Coming. In point of fact, the Biblical dialogue
is shifted to the disciples after the initial question
by the Pharisee: but Elfric does not mention the shift.
Christ's answer to these questions is that the time
of the second d Cooing I is nalculable, and '11i be as swift
as lightnir., ans 'nnh's flood, or as the r ruction of
Sodom. "e goes on to say that two will be in a bed, two
in a mill ni trwo in a field at this ti e. Cf each of
these pairs, one will be tr.ken, and the other forsaken.
In oaru~er to the quen-;ion of here they will be taken, I!e
says, ''eresoever the bocd- is, there the eia-le will
.': v ring r-iven the first text in full, /'fric
proceeds to c-licate it for his listeners. .Te explains
that Christ will come n-iln, although no one 'knos when.
1e enlarges upon the references to Lot, although since he
feels his listeners a.e accuainted with the atory of T:oah,
he declines co'ent here. -hen he goev on to explain that
the two people in one bed represent the monastic life, the
two in a mill represent the rforldly life, F::- the two in
a field r-. resent the cler;y. In each case e indicates
the r~jor feature of the metaphor, such r- the bed
representing the monastic life, the mill rec resenting the
secular life, the field representing rod's spiritual field,
eto., pointi.-v out at t1e ir, time that it is not simply
two people oeiiev re.;reRonte(, tut two types of people,
and that one of those types will merit uilvation, the
other r ::.-.tion. 'inrlly, in explication of the "oales,"
he shows that these are God's Holy Saints, who will flock
to Christ at His Coming.
Having finished with this passage, the homilist
turns to a second, but closely related passage concerning
Christ's answers to the disciples about the end of the
world. This passage is dealt with in the same manner as
the fi jst.
The passage begins with a warning concerning idolatry
in the temple, and moves to a warning against the pregnant
and those giving suck in the evil days. Then follows an
exhortation to pray that Christ's Coming be not in winter
or on the Sabbath. Then there is a reference to the
persecution of the faithful which will take place at that
time, and a warning against the false Christs who will
come. Finally, a description is given of the wonders which
will come to pass at the moment of the Second Coming.
Having given the reading, the homilist once again
dissects and explicates t ie passage. The idolatry in the
temple is described as h1-ppening when antichrist sets him-
self up as God: and, through devilish miracles, persuades
many to follow him to their damnation. The pregnant are
seen as those false Christians who are filled with lies,
and the nourishment afforded by those giving suck is
wickedness. The Sabbath is figured as the Day of Rest,
i.e., emptiness or idleness, while we hope to be found
amidst good works at Christ's coming. Likewise the
winter is seen, not as an ordinary winter, but as the
coldness of heart found in those who lack the love of
The persecution of the faithful will be accomplished
by antichrist, who will be able to work wonders, and martyr
the chosen, while they in turn are powerless. However,
though many will be fooled, God's chosen will persevere
unto the end. At this point the actual events heralding
the Second Coming are enlarged upon, and the chosen are
seen in their happiness. By way of contrast, another
short scriptural passage is quoted, and translated,
showing the misery of the damned. At this point the
homily is brought to a close with a final reference to
the ineffable _liss of God's chosen ones in Heaven.
It is easily seen that the "Sermo de die iudicii" is
very simply, yet forcefully structured. The homily
breaks neatly into two halves--the explication of two texts,
yet its unity is maintained in that the texts are very
closely related, treating two aspects of the same theme.
The break is purposeful, and is even emphasized by the
homilist's statements that in the first instance the
Fharisees are questioning Christ, and in the second, the
disciples question Him. This difference could have been
minimized, and is, indeed, wrongly made, so it is evident
that it is purposeful. It functions both to secure
the continued attention of the audience, and to
alert the listeners to a slight shift in emphasis. The
first half of the homily was devoted to the question, "who
are the elect?" The second half assumes the first and
continues with, "what must they endure to merit salvation?"
Thus the central break is both integral and
functional. The subject, thus renewed, is followed as
closely in the second half as it was in the first, and,
characteristic of klfric, little or no extraneous material
is allowed to interfere. lfric has here created a
unified work which is designed to keep the interest of
his congregation, while proceeding by logical steps to
a fitting conclusion.
Sources and Analogues
The ultimate source of this homily is, of course,
the Bible. The homily falls naturally into two parts,
each being an exegesis of a scriptural text. The first
text, covering lines 1-38 of the homily, is from Luke 17:
20, 24, 26-31, and 34-37. There follow 178 lines of
exegetical material, and then the second text, taken from
two very similar passages--IHatthew 24: 15-25, and 29-31;
and Iark 13: 14-27. These passages appear in lines 216-
257 of the text.
Neither of these passages are exact translations of the
Bible, but are paraphrased. For example, the first
passage purports to be Christ's answer to the Pharisees,
while the second is His answer to the disciples. Yet this
is not the Biblical rendering. The first verse (verse 20)
is indeed addressed to the Pharisees, but verse 22,not
incorporated into this text, shifts the address to the
disciples: "et ait ad discipulos suos," and the rest
of the passage is addressed to them. Likewise, in
the second main scriptural passage of the text, details
from I:atthew are found which are not in Iark, and vice
versa. The homily reads thus:
Ponne ge geseo6 standan on p1re halgan
stowe onscuniendlic deofolgild. .(1. 223)
The reference to the "halgan stowe" is clearly found in
Iatthew (the quotations are from Jerome's translation of
the New Testament):
Cun ergo videritis abominationem desolationis
. stantem in loco sancto. .
The reading in Hark, however, is:
Cum autem videritis abominationem desola-
tionis stantem .. ubi non debet . .
(Mark 13: 14)
On the other hand, later in the passage the Anglo-Saxon
text is as follows:
Warniab eow geornlice ic hit habbe eow
gesmd. (11. 247-248)
This agrees exactly with Iark:
Vos ergo videte: ecce pradixi vobis omnia
Yet in i.atthew we find only:
2cce predixi vobis (Matt. 24: 25)
In addition to these two main passages from the Bible,
the homily contains numerous shorter quotations, used as
illustration and authority.1
No immediate source for the homily as a whole is known,
and probably none exists. The Judgment Day theme was of
wide occurrence in this era, and the concepts surrounding
The other Biblical quotations found in the text are
from: I. Cor. 3:9 (1. 149); Isaiah 56:10 (1. 166); II Thes.
2: 4 (11. 288-289); Matt. 24: 12 (11. 314-315); Matt. 13:
49-50 (11. 395-397)A Matt. 24: 13 (11. 367-368).
the theme were largely common property. In addition
this homily contains no internal evidence that it is
a translation. C. L. White cites two relevant
peculiarities characteristic of /1ifric's treatment 3f
his sources: "First, he lays stress upon the authors
whom he uses, and puts himself in the background; and
secondly, while he gives the thoughts of his authors
with conscientious accuracy, he is independent and free
in his method of conveying thought." Looking at these
two points, we see first that i1lfric cites no source for
his homily. Neither author nor work is mentioned
throughout the homily. Second, the thoughts in the
homily are either widespread among his predecessors, or
entirely lacking in their works.
If there is no single source of the homily as a
whole, the analogues to be founc in the exe rsis of the
individual passages are so numerous that no single one can
be positively identified as a r urce.
The Church Fathers' exegeses of passages in the
Gospels agree with one another to a great extent, and
lfric agrees quite closely with them in the bulk of the
homily, being characteristically quite conservative.
His agreement with the Fathers is clearly shown, for
1C. L. White, rSlfric, A New Study of his Life and
Writings (Boston, New York, London: 1898), p. 189.
example, in his treatment of the "two in one bed"
theme. fElfric's exegesis is as follows:
ba beo bonne on bedde: be beob on stillnysse.
and fram eallum woruldcarum Emtige bonne beoo.
and godes beowdom bega6 mid goodum inngehyde ac
hi no beo8 na twegen: ac on twa todslede;
Obre beo6 gecorene and gode geoweme. oore
beo8 mid hiwunge on his Deowdome afundene. .
Swa bi5 se an genumen, and se ober forlmten:
be on bam bedde beob honne gemette. bet is on
Vere stillnysse heora stabolfestan modes, na
twegen menn ana. ac on twa wisan gemodode.
(11. 89-93, 100-103)
Augustine comments in a telescoped exegesis:
Qui sunt in illa nocte duo in lecto, et
dum molentes in unum, et duo in agro,
de quibus omnibus binis singuli assumentur,
et singuli relinquentur? Tria genera hominum
hic videntur, significari: unum eorum
qui otium et quietem eligunt, nesque negotiis
sacularibus neque negotiis ecclesiasticis
occupati; qua illorum quies lecti nominee
significata est. . non quasi de duobus
hominibus dictum est sed de duobus generibus
affectionum, in singulis generibus trium
Bede follows Augustine, but then goes further:
duo erunt in lecto, illi videlicet,
qui otium et quietem eligunt, neque
negotiis sacularibus, neque negotiis
ecclesiasticis occupati, qu illorum
quies lecti nominee significata est . .
Non quasi de duobus hominibus dictum
est sed de duobus generibus affectionum.
qui enim proper Deum continentim
studuerit, ut sine sollicitudine
vivens cogitet qua Dei sunt (I Cor.:vii),
J. P. Migne, ed., Patrologia cursus completus (Paris:
1862), Vol. XXXV, Col. 1357 (Questionum Evangeliorum).
assumetur a Deo; qui vero vel humane
laudis more, vel alia qualibet vitiorum
corruption status monastic vita. .
lsserit, hic ubi reliquendus sit .
Raban-Ilaur quotes the above passage word for word. This
type of agreement continues throughout the entire "one is
chosen, the other left" passage.
Similarly, in the exegesis of the "Vaz pregnantibus"
theme, a close correspondence of interpretation is noted.
Alfric interprets the passage thus:
Wa pam eacniendum on bam yfelum dagum_.
and pam fedendum on Ipre freccdnysse;
hwIt agylta6 ba wif be be godes hese
tyma6. and heora child feda6 on prre
frecednysse. ac pis is gecweden be bam
leasum cristenium be beo6 mid leahtrum
afyllede swaT swa gefearhsugu.
Jerome on the other hand sees the passage as both historical
'Vm autem priegnantibus et nutrientibus
in illis diebus.' Ve illis animabus,
qum non in perfectum virum sua genimina
perduxerunt, sed initial habent fidei,
ut enutritione indigeant magistrorum.
Hoc quoque dici potest, quod in per-
secutione Antichristi, seu Romansz cap-
tivitatis prsegnantes et nutriantes,
uteri et filiorum sarcina pregravati,3
expeditam fugam habere non quiverint.
Iligne, Vol. XCII, Cols. 548-549 (In Luce Evangelium
Expositio liber V).
2igne, Vol. CX, Cols. 246-247 (Homiles in 7vangelia et
31ligne, Vol. XXVI, Col. 185 (Commentarius in Evangelium
Bede also follows this argument closely:
Hoc quoque secundum historian dici
potest, quod in persecution Antichristi
seu Romans captivitatis prmgnantes et
nutrients uteri. filiorum sarcina
pragraviti, expeditam fugarn habere
non quiverint. Spiritaliter apima
qua desideriis carnalibus in illa
ultima persecutione occupata invenitur
aternum vw subire oppressa cogitur.1
Thus we see that the sources Mlfric is knotm to have
made wide use of in other works--Gregory, Bede, and
Augustine--all comment upon these passages, and largely
agree with one another. In addition, minor sources such
as Jerome, and authors evidently unknown to ilfric like
Hilaire also comment on them and likewise agree. Jhich
of the works containing these exegeses were known to
Elfric is still open to dispute. Oftentimes, as here,
it is almost impossible to tell whether Elfric is
following one or another author, and locating the source
of individual passages is impossible where so much agree-
ment is to be found.
This agreement is not attributable to any aridity of
the author's mind. It is a type of agreement which was
held in high repute in ilfric's age, and is typical of his
liigne, Vol. XCII, Col. 103 (In Matthei ,vangelium
Expositic liber IV).
treatment of such matters. It in no way vitiates the
force of his method, or his perceptive powers in
organization and emphasis. Our belief in these could
only be weakened by the unlikely discovery of a specific
and closely followed source for the entire homily, and
until we discover such a specific source, we must make the
equally valid assumption that he is relying on a
community of ideas--a body of generally held knowledge
and opinion--on which any author felt free to draw.2
He L:lfric] often derives from his sources the
substance of thought, but clothes it entirely in his own
language." Jhite, p. 189.
2n J. C. Pope's, Homilies of lfric, released when this
dissertation was in its final stages, the author cites seven
sources (analogues) for the homily. They were:
Adso, De ortu et tempore Antichristi
Augustine, Qumstiones Evangeliorum, "In Lucam 17:34-35."
Bede, In Luce Evangelium Expositio, "In cap. 17: 20-37"
SIn Marci 1Evangelium Expositio, "In cap. 13:
14, 18, 19, 20"
Cmsarius of Arles, Sermones, "Sermo 154.3"
Gregory, 'oralia in lob, "Liber 32, cap. 24"
Jerome, In Matthmum, "In cap. 24: 15, 20"
Of these seven, two had not previously been examined
in connection with this dissertation: Adso and Casarius
of Arles. Adso has been unavailable and the passage by
Cmsarius is not followed by Alfric closely enough to be
considered more than an analogue to one short passage of
SERMO DE DIE IUDICII
Interrogatus autem Ihesus a phariseis quando p. 101
venit regnum dei. et reliqua.
Seo halige cristes boo be ymbe cristes wundra
spryc6. seg6 ]_t ba sunderhalgan on sumne sel
ahsodan urne halend crist ymbe hys tocyme. 5
and ymbe godes rice on pam mycclan d&ge. be we do-
mes dag hataa. and he hym andwyrde puss; Ne cym?
na godes rice. be nanre cepinge. ne menn ne cwe-
pa3 na efne he cymf nu forbam be he cymb far-
lice swa swa frrlic liget be scyt fram eastdele 10
scinende ob westdall An[d] swa swa gefyrn gelamp
on noeys flode. menn ston and druncon and dwollice
loefodan. cnihtas wifodan and wif ceorlodan. o6
Ptt noe eode into pam arce. 1Pt flod pa become fmr-
lice ofer hi ealle. and eall mancynn adrencte. 15
buton eahta mannum the innan Paam arce weron
swa swa hym wissode god; And swa swa on looes
dagum eft syban gelamp. menn eton. and drun-
con. bohtan and sealdan. byttlodan. and plantodan.
and beeodan heora tilunga. pa sende god ferlice 20
sona swa lob wvs of pere byrig almd. ofer bam
fif burhscirum. fyr. and swefel swylce hit renscur
were. and mid ealle forbmrnde pa fif burhscira;
Eallswa bid on pam dage be ure drihten bia Eet-
eowed. and he cymb to demenne on bam micclan dome 25
eallum manncynne aalcum_ be hys weorcum; Gif
hwa bid on 3re tide ymbe hys tilunge oabe on
hys ecere. ne meg he geefstan bt he aht ahredde
odde aweg gebringe gewzda o?5e fata; On bere
nihte beo8 twegen on anum bedde. an para bid 30
genumen and ooer bid forleten. and twa grindad
bonne on anre cwyrne etg~dere. seo an bid genumen
and seo ober bib forlmten; Twegen beob on mcere
erigende stg~dere. se an bib genumen and se ober
bid forleten; Hi andwyrdan ba. and hyne ahsodan 35
puss; Hwider beob hy genumene; And he hym
cwm- to; Swa hwmr swa Dbt hold bid. Pider gadriad
pa earnas; We willa5 eow nu secgan sceortlice.
gif we magon pa diglostan word on Pisum drihten-
lican godspelle. forbon be ge eaoe ne magon 40
hyt eall understandan; We habba6 nu gehyred
on bisum halgan godspelle pt we ne magon na
cepan. ne [na]num menn nis cub: hvwenne ure drihten
cym6 to demenne mancynne on pam ende-
nyhstan daege bysse worulde. ac we gelyfa6 swa 45
peah b3t us alogen ne bi6. b~t he cymr sodlice mid
hys scinendum englum on bissere worulde geendun-
ge us to demanne alcum be hys geearnungum
and he bonne forgifb barn be hym gehrysumedan
and bam he hine gegladodan mid goodum weorcum 50
mfre ba ecan myrhbe and Pa ecan wununge
mid eallum his halgum on heofonan rice; Pa
earman synfullan be hyne forsawan on life.
and mid yfelum da dum hyne mfre gremodan. ba
beob besencte on p;re sweartan helle mid Dam 55
awyrgedum deoflum mfre to worulde. and se Be Dyses
ne gelyfe?: nys hys geleafa naht; Se hLlend us p. 103
sede soilice gelicnysse be noeys flode and loBes
alysednysse. nu wite ge sume hu hit was be noe:
and be hys flode, ac eower fela nat hu hyt wes be 60
loBe. ac we wyllao eow secgan; Loo w~s lu gehaten
sum halig godes begn abrahames broBorsunu. ar
moyses' a. se eardode Pa on Dam yfelan leod-
scipe sodomitiscre burhware. pa waron synfulle
menn. and bysmorlice forscyldgode on sceamlicum 65
dedum. Pa forbernde hi god mid heora fif burh-
scirum mid heofonlicum fyre and hellicum swefle.
ac he send on er twegen scinende englas to bam
geleaffullan lobe. and almdde hyne ut of Dam. fu-
lan manoynne. Dt he mid him ne forwurde; Ealls-:a 70
biB on domes} dege on ures drihtnes tocyme.
bt fyr cym? swa fwrlice at mrann foresceawian
ne magon. and mid egeslicum bryne ealne middan-
eard ofer gaeo. and menn bonne ne gymab for Dam
micclan ogan; eniges oares PCilnges: butan pes 75
anes brogan. ne nan mann ne mmg mtberstan
pam bradan fyre: ahwider. and bst fyr bonne. afeor-
mao bas eoroan and hi geedniwaZ. to enlicum hiwe.
and heo ne bib na forburnen: ac bi5 geclnsod
from eallum bam fylpum be hyre fram frymie 80
becomon. and heo swa on ecnysse eall scinende
purhwuna3; On pare nihte beoB twegen on anum
bedde. an para bib genumen. and ober bib forlm-
ten; Niht is her gecweden for 6mre .yten-
nysse. and for Dmre mycelan ehtnysse on ante- 85
cristes timan. Donne beob twegen menn on anum
bedde wtgadere. an para bib genumen: and ober
bib forleten; ba beob ponne on bedde: be beob on p. 104
stillnysse. and fram eallum woruldcarum amtige. Done
beo6 and godes peowdom bega6 mid goodum inngehyde 90
ac hi ne beob na twegen: ac on twa todmlede; Obre
beo6 gecorene and gode gecweme. oore beob mid hi-
wunge on his peowdome afundene; Ponne genimo
se helend to hys heofonlican rice pa be entige
wmron fram eallum woruldcarum afre on his 95
beowdome o6 bone endenyhstan drag. and sume eac
of bam be ungeslige wsron and mid leasre hiwun-
ge. and lyffetunge ferdon: he forlat beftan hym.
and hi beo3 bonne belocene .;i-utan bare ecan
myrhbe; Swa bi3 se an genumen. and se o0er for- 100
laten: be on Dam bedde beob bonne gemette. jEt is
on Pere stilnysse heora stab )lfastan modes.
na twegen menn ana*ac on twa wisan gemodode.
obre mid soWfestnysse. oare nid hivwunge;
Nwa crinda pbonne on anre cwyrne atgadere. 105
se an biV genumen and seo oter bi6 forlaten;
r he cwew twegen. Nu he cwne twa on anre cwyr-
ne emlice grindende; Pet synd Da woruldmenn
be woruldbing bega6. and seo woruldcaru is Pere
cwyrne wi7meten. be afre gm? abutan ymbe 110
fela gebohtas and mislicum dFdum be menn be-
hofia6. and hefegun geswincur swa swa ge sylfe witon
Be bysum he ctwi t.w. and nolde cweian twegen.
foraam r e hi solice ne beo5 on swylcere full-
fremednysse bt hi sylfe magon hy sylfum 115
wissian. ac hy sceolan lybban be heora lareowa
wissunge. bisceopa. and msssepreosta. and heora
misdEda betan be heora scrifta tscincge.
and of heora tilunge don syrnle mlriyssan. ac hi p. 105
ne magon swa beah bamr beon geefenlhte be 120
ealle bing forleton. for as halendes lufon.
and hym afre beowodon; For.i synd twa gecwede-
ne. and na twe-en veras. for 1aI woruldcarur: be hi
onwuniaa; Of ban voruldnannur witodlice
beob on tua visan e'odode and nislice gelogode. 125
sume beon gecorene. sume wi'ercorene.
sume hi libbal heora lif rihtlice. sume policee .
and on synnu= geendiaB. bonne inin se hrlenl
to hys heofonlican rice on barn icclan dage
of bam woruldnannum 'a *e mid goodum 130
willan and woorcum cfre hyn mr gecwendan o?
heora lifes ende. and ba rwidercorenan beo6
vwiutan belocene. bonne bi seo an genu-
men. and seo oSer forlhten; Twegen beo5
on recere erisende mtgmdere. se an bi8 135
genumen and se o3er bi6 forlten; Her he .
twegen. and nolde cueban twa. for bire full-
fremednysse and fmgerum. gebingbun be
pa habban sceolan be on godes zcere
swincaO; Godes ecer is godes gelabung. bt is 140
eall cristen folc be on crist gelyfb sra swa
paulus cwMa? on sumum his pistole to pam
geleaffullum mannum be he to geleafan
gebigde; Dei agriculture estis. dei edificatio
estis; *t is on english; Ge synd godes tilung 145
and godes getimbrung; 'ita3 nu bis. Biscopas
and ,assepreostas syndon manna lareoTas.
hi sceolan hogian ynbe bc3s hmlendes ti-
lunge bt hi manega sawla of nanncynne
gestrynan bam welwillendan helende be wile 150
us habban; Hi sceolon bone cristendom don
cristes folce, and mid heora lare symle to geleafan
wenian, and aefre mid weorcurn hym wel bysnian.
and on heora beowdome be hi gode beowia6: hym
forehingian. bonne beob hi rihtlice godes tilian 155
on pen gastlican ecere. and hi swa miclum beo)
on maran gebingbe: swa hi ma sawla of mann-
cynne begyta6 to heofonan rice, and hi habba9
ealdordom on bam ecan life ofer eallum bam
sawlum be hy gode gestryndon mid bIre gast- 8 160
lican teolunge; Is swa beah to lyt PEra lareowa
nu be bus don will. and is ranncynn forbi miclum
geyrmed. forbaor be m-rs is feava folces
lareowa e geornlice hocie hu man yfel alegce.
and unrihtrisnysse. and riht arare s.-a swa we re- 165
da6 on bocun; Canes muti non possunt latrare;
Hi synd ba dunban huncaC[s}. and hy ne magon beor-
can; Pis cwum se witeca be godes lareowum.
be noldan bodian and gebiran manncynn to
godes willan ba on bam tinn be hi we~ron. 170
nu is hit gyt w:yrse on urun tiran. _eMt we ealle
suwiab and unriht ga, ford openlice and digollice
anO we embe ne hogia(; libodlice ba lareowas
be us lar of con. hi bododan bam hcmenum
and bam hetelun ehterun. and heora lif sealdon 175
for godes Seleafan. ac we ne durran nu to barn
gedyrstlr3ccan. 17t we cristenum cyninge onge
cristenu_ folce codes beboda and godes willan
secgan; ;u synd twegen gec-e-e' e code
tilian sceolan on b~re gastlican tilunye 180
on godes ;ela)unce. forl0am e hi ne beor
ealle on ane wisan ceworhte; L...,r- hi beo5
Geornfulle. surne gynelease. sume anrade
sume asolcene. sume nyttiryrSe. sume s- ie
fremfulle. sune swie deri. rnde; o. bi? 185
se an Cenunen. and se obor forlten. ji se
hemlend genira to his -.--. eng lurn a o'dan
lareoiras in to codes rice. and ba yfelan beol viS-
utan belocene; On bisum bring endebyrdnyssun
bi6 eall rnancynn belocen. twegen on ban bedde 190
and tta -:t )bre cwyrne. twegen on ban mcere sva
svia ge cehyrdon nu; 'i andwyrdan ba and hyne
ahsodon buss; ier beo? hi gehumene;
And he hym c to; Swa hTr swa beet hold bib:
bider gaderia -_ earnas; sundor'ir1-n 195
ahsodan bone helend ba bus. hiider ba Coodan
sceoldan cecri e beon. o')e huider ba yfelan
beon forl-2tene; -a andwyrde he be bamr
goodum: and nolde be bam yfelum; Pa earnas
getacniab pa gebungenan halgan, and swa swa earnas 200
hi gegaderia? bzr br bat hold bi5. swa beo5 pa
halgan weras to bam hmlende gegadorade mer
bar he on menniscnysse mihtiglice rihsa?.
soo mann and so) god: an godes sunu Ibs elmih-
tigan feder. mid bam he afre ricsa6 and mid bam 205
halgan gaste on anre godcundnysse amen;
Pa be beo5 forletene and belocene wibutan
of bar brim werodum. ba gewenda3 to helle
mid eallum deoflum fordemede on ecnysse
and hi nmfre sy6dan nane miltsunge ne begitan. 210
forbam ne hi efre zer on synnum nwunedon;
We habba6 nu gescd hu 8a sundorhalgan ahsodon p. 108
bone helend be ende bissere worulde. nu wille
we eow secgan sceortlice gif we magon: hu hys
agene leorningcnihtas hyne ahsodon be bam. 215
swa swa seo boc us cy6 be bam ylcan; Interroga-
tus Ihesus a discipulis de consumnntione Seculi. dixit els;
Cum autem videritis abhominationem. desoluti-
onis. et reliqua; Ta halgan apostolas be mid pan
hmlende ferdon. -,. ba he her on worulde 'unode 220
mid mannum: ahsodan hyne endenys be bissere
worulde geendunge. he hym ba andwyrde and hyn
bus to crwen; Ponne ge ceseo7 standan on bare
halcan stowe onscuniendlic deofolgild swa
sTI. clanihel a:rat. se ?e brt rzde onbe r=adan 225
gehyre. undergyte he bonne bas witegan word;
Ta be on iudea lande bonne lybbende beo?:
ba fleo' ~honne to muntum and to nicclum dunun. and se 3e
on his huse bin on v-1 healicun hrofe. ne a-
stire he bonne of ram sticolan hrofe. t he hys 230
yddisce ahredde he on ban house bin; And se
on Pcere beo ymbe hys tilunge. ne cyrre under-
b'c to senimenne hys reaf; :'a lbam eacniendum
on ':. y1felum dagun and ra fedendum on >ere
frecednysse; "idda eornostlice bat 7.' ne beo 235
on wiintra one on rested e ;t t
beo5; ionne beoa wit.. lice swylce -' 'efed-
nyrssa svylce nmCfre ar n.ran: ne eft ne e-
turlba5; ~it Id .escyrte ba sorhfullan
dacas: eall manncynn forturde. uitodlice 240
"it --lere; Ac for hys gecorenun he --scyrte
ba gas; Gif hIvra bonne eot s -l) b3t crist sylf
beo ki on worulde uni ; : rnnum p. 109
ne =7yfe ge _. for2ban be on ban timan lease cristas
arisa,. and fela tcn, ,rcal: nenn to beswicenne 245
mid heora scinc .; .. and eac ba corenan
nenn cif hit cer-.;" warnilar eoa georn-
lice ic eow .., ona f*-r ]pre
gedrefednysse adeorca3 seo sunne and mid ealle
abeostrai. and eac se mona. and steorran fealla6 famr- 250
lice of heofonum: and heofonan mihta beo5 bonne
astyrode; ienn geseob bonne mannes sunu
cumende on ban healicurm wolcnum mid nicclum
wuldre. he asent bonne soilice hys englas. and hy
gegaderia6 godes gecorenan menn fram barn 255
feowor windum bissere worulde. and of 1bre eor5an
up o6 Ia heofonan; We habba,5 nu gesmd. bis
halige Codspell anfealdum andgyte. and we eac
will? bDt gastlice andgyt purh god eow secgan;
?a halgan apostolas pe mid ban helende ferdon 260
pa ba he her on worulde uunode mid mannum:
ahsodan hyne endemes be bissere worulde ge-
endunge. he hym pa andwyrde and hym bus to cwmi;
Donne ge geseo? standan on b1re halgan stowe
onscunigendlic doofolgyld sra swa danihel 265
awrat: se 3e bat rede: o?)e bat rcdan gehyre:
undergyte he bonne bas witegan word; Iu on
ealdum dagun -Er )an be cristendom wmre: menn
worhton deofolgyld wide geond bas world. and hi
Ibrto [ eb-don. ac ure rrihten adwsscte pone 270
h:3enscype mid hys halgan tocyme. and pone cristen-
don arc-rde burh hyne sylfne rest. and burh
hys leorningcnihtas. and burh hys lareowas
sy?)an; IHu ne TyrcF nan mann nu on bysurw timan p. 110
Gif he releafan hlof h'bencyld openlice. ac se ar- 775
leasa antecrist on Pissere worulde iyrcl fela
wundra burh hys feondlican mihte. and burh godes
gebafu:. :. and seg) bayt he o si. and burh hys mycclan
wnmdra nern buga5 to hym and on hine gelyfai hym
syl : to fornyrde. ac ba gecorenan 'an 280
hym wi6cueBan fre beah ba gedwolan .
r'ullduri gelyfan; ':-t bi rnare deofol Id
brnne se deofollica antecrist h n godes '. -
mynt ge-' .i e; And hyne god tali,--. en
to zebiddan purh hys 1 tacna. and "' 1l. 5
forseon: De is eall soC ;t.. -; On -i
stowe stent '-'ru-e lot deofcl-ld swT/a ST se ostol
aurrat on sunum hys pistole; Ita ut in templo dei sedeat
ostendens se tanquau sit deus; .. mt he sitt on -odes
t-* le. and ... *5 gt he god sy; Aim farai mid mfre 2'
-:. :e:enlice -,oflu. burh 5a: he Tyr,- wmndra
wide b-. as eorian. and ofer callum mnnm- nEa
* ec .3 seo eht-- -s; ea Be on iu 1 e ...e
libt. e beoa; fleo5 to muntum and to nicclum
duunn,. se 9e on Ils use l on -am healicum 295
hrofe. ne as'L he bonne of sticolan hrofe
1c2t h' e1 hr e e on bl; And
se oe on ecere beo 1. tilunee. ne cyrre
he underbcc to genimene hys reaf; TJe no-
ton eow secoan sur swa ge magon understandan. 300
hwilcum anfealdlice be eowrum andgite. hwilum
eow geopenian ba inran 1. -13' rsse. forbam be
e eaee ne -.- j hyt eall understandan; 'a ban
eacriendur on yfelun dagum. and ban fedendum
on bmre frecednysse; -:'t agylta pba wif De be 301
-odes hose ty:. and Ieora child fedal on Mere
ro.~i rsse. ac bis is -ecTreden be 7-. leasum cristenum
be beoa nid leahtrum afyllede sun sua gefearhsugu.
and mid unurencum 1a un-nran fordod: heora yfel
-re-rrnia-. Ice mid forste; 3idd A eornostlice 310
_t t ne beo on wintra on,' on restenda3e. Done ge
inti 3; e ..e he Done winter be -uunelice
c on as res y !-. ac sa swa he on o8re
stowe c-?39; ula a a ibit iniquitas refri ..Ecet
caritas multorum; _t is on engliscur cereorde. >_t on bam
yfelan timan arist sco unrihtwis yss. and s,-ie ge-
Si lt. and seo sobe lufu swi5e acolan. na ealra
ac swi5e at. .: t hy nateshron ne
lufia' .e lific, ocd. ne hyra nyhstan. ne
fu. sylfe. for;on se Be God ne lufal: ne lufa9 320
he sylfne; oe lestendag is sua sun we rcda6.
on 1:1 freols : on idea folce. s in swa
we healdan bone halgan sunnandg. frame worold-
licum weorcum. and we sceolan wilnian afre. and at
gode biddan bmt we ne beon atige frame goodun 325
wcorcun. and on godes lufan acolode: bonne us se
endenyhsta d'g onsiSende bi; Donne bcoo witod-
lice swylce cedrefednyssa scrylce n3fre cr ne
genwAr?' ; licel ehtnys iras on anginne cristen-
r .. and eac lange syban for cristes geleafan. 330
-r 'am be nrn mihte bysne middaneard
ebigan frame an hmbenscype be hy on afedde
imron to ham soan eleafan bc3s lyfigce' an
codes; :an ac we-.l .e ba cristenan mid nislicun
cwylminisum. anid i ei 1, fealdum ti ..-, hi -e- 335
martyrode. ac hym geune se h1lend jt hy mihton ba p. 112
vyrcan ha ilcan wundra be he sylf geworhte; 'i ne
'i" hit 1ia sia on antecristes timan. he tintregao
Da halgan. and eac tacna uyrc?. and 1_ a *lnlan ne magon
on tirmn Ce'-. rca. cLnige tacna. ac hi yfele beo3 340
for ban e crefede: bonne se deo ol Vr n.menigfealde
wundra. and hi sylfe ne magon nane mihte Gefrerman
on mnna gesihe; 0 onne wet se deofol and ge itnc
ba haloan. mid slcwun nTundrui: sia we secjan ne magon.
and : I. deofles nihte: macac fela wundra; .utan god 345
gescyrtte ba sorhfullan Jas: call manncynn for-
Turde: .ritodlice ~tgmdere. ac for his gecorenum
halgum: he gescyrte ba dagas; Preo gear he ricsa?
and syx mondas on mancynne. on eallre modignysse
ealle nid deofle afylled. and on eallum unbeawum. and egeslicum
fylium hys lif bib gelogod on bam lytlan fyrste. and
alcne mannan he tiht to hys fulum beawum; and on slce
vTisan he wile mancynn fordon; Ac for godes ge-
corenan. god hrada) hys timan; Gif hw.a bonne
eow ;: t orist sylf beo Donne wunigende on weorolde 355
mid manntm: ne gelyfe ge bIs, forbaym e lease cristas
on ; tian arisab. and fela tacna wyrcaL menn
ao beswicanne mid heora scincrmftum. and eac ba gecore-
nan menn gif hit gewurnan nag. warnia5 eor
eornostlice ic hit L e eow gescd; Lre nalend crist 360
ne c:-'j na to mancynne -..cnlice mteowed on
bissere reorolde. mr yam nicclan deLe: bonne he mann-
cyine d ac j1a leasan cristas and pa leasan witegan
bonne cuma6 on antecristes timan. hi syndon
hys lina. and hys leasan geferan. and geond Das world 365
fara3 mid feondlicum create. and to fela bes:icab mid
heora scincrcfte. ac .a beo3 ge ealdene e Durhvunial p. 113
oB ende on cristes geleafan. sia s-wa he sylf gecvr5:
he gewarnode Da swa swa bis gewrit us seg6 hys hal-
gan apostolas, and eac us burh hi. Dlt we georne healdan hys
elea:-n mfre. and ure lif syllan: mr we hyne wihsacon.
and hyt soilice gewyr6 si-a svwa he sylf sede. swa svwa re
nu r2ddon on bissere redinge; Sona after p3re
Gedrefednysse adeorcal seo sunne. and mid ealle
abeostram. and eac se nona. and steorran fealla6 fmrlice 375
of heofonun and heofona~n nihta beo3 bonne astyrode;
Sona after >care ehtnysse bil antecrist ofslaGen.
burh cristee mihte on hys tocyme. and en;la werodu
beol astyrede. and mid I-ta h-:lende cuma? of ban
heofonlican brym~e svrutollice mteowde. si,- swnra 380
us ~- -' bis godspell; renn geseo hbonne r~nnes
sunu cuniende. on ban healicun wolcnun nid nicclum
'-uldre; Crist sylf is mannes sunu st- srl he sFde
foroft. he is anes nannes sunu swa. swr. nran owner man
nis. he : -. bonne on hln ;olcnum i1 icclun 385
-Tuldre. to ba_ niccl'n done smu s--" hit a-rriten is;
Pe sent sollice las. hi -er-aderia'
codes :- rrenan menn fr feover windir bissere
worulde. and of brre eor i. up oB bo. heofon-n; ta englas
bonne -.a'I heora -.n hlude, and eall imaricyn artist 390
be -3fre cucu rws. of heora byrgenun. a englas ge-
briwlab 'a --corenan nennr to cri-te sy' b2 _t hi nid
hin ricsian on heoif :- rice on li chan on sale
ges-'liGlice .' Crist c7'5 on oire stoi-e be be ar-
leasun Iuss: i 11i et .' ,,los de 395
nedio iustoru_ et mittent eos in canlnun i ibi erit
fletus et stridor denti ~ ; _l on lisc; '. 1- farab
bonne uad L -. rial ]-t -felan r I -. -, .f.llan menn p. 114
fram pan rihtwisum be ricsia8 mid gode. and awurpao hi
ealle into Dam widgillan fyre I>re bradan helle. 430
on 1cre hy byrna6 afre. ]ar bi3 wop and wanung
and toga gristbitunZ. and hi nahw-ar ne inuniaB butan
on le.m wituu afre; coolice : ha-lgan si1iaa mid
cricte to heofonan rice mid hys halgun englum. ge
wTeres wifmenn sir sin hi on worulde lyfodon. 405
and si", .. niavo esrll-e mid hin on unasccgend-
licre blisse a butan ende. AIii;
Interrogatus autem Ihesus a phariseis quando
venit regnum dei et reliqua.
The holy book which tells of Christ's wonders
says that the pharisees, on a certain occasion, asked
our Savior Christ about His coming, and about God's
kingdom on that great day which we call the Day of
Judgment. And He answered them thus: "God's king-
dom will come according to no calculation. Nor will
men ever say 'Lo, He is coming now,' because He will 10
come suddenly, even as swift lightning which shoots
from the east, shining to the west. And just as it
happened long ago in Noah's flood: Men ate and
drank and lived foolishly, young men took wives and
women took husbands, until Noah went into the ark.
Then the flood came suddenly over them all, and all
mankind drowned, except for the eight people who
were in the ark as God had commanded them.
And just as afterwards in the days of Lot it
happened again: Men ate and drank, bought and sold,
built and planted, and went about their husbandry. 20
Then, as soon as Lot was led out of the city, God
immediately sent fire and brimstone as if it had
been a shower of rain and completely burned up the
Even so will it be on the day when our Lord is
revealed, and He comes to judge all mankind in that
great judgment, each by his works. If anyone at that
time is about his work, or in his field, he will not
be able to hasten so that he may save anything, or
bring away garments or vessels.
On that night there will be two men in one bed. 30
One of them will be taken, and the other left. And
two women will be grinding together in one mill.
The one will be taken, and the other left. Two men
will be in a field plowing together. The one will
be taken and the other left."
They answered then, and asked Him thus: "Whither
will they be taken?" And He said to them "Where-
soever the body is, there the eagles will gather."
Now we wish to explain to you briefly, if we
may, the most hidden words in this gospel of the 40
Lord, for you can not easily understand it all. We
have now heard in this holy gospel that we cannot
calculate, nor is it known to any man, when our
Savior will come to judge mankind on the last day
of this world. But we believe, nevertheless, that
it has not been said untruly to us that He will
come with His shining angels at the ending of this
world to judge us, each by his works, and that He
will then give to those who have obeyed Him, and 50
to those who have gladdened Him with good works
ever1 eternal joy and eternal dwelling among all
His saints in the kingdom of Heaven.
The wretched sinners who rejected Him in life,
and with evil deeds always provoked Him, these
shall be sunk in that dark Hell with the accursed
devils for ever and ever. And whoever does not
believe this, his belief is nothing. The Savior
told us truly a parable about Noah's flood, and
Lot's redemption. Now, some of you know how it
was with Noah, and with his flood, but many of you 60
do not know how it was with Lot. Therefore, we
wish to tell you.
Of old, Lot was the name of a certain holy
servant of God, a nephew of Abraham. Then, before
the law of Moses, he lived in the evil country of
the citizens of Sodom. They were evil men and dis-
gracefully made themselves guilty in shameful deeds.
Then God burned them up, with their five cities,
with heavenly fire and hellish brimstone. But He
sent on before two shining angels to the faithful
Lot, and led him out of that corrupt people, so
that he might not perish with them. 70
Even so will it be on the Day of Judgment at the
coming of our Lord. The fire will come so suddenly
that men will not be able to foresee it, and with
fearful flame it will cover all the world. And
because of the great terror, men will take heed of
no other thing except that one fear. No man will be
able to escape that great fire anywhere. And the
fire will purge the earth and will restore it to a
form beyond compare, and it will not be burnt up, but 80
will be purged of all the filth which has entered into
it since the beginning. And thus it shall remain, all
shining through eternity.
"On that night two men will be in one bed. One
of them will be taken and the other left." Night is
said here for the ignorance and the great persecution
in the time of antichrist. Then will two men be in one
bed together. One of them will be taken and the other
will be left. Those are in bed who are in tranquillity,
and free from all worldly cares. And they go about
God's husbandry with good conscience. Yetthey are 90
not simply two men, but divided into two worts. Some
are chosen and pleasing to God. Others are found
hypocritical in His service. Then the Savior will
take to His heavenly kingdom those who were ever free
from all worldly cares in His service up to the last
day. But some of those who were unblessed, and acted
with false appearances and flattery, He will leave
behind Him, and they will then be locked out from 100
the eternal joy. Thus will the one be taken and the other
left who will there be met in that bed, that is, in
the stillness of their steadfast minds. Not simply
two men, but in two ways disposed--the one with faith-
fulness, the other with hypocrisy.
"Two women will then be grinding in one mill to-
gether. The one will be taken, and the other left."
Before He said two men. Now He says two women in one
mill patiently grinding. Those are the worldly men
who cultivate worldly things. And worldly care is 110
likened to the mill, which ever goes about concerned with
the many thoughts and various deeds which occupy men,
and with heavy labors such as you yourselves know.
For this reason He said two women, and did not wish
to say two men, because they truly are not in such
perfection that they may rule themselves, but they
must live according to the guidance of their teachers--
bishops and priests--and amend their misdeeds by
the direction of their confessor, and by their
endeavors always to do alms. But they may not, 120
nevertheless, be equal to those who forsake all
things for the love of the Savior, and ever serve
Him. Therefore is said two women, and not two men,
because of the worldly cares among which they live.
Concerning laymen, they are truly of two minds, and
diversely disposed. Some are chosen, some reprobate.
Some live their lives justly, some evilly, and they
end in sin. Then the Savior will take to His
heavenly kingdom on that great day those of the lay- 130
men who always pleased Him with good will and works
until the end of their lives. And the reprobate will
be closed out. Then will the one woman be taken, and
the other left.
"Two men will be plowing toge :her in a field. One
will be taken, the other left." Here He said two
men, and did not wish to say two women, because of
the perfection, and the fair dignity which they should
have who work in God's field. God's field is God's 140
congregation, that is, all Christian folk who believe
in Christ, even as Paul said in one of his epistles
to the faithful men whom he brought to belief: "Dei
agriculture estis; Dei edificatio estis." That is
in English, "You are God's husbandry and God's
building." Now know you this: Bishops and priests
are the teachers of men. They should care for the
husbandry of the Savior so that they will gain many
souls from mankind for the loving Savior who wishes 150
to have us. They ought to give Christianity to
Christ's people, and with their learning ever draw
them to redemption, and always set them good examples
with works. And, in their prayers, those who serve
God ought to intercede for them. Then are they
truly husbandmen for God in the spiritual field. And
they will be as great in additional honor, as they
obtain more souls of mankind for the kingdom of
Heaven. And they will have authority in the eternal
life over all the souls that they gained for God 160
with their spiritual husbandry.
There are, however, too few teachers who will
now do thus, and mankind is greatly afflicted because
there are so few teachers of the people who earnestly
care how man may suppress evil and unrighteousness, and
praise the right. Even as we read in books: "Canes
muti non possunt latrare." They are dumb dogs and they
cannot bark. This is what the prophet said about God's
teachers who would not preach, and bend mankind to God's 170
will at the time they lived. Now it is even worse in
our time when we are all silent, and unrighteousness
goes forth openly and secretly, and we do not care
about it. Truly those teachers from whom knowledge
has come to us--they preached to the heathens and to
hostile persecutors, and gave their lives for God's
faith. But now we do not dare to tell God's commands
and God's will to a Christian king or to Christian folk.
Now they are called two men, those who ought to 180
labor for God in spiritual husbandry in God's church,
because they are not all made in one way. Some are
eager, some negligent, some resolute, some lazy, some
useful, some exceedingly profitable, some very harmful.
Then the one will be taken and the other left when the
Savior takes the good teachers to His holy angels in
God's kingdom, and the evil are closed out. All man- 190
kind is encompassed in these three orders: two in the
bed, two at the mill, and two in the field even as
you have just heard.
"They answered then and asked Him thus: 'Whither
will they be taken?' and He said to them, 'wheresoever
the body is, there the eagles will gather.'" The
pharisees then asked the Savior thus: "Where will the
good be taken, or where will the evil be left?" He
answered then concerning the good, but He would not
answer concerning the evil. The eagles signify the 200
noble saints and like eagles they will gather there
where that body is. So will the holy men be gathered
to the Savior there where He will arise mightily in
human nature, true man and true God, the only son
of the Father Almighty, with whom He will ever rule,
and with the Holy Ghost in one Godhead, Amen. Then
they will be left, and closed out of the three groups
those who will go to Hell, condemned with all the
devils into eternity. And they will never after 210
receive any mercy because they always dwelt in sin
Now have we told you how the pharisees asked the
Savior about the end of this world. Now we wish to
tell you shortly, if we may, how his own disciples
asked Him about it, even as the Book tells us about
that same thing.
Interrogatus Ihesus a discipulis de concummatione
seculi. Dixit eis: "Cum autem videritis abhominationem
desolationis et reliqua."
The holy apostles who were with the Savior while 220
He was living here on earth among men also asked Him
about the ending of this world. He answered the then,
and said thus to them: "When you see the abominable
idol standing in the holy place, even as Daniel described
(he who reads that or hears it read, let him then
understand the words of the prophet) those who are
then living in Judea will then flee to the mountain,
and to the great hills. And let him who is on the 230
high top of his house not descend from the roof in
order to rescue his household goods which are inside
the house. And he who is in the field about his
husbandry, let him not turn back to take his robe.
"Woe to those with child in the evil days, and
to those nursing in the peril. Pray earnestly that
it be not in the winter, or on the day of rest when
you are idle. Then will there truly be such dis-
turbance as never before was nor again will be.
Except that God cut short those sorrowful days, all
mankind would truly perish together. But for His 240
chosen He will cut short the days. If anyone tells
you, then, that Christ himself is living in the
world among men, do not believe it, because in that
time false christs will arise, and will do many miracles
in order to deceive men with their magic, and even the
chosen ones if it might come to pass. Zealously take
heed. I have said it to you.
"Immediately after the oppression the sun will be
darkened, and will be eclipsed completely. And also 250
the moon and the stars will fall suddenly from the
sky, and the powers of Heaven will then be stirred up.
Men will then see the Son of Man coming in the high
clouds with great glory. He will then truly send forth
His angels, and they will gather God's chosen men from
the four winds of this earth, and from the earth up
to the Heavens."
We have now told this holy gospel on one level,
but we also wish, through God, to reveal to you the
The holy apostles who were with the Savior when 260
He lived here on earth among men also asked Him about
the ending of this world. He answered them then, and
said thus to them: "When you see the abominable idol
standing in the holy place, even as Daniel described
(he who reads that, or hears it read, let him then
understand the words of the prophet)." Long ago, in
the olden days, before Christendom existed, men made
idols widely through the world and prayed to them.
But our Lord quenched heathenship with His holy coming, 270
and exalted Christendom through his own resurrection, and
by His disciples and His teachers afterwards. Now no man
in this time, if he has belief, performs idolatry
openly. But the impious antichrist does many miracles
in this world through his fiendish might, and through
God's consent. And he says that he is God, and, because
of his great wonders, men bow down to him, and believe
in him, to their own undoing. But the chosen saints 280
will resist him forever, although the heretic will
believe his heresy. Lo it is a great idolatry when
the devilish antichrist appropriates to himself God's
glory, and considers himself to be God, and men bow
down to him because of his false miracles, and reject
the Savior who is all truth. In the holy place will
then stand the idol as the apostle described in one
of his epistles, "Ita ut in templo dei sedeat ostendens
se tamquam sit dis." "So that he sits in God's temple 290
and says that he is God." Invisible devils always go
with him, through whom he works miracles widely over
all the earth, and over all mankind will fall the
"Those who are then living in Judea will then flee
to the mountain, and to the great hills. And let him
who is on the high top of his house not descend from
the roof in order to rescue his household goods, which
are inside his house. And he who is in the field about
his husbandry, let him not turn back to take his robe."
We must tell you even as you may understand, to 300
each one singly according to your understanding to open
to you at times the inner meaning, for you may not easily
understand it all.
"Woe to those with child in the evil days, and to
those nursing in the peril." In what do the women
offend who bear child by God's command, and feed their
children in the peril? But this is said about the
false Christians who are filled with sin even as a
farrowing sow, and who destroy the unwary with evil
tricks. And their evil is betokened by the food. 310
"Pray earnestly that it be not in winter or on
the day of rest when you are idle." He means not the
winter which ordinarily comes in the course of the
year, but as He said in another place: "Quia
abundabit iniquitas refrigescet caritas multorum." That is
is, in the English tongue that in the evil time will
arise unrighteousness, and it will multiply exceed-
ingly, and true love will become exceedingly cool,
not in all men, but in very many, so that they will
not love the living God at all, nor their neighbor,
nor even themselves. For he who does not love God 320
does not love himself.
The day of rest is, even as we read in the Holy
Book, a free day among the people of Judea, even as
we hold the holy Sunday from worldly works. And we
The translation of this sentence follows the Hatton
YS. See the note to lines 309-310.
should always wish, and pray to God that we are not
empty of good works, and chilled in God's love when
the last day has descended upon us.
"Then will there truly be such disturbance as has
never before been." There was great persecution in the
beginning of Christendom, and also long afterward for 330
belief in Christ, before this world could be turned
from the heathenship on which it was nourished, to the
true belief in the living God. But Christians were
ruled with diverse tortures, and martyred with manifold
tortures. But the Savior allowed them [the Christians]
to do the miracles that He Himself did. Now it will
not be so in the time of antichrist. He will torture
the saints and work miracles too, and the saints will 340
not be able to perform any wonders then and they will
be grievously vexed for that reason. Then the devil
will work manifold wonders, and they themselves [the
saints] will not be able to perform any mighty work
in the sight of man. Then the devil will become
angry, and will chastise the saints with such wonders
as we are not able to describe, and with devil's
might he will make many wonders.
"Zxcept that God cut short those sorrowful days,
all mankind would truly perish together. But for His
chosen saints He will cut short the days." For three
years and six months he will rule over mankind in all
pride, completely filled with the devil. And his 350
life will be lodged in all faults and in fearful
filth in that little time. And he will exhort each
man to his foul service, for He wishes to destroy
mankind by any means. But for His chosen, God will
hasten His time.
"If anyone tells you, then, that Christ himself
is living in the world among men, do not believe it,
because in that time false Christs will arise, and
will do many miracles in order to deceive men with
their magic, and even the chosen men if it might come
to pass. Earnestly take heed. I have said it to you." 360
Our Savior Christ will not come to mankind openly
revealed in this world before that great day when
He will judge mankind. But the false Christs and the
false prophets will come then in the time of anti-
christ. They are his limbs and his false companions.
And they will go throughout this world with fiendish
cunning, and will deceive too many with their magic.
But those who persevere until the end in belief in
Christ will be saved, even as He Himself said. He
warned his holy apostles, even as this scripture tells
us, and also [He warned] us through them, that we 370
diligently hold to His belief ever, and give our
lives before we reject Him. And truly it will come
do pass even as He Himself said, as we now read in
"Immediately after the oppression the sun will be
darkened and will be eclipsed completely. And also
the moon and the stars will fall suddenly from the
sky, and the powers of Heaven will then be stirred up."
Immediately after the persecution antichrist will be
slain through Christ's might at His coming. And bands
of angels will be stirred up, and will come with the
Savior from the heavenly powers, openly to earth even 380
as this gospel tells us: "Men will then see the Son
of Man coming in the high Heavens with great glory."
Christ Himself is the Son of Man even as He has often
said. He is the son of one person as no other man is.
He will come then in the clouds with great glory to
that great judgment even as it is written: "He will
then truly send forth His angels, and they will
gather God's chosen men from the four winds of this
earth and from the earth up to the Heavens." The
angels will then blow their horns loudly and all of 390
mankind, who ever were alive, will arise from their
graves. And the angels will bring the chosen men to
Christ Himself so that they may reign with Him in
the Kingdom of Heaven, happy forever in body and soul.
In another place Christ spoke of the wicked thus:
"Exibunt angel et separabunt malos de medio iustorum
et mittent eos in caminum ignis ibi erit fletas et
stridor dentium." In English that means, Angels will
come then and will separate the evil and the sinful
men from the righteous who will rule with God. And 400
they will cast them all into the widespreading fire
of that broad Hell, in which they will burn forever.
There will be cries, and wailing, and also gnashing
of teeth, and they will dwell nowhere except in
Truly the saints will travel with Christ to the
Kingdom of Ieaven with Hiis holy angels, both men and
women, even as they lived in the world. And after-
wards they will dwell with Him happily, in ineffable
bliss world without end. AMEN
Neither minor differences in spelling, such as
D/6 or i/y, nor differences in punctuation have been
recorded in the notes, unless they are of critical import.
The following abbreviations are used in the notes:
C.---Corpus Christi College Cambridge MS 178
H.---Bodleian, Hatton 1MS 115
g.c.---Marginal or interlinear gloss in C.
g.h.---Marginal or interlinear gloss in H.
Title: Sermo de die iudicii: In H. this is set in the
first line of the Latin introduction, following
1-38. This is a rough paraphrase of Luke 17:20, 24, 26-31,
34-37. It is, however, the disciples, not the
pharisees, who are questioning Christ in the bulk
of the Biblical passage (see Introduction).
3. Seo halige cristes boc: This appears in H. totally
halige: H. halie. "In unaccented syllables in 1 W-S
and [Kentishi the syllable -ig interchanges freely
with -1. . In such unaccented positions, however,
I would doubtless soon be shortened" (Campbell,
ymbe: H. embe. "In the second element of compounds,
Lor] with reduction of stress a and i can become
e . with i from y, unaccented embe from ymbe"
TCampbell, para. 372, and fn. 2).
4. spryc_ : H. sprec_. "Spryco" is the normal W-S
form. "Sprec" could be Northumbrian, east
Kentish, or Anglian" (Campbell, para. 733).
sunderhalgan: g.c. "farisei"
on sumne sal: g.c. "aliquando"; time
5. ahsodan: H. acxodan. g.c. "interrogabant"
urne hmlend crist: H. urne helend drihten crist
ymbe: H. embe (see note, line 3)
6. ymbe: H. embe (see note, line 3)
7. buss: H. bus
8. menn: H. men
9. na: H. naut
efne: g.c. "ecce"
cymr: H. cim_
forbam be: H. forban Be
10. liget: g.c. "fulgur"; g.h. "fulgur"
11. An[d]: H. and. This variation might be regarded
as an early manifestation of the loss of d between
n and s, which gave us "answer" from andswarian.
However, the O.E.D. does not cite the former
spelling until the 12th-13th centuries.
gefyrn: g.c. dadum
12. noeys: H. noes
menn: H. men
13. leofodan: H. leofodon
wifodan: H. wifodon
ceorlodan: H. ceorlodon
15. ofer hi ealle: H. offer hi
eall: H. eal
16. butan: g.c. "preter"
innan: g.c. "intra"
17. swa swa hym wissode god: H. swa swa him god wissode
lobes: m.g. lotes; g.h. lotes; g.h. lot
18. menn: H. men
19. bohtan: H. bohton
byttlodan: H. jytlodon; g.c. "fundabant"
plantodan: H. plantodon
20. beeodan: H. beeodon; g.c. "excercebant"
21. almd: g.c. "ductus." The regular form here would
be almded, but Campbell points out, "the pass.
part. should have syncope of -i- in open syllables
after long root syllables in trisyllabic
forms. . In W-S, however, there is a tendency
for parts. in dentals to extend syncopation to
uninflected forms, e.g. "gelmdd". . (paras.
22. swefel: g.c. sulfur
renscur: g.h. "pluvia"
24-29. eallswa bi . obWe fata: The homilist seems
to have slipped momentarily, and, while still
following his source in essence, changes the
pronominal references, and expands the source
24. tteowed: g.c. "ostensum," "apertum"; g.h. "ischawed."
The normal form of this verb is stiewian, but
"when eo was analogically introduced into a position
in which it was followed by i in the next syllable,
the product oC i-umlaut was lo even in W-S, and
this io became eo later. Hence we find many W-S
texts with io (eo) where we should expect ie,
because before unlaut took place, io had been
replaced by analogical eo" (Campbell, para. 202).
26. manncynne: H. mancynne
27. ymbe: H. embe (see note, line 3)
S. tilunge obWe . .: In H. there is inserted
between these two words one on his house which
brings the text closer to the Biblical passage.
28. mcere: In H. there is a k interlined over the c;
geefstan: g.c. "preperare"; g.h. "festinare"
ahredde: g.h. "liberet"
29. geweda: H. Eewmdu; g.c. "vesteY; g.h. "vestes"
fata: H. fatu; g.c. vasaa"; g.h. vasaa"
30. twegen: g.c. ii
gra: H. ara. "1 W-S has as variants of r,
h __r: bar hwar, .ara" (Campbell, para. 67).
31. forleten: g.c. "relinquentur"
twa: g.c. 11
33. twegen: g.c. ii
35. andwyrdan: C.c. "responderunt"; There was an inter-
linear gloss in H. which has been erased. A
marginal gloss, however, reads "responderunt."
ahsodan buss: H. acsodon bus
37. gadria3: H. gaderiab
39. diglostan: H. digloston; g.c. "secretiora verba"
40. forbon: H. forbam
ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"
43. [na]num: This appears in C. as nun, with na as an
interlinear addition, in a different hand, appearing
immediately before and above the word in text. H.
has the expected nannum.
menn: H. men
44. endenyhstan: H. endenextan
45. bysse: H. byssere
ac: H. a
gelyfa6: There is an e inserted directly over the
y in H.
ac we gelyfao: g.h. "si nos credimus"
46. alogen: m.g. "falsum mentitur"; g.h. mentitu?,"
48. demanne: H. demenne
49. bam: g.c. "qgubus"
gehyrsumedan: H. gehyrsumodon
50. gegladodan: H. geglododon; g.c. "placuerunt
51. ecan wununge: Approximately three letters have been
erased between these two words in C. In H. the
word mid appears in this position. Midwunung is
used elsewhere by Alfric to mean "living in
53. earman: g.c. "miseres[?]." This is a regular second
decl. adj. and the form should be "miseri." Perhaps
it has been confused with third decl.
forsawan: H. forsawon; g.c. "spreverunt"; a gloss
in H. has been erased.
54. gremodan: H. gremodon
56. awyrgedum: H. awyregedum. Over the Z in H. has
been inserted an a.
57. gelyfeb: H. gelyf6
58. gelicnysse: g.c. "similitudinem"
lobes: g.c. lotes; g.h. lot
59. ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"
60. fela: H. feala. The form feala occurs in Anglian
Tsee Campbell, para. 210.2 and fn. 2), but such
spellings occur sporadically in W-S (see Campbell,
61. LoB: g.h. lot
iu: g.c. quondamm"
There is also a g.c. reading "de lot exemplum"
62. pegn: H. been
63. T: g.c. lawe
64. burhware: H. buruhware; g.c. "civium"
sodomitiscre burhware: This must be g.p. and should
read sodomitiscra burhwara. However, burhware
is a pl. noun and the -e spelling may be carried
over from the normal nom. acc. endings. Then
sodomitiscre might appear in sympathy. The
endings are the same in both MSS, and because of
the late Old English reduction of unstressed
vowels to schwa, would represent the same
65. menn: H. men
bysmorlice: g.c. "ridiculose"
forscyldgode: H. forscyldegode; g.c. "delinquentes";
g.c. "peccaveriunt"; g.h. delinquentse"
66. hi: g.c. "illos"
67. swefle: g.c. sulfure; g.h. sulfure
68. on er: g.c. "ante"
twegen: g.c. ii
69. almdde: g.c. "duxit"
70. ne forwurde: g.c. "non interiret"
forwurde: g.h. "periret"
eall: H. eal
71. on dome[s] dege: This appears in C. as on dome dege,
but in H. as on domes dege. It is perhaps only a
matter of a forgotten letter in anticipation of the
dative form dmge.
72. menn: H. men
foresceawian: H. forsceawian; g.c. "prmvidere"
73. egeslicum: g.c. "terribilo"
74. menn: H.mmen
gymay: g.c. "curant"; g.c. and g.h. "capiunt curam"
75. ooan: g.c. "timorum"; g.h. "metu"
Li Jnges : H. hinges
butan: H. button
76. brogan: g.c. "terrorem"; g.h. "terrorem." brogan is
g.s. However, the Ln. glosses are clearly a.s.
mann: h. man
wtberstan: g.c. "evadere"
77. ahwider: g.c. "alicubi"
afeormaM: g.c. "purgat"
78. pas: g.h. "illam"
hi: g.h. "earn"
geedniwao: g.c."renovat"; g.h. "renovatur"
anlicum: g.c. "ameno," "jocundo"
80. from: H. fram
81. eall: H. eal
83. ?ara: H. bra (see note, line 30)
forl~ten: g.h. "relinquentur"
84. nytennysse: g.c. "ignorantiam"
85. ehtnysse: g.c. "persecutionenm"
86. menn: H. men
87. bedde: g.h. "lecto"
88. M: g.c. "1111"
be beob on stilnysse: be refers to pa in this same
line, not to bedde.
89. stillnysse: g.c. "tranquillitate"
woruldcarum: g.h. "scientia"
smtige bonne beoQ: H. bonne emtige beoo
90. beowdom: g.c. "officium"
bega : g.c. "excercet"
goodum: H. godum
innsehyde: H. ingehyde; g.c. "sciencia"
91. twegen: g.c. "duo"
92. gode: g.h. "deo"
hiwunage: g.c. "simulatione"; g.h. "fictitia"
93. beowdome: g.c. officioo"
afundene: g.h. "probati"
96. o5: g.c. and g.h. "usque"
endenyhstan: H. endenextan
97. barm: g.c. "illis"
hiwunge: g.h. simulationn"
98. lyffetunge: g.c. and g.h. adulationn"
101. beo, bonne gemette: H. bonne beob gemette
103. menn: H. men
gemodode: H. gemodude; g.c. "animati"
104. hiwunge: g.c. "dissimulation"
105. bonne: g.h. "tunc"
106. seCoJ an biB genumen: se appears in C. The reading
seo is supported by H., by Latin renderings of the
text, and by subsequent reference in C. (see lines
107. twegen: g.c. ii
twa: g.c. ii
108. emlice: g.c. "equanimiter"; g.h. "equaliter"
b]at synd . .: et is abbreviated in C. but written
out Dat in H. Its form is nsn., but the references
must be plural.
109. begai: g.c. "excercent"
woruldcaru: g.c. "studia"
110. wiometen: g.c. "aperatur"
ymbe: H. embe (see note, line 3)
ill. g.c. "exemplum"
fela: H. feala (see note, 1. 60)
112. behofia5: g.c. "indigent"
ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"
114. forbam: H. forpan
fullfremednysse: H. fulfremednysse; g.c."perfectione"
115. hbt hi sylfe magon hy sylfum wissian: The reading in
H. is tet hi sylfe magon him sylfum wissian. Either
reading is possible, as wissian governs either d. or
a. This would entail a translation of the C. text:
"That they themselves cannot guide themselves by
themselves." If this is the earlier reading, the
error by the H. scribe is easily understood.
116. sceolan: H. sceolon
be heora lareowa: H. be lareowa
118. scrifta tacincge: H. scriftes tecinge
119. Tlmyssan: g.c. "operam" (see note on ymbe, line 3)
120. geefenlehte: g.c. "coequari," "imitantur"; g.h.
"assimiliati" L?] (a medieval variant of "assimilis"?)
121. ealle: This should appear as eal(l), but the -e
ending was widely adopted by analogy in 1 W-S.
122. peowodon: g.c. "ministrabant"
123. woruldcarum": g.c. "studio"
124. witodlice: g.c. "certe"
125. remodode: H1. gemodade
geloaode: g.c. "dispositi"
126. wilercorene: g.c. "reprobi"
127. police: g.c. indirectt"
130. goodum: H. godum
131. gecwendan: H. gecwemdon
o_: g.c. "usque"
132. ba: g.h. 'eos"
winercorenan: g.c. "reprobi"
135. acere: There is a k interlined over the c.
13'. .er he c~wq: H. 'Te cwi
137. fullfremednysse: H. fulfremednysse;
138. fagerum: g.c. "pulcra"
getingbum: g.c. "apice'"
143. geleaffulum: It appears from the rS that the scribe
wrote geleaffulan, and then attempted to emend it
to its present form. The reading in H. is
144. "Dei agriculture estis, dei edificatio estid': (St.
Paul) I Cor. 3:9. "ye are God's husbandry, ye
are God's building."
gebigde: g.c. "nimt
145. ge: g.c. "vos"
ge synd: H. ge syndon; g.h. ge beo9
godes tilung: P. godes eorl teolung
146. wita:i g.c. "custodite'
Biscopas: H. Bisceopas. During the late O.E. period
one of the great changes in accented vowels was the
monophthongization of diphthongs so that eo0o
(see Campbell, para. 329). This must be an early
147. manna: C. reads mannna
148. hi sceolon: H. his seolon. There is a c interlined
above the se of seolon in a different hand, and the
word separation is not clear.
149. manega: U-S has prevailingly -a [in apf.] (Campbell,
642); H. naga; g.h. "possint." either reading
manncynne: H. mancynne
150. gestrynan: H. gestrynon; g.c. "lucrent"
152. symle: H. symble; g.c. "semoer." "Intrusion of
consonants occurs in a few forms only. (1) ml> mbl:
U-S simble "always" . beside sile. .
(Campbell, para. 478).
152- symle to geleafan wenian: II. symble wenian to
153. wenian: g.c. "att[r.aLhe]re" L?], "suadere";
bysnian: H. gebysnian
154. beowdome: g.c. "offitio"
155. tilian: g.c. "acricole." Perhaps a confusion of
the 0.E. mcer and Latin "ager."
157. getinge: H. gebin.ce; g.c. "apice." "[Kentish]
and 1 Northumbrian have many nouns in -inc, -unc
for -ing, -ung, and this spelling may be ex-
tended to medial position" (Campbell, para. 450).
manncynne: H. mancynne
159. ealdordum: g.h. "principati"
160. gestryndon: g.c. "lucrati sunt"
161. teolunge: H. tilunge. "u and o umlaut of 1 are
equally frequent and common to all dialects. They
are limited by the following consonant, however,
appearing only before liquids and labials in U-S.
Analogical extension of unmutated i is very
frequent, especially in W-S" (Campbell, para. 212).
162. manncynn: ii. mancyn
163. geyrmed: g.c. "miser"
feawa: The normal form is feawe, but in W-S, through
the influence of fela, the form feawais found. In
1 a-S an indecl. feawa appears (see Campbell,
paras. 603.2). feawa may take a singular verb.
164. hogie: Subj. form denoting a condition contrary to
166. "Canes muti non possunt latrare"; Isaiah 56:10.
"Dumb dogs cannot bark."
167. hundaLs]: This is the reading in I. The reading
in C. is hundan, which follows both a widespread
plural ending, and analogy with dumban, but hund
is not elsewhere recorded with a weak form.
168. lareowum: H. lareowam
169. noldan: H. noldon
bodian: g.c. "predicare"
gebigan: g.c. "avertere"
manncynn: H. mancynn
172. suwiaa: g.c. "scilenimus," "tacemus"; g.h.
digollice: H. aigellice; g.c. "clam"
173. embe: g.c. "circa" (see note, line 3)
witodlice: g.c. "certe"
174. bododan: H. bododon; g.c. "predicaverint"
175. hetelum ehterum: g.c. "exosis presecutionibus"
176. durran: H. durron
177. gedyrstlecan: g.c. "audaciam habere," "presumere"
178. beboda: g.c. "precepta"
179. secgan: H. secgon
180. sceolan: H. sceolon
181. form: H. forban
183. anrmde: g.c. "instantes"; g.h. "astantes"
184. asolcene: g.c. and g.h. "pigri"
sume nyttwyrie sume swibe fremfulle! H. sume nytwurie
sume unnytwurie sume swyae fremfulle. The H.
reading appears the more accurate, as the extra
phrase fits both the sense and the alliteration.
185. fremfulle: g.c. and g.h. benignn"
186. ooor: H. ooer
187. genimQ: g.c. "capit"
goodan: H. godan
189. endebyrdnyssum: g.c. "ordinibus"
190. twegen: g.c. ii
191. twa: g.c. ii
twegen: g.c. ii
192. ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"
andwyrdan: H. andwyrdon
193. ahsodon: H. axodon; g.c. axsodan
buss: H. bus
194. hold: g.c. "cadaver"
195. gaderiab: H. gegaoeria6
sundorhalgan: H. sunderhalgan; g.c. and g.h.
196. ahsodan: H. axodon
goodan: H. goda
197. sceoldan: H. sceoldon
198. forlmtene: g.c. "relicti"
199. goodan: H. godan
200. gebungenan: g.c. perfectt"
g.c. with general reference, "exemplum"
201. bar par: H. par bar (see note, line 30)
202. gegadorade: H. gegaderade
bpr par: H. bar bar (seenote, line 30)
203. mihtiglice: H. mihtilice (see note to halige, line 3)
rihsa6: H. rixab; g.c. "regnat"
204. mann: H. man
205. ricsa6: H. rixa6
207. ba: g.c. "illi"
forlmtene: g.c. "relicti"
208. werodum: H. weredum; g.c. folc
209. fordemede: H. fordemde
211. forpam: H. forban
wnnedon: H. wunodon
212. sundorhalgen: g.c. "Farisei"
ahsodon: H. acxodon; g.c. "interrogabant"
213. will: The ending -e is regular when the 1st or 2nd
p. pronouns we or Ee follow immediately (see
Campbell, para. 729).
215. ahsodon: H. acxodon
be bam: bam refers back to ended, 1. 213. After
this line, in the margin, occurs an obvious mark
of separation, and the gloss, "incipit."
216- This paraphrase is taken in part from Matt. 24:
257. 15-25, 29-31, and in part from Mark 13: 14-27
216. seo boc: H. seo cristes boc
cyb: g.c. "dicit"
218. "abhominationem": H. "abominationem." The reading
in C. is based on an incorrect etymology which
traces the word to an hypothetical compound "ab
hominem." The spelling in H. preserves the
"desolutionis"; H. "desolationis"
221. ahsodan: H. acxodon; g.c. "inqulrebant"
endemys: g.c. "per ordine"; g.c. "similiter";
g.h. "pariter," "omnes"
223. ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"
224. onscuniendlic: H. onscunigendlic (see note to
halige, line 3); g.c. "abominationem"; g.h.
'bbhominationef' (see note, line 218)7
225. swa swa danihel awrat: See Dan. 9:27.
danihel: H. daniel. "In all West Gmc. languages,
medial x became a breathing between vowels. .
A few forms occur in the early glossaries in which
the breathing is still written as h . "
(Campbell, para. 461).
rade: g.c. "legat"; g.h. "legit"
228. ba fleob bonne to muntum: H. ba fleoZ to muntum
229. ne astige: g.c. "non ascendet." The gloss here is
confused. Astigian may have both the meaning "to
ascend," and "to descend," but here it must be
"to descend" as the party in question is already
atop his house.
230. sticolan: H. sticelan
yddisce: g.c. and g.h. familiarm"
233. to genimenne: g.h. "capere"
reaf: H. hreaf; g.c. "vestrem." "In all Gmc.
languages, initial x became a breathing or
glottal spirant. Before 1, n, r, u, it disappeared,
leaving the consonant voiceless, and h is written
in English to indicate this" (Campbell, para. 461).
However, reaf does not have the h historically,
and of four occurrences in the two MSS it is
spelled hreaf only this once, probably through
wa: g.c. "ve"
eacniendum: g.c. "preignantibus[sic]; g.h.
234. fedendum: H. fedyndum; g.h. "nutrientibus"
235. frecednysse: g.c. "periculum"; g.h. "tribulatione,"
eornostlice: g.c. "igitur"
236. wintra: The -a ending is a trace of an earlier u-
stem declension (Bosworth).
o6be on restedaege: g.c. "vel sabato"
restedmge: H. restenda3ge' g.h. "sabato"
ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"
237. witodlice: g.c. "certe"
gedrefednyssa: g.c. "persecution," "tribulation";
238. naran: H. neron
239. butan: H. button
240. manncynn: H. mancynn
forwurde: g.c. "periret"; g.h. *periret"
witodlice: g.c. "certe"
241. gecorenum he: H. gecorenum halgum he
gescyrte: g.c. "abreviavit"
242. sZ;: H. seg_ This could be Kentish g becoming e.
"By the tenth century m of whatever origin had been
raised to e in KentisI (Campbell, para. 288). It
could also reflect a second fronting shown in the
Vespasian Psalter and several other places whereby
a became e. This is an earlier change than the
242- sylf beo bonne: H. sylf bonne beo
244. gelyfe: see note, line 213.
ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"
forbam: H. forban
on bam timan lease cristas: H. lease cristas on
lease: g.h. "pseudo"
There is a g.c., "secu[n]do," which must refer to
bam timan, i.e,, the time of the second coming.
245. fela: H. feala (see note, line 60)
menn: H. men
246. scincraftum: g.c. and g.h. "magicis artibus"
247. warnia6: g.c. and g.h. "cavete"; g.c. "muniamini"
geornlice: H. eornostlice
249. gedrefednysse: g.c. persecutionne" "tribulatione";
adeorcaa: g.c. "obscurabitur"
251. mihta: g.c. and g.h. "virtutes"
mihta beo6: In C. there is an erasure between these
two words. It looks as if beo6 was written twice
and then the first one erased.
252. astyrode: g.c. "moti"
253. wolcnum: g.c. and g.h. "nube"
254. wuldre: g.c. "glorianP [? should be ablative]
255. gegaderia6 godes: H. gegaderaa bonne godes
256. feowor: H. feower
257. up o0: g.c. "usque"
258. anfealdum andgyte: g.c. and g.h. "simplici intellectu"
259. andgyt: g.c. "intellectum"; g.c. "sensum"
secgan: H. gesecgan
262. ahsodon: H. acxodon; g.c. "interrogabant"
endemes: H. endemys; g.c. "similiter," "pariter";
263. him ba andwyrde: H. him andwyrde
264. ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"
265. onscunigendlic: g.h. "abominationes"
onscunigendlic deofol: g.c. "abhominabilem idolum"
danihel: H. daniel (see note, line 225)
266. rede: g.c. "lem2at"
redan: This is the inf. used in a passive con-
struction, i.e., "or hears it read." This is
clearer in H. where the passage is, obbe redan
gehyre, without the repetition of et.
267. iu: g.c. quondamm"; g.h. "olim"
268. menn: H. men
270. ad-ascte: g.c. "destruxit"
273. burh hys lareowas: H. burh lareowas
274. wyrca: g.c. operatorr"
mann: H. man
275. arleasa: g.c. "impius"
276. on bissere worulde: H. on ende byssere worulde
wyrcb: g.c. operatorr"
fela: H. feala Tsee note, line 60)
278. gebafunge: g.c. permissionn"
si: g.h. beo
mycclan: H. micelan. "Consonants appear to have
doubled in O.E. after a short syllable when the
syncopation of vowels brought them before r and
1, thus recreating conditions which caused
doubling in West Gmc." (Campbell, para. 453).
279. bugab: g.c. "avertunt"
280. forwyrde: g.c. "damnatione"
281. beah _a: H. beah be. The only possible explanation
for this spelling given by Campbell is a 9th century
Kentish change where a > e, and resulted in many
inverted spellings (paras. 288-9). This would not
seem to be the case here, as C. shows no other
gedwolan: H. dwolan; g.c. "heretici"; a gloss has
been erased in H.
gedwyldum: g.c. "heresim errorem"
gelyfan" H. gelyfon
284. geahnige: g.c. "apropriat," "possideat"; g.h.
appropriate [?], "possideat"
talige: g.c. "prtdicat_," "dicat"; g.h. "iudicat";
284- and men hym to gebiddan: H. and hym men to gebiddan
285. gebiddan: g.c. "adorent"
tacna: "The nom. and acc. pl. of neuter nouns
with parasiting should have no ending, as -u should
drop after the long syllable before parasiting took
place . ., but -u is often restored, usually with
rejection of the parasite vowel, e.g., tacnu
S. wundru. . (Campbell, para. 574.3). a
is consistent here as a regular late spelling
for final, unstressed u.
286. forseon: g.c. "atempnent" [? the glossator seems
to have used the a- prefix to correspond to the
C.-. fo_]_; g.h. "Spernant"
287. stent: pres. ind. 3s. "The endings of these
Lpres. ind. 2s. and 3s.] are derived from Gmc.
-isi,-iii, and hence there is by normal develop-
ment in O.E. umlaut of the root vowel and change
of e to i, e.g., 3rd. s. . stent from . .
standan. ."(Campbell, para. 732).
288- "Ita ut temple dei seleat ostendens se tamquam sit
289 deus"; 2 Thes. 2:4. "So that he sits in the
temple of God, showing himself as if he were God."
298. sitt: H. sit
290. sy: g.h. beo
291. deoflu: H. deofla
2a: g.c. "illos"; g.h. "ea"
wyrc_ : g, operatorr"
wundra: see note on tacna, line 285.
292. aeond: g.c. "per"
manncynne: H. mancynne
293. seo ehtnyss: g.c. "ipsa persecution"
;a: g.c. "1111"
296. ne astige: g.c. "non ascendet" (see note, line 229)
sticolan: H. sticelan; in H. there is a k
interlined over the c.
297. yddisce: g.c. and g.h. familiarm"
be on bam bib: H. be on bam huse byb
298. ymbe: H. embe (see note, line 3)
299. under . .: g.c. "retro"
genimene: H. genimenne
reaf: g.c. "vestrum"
we: g.c. "ue"
300. ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"
301. hwilcu[m]: This was the original reading of C.,
but has since been emended to hwilcun. The
strokes of the u and the m are confusing here,
so someone emended wrongly, thinking the m to
Iazve too MAiry stroLes. H. has hwilon.
andgite: g.c. "sensu"
hwilum: H. hwilon; g.c. "aliquando"
302. geopenian: g.c. "aperire"
inran: g.c. interiorr"
digolnysse: H. digelnysse; g.c. secrett"
forbam: H. forpan
303. ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"
w.a: g.c. "ve"
304. eacniendum: g.c. "pregnantibus; g.h. "pregnantibus"
fedendum: g.c. and g.h. "nutrientibus"
305. frecednysse: g.c. "periculum"; g.h. "tribulatione"
asyltaa: g.c. "delinquent"
306. hasse: g.c. "precepto"
307. frecednysse: g.c. "periculo"; g.h. "tribulatione"
308. leahtrum: g.c. "crimine"; g.h. [erased]
gefearhsugu: g.c. pregnants procus"; g.h.
unwaran: g.c. and g.h. "incautus"
309- and heora yfel geearniab swylce mid forste: H.
310. and heora yfel getacniab swylce mid fostre. The
reading of H. is in all likelihood the correct
one. Fostre refers back to bam fedendum and
the sentence is then a further explication of
the Biblical passage. The scribe of C. was
evidently looking forward to the following
passage when he wrote forste ("frost") for
fostre. The occurrence of geearniab for
getacniab is not so easily explained. There
is only a difference of two letters between the
two, but these would seem difficult to mix up
(see further the following glosses).
310. swylce: g.c. "quasi"
forste: g.c. "gelu"; H. has fostre and a gloss,
eornostlice: g.c. "igitur"
311. r .c. andc g.h. "sabato"
ge: g.c. and g.h. "vos"
312. emtige: g.c. "vacui"
313. ymbryne: H. ymbrene
314- "Quia abundabit iniquitas refrigescet caritas
315. multorum"; Matt. 24: 12. "And because iniquity
shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold."
314. "abundabit": H. "abundabib"
"refrigescat": ii. "retrlescat"
315. gereorde: g.c. "lingua"
316. unrihtwisnyss: H. unrihtwisnys
suwie .emenigfylt: g.c. "multiplicat"
317. acolaO: g.c. "refrigescet"
318. nateshwon: g.c. "nulatenus"
319. nyhstan: H. nextan. This form seems explainable only
by the Kentish reduction of all front vowels to
e (see Campbell, para. 288).
320. furIan: g.c. "etiam"
foroon: H. forbam; g.c. "quia"
321. restendamg: g.c. "sabat"
woroldlicum: H. woruldlicum
324. sceolan: H. sceolon
and at gode biddan bat: H. at gode baet
325. goodum: H. godum
326. lufon: H. lufe. These are two forms of the same
word--the first weak, the second strong (see
Campbell, para. 619.4).
327. endenyhsta: H. endenexta (see note to ymbe, line 3)
onsigende: g.c. "inminens"; g.h. "imminent"
witodlice: g.c. "certe"
328. swylce: g.c. "talia"
gedrefednysse: g.c. persecutione has been erased;
g.c. "perturbatione," "tribulationes"; g.h.
329. ewuirra6: In the margin before this word has been
aacued in another hand, eft ne which brings it into
agreement with the same phrase in H., i.e., n=fre
ar ne eft ne gewur3a6.
ehtnyss: H. ehtnys
ehtnyss was: "persecutio fuit"
330. sy7ian: The a was written as an e which the
scribe tried to modify into an a, the usual
spelling, as H., syoban.
332. gebigan: g.c. "avertere"
335. cwylmingum: g.c. "cruciatibus"
tintregum: g.c. "tormentis"
336. geube: g.c. "acessit"; g.h. "a[s]seLn3scit[?]"
337. nwundra: see note on tacna, line 285.
338. tintrega6: g.c. "tormentat"; g.h. [erased]
339. tacna: see note, line 285.
339- and eac . wnige tacna: g.c. "quia sancti non
341. pos[s]unt tempore anti cristi miracula facere"
340. gewyrcan: g.c. "operare"
tacna: see note, line 285; g.c. "notas"
340- ac hi yfele beo6 for am:n H. ac hi yfele for
341. Oam beob