Group Title: relationship of imitation to intelligence and scholastic achievement of Negro and White first grade pupils in integrated classes
Title: The Relationship of imitation to intelligence and scholastic achievement of Negro and White first grade pupils in integrated classes
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: The Relationship of imitation to intelligence and scholastic achievement of Negro and White first grade pupils in integrated classes
Physical Description: ix, 116 leaves. : illus. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: O'Connor, Andrew Louis, 1940-
Publication Date: 1967
Copyright Date: 1967
Subject: Child psychology   ( lcsh )
Imitation   ( lcsh )
Psychology thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychology -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida, 1967.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 111-115.
Additional Physical Form: Also available on World Wide Web
General Note: Manuscript copy.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097835
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000546022
oclc - 13163548
notis - ACW9980


This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 4 MBs ) ( PDF )

Full Text




December, 1967

To my wife, Beverly


The present study represents the culmination of a long and

complicated, though often heart-warming series of events, made possible

by the kind assistance of more than thirty-five people.

The author is most indebted to his five, doctoral committee

members: Dr. Richard J. Anderson, Chairman, Dr. Audrey S. Schumacher,

Dr. Vernon Van De Riet, Dr. Hugh C. Davis, and Dr. Bruce Thomason,

minor field member. Their perspective, understanding, and genuine

interest provided the author encouragement and a sense of appropriate

direction. Special appreciation is offered Dr. Anderson, not only for

his specific suggestions about the present study, but for the unrelenting

assurance he provided the author throughout his graduate training.

Various public school officials generously guided this study

from the realm of speculation to firmer reality. They include: Mr.

Boyd Ayers, Director of Pupil-Personnel Services for Alachua County,

Mr. Dwight, H. Hunter, Principal, Kirby-Smith School, Mr. James A.

Talbot, Principal, Idylwild Elementary School, and Mrs. Thelma Jordon,

Principal, A. Quinn Jones Elementary School. Ten teachers from three

schools provided suggestions and assistance, though their repayment

was largely inconvenience.

The six models in this study worked diligently, yet never

lost their charm. Most effort was expended by Mrs. Sharon Cooper, who

served both as the adult model for the female, peer model group, and

as typist. Participating with her as peer models were Valerie Jordan

and Karla Johnson. The author's wife, Beverly, served as the adult

model for the male, peer model group, and was joined by Danny Butler

and Mike Thomas.

Specific help, especially during moments of crisis, was

provided by four of the author's friends and colleagues: Mr. Lawrence

Ritt, Dr. Gerald Musselman, Dr. Philip Costanzo, and Dr. William E.

Boblitt. Mr. Ritt was most conscientious, and thoughtful in his

capacity as assistant investigator.



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................................... iii

LIST OF TABLES ............................................ vii

LIST OF FIGURES ........................................... ix


I. INTRODUCTION ................................... 1

II. SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE ....................... 6

Intelligence, Adaptation, and Imitation ... 6
The Phenomenon of Imitation ............... 8
Imitation, Identification, and
Scholastic Achievement ................. 12
Negro Scholastic Achievement Following
Integration and the Role of Identifi-
cation ................................. 13
Rationale for the Present Study ........... 16

111. METHOD ......................................... 2 1

Subjects .................................. 21
Mode ls .................................... 23
Procedure ................................. 24
Imitation Tasks ........................ 24
Primary Imitation Task ................. 26
Secondary Imitation Task ............... 27
Intelligence and Scholastic
Achievement Tests ................... 31
Scoring and Analyses ................... 32

IV. RESULTS ........................................ 37

Preliminary Analyses ...................... 37
Main Findings ............................. 41
Contrasts Between Subjects' Imitation .. 41
Correlation of Subjects' Imitation
With Their Intelligence Test Scores
and Scholastic Achievement Test Scores 51




V. DISCUSSION ...................................... 61

Conclusions and Implications About the
Results ................................ 61
Methodological Considerations ............. 68
Suggestions for Future Research ........... 71

VI. SUMMARY ........................................ 73

IMITATION TASKS ......................................... 76


APPENDIX C: RAW DATA ....................................... 98

REFERENCES .................................................. 111

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ......................................... 116


Table Page

I The Number, Age Range, and Mean Age of Subjects in
the Full Sample .................................... 22

2 The Number, Age Range, and Mean Age of Subjects in
the Matched Sample ................................. 23

3 Bean Estimations by the Three Models in the Male
and Female Peer Model Groups on Experimental Days
I and 2 for Male and Female Subject Classes of
the Three Subject Groups ........................... 31

4 Reliability Primary Imitation Task ............... 38

5 Reliability Secondary Imitation Task ............. 39

6 Percentages of Complete and Partial Imitation of
Models, Creative Non-Imitation and Non-imitation
on the Primary Imitation Task (Experimental Days
Combined) by the Three Subject Groups .............. 40

7 Percentages of Imitation of Models and Non-Imitation
on the Secondary Imitation Task (Experimental Days
Combined) by the Three Subject Groups ............... 41

8 Percentages of Complete and Partial Imitation of
Models, Creative Non-Imitation and Non-Imitation
on the Primary Imitation Task (Experimental Days
Combined) by Subjects of Each Race and Sex .......... 43

9 Percentages of Imitation of Models, and Non-Imita-
tion on the Secondary Imitation Task (Experimental
Days Combined) by Subjects of Each Race and Sex ..... 43

10 Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Complete
and Complete Plus Partial Imitation of the Adult
Models with Imitation of the Peer Models of Each
Race (Experimental Days Combined) on the Primary
Imitation Task by Subjects of Each Race and Sex ..... 47

LIST OF TABLES (Continued)

Table Page

11 Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Imitation
of the Adult Models with Imitation of the Peer
Models of Each Race (Experimental Days Combined) on
the Secondary Imitation Task by Subjects of Each
Race and Sex ....................................... 47

12 Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Complete
and Complete Plus Partial Imitation of the Negro
and White Peer Models on the Primary Imitation Task
(Experimental Days Combined) by Subjects of Each Race
and Sex ............................................. 48

13 Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Imitation
of the Negro and White Peer Models on the Secondary
Imitation Task (Experimental Days Combined) by
Subjects of Each Race and Sex ...................... 49

14 Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Negro
Subjects' Imitation of the Negro Peer Models with
White Subjects' Imitation of the Negro Peer Models
(Experimental Days Combined) on the Primary
Imitation Task ..................................... 50

15 Correlation Coefficients Between Imitation of
Models, Creative Non-Imitation, and Non-Imitation
(Experimental Days Combined) on the Primary
Imitation Task by Subjects in the Matched Sample
with Their Total IQ's .............................. 53

16 Correlation Coefficients Between Models Imitated
and Non-Imitation on the Secondary Imitation Task
(Experimental Days Combined) by Subjects in the
Matched Sample and Their Total IQ's ................ 54

17 Correlation Coefficients Between Models Imitated,
Creative Non-Imitation, and Non-Imitation
(Experimental Days Combined) on the Primary Imitation
Task by Subjects in the Matched Sample and Their
Total Scholastic Achievement Test Scores ........... 57

18 Correlation Coefficients Between Models Imitated and
Non-Imitation on the Secondary Imitation Task
(Experimental Days Combined) by Subjects in the
Matched Sample and Their Total Scholastic Achievement
Test Scores ......................................... 58

vi ii


Figure Page

1 Figures Drawn in the Primary Imitation Task by
Pairs of the Three Models in Each of the Two
Model Groups on Experimental Day 1 for the Three
Subject Groups ..................................... 28

2 Figures Drawn in the Primary Imitation Task by Pairs
of the Three Models in Each of the Two Model Groups
on Experimental Day 2 for the Three Subject Groups 29

3 Percentages of Complete and Partial Imitation
of Models, Creative Non-Imitation, and Non-
Imitation on the Primary Imitation Task (Experi-
mental Days Combined) by Subjects of Each Race and
Sex ................................................ 44

4 Percentages of Imitation of Models, and Non-
Imitation on the Secondary Imitation Task (Experi-
mental Days Combined) by Subjects of Each Race and
Sex ................................................ 45



In recent years there have been greatly increased federal

and state efforts to promote and finance programs furthering racial

equality. Outstanding among these is racial integration of public

schools, now a federal legal requirement for more than a decade and

a growing reality in school systems throughout the United States.

While racial integration is intended to promote equality of oppor-

tunity, it does not guarantee Negro pupils greater than ordinary

intellectual development or scholastic achievement, and the latter

remains an important concern.

Numerous studies cited in such diverse resource texts as

those of Anastasi (1958), Masland, Sarason, and Gladwin (1958), and

Shuey (1966), among others, have demonstrated that scholastic achieve-

ment of Negro and white pupils varies in a significantly positive

manner according to their measured intelligence, and socio-economic

status or cultural and educational experience. Moreover, among more

than 250 studies of this century comparing Negro and white intelli-

gence, the Negroes sampled were shown to be of lower measured intelli-

gence and socio-economic status with significant consistency. These

differences have impelled a continuing controversy relevant to the

achievement of integrated Negro pupils. That is, if lower Negro

intelligence, as measured by standardized tests, is largely due to a

difference in hereditary potential, then were increased educational

opportunity equally provided children of both races of the same age,

the relative intelligence and achievement difference between them

would be expected to change little. Those supporting this position

include McGurk (1959), Kilpatrick (1962), and Shuey (1966). If, on

the other hand, Negro pupils' lower intelligence test scores reflect

environmental or educational deprivation predominantly, their integra-

tion into an improved educational setting would be expected to increase

their level of measured intelligence and scholastic achievement. This

position is more popular; its supporters including Havighurst and

Neugarten (1962), Klineberg (1963), Pettigrew (1964a), and the American

Associations of Anthropology, Psychology, and Sociology. In 1961 the

Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, a division of the

American Psychological Association concluded:

There are differences in intelligence test scores
when one compares a random sample of whites and
Negroes. What is equally clear is that no evidence
exists that leads to the conclusion that such
differences are innate. Quite to the contrary,
the evidence points overwhelmingly to the fact that
when one compares Negroes and whites of comparable
cultural and educational background, differences
in intelligence diminish markedly; the more com-
parable the background, the less the difference.
There is no direct evidence that supports the view
that there is an innate difference between members
of different racial groups ... (quoted by Pettigrew,
1964a, pp. 133-134).

Hereditary intellectual potential, on the one hand, and

environmental or educational influence, on the other, have generally

been treated in the literature as limiting conditions within which

the individual functions intellectually. As such, continual attempts

to resolve the heredity-environment controversy fail to yield

sufficient information about more manifest aspects of intelligence,

such as, specific learning processes by which Negro or white pupils

achieve scholasticly. To this end, another widely believed character-

istic of intelligence, adaptiveness, is suggested as a more fruitful


For purposes of the present study, the question arose 'Is

adaptiveness manifested through some learning process displayed by

pupils in the racially integrated classroom?' If adaptiveness can be

measured, will it be found similar to the kind of adaptiveness mani-

fested by intelligent behavior, hence positively correlated with

standardized measures of intelligence and scholastic achievement?

An interesting, 'real life' setting in which to pose these

questions is presented by racially integrated first grade classes in

Southern, previously all white, elementary schools. Negro and white

first graders encounter varied circumstances in school quite different

from those of their previous experience. From week to week they work

and play for several hours each school day in as large a group as they

have ever participated. It may be supposed that the teacher and peers

with whom each child interacts present a complex, task oriented,

social environment in which personal acceptance and satisfactory

achievement require considerable adjustment and adaptation.

The adaptation of these children may depend upon reinforce-

ment of appropriate behavior, but, except when teaching machines or

other procedures of programmed learning are employed, there is little

evidence that reinforcement is dispensed according to the conditions of

operant or classical conditioning. The work of Albert Bandura and

certain others would suggest that pupils' adaptation to the integrated

classroom situation, particularly the adaptation of first graders,

proceeds in a measurable degree according to their modeling or imitation

of their teacher and peers. Bandura (1965a) has observed that a major

source of new behavior or new combinations of previously learned

behavior is the behavior of other humans. He emphasizes that modeling

procedures are a very efficient and occasionally indispensable way of

learning much complex and important behavior. By contrast, operant

learning methods may be efficient in strengthening and maintaining

behavior already demonstrated by individuals, but inefficient for

developing new behavior. Bandura has stated:

Research and theoretical interpretations of learning
processes have focused almost exclusively on a
single mode of response acquisition which is
exempl ified by the operant or instrumental condi-
tioning paradigm ...

The continued adherance to a relatively narrow range
of learning principles and procedures stems primarily
from the fact that certain critical conditions that
obtain in real life situations are rarely, if ever,
reproduced in laboratory studies of learning ...
Apart from the questions of efficiency ... and
survival, it is doubtful if many classes of responses
would every be acquired if social training proceeded
solely by the method of approximations through
differential reinforcement of emitted responses ...
(Bandura, 1965c, p. 1).

Epstein (1962) has indicated That studies of imitative

human learning have considerable potential for providing greater

understanding of complex learning in human social situations. A study

of imitative learning, then, suggests the exciting possibility of

increasing our knowledge about learning in the classroom. Moreover,

additional information about learning during an important stage of

human development. At least two theories of personality development,

those of Freud and Piaget, agree that children 5 to 7 years of age

experience a critical stage of personality development. In Freudian

Theory the superego undergoes its most critical stage of development

as the child identifies with the same sex parent. Piaget's theory

conceives of parental identification as a concomitant of intellectual

development through the two interrelated mental processes of assimila-

tion and accommodation.

Stated briefly, the present investigation attempted to

determine the relative extent to which Negro and white first grade

pupils would imitate a teacher-like model and Negro and white peer

models, relating their imitation to their measured intelligence and

scholastic achievement.

In the following review of studies those pointing toward

the potentially significant relationship between intelligence and

imitative human learning are discussed first. Second, studies of

imitation are reviewed in an attempt to show that it is a pervasive

type of learning which greatly needs investigation in the educa-

tional realm of the classroom. In a third section, imitative

learning is related to the process of identification (here considered

operationally as social facilitation) in an effort to indicate the

possible relationship to imitation and scholastic achievement. Lastly,

that literature will be reviewed which relates specifically to Negro

pupils' adjustment and scholastic achievement in integrated schools.



Intelligence, Adaptation,and Imitation

The adaptive or adjustive nature of intelligence has been

recognized from the time of its sysTematic measurement. Binet (trans-

lated by Kite, 1916, p. 29) defined intelligence as "The sum of all

those thought processes which consist in mental adaptation." More

recently, revised views of the heredity environment controversy have

provided theoretical emphasis to the adaptive function of intelligence.

J. McV. Hunt's (1961) views of intelligence upset two long accepted

assumptions about intelligence that have provided a conceptual founda-

Tion for the heredity environment controversy regarding race differ-

ences. These he descriptively terms the assumptions of "fixed

intelligence" and "predetermined development." Hunt defines intelli-

gence as central neural processes which are established, developed,

and are continually adapted according to the individual's experience.

Indirectly, Guilford has made the adapTive function of intelligence

more credible by stating one conclusion about his research: "The

question 'Is intelligence inherited or is it acquired' made less sense

than it ever did. Such a question must be asked of each and every

factor" (1956, p. 287). By 1966 he and his co-workers, through the

use of factor analysis, had found evidence for the existence of

more than 80 different, though interrelated, intellectual abili ies.

If further research shows these many factors to be valid and meaningful,

They may suggest a much broader and more complex basis of intellectual

adaptability than the single "g" factor proposed by Spearman (1927)

and more recently, McNemar (1964).

The most thorough conceptual exploration of the relationship

between intelligence, adaptation, and imiTation appears to have been

described by Piaget (1951, 1963; Flavell, 1963). According to

Piaget, when an individual's interac-ion with his environment is in

equilibrium, the two interrelated cognitive processes of intelligent

adaptation, assimilation and accomoda7ion are in equilibrium.

However, according to Piage- imitation is not intelligent adaptation

because the process of assimilaTion is subordinate to That of

accommodation. In accommodation:

All energy is focused on tl ing exact account of -re
structured niciTies of the realiTy one is imitaTing
and in precisely dovetailing one's schematic repertoire
to these details. In other words, as in play the pri-
mary concern is to adap- reality to the self (assimi-
lation), in imitation the paramount object is to adapt
the self to reality accommodation) Flavell (1963, p. 66).

For Piaget imitation is mimicking that occurs by processes

of association and simple classical conditioning. In this sense,

Piaget and Bandura do not agree on the meaning of imitation or

vicarious learning and how it occurs. According to Bandura:

Unlike most previous accounts of modeling effects,
which tend to highlight the reinforcing stimulus
control of matching responses, the theory propounded
by the author emphasizes the function of representa-
Tional processes in observational learning. According
to this formulation, matching responses are acquired
on the basis of stimulus contiguity and are mediated
by cue-producing symbolic responses which exercise

discriminative stimulus control over corresponding overt
performances. Thus, in this mode of response acquisi-
tion, imaginal and verbal representations of modeling
stimuli constitute the enduring products of observational
experiences. (Bandura, 1965c, p. 41-42).

Moreover, Bandura (1965c) believes that the "association and

classical conditioning theories" of Piaget, Humphrey, Allport and

Holt fail to account for novel responses in the observer as a result

of his interaction with a model. Referring to the work of Hebb (1949)

and Hunt (1961) in which the early development of intelligence was

shown to depend intimately upon sensory experience, Bandura and

Walters (1963, p. 28) remarked that, "those experiences, however, will

be highly dependent on the social models with which a child is

presented ..." Moreover, Bandura (1965a, 1965c) has provided abundant

anecdotal and experimental evidence that imitation is a basic adap-

tive process in animals and humans. McDavid (1959), in an extended

study of imitative behavior and biographical, intellectual, and

various other factors, found a negative correlation (-.11) between

measured intelligence and imitative behavior. However, McDavid

reinforced imitative behavior, violating the non-reinforcement

criterion of imitation stated by Bandura. Hence, if as in the present

study, Bandura's criteria of imitation are accepted, the relationship

between imitation and intelligence remains uncertain and worthy of


The Phenomenon of Imitation

Bandura (1965c, p. 2) has compiled various descriptions of

modeling in the contemporary literature essentially similar to the

hisTorically prior term "imitation" (used throughout the present

study) such as "vicarious learning," "observational learning,"

"social facilitation," "identificaTion," "role playing," "copying,"

and "contagion."l

Bandura (1965c, p. 2) operationally defines imitation or a

vicarious learning event as:

... one in which new responses are acquired or the
characteristics of exisT;ng response repertoires are
modified as a function of obse-ving The behavior of
others and its -einforcing consequences, without the
modeled responses being overtly performed by the viewer
during the exposure period. In demonstraT'ng vicarious
learning phenomena, it is Therefore necessary to
employ a nonresponse acquisition procedure in which a
subject simply observes a model's behavior, but other-
wise performs no over ins'rumenTal responses, nor is
administered any reinforcing stimuli during the period
of acquis'Tion. Any learning that occurs under these
limiting conditions is purely on an observational or
covert basis. This mode of response acquisition is
accordingly designated as nc-trial learning, since the
observer does not engage in any over- resoDndinc
-rials although ... he may require multiple observa-
-ionaI trials in order to reproduce the modeled
STimuli accurately. Moreover, the development of
mediational responses, `i the form of imaginal and
implicit verbal representations of The perceived
stimulus events, may play a critical role in the
vicarious learning process.

Most studies of vicarious learning have been confined to

determining its characteristics rather than relating iT experimentally

to naturally occurring learning situations. Moreover, most studies

SRecenTly the conceptual s'm'iarity beTween "imitation"
and "social faciliTation" has been dispu-ed by Wheeler (1966). Too,
The effects of "conformity" and "suggesTibility" may be similar to
these of "imitation," with the processes overlapping in various
social situations, but according to McConnell (1963) "conformity"
and "suggestibility" have different operational definitions than

measure overt, readily observable, imitative behavior. Thus, in order

to demonstrate that vicarious learning is in fact a learning phenomenon

and not merely a performance phenomenon Bandura (1965b) showed nursery

school children a film portraying an aggressive model who received

reward, punishment, or was treated neutrally for his aggressive

behavior. Although children who observed punishment of the aggressive

model produced significantly fewer imitative responses than the others,

this difference between the groups of children was no longer apparent

when all were rewarded if they could reproduce the models aggressive

behavior. Hence, negative reinforcement to the model had inhibited

their imitative responses but not Their learning.

Bandura has emphasized that vicarious learning is an indis-

pensable process of human learning. Under certain social conditions

it may be of the same magnitude (Kanfer and Marston, 1963), or even

more efficacious than direct reinforcement (Berger, 1961).

Most often cited among Bandura's vicarious learning experi-

ments are the following three. In two related experiments Bandura,

Ross and Ross (1961, 1963) exposed nurseryschool children, average age

approximately 41 years, to live (1961) and film-mediated (1963)

aggressive models pummeling an inflated plastic doll. Children

observing the real-life, film, and cartoon aggressive models

expressed a mean number of aggressive responses approximately twice

that of those observing an inhibited model or The control group.

Bandura and McDonald (1963) have shown that modification of attitudes

may occur by observation of models as well. Attempting to change

the objective and subjective moral orientations of children conceived

by Piaget, Bandura and McDonald assigned 5 to 11 year old children

to three observational groups. In the first of these, adult models

were verbally reinforced for expressing moral judgements counter to

those of the children, with the children subsequently reinforced for

adopting the judgements of the adult model. The second group, likewise,

observed the verbal reinforcement of the adult models' judgements, but

were not, themselves, reinforced for adopting the models' judgements.

The third group observed no model but was reinforced for making judge-

ments, like those of the models, which were counter to their original

orientation. The model-observation groups differed little between

them in changed moral judgements, but showed significantly greater

change toward the moral judgements of the models than the no-model

control group.

Two additional variables considered in studies of imitation

or vicarious learning, and relevant to the present study are sex of

subjects and non-imitation. Using a doll play experimental method

with children age 3 to 5, Hartup (1964) found that children would

generalize somewhat their imitation of same sex dolls but not

opposite sex dolls. Where models display nurturance or positive

social interaction to 5 year old girls, Mussen and Parker (1965)

found increases in the girls' task irrelevant imitative behavior, but

not task relevant behavior. Henker (1963) found an opposite kind of

imitative behavior in terms of task relevancy with 6 to 10 year old

boys. Brown (1956) studied the preferred sex-roles of 5 to 6 year

olds and found that male subjects had established a higher same sex

preference than had female subjects. In two studies previsouly cited,

McDavid (1959) and Hartup (1964), non-imitation by subjects was

observed. Whi;e dissimilar in other respects, both studies indicated

that an experimental design, which allows non-imitation by experimental

subjects, may yield additionally meaningful information.

Imitation, Identification, and Scholastic Achievement

It has already been observed that the psychoanalytic theories

of Freud and Piage-'s developmental theory of intelligence stress

children's identification with their parents, which greatly affects

their learning of socially appropriate attitudes, values and behavior.

When iden-ifica-ion is given emphasis as a social facilitation effect

or process of learning in early school age children,its relevance to

a first grade educational setting becomes clearer. Bandura believes

the process of identification is essentially similar to 'hat of

imitation and vicarious learning:

This -ype of learning is generally labeled "imitation"
in behavior theory, and "identification" in most
theories of personality. Those concerts, however, are synonymous since both encompass the same
behavioral phenomenon, i.e., the tendency for a person
to match the behavior or attitudes as exhibited by
actual or symbolized models (1962, p. 215).

Evidence of identi<'cation as imitation is provided by -wo

studies pairing adult and peer models. In a study by Bandura and

Kupers (1964) in which high and low criteria of self-reinforcement

were adopted by adult and peer models in two modeling conditions,

the observers, 7 to 9 years old, matched The pa terns of self-

reinforcement of their respective models. Greater matching of

the adul' models occurred in both reinforcement, modeling conditions.

In a study of 3 to 6 year old children, Hicks (1965) found

that these subject-observers imitated the aggressive behavior of male

peer models more than adult male or female models, though 6 months

later imitation of the adult male models was greater than the imitation

among those observing the other models.

Bandura and Walters (1963) have related imitation and achieve-

ment through identification of children with their self-indulgent or

self-denying parents of different cultures. Those most self-denying

were most achieving. One study they referred to was that of Crandall,

Katkovsky, and Preston (1962), in which it was found that girls whose

fathers devoted time to participate with them in intellectual pursuits

were inclined to give up free-play time to engage in intellectual


Virtually no studies have related imitation and scholastic

achievement, although Hilgard (1964), in a review of learning theories

and methods of instruction, has recognized the potential role of

imitative learning in the classroom situation.

Negro Scholastic Achievement Following Integration
and the Role of Identification

During the past 10 years primarily, reports about Negro pupils'

progress in scholastic achievement have come out of community-wide

improved educational programs. Frequently cited are the "Banneker

Group" in St. Louis (1962) and New York City's "Higher Horizons"

project (1961). In both cities' programs measured intelligence and

scholastic achievement increased substantially over like pupils in

non-enriched programs. Where racial integration has accompanied

sweeping educational improvements the gains have been no less

significant. Two examples of these findings are reported by McQueen

and Churn (1960) for the Boston area, and Hansen (1963) for Washington,

D. C. Both Hansen (1963) and Pe igrew (1964) believe that integration

alone did not account for the Negro pupils' betterment as much as the

educational improvements and general enthusiasm engendered for learning.

In the South where educational improvement's have not been carried out

on a large scale basis like The four ci-ies cited, the reported effects

of integration have varied considerably. Partly, this has been due to

most s udies reporting changes over a shor' period of time, as deseg-

regation has proceeded slowly. Davis (1966) reported -hat in 1963 a

survey showed only 9.2 percent' of Negro publ ic school students in

SouThern and border s-ates attending desegregated schools with whites.

In a review of evidence relating -o effects of desegregation

on the scholastic performance of Negroes, Katz (1964) noted that

there was a dearth of unequivocal information. Nonetheless, i+ was

his summary impression tha' -he reports were generally favorable.

Several years previously the United States Commission on Civil

Rights had found "... some evidence -ha- the scholastic achievement

:f Negroes has improved, and no evidence of a resultant reduction in

the achievement of white students" (Southern School News, 1960).

Ka-z wen- on to observe and substantiate, through his own inves-i-

gations, that newly integrated Negro pupils face serious challenges

to their academic success. These include social threat, low

expectancy of success, and failure threat. Silberman (1964)

reviewed many instances in which desegregation had brought about

emotional turmoil, disappointment, and worsened scholastic performance.

Coles has described the psychological experiences of the first Negro

children to enter schools in Atlanta and New Orleans:

When they are in school they may experience rejection,
isolation, insult. They live under what physicians
would call highly stressful circumstances.

...each child's case history would describe a balance
of defenses against emotional pain, and some exhaustion
under it, as well as behavior which shows an attempt to
challenge and surmount it (1963, p. 5).

In 1964 Coles drew these case histories together into a book, which

very amply and movingly depicts how the scholastic achievement of

newly integrated Negro pupils depends upon acceptance by their white

peers and the extent to which they can experience with them some

feeling of equality. Many Negro children, feeling acutely their

inadequacy and failure compared with their white peers, rebel and

respond aggressively in the classroom and on the playground. Yet,

there is a body of evidence that Negro children show a greater willing-

ness to identify with their fellow whites than the whites with them.

Goodman (1952) investigated the emergence of interracial

attitudes in a sample of Negro and white nursery school children

and found a medium to high degree of awareness of social differences

in 85 percent of the children of each race. Following a review of

various studies of self-identity in Negro children, Pettigrew stated:

Racial recognition in both white and Negro children
appears by the third year and rapidly sharpens each
year thereafter. But of special significance is
the tendency in all of these studies for Negro
children to prefer white skin. They are usually
slower to make racial distinctions, frequently
choose white dolls and white friends, and often
identify themselves as white or show intense
reluctance over "admitting" they are Negro (1964,
p. 15).

Eri kson (1964), illustrating Negro children's desire to identify with

their white peers, describes a 4 year-old Negro girl in a

desegregated nursery school, who painted her self-portrait with

quantities of all white paint. Masland, et al. (1958) noted this

phenomenon in the North as well as the South, adding that white

children prefer to be identified with children of their own race.

White children's preference for identification with their white

peers had been previously no-ed by various authors, among them

Radke, Sutherland, and Rosenberg (1950), and Radke, Trager, and

Davis (1949). Once again, the process of identification, as it may

be seen in the context of Negroes' adjustmen' and scholastic per-

formance in integrated schools, seems to reflect what Bandura has

called imitation or a social facilitation effect. Particularly the

case histories of Coles (1964) suggest that Negro children's

scholastic achievement, as part of their whole school adjustment,

improves where the process is sustained.

Rationale for the Present Study

The foregoing review of literature was directed toward

interrelating previous research concerning the four major variables

of this study: imitation, intelligence, scholastic achievement, and

the subject variable of Negro and white first graders in integrated


Studies of imitation or vicarious learning now appear suffi-

cient in number to demonstrate that imitation is an-important and

pervasive type of learning in human social situations. Ye-, most

studies of imitation, such as those cited, have attempted to delineate

its characteristics or validate it as a learning process, and there-

fore, have studied gross overt behavior in experimental settings.

Consequently, there is little evidence, other than anecdotal, to

support Bandura's contention that imitation is at least as relevant

as operant conditioning to naturally occurring, human learning situations.

Significantly neglected has been an investigation of imitation in the

'real-life' setting of formal education. In the present study first

grade pupils were chosen for subjects, partly because imitation has

been most satisfactorily demonstrated among children of this age.

Although a necessary first step was to determine whether first grade

subjects would imitate adult and peer models in school related tasks,

this was not of major importance. More important was how subjects'

imitation of adult and peer models would be related to their social

adjustment and scholastic achievement.

In terms of social adjustment, two factors indicated that

first graders would imitate an adult teacher-like model more than peer

models. Most obvious of these factors is that a teacher is the class-

room authority and primary determiner of class activities and what

is learned. Secondly, Bandura has contended that imitation and

identification are synonymous. If imitation and identification are

essentially similar, first grade pupils would be disposed to imitate

an adult model most because they are in the most critical development

period of identification with adults. Of special interest was the

role of imitation in the social adjustment of Negro pupils in racially

integrated classes. Several studies have reported that Negro children

prefer to identify with white -hildren while white children prefer to

identify with those their own race. For pupils of both races, then,

social adjustment to the conditions of first grade would be found in

greatest imitation of adult -eacher-like models, second most imitation

of white peer models, and least imit'aion of Negro peer models. In

addition, -he disinclination of white children to identify with Negro

children would be expected to appear in less frequent imitation of

Negro peer models than Negro pupils' imitation of Negro peer models.

First graders' imitation was thought worthy of investigation

not only as a process of social adjustmen- or adaptation but of

intellectual and scholastic adap'a'icn as well. The relationship of

imitation to scholastic achievement' was aopcached throughh -he

controversy surrounding differences between the measured intelligence

of Negro and white children. The consistently found differences in

measured intelligence and the ensuing heredity-environment controversy

have been adduced as explanation for the racial differences in

scholastic achievement. On the basis of recent research it was

argued that the heredity-environment controversy has become an unpro-

ductive approach to investigating racial differences in scholastic

achievement. Seemingly more fruitful would be to consider intelli-

gence as the ability (ies) to adapt. When intelligence is regarded

as adaptation it appears to have more relevance to processes of

learning, such as imitation. Ye-, the theoretical relationship

between imitation and intelligence has been unclear. Piaget (Flavell,

1963) believes -hat imitation is not intelligent behavior. However,

Bandura (1965c) holds that imitation is a more thoughtful kind of

learning than Piaget's conception of it as simple mimicking. Therefore,

using Bandura's criteria of imitation, the present study attempted to

determine the relationship of first grade pupils' imitation to their

measured intelligence. Since adult white female (teacher-like) models

and white peer models were considered more potent models of imitation

than Negro peer models,it was expected that imitation of them would be

positively correlated with their measured intelligence. Because

measures of intelligencee have so consistently shown significant

positive correlations with measures of scholastic achievement, it was

expected that first grade subjects' imitation of adult models and

white peer models would be positively correlated wi'h their scholastic


Three hypotheses were p-oposed to test the expected relation-

ships between Negro and white subjects' imitation of white female

adult models, Negro peer and white peer models. Tests of these

hypotheses were expected to provide information about the social adjust-

ment or adaptation of Negro and white first grade pupils in integrated

classes. Hypotheses 4 and 5 were proposed to -est the expected

positive correlations between subjects' intelligence and subjects'

scholastic achievement as an ind'ca'ion of their adaptation in the

scholastic realm of first grade. The five hypotheses of the present

study were stated as follows:

1. Subjects of each race will 'mitate white female adult models and

peer models of each race.

2. Subjects of each race will 'mitate white female adult models

significantly more than peer models of each race.

3A. Subjects of each race will imitate white peer models significantly

more than Negro peer models.

3B. Negro subjects will imitate Negro peer models significantly more

than will white subjects.

4. Imitation of white female adult models and white peer models by

subjects of each race will be positively correlated with their

measured intelligence.

5. Imitation of white female adult models and white peer models

by subjects of each race will be positively correlated with their

measured scholastic achievement.



The methods employed in this investigation are described in

terms of the subjects, the models used in the imitation tasks, and

the procedures for measuring subjects' imitation, intelligence, and

scholastic achievement. No formal experimental design was followed.

Imitation was measured by two tasks, designated as primary and

secondary imitation tasks. Procedures for carrying out the imitation

tasks were complicated and entailed lengthy description because of

the uneven number of first grade classes and because of the detailed

nature of the primary imitation task. Measurement of subjects'

intelligence and scholastic achievement was accomplished by adminis-

tration of standardized tests.


Subjects consisted of Negro and white first grade pupils

enrolled in two elementary schools in Gainesville, Florida. Kirby-

Smith School and Idylwild Elementary School wore chosen because they

were the two most racially integrated elementary schools in Gaines-

ville during the 1966-1967 school year. This was true both in per-

centage of Negro pupils, approximately 15 percent and 17 percent

respectively, and in total number of Negro pupils. Data were obtained

from 123 pupils in each of the five first grade classes at Kirby-

Smith School, and 55 pupils in each of three fi-st grade classes at

Idylwild Elementary School. Thirty-two of 'hese subjects provided

incomplete data, so the final sample consisted of 146 subjects.

Table 1 shows the number of subjects, their age range and mean age

according to their race and sex.

Table 1

The Number, Age Range, and Mean Age of Subjects
in the Full Sample


Negro Females

Negro Males

White Females

White Males








Age Range (Months)

77 96

77 111

76 101

72 97

72 111

Mean Age (Months)






In order to test hypotheses 4 and 5 it was necessary to

select from the full sample as many Negro and white pupils as could

be matched on the basis of equal Total IQ score, and sex. The matched

sample consisted of 72 subjects, 36 Negro and 36 white. Their number,

age range and mean age, according to their race and sex, may be seen

in Table 2. The mean Total IQ of the Negro subjects in the matched

sample was 83.50, and the white subjects 86.19. A t test of this

difference yields a t equal .95, which is nons anificant.

Table 2

The Number, Age Range, and Mean Age of Subjects
in the Matched Samp e


Negro Females

Negro Males

White Females

White Males








Age Range (Months)

77 96

77 1 1

75 99

76 97

76 111

Mean Age (Months)






Mode s

There weresix models employed in the 'mitation +asks. Since

all e'ght of -he subjects' teachers were while females, the two adult

models, likewise, were while females ;n their mid-20's and aporoxi-

mately the modal age of lhe subjec-s! teachers There were two Neg-o

peer models, one male and one female, and I'kewise two while peer

models, one male and one female. The four peer models were from

another school and none had acquaintance with any of the subjects.

The peer models were selected on 'he basis of apparen- similarity 'n

physical development' and at-rac-:veness, scholastic ability and

cooperativeness. Al-oge-her, 'he six models formed two c-oups of

three models, each including one cf the adult models and both peer

models of the same sex, but different race. In subsequent tables and

figures, models are labeled in abbreviation: A (Adul-), NP (Negro

Peer), and WP (Wh te Peer). As the two groups differing in 'he sex of

peer models carried ou- their modeling tasks separately and simultaneously,

an assistant experimenter was needed. The assistant experimenter was an

advanced graduate student in psychology.


Three kinds of data: 1. frequencyy of imitation, 2. scholastic

achievement test scores, and 3. intelligence 'est scores)were obtained

n this order from all subjects a' separate, successive intervals

between April 1, 1967, and 'May 15, 1967. Each kind of data was

obtained between 8:30 A. V. and C1:30 A. M. when the subjects were

most rested and able 'o ccncen-ra'e.

Scholastic achievement tes's were administered by +he subjects'

teachers because of the time consuming nature o4 the tes-s. Each

teacher comple-ed the test administration during Ac-il, 1967. Testing

at the same time assured that scores were based uDon the same number

of months school a"endance that year, and comparable from class to

class. All other da+a were collected by the author and his assistant.

Imitation Tasks

Two tasks were employed in order 'c determine how frequently

the subjects would imitate each of the -'hee models. A second imitation

task, br eLe' n na -ue, as i- ude- eC_-se of dif iculty in

genera 'z'ng about results from a single task. The modeling parad'gc

-n wh'ch hey we-e based 's one cf Th-ee described by Beadu-a 'n which

Ihe behav'o- of -"e mode s:

S...ay e c" p-evicusly lea-ned -espcnses -ha-
maech D3ecise y c- beaj some -ese' ance 'o those
exh'b ed by 'he model. This -es-cnse cac'isa 'on
eLeec' can be d's incuished frcm 's'nhibo'on when
-"e behav'o- 'n ques'on 's no ''ke v -o have :n-
cL--ed j -'shmen- a-d e-efc-e, 2"y -C-ease in
rescs' v' y 's no= a-r'b._'ab e c he -educ`'on
Sih'b;mc-y resec-ses (196:a, 3. 32').

m ec ae.y before The exDe '~en-e-s aed models a r'ved a+

The schc:5s 'c ca ry ou -'-e irm'a'cn -asks The 'eachess o' -wo

classes in-e-changed -heir Dup' s so -ha" all female subjects 'e-e "n

one c assroom and all male sub ec-s 'n he oche-. Sepa-a-'on o4

sub ec's by sex was ccopl ca'ed s'nce -he-e were five classes 'n o-e

school and Th-ee in The a-he- s' oc;, c- an uneven -'"be' 'n each.

In the school .' h f ve classes, .'.o grcuDs oL -..'o classes each were

inte-changed by sex. A fif'h c ass -emained. In -he school w"h

'hree classes, one croup of -wo classes was 'nqe-chanced by sex. In

th: school a Third class -emailed. However, because of the e'--'ve

scarc'y of Negro oup'Is, i was des'rable no- tc ignore The f''h

and third classes, bu4 -o draw -he Negro pup''s from them and include

-he 'egr pup' s 'n The in-erchanged classes. The fif-h a'd th'rd

c'asses each school were The leas- 'neeg-aed of The firs- grade

c'asses. The Neg-o Duo'Is co these -.o leas' 'negc-a-ed classes

joined one of 'he "n-erchanged classes according -o -hei' sex.

Thereby, frc- The e'goh f'rs- grace school classes, Three subjec'

cgouos w..e-e fcmed w'- h ecc, a :cs's'ng o' cGe a I female subjec-

class and one all male subject' class. In Group I there were 45

subjects, in Group II 'here were 46 subjects, and in Group III there

were 55 subjects.

When the two classes of each group were settled in their

chairs, the model group, whose peer models were of the same sex as

the subjects, then entered the classroom and proceeded with the

modeling tasks. Both tasks, together, required each class approxi-

mately 30 minutes to complete on each of the two experimental days.

All imitation task procedures were identical for male and female

subject classes.

Primary Imitation Task

The primary imitation task consisted of drawing colored

geometric figures. Two at a time the models stood at the classroom

chalkboard before the subjects and drew the geometric figures in

either red, blue, or yellow chalk. At each drawing models stated the

color they would use, but said nothing at any other 'ime. Appendix A -

Practice describes how models' behavior was made uniform prior to

carrying out the imitation tasks. The colored figures drawn by the

models had been pre-designed by the author and drawn on separate

programs for each of the models. By turning the numbered pages of

their programs the models knew when to draw each figure, as well as

what color and shape each figure was to be drawn.

Each observing subject was provided a pad of paper and

sharpened red, blue and yellow pencils and asked to draw the figure

just drawn by one of the models, or one of their own. The subjects'

blue pencils had erasers. Their stapled pads of plain white paper

were 51 inches by 81 inches. Each contained 16 pages, numbered

beginning with the second page from one to fifteen. The first,

unnumbered page was for subjects to write their names and to make

a practice drawing.

Fifteen times on each of two successive mornings the models

arose in pairs from chairs placed before the subjects and drew the

geometric figures. On both experimental days, then, this imitation

task provided thirty imitation trials. On each experimental day

there were ten different figures, all ten of which were drawn by each

of the models, although in a different color and order. On each of

the thirty trials the two figures simultaneously drawn were never

the same shape or color. Figures 1 and 2 show the ten different

geometric figures on experimental days 1 and 2, respectively, in the

order they were drawn by the three models and observed by the subjects.

The color of each figure is indicated by the capitalized first letter

of the words red (R), bluP (B), and yellow (Y). Since the imitation

tasks were carried out with three groups of subjects, this made

possible counterbalancing of figure color and order of drawing for

the three models and model pairs. This was easily accomplished by

models trading programs from which they drew the figures. The

counterbalancing by groups and models is indicated at the top of

Figures 1 and 2.

Secondary Imitation Task

The secondary imitation task consisted of estimating the

number of dried beans in each of two bottles. One bottle contained

Figure 1. Figures Drawn ir -he
the Three Models in Each of the
1 for the Three Subject Groups.

Prima-y Imitation Task by Pairs
Two Vodel Groups on Experimental



















15 -















Figure 2. Figures Drawn in the
Three Models in Each of the Two
the Three Subject Groups.

Primary Imitation Task by Pairs of the
Model Groups on Experimental Day 2 for

























R \









140 beans, the other 60. On each experimental day one of the bottles

was first shown to the models by the experimenter. Each model stated

his (her) estimate, as if guessing for the first time, and wrote it on

the chalkboard in red chalk. The bottle was then shown to the subjects

and they were requested to write whichever of the models' estimates

seemed most accurate, or an estimate of their own. On the second

experimental day the other bottle of beans was used. The sum of

scores on this task, then, consisted of two estimates by each of the


Estimates made by the models for the larger bottle (140

beans) were 100, 70, and 40 beans. Estimates for the smaller bottle

(60 beans) were 40, 30, and 20 beans. Thus, with both bottles,

estimates presented by the models were lower than the real quantities,

with the average estimates being one-half -he real quantity. Model

estimates lower than the real quantity were chosen in order to bring

them into a range appearing reasonable 'o the subjects. In a similar

task with elementary school subjects, Musselman (1967) used a jar

containing 500 beans and found the mean estimate in a control group

to be 275.

Table 3 shows the bean estimates made by the adult, Negro

peer, and whi e peer models on both experimental days before the male

and female subject classes of the three subject groups.

Appendix A describes additional details of the procedure

including models' practice of the imitation tasks, and instructions to

the subjects.

Table 3

Bean E, 7mations by the Three Models in the Male and
Female Peer Model Groups on Experimental Days 1 and 2 for
Male and Female Subject Classes of the Three Subject Groups

Day 1 Day 2 Day 1 Day 2 Day 1 Day 2

Male Subjects 100" 40 70C 30 40* 20
Group I
Female Subjects 20 40* 30 100 40 70*

Male Subjects 40* 20 1CO* 40 70* 30
Group II
Female Subjects 40 70* 20 4C* 30 100*

Male Subjects 70* 30 4C* 20 100 40
Group III
Female Subjects 30 100* 40 7C* 20 40*

* Estimates made 'o the largest bct-le.

Intelligence and Scholastic Achievemen- Tests

Intelligence of the subjects was estimated by Level 1 of the

Ca ifornla Short-Form Test cf Mental Vaturity (1963 Rev'sion). This

recent revision provides seven sub-scores called factor pure by the

test's authors. Milholland's review of this test in Buros (1965)

indicates that it would be inaccurate -o make judgements on the basis

of these sub-scores because of their doub+ful validity. Consequently,

these scores were not obtained. Additionally, however, the specific

sub-scores were summed to more conventional IQ scores, accepted in this

study as estimates of intelligence: Language 10, Non-Language IQ, and

Total IQ. The test was administered to the eight first grade classes

during the first two weeks of May, 1967.

Scholastic achievement was estimated by the Stanford Achieve-

ment Test, Primary I Battery (196A Revision). This test was administered

to the subjects by their teachers during the next to last month of the

1966-1967 school year. The test yields stanine scores in six scholastic

areas entitled: Word Meaning, Parag-aph Meaning, Vocabulary, Spelling,

Word Study Skills, and Arithmetic. No total or average achievement

score is ordinarily obtained. However, for purposes of the present

study, the specific achievement area stanines were summed to a total

score. Teachers' scoring of these tests was checked by the author.

Scorinq and Analyses

For the primary imitation task each of the drawings (or lack

of them) of all subjects were scored as imitative of one of the three

models or non-imitative. In no case was an imitation versus non-

imitation judgement based upon poorly drawn figures. However, if

a figure was drawn similar in shape but notcolor to that drawn by one

o' the models, it was scored as partial Imitation. Upon scoring, it

was found that a distinction could be made between non-imitation and

creative non-imitation. The criteria of non-imitation were no drawing

on a given trial, a less than one-half complete figure, or repetition

of a previous figure. The criteria of creative non-imitation were

obvious elaboration of a figure, either in shape or color, or a

distinctly different original drawing, e.g., Batman, a house, or a ship.

A total of eight categories of imitation and non-imitation were derived from

this task: complete and partial imitation of the adult, Negro peer,

and white peer models, creative non-imitation, and non-imitation. In

subsequent tables and figures the eight categories are labeled: A,

(A), NP, (NP), WP, (WP), CNI, NI.

There was no scoring of partial imitation on the secondary

imitation task. Subjects' estimates, exactly the same as any of the

three models,were scored as imitative. All o'her estimates were scored

as non-;mitative. Four categories of imitation and non-imitation were

derived from this task: imitation of each of the three models, and

non-imitation. Labeling of categories in tables and figures is the

same as for the primary imitation task.

Imitation scores were frequency counts, and they were not

normally distributed. To determine hypothesized significant differences

in imitation of models both imitation tasks were analyzed by Chi-Square

(McNemar, 1960). Wherever Chi-Square values in tables indicate a

negative direction,this is shown by (-). Since the secondary imitation

task yielded only two scores by each subjec-, or non-continuous data,

analyses of thesedata were limited to Chi-Square and its related

nominal scale correlation, the Contingency Coefficient, "C".2 The data

yielded by the primary imitation task met criteria of the Pearson

Hypotheses 2, 3A, and 3B were tested by a one sample Chi-Square
technique described by Underwood (1954). The Chi-Square methods
employed were reviewed according to the criteria of Lewis and
Burke (1949) and found acceptable.

2 "C" is a statistic which ranges in value from 0 to a maximum of plus
1,depending uoon degrees of freedom. The directionality of its
value must be inferred. Ils statistical significance determined by
Chi-Square. "C" is not directly comparable to Pearson r.

Product %Momen' Co-eeiaicon, '"". An eauoticna, restriction on -he

analyses of ,e seconcday imita-io" task was 'moosed by the small

frequency of im'H'a'on by each sub ec ''s requi-ed combining of

categories 'o develop suf'*cien'ly earge frequencies. Consequently,

while da-a f'-c The p'-'a-y im'Ia ion ask ,we-e ana'vsed according 'o

subject s specific race and sex, e.g., \eg-c females, da-a rom -he

secondary im''a ion -ask ./ere comb'nec and analysed excesss hypc-hesis

1) accc-dinag subjec-s' se:ara-e -ace and sex, e.g., Nego-es, females.

Sccres de-'ved `rom the intel'iaence tes-s and schclas-ic

achievement tests .'ere con-inuous a'd ncr~a!ly d stribu-ed, thereby

amenable -o caae r'c ssa is-'ca' m"e-ods.

There w,'e-e ',.'o k'nds c' c:elm inary analyses. Firs' presented

a-e the -e 'abili y cceffic'ens o' al subjects' im'-ation of the

three models and non-i-7tation for both 'm;ta-ion -asks c" exoerimental

days 1 and 2. co- The pr'-ary im' a 'cn task subjects' e'gh4 imitation -

non-'*'ta ion 'recuencies c" the f'-s- expe mentala day w.e-e ccrreladed

w,'h 'heir frecuec' es on the second exoe-imen-a' day by Pea-scn r.

Fo- +he secondary *m'a-;on 'ask "e decree 'o which subject's imi' aed

' e s-me model c- non-i ila ed on both exoer:men al days was de-ermined

by -he Con-incency Coeffc'cen Second, the three subjec- groups'

m'ta 'cn and non-' a-ion frequencies on both 'asks are presented.

The s-a is-ical s'gnr finance between grcps' frequencies of imi-a 'on

and non-imi-a ion was determined by a Friedman Two-,ay Analysis of

Variance by Ranks 'Xf ) (Siegel, 1956).

Hypo-hes's 1, ccnce-n'qg -he cccu--ence of Tmi'ation, was

de-ermined by visual observation. Since There was no exoe-'mental

constraint against non-imit.tion, any migrationn of all models on each

task by any number of subjects confirms this hypothesis. In addition,

the statistical significance of the difference between all subjects'

imitation and non-imitation on both imitation tasks was tested by


Hypothesis 2, concerning frequency of imitating the adult

models versus peer models o' either race by subjects of both races,

was tested by first summing frequency of imitation of the models

on both experimental days for both tasks. For the primary imitation

task significance of the difference between frequency of imitating

the adult models versus peer models was tested by comparison of complete

imitation, and a comparison of complete plus partial imitation.

Statistically significant Chi-Square values expressing differences

in the predicted direction would confirm 'his hypothesis.

Hypotheses 5A and 3B, comparing subjects' imitation of the

peer models of each race, was tested by Chi-Square in the same manner

as hypothesis 2. Statistically significant Chi-Square values resulting

from greater imitation on both tasks of white peer models than Negro

peer models by subjects of both racps would confirm hypothesis 3A.

Hypothesis 3B would be confirmed by statistically significant Chi-

Square values resulting from greater imitation of the Negro peer models

by Negro subjects than white subjects.

Hypothesis 4, regarding the correlation between frequency

of imitation and measured intelligence, would be confirmed if, for

subjects of both races, coefficients were positive and statistically

significant between subjects' imitation of the adult models and white

peer models and their Total IQ's. Pearson r coefficients were calculated

between The criteria of :nteil gence and frequency of imitation in

the primary imitation 'ask. For 'e seconda-y imitation -ask the

Contingency Coefficient was employed. Pos''ive Pearson r and

Contingency Coefficients resulted where subjects of greater intelli-

gence 'han others imitated 'he models no-e frequently than others.

HypoThesis 5, regarding 'he correlation between frequency

Df subjects' imitation and 'heir scholas-ic achievement would be

confirmed if, for subjects of both races, coefficients were positive

and statistically sign'fican' between subjects' "mita icn of the adult

models and whi-e peer models and +heir total achievement 'est scores.

The same methods of correlation were used for The Drimary and

secondary imitation tasks as hypothesis 4.

The .05 level of sa 's ical sign:f'cance was employed in all

of -he analyses.



Pre minary Analyses

The rel ab' i-y 'f all subjects' "m'a-ion and non- m ta-,on

n the primary and secondary im'-a- n -asks is shown in Tables 4 and 5.

Table 4 shows -e iabil'y cce fic'e-s (Pea-son r) of imitation,

and non-imi a'"cn on -he primary 'm'-a ion 'ask according c the

subjects' race and sex, and The 'u l sample. The coef;cieits are

further specific 'c cor- e-, Dart'a!, mo.eD e plus partial m'ta icn

?f each of 'he 'h'ee m-de c, crea ,'ve non-'mi a4 n, non-imita-ion,

and the we ca'eco-'es c' "mn--'m '"a'en aken 'cge'her. Ccef'cients

range from -.15 to +.?5, : ih c- y w.'c he s'x-y ccefficien-s

be'nc negat ve. 'c--y-eg'" .' ie s'x'y ceLLicen-s ae statistically

signif'can-. '.'os rel'ab'e sl b ec-ss e.'. e ma' e Da icular y whi e

males: most re 'ably im'ta-ed ..,ere +he adu;h models. The overall

impression is that subjects' imi-a-icn and ncn-im'taticn on -he

primary task was moderately re cble when the second exDerimental day

was immediately ccnsecu-ive to The first.

Table 5, showing Con-ingency Coeff'c'ents of reliabil'ty for

The secondary imita-ion tasK, demcnstra-es be res ric-ed information

yielded by -his ask. Subject ca-eor es were necessarily combined

to form caeco- es of boeh races pe- sex, c-d b'th sexes per race.

Reliability of these subjects' imitation or non-imitation was inter-

preted in terms of whether their imitation of one of the models or

non-imitation was the same on both experimental days. It will be

seen that all coefficients are positive, ranging from .02 to .25.

Reliability for males and the full sample is statistically significant,

with reliabil ity for the white subjects approaching significance at

The .10 level. These reliability coefficients are not directly compar-

able sta'islically to those of the primary task as 'hey are based upon

only one degree of freedom, which allows a maximum coefficient of .71.

However, it would appear thae subjects' imitation of the models or

non-imitation of 'he secondary imitation task was only minimally reliable.

Table A

Reliabiliy' Primary Imi at;on Task

Model Negro Negro White White Full
Imitated Females Vales Females Males Samole

A .56 .74 .36* .64* .56*
(A) .57* .60 .55* .55' .54*
A J -.15 .4 .26 .48* .7
NP .45 .50* .C7 .61 .44'
(NP) .93' .4 .29y- .66' .54*
NP + (NP) .49* .47* -.0 .54 .36*
WP .27 .42* .5J' .43*
(WP) .3 .75 .65' .57* .61*
',P + (WP) .16 .32 37' .37
CNI .61* .22 .4* .84* .82*
NI .38 .7 69 .74* .67*
CNI + NI .38 85 .78:* .2 .75*

p < .05*
Pearson r Correlation

Table 5

Re ability Secondary Imitation Task

Negroes .20
Whites .17
Females .02
Males .25
Full Sample .16*

p < .05*
Contingency Coefficien'

It will be recalled that the 'wo imitation tasks were carried

out with three groups of subjects. This allowed counterbalancing of

figure color and order of figure drawing for the three models in the

primary imitation task. The three independent groups of subjects may

be regarded as p-ov'ding two replications of the imitation tasks.

Tables 6 and 7 show the percentage of imita ion of models and non-

imitation in the three groups on each of the tasks. In addition, the

mean percentages of the three groups are oresen'ed. The frequencies

of imitation and non-imitation in these 'ables are expressed in per-

,-'ages because the 'hree groups were unequal in number of SL-' Zts.

Frequencies from which these percentages were calculated are shown in

Appendix B.

Chi-Square analysis of -he differences between frequencies

in the primary figure drawing task (Table 6) yielded an overall value

of 188.71. With df = 14, this was significant beyond the .001 level.

This significant difference was due to differences in frequencies of

model imitation, creative non-imitation, and non-imitation, and not

differences between groups. A statistical test of the difference

between groups resulted in a XJ va ue of .25. Wi'h df = 2, this showed

a high probability of occurrence by chance, p >.96. Consequently,

it may be asserted -hat figure color and order of figure drawing for

the "hree mode's did not have a significant effect; and that imitation

and non-imita'ion by -he hhree groups was much alike.

Table 6

Percentages of Comalete and Par'ial Imitation of models,
Creative Non-lmi 'a"on and Non-mnitation on the Primary
lmi"a-icn Task (Exoerimenal Days
Combined) by the Th'ee Subjec- Groups

A (A) :D (NP) WP (WP) CNI NI
Group I 2C.22 1V.?.4 11.1! 8.52 16.22 9.53 4.6- 13.56

Group II 1V.59 13.1^ 14.7- 11.73 16.09 14.09 3.49 6.97

Group III 24.06 7.41 18.47 5.22 18.29 6.62 6.93 13.00

X, 21.15 0.95 15.96 ..7 17.24 9.90 5.15 11.27
i, Ii, 1

Chi-Square analysis of the differences between f-equenc'es

in the secondary bean es-im--'on ask (Table 7) yielded an overall

value of 4.62. With df = 6, this was not significant. The difference

between groups was likewise not significant. With df = 2, the X value

of .50 showed a high probability of occurrence by chance, p >.93. For

both imitation tasks, -hen, it appears 'ha' the pattern of imitation

if the models and non-;mination was a stable phenomenon among the three

groups of first grade subjects.

--b e 7

Percen-aces o 'mi-a-'on o' Vcde!s and \cn-!mitac on on the
Secondary im'-at'on Task
(Exoer'men'a' Days Ccob"ned) by -he -hree S!b ec G-cL -s

AX ',,P NI

G-ou '.9 14.4 7.78 5 .39

3-cup 24.LC 9.73 5.22 5'.09

ous I ;' ''.5- 1 .3 5 .C9

,. .5 1 .3 0 56.51

In order a'- -hey be e'., .e c- QDc_ :'e review,, -he mr n

''s and mean scholas--'c chie.e-"n' -S- s-'res c" subjec's of ec:h

race and sex 'n -e a'c'"ed sa~?'^ arc u s e are Desen-ed ."

AoDend'x E.

P'a n Fi"drcs

Con-'ras's Beg .:.een Sub ies' ; a

Hypc'es s p-e' e'-s of bc+h -acues .ou d

r"' -. -e ,ahi' e -e-; e e2jr" 2 D; peer' cde cf bc' -

n bo-'h -asxs. iyDo- es' _-- "'ec "n a: resoec's. b 'es

3 and 9, acd -he'- g-ap-c7 re-'ese--a cs, ciL-u-es 3 a- hc.: -he

percentage 'mi-a''cn "-d non-' -' '-he sub:ec-s on 'he r'ma-y

and secondary -asks. Freqjenc'es from which '"ese cercen-ages .,ere

:alcu a-ed and C '-Sc'ares compu ed e-e shc..,n in Append'x Subjec-

-eco' es re a-"e -"e 'n bch '-ab es a"d figu-es so 'ha- an 'n-''a

-ec- ccmDar 'sc" "wy be made be-' ee -he -..,,c tsks in -erms o0 "'-a-

and ncn-'* '-- .

On the Drima-y figu-. dra-aw' ,subje -s of ooth races and

sexes displayed complete and pa-t'al '" ation of +he adult, Necro pee-,

and whi'e peer models, creative non-im!ia ion, and non-imi action. Among

all subjects crea 've non-imi at'o- was least frequen- and imitation of

-he adult models The most 'requen-. See 'able 8 and Figure 3. 'W'i-h df =

21, an chained Chi-Square value -' 162.'2 deDonshraeed overall' signi-

,icar- di"e-ences among the frequencies =-om wh'ch The percentages in

Table S were calcula-ed, D <.001. Th*s difference was due to imita'on

of the -cdels and 'he twc kinds of non-imi a ion responses. A'X2 value

of 1.05 "nd'ca ed tha' -he difference between subjects c' d"ferent

race and sex .:as no- s'cn -:an-, ~ .TO. When subjects' complete plus

par ial imia n o' the threee -cdels cont-asted with the'r two

kinds of non-im'a ion i- '..,as apDarent 'here .%as s'gnifican-ly more

mitation Than "on- m a-; o (2 = 975.90, df = 5, p 001`.

As in the primary 7mita-in tasK. subject s of both races and

sexes displayed i'- a 'cn c he 'hree mude:s and non-imitation on the

secondary bean eslima icn 'ask. Among all subjects, imitation o' the

'.h'e peer models wias leas- f-eque- ncn-;m"'a'i on -e mos- frequen-.

See Tbl!e 9 and Figcre 4. ''i'h df = _, 'e chained Chi-Square value

cf 1,.77 d'd no' de ons-a'e overall a s'cn; fian-- di ference among the

f-equenc'es from which -he De-centages 'n Table 9 were calculated.

None heless, as '..'i I he c-imary 'mi'a-'cn task, there was a s
e fec+ due o "mih-a'on of models and non-imita on ('- = 9.98, df = 2,

D <.CI) and, therefore, no significant diffe-ence between subjects of

differen- race and sex. Unlike findings in -he primary 'mI-a-ion -ask,

subjects displayed significantly -,re rnon-:mi -a icn han imitation

C(2 = 16.24, df = 3, D < .01). I1 should be noted, however, -hat had

Table 8

Percentageslof Complete and Partial Imitation of
Models, Creative Non-Imitation and Non-imitation on the Primary
Imitation Task (Experimental Days Combined) by
Subjects cf Each Race and Sex


Negro Females 24.12 11.50 17.04 8.63 16.37 6.64 2.21 13.50

Negro Males 21.23 12.55 18.42 8.95 15.75 8.54 .93 13.62

White Females 22.95 8.61 15.74 7.00 20.75 9.27 3.80 11.87

White Males 18.71 12.19 14.76 9.26 15.00 11.95 9.03 9.08

SBased on all subjects, N = 146.

partial imitation been scored as non-imitation in the primary

imitation 'ask, percentages of imitation of models and non-imitation

would have been much more nearly the same in both imitation tasks.

Table 9

'ercentages of Imitation of Models, and Non-Imitation
on the Secondary Imitation Task (Exper'mental Days Combined)
by Subjects of Each Race and Sex

Negro Females 23.33 23.33 13.33 40.00

Negro Males 24.00 8.00 12.00 56.00

White Females 23.00 15.00 13.00 49.00

White Males 16.07 7.14 8.93 67.86

Based on all subject, N
Based on all subjects, N

= 146.

C -


!.1 i

Z $

2 -- - _

-,- O n..m L-h 7,,.,
-- *.I' N -

!'oiJi- lmi-!^ 'uo ii ;1t _o seSeues3jd






z C-


-- c





c; -


0 r

4- +U

O >


*- C


0 "J

C --
- L

-- >
- LJ

-.. -

C --

0 E

- +-
7 --


C x
*C-- C

-- L.

C '0

'- C
r 3




------ -







S' -- 4-
0 0 0 a '

u ,- '- - 7
----.... a_ s '--

i0 ,\\ -\^< \\\0\\\\\'_ .- r

,^^s^^^^^\\\\\\\\\\\\\ I

I I I Ii i I I, ( ,, [
1'-- L -; *" .. ..

uo [ I_--'4- .' |-uo\ ''J !' ;_--__.', 1.-o Se ?'-_ -ed

LVyp' :s 2 p'ed'c-ec 'at subjects of both races wou;d

mitate the whi'- female adult m: e's s'gn 'can--ly more than The peer

models o' eilhe- race on bcTh 'asks. y-Do-hes;s 2 .was confirmed com-

pletely wi-h the "imaa~v' mia"ion 'ask and Dar'ially w'h the

secondary :mi a'on eask. Tab!es 10 and 11 sho.' Ch'-Scuare values

ccnTras' ng d;fLerences in Lrecuency x* subjects' im aticn of -he

adul- models ,'-h th 'r i; a- 'n o D'e pee' models of each race on

-he Drima-y and seccnd27s \ '"'2-'cn -asks. All Ch-Square values 'n

Tables 10 and 11 are in -,e d-Pec-'cn o-ed'c-ed by hypothes's 2, hence

DOS i e.

On 'he D-'arrv i 'aton 'as'< three cf s'xteen Chi-Squa-e

values w'.ere no sc';f:can*. \ec'-c "ales dd no i"i-a e The adu t

rcdel they observed sign; f anr y m'-e -han The Negro peer model They

obse-ved :.,hen CCmDle-e "m' 'c' *'esOcnses '..e'e conr-as-ed, bu' d'd

..'hen ccmlee ''s ca'-' ma2n 'espDnses .,e-e ccn'ras-ed. h.hen

mrnDeJe and ccroDlee olus ?a-''l ;nm'a' cn -esoonses ,.,:e'e ccrnras'ed,

S'was no ed t"- .'.h:'e fe-D'es d' -c- ''-ae the adult' model h'-ey

csserved sicni- c-e "an 'e : e e-r mode! hey Tbserved.

These Three non s'cif'ica' Ch '-Squ -e values were due -o differences

in imr'atlicn be`' ,een the wo exes of each a. ''hen the sub ec's

f di erent sex .,:ere ccrmbnec fc~m'ng less sp- ific sub ec- ca-e-

gories, Negroes and w.'hi-es, s 'nificant c;fferences were obtained in

all Three ins-ances. Consequen-'v, hyDoThesis 2 was completely con-

firmed by Negro and wh:'e subjects' 'mi a-ion on he primary

mitaticn -ask.

~c e 10

Chi-Scqare v* ues Con rasti n Frequency cf C 'p ete
Id Complete P'us Partial Imi-a 'on of the Adult 'cdels 'h
Imit t:on of the Peer Mcdels of Each Race (Exper'mental Days Combined)
on the Primary Imita-ion Task by Subjects of Each Race and Sex

A + (A) -
NP + (NP)


5. 4"


14.4C *


6. 7*


(.65 3


A + (A) -
IP + (WP)





, <-.C5', D <. **,

S Based on a c, ij c s, ': = '.
2 ) =
2 X = 5.52o, Cct-as f 'od:-
S 2 5.84', Ccn a 's cf -ode m 'm"
c sex.
= 4.10*, Contras- 'f cI de s im'
c- sex.

ed Dy all Negro subjects regardless

-ec by all whi e subjects regardless

-ecs by all whi e subjec-s regardless

Ch:-Square ValuesI Conq ras's : F'ec-e-cy -f Imi--ation of
Ae Adult Vodels ,.i -h m -' c c f e Pee- modelss o' Each Race
(ExDer'men al Days Ccnb'ned) _n -he Secondarv Imitation Task by
Subjec-s of Ech Race and Sex


A ,!,P

Negroes 2.12 2.80

Whi-es '.06

Females .2

Males -2 4.26'

df = 1, D <.C5", D <.:1"D

1 Based on !lI ubjecos, N



Ma I es


Wh' te


20. 12**-

- 73**

' .^-V-V

= 145.

Subjects' imitation on the secondary imitation task fails to

confirm completely hypothesis 2. Only whi-e subjects and male

subjects imitated the adult models significantly more than the peer

models of either race. However, Negro subjects' and female subjects'

greater imitation of the adul' models than white peer models approached

significance a+ the .10 level. Data in Appendix B show that all four

instances on nonsignificance were due to differences in Negro females'

imitation. In this respect Negro females' imitation differed on the

primary and secondary imitation -asks.

Hypothesis 3A, which predicted significantly greater imitation

of white peer models than Negro peer models by subjects of both races,

was largely unconfirmed. Tables 12 and 13 show Chi-Square values

contrasting differences in frequency of subjects' imitation of the

white peer models with their imi+a'ion of the Negro peer models on

the primary and secondary imi-a-ion tasks.

Table 12

Chi-Square Values Contrasting Frequency of Complete and
Complete Plus Partial Imi'at'on of The Negro and White Peer
Models on -he Primary Imitat'on Task (Experimental Days Combined)
by Subjects of Each Race and Sex

NP WP NP + (NP) WP + (WP)
Negro Females (-) .06 (-) .66
Negro Males (-) 1.56 (-) 1.36

White Females 1C .2S*. 2 /15.02" A3
,White Mal es n 2.82

df = 1
p <.05*, p <.01*0 p < .001N

Based on all subjects, N = 146.
2 2
2 / = 5.92*, Contrast of models imitated by all white subjects
regardless of sex.
3 = 15.88***, Contras' of models imitated by all white subjects
regardless of sex.

Tab.e 13

Ch -Square values' Con-'.S g Fequency of Imia icn o' -he
Negrc and ','hie Peer Vodels on -he Secondary
m!ia ion -ask (ExDe-'rmenal Days Comb'ned) by
Subjec-s of Each Race and Sex

NP ',P

\ecrces (-) .
.',h -es (-) .64

Va es

df =

Based on subje:-s, \ = '6.

On -he Dr'mary f'gure drawing 'mi a'on -ask Negro females'

and makes' :"'a 'on o' "he Dee' "ode.s con-rad'c's hypothesis 3A.

Ta-- 's, Neg-c subjec-s 'r'+a+ed `e \ecgc Dee- -ode s more 'ha" The

wh :e peer models, Thcuch no' s 'cg can ly. ',','h ;e 'ema e and male

subjects' im'*ation o' 'he pee' models was ;n +~e coedic'ed direc o",

al hough only white femaless "mi-a-ed -he wh*'e pee- mcdel thev

observed s'gn'fican-ly mo'e Than -he \:eg-o oeer model -hey observed.

However, if bo'h 'ema e and male subjec- ca-egcr:es are combined lor

white subjects, 'he two resuinc Ch'-Scuare values are significant

as shc'.:n in "able 12. ThaE 's, w.h'e sjbjec s, unl *ke he Negrc

subjects, "m'*a-ed The %.,'' e oee- mode s s'n 'f;can ly mo'e -'an the

Negro Deer mode s.

On -he secondary bean ess'ma icn m'rat'on 'ask only males

imi-a-ion of -he peer models ' 'n The ,redic'ed direc ion, al hcuch

c s gn'oca ly. \egc-ces' and females' !mi a'cn ,we-e ccn rad'c-ory

to hypothesis 3A, in that these subjects imitated the Negro peer

model more than the white peer model, although not significantly

more. As in hypothesis 2, a contrast was noted between female

subjects' imitation on 'he primary imitation task and their imitation

on the secondary imitation 'ask. White females' significantly

greater imitation of the wh'e peer model they observed than Negro

peer model they observed on the primary imitation task was clearly

not reflected in their imitation of these peer models on the

secondary imitation task. In other respects, subjects' imitation

was no- inconsis'en- on the two imi-at'on tasks.

Hyoo-hesis 3B predicted that Negro subjects would imitate

Negro peer models significantly more than would white subjects. On

the primary imitationn task Negro males and Negro subjects in general

did imitate the Negro peer model significantly more than did the

white males and white subjects in general. However, as Table 14 shows,

Table 14

Chi-Scuare Values Contrasting Frequency of Negro Subjects'
Imitation of the Negro Peer Models wi h Whi-e Subjects'
Imitation of the Negro Peer Models (Experimental Days
Combined) on the Primary Imitation Task

NP NP + (NP)
Females (N- W) (-) .11 (-) .80

Males (N W) 13.7 -** 12.92*'-*

Full Sample (N W) 4.32* 4.41*

df = 1

p <.05*, D < .001**

Based on all subjects, N = 146.

\ec'" fE s "' a-. -" go pee' mnoe -hey ooserved less -hen

the -...-' e e"a'es, a lhc_ no- s'cn'f'can-'y less. I le hypo-hes's

33 .was con4'-'ed by '-a'on on -'e D~'-aey "m a'n -ask, .:as

fema le subjects, once aga':, .,.hose im'-a'on dev'a-ed -rom he

'-ed'c-ed d'rec-'o". 0 -~h seccda'-y *m'a-ion 'ask Negro suojec-s

:m-ea'ed \ec-o oee- models mo'e ~"an dd *.h'e subjec s, bu- no-

:gn *'can-'y more 0(2 = L, d = > .50).

Core a-"c" of Sub ;ecs' 'm-:'-Q n'r' "-' 'r In&e' l ence Tes' Sccres

a-d Sc-'as' c Ac''evemen Tes= Sco-es

Ie .,o' ae ecaller `,a- ypo-hese~ and 5, recard'nc -he

measured n oe 'gence and schco'es'c chieve9en- of subjects, were

-es ed ,'.ih a sa-Dle of 36 \eg'o a"d 36 .*,, e sLbjec s -a ched 'n

To-a IQ and sex. Hypo-hes's sz ed'c-ed 'a im"a-'on of -he wh' e

female adu m-:ls and ..2h'e Dee- hode's by su:bec-s of bc-h races

would be Dos '' veL y cc- -e'a-eJ .. -. -'' measured "'nell'gence.

Tab es '5 and '" sc.., cc'--e -''on ceL c e' ', earson r and Co'"r-

;ency, resoec've'v., be- ,..een -ode s ',a ed and non- mr' asion on he

D'-mary and secondary '-'ae'cn asks cnd To-al I! of subjects 'n -he

-a-ched sample. Apoenc'x B '"c'udes -ab es sh:..:ing the correlaicn

coe"fic;en-s be'..een sbjec's' :'--a- C" c' -e -cdels and non-

-"'-a'on cn The c''-a-y m-*-:'cn asK and -'e'* \on-_ancuage, Language,

s we!; as o'al IQ's. Included a'e -'_e correa''on coeffc'ents Lor

The full sample on h .e w.c 'm-a"cn -asks. The sreg-h and direc-lon

of Pearscn r a-d CoC'-nge-cy CceLf'C'e--s depended upo- The ex-en- -o

S'ch subjects *e m'-a ed cer-a'n r"de!s mcre -equjen-lly 'han did

o'he~ subCjecs were -hcse ,.hose IC scc-es ..e-e h:Sher -anq o her sub ecos.

On the primary figure drawing imita' ion -ask hypothesis 4 .as

largely unconfirmed. Only white female and male subjects' imitation of

the adult models demonstrated a significan- positive correlation with

'heir Total IQ's. In addi licn, a'I subjects' non-imi aticn, and

creative non-'mi+at'on plus non-;mi'ation showed negative correlations

with their Total IQ's, with the negative correlations of white males

being signif'can-. Although not hypothesized, it was anticipated thae

:rea~ive non-;m'-a icn would be oos' vely correlated with subjects'

To al ICQ'. This an~ cioa ed positive correlation approached signi-

ficance for Negro females only, and was the single positive correlation

coefficien- among all Negro subjects on the primary imitation task

'hat approached sicnif'cance in testing hypothesis 4.

S'nce 'he matched sample (N = 72) consisted of Negro and white

subjects whose mean Toeal IQ was 86.10 as compared to the full sample

(N = 146) mean Total !Q of 9V.26, i+ may be asked, 'What were the

correlation cceff'cien s be ween imi' aion of models and non-imi-ation

and the -c-a' IC's of The _:re 'nfe 'gen full sample?' These coeffi-

ien's, shown Append'x _, were al lew and no4 significant, exceoD

between subjects' creative ncn-'m'a ion and 'heir Language, Non-

Language, and To al IQ's. On "he basis of results from 'he primary

imi'alion -ask, -hen, '' would appear ha wh, e females' and males'

imitation o'' he adult mode's may be adaptive behavior, bu- only for

those subjects whose intelligence was less than average. Fcr more

n el Igen4 subjects (thcse subjects in the full sample) creative non-

mita-ion, in contrast to imitation oc the models, was a response of

'e most inTe!ligent subjec-s. However, this does not mean necessarily

the- crea-'ve non-'mi action was an adaptive response of these subjects.


Table 15

Corr _n Coefficients' Between Imitation of Mo .Lis, Creative
n-Imita-ion, and Non-imitation (Exper'mental Days
C _-b'ned) on the Primary Imitation Task by Subjects in
the Mached Sample2 with Their Total IQ's

Mode Negro Negro White White
Imitated Females Vales Females Males

A .3 .10 .45 .56*

(A) .11 -.1 -.06 -.20

A + (A) .16 .3 5 .56*

NP .23 .07 .07 .15

(NP) -.09 -.06 .01 07

NP + (NP) .11 .3 .08 .20

WP -.22 .15 .02

(WP) -0.03 01 -.05 -.26

WP + (WP) -.19 -.20

CNI .46 4 0.4 .16

NI -.22 -.46 -.58*

CNI + NI -.06 -.C0 -.46 -.46*

p <.05'

Pearson r

2N = 72, 36 airs of subjects of each race.

No partial imitation of -he white peer model; no correla'icn possible.

No creative non-imita'ion; no correlation possible.

On the secondary bean estimation imitation task Negro subjects'

imi-ation of the adul- and Necro peer models and males' imita ion

f the Negro peer model they observed showed a significant

Table 16

Corre ati, n Cceff'c ents Between Vodels Imitated and
Non-lmidation on the Secondary lim-a"'on Task
(Experi-en'al Days Combined) by Subjec-s in -he
,.Ma ched Sample2 and Their Total IQ's

Necroes hi', es Females Iales

A .23_ .16 .27 .18

NP .32- .03 .24

12 .16 (-) .05

NI (- .' (-, .1 (-) .07 (-) .19

D <.05'

Ccn ncgecy Coeff'cien-

2 N = 72; 36 pai-s of subject's each race.

positive cor' elai on ..7' h 'heir Toaal IQ's. These findings con+-ast

w' h Thcse from The r'may "mi a'on task 'n so far as Negro subjects'

station n showed a s'gnifican-c Dos:-iv correla-ion with their To-al

IQ's, whi!e whi-e sub ec-s' mi' aion d'd no-. Resul's from the two

im'a'i!cn 'asks agreed, however, in the' for subjects of both races

,nd sexes non-im' tai on was negatively correlated w;th Total IQ.

Moreover, as in The primary imitation task, when imitation and Total

IQ were correlated in the full sample coefficients were likewise

uniformly low and nonsignifican-.

Overall, it would appear that the relationship between

imitation and in-elligence remains uncertain. Slight support '.'as

gained for the p'ed;c-ed positive correla-tin be-ween Negro and whi-e

subjects' imitation of the adult models and their measured in+ell -

gence. Yet, these significant Dositive cor-elaticns were found among

the ;eE in e gent match sample only, which suggests that mita-

tion of adult figures may be adaptive behavior for children whose

mental age is approximately six years or less. By contrast, creative

non-imi'ation may be adaptive behavior for first grade subjects of

average or be-ter intelligence. The predicted positive correlations

between imi-a-ion of the whi-e peer models and measured intelligence

were not found. Convincing general support for imitation as adaptive

behavior was no+ obtained, so 'hat hypothesis 4, as stated, was uncon-


Hypothesis 5 predicted that imitation of the adult female

models and white peer models by subjects of both races would be

positively co-rela-ed wi*h their scholastic achievement. In hypothesis

5 the sum of stanines o- the to-a! achievement test score was considered

the criterion of scholastic achievement. Tables 17 and 18 show the

-orrela ion coefficients, Pearson r and Contingency, respectively,

between models imitated and non-'mitation on the primary and secondary

imitation tasks and the o al achievement est scores cf subjects in

-he matched sample. Appendix B includes tables showing the correlation

oefficients between subjects' im' a'ion o' -he models and non-imitation

n the primary imitation task and their stanine scores on the six

scholastic achievement subtests of the STanford Achievement Test.

Included are the correlation coefficients for the full sample on the

two imitation tasks.

On the primary imitation task white males' imitationn of the

adult model they observed and Negro males' imitation of the Negro peer

model they observed showed a significant positive correlation wi h

-he -_ hievemen' test scores. As in yo .:- s L, non-imita i on,

and cree ve ncn-'mi at'on plus non-'mi a-ion were neca-'ve'y

correlated with al' subjects' total achievement -es' scores, significantly

;o exceDo '"- .- ecro females. WI was an icipated 'ha' subjects'

crea-'ve dn"-'mia ion wou d be os'7ively cco e'ated with ,hei; to-al

achieveme r est scoees. These Dosi 've ccrelaticns were found among

Nec-o fema'es and whi e males, bu- were no' s'gni ican4 in both cases.

Aopendix shoA's lha+ .ihen ,"nd-ngs from the pr'ma-v imi-a-ion task

..,ere -es-ed c '" d'ng o hyocthesis 5 i'h the more intelligent' sub-

jec-s in The full sa~m; e, coef 'c"en's diminished and were generally

S sicnifican- as ''hey '.we e w'ih -he full sarn le in hypothesis 4.

S 'lariy howeve'ie, cream 've non-im: atfon was found significantly

correlated w"th subjects' ach evement est s'an'*es 'n the full sample.

On the secondary :-ia ion -ask no suppo- was found for

hypothesis 5. Con`agency coeffic:en-s we-e ICv, with perhaps two

excep ions, a-d none were suf 'c'ene ly high o be s-a-is ically signi-

ficanq. Appendix 3 shc.s coeff'c'en-s were even lower and equally

no s'cn:f 'cant -he Lu! sa ple.

Cve-al ; would aoDear -ha' meager suppc- fo- hypothesis 5

was found 'n -he positive correla ion between whi e males' 'mi a ion

c" The adult mode! they obse ved on -he Dr;'am y ;m;-a ion ask and

their oota' ac'"evemen- tes' scores. No support+ was found for the

predicted posi i.'e correlation between 'm'a-ion of the whi-e peer

models and to+a! achievement tes- sco-es. In general, hypohesis 5

aas unconfirmed.


Table 17

Corre -- cn Coefficien sI Be-ween ',lodels Imita-ed, Jreative
Non-In' -ion. and cNn-l' ta'ion (Expe-;men-al Davs Combined)
on '- Or-'marv Im'-a+ion Task by Subjec-s in the
Va-ched Samp e and Their Total Scholast c Ach'evemen Test Scores

,1Model Negro Negro Wh i te ',h ite
Imi-. ed females '.'les Females "ales

A .36 .3, -.18 .55*

(A) -.16 -.20 .34 -.03

A + (A) .L1 .20 .10 695

p .3" ."5 .10

(NP) -. L .20 .16 -

ND + (NP) -.22 .;,, .25 .03

WP .25 .-? -.10

(WP) -.'2 -.23

WP + (WP) .15 .2' .3 -.29

CNI .4 -.3.06 .5

%I -.37 -.- -.A7 -.5"

CNI + 'N -.22 -.z7 -.37

p <.05

N = 72, 36 pairs of subjects of each race.

No creative non-imitation; no ccrrela-ion possible.

Tab e '

Ccr-elat'on CoefficienTsl Bew,,eern odels Imita-ed and
Non-!mita+ on on he Secondary Imniation Task
(Exoerimeiital Days Cobined) by Subjects in the
Va-ched Samole2 and Their To'- ScholasT-c Ach'evenen- Tes Scores

c c' es ,,'~ e s -Fms'es i 'ales

A (-) .- .04 .'* (-) .*

NP -) .25 (-) .3 (-) .05

A (-) (-) .'2 (-) .13 (-) .04

NI .2 .07 .02

Con 'nrgency Coeff'cient

N = 72, 356 a' s sub jecs -f each race.

Si,' a-' ies w,,,ere no-ed be ween findings for hyDco hesis 4

and findings fc- hypo'hes's 5. N\i-her of the hyDo heses were

enficed as They .-'e-e s-aed. T-e primary imi at'on ask yielded

more support' fc- 'he '*.%o hy-'-heses Than The secondary iia+ion

-ask. Wh'te subjects' imita' on of -he adult models more frequently

se positive ccr-elation ,'i-h -heir Total IQ's and 'otal ach -ve-

men' 'es- sccres tha" Negro subjects' imita 'on of the adul- models.

For hypc'hesis 4 aed 5 eo',o subject's' ;m-a--ion of -he Nearc oeer

models showed s'gnifican- cos'tive cc- ela- c s w' h the'r Total IQ's

and total achievemenT 'es, scores. ','
Deer models, on the other hand, eas nc- slcn'fican-ly ccrrelaed with

h' Ttal IQ's and total ach'evemen- est scores. Non-im nation on

-he Dr'mary imi-ation -ask '.,as negatively correla-ed 'vi-h subjecTs'

Toaal IQ's and total ach'evemen- -es- scores. A fifTh sim' arity ,,as

noted in the diminished corre;at' ,n coefficients on both imitation

tasks when hypotheses 4 and 5 were tested on the basis of the full

sample in addition to the matched sample. Exceptions to these low

correlations with the full sample were found in the significant

positive correlations between subjects' creative non-imitation and

both their th-ee IQ scores, and their achievement test stanines. These

similarities, mos- likely, were due to the positive correlation between

all subjects' Total IQ's and their total achievement test scores

(Pearson r = .70).

From an overall viewpoint, the five hypotheses of the present

study received decreasing support in the same order they were presented.

Except for hypothesis 1, which was completely confirmed, there was

some disagreement between 'ndings from -he primary and secondary

imitation tasks on al of the hypotheses. Regarding findings for

hypothesis 1, it was noted that both imitation tasks would have shown

nearly equal proportions of imitation and non-imitation had findings

from the primary imitation 'ask been scored in the same manner as

the secondary imitation task. Hyootheses 2 through 5 received some

support, but only hypotheses 2, 3A and 3B received sufficient support

for partial confirmation. Slight support was found for hypotheses 4

and 5, those in which a positive correlation was predicted between

imitation and -wo factors relevant to classroom learning, intelligence

and scholas-ic achievement.

Certain results departing from the hypotheses were found

related to subjects' race and sex. However, among these departures no

specific race-sex interaction was found repeatedly. Only Negro subjects'

'ta' on s' wed cons sense dev a'o -rom 'e hypo heses. \ecro

subjects' Imi aion cn t+e Drima-y and secondary nationon -asks

o-cv'ded ess suDocDr fc 'yDothesese 2 -hrcuch 5 an wh'e sub 'ec s'

m''aic uypo heses 2 and 3A received less support from necro

ubjec s because hey imn-a-ed -he \gec" oee- models mc-e than predicted.

V'h' e v'r-!ual y c sucDD as pacv :ded hypo heses L' and 5 by Negro sub-

jec s, 'nhe' 'ra-'~ n of he Necc ce C ode!s d'd show'. u?-edi ced

s;cn:f' c n- Dos''- ve co'-eIa 'c s .'.'h he'- Tc al IC 's and to'al

-:h'evemen. tes scr-res. '/ :e subj ecos, by co-'as-, Drovided

suDDc-' 'or hy:ceses Z- and 5 through the'- in'-a 'cn of 'he adult

m-dels, b', n -'"c'u a-'cn c' -he'r same-sex Deer models.


In this investigation, understanding of Negro and white pupils'

socia adjustment to racially in-egrated first grade classes was sought

in the relative frequency with which they imitated white female adult

models and Negro and white peer models. Negro first graders were

regarded with special interest in comparing their adjustment with

that of whi-e pupils. Secondly, Negro and white pupils' imitation

was correlated with their measured in-elligence and scholastic achievement

to assess their adaptation to academic aspec s of first grade.

The five hypotheses skated aboui these and other concerns of

the present study will be discussed first with respect to the findings

and the conclusions and implications stemming from them. Second,

the sufficiency of the results will be discussed with respect to the

meThods by which they were obtained and analysed. Third, directions

for future research will be proposed which appear most salient.

Conclusions and Implications Abou' the Results

Findings for hypothesis 1 show that the primary and secondary

imitation tasks effectively yielded imitation of each of the models

by first grade subjects of each race and sex. Since subjects recorded

their own responses on paper, both imitation tasks successfully

demonstrated that imitative behavior may be covert, and not necessarily

grossly motoric as in nearly all other imitation studies. In addition,

the first graders' responses included non-irimation. Because of the

varied scoring possible for -he primary imitation task, non-mitation

now may be seen as more than a simple failure of subjects to imitate.

On the pri-ary imitation task, imitation and non-imitation formed a

;oose continuum. Beginning with exact reD-oduction of figu-es drawn

by the models, in 'e-ms oL shape and color, subjects made intermediate

responses of partial' imitation and creative non-imitation, and at the

other extreme, absolute non-7mitat'on, or no drawing at all.

The findings from the primary and secondary imitation tasks

differed fcr hypothesis 2, which predicted greater imitation of adul*

models than oeer models ol each race. Nonetheless, from both there

was substantial support for the predicted greater imi-ation of adult

models Than imitation of peer models of either race. To the extent

the findings support hypothesis 2, 'hey also support well established

theories of Freud, Erikson, Piaget and others, which hold that adults

are +he prime de-e-'mners of children's learning about interpersonal

behavior to the children's age of s'x, approximately. In terms of

:' a'ion They are -he most potent models for children's learning

how -o respond to the world a-ound Them.

Al hough general support was found for hypothesis 2, there

were a number of Chi-Scuare values in the predicted direction that

were nonsignifican-. This indicated greater peer model imitation

relative 'o adult model imitation by subjects of each race than

exoeced. This contrary evidence agrees with two imi+ation studies,

.hose findings did no support The personality theories of Freud,

Er kson, rJ Jg- Hicks (1965) found greater m e peer model

mitation when imitation followed shortly after observation of adult

and peer models' behavior. Vusselman (1967) found that six and one

half year-old males did not imitate an adult male model more than a

male peer model on five different imitation tasks. In one of the five

-asks, similar to the secondary imitation task of the present study,

the peer model was imitated significan-ly more than the adult model.

Apparently, then, the results of the present study are divided between

support of the three personally theories and support of those con-

flicting findings from relevant imitation studies. Possibly the

divided support indicates a developing inclination of the Negro and

white subjects 'o imitate thei- peers as frequently as adults. Two

observations corroborate th's nference. The greater age of the

subjects in 'he present study (mean age seven years) than children

referred to in those personality theories cited may have brought

about in them increased comparison of themselves with their peers,

independence from parents, and involvement and competition in many

new tasks and games. Secondly, 't may be observed that the subjects'

more frequent than expected peer model imitation was discriminating.

Nonsignificant differences in -ables 10 and 11 are largely due to

Negro subjects' more frequent than expected imitation of Negro peer

models than adul- models and white subjects' more frequent than

exDected imitation of white peer models than adult models.

Findings for hypotheses 3A and 3B regarding the frequency of

peer model imitation by subjects of each race support the observation

tha- Negro and white subjects' imitation was discriminating and

biased. Recard;n,- ivpo'hcsis 3A, this was particularly surDr'sing

about Negro subjects, w.ho mutatedd Negro peer models more -ban white

peer models. Repuor-s by Pe'ticrew (1964), Erikson (1964) and others

agree that egcro children ore-er to identify with white children
raTher than ch ;dren/ ne.r own race. Nasland (1966) noted that the

preference of Negro children 'o identify with white children was

accentuated in the South. Contradictory findings of the present

study raise a4 leas" '. cques-'cns needing further investigation.

In what de-ons'-able -esoec-s are the processes of identifi-

cation and i7i-atio- a! ke? Twc Thecr'es have equal ed identification

and im'aa 'on through ope's enal consideration of identification as

behavior (Bronfenb-enner, 1960), and identification as social

ac'lI +a ion (Bandu-a, 1962). While -there is scme evidence -o

support this -hecre ical Dosi-icn, it seems insufficient to regard

`he processes as synonymous. The pc'n' is that for children age A to

6, app'ox'ma ely, iden ifica'ion /'th adults and iden ification wi*h

seers may be d;^feren- psychological processes, tha- imitation of

adults mig cccur on -his basis but no+ imi-a-icn of Deers. Barriers

g cns ident'fica- cn with adults and identifica-ion with peers

probably differ. Aany cf the Negro subjects in the present s+udy may

have ,.an ed to ;den-i y wi-h The'r whi-e peers, or wan-ed -o be like

-'e, ve noneTheless, i ce'-ain secifc situations, such as the

wo 'mita'ion -asks, may have imitated their same race peers to whom

-hey were more accustomed.

Secondly, how unifo-m ard widespread are Negro children's

preferences for identification with their white Deers? Previous

ob- e Pe-'-t'ae., Erikson, a-. o-hers have served imp:c'c

her s-c pr:: :s by sucges-'ng 'a Negro chi ldren, as a down-

--cdden, m'~o*'ry cou-', are qu' e ready "o conform 'o and ado-

. '-e C' id-en's ways. F'-d'ncs o -'he Dsese-' s'udy cf x'egro pusils'

'- *'ecra'ed classes do "ot sosDc-' -hese -eDo~ s. Ve-, a la-ge

a-sle, exD cra-oy s-udy would be needed 'o de-erm'ne 'he ex-en' o-

\ecro ch 'd-en's --ee-e' ce c den ; ca-'cn '.. and mi ;a-'on

S-'e- same race ee-s. ." Ie e ex-en s jnk~c i-, some o0' he

'ease-s 'cr Neo c c''h d-en's same race Drefere-ce may be 'Tn'ered.

In schcc -any ,e,', v "n-neg-ae' \egcc -'rs- c-ade-s may Derce ve

"--'e -e' .' d 'de^;'ca 'Cn ..-'"- wh' e c: 'dr en. Ce-'a'nly Lor

manv, he "rs- year's exser'ence- a-e scho'as'ic y and scc'ally

d'sc-- oD- c. '." h -'ese exse 'renes can be understood 'h...y \ego

i! lcren, !'Ke o '"e- c 'den, .c ld mee '-eec cn rejectonr,

fusr-alon wi b aqcr'-s' c, : ec: e for- -c 'earn "eS, behav'c

n favoh c accJS -o-ed .aa. -- a... e ecen'- f:nd'ngs ,,ih'ch sho,.'

c- "' cn-s-' ess'u' c'rcu : s:, 'd-en n-e'e- -c "m' a -e

:e .'C V De c 've as -' c ', -- elves. RoseKrans

Snd he-- n b he mi- ~'en and s'ze c-

eav'c- '-eertoive ...e-' create .., e ~1-'-" yea'- -d male scIjec's

-_aved themselves as s '- ar -c c ce' ('- -em-s 'n e-es-s,

s 's, backg'-run and gr'i me ~ s D') -ha- .,hen -he subjec's

-rc'ved -he'-s-lves s -ss'- 'a. In -e--s cf backc-ound and g-cuo

-e -- '-' -'"e-e *' evidence c- -hLe- bass f'r \ecro youThs'

nrLe'--e s-'- race 'de-'r s eempcra'!y Daral e and

n-eac-'--- i -vh -he'r scho: As '-ec-ed by Deger-

and \1; er (1965) Himes has emphasized th sign ficance 'he cul'ura.

facto-s which bring about Negro youths' rea iza-;on that 'hey, like

heir pa-ents, have little opportuni-y to at 'i the vocational and

-:oomic advantages of whites. Perceiving no likelihoodd of attaining

-hese edvsocages, Negro youths, even from a young age, may find little

m.-iva on fo- iden ifying ..i'b The white Protestant ethic of self-

mDrovemen' and striving.

General coun i-m ion o, hypothesis 3B, as well as racial

differences fcund fcr hypotheses A and 5 add ao the finding that

'ecgro subjec's 'mita'ed Neg-c peer models more than whi e peer models.

TogeTher, the findings strengthen 'he conclusion tha- Negroes' social

-djus-menq was d'fferen- han pred c'ed. Tha' is, 'he expec+at'on was

no+ supported 'ha' Negro subjects would make a greater social adjust-

ment to firs' cgade than whi+e subjects by imitating white peers wi+h

whom they /ere less fami "ar than \egro Deers.

HypoThesis 4 predicted positive correlations between subjects'

imitati .n and the'- measured :ntel igence because o^ evidence suggesting

both are adaptive processes. Similar reasoning underlay hypothesis 5,

,,h;rh D~ edic- ed positive corre'e ions between subjec-s' imitation and

'heir measured scholastic achievemen-. Five similarities were noted

between findings for hypoTheses I and 5, which appeared most likely

a4t-ibu-able Vo the significant positive correlation between subjects'

Tc'al IQ's and their total ach'evemen' test scores (Pearson r = .70).

In 'he ma ched samoie (N = 72, Z6 pairs of each race), signi-

ficant posi ive correlat'cns we"e found primarily for Negro subjects'

mita+irn of Negro peer models, and white subjects' 'mi'a'ion of adul*

models. By contr in 'he ful sample (N = 146) the jnly significant

positive correlatious were found between subjects' creative non-imitation

and each of the three IQ scores, and between creative non-imitation and

each of the seven achievement test stanine scores. Altogether, these

findings provide lit-le evidence that imitation in first grade is either

intellectually adaptive or a method of learning academic material. How-

ever, some explanation would seen 'o be needed for the finding that

there were differences between the matched sample and full sample in

support of hypotheses 4 and 5. Possibly the differences depended upon

the social and scholastic status of the subjects. As appendix B shows,

the mean mental age of subjects in the matched sample was one year less

than that of subjects in the ful sample. Moreover, subjects in the

matched sample were much less scholas'icly successful, on the whole,

than those in the full sample. The significant positive correlations

found among subjects in the matched sample suggests that their inter-

personal relationships play a greater role in their scholastic

endeavor than among those more in elligent subjects of the full sample.

By contrast, for subjects in the full sample intelligence and scholastic

achiev~men' were found less positively correlated with their imitation

,f adult or peer models than with creative responses. This was

interesting in view of positive correlations previously reported

between measures of intelligence and creativity, e.g., Cropley (1966).

Yet, more important for the present study, findings from the full

sample supported the theoretical position of Piaget, that imitation

*s not intelligent adaptation. However, this support was based upon

imitation in structured 'asks, which was correlated with a standardized

-est of genera in-el I; ene. In "his s-udy Imitation appeared -o

serve a func-ion of social adjus-men- or adaptation mcre Than

:n el!eccual or scholas-'c adaD-a-ion. Therefore, it would be

valuable to de erm'ne f '"; ta ion, Darticularly imitation in

uns'-uctured social si nations s positively correlated wi'h social

ne: igqence.

Ve'hodc'ccical Considerations

The development of an 'm;"a'"cn ask, one apo-op-la-e to The

Sass'oc- educa Tcn of firs gc-~de-s, w.'as a necessary initial step.

geome+ 7c 4:g re cda..,ingc ask '...'as chosen as the Do imary imitation

;ask. The -ask desic ed -c cc inside wi-h -ist traders' level

f ab; i'es, and -he c. s'se~en en hus'as- wih wh'ch 'he imitation

"ask '.was me- by subjects suggests : was appropria-e. While some of

'he subjects could no' da.' as well as others, This d;d no' affect

sccr'ng ,' -hei- responses To The investiga or's knowledge the task

was un:cue qn demons rai
found 'n o'her '*mia ion s-udies, as ,we .. as "he var'ed scoring of

'm'' 'on and non- m i on. Si ce "he "ask consisted oF 'h'-v\

-ials, I ; ov;ded can inuous da-a. I- was ocss'ble -o ca-ry out

''een cf The th;r-y --ials on each of two success ve exce-;men'al

dsvs. This al .loed measus eme-- c subject s' -el ab li y of responding

Si, and i was found tha- -he D*'-a-v im:'ation task yielded

re ab e da a. Ccnsequently, 't may be considered an ap:popriate and

adequa-e measJre of im~ a'i i n +-e p-esen- s-udy.

A secondary imitation task was included in the present study

in order to allow generalization about the findings from the primary

imitation task. This task consisted of estimating the number of dried

beans in one of two different size bottles on each of the two experi-

mental days. Therefore, the number of estimates of frequency counts

for each subject was two. This made each subjects' frequency counts

non-continuous, and the total frequency small. Consequently, the

only methods of analyses possible were Chi-Square and its related

nominal scale measure of association, the Contingency Coefficient.

The necessity of comparing Contingency Coefficients with Pearson r

Coefficients from the primary imitation task was unfortunate because

of the different values possible for them. Another statistical

problem was that with df = 1 in all of the analyses except those for

hypothesis 1, Chi-Square and Contingency Coeffic'ent values had to

be relatively high before they reached significance at the .05 level.

Moreover, the small frequency of counts (two) for each subject required

combining of subject categories of both sexes per race and both races

per sex. This made results from the two imitation tasks more diffi-

ul' tr compare. Different subject categorization for the primary

imitation task was maintained, however, in order to show specific

race-sex interactions. In retrospect, this proved rather fruitless

in that consistent race-sQx interactions were not found.

A third major drawback of the secondary imitation task

resulted from the minimal reliability of subjects' responses to it.

becausee subjects' responses to this task were too unreliable it cannot

be considered as satisfactory validation of the primary imitation

task. Neither does it offer a surer statistical basis for generalizing

about findings from -he primary im'tat'on task. However, the serious-

ness of the p-oblem of validation and generalization is questionable.

Despite the minimal reliab'li y of the secondary imitation task,

there was some agreement4 between findings for both imi+ation tasks on

A! of the five hypotheses. Secondly, in v'ew of the face validity

f the primary imitation -ask, and 'he reliabil y of subjects'

resonses lo ;t, iH would appear 'ha- 'his 'ask would have been no

ess sufficient by '-se'f than o-her imi'atTon s udies, which employed

only one task.

One fur her observation should be made about the imitation

tasks. I' was observed tha- There were cera'n consistent race

differences in The ';ndings, bu4 no consistent race-sex interactions,

Dr sex differences. Yost likely this was due to the design of the

imitation -asks, wh'ch allowed subjects of each race and sex -o

observe models ;f each race, bu+ no- models o' each sex. In order

'c have subjects of each sex observe and imitate models of each sex,

it would probably be necessary -o emoloy a different type of task

:- -y cut a seDara-e s'udy like the Dresent one. The reason for

-his 's 'ha4 iV was observed that -oward the end of the thirty trials

n -he primary im''-a'on task subjects began to lose interest.

A second area of concern about' -he methodology is the size

f the matched sample employed. The thirty-six Negro and thirty-six

whi-e subjects in 'he ma ched sample should be regarded as the

minimum necessary for statistical analyses. The problem was parti-

cularly acute when correlations were performed on specific race-sex

subject categories, e.g., Negro females. In the matched sample there

were only fifteen female subjects of each race. This meant that

where Pearson r correlations were computed for the females of each

race, coefficients had to be .51 or greater to reach significance at

the .05 level. By contras', a statistically significant coefficient

for the full sample was .16 or greater. Hopefully, future research

concerning integrated Negro children will find them more numerous,

and thereby more available for inclusion in subject samples.

Suggestions for Future Research

As the title indicates, "his s-udy was more an attempted

synthesis than analysis. Those areas in which the synthesis was not

achieved appeared to offer the most worthy directions for future


One assumption underlying hypotheses 2 through 5 was that

mi-ation and identification are essentially similar processes.

While these processes have been equaled theoretically, the present

findings, among those from certain ~'her studies, did not support

the equation. It remains, however, for a more in-depth study to be

directed specifically at both processes together.

Contrary to hypothesis 3A, Negro subjects imitated Negro

peer models more than white peer models. In view of the possibility

-hat many Negro children do not prefer to identify with white

children, a large sample, exploratory study would be valuable in

showing the actual extent and underlying reasons for their preferences.

The prediction 'hat mita'c n is s:m a- 'u inte ;ectual

adaDaa'-ion r thae it 's a method of learning academic material was

"o suDcored. however, -he lack of support' was derived from a

soec'c c"ade cf school ch' lden, only 'wc o' many kinds of

--a-'on -asks, and one in-el igence and one scholastic achievement

Yes -he possible rela';insh o between Ohese variables seems

u 'c en,' mo-'tanL 'o waeranr another s'udv wi h di 'e-en- measures.

I- was observed ha- im'-aicn served mo~e a unc-ion o'

s cial ad'usmen' s- adaDa 'cn han o~'el'ectual adaD a'on (as

measu-ed by a sta-dard'zed -es~ There o e, i- would be wc-th

deC e :n' n i' 'm' at'on in ra-he- uns-ruc'ured social s'-ua'ions is,

a- leas-, oar-lv a func-icn co children's social in el gence. An

o'e-es: ng mcd f'ca ion of a sudv employing uns ruc'u-ed social

s'+ua-ons would be to measure im' a"'cn when various reinforcements

. scca consequences acc-ued 'c models' behavior. In a s-udy similar

.c hae cP'cscsed, Suc'gura ('965) revealedd ha" findings can be

m lex and d'fe'en- than pred;c'ed.

Because racial d'feences '..eee cf greatest concern in 'he

-' -Jy, subjec-s cbse'ved Deer models of different race b'j

Peer m;des c copos' e sex. As a resul possible cons's'ent

d 'ferences between The -wo sexes' 'esoonses were masked. In addition,

-he res r;c-ed 'yVe c' models observed did not allow a comple-e

nves 'ca:ion c race-sex ;nterac-ions of responses. Ano her s'udy

a: low'g subjec s abservaticn and iW'tation ol peer models of each

race c-d sex would prov'de a more cc-Dle'e understanding of Ohe inter-

Dessona' rela-ionsh!Ds of the schoc children sampled.


Thl- nves- gat on a'-empted to determine the extent to which

Negro and white first grade pupils in racially integrated classes

would imi'tae a teacher-like model, and Negro and white peer models.

Negro and white subjects' relative frequency of imitating the three

kind of models was expected to provide information about their social

adjustment -o 0irst grade. I+ was predicted that white female (teacher-

like) models would be imitated most frequently by subjects of each race,

white peer models next, and Negro peer models leas by subjects of each

race. Secondly, subjects' imi-a ion and non-imitation was correlated

with their tested intelligence and scholastic achievement to assess

their adaptation to academic aspects of f'rst grade. One hundred

'or-y-six subjects, ccmprising pupils of each race and sex, were

selected from the two most integrated elementary schools in Gainesville,

Floride. To test hypotheses regarding subjects' tested intelligence

and scholas-ic achievement a matched sample was employed. Thirty-six

pairs o4 Negrc and whi-e subjects were matched by sex and equal intelli-

gence score. Subjects were in erchanged by sex in the first grade

classes so they could observe and imitate a Negro and white peer model

f -heir same sex, and a (teacher-like) model. The primary imitation

task consisted of drawing thirty colored geometric figures. A

secondary task was es-imating the number of beans in two bottles.

Intelligence was estimated by the California Short-Form Test


of "'e-' al .'a-ur:-v ('963 Revs'on). Schoas-ic Achievemen- was

es'-ma ed by The S-anford Ach:evemen Test (1964 Revision).

Subjects' imiaa;'on and no-:m'-'ation of 'he models on The

or3mary -ask .,were reliable, bu' no' on -he secondary 'ask. Bo-h

asks yielded ':-a'-'c of all models by subjec's oL each race and

seY. \egI' and w,,h le subjects imT'raed -eacher-like models more

-han cee- "ode!s oL each race. However, c-eae'- than predicted

Deer model imca-icn 'was Lcuind als:'. 'hie subjects imi-ated whi e

seer mCdels mcre -"an N'ec'o peer mode' Necro subject's, contrary

S-'credici-en, '"m;aed 'he Necgo Dee" models more than wh'*e Deer

models. As oredicd, 'egro subje: s 'mI-a-ed Necro pee- models

.'-e Than d'd '.Whe suLJec s. Necro subject's' social adjus-men- to

'rs gc-ade, in `e'ms cl :m'-a-'cn of w'.,hie Deer models, was differen-

*han exDec-ed.

Gerera! ly, matched sample subjects' 'mitaion did no- show

sgrCif;caB D Dositt'Ve cc"ela-ions wi.h -hei- -es-ed 'ntellicence or

chlclas-'c ach'evement. ,'h e non-im; ~a ~ on ',,,as found negatively

-" e'a -ed ,,'-h i-el' C' ence a~n' sho'astic achievemen-, in The full

-- a (ean "en-al age one year c~ea'er Than -he matched samDoe) a

c'ealve -ype o- -on-!m'C a'oe showed oosi ive correla4ions wi+h

-ell 'ence and scholas-'c ach;evemen- scc-es. It was concluded

-'-2 c- ':rs cgraders of average cr higher inte!! cence and achieve-

men- m'tat'on is n3o a meThod of learning school subject's, and that

'- The subjec-s as a whole imi-a-ion served mo e 'n the realm of

'al adius- men-.

The findings were discussed first in terms of evidence that

first grade children, in certain situations, may prefer to identify

with or 'mitaVe peers in contrast to adults. The theoretical

position 'hat identification and imitation are similar was questioned,

particularly Deer identification and imita+'on. The findings indicated

that Negro children's preference for iden4ifica'ion with white children

may not be as widespread as suggested in previous reports. Possible

reasons for the'r same -ace iden-if'ca- on were discussed. The type

of in el I igence -es- employed may have accounted for the nonsigni icant

correlations between inee!l'gence and imi a'ion. Significant positive

correlations might' have resulted had a less school related measure of

social intelligence been used.

Ve'odoc gical problems -esul ed from 'he low discriminating

power o' he secondary 'mia-':cn ask, and the few number of available

Negro subjects (for y) 'n inecVrated f'rst grade classes.



Trac-ice, Procedure and Instructions for Imitation Tasks

Prac ce:

A o'lot s udy was carried out in order that the author learn

wha- p-ob'ems would arise in imi-ation "ask procedures. Pilot study

subjects were pupils in one firs' grade c'ass in T. K. Yonge Laboratory

School, Gainesv' le, Florida. The pilot study of imitation tasks was

carried ou- ,,'th 'he male peer model group on two successive days.

Fol ow'ng 'he oilo study, a portable chalkboard was brought

to The inves'oga'o-'s home, where, dur'-g -hree evenings the female

peer model group and male pee- mode! g-cup practiced Their presentation

of figures a"d feigned es-ima-icn of number oV beans. Besides practice

drawing on a chalkboard, the purpose of The c"act'ce sessions was to

make each model's behavior as precise, efficien- and as much like the

other models' behavio- as pcss'ble. 'odels were discouraged from

wearing clothes or displaying behav'o- 'ha would draw special attention

'o himself or herself The figure drawing imita+ion task required most

practice by the models. Each 'ime two models drew figures they arose

from their cha'rs together, completed drawing a' the same time and

returned to their chairs at the same t'me. They learned to draw their

figures the same distance above +~e cha krail, and draw them the same

s:ze, apDrox'mately eighteen 'nches in height and width. They faced

the ca kboard a' all times, excep' when returning -o their seats,

and sooke when stating wha color they would draw 'heir figures. In

the secondary imitation +ask some practice was necessary beFore the

models learned to pre+end They were stating 'heir own

estimate of number of beans. They wrote their estimates on the chalk-

board equidistant from one another and in red chalk, with the numbers

drawn 'he same size as the previous figures.


UDon arrival at each of the first grade classrooms on the first

experimental day, the experimenter introduced himself and the three

models by their real names, stating that the two peer models attended

first grade at another school.

By pre-arrangemen- the teacher then retired to the rear of the

classroom where she worked inconspicuously. While the experimenter

proceeded wi-h the instructions to the subjects, each model found a

chair and placed it so That a row of three chairs faced the chalkboard

approximately five feet away. Each model placed his (her) chalk on

the chalkrail, and seated himself (herself) with the adult model

between the 'wo peer models. Midway through instructions for the

primary imitation task each subject was given the drawing materials.

The experimenter attempted to minimize his influence on the subjects'

responses by sitting to one side of the class and only indicating to

the models when the subjects had completed their drawings and were

ready for the next trial.

Immediately following the figure drawing +ask the secondary

imitation task was carried out. After instructing the subjects, the

experimen-er showed the bottle to each model. Knowing from their

Programs what estimate +o feign as a real guess, the models first

stated their estimate verbally then wrote it on the chalkboard. The

experimenter then walked slowly down each aisle providing each subject

closer inspect on of the bottles'contents.

When each subject had written his (her) estimate of the number

-f beans on his (her) pad of paper, the experimenter collected the

drawing materials, making sure each subject's name was on his (her)

pad of paper. While the drawing materials were being collected the

three models retired from the rocm. The class was thanked for its

participation and told that the experimenter and three models would

return the next day to complete the second part of the game, which

would be like 'he first.

Procedure fcr the second experimen-al day differed from the

first in that there was no practice trial for the subjects on the

figure drawing task, and instructions were very briefly outlined.


I have invited these three people to play a school-like,

drawing game with you.

Can you draw circles, squares, and triangles? Well, these

three people have drawn these figures in new and interesting ways,

and they would like -o draw -hem for you on the chalkboard in different

colors. The game we will play is that two of them at a time will

draw their figures on the board. I would like you to choose one of

their figures 'o draw or draw a different one of your own, but only

draw one figure at a time.

I am giving each of you a pad of paper and three pencils.

One pencil is red, one is yellow, and one is blue. The blue one has

an eraser. When you have these,wr'te your first and last names at

the tcp of the first page.

Now, when you draw your figure don't copy off someone sitting

next 4 o you. Make one like either of these three people or one of your

own. Let's practice one. Let's have and Mrs.

draw figures on the board, and then you draw yours at your desk on

the page with your name. Good: Are there any questions? If one of

your penci ls breaks, ra!se your hand and I'll give you another.

Let's turn to page one. Le 's turn to page two.

Each of -he fifteen numbered pages in the subjects' pads of

paper for he fifteen imitation rialss on experimental days one and

two were completed in this manner.

Instructions for the secondary imitation task were as follows:

Now I have a little guessing game. I want you to guess how many beans

there are in 'his bottle. But first I'll ask these people how many

they think are in the bot-le. how many beans do you think

are in this bottle? s. _, how many beans do you think are

n the bottle? how many beans do you think are in the




Mean Language, Non-Language, and Total IQ's of
Subjects of Each Race and Sex in the Matched Sample

Negro Females

Negro Va'es

1h' e Females

WV ite M les

Language IC




Non-Language IQ





Vean Scholastic Ach'evement Test Stanines of
Subjects of Each Race and Sex in the Matched Sample

Negro Females

Negro Males

whitee Females

hi te Males

W'o'd ParagranDh
.'ean;ng 'ea 'n

3.33 3.73

2.67 3.48

3.80 3.37

3.00 3.86





SpelI ing



3. 30


Word S-udy





Total IQ





reti c





Sum of
San ines





Mean Language, Non-L, and Total IQ's of
Subjects of Each Race and Sex in the Full Sample

Negro Females

Negro Males

Whi e Females

White Males

Language IQ Non-Languaqe IQ Total 10

84.67 90.67 86.00

78.92 84.96 81.00

103.14 107.34 105.48

100.57 105.20 102.80

Mean Scholastic Ach'ovement Test S'anines of
Subjects of Each Race and Sex ;n the Full Sample

Negrc Females

Negro Males

White Females

White Males






Mean ing









p.: li ng





Word Study
SkiI ls





met ic





Sum of





Frequency of 'i ure Drawing Imiation, Creative Non-
Imitation, and Non-Im'-ation by Subjects in the Three
Groups on Bo"h Experimental Days

G-ouo I


Group I I

Group I I







Frequency of Bean Es+ima-ion Imitation and Non-Imitation
Dy Subjects n 'he Three Groups on Both Experimental Days

Grouo I Group II Group III

17 22 21

15 9 12

7 14 12

53 47 65

Frequency of Fiou-e C-awing Im'tation, Creative Non-
Inita -cn, and Non-lmi-ation by Subjec's of Each Race
and Sex on Both Experimental Days

Nec-o Females

\ecrc 'vales

Whi-e Females

Whi e Males




Freouency of Bean Es Ima ion Imitation and Non-lmita-ion
by Subjects of Each pace and Sex on Bo-h Experimen al Days

lecro Females

\ec'o Vales

',Whte Fema es

Whi e M. 1es

7 12 23 18

- 15 5

4 6 13 10

12 28 49 76


Frequency of Figure Drawing Imitation, Creative Non-
Imitation, and Non-lmi a4ion by Subjects of Each Race
and Sex on Each Experimental Day


Day 1


Day 2


Day 1


Day 2


Day 1


Day 2


Day 1

Ma I es

Day 2





*, P




Frequency of Bean Estimation Imi+ation and Non-imitation
by Subjects of Each Race and Sex on Each Experimental Day

Negro Females

Day 1 Day 2

Negro NMales

Day 1 Dey 2

White Females

Day 1 Day 2

White Males

Day 1 Day 2

3 4 8 4 11 12 6 12

3 4 1 3 8 7 4 4

3 1 3 3 7 6 5 5

6 6 13 15 24 25 41 35


Correlation Coefficients Between Models Imitated, Creative Non-
Imitation, and Non-Imitation by Negro Females (N = 15) in the
Matched Sample on Both Experimental Days with Language,
Non-Language and Total IQ Scores (CTMM Short Form)




A + (A)


NP + (NP)



-. 18







WP + (WP)






















.11 -.14


Correlation r efficient Setween Models Imitated, Creative Non-
Imi+ation, and Non-lm'tation by Neoro Vales (N = 21) in the
'.'ached Sample on Bo'h Experimental Days with Language,
Non-Language and Total IQ Scores (CTMM Short Form)






A + (A)

- D2




-. 06


NP + (NP)



-. 1

F' + (WP)

- A







.04 -. 17



CI +- NI


Cor-elation Coeffic'ents Between Modeis Imitated, Creative Non-
Imitation, and Non-imitation by White Females (N = 15) in the
Ma-ched Sample on Both Experimental Days with Language,
':c-Language and Total IQ Scores (CTMM Short Form)

Imi ated







A + (A)


NP + (\P)



WP + (WP)



C'\l + N









1 No creative non-imiation; no correlation possible.



-0.0 1


Correlation Coeff'cien's Between Models Imita'ed, Creative Non-
Imi a4ion, and Non-lmitao ion by White Males (N = 21) in the
'*ached Sample on 9?oh Experimental Days with Language,
No"-Lncuace and To-al IQ Scores (CTMM Short Form)




A (A)

- 1


-. 04

















Imi ated


NP + (*,D)

'* + (WP)

C'! + !NI


University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs