Title: Class and region in Argentina;
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00097717/00001
 Material Information
Title: Class and region in Argentina; a study of political cleavage, 1916-1966
Physical Description: xiv, 548 . : illus. ; 28cm.
Language: English
Creator: Fennell, Lee Cameron, 1934-
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1970
Copyright Date: 1970
Subject: Politics and government -- Argentina -- 1910-1943   ( lcsh )
History -- Argentina -- 1943-   ( lcsh )
Political Science thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Political Science -- UF   ( lcsh )
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: . 536-547.
Additional Physical Form: Also available on World Wide Web
General Note: Manuscript copy.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097717
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000125167
oclc - 01562920
notis - AAP1133


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To [tIc -,li*:ri r ,-,I

Charl C'. F:,rr i

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t;n, I.,- l? [;i.:.l cl a a=i ij I : I h-e I M e Fr.:l f.; ,.:or Cthjr-i s Di F. r S.- ; uh,.

sL.-i .r.e.ic d W., irn re Esr in the lquir .;L L i c l J p-: ;I ;I . 1 a- *; h.:r. -

n nr r. iT, .f :,C .iEii c rc idEd in I l u- :,Ibl u i JA r.ce .du jri r ; -r r i e ..r t r.

eDr of p: i;-' .. rLE- ia ch. Ard rji :i:,. Al i er ier. in ; .c r,

C.O: n.LEeC Ch ir; ,"i .. .erc Pr.:.i e;;,;.r Hjrr.. I r:.-.*r. wh fI- [ h.r j. r.

[li: p.r -. j .. . Arg n ;r.t i::I [ .ari F u[ch llc:'u-:ii.1. Li-hoC: r =.-: r. -

[;ir- ul h Ih- scud, of p r.: c; E h I r. -r =I ? 'r. r, : r i n- rrd **h'

lh lped j g ile [Cl-1i, i.v E: i[ Oi n iL.:. ir.Il I ...

Hkelpinr.j i..:.;d r, ;r.e .d.e1len re.i:..'nL;;in ;r. Lhe Mh; l .t ..

e [ ion, ,, re Fr- .r -: or, D j i E c .. I *h ,T.d Ti. he I l l .1 - :

cor.:;. *Onr, in ar lI er r alL., id L, II. H i"Il ;:..-r 0... read he fM id

di -a ;.. r c,:,f c.r Th.:.m,. L. Pa .- c ..d i.. c, =E .,r and firn.l .v ;vn;.:.-.

ul ill: Professor ., DIe r as; h lpfjl M ; "ir:i.. 1E" M OF m.

rc : : rch.

The ele L i',n nral ,,:, f..r s,-,-. i.j .r p" [ F thF ; ,.: . -i:, ld

nr.c[ h. .. been-i pi:; ble lui[hiu[ the Ip;n, S n :.. ;r : f ir,.j I.r I-r.ire:

-- i -ch .'l r anrj g cr rin-cnr .:f'; :i- Fro-.: -. r '.-:, ljit i... e. C r:..:I

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( ic .: i L hi h h.A and 1.; S :-C; i..a i.. h*d *:i i led F r.. ..; r ;er,

of sour es., hile Sr. iF.cai c . F,-'rra or f ch r nc ; s r, .c r he i nt.r ior

prc ;d d ,; ; f f ici:l l : tiC: n f ilur -, rs r 19 0 an..d 1l '' 1 c.

prc d.;nq .*lu bl, c.:.unsel during mn, .car :n Ar.: nr. n.i i.ere ti iqu l

uIu .lT,;s, .5 '.:' Enri.qj e Nigucu s. and I.:'. Luis ticiino. An! al rhou. h Lhi ,

M EuSt g1 unnaret d. I ... ruch of d,:rsr.c n.d'1 c, the Argentr.r n Chicer

of ['ep-u. ; [t' [the nun.eroi: e -dCput ie i ,h.:.n I ;ntcr. d.

Dc'Cun.ct: r, r-Sec rch 5 cc.nducted' pr sci all, at four l hr arie-

--the L;brar. .:.of [C ngr s; and the Un; cr.i o.f Fl.r.Ja L;'tra r., n rh*:

Unnicted States:. t hi- Bi bl i:teca 1 Co.n r-rcs. and the E' itli ece liac ;rni l

in Arg.nlina. The [lff of ei.:.h tae alwa, helpfj 1l--often b .:.nd thl -

call .f dur..--L.uc 3 sp'ci l nCO e of than!- I due the Fpe:-r inn el Of the

Secch n je Infor.r.T icir. Legis i c .a cf l rho ti- li ccc del CI ngjre:..

Ot,:r rcrgj niz-i .io.n ii h;Chl- facil i ; at d the cc'im:.I i ion o.f his

itud*' ;n.:luded the Intcrnr ati ;i:nal Data L;i rar'. an.j eferi nce Scr. ce .:

the Lt i." ers:ic.. .f Ca; forrnia' Sur.m, PF-se rch L:n;z.r in Eer. le,, froit

LjhiChi I :.obtai-e.dJ c rd dtckI of se ral Arniencine -stud;e.: Ifcr reccndar,

anral' sis; [he Irns itutc Tcrcuact Di T l la's Centrrc. de In esti aci:i ne-

SocialEs in E.uencr s A'ires iihere I fi.ur- a frequently. uS.-ful .oc il

i;c incc l ibrar., and a rela n- ai..i;enc for lne e'..change of ideas .;l ,

local an. .;*itirn schools rs; and ci Uln;.ers i :. F lr; d C.: ,JputC:r

crir.t r, ,hhcre te te el Ic ion anal,;s as performed.

Financial i U'.ppcrt cane frorn sC-.eral ':.urccs. A Nat ional Defen-e'

Forr: i n L.'-niua.:,e Fc I lo =Is h ; fro:, th.- Dc epc-arcmrr.n of He.alth Education,

and l: l f.re for the *,ears 196.-19 3 al :..i :J me .. dc.o.t. T full at-

tntr ion to res.carch for -eighteeh'n i.onths f oili.i; n C c c.rplWc o' n of rraduce

cc'ur:.e ,.r A. ar nt from tlh L Uni.ersic, .f Flor ida' C ntcer for LAt -

A .-:r .r & ud. : ii.:-Jr n :. ;tl.: i, f u-i r the Ford .. J.r.Ja i .

h.:ipe d .:1 hi c ,: :rs of travel and research, while the University's

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c.:p..-.uce r r -.W SI. : [hr,:,...h B r[ r, r .,-, [I,.- J: .[ ,:.',-l 1 .: i nr.c-: I :,j Jj4 r.2 ion.

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TLrE. ,L F CO i T r'- :3-.

P.IJ -


/,C F i l,;,' '. E L i l I- ; . . . . . . . .

LIS T OF L t .. . .

LIS T OF FI i- F'. . . . .


I. i f f iCIl , r' ; C. L S i.:IJ P LC 1 C,:: '.J ,l :'J ,1 ,:,"|
PI'. Lr'E. I E . .

II. "I:': i-ll/C i.'.- A R l'E. 1916-I .

I I A f:'. ICAL ,,1 J E ,I I 'IC I -:. .

I .. THe. c: ,: .: .'. .'E : E T ,. i ; l I .:..-, I . .

V. TI!F PEFOrl EFA OP'i-L l.' I -1 . . .

VI. THiE F,' ILU.' C F "IlAl l Ir'iL i i '.r [ CII," i' -
I . . . . .. .. . . .

VII A :l'1 I-LIV 1"il[',' "T AT '",'.'CP;':..C -.

V I I C ) LU"I C'. CL...AS / ;[' l-.E l' r,r:., i91 C.- 1I

iPp-E;ii,! 11F H.LA)CLO .G : LECT I'.i Al ', I- . .

A i' [ l_ i .r h: ' FO L ( A L . . .

15lL11511 ('l..4'.:.


T le

11-I C ',F f Li ES OF 191; D FIJUTIES ELEL TI.[J .

II -2 CO Ti'E TED I LL ('C LL . .

11-3 iFO L I'C LL Fi TIC l IC 'lC .C

I 1 -4 SC LF rcOlTE:IT A Ir, E . .

S-. COlf rFLATIOrn., EET 'E Eri S. C LE

SI -6 F F TI SI.'. I SUES C'.lE . .

I -6E PF PTIi .,r' ISSuES S LE .

I I 61. FA b I C.L-L EL C . . .
S-6C F iC' Iu 1 -, E L I . .i'
II -r.l COh:,EF .'Iii I'.'F ELLC... . ...

I -7A FEF El ilI PF LAl I OriS :S CALE

I I -7E F fi E I ,r. f EL,-'.T I.,'IS 3 3,A|E .

SI -7C F DEICAL ElOi . . . .

II-7b CC SiEf' v.T TI E EL:" .: .

II iA SU -.f'. PF:ITEI'T CI' S I LE . .

I -Se SI.IC' r rEcf "i IlO : SCALE . .

I AC I C i ; ELOC . . . .

II -I COS t iEF '!AT i 'E fL I . . .

II -SA F ELIGI '1 L . .

II -IE FEL I I.IO I Sl E iLE . . . .

I -Cl: FA I lC .L bL .C . .

I 1 -9u CCil EFF 'A TI LE L.LC . .

Il I C.A I r ES T 'T I ilb i Al. E . .

. 78

S. 85u

S. .

. . 8 !;

. . 89

. . 92

. . 93
I ,,

. 99

. . 99
. sr

S 71

LIST OF Tt.ELES (Co.- ;. ir. .jdl

II -1 ,oE.

II -1 O

II -100


I1 1-3
III -]


III -7



I II -7I

I11 -SC

II I- ;

Ill -9r

I I I -1



I iVI I L O I r S SC LF . . . .

PADICAL I-LOC . . . . . .

COI.SEf ATI .E LO . . . .




SCALE CONiTEi!T i;f, 1 E . . .






COliSErO ATIvE I LO . . .

LOliElr 'S PICHTS SCALE . . . .


PAD, I.-L E LOI: . . . . . .

A;ITIFEF. S (flALI 'T ELOC . . . .



ArT I FESOI ALl T ELOC . . . .

rf.Ol ERVAT i \' VE CL . . . . .



. . 1 1

. . . 102

. . . 102

S . 127

. . . 135

. . 13

. . . 137


. . 141

. . . 142

S 142

S 145


. 148

. . . 149

. . . 149

. . 151

. . . I151

LIST OF T FLEi .:.,nr. ;niu.i J

TaL. I.- -Fa

II -IOC- F:;,01C L LOC . . . . . . . 15'

III-l 0 T IF E : :,. :i L I T L IOC . . . . . . 152

II-1I -10` CL ::. N VA.T LO . . . . .. I

I l -I I FI. F.f lP iQ Is:ul:: SCALE . . . . . . . I?

II I-12 FALIJl'SI IS' 'CtLE. . . . . . . .

11 -12E PFEr SI.i l'S S:CALE . . . .... . . .. I .;

lI -13A C ii CF D T IAL'. SCAL . . . . . .

II -liE. [L LFEl EITI '.L .L . . . . . .

Ill-13i iC 'T IFEW.SH'. ALI:T CLOC: . . . . 160

1 -13D O COl 'EF'JATIvE ELOC . . .. . . . ....16.

I 1 -14h EIUECET C 'ii'FOL SI: LE . . .. .16

III -I1E EI.'LFT COr!TFOL SCALE . . . . 162

III I ANTI Cf ii ALIS'T ELLOC . . . . . . . . l6.3

1 1-14i CO rI.N Ef 'T I 'E E IC . . . . . ... 163

IV-1 COF.FELATE 07 1?936 DFFUTIE l ELECTIONI . . ... I'.

IV-2 C.OlNTESTEO OLL ChLL'. . .. . . .. 151

1'd- FOLL CALL FA. I.TIC' IF NTI ,I . . . I. IT 1

I', A ,Fr T li:.A I .I.IES SCALE . . . . . 1

IV-' S FAFTIS 1l I'i: .IES S CAE . . . . . 1'

1 l" -'Ik C _;Ci C, L'r i I A E LO( . . . . . . . 1. 6

I V -i. OfFi ITI; AN E.LOC . . . . . ..... 1.

IV-u S CALE Tr PE Ei FA i . . . . . . ... 1 7

Iv -6 tA li i AFT iI E

LIST OF TALES i:C -r. inu..i

Ta.lI e FP.aj

V-I COFFELTES OF 1946, DEPUTIES ELECi l ll . . . 216

V-2 CONT ESTED fOLL CALLS . . . . . . . 231


V-4 SCA~LE C'IITENIT 'D SI E . . . . . . 232

V-5 CO'FF ELrTI I.I BETWEEN SCALES . . . . . 234

V-6A LAEIOF SC LE 1 r" . . . . .. . . .. . 236

V-CE LiE.:OF SCALE ?i . . . . . . . .. 236

V-6e PEF OIII TA BLOC . . . . . . . . 237

V-7A LAB RF. SCALE .-2 . . . . . . . ... 239

V-7E, LAECF. SCALE 2 . . . . . . . 239

V-7C PEF ill STA BLOC. . .. .. . ... . . 240

V-7D OF PPOSIT I u ELOC . . . . . . . . 240

V-,A UNIVEFSIT, LAV SCALE . . . .. . . . 243

V-S3 UlIVEFSITi LrAW SCALE . . . . . . . 243

V-sC FEFO ST BLOC . . . ................. 244

V-30 OFFSOIE I T I'.PLO . ... .. ... ... .. 244

V-9A E.POF: T IVEST I CATION SC LE . . . . . 246

V-?E E,:POPT InVESTIGATiI Nl SCALE . . . . . 246

V-9C. PEFOlISTA BLOC .... . . . . . . 247

V-IO/- F.ICHTS AND II;TIuN I TIES SCE LE . . . . . 250

V-IOE. F ICHISI AND Irllu;IITIES SCALE . . .. . . 250

V-iO C PFE'j I5 STA BLOC . . .. . . ...... . 251

V-1l1 FOPEICrl AFFAIFS SCALE . . .. . . . 253

LI T IT T A LE I, .:.(-, ; r,,jc.i dl')










VII E LAE'.F LEGI L'j TIO n I : LE . .

VI l-. TA EFEAl rOLL CALL. I tr' -19.1

V-llL FOIrL iL. -iFFA.E . .

V-IIC PEr I.II T. EL ': . . .

V-12 '. A i:.., I.I, :41. FFOiTECT I: E! '-, ,L

V-12E A, l1 I :A'Ll L FF l TEC l I. LE .

V-1 2C F l if ClSTW EL' . . . . .

V-I L' O F :.ITIOf EL': ..........

V-13'. .ilU J1AN. F ECO::it]T I TI OI S ,L . .

V-13 SANll Ji Fll E:CO:,I D U TIOI l .:rLj .

V 1.,C PEf.l . ll. . . .

V -I CO'i ELL', E, OF li r' LIEUl- T I I FLEC TIO:'I

VI-2 iC: IrTESTE I F L''LL :.LL' . . .

I -3 F ILL CALL Flf 7T I I P Tl il . . .

I 1 -1 Ci: F ELATE.S iF I L,.5 DEPUTY I FE, ELECT I: i:


I 1 -3 I:LL. :ALL PF .T IC IF TII .

II Q- S CALE CO;TE: T i'.tL l . . .

1 1 -5 I:If ELATIONS EETTWrELl LC' E.' . . .

II-,i, F."'TI I Arl IS ,ES i.. LE . .

I .1-6 Pkif TI Ah I :l.E;, r L . .

II -74 L4C:l LFLCI: L TIOl S LE . . .

. . . . 341

VII -9'I EUE iE : i, IFE. Fi.' F FO.L C L. 1' 5-19~ .

. . . 2K,

. . 2 ."

. . 25

2. G,

. . . 25.

.. 2

S. . 33
. . 2 ,.-

. . . 2", !,


. . . 3 ;':

. . 32?

. . . 3:l I


. 33"

. . . 335

. . . . 33 ,

LIST i 'F TAE.LES I(-:-r.[r i.u.:

Table Peje

V\III -1 UPE.Ar.I Il AI', PAFT VOTE, i916-1 . . . 3

VI II-2 PFR0 FEFIiOU FAf.rbll.Jli Ai![, P.,FT. 'VOTE, I 1 -1 965I 355

VIII -3 I JIUL TF' Ar'I FAFT'i VOTE, 1916-1 965 . . . . 35

VIII-LI FAIICH-FAFri i/.TIO CtlC P'F.T 'VOT 1936-19 5 312

VIII -5 COIITIlJiIT ArID PAFT'r VOTE. 1916-1 6' . ... 315

A-I 19111 F 'TlTE D FACTOF C I U T-'I . . . . . 3. ,


-3 191'7 fOTATEI D FAC/ OF 1 -TFI' . . . 391

,,-LI COf.R F TI OIl rIATR ICIES FOP 1'94 7 Fl.Ci OfS . . 400

A-5 COR EL, TI(ii:; E'ETLEEN FACTO"PS OF 1914 A;D : 47, 401

A- 1960 FOTATED FACTOR If1TF I . . . . . . 4L.

A-7 COf.r.EU T I ONl [rATF ICE FOF I c60 F ACTOF .... 412

CEN;USELS . . . . . . . . . 415

1. L 1 .T 1: 1- I I S

'-'. 7



. . . . . . . .


SIn lT',LICLT I lC f: CLA".';. 'rll: FE'IlOi.

C Ic a. c, .rnrc c:crnsid red 3 :c:c l ,rd irr.l 'I :ai abc rrati. hat

bc:on.e a Lba ic elemr:n[ of corntl-,,,orai pc-l i ;: l theory [lo IcN ry r i.

it :=.uiTi Ci r hSt Oil r i L-thi i nL. i ri i-r, E ill I 3I rec o Lr, ih i .S t:, t 'c.r

t he ,.hol I no.:r that f a- L lr f ata l to ha: bI.:.d,. p.:I i c.i c. F t i Cal

part iE c: d.fc i n'd as a grc p .:of T.. .n :cd p' :,jru uit of comrm.r

irnLcicSE, ni:,re' reccnr l, hI'.c- LW i an :ornc::cp[u.alized ; l a iT.ari, C'f a3 re-jat-

ing di Ecr i inTer,..c c ;i n un;i ,h ici in riii..[ s- a e,.T... ,:ont'rorat one.

Or r :clreT o i r c.ipoc. i [c: of .ii lar i di .er nt ere-t ." It i. Comiiimon-

plcci tlhatr legislI.tres arc--arid should b --conipore.:d not E: i.uch of

E-urcjar "trustc's" as rf nm r rLpr:,esci. r d; .er. e and oMitc C.rInfl; i i

in Er-Etz,. Whle Ic is but one of hi, Tmon; roic the eiecutri. '

function; ,- an arbiter bti[e n c:O.ril ici [ r. *jroupS tothli *.ih n aLr d i.;[h-

out gLo. rnIrirni h.a r ccnr, I, receie'.d I;crcasi :rtt-: ;crn. If pol;iic

is c-c..rc rr ne i th the "'aut.cr a i .[ .- allo Icat jon of ..alucL ," it i; onl.

ircasa r Ll LI hat .th r. ill tb differ ing cpirnion ocn cth "proper" al-

locA ;Ci n a.-d that it Ic 3a t s:Ci: of the s points of ..ic 'i; 11 be.

C ai w a I -jc nd into 3atiTrp[ ., L ;nf i lu ncr Ih-_ 31 locar i;n.

The c,; i en.:c of conflicting; intrcrists and att L ud'S ;* nrOt 1 L'c

r,.erc l an as neLtral "g;.aen" in conirc[ .por:.r, po.i UiMcal anr l is It 'asi

com; to b. consiij red a: icas a p.otcrnt;Iall po iti.t c Ir enr in te r

pcr-'a'tic.n of a, political c tenm. I.ip t conln d h ct in a stabhl

dJell, ac, a .iTEj.urc o:' co;r, lict cr cica. -: ;i n;:dcCd '"s to hat rth.re

Will ti t : ruiggi O..r ruling p:O i ; i.ti .hallken.e .-; [: p.arc E- in ,.i

j-nd :hifl s .- pcr ci ; in of i '' H. add of ccurs.. ch c hi;

cIE' .a : rQ u- t be c unt[erbI arnce.l degr:e :- undr:jlr i .'ron 'e-.u .

E sS[.r. .:c li Ii r. Inr. .elf to .cr:..:r [i: r i re .. S a,a ncicter :, i l

d ; er i [ rn:or poli ic cl e l n, i ; ; .r .r .n i '.:r dj rn It ar,..t I l

both racl-r i--.E co.'Dr.lr k c; : ;:h T | ., ci. p r* .: E r ra, a h:.: ,i I s.. r i

o-r ma.E5 haE. t he '.'.: ire el e,-I .: Cjle a 'ould hl i eI to LE .

fac, o.r ba ic [ an'. r, l I ;ic l :'. er, i h i s iS .or-c.r i e ,:r ad. era: c 1. -

fnj [i5 o Ln i[' it[ i, -&.rn rperJrlnd .i ..r, riEi ure Jnd corn.e [ IE O the

Tlie p:ot'erti. biai se i c c le .a.ge J' n O: li iC : al Ks er. jrire mr, .

region eclin j ici , religioi.r, c.: ; cl j.. .,cc.upo i. ,i r-,' [ r:id it[io-n,

ard le .der-.hip r pe:l, -,:.r.ng .:.hers. Tie a-,.pear nr, .: depth. ind i.-1c i .

i r[..:i c nce of i ers e b : of : a a.. e Ir, F r.r, .-i. c.: ie to ari [her

and f'rom or e c ;IT.e p r ;r.' Eo L r no' ...r A rec n zE ,jud 1 tihr.-.. E-urpn:.; -n

n.5 irons has suj3e tE'd, fjurth:.rm c, r th at ac oi-r J rtr.n i i o if cl .-..

declir irn i,-:rt .nce ; is r, repl a':ed [ hE ri i ng si .r;' ; .: .ar:.

.f :..,ec rn.o E .r.e of c i '.'lc.

The present stu.J. ; 11 t t -.r.t r A l,:e p:li ic: l .:1- .ay in

Argenc i na :. r a fi [,- .;f c r p.ri:.d arnd rel E[- ;[ Ct :. i- th i d iiT r..i':r,

lh i.: -pp.ear mISt r-I. 1;.. snc E[ h.3[ nl ;ti.n--reglorn d so.: ioj -econ r ic

cla. s. This i: n'ot intended c t. i l'. [I-C a c hcEe .-ar. the onl sigqrif i.::r.

di. si n cn io of po. l t c l t CI. ; C, i at. 1 i g r.c i', n.; C r ain r di i n nd lE d rsh ;.

appeal.' --caulill; :T.O -aSi it 3 k lnoL n in L.CrE Am..ri .:3--- re no dou t o[

cc nsid 'rable ij'r t.E.nCC: .n though th rnat icn tas be.en rel 5Ei l ftree

of S l i ,ou, di.. i-iOns ilo:,ng r ci :l. ,:ul.ur l. o.r reli .ious l inE._- F ILt r.

the select; cr n f t th ic tL.o diiTrniion: n f c lej. a La.i t.asd on rh,

belief that amr:on pl s' ible bL-as of:r clear. .g tcchis ti.o L 1 ild pro.c

to be of the gre.I.ate t c -pljnrijtoi/ lue and that a hpoth.-.icd 5h; l

from region to class :s the :Lajcr d ;mrcr.i i n ofi cl .*,:*;g: cculI J be

cpir i..:a ll tc : e' r .

Anr urncr. ta'n ing of mjn, fac-ts. of tuint-;.:th c--,tur, Argentin-

iimuit eji n ii LI a : tud, oi the nineact r,tlh centu ,. This ; p.:rt;cul ,rl,

inp.:.rtant ;r the case of regic'nr l; m, cni, sl eight l, e so: ir. th': case

.o soci io-ec.onOiii c cI js. TIhe bul' of the pr:es:nr chapte-, therefore,

,i;l b.e dc o c-d to a-'n o.:..:r.i. of the historrical backgr..und .of rregWonal-

ism r.d -L ocio-cc no.;'c str.-tificatiuon, Alth-ugl, themc tuo factors rc-

of ten intcrrclatcd in Argenr:irne hi;tor,'. they uill be treated separ tel,

ir, On attempt j t cOi:-:p ual clarit',. The s;ic'c ,;1 be done riLh the

reportt nt phcrn:.riner.a of migrationn ajnd irnternal riiqgration., which rcl-te

to both rei.onalism and soci o-econoriiT;C c ai ss. The. final sectior of the

chapter *,ill tri.f l, outline the: i:tich dolog and corr.weptual foundatior.s

of the 'injl sii i :he si. sai'ple time F:r;oJds hnich *:o"ipo:e the bo yJ

of this Etud;.

Arrgen ina has been free of the major c ie-, s of regional cle..age

found ;r rajn,- nations. Her people hae net been separated nt' isol ated

are I b., mou. rtair ranges or othi- geeogr.Fph;c barriers. There ha'.c been

no language cr rel; ious diffcrenccs frocr, one rcion [t aIncher, and

uhil -ome rcelonal ethnic difriernce. .ere to de.clop as a result of

he-a.'. European inrrigration, this 'as not Iacttor dur irnr thLe nat ion's

first half-centur' of ;irndependi enc, an j,':; of I ;iI ; ,cl iiTportenic after

that. 'ct regi nc al conflict, present c en d.ir;ng colonial ties.

.ciiinna '-d hq -r.l ir :,I iLi:. durir.- i nur, ,, i L. tic r. ireLeer. l. C t r, :hr...'

ijil b -c r. : .: :, : :.n.: i jn;lI' c. i t L . L .n n e l.l. ..Lr r

For i r. a *r r.el n:.r. "['-.r ar C. r:- r.. .lin :., :,id Lihe J.iol-

h i:L ,r f t l-.. r ,. i; :r, .e tr ir r .. i l .

IL 1 S1 I.nq *-u: .L,,'.j r, Lt- p': Lr tL re.i c-n.r c nrlit i .: [Ih-I

KCrst [sli "L LL. sir.:entl snur, n r:f kunI1.r2 J.:r :r 3nc

--"io,. rn" [. ,r ,:rr i'. ir,: ,-r:i.J. ", Lr'd ,,-i.;, ..jl Init ri,..r---.r 3- : : ru.-. 1 ,

Ct 'ci.il;:.;i.i: '"--sj-1in r.:pr..-l min;r1 ,b t r.h.: ci: 1,I uen, Aira,- -

a; ,-,5i [he "b.rbar i :n," O:f h [i-i[ ri. r. T . L --i :I :.i.i r, Lec.:,

Ar.-nc r in hist.h.r i gr. r-h, dur i .T :[ .:. :h._ r. ir,. .: nIr *e.'rrjr, 5rI :"r.
oftEr n f ur d irn orl.. L, i. IN L : S tatLl .: auti : rs n Ar fltn. i: l.r,.

Th i-. i ia ., ho j.: r ha:, i cr, .: ,;r.. t.: n rn:ti leri ed t., 1 l-dc:u,,.Ti, .E[,:j
C' .:r.,ni, intl.:rrr .JL .t r ;* f th L ..j3 i of rc-j ic. ral c.:.n l1 ;.I i. Ar. n inj,.

In r ;E li h1 i.t. th r q: ni :n .l -. ru.t j le .r cen E -. h in. [' c ;r .*r; ,ri

pri naril, in i. th- Ir.t l-ri r i l .rt L c. .i fer..: iL .-:,.r ..:I ; ,- ;ni. -." w:1

a5ainr dE i.r.inaI l E ;.:L:n i c p:i I;ci; f : uer ': Lu i :r. c h,- ':-. hlanj,

ind iin he effl'.r. s '*rf Eu cr:,r Ai;rs r.: .: .n~,c r.ica'Ill .r,.:l ,f-'l; ;i-'llI

dc-i'imnit.- Int : n ri or r he c he r I t hs t,1i LIii.:trl IC. I[E *:,

"t -: ,' i>:.1ie, in Ar,'tlnL;n-. -1 rn:I e.ern ith-e i re -.aut iou, i ,h,' Lnd

,. ~. i.;d :. :i c :; hc.c -, n.:[e t[ha r.giOnr l ..:.ini; .:. if r. nr.r .- r
cle- .rl, u..rte in Lh, n;-i. tCcrith ,:..r.[u ,.

Onr th f i ri:e-, er.:.enr-;c. th, Arq.:,r. in In[ r;r .r 11 Lthe i,:.r.

p.-.-pul3 e.:Jd n .s lthii t Ir r V ; c.: r f .n ., r. La F latr :i. il tI

"Li t l"' th-- ,:- i c i .i r.- r ran ,:i re . ,t. On i 1 .,,0 ,, p1 .-r .c-r

li.:d in r hc I.n c.-1. :r .:sa :, E n.-- n i-.i r: --, l ,: ,i inc -i d [ h.r fIjL ... r

pro. in,'e:, C,,f ., nc-.s ,ire. A ":r.t F I r. E r F i: r, J C- r r:. ri nre s--

compared oi 120,00"j'' ;n t[h Inr-tr; r'r ir.endjr,c; : of i rdh.a and Salt ..

"I1"l najor cit ; c o t h- Innter ir had btEn rouir,.dii irn h.: t!I.- er.ch

century, along rr-de ro., radi at irn from Limrsa to th hitter lands of

h-: then-Viceroal t. iof Peru, and b,' the e;ghirte:nth c-nriur'y ith rueion

had de.elop.d rath.,r di ..er:.if;d -nd self- uffi ic ent. if pri ii i .e.

ec nO i, Euenos i r.- : al ,., as ifo nded ;n the s i ri nIh C: .rntur but

.as li:on thl' r t .:d inr the util i:.t ion of it ni jai r a C --i t porr --.-rnd

lacked the economic di.ersific action of the Interior.

Eu.:n.s A.ir: bL.qgan se-.t ing mT or,; freo.-e-'on of c:.mTrc,: in the

sc'..-nte inth centr,[l'. and chl e pre,- :Jurs for di rect tradc .jith Europe
ircr.;:.dj a. [h:e :;ct 's hinterland dc elIop U d. U t;l the laLter part

*.r the ei iht.eentl. cr:n ury, Lima's mcnopol orn the Ac;rc.r', :l ty foric;gn

trade l imi' -d Eu n:r s A; res por t act i ti loigel / to count r '-.nrd. o lo;..

as this S;Itu [ior h.; l the Interior ;t ies not onl a .rt protected frori,

coipcd;it;o' fr.rom foreign impc.rt. but also had an ad.Jen:t ieous p:; ;ton

.'is-J-.'; s Buenos Aires ;n b;ng along thc tr de rOutel which ,T,.rch.ani die

imported legal through Lisa. had to iollo'i toi re'ch that city on the

Rio d la Plata.

In 1776 the Viceroalt, of Rio de la Plata oas created frc.or

secti:onrs o the Viccro; jalt,' of Peru ,h,;c. nO. Comrr.p,.se the nation of

Arcnt ina. Uru ua',. Paragna, and BEEl ;.'i a '.Jhlil this suddcnl', -mad

ueros A ir-c the cenrl:r rather than the :.utEu r li ; t of th-e .icercqalWt

and led to ;ncrcasd traJe through the cit;'s p,-rt, it dd not imn-inLatel,

bring to the surlfa-.e th: ecanonoiic a ntaqoni r b3ect.:i EuijL'n: Aires and

the Incerior. UEghtenth cen.tir, Spain produced .irtualln no nanu-

fWctured good-. but r.hc did not alli', such goods t( bc inport.d intoi

her c>lcr.ie i e pt : o a *:-o"....I:u. J .tru. tw. e : .1 : Ii ..l

Lrar hi p eri h -i ;:h a I,':.a ,. rc." ;I I t: c ,he con J.- r pr ic . Thu:, h :

ti '. n rerc ar.cilin s r, rn ; n o Icr,.qL r la ore: diC. M.t Peru, i[ J;,d

h.:W e ch, t fli' of a prO:.-tir.; c: arif l I-;c. l, r.d the pro *; n:.s o

thi Ir It -or c i rintair, their ecoi ,,-- ,. Their eff c :r t ; c .-W -cI t--

c .me c.:l r i.,.. Jur i t] c E. '. ; h Ih 1- Ii ion treE trailc tbe.".:,,

t mfiTporar;il, p .: L.I: ar-J h L rr e of .ri: u La i -r ;.: a Of Cl -Lh;r.-

irriported fr-om Eri.gland :old for hall ci : price *-:'- (ho,-: ,. if :accurEd. in

the Int.erio ; r.

The indi--,.ndr:lir e in. ,ci.icni cri i*ilna d ir Eu,-r.:- 'i;rc e i h Frl e

tradc --r.: r frc. :pa ,;. .: control tj ct no re::e ri r :E i'rc.;i r: cr.ii. -

produc;ng t.ariffs--ir. .5 rno, i-p rt ii. cono.Ti ic p s. l at T import-

e.- p rt acr.i.at, I.i --,ough trhC porr ,uri-, i ri tLh ',:,-rit T i( -T rntt i t6r-

indep ndL nc ri cruiqgl Il.t-L Euero:. 'Airsc, Flour; l;inj ,hil in thi

pro- ;rin:c of C h: Litoral anrd the nor, t. l [ ;. iJu.Eri ; -: r. : t." ;ri-g r.j;,-iJ
and thie F I ld ..ere t:--: i-; dc cr- .i t ar l re The IrC r -r, :

ec-n:T C. ha- .: i re J, .been decl rn- in the i- l ;r. ; ilgh ,t r nIh C r.c : ', '

tlus ,ddjrI c.-po-:.d (.C i he s, t at i nrg. ci-.ip.t it in' .:.." Europe,.-i.

goods in its r',.rrier eas-,rn mark t at the a: [im that :p-iratlr.

d:pri.cJ i o" i r t ir.rc er Trm r; ;,n E ll ; I jr, P, -ru **her EIIrcp. 3

Cr'pet;[ n Ii ia: [ c t :t ;.. 'C.-..c -I uc I'. i .diC p .ndLrL e I C .-C ?! fi.

trad-e t the InL r;ci r orane r ":a c:-rsi:ide: rabl I ur r.;l i.-net of prodC-uct ni

in sciTomi :.r ;r iio t imrprr ita indut ri a; hic ..nnri;ll; at : i:

tr ain .srliie cCoTi.rce, ani th; n ra r. : in ; o it : i; terpron. i.; l rai -.

The LitL'ral ro.;,: .s ,c.Th-r than u,.r,- ilir-" had a different

ccon: riT;c p-roc.lCm ir tih l.- l lh. rCe.M:Iut .or. Their r lck of ar.

industrial scructi.re Lconparabl ti thi ;. Lf l I rnte ior, c'O.b l ed nit h

chc ir outi t tO th: se-s ia large and nr i.j tle ri. .r 1]J c[h. -, o b.

strong ad- catch o:.f free trade. Eut fur thies prr. since of Sarnt[ Fe

Entre F cf s, and Corr Kne, F ree tr aJe inr ,.. free no. i gat ion of the

ri.,:rs; for Eu:nos A;;r.c it iT-: int th'i c; i n.-. inop.p l :f all ii~;T.'r

,nJ :' -prt[ a:.r i. t,. Thu-, thilI ". r.d.:r th., colonial r.-'jir... Eu.-noS

A;ires hid hod [... f i ht a'lai r ni El h ,-ni: r -. t-, 'i.;,:..o l ts ; :-f ith IntEcr .ri

arid LimTa, i: l t.e-i;se in ind.:pend:rt Argert rin the ripar an rr..i nces

,u rc r'.bel ling against thE: S f ir.ling c.:r.opol, of L'uienos Ai r .: 21-

The d ep .;W; i.i n c. the ; a.'i riL[ ;-,. l *r.ani.. at i nr, bccami-=.

e.ident in th,.i C..Ingrj -soC de Tucu ii in, Lihich d c lr.:d t h, c ouncur, 't

;rndcpend. nce: fro..-i Sp'SWin in 1'i6., Do.:Tirina- d t.,, the consc-r.ati .e elnc nts

of EJen'iu Air'es "nd part., of the Interior. the coinr:ss c irst considered

,arius .'iion-rchist plan and c .cn[.al I)--:.rccr mio. in c to the cit, 'if

E'u:rcno Air:-5s--draft[:Ed a s ronl, coenral i rvpulic Cn const ituti on in

1819. Abse-nt froT [rhE c': i cnonE rce; n c ci n c; ..'r deleg tiE N fror.' the

Literal pro. inc-sa rndr repi r ent;[r i es of the :.J..o c t[. of lo c.iil J ritonorr./

in th.: Interior. Thus-,, tm: Ca jnSti ut n of 1819 cOuibirned t0. interests

of Puenos Aircis i;th [hosc roups in the Intcrior rl'c had a deep feur

of chc local caudillos ;nd .- their bi,-ids. Of thel tlhr':: anijor CuriLntm cf

upir;i.-ni which li-r dCe. r],ping o.n the question of nat ional ,organi at ion,

the coniSt ic[u[ l, rrpr .rcnt[ed but 'ne --the unka3ri,..

The uni; tarios, ihose major strernijh iwa in th. c;i, of E'uenar

Aie. rnted to o .:'.i n ;.':; th nat ;on under the. srror.g central cd leaJder-

ship o- that.il c;ti, Er;h in E'u'.nos Air..s and ;n thic pro.inccs the

p'r addr.si:d ;tel. f prii.,.jr; l to the ",nrall but highl, art cultt

grc.up oi .eal lr Eh' .:r cl:an ari-' i ric ic a lIs J. co no rI c ; [in r'i r-: 5.i

cultural irn.l;r.r i n bleir.d'edJ r.icl I c h l :h r; ; -r' d [r ro.jresii e

rndenci,: of the unirar, id alc ,n .:"- Con cat ti rice th, un; t ri, r s3 of

BuEriiin Airce nd c[ h- Int ricr us- f cl i C [ .at l b h act tha l-froc,

ch, i r poi rc c.f i e specif ic p.ro ir. c 1i i r.er, E's cre i c'.;;i -nal o.r r.i,-

e'i [enr; .hoit.i[ uw ii.for[ rin .s ord,..r and .: lighcer.e.J :lhar ili: r:.il- r

thanr, h- cha ios' s n [t local c:ud' I : c' r.1J rl .arile- tered r ..,:;s .

A rcc.rnt Arg.ein irn hi:torian scar-s ha:t Che r i'c f.rc ant l: .: cn: inr,

ur.nd-r tarndinr.q cthe- uricjr l is [hI. f c[ Lch, ;[ 5 i a i L l;i partt, a

Buenos Aires arre, whichh "'r pr -. n .r d [ he a rer. p,-,, : chi -.; c rcr..al
1i '
capital to d.:.; r,.j[.r all th-e territory o:f [h. forri,.r iuri J :rick r."--

Econ ro icIall t i sr. cr.:' ad aci c:. of fr': [ia-...

Earl, A.r nr;re pcli ical grouFaps u e f f Ji. ,;JJ ir t' urnit r c.s

an.d fI.d ral.:s, t.uc in fact [hcr. .. : [,r c :e quiLt: .Ji..i;nc C',e;iE of

f deri-- l iir. The f'::ral c- of Pu.r.:-s .;r I. IrL.c h i. un.turica lor

siron surpp.ort er" c : r a pol;i:, of fre, rradc .,ic r Eur. But un I

the U ce r li .. [ th .re ujr oncerr .J ,ith th rei- nd r t" [h- E -

vice -ro',alt P.prF scri: irn pr r;i ari l', h. : rural 'and catt le Ia ;rrra es :

the :pr..i; nc-. th- Buenr,o; ir.s fI.:.'rali c t, i'.l licrle rn. "d fo:r [ .h

octh r pro.'ir.i ce; sarij ,.:-r cr, nc-d [h,:r their on- ir,[ e.rs-s v i.uld W:

b: st se r. -d b, a co i. i ti .ron of aut[. .:.... :, cco,: r.:ri d t, r'ior.cpol', of Cth

port. Thus., he' did no[t difF r ..i ih the urni tar i: n t'm aic -conrc'ic

poli c, Lti -r other :ri re [ ,- cure of nri- ;i:n ;l corga- ci :at Jion.

To [rh federal's ,i I (Ch. Ir.cer or bo lth nar ional org n; _:i i

and ecoriroTic pri ctiac ; -:on e ers irc.por[ ,:i,[ tLnl il-: [he 1 -,r ir- pr ;i r.e o

BuEnir s ri s noi-. of the Irnl rior pr:. ;rinc: could hriop, c Sur.i .

alc .e, nd . At .t the_ :i. t Lir : ti ,' e i rno:.thing but tc:.:.nOTiic rujin and

po litical doairnati.:on in -. l propos.r l [If th unitar;o'.. ThU.s. 'crhape

more than an, cther pro. inchess Ithei .:-re ar.i : .; to f irn.:h I.ith thI;

t il, of Foli r iti' l c rg-niat; W n in .j wa, that .:uld guJarnntEE their

econolo ic and polite l a t n n at j ~t e .'.' a. e ii t i'Ec c abiliz;e int ,i -

pro.inciial relat i;.ns.' 23 In ;h. :.rt. the fed r al i -s c th, Inr.c i.:or

sought a mr,: ur- oj pro. irn ; l .I L.t .:r.'i,, r ,.-iff prot ct ion uag.a;r t

Eur:.F.pean -n-.e[ i i ic, r. arnd a sh3rin9 oi iLhr: E no: Ai re; ':uSt':Tl r Li-pti

a"nn t Ihe vc rio. p Frovinc a Fdc.rakis oi" the Litcril Ir- i-s

c.o:ncr. rIJ d i; th tarif 's, but .ere str.-r.Il, .p:.ri'oscJ t:o p:oli ; iC:. ac l d: in; ;,-

ti r b,.' E'un': Aires anJ to thil- t cit ,' iO-ipo l.,i ;,:i n .-'f p :rt ac:t n i; i .

As might have been c'p.-f:[d Inr i t its failure to t al into ac-

curt t t ofi the thr t.E ain curr-ntrc f poli" r t ial and :onomic opin.;ri n,

tlh Contitut ion of 131 4 sc rc ie. tcd b, th- prvir nc of ti-c Intr rior

and- ;ir, rl,' -120 the centralist go. rrnmTent oft" Pucnc Ai re ccll api .

cf.l l.:.o;n battle c l i th caud;l ll o-led-1 ari.;le. oi [-h Li orall During ilost

of Cth decade oi the I.i.20's, the jrious pr.o.inccsi actnd ad indcpenrdent

St jts. In I' 1 20 ti pro i;ncc' of Tu.i:unr. and Cat :-.Tirca f'ornm d the

"Fepubl c of TucuLITIn." ',hi l [rh "FPepubl ic f: Entrc Ploas" i; created

if lloiing t[1e .=ilur: of efforts to Fornu a l rger republic ;nde.p ndent

of E..ini.s A;ir,:. which would ha.e ;includeJd Lrujua',.. Entre F los Ctrdoba,
Sjnt. Fe.. and Carrirnteg .

In E1Cr-rn;mic m~atrs, rhL pr.. ;nce set up local cuStoms and

tranr.it dtc ie to prooide te tar iff protEct n -,iich thet, had not

received from. Euut.rc A irs,. b, thus ta [ nrg ;imp(rt-d products as thL,

croas:cd [he front ir from.i Elen.: Airms, trhe pro. ince-: ':re able to

nmaintain an intern.il rarklct or .ir.:cs, i'.u1jors.. to t ; l . n.J leather

product: p rcJducod b, ci : Ic-.:a indu Lri;s. The.;'. iipfCort -: nd traun

dut its also, pro. i Jd the bull. cOi rch; go.' rnier.t3al r,'.Enui fotr the.

prc ince, duri ng t0h0; pcr;ojl. The s-, CT, o pror irclal carill was

"largqel'. a hit ,nd r'i s fif3ir" I ich. Fre. i uenct I resjl ted Irn econ.r:.T.i

,uars beti-een pr'.ince. : but itc iaij: tll preferotbl c .:. [the frec [r.ade

policies of u.:-nr.: i ref.

The gojil o:if national orgran izat: on r.c.-;aincd al... hou .wr. c er,

if thire WIas li i trle corun nsi u on the fro.-.. F:iF.prEi s.LntL[ f [rhe

pr.ovin:ce mT: in ano-ther .:onr;t cu[t;Oral as, neLt.l-, ;. 15.22 -1 2'.. elc: -d

Bernardn.o F; PIc.da a as presidirn. ar.nd ca..- .;.u [lh anocrlher c.itroal

conist; Ltut ,. Like Lth: IS: i dcur.. h-., .er, ti pr-r.:.pcsed cor, ti u-

iion w.as rejected bv the mhjso.r it ro [th pro..'inces and ch; reject ron

led in d;reci rl F. i 'ada. .i6a rc ;qn.ar d rle.. I n h -':. che pro. ;nc

continued :t follo., Chc;r ind p-in.dnt L cours:s.

The fed rr li t- caiTme t po. cr in the pr,- inrc of Eu. n...: Aire-, in

lC2'9. ard for the ne [ t ,o *,c rs h,.re a an i ntra s ing r .er al

--nt. riral 1,, at Ila, --of the part ;a represents irn the reg io al conf li c .

Slhortl, .b fore fr dcrali Juar lsnu.-l de rLFO.;a:. S c.-.: 'a g rnor .:. r

Buenus Aires. rnit' -.rio general J; rl. P-: marched .:n C6rd:.b'a to i.:; r-

throo the federal ;t go.'.ernrent of chat prc. r:ce "and car c c.ut a
S 6
naLiona h 4 : O in in the Interior., After L t. ;ri se eral Inter or

arniics ,h;cb ladJ bc n senL a'ain L h;. .. Paz s-.:.n ', in control or the

i;holc In.cr or and forr.ed the Lign .: I Interior as a n :iInaln uni tar;o

a lli ance of Crdoba, i.-nd,: a. San Lul ., San Juan. Salt Tucumbn, San-

tiaio, del Est.c:r.:, Cr tomiTirca, and Juju .27

-- ani,h; Ic, n Q!"I Fntre F o.s andl S ntr.a Fe--l acer to bt: joined b.

Corr i c s ntC rcrd into a "fe-deraril pictL" ,i rh C ruenos A; rces herb,

Pos. s i: a; r..ernor of that pror' nce .as ut[hor i :ed [c. r pr.i ent them r,

foreign affairs. Th;3 pact. hesidies ranging3 fed:eralista Eucno

Aires and Literal ,.,ain. s,, uinicari; Interior, tornie-d t[h first realistic.

i f li i; ted, foujnd.j. l;ron up n -r hih [C b. ;ld nat ional un it,. After

federal islt ar., of Lth. Lirc. al o..erthre, Gii-er-.il 'Pa: in 1831. thE:

pro. i i Cr of the federal pac: erc t, "f-pl iCat iojr or e*-ten;- ;or." soon

appl ed [t [-ie reat of the pro.;i res,. It 5.s Ithron gh the author he

deri .d fro.Mr th; S p.: that :... ,:. raised hi: de facto :on[rol o.er

the- -:Countr, I r iu.-re tha h too l deca,- es.

When Fros3 returned to the go,-c.rnor'ish;p of EucrOi Aires in iS3,

..'ith dictatciorial L.cer.--he *ws COnsidc Jed LIe Cni, ,'', Cap:t.le ':f

tr;r ;r,.il the nrecdcd J u,,i and je.ar. ded broad p0o'er of the pro ,;rici;.

legislature :.s h;i price for return;ng--hiis initial econcr ,ic policies

offered the Interior a il:c:mi chang e fromTr those of Lhc unit-arios.

Late in 16 3 he announced a rne. tariff dac .Ahkh pro. idcd the gro.u;n

hand;Kr ft industry, of Buenos Airs more pro[tection [han it had e-er

cnjo,ed before And did the S.aiiS thing for the ,ine and liquor industries

of the i,o:. region a, Tucurrn, [tie Lex'; lc and food i ndustries of

C.rdobt.- and Santr 'igo del Estero. and the shccp-rais;nj pro ;nC3 cf

the Litorual. Although the aCL did rnot. mret all the demands of the

protectionriL .. ;t E ,as the fir t "icric.uE effort' to adapt a tariff

police : to t he economic needs of the .ar;ous pro Inccs and grea l,

incrir ascd Fosas' prestige ir. the Interor.29

'Iitlhcr b-:c:u:e Fr ,,, i. a cu ttI-.-.o. ar.J rhuj at icart u tfree-

trader .,o:.-. prr, c..; : r,; n I h d t rin m. r r-l, a p l i it c l debl or bec i:c

the financial proLI.-i. of h; 9go errTrent left fC. othLr alL.r.:jt;

th.i tariff acr -., I- ., ,as sh.ortl-Ii d. Th. fir rs re.creal ,:a ... in i' .

during th; French bllMcl ad of the port of E'u.no; Aimrc. arnd in 1 I the.

pri: te- ctioniist plan-ji .us efflectt ; El urnd rcut L, M allow ii ing prc ioui

forbiadJcn i.p..rcE: to. enrtc r thc coar. r, pa, irng a 1 Fper c.rnt dut,.

Tran p.:.rrat no c s,. ts. rroii r the irerio:r to[ E.uer.:,. 'ir: .re uclih Lth-

European goods J could p,:. such a dut' and Kr.;l I: 1l at Io>:r price inr

Buerno Aires tlan thM= product, of Lt." Int-reor r pro.icr,, Di.Epite this

IoS of much c.f th.ir coastal r irlcts ho.e :r. .he Interior pro iices

k:pc rhe;r irnt. rr..l ;,' tc-,, of tari f: arnd trani-.i[ J., e-, tlhr u-h.out thl-

F. Jsas period rnd thus .ere adtbl Lto .;nr.a;n r l, ir local ,jar~iet:.

It .Sa ;in fact, the o.chr.r pro ;hre.s of the L;toral uhic'h c i.c to

ha.e Lh-.. tror.g. t cocnpla rt ag airn t th,. Fo.es r: ;ic. L. As h- t.W r

r.otCd. the location and cconio.;Ei o ch.se pro.i-.ciS.. ;ncl ;n.d l.-ii.

toward a poi; i tior. of fre. trad:; in thii they, ..re ,.re tth rt th

rioncpl' I E rj no Aires ,Tain aincd or, i,,portr and c-por t Thus, for

e>a.rplc. Corrr;ernt: and Senta Fe jpp:orErl d the Fr,.n:h bl ocl ad of

Bucrnoi A ires in 1:. bKecaju the Fr nc- h- ad iralal lo :,.J Ji ps Lt p:.;s

upsitr.ar. to iorts onr, th.- rugca, and Par nS ri ..-r. -liich practiced free

trad...31 Th;s End 1 later blockade of E-,nosi, lire :.t both French and

Britis h ileeLts:. r i-: ri rily reac tion t Fo -,a ncropo list : [rade

pcI i:i c:i ,32 and uh ,, En-ilarnj id France later reco nqr i d the r ;hrt of

E ~ er.os Ai r-.s to clo. ,- LI-. r ;...rs. the afCl'tcit J i. --E.raz I i a.. arnd

UrLilug j a i -S ,el as ith. /.rqcrt i ncc fr c ,s of tIh Lti r-ral --rosi up

against FP' ,; The m.j cn..nt as le id t*. Cern ral JuIst. JoC: de LIrquiz.:,

a cauidill of Enrrc F eo iho Iad r.e-n .one of: F,:as' cop I; eutt:Lnant and

had led tli. fiO ra1 armr, aj ,nst Pa, in ch- Inter;i r ir. 1 31 Ir. .qui -
Za1' first Ct f 11..ing W h;- .ic rt, ,as to decljari the ri ., rs op'n.

The porttVcA s rnade 1 ;t le eff,..rc W* su'i-,po,.rt R.:.M ,s ,h-n he. UJs ch:l-

lInge. t l.rquiza, t'u neithcr :cre- the, prepared t[.- fo:llo, an ".:uri;decr."

The Entre P.-*.. .jner ral us5 d the federal pact f 1331 :I a pc r, oF

Jep.artrc in- hi.s effort : at r lc; nal organ;zati:ron, Orn that basis., urenu i

Aires and Lh.. other three Litoral pro ;nres cor,cluded a protocol author-

,zin. Urquiza to r:pr'sern them in fireirn arfairs.-'- DN spice hi,

fo:rrmal agrCLrr.nc ;n Euein. Aires; Llrq:uiza '*a ij ppo:cd t, t e oh Iedrral-

is t and ccrtral ist. Tlhe recent 5upp.orters of Posas and the un.it irios

returinir.g Irom evile tookk pos.e-:ssioni of ELenc; AirLs a.s Lbo'lute oI'ners

arin acted as if the,/ alone hal o. c. rthro.jn [t., t rann, [c-f E.os ]. The,

had no faith iir th,- ian Ilho had. just libiraiLd themr."3

In contrast to, the ill-I'atd constitute ions o 1819 and 1826, the

newi federal st constitution drafted in Santa FE follo,.:ing Ijrquj;z '

victor, repreer.t ci a comproTi ie of th: cco.-.mrnc ar3n. political interest.

c-f ithe LiLoral and rh. Interior. This const; tut i on- -.icl ,i th sl ;ht

r,.o:j; faticrl, has lasted more l'an a cerituri-.-. s dasi;Jncd to precenr.

future restrictions to frey na, i.gjti or OF Ith river.. to the opetilng'

io n-;c parts. and to nlternal .ommerc It n:jt icnal i d i.,'[ern.:l

tari ff and' abc-li sl d intrnal onc,:. .vhi le pro. dinng thar t pro inches

thus cut off rromi [heir fcorrier source ofa re.enue i.:iuld reicive subsidies.

toi co.e r [hei r budgets. In its polit cca pro is; ion the sinatEC

--rcp.cscnt ;-ng. p-o.in:cs Wi thout regard to popul :t ion---uas de:iJgnd to

pre.ert lI-islIc; on prejudicial [o tlc Int -r;i r.

E rjc rn i. : Fu :.'in: Aih r.- cur-. co reject ci. C iin tir luCiu i n.

Fscir.9 rlt e Ios :, t .: spEcial port. pr;.iles.,. the pro i nc a .Z l I C .:

d.A, n[ta5 : in r.,'Taininq j p.r[ ocf :n In[ :ri,;.r-.Jonirn[.o d co.-infedcI :rat3[ n and

:huo e i r, e- t. t: ec .:

The dciad. : : [h.o I r ,S:' 's ChuS I :he A.rjcntir.- c rrir c.r, di.; dc

into tio : ,.:. r Iqn Star s. The Argcnt ;e C.:-.fi -er iri.on. c..'p.:c..e :.

l11 pr:. ir.c::, .: .'L E.u-r:, ,, ,:irc .M:.o[ c d iAt c:n r.; [ut;.:r.on in 10',3,

esr.ablished ; C 1 Cp alr' in th En r F o. prc.;r, ci.al ca; tal of F.aranS.

rand Mlecc.id UrquiZa presidrc for a.5 s i.-,.ar r.arm L.:b i nn; -. ir. I.,*.

Eueno;s Aires, n.nan, .l il. a:,d p eLd ;i .r. :L.o t i tu r .n ; n I1 .1, a-d

.:.rtinlu-.J i h l ; fr.c -trade poUli ci:: Zi befor. Alt[h,.u:.h dur ;,i

ur-new s Aires' s-c ,si.on she fail: d .:. a ri d;I l:l ra[ ic r.c:...I ni[;.n

--En landi.J, Fran.n e, Spain. Era:il. cthe ir.-ed Sca e' ind tche P p.-li Sct ces

sert their repr.i r'tajrit es to: Pa,- r --the pro. .incl d d rn.r.t suj .-r

-c:onocicn alli diurinr. its indrpj r..-ce'. TDt. CLonf dira.. J t c.ii on rhe orher

hanr .. .. l agued b inar..nc: i al difficu iL = dur n3 .rI efforts :,:,

crgyniz'e Che *o, rnT'innc at F aran'. IJrquiza'; poli :ie re_ ,:ir in h.,

p r,: .f F ,:,ar ,'. in Santa Fe laid ich.; fo.nd. ic, r. for tihat c t ,'s fu ure

.grear-:.. as a *rain port bu a Fr ;ar o ;as no: Icar i.h for EBu'ir.c A;r',-

as a pr ,:duc:r r : :u tmi, re enu'.

Urqui:j'- *Jeicr .: f a E.cn:.-c A;re.s ari-. :at Cepeda ir 1i35$ ld tci

cha r r:, since '. r ec ;;o. c.o in.ll; i. c'in [le Ci on dl' j r. oc i: .r. [ ill the

c.:nflicr. p[ers;i -.d. ho i'.-:r, and in IS6.1 [he i Lr:p.d3 outLC:"le '.is re riCed

;n Cth bai[ ic : of Pa.ir.n. The po:Frr[t:c i icri r.-ulted; in Eu rnjE Aires'

*go crncr E.,rtolori ti r: 's i c 1 i ,lishm:ntr of pro.. isional nat ional

go.err n nr. t 'itl. :1h- it c, .of Eu ncJ firu; as ci arp tal, litre ..

in u.u ted as pr sidcntr in 1L.1.2. iat ion l pol it cal O :rur.i! s for the

ne.? t hal t-ce nti r, .. re general bcar.car, c;ncr r:l ist and federci list of

the E'u:rc: Aire [r.,. pe--the former a~ Li.ecralcs and later NJacionali :tas.

the Uat er at Auto-c.Tistc-s. Bll re:ardle:, cr .hich group .:; ioiTrir i

in power. th, gra.;La ion cf conccriic anC d poli i cal pr-'cr to Buenos

Aires n .J, to a l-sscr degree. t' the other prc.inces of tic Litoral

and the resulLant dc.e inrW of the Interior continued at ajr increa ing


Argenm i.- historic hjs b-een said rt be di .ided inrt tuO eras on the

basis of tihe arri.al of the railroad. Before rail rr.jrnsp:-or at ;cn,

comiinCercial traffic tra.cled b, o,ciar ci.cr the plain: and by niule trari

in the riountairjn regic.ns. E'.cr totn carried in this ia/ bctt.ccn E.uei os

Aires and Sal a cost apprc. imaKtIl; the -.lar of oce peun tor a ,a-r. 1

arnd iil 18P3 the ton-per-mil cost of" TO. inq .igo'ods alanj th;is route ..as

imore than .i ;.-.t -to timis that O*f slippinr- b'e-eri EBueno. Airei and

Europi,. E.en rhe water -borrni tran-zpo.r tati or, bet.cri.n- Bierio: Ai res and

Corriences cost Iten tin-,c as much per tan-mrr;l as did the transatlantic

Sh;ppi;,-.. Eecause of these transportaL ;on costs, the ';ine producers

of San Luis rccei;.ej Ics than half of ,hat their product sold for inr

Buern, oAi re, .h; ic producers in marc di;s:,nt irriedo--z. S n Ju.n. and

Tucumnin ..ere e.e more serious handicapped. But :hi le proi.irces which

dcppended upon outside imarl.cr suffered due to the cost of tranrsporat ion,

it pro..;Jed a ant Surc of protect ion for those Mihoue economic, ai rort

di'.crsii;ed and sclf -sufficient.

An ce:aiTple of uhat the rail road m:ant to :- "cash crop" pro,. inc,

can be seen in :hel cs of Tu:uinn Al hough sCu-ar crn, had becoric

establk.= he. apri ultur l i, n th pi.:.' ; ..':e ~c.ne LI: b- t: r ;u.. r could

r:o t. s iipped e.: .r:omric ll : r r -.'* f rCCr Lh r r uri er prc -i ;ilro Ad

cor.d; L .ns arid th1 cO I, aso.e 2,C' '' h C:ct r.s ere pl: .-' .d Ir. car- S i

years, jftr cOr .:.:.-. i : ;n I l ', of tChi r ;lrca. Lj t.e :n j.: r a nri

Euterc.s Aires the c rne fields had dcu, le.i in :are. ir n r.ach;ner, hj.

beer, .roj u ht i n r. repl ace C ;h for.r.er prii,;t;.e proccs; g r. T.CLh1n ds.

"i' r.l: i-upar j. i.- ICn i C 5, to .ccL..irnj :. 1..aIJ r Argenr ; ne irnduscr ,.

B, IS95 the are : of 5,9ar p1 ant i4-..1 in TuCuWri had e Pardcd t: 6.1.2- .

hectares, Ai ll 3 further ir.cre se ito '. .:'"' hr .: [.re ;ri 1H4l rA

scT.a h"a[ s inilar berefit accrued CCto the urir.e-Fro.du..i : 9 pro. nrces of

Cu,o, l-hic;h could n.: .jce[ Che r product Cl to m-rlet chCapl rcc.ulh Cc

op.er : TE successful 1, uinde'-r a re so. 3tle degree: oi [f .3r;f r" pr.:: c i in.

But O c.r. .;a pro inccs of the Inter i r. [h- raIl ro:.a --c:o ni ried

with [he ccnc.:n .;C 1 ber- l is. pract iced t, the r:,[ iii,l ad. ir.i[ r =C ,;-,n

in Eucr.s Aires--had a qu Cite differcrc ;-.pT at. I r L.a Fic.ja C he pr,.op.r-

tion c:f the ccOinciT icall, arti pop-.uilat On emTpl: ,.d irn e [re.,C;l

irndus rr', dropped frcmr 17., p-r c.,-.[ i. 1 6,9' l, L .4 per cient it. 1'14,

wAil, in the rneighborirng. pro.. nce ao Cat .l-,~.arc; hsc e.,ied K1

tectilcs declined fro 1 .9 to ,9. p. r c:.nrE u.ari [hie an.e period.

In large rreasurei a r.:sul orf the E-pandirrj ra;lro.iAs. t the ,nd o:f the

ninr[crr.ch C.-,t ri, the local -and r. ;:oral strruc ur S. of pr:c.dCuc;or aij

conrjunpcc;.ori ha. d .n i, Ct a ne ;t l -i sILrui.t urC, t h ; rihe i

structure a-. t-al :a.:ed n either Ecogreplicall, I' r ec:oriOmiC l I,.

Had the intre rat; r..nq effect :..f th, r ilr 'o l been anc.:.c...p.:.iejd t.,

nact i'; al c or.i, .i.; pO:li :;c co.nc rne j .iCi h prote.:C-t in and jde.el.:opirni

the e;o.r.:.ile cof all par s of thi -.at;orn .j ;f rr.rnt s;i u.; iO n rn[ .jh

ha.e rC3ul c.J,. A rec':ir[ s ud h-, i p-i ntcdl o foL r c.*' aji-. th.i

Austral a--I lkt. Argent i n- a pr im,ar, producer ol agr cul [ur al c :,riTi. Ji tie

for ex1po:rt--follo..u:d a protectionist[ pol ic, n;rnc the turr o01I [c

cenLur; and as a re-ult had alrc ad, dc .rlop:d a st.-l inridu .r, bi che

1920's and had a rather di. .rs;if ;d icconroi when tlhI ccorEcr;mic crii-5

of 193 arr ;.ed. 46 Eur' in Argr nt ina the ,on c iC pol icie; 1 i [che

16,cj[ .:.r tie r ai lr .':- 4 .:r ccirice rned .i:h; n aintain;ng cilce tics

with EuroptaF n n.arkets. G.o.ernmienr i et. d t :riffs a s urc: c of

ret.i% nu rather than : a meic an of proti i t ing arid fo' [er r ii eco:.nomr ic

de. c:l.pimer n:, and the fe' n; nettc nth century, e,.amt p s oF" pror ccti..:r nism i--

such a: F; as' rar if act of 1'36 arnd somI. 1 iiT; [cd Tri.: asurcr 5 dur inq th

1870's ---eL re shrt -I; .ed anrd usual l, noi:thi n but brief ar nations in

the pr .ai 1 ing ther-e of free trade.,

Like e the :on:cpLt c eic'OnOmiiI; c ,l ar J it, L, i .ed on project ;ion of th

Interior induj-t ries, the pol:'iti cal aut.ncr, of the pr'.i.;nces which h.d

been the foundat ion of the 185c3 Cont itutiorn sroan pro.cd tc. be epherierl .

A consrti utioral pro i Iorn author;iin.3 the national 9go..rnrrment to

"inter. n." ir a pro ince t r e r tore order and "''uarrnt.c a reputl;ican

former of go.e rnmernc" hai freque-nt becn used in Argcit ntna and--along

; lth incre ia ing pro. inci al de-pcndcnc,- on fiderai iTionca, --has seriously

undermined the pol; itcal po. i ti;on of the pro ;nce: ,. I i le there ma-

ha.c been ir, stncec in Ah;ich inter ..enti;n na; juLi il iC ajs the onl,

means of restoring order to 3 as r; f--torn pro..;n:e, the mri-aur ra'3

rnore oftin L,:cd as a pol itcal I, epon aid reori ted to "in m.ani

irn:Larce [whcre] thE pro. inches could .er'y i ell hJ.e irorcd out their

di r ii ul ics .,'I thou the tc b nef it oi inte .ent ion." Thu,. whilee

various .a pecr.s f r[ 1.;5, Co5.n-;i ; ul .: re .Jds;gn:; [,E pre~ .cnc .L

re.i.al of Bu r.mn ; Aire r Jdo.i.nr.ar,: r [hi- c.rhr-r pr.: ccs. c[he ;r[cr-

'E.nli.ii Clause Leriou-iEl, i e.-l e-r (the Ef fe-cri r .-._. o". f thesc :saf iu.arf-,.

As long ,:. E'uec .; Aircs ; cr.ed t..r.h l'i ,' ic'.ri:il c:ri c .l an,1

Lhc. c pital of the pro.ii ce of th. jlrn.- r.te the g...arr..:.r .of the

pro.;r. ce hjd po.ner ;n Tarn, ia co:npara'-l [ Lh t of the. pr-e. : r.t.

l'hi le the Si uatE U K ri W n itCEd, thi: re c,:.i.1 L:- I tt hit' curlbi igq L h

po,.iir O f lthe pro.in c: n .e cr hie re t :' [hE L rnac i:n. Urndcrst :,n.d t.l ,

Lh're fore, Lthe quest ir .-ri : n.5 r.t i.,onl ic p C tal .E as -, :r ,i.us con ,rn

f r:r he f; rs t d ,s .:.f" na ; r.,l ,-r-ani i-, L ; -.. There hIjd tL en c ..i .mrncs

for ,:,..ing the nr ;o.r.al center o1 9go..rrn nert ;n lan to. : either F :i ,r : r

C.rdo,.-ba. but the ujeight of EuM noi A;'rcs prte, l;l. onr Lhii: ;E5,u- ,:5 it

h:s one Lbcf.rc anrid ;;ince n most is .e s. The led-r,1 ;; ,

AJ-icorri -i sta oif LuE r.nc Aires pro.i i ce i oppo-e. the pro o;.i d ..~ i:.n.al -

i-aL;o n of th-ir c p tF.; al, bur .ei-ru-:.all, l: the ,ir.gui.;enz i;n an election

arnd a bLri f armed cljih o.'.r the i;sue. The ceitralistE in the c.apir al

fa.urcjd turning: it incto ; federal di: r; ct and iOu, ht :up,-,or[ of" i hc

Inccrio: r i ich ch: argur E chat S uJ: a iC" LC oul' J jre a..! reduce t[h-

i:conocT;:ic and pol cial po- rer cf cth pro i ncr : ci Li erc,: Air r and thui

Iec eAn i t: h;r.oric d in.i ,riir .:. r [L or.ther pro. inccs, ;lt ho.uih

this ;s lut ion gained general :upli'rr .--perha s' .,s [h- onl, 1 I 1

Solut icOnr [ the capital qluesr io- n--; ha:, bei :aii' that "'i c.:-untr',

was les" afraid of the pric.in e than of the cit* of Euenr.:- Airet."

The federal nation of L the capital in 1.?0 sc.'-. i t eSa-d the re i : ln.l31

conflict ut theL co:nc-ern :.c r tli. .rc. ii n pf:'. r ;f he i t i i t s l;

uouildJ pro. ,c-i 1el founded

A .tad, of t ic iil.rr..id of.I ci c r .eth c ntur, 5soc : l str.tif iC -

tionr ir. .r.e i .-i IT.iht .ell bec irn it ch- the pattern of land Lt nurc

,hi.:h a..as csta b.l ;.ihed ;r th, -c a.,rl p r I rnd : p ndo.n:e pF-ri ;' ..J. Th-t lffec

of that p.atteri- .r to cre.:,te a rl l ,'et p.-.u;rful roup of I ia il e:

wilth .ast h'olIJ r,.- ..,h.:o e r alth l i p Fol t ; ca ir,flLuen.:e b3 b-een a

pred'-r.- ..a;i c[ f f .ctor in Argent ; r. hi :'c r c.er n; e 'c. It !l and, not

rn. ..an or title, t- t i; ths founder. ior, o r t e tr:.ditr, l or,3al 'p cla
ir, Ar.ert i i.,,.

The distrib..tiorn of larg:-3calc tracts L e.Air. in th-. 1220's, in

part ear nc r a of ri ei r.r. nu:-. ThL. I ii;t al SStcm. e,:tabisi heK bt,

the unit j ici gj..ernr.ie.t o:f Ec inardi or P i. a .j ; i, .: ',-,,e of .:ri..h,' teu; ia

rCather t[,,, -.tril ht sale. rtcn.i;bi, iaimr d at cur inr :a co'ipro.. is.

bet ee i fre-' er.ati ion a' public l .nds and the r-ned for *:.- i-.ir. r rtal

rm .rsnu'- the :., teiln p 'r .idcl fot r a lif -timT l.ase l ;th the rent rt be

fied c .er, tenr ,a ar. The la failed to: I t the .a ount o' land jor

mar r. ig th pu.oss-cs. h-.r.,:' r r. nd tlIe land put up for lease v.:rc qu;i:.c '

t.l-.en utp t, s: F:.:ul .Lor' anr. sutle.. [uri n, tlie IE.20.'s 5.32 me'n obt *ai red

a total of about t,*.reit,' mill ; n .cres--an a.erage 'f a.out 37,.'i011 aj re

eaC :h though .:.T-. goa:: .5 irT.uchl a t thrc, e-.quarter'; or 5 mill ;.l, acrcs. p,

the erid Of the J-ecaJ,. tler-fo re. "Lo o -.rf 'r :rt;in,'s per.-inial ec ils

were born: the ci-nc.::ratio n of s: gniorial tracts oaf I nJ n the

hands f a ife. famil;e an, d th'. u su L tt ;rn. :.of land Ioir, through h sC.Lr.al

lands to the po.- ..an rho acrtua ll, worked d it ."

ihaL .-cr the iT ricr s or the' inter.t c. be hired ;t the s, Ste iOf

errmph;reeus is brol'- d:irn Larl, and wi.fs F all, L:.nrdorn'd. It fate has

been jcallJe "a stu.j, in; h--:; happens w'hen a piece of leg;siaticonr ;s

,: rsi-:iJ a peri i..I'; r -. ..-" i d .: ." I'or ,.h lc t'enri *ithujc .:, n- r h ip.

,: rul no h: e eerl : .J str.anyr '3- n :.J; .,al Eur,..-.." ;t S .' ',..Ir i [,C

niri. ccen. th C--nlur, i'.n ri : "ihu- b .' iLh- a rl, lI '1 :' S the- l ar,,l._,rd:

nere .ecurc in L.th i r p. ':c : i:onS. '-:r.: I t r in th', r .r. I Jp: '- Lr,.d -r':

:.:c in; t: .: r;. i .:, r thes: l.:-. ,.,; er ...I t : l and I ..:. I ur tt.c rT.:r ..

Po:'i .:l ubl:. tlhe rent o I,-, i and I el ;r, ..i ph,i t is 5 t f..-r .:.: ic.ldJ-r

r:to bu, r h le I .an *.u Y trigh.t.

The lj 3 ','j li.. the gr.o th i ..l p.:l C; t,. :..: h scli Il 3 jand

9i.i-o9 .:., large are :. ..:.r put. l I: l .- ,. F .. a. hi elr had E..::n q; .:r

Sni 4 ,30. :f '"' ; a c e: f g* d: *,ru: : r. 9 I,, i r ii a t i .. i -ti. I..,r I." .-. r ;ic:C

in l WaOinj can.pa; ris a sa;nr,-c tr IAdi .an ;in c'. ,.arl I :3 'sn ar d ,

9o:.errn.:r oi Eu.Ln..s A;rrL h l-; c awi -i tract: aloiL g th. n.tii

fr..- ci r l inc in thL scjuth:rr part .: rch pro:..in .c: Th: r .:iPii..

".:r nam tha., ajA.,ld r,: [hi I I'r:,rom FI .ad: .ia i '*er [.t in

up th- I indei ari t:.cr c, of Argen-t ;ra."''' In I 3-. RP.:. ,as d..:re.-dl

first larg -scal public S sa; dl' I a- ilC il tac;tr I pFLur ch s :.f l rG't

tracts t, .- 1:* iir. pa, r, C ;, In .:ind arnd i[-;h ..".i init r- tr.'."

Fcll inghir e q i- Fin r'in.l r t : s l ::., -.rpal ,:: a in;Sl the Iri. ,n: jin

Lh. 1170's an.: l I :." u0': I ,r..i t :. ani. d t: p t ; p".:ip n't : f 3all rar.' .

A ihe le ri .:I h;,d ri:.r n .-rt : .ur. d. th award, '.-:re in t he i':i :.of

LonrJ. i...j:co f. r :a c r ai rnuL.t-r :of hi'r:tari rherr- cr the thio.i c r ii hfe

C[ -,c le. C ian, Of the I -.dian fi jlrit .:.ld t: heir land t-,.n i, r.:

pCdl, 6ti or, at .'0 '.. rt '. he lctar IWJd g u *:c.i:Ct n ei,.ra i.On Ir

*hi;ch '41] peC l..*:*o : prr-;en cd c:ia;is:. [: [ h.- o r e r err i :r a. e

of ri.C:ic h:.,- four a.nd a half ,Pill i.r, ti' L .:t i .'. T r.l i of 9; in1

I -..: t,:. i.-l. :rs i; n the Irndiah. .n ;r:, 3 : 1- fllc..,*' I ;r prc:, IKnC.

oi CG~rdaba, .,here .jrn,r of the rei ipin .5 ':rld then. LO bu3 neSrrmen in

the ar ,a ;.d to spzculatr ors ;n Euen .s A;res -ho had ne.r r .-n the land.,

When the a.jilat;i t,' of -c:W lands I.Ol d do',n Lr.ith the end o.f th

camnpai gyn ai.;n:ct rhc Indi.3 .;, the lar land:, 'ri-r Lao haj- bEr.ncf ted

th iTmos. r fro., r h.: distr ibur on pcli ic s c i .:re I t lab tr rr,,n ir[a [r h:;r

a.J.:r aDL through li-nd cr icc .c i-,fl ateJ r i aL i.e i c pri.duct; ir, that

onl, those iho alrJad, had I an could ai'ord LO bu, r.ore. E,' the *-nd

io the n;nr: Ecnth c~entry. it as "''b ,.rnd the poeer" Co t he nal;onal

go.'ernmenE or those -* t[he cOnSt5al pro. n.ce to cr.: ate l and pol 0 ,

".' it Cd to the needs -.*f the immigrant or rsm.ll 1 farc : 'for the gov.ern-

mc:r.nt no lorgcr held land ir aqr culturea' l zones rad that n pri ate

hj.-.ds ; quite liigh-price.d.'" As a rs ~jul. a muchF-putl ;i ;:cd IC-l.

'"hrone Ec d. act" large I !,rj.l, a dead letter.

A scrie!5 ci f acors Lhur. l S behind thrf nine[-enth ccntul,, concen-

trat[ in of land in Argenrtina From colonial t rimes, here .a.s the radi-

ricn that Lhe juerC[ dc e t-eanci. cic, Cnsi Lg of sCiT 4.5'50 acres., ia3

thl smallest uni t of [th pastoral econom'ry, Abundant lands combined

'ith scarce capi tl in the carl', decadcs of independence caused the

ar.tie injustr, of bEu nos Aircs and the Lic orai [o build c.n a fourndjation

of large tracts lh fet crnploFlo, .s and a ii;ni r.,u inr.es t>-nt in inpro.'e-

MTErit5. For h[Ie yo.ernmenrq the ahundancm of land pro.-ided a source of

re-.nue, a oia, of rc-urjir.t those ..ho had .-er..;'j the country aid a

mLan, of ral ,ing and ol idif, ing go.crnmcntal .upport. Around- 1V0,.

for c jamnpi-, the nat ional ac. ''rraT t Wa ir nor. respects rather ..E.jk

but it ;:. qui te po e rful h.hen ;[ could cou'ni on th- suppoar of the

lan dningi n class .62 An, uhjat better ua'y to gain such supportt rhan to

fo" l' . ..*.1 .:, pro. di,-, .- -. ,T.,,r l-a d r.,, : .OA -lcber: c'.f hik cla: s ?

flo.r E rre 9- err.n-e ril reas ..ire:: f. o:.r l" c. w Aci I r c t ird: I o.r. r e

liiriCLd Co rh.e d .r ; but i.o:n of publ ic I anrJi Fubl; crL.Tc; n ;r ni

cf part ;:u: r ;ripr ,r,.a ,. i n ,a ;..- : t here c rap r.al c ; c, :r.:,. ils-

con. trollr edJ b, he n. r.t :.n l ..':' rrn.ier.t nr.J Ji.ri r- rh l: latc.i r half of rth

ninet.eenrth t r, tur i[ .-rI n.:.- 1 W: the I.:.,Ie I r e pr -o er .,o.ner .

In ..:r.traAt tL : the E .. / :I redi ) -. ,i .:, L. I rc L-,.: l ar.g l n3ar i..nier

p:irt cularl .' tha..-, *ith catt l t-h inrJuSLri;,li, : nd the l.,erc' ,r,.rs

cri:.r. : .nr.: r a h i h *j. ,r,. of r t ;:er, c. rn ..h- parr of h.: t L rLer n' .i :

consider le l iT,.urr o if thE ir innric i chh t'. [:c 1 C:u: -
L ron c .ri-r Cs.urce-.

Until t : latr.ter part of th ie riin c- r. th in ur,, h c th r S.r treat

of Argrnc ine ..., , ere a :.A11 ,., ..erc:al rmi, d I ,: : ., I ;I. L,.J

larcel, co th.: toi. .r. .a.nl i it;es, ,a d the 1:rAe urt5arn nj rural Iow. r

cl,: tia .- In co.ntr- t L .: ;i. Ie,: :.., .-of o li-,i :d rd e li; r: uii -J

dcr.:ocrac:i hR ld t,. the porter,. leader *-*h.:. tr e ,: :.rdn the C,:,unr. r',

duJring the first ars fr. r ;n deperJerce. th-m I:.-er cla:- : Ta-tE. are

said to ha : n:r.n t:rate a "J nIc,::ral : p;rl." ,h;cl-, cuh[ ,pr s. o;,:-

in concr r.. al nd IT,"-,w dj; : t ,, a nd. .'.a manA ii te[ d in :u|:,p:,l for0 l,:,c l

Caudil :' L ith the s mTi p. .. i :hol i;cal a, J s Ai l :cd i or ceri t s, .

Out O: iE S r--., it-., r.urlcuI c,:1 ,au 1 1- l- .d p1 ri ate r .M S h;ch dJ: :nat,.d

ni n teen.t. I .: ci.l r. Arv e-rt ; ne hl; r .,r .

Thf por te l, hi .r.*:r;in of [tthe c ; l z .- i ur. b-arL .-r i;'m ch:,:l

lon,:, -:'plained h- popujl ar suppr C r f thc cudi I Icb, ; It ;r the

caill 1:93i to. r,: it rc ." rhc l .-:r cla :.;- .-- i 1 ,r .' h.: g uciho-- :,r.

its cAil5 ; ita; ic on ti O h. c aud, 1 '.: P,:rc rIl, for c ....nnple. .o, Argjcnt in

t.rcit sa; d the: riatlicr thanr join ngr t[hcr course c oc. d f .r.i.." .ol lo.irn

ind.penr ln rn :--r..mEi nig ri ppa.re.tl h [ : course of the uni t. jr;o --the Ic. :r

clars e5 suflp ortsed the groupF of pro.. i-,c ial Lau- i I il s di.,h "pf.r:. i j d th.ir

pri.ri i i.e p.ji; r5'ns r.jl inst i ncts it hout helpi ng thl'e cronor.n call, or

raiini i th:I c:ult rc lI .'" As Al are.z p inr.:cd out a half -:erntur, .ago.

ho c.t-r, the fact that .,cin ,.ho %uould readi I, fol. li\ arid fight for their

ca ud; I ic sho-. jd a rorng j.' ers ior to.,ard ccr .ing in th rlin li r..:l arnr,

,':,uld indi atoc tlch t the ninetc:.nc h c.ientur,- i.' I ->ar. wjere r,. merci ,
the r.-sul t i' bellicose ard .;; lnr,t n r., r.

A .;,orc li el, ce pl nI at, ionr s-cnrs .o I; ir the e..isten; c of re-al

dissati Efact io s ,:r, thi ph rt :. of [he iTa;scs .hiC.-h the, re unable. [,

articulate ;,-, an.-,'y 3 ther than through the caud llos. CGern-ar,;, cr

e...amipl. Etatets that the aut:crat i .: auth,,or it, c.f the: .:audi I',:.: d not

rest on cradi t[ior.l lI-qitiniac as nmijht be e.p. ;ct.J irn .hat a;. -

scritiall, a trd; t iional socit,: but rather upon their a5cCefltaoce on

thl- part of the lo.c;r class groups "'iho soa in them thc;r crn reflect ion

anri tht c ,.s t i n of their orn .,alu'-s." In r hi aie .eir, Al.are:

cor.tndjr i hat supportt cf a caJudilo I as the result, among other things,

ofi the ir,bi liti of chi' nasisei to alter the la.i or the F cate of things

whi.li c:au-:ed th: ; r di co rtecnt Therefore, he i s, the folloC'.cd a

caujdillo a: the/ .oCulC f oll. I a doctor 's orders for cur ing an i lnre,

the, did not kno,-' hic to[ figh, alcnre. 9 Thus,. for c>a.rplc., the pract:rce

of e.
discontent chat made thousands of r,.n rc~j.d, to rall-, behind an, caudillo

who rosc up arg;inst the go'. i .ri .i.ent ihlc;h hi,, authorcd the nci. corilonnicl

forr.iul j -;,r.J .:I ..e r.rc c, t.'r E .u E I:. th n haJ it.. sh,c,'n in. the
'iar .j i i r ir -c Spa t n .7

The C ..a,, f l.ct rs :-ippl ; e i r clas Is r.elat i n aL th.- 1.:,-.' le.el.

To tl rui il pc.:o, ;le the Caud i I ll r.- pri:r -nt.-d t h.;r int.er ,t t..:.-th

jirist thi: ci; y anrj [he ncircihjnts and iinj ti ui -pul Ir rur.jl I r..j-
O n..rs,. Th s, ir iiaL t jt the. unit ar;. C-:-r al Pa:. .ho : .j ul.J-tb

L ai Jil I : c r cd .u[ E h r t -1 ;. od .,t cr- :.r F ; .3ic in th Iit r .:.r,

woj : ..-r able LO: g9 n tl- kind -.:f pCpul Er up|l.jrt *.K;ch iet r .: sui.c

mein aE CrJ eni .r ';i ; ro- L,. Frz T..:ll" d. -:r .. it ,: .r;s I- r.

"the o:ppo: ; C(cr. ui j;r'iAt an . ea. rather th pE rs.onl. o ;rci:cted

agai ns. [ e class thel con i ;d.-r.Lj ian .ner n r,.jd whichh 0r-hI.; bel ; .ej

suppo:rr.:cd .e .. .. . Th. u.: ch .:.. ;h.: L p ic. 1 .l l i ith:ut pr.:.p-:art ,. re C.ur


bet 1er, .', and 1 14. the ar, .r the r' t j n-.J third n t io .' l

eri.Jus ,. thi pjtti rr. 0c s:cial : r .tif ica ron ch.ariej fro.- :re [,': ic:al

of traditional societ,--s S .-all upp c l ;., irtuJ.ll, nO rid,;dJ l

class. rand lIrge lW. acr cl ,--t on, ; r.i h r.,c. th* -i.l.: c .;: 33l hLad

nr ir-poilrtnt i jht ndJ fun:ct n a- d in wr which th. ;rnt 'rnlr. structurC .:r

the clj.s.,;; :.i Ch t Of a. TOderi sci: t,. The ch r,.n s-; ri-,ril

iti result Oi t'.: relatedi fictO.-rs: iii. r; irtal ;-. andj ch -loIi in tie

c'ronon ;ic struc[ urE. Alread.J It.- Ib ',.. the .;.-Ci Si structuree h J been

conr ai; rablC I e',i:d i ed as a re- lt oft .- i. ;.a. ;.rrati*;,i. rapid

,xpjn i:n -'if i. .ri:cu tL r rr jnsfcrn-r i;c-r in th.: s[, ] o:. ranching ,

certain d :ree of riJJust ral Je. .lopn~nr.t, and a ;harp ;ncrease in

urbani zat :.

Altr. h.u h 3; carl, as 1812 the qgo.'.-rr. e t ;n uenc ,Aiirc pFa ;:d

a decree offering aid and pr.icec ion co ir.ni;grar'. S ,7 t '; a h l '-

ccrEtur, bLfc.re i m-niigrait on bcqlan on a l a.cg scal The r.:a: of

European in.ri.rrac ii on r b gan to : -lir.b sh:irpl, in the E 1 60' and t., 1I 1.

more than r2. per cent o:f thc Arj.rnt ,;n, population a.Bas fcorei ;n-born.

The prciporti .: i ,f iir migrants ranged 'fruoi 23. E, per cern to E '.9 per cent

o er h.:- nre.t t lree decadCS. after Ih;h ;c dccl ned 10, In. e per cent

in I'1 anrd 12. per creni in 1I607. The i.majoriti f lte mr rc than si;

million imrmigraiits 'lere Spanish ar.d Ital ian, ..ith thc rciTiai nder d; ided

primary l an:ng ar;...u; other European nat ;onali ;cs.

BE f-r r.h greatest numbeirr of i m i;*rants re mai;nd ; r. he pro'..incc:

of Ur.t Litoral, primril in the ITm.ajor ci t es. Thus for almr, Ic st i 't,

,e-ar r fo reirn-er, cConpoc;d more 'lian i, co-Lh rds of hec popular ion of

Buenc. Aire,- and ar ud .-d half f th f tha h of te nj[t on's rrmostc p.:pu Ius 'andJ

economnical,: I TS,' TSt iiTfiporta nt pro incc Thi soc. al ar.d .::onomirc Impact

of this i.--r lrat ion nas cor,. iderzl-, l, gr,]at Lr thlan c ..n these figure-

wouldJ indicate hi.e.l.tr. because the i-niajorit, of the i-.mi yr an t. -.;ere

males oif workingg aye and h-ence represer.ted a considerabl l,' greater pro-

port ion of the econo.-i ca lly act i'.e piopul at ion than t-hei did of the o..r-

all population. n Pence. tuhile foreign-c:rn repreccnted 25.4 per c-it of

the cocal population in 1895 .and 29.9 per cent in 1914, the composed

3- per cent and 46, per cent of the ecioncriical; 1 acti'.e population during
th-:.-e respecti.e ari n Buen,:s Aire th, proportion of forc;in-

born ain.:n nals c: 20 ,ear: or older -..er -,ed a'lcc-ut 80 per cent bcr.w-:n

1890 and 1920.. whilc the figure for the entire Litcra; during ct.h samic

period rani-. 'd L.toceen 50 anr' D i ) per cint

wli;t the -: -'. :Fi c c -r.,.::, J onI are = o" ,.cidL.t.a, r' II I ,-

rii .rt; ..p:c ar.:. r..: . I erri .r pr.:. i r..: In ch. r.l rh ..[ern

pl .i. r. .: .f C a *,,'. .: ., S,. u r, an i : -'' el E st: .-r... La F.R i a. ,Sal s.

:.nd Juju, th. for: ; n-pr-t.a r prr :. -ced rnl 3.,i p r cnrt f chle p:op :la-

r.t :r ir, I: and' .. p:r c.-n[ inr, I ]') '. F.r I.he r :.r.e rh- f r i...-

li jr r.:, ,-,: .;; T .y EChc Irerior hadl t .O l ef ect ,r, the ar. O L( ccau c,

cI:. ec:OJniL : s ruc urc tc i er.c.:.ounrd[r ; :c _,hu.,i. :ut h~ ,: c L Oi l ri,

ir. cegr.jaced 5 .i ;r th-,[ l a:.t re

TIh eyp'.., icr. *o. f armnr,. in th.e LiEoral--partic- :.l.'lr ;1 arE

Fe--ir r hi i l. n;nE ;.ecn h cir.ur, .. l:jrgel, [t e .. i :l E.r..rpc ar . *h

'crE into trh: ru :,il re a i n corneccion i r. h C l r.i r.: r. plroj ir.:c ,.

Carri-:r,-r.: i ',i.Je [h.: r [iorn's i:r.I. .-r. rr ;rl. j.jr; : j i ur l *:.:l I:o r.nim:;s

shortly, a.-F r the f.:ill : f F:,s and .h -. l : ,c : cll..;l .' n afr r-

lar. I E-, cthe pro.incres if eC nC. Fe E cr Saent Fe W qu, iC t. L.,:

.;l.e ch. le nd ;n colon;.'; ', n, ho; .,.r. ari ;r 1I:2 Ihat. pr;ro.;rnc ha

135 o:f a. r..c : i Of 153 s'ju.arc lea.u-, i: -ri rl. l. -oed to r; culcur-l

coloNi-5i. ; n r c r.r ; 3. The colo; r.I ; s that a r I ar.: pr: i; ir n,: I,

Sw. i s J. '.15 1. ftol l.. d t, It -l t .L n.S ( 15 71. rn t i e r; ..rC nC : c t i,

dc'sc:nd:r -I i T..; a3r.a,-nt (2, '-)I ard I ll *3rujp f oI hc.r rnat ior l-
St i C .'- Frequrn l i ch.-.,- r-c:.rui ce.:1l r.- the ejrl c:olo niza i.o., pr ic.

had ni .-,rI I:J ILuJurIl :< ,perien.-c .:omngir,. priri ril, fromT aii .n-,r. tho pI oor .i

[h-e Eur.:-pe, ci.e5s. FJur[h.er-r.or';. of f ci.l cOlni:rA. c,; I rin ,r .:-air

* :". fr:.T [h-: t 'r rI le.j : J c.. r.j ;rnial ::.r-s Cofte-n ,-,f l t. i-,.,, aj ri-

cultural ..:lj -n :.'. i. .i-s ;.:.e:d t, In ri ian r.,i Also che

pro..ir.n ial . ...... rn;:: mn..ar;UI.b l.':l .ea d [ : fu..'J or the I r, i.ic .C

tI c' a I O' t ir p-ti L : the Lbar A r." in pro idirg hounj ir,.C, ic IlS.

:ind other t ,, p of- jist ncr pro-ic:d [t tlh- colonnists .to hc Ilp them qet

star tcd.

D;s pi t the fact. thEc t h njt ;oial and pro ;ncir l ,.:"'crnm-.nc n h jJ

pro,'.edJ t b r rather ;niadequar c .ndrr-in; i rat ors of c ol onizati ron pro r rai.i

under the;r irpi i tus the s,: tar, '.Ei: r.;CI.ccd up L pri- ace colornizati on

f;rmi.-s and la lno,'urs.- as 3 i T.ans or ,, pl ; t ;Ii. r. 3r nai l pa : oral I.and:.

and b, 1'2,0 'ar;cul to :nal c-'lonizat ion s finrrl e-tablis' l ed ir Ar.cnt;na.

In Sant-a Fe. .hil- re i.w.-st of the col:.ni-ts locatc.d, land, rners .;ere often

uillinj, [t:. sell part *_-r their hold;n.-:, in order to ;ncrea c thl- value of
the r rL.3~indC t' its tLhe n-prco.<. ii r t, o cult; .acr areas Land ias

alo che.-ap:r in Sarnca Fc---bout n:'n.--fourth -hat it cost in E'uennos ire

pro.';r.ce--3nd a colon;st could ga;n otmnership after 3 fel qgood /-cars.

As Sc--:.bi describe it: "For a mT-.:.nent in the earl, dJ;,/ of the San-t.

Fe c:.lorn; it had appeared that ar indepcndcrnt and propFrous farr.e-r-

c-..ner wouldd cicre to populate thc dJesert and dilute the tbarbar; ism of

rural Ar-Jentina."',

Put the promiise as short-l.-;:d. Color.izat:r n In Santa Fc t-e-cn

to dEcl irEc hjrpl, in th-: earl, 189i0', and b/ 1895 the tncant -fari-er

hjd replaced the cc:loniist a the principal producer ,rf heatt in

Arqenr ira. A.i,.:.-g factors behind' this shift in the pattern of tenure

Iedri: (I) the ad.a.jnta:c the rai road a3.c to the .-.Sutihcrn part of Santa

Fc and northern Cueno- A;rcs prr.:..';nce oer clonics in central Santa

Fe, (2) a sharp increase in land pr;ic in the IS9'.'s and (3) a cr ;si

in tie internr tional I hat a.rl.,e t''' There w.a a jLouth'ard shift in

tlie l hEtE -gron. ing .-one durir.n these ,iars:. accorr,-pcniid b/ a shift r For.

cr.loni; action janJ rmall o.,nr.er-i ai rr cr. to larger rcrn al unit s. At the

turn of [he ce-tur. orl,, 1I per cent .7. [a F:' 11,51 .11 .h:at farris;

and the 8. 0II i' E /n-no. A t'ires i_.r .ir ce 1 ;r re i,.-J b, [h.: cult at:rs ,

thl:- pa.t. rr ..as f.o.r r h t.rrt gro:., r le l f.:.r C :. r thr c r a-nd

[ch n return the I rid O, rch: .:. ,- r ;:. in jall- j. Th' e ,- r

colo.: ,:.-.; ..; projec t-: ,un a.- ter I il,. l,. t thi Ji.f r.-or pr.o-.d .c che-

samr : r'c ul .a;, t :,.:-.a .:.f rl i..r .* .-a :ind r: .-oft n I t[ 1: r ,cr.: th nr,

rne,' ii 1 ftcr largo l d. ,r.:.r.t t.: .: p-_ il their hl..din a- I.C .:o. c :l .

Sh-.r -c[:rii tenran had tb.:cc'- the pre..jilin i r i ;, ... f tn.rE,.t i rn ayr ;-

cultural lar..- ;r. Eu.-uc:os i;r., and .he LIt.:or l .

Ilu,'.- r.ous i c r-.s h ., c .T. m 'T.: L d vn tA, ne .L.' iL .' a2'- l :- ; I : C E

i: a rcL r of land r :nure h; ch h -.ad d: :- ::pcd,: J L L i, t turn ,f th

cer.ur .91 As tl. c c..ra cir-: h. .:ir. d tIh: la .in :' 'd 0 qr i n F trnir,

.j tut a 2'.:. :o ptrep:;r g i[ for paicuirag and i.:t i;j the ~rst crop

of all~i s a' trE. iwre nr:t nc-r.et-ted in 1:n 3 I ei:-. Mh: rt.-t r

Ic.aEe., had ch.: d,'J t :.n l ,-d. rtal-, :*F co rse, of p-cri.icr n, iper; dic
inc r a.-, s in r n t .. 92 F ,:-ed ith [hI pros': : -,t oIf ij-.ini r: t .Q. i t:o i- ,i

nd e..r r,, c couple -' car t tenant i,:h d nr incenci to al.: impro.:. -

nrc tj .:o 1his holding;r, and u uall ,' I;.c: arnJ r.jrL ;in quite p-ir-; i c

condi.rTi ;.s i h t L .: I : r.c: :f h a ; n 9 .a 9:.:d Ib.jr.*e o.. .:.r tr:. ;i-. :rd,

to -A: Ile [,: I a.: it 3 .r.: o ;t. I .t h tcen d : r i b d .: anr.

"c*.. er h lrm I ii n dr i r.e : ard n i c;ul t i;t i :n," .e.nr, tli:ho e ,hc: had

enough capital t. tI: mr-iall I rn, often prEFcrr:td [c: ya..t-: iith chc

lah y.:r tracts t ,he could renct. hile :r. :.. n r- "th r. : r qu'e a

f-: ho contir u':d to li.e in ud-and--tra. rnnch.o::, ,uirroundEd t,'

nrcth i ..jtc fi :tl f wheat."

The c.rtt le ;ndiu=.i r, n id.:r'. n .:n sharp tr nrsf.- mmat ion-. th: lat er

part of [,ie rln neci- nth ienrtur,, One nj'n; fe:stat i.on of i, i.;il .js tihe neL d

for impro.,d pa tire ,hil.h in paort led to the lr[e.T, f re.i;nt r rm;rinq.

Eut ;mTn igrants ne.e r Q-iined the en ryr, i [o th;i eiccnoici: arc-i ll; .:

the, did in r rmingr,. Cattle i .i l, .:ort i .ued [t be iari gel- unrid r the

control of th:- large I arndo. erici., and e cn i.hcrr it ij, n 't the, did not

let gO of th-e land itcelr. Thus, ir 1914 :,nl, 44 pcr ce i cOf he hea

of ranching citabi ;shmlrnts i.re torcign-born, ccmpariL, t,: 5', per :ent of

rhe heads of farming cstabl ;shmTicrsi. And in the pro.-lic: of Euc .o-

Ailr.s, tIl catt c-raising area ihcrc the mi-,st ;iTmisiorant 5 .'nr our ont.

[he l nd, tihe grazing wajs drone largely y onr rented land in contrast to

the pattern :.f o'n-ier-operatlors in the other cattle pro ;inci .3.

Whether he sija,Je th-re Lp nr arri .al, cane biack tn h j stak.l made

in a tre. good ,icea[ har.estj. or returned bro.l.e and disc uraqged afrer ar

unr ]]ccessful tr, on the land, it ias In the c:i t' --p:rt ;cul .arl, Eueno

A;i es--that the i nmigrant four.d his future. In 1 4%. Lhen [he, cc.iT.oscl

39 pi r cent of the ration's. econ.omi:i cally acri .'e popil o[ i n, the fcreigri-

born accourntcd for i8 p.:r cent of the industrial proprietors, 74 pcr

cent of the commercial proprietors, .0 per cent of the industrial

eial,;:ees, and 57 per cent of the co.Tcrc i;al e.iplo,ees.9 A great main,

of the immigrants had t.en peas ants and laLbrc rs in the;r hlr: land,

but oinarin theri i -rc .a-, tsans, micchanics and industrial .orL..:rs .ho for

a t rie practically Jdminated certran ;nJusiries. In the developing

shi, irndujs ri. for e-.cnile, Irt l;ans supplli'-d a largf part of th.

labor and rtuall, all pc'r priecors, thilc the caringg arparel IndusLr,

was dc.elopid principal 1 b ,; Spaniards. It al anU s and Span iards--nd

i,,T;cir nr! -n oi: ,f oth.r na r t i. al i --l i CIL :a thc m l I :h ..keep' rr h;

prinr rs, [hc b-ders. the i ail crs, a..- [hc pr- ir.ipal hcl.d.-rs of maII ,

c.hcr.r c'.cuFjp tion: in the ;ncr- ;in-s l, c:.irplc, urban ,c;.i -ec.no.T;.

Struc n' C.

It h Lbeen sccn that in 1595 therc a.a: a gre c a r pr.- :c'r i.

of Ilorcign-born or-a'.'' FpropriL c r. Inr both i r.du-u r, n.d c.:.m.T,n-,.r:c chun

rK. nj..g -oiplc.,cs ;n Ch .se" :ailn. LCj no IT.c arr as. a p[atm rn which h a 3

rse,:rtiall, the :sa in Q1 l:-., er. t thKi ;-. .ddrd [he fact th[ [

iorc ; grn-.cr l ri:pre .:cr. d c 30 pe-r c'rn .of th public .iplI:cc:, and

53 per :ccnt .:i [hc.e in t he profei ic.: .n: in I 1'95--drc.pp;n. i st;11 I'u thcr

to 13 per cent r,..J L,5 per cent, re pecL; .;l 1, in 1911i--che pJatterrn of

occupat ior an .d ..c.Ub lit, te'c.'cri cl :..r ThI- ;ir,.i r ariL predc".,inawt

ir, come .i rci al ard industr;3l .cri.; I c., a- it m .a. a elf -c.:.I o,,.d

renibe.tcr o" thec: a'c.:orE [hat hie j ale to me' cI up.i-rd ;nt[ the mid.je

class. The c.panr,in .of [h prol'f:e .onr and hi t collar ncrlk..:r on

the cLh'r hand, :a- priiT,ril the reiul t r-o che upl'ard Trc.'.icnt of

natiM.e Argentines- -most. of then the s..r: ..f ] t:. r cl:, i ni; rancs--

-hc.rt le.el of education siEc.n t.:. h:D. bei-r the L. O, nLi li .

The social structure ofl ti Intei icr pr.:,inces, around the turn

of [the cenr.cr, r Oi .ar ; f rcs, CS. rJ..b.a. a buIl' cr of -.,2rt t.Airen

the Litoral and the Inc- ric-r, r.cc:i.ed .a c:ori.,ierabl nwull r :,f

European inIrigr:ir-.r-. :, d id the c.t rn pr.:..;ri,.c or f er :.. T.. he

latter pr,. .;nci as. .:li ,3 to nc;,hL-..r;r San Juan. ian3r, iri ,r;grant

brought a I no.uicdg, .. the *jrap-- indu'ctr, fr:n Europe jnd L.unrd that

the pr cc of srrall roldils S suitablee for I ne, ; rd:, a rruL ch iri:.r

',i chin their e::ri.:ii r r[,ch char i r.jre cattle hc :li'n.l, o. f [hi

L;i'or al. Thu' s. .Wi;le' at the time ofl he s191' census LIe pr.' V;ncc: '-f

the Cuoc reyg io, had Ilrgq areas of Iltifur.'Iia--si t ho':ldin3s co%. r..dJ

5g.3 per cent cf ihe are-. of Ilendowj -,ile I er.,y e s abl ihr,,rn t c ...

up 47.2 per C.ei-it of the.: surface of San Ju:;r--th'-re ere alo 1 rgje area:

of .ml. I13 lan: c ners ded;i cate to grapcgroJi n., f r.;ring the found ;on

of a ..:! id rural middle clan. In SjltaC, on the orh':r hand, the rural

popular on uhich .Jas nro part of thi la e I latifurndia L.a- in ol.ed in

onl'. ..ar,;ial act i i r.ies and h'nce their econ rnic I .0 : L:i much l e.' i,

In Tuc:u~Trn, once one or Argenr;tn's rit proiperojs arnd di er;if;ej

agric cultural prrovirce:, lhe rapid E. pjan ,ri of the "ugar ;rdustr, lcd

both to the corrcernt r at ion of ecor.ornic p:* r in a sfeL h.nds and tL' h-

detericraticon cof ..her facets of the pro ;.nc ial economii,'. The ;ntr--

duicion ~f the c.re e.eper.n: .e bur. efficient iron proc-ssing equipm:nr

foll :. r;n [the cper.inr. of the railro ad had a sharp efft..- t in concerarrT c ; n

the induscr,; ;n 1877 there .re sc .nt ,-thr-'ee :Jvr mill in Tucrumian.
whilee i ,-, 1iS1 other. Lere onl', thirt',-four. erau.s e of the ;ndu.' trr'.'

rel' ance on the Euenoa Ai res narlet and on pr:otLect i.e tari ffs--sc.ret. rrie

as hiqh as 130 per cent- 1 1 as .ell as perhlap to a.oid l.-al pr -stsures

and que:- ions of local tae ., the sugar ;ntere.ts there generally,

located ;r the na3 l.ina capital. It has recently; been clair nd [hat

the economic .c ol icies of the Siuar region are detEernined b, soCm fil ft,

or s.;t, famn Il; e of Tum:uir.,n Sal ,a and Juju, Mah normal 1 1 li.e in

Buenos Ai ret 10

Paphd urbaniz at on a;s t :e I under ta', in Ar.jnl ;na b',, he end of

the nirne te nth century,. I inrrml ral ion as the major ;mp'.tus for tnr; ,

both direct.l' through the floIo of Europe-ns to the larger cit ;c

--p -* ::C. .r I, ueno ,. rCE --:r J in ; [ I,' a~ a result oF th: CIr ,emT.er C

.of i,, r.5. r si: ir.o .:r .cJlturE 5 ,.J che rteSulk ir,. J S is pl-,:.:r: m.c ': T' -r ,'
r.:i e i i.i t :i ri : n ... t:. he.- r tarn :: r r r.[ i r Al h,:,u h t[-: ,*1;. ir ,r i ..

Frr:O tIh. I rterir c. t :.. EL. rn:. t; r i: hi : t. n r, I.- i. :.ri i :u:u: : ;r-.:2 i r

:juran to i, crc re:c rapi l r e i ., r .h i0 I :,r .Al ic .r, ]T: ..ln t t...-yr,

inr te r.i [nrc th c:ntur, h.rI a earl as. I '." l',.c, 3'' p' r ::',Et :t

the reai; ..-,.: of [h.. h p C ita l : re fr..n [che Ir trior. A cnS ;r.J r r ble

an iuril ofi in .crprcr.: : \ .iigrat ion to CLher nmai:r urban cen .-( r" la-

a .o .i.l:rit b, tlhe n.rl :.f Eh-: cnt. ur ,. a s the i r troa r.in..ir ;Jl C.c-

rcn: t co.,,r.d Che [C.un: ,ar,.j c; :e:. Thus in Ca.at.,Tarc a pro. ir.:. little. i

".ffec.t d b, Eur.pe)nr. iiT.mig.rati.on, t[h rural po:.pjl ior de:l .-i. .'

persi.n I:.Eti.er. liS 1 D .j 1914,. ..h 1c the ur .J.u. P.u rV 0 nM ; .CS of.
the prot:.i e i crrLn e.-,J b, 10.052. F1 r the nr. ;.:.. a ..hole., the

p.ro:.::p r L o :.r the p pul t ;,r I i i. ;r i n ur t.an arc : -' 2. p-r C r ;ir,

v1' 69, 37 p:r centr i r, IC?5. 53 per c r. ire 191 arnd 62 pe r *cer. i n 19 .

In.ignqr-a ;:r., urbar.iz c ion, anJr [Lh.: betiri. .i. ind.u- [ r ; ;: al L i:r.

g.a,. r ;i : ir: re s n .iC i tn, irn :.rg an; r i c j_ I b-' or t'. rd t[he c:rd :.f

the r .in-:tCenth ce* teur,. Ar. l.ciE ir a' t ir t lat c r Jr. : r i ; n : .rc.eJ ir.

IE. b, t.r ,p:ographi r-. ir E'u nc,:. Aire but it .a r.L: until [ th i latE

i ..?. that ..1:- c F r -ci ur. i;:r ac i it, E.c ar,., ,- I e t! ir : 1 labor ;[riv .-

ere spo.r,-Jic; :rni :,c:.rr.:lat C.cLic i n a r i r on'r.srn uua..:.Custc..r J L:

[hen.; here -as oc.r r co:.r.-:.l ;n r :. bur nO; a-ochcr cr.re un il .l ..

After ti the tE ,,pC ir,:rcas Ld stce.aJ I, Wi h S' .. ral Sc ili.e: 'aCh ,ear.

Ir, 189t -her, t h- e t cr t t,- F i e laL.cr urn; .:.ns i n Ar, t n[t in r ). there

I re r inr.iteen t ri.

Early labor OrganIi:, cion E:- led o, i ;wmiranr, had a prd JWnarr I

i i r a cr, r rrcmlb: rship. and refl :.tcd Eur .:ope n Fol i [ eol ;1 I og ie ; .

Thee re LC;re oi; ; t unions. anarchist unior,n ind zi ..nd;.'.; l union.

ruhile I peech-. at the me'C ri~n. : i rC often mn-de in I jlian, French, and

Cerman a!i ell as it.n 2panih. There t.:- a length.,' t..t Ctli between the

anarchi.its, o b round their gr:atesr fol loiiin. amc.:.ng rhc-, unskil lcd

,crtrErs. and [th: .ociali i s tor control of the labor mo.C n,:, ,a ltrug-gl

which has Lceer called a serious d;irupLi.e factor ;r [ho d.Je lopr.Te c *-f

the Tmo.:T.r.t. 1 .- p re the ideologi;ca I le :erslih p of the unii ns and

the excenSi.e labor unrest during he lti 90-1910 period, hojr. er, thE

ceuompljint5 ecre moist often 0.cr hours3, ~raje;,. or i.orli nr .:ic d;[ ;ons and

seldo. h.ad n, political implications. The un;onr, ;n the cirl. y .e..r-

also &ought their ends through pec i ions to public OFl';i;al s rell aI

through Ecr ;ke; con:ider.r ion of labor l gislackn b3.aan in Congress

in the early I'91 0's. but t i nw r th fi .jiloi ing decade before anr, rearning-

ful rie]iurc: Lb ian to appear.109

Although the gri..th cf ch- labor ,o..'-.:ienL ;ir Mhi 1 oe nineteenth

and early [ vrcit ;e h cen [tur ie reflecc:d a sign; ficant e.pani- ior, of the

urban, t.r ir.n clais and thuS a shift in the carl ier class relation h ipQ ,

;t Jid not at the Outi ,t repreSent a threat t[ [he [radit; ion l polio ;ical

domin'rnce of the large landowners of Buenos Airer and the LilCr.l,

Labor protest ;i thost carly cars u.as ai.'d e ciusC ively a' t th

induis ri al c :cor whichh 'as s ill quite marginal in the .Arg.:nt i

socict ; the unions seldom challenged ch: exist ng cConCmic structure

and e\.n fa orcd the pol;c' of frec trade o'.cr an, Ikind of tariff
pri Oect icn for iIuLScr,.

FP rh,ng: p, r I L. C :ui of h i .- : pL. : ,- of EI-ii .. ; ing ecOOt ir,-

i t-E ,r, in nr, ;, i.TI;,jranr n lC .n 'h.i rc h ..a: a r laC *.-l hl h d cgrec

of rti :-al I..:.l. ; [ IL rai. d: chan3giln pa L rn of ,ocr.- .: c .r .inc

a t ira ific t at i n j i a 1. I.: t, Inrian;l -. d po liticall.. I TOc hi.h inci;V n-:

u[ th ilich ir.;igr .- s : il J c.: t: cri.c c;i i.n: or Ar' r r: ina a.nj I r ;n

the c i. i nshi ip i f th ;r hcr.- l-i c' .'n alft r decad c l -r" i d r.:: ;r,

Argent r, r.:i ant that ,qrca r.,rt..,:ra :1 ti-, .er : cf' ct ;.-- 1, ouL t i.: of

r h political E** rL T.. And unt l [ the lc:[ ral refo".r,rm I of r. h

pre..ailir ng : S r a o" poI [i.:v'i l :co. tr:.l b, Ch. lanj. d' irnt-r r; Chr.:.u-,h

l i i ted suffrage :.r. n n- ocr o n rd-'n-- ,r.: nece;s;--i r --Ir aud.

pro,.idej lit ct l opporrunit., ,or inccr cr i. f:or p .:l ;c-l Fpar ci ; pa.t i o n c

a..r.ong n.jr;. Ary nt irnc Thus, in ::contrast[ :to, reg. I ial i- t ic;h ua-

IrequEnr. I, [h t,-c s i' :of lar, -scale pol c;cal c:onfl'; t i fr... th. E I:rl ;

do j o rf inJependence. the ch:ngingq i: -ec.: .,i : ic .:las. :[r iJct..-r- 1i nrot

tale 0. :. .erti ol it ic31 s; ric I',cL unt[ l iaft[ -r Lh- .rr rr r rh

t cr.nt i h ccn ur ,.

Whar, .chrn. h:s beEr, the n tr ure of trhe: r...:, Lbase :.r p..l It al

CIe li j..agi ur ; rng he t Lrnt[ i- Lh cer.,aur, nl [ hl :ij.Fh [here c,:on, e.-t Ie r t

pIole miC, al:ul the 'Q .dr.:.ceph.al iC" nature Ocf E.u nc :. A ro: t nl i i [ .
d.a.3aging rr -cts o:rn thr r- t c: the nation. I :-l iP l ic 3 regic .n ll ;'n

irn Argentina si: :ni cn:r .ll. r: L te :onilid: red a pheno:i enc.i r o hf h nine-

ternrth century. -t .;th liiLle role -3rc,: to the pre.s t L utur,. Th

solution in I,.?'. ci th.: probl:.l. a n~r ..nal cap tal the de. elopr.. nt

or a rational n i .s :.. or pr.,:ductior an. d cIn: -r.pt[;..n b iLte urn of thi

cern ur., rand Ihe appcarr.nC: jR [ h: .:lin t ;,. o:f [ht; f;r .C "n.j;TIcrnal"

p-oli ical part-,--the .lin;IL.r Ci. ica Fad;cal--:r-e but a fe, oft" the e.cnt:

t: ,t.-n to inr..' D t e- d ,- cli r, o1' rty g;o -r li -,T. r s. r ri;.':.rnali5i sub:,Iie',.

5sc;c-econrn i i c cla. 5- :.- toC ha..- ;in:r E: s. ij. pcli t~ cjl ;mpor t r.ce;

ththee ,'r a 1;cals in r1' c6 i c- a iec.d as iriar-..;r the

entr, .[ the rr I -l *:cl s i ntc the pi:olici:al ,: mr.e ih; le the r i e o.f

Juar. Per.-Srn in th. 190's' repre-:ern[. the p-'lit i l eb'.r[ of the ,ork.inr

cl as .

Eut bi r.1 -u h tr.ad -.rush 9Ene ralc, I i o z i icl are ct[ be t in-

adequate L and uJ.ron clos Er eA...,in it 'r. sore i me di;- close .ar,ing dcgrees

of" ; r.ccur.c,, i 12 l it le attention has been .ri c.n tI- (the bases of polit-
ical rclca. a3 e ir. ;%:nt icth e:ntcur, Arer.t ina. S ill unancr'er d are

such quesc ;on a-: H s regi.:.nal i sim a.tu. ll, di appeared. :r -a;, it

talen nit.j f.rms" iFlha is th. relatio.rsh i; i. L.t.r'een ci', p.l i tir al miT ni-

fe teta icns .-..r c: as anJ re3; cr.' Haie ch e ;rierri al di.i iorns fc nationalal"

political parties i;r h tr:he ti.rit h centJ, jr beer, primary ; per cral al nd

idcol.-.qical a.3s -:rmTrnl portray ed, or ha e chci reprse 5nt-r differences

along class and r,4io-ic. l l in,;5- Hsa. the I iln.-s of c leasaqge been c..er-

I Fppinq or c-ros-.:uttnc ri, hZ.e the. char.jd c.er c me, aorld ihst has

beer- their effc-.: or the lar.j-r pol; i :al s,istcm These are so; ie of

the q.uct ;crn. h;.:h rhe present scud, jill1 attempt to explore on the

b.a is of a.ailablIc t m ir ical e..,ider.:e.

Political clc .a3e .;l l be studio d c.er a fi ft--,yar period,

ral;nqg Tiple t;rrme per iois from 191'9 :, 196, so as to minimTize the

distorti.rn of sho.[ -csri. .Ion,- licts 35 ell as to al .:. a search for

i nd; ca[ ioCns .:.f c hari e ,:,. ei t i(e. Indicators of .:le3 q age .ill be

srudic..l r [t.o points in the polit ic-a process: lecr ions aid

legislati .- e beha -iir. Such a cr.o-front --or tvo-t age - preachh should

bE abic t.. prO:. O D --.m -: cO'ipIct. :n .i ni tic n pi ct ure cOr che t :. -

of ci! a.a y.. d,: c t-ir ; r. culJ i:.r.; ru c ..l ffererc: ich n- ;.hr.

Lc igr-.r.d ., clc i r rcpre: .:..- ;.i. o: n c-c one hal, or el t: c .r, c r.

, Chici l r. It.. pt rs .r.:-I c.r c I r..u'.ir ant. .1 aI ni t-.-d on c. on' r ri tucnri,

factc t C" n cr ct-:' .

The basic ubL ,c.:r cof r.ud.. 1;II L-be thr eleci.;i r.5 o natr i nal

d -.u[ ice hcld in- 1916.. 192-.., 193., I Q 6-.,. 19"60, ._-,,J 1 W '-Q and tlC E-.

annual s S.-- sic ns : [ th. ni. .ii.:.n l chanrib r Oif Jt.p'-ut icS ;rri,.eI; .:ei oll c -

in? each of theC : I c lc r.; r,:. Electio-n ret.r.sJr t i c .le -n r.

(cO:urn-, ) le el ill bt- s.ud;.i c h rojugih rul; i pl repression aIal,si; ;r

2n jatteript t: i t AL li A, [he re i Ol nal Ind S, oc i;Co-.c: n .ri bases *.f part,

uppcort. Correl.:t ri of the *- ing i c cuir i;th Cen us -Ju r; ed ar;.a le:

&ill 1b- ci.ndju:t.d a.t both the re.-cnal nd natinal l .enI i jr. each

elect ion s .: aS to b. able [o dOi ccl r.e;;nal d; frrcr cc in r.:.nCr ir uen

char ac3 [ risti cs. Th'. situ; *:'f [the an i : f s [ cions o cf CIea, r a *'i h;nr

the national CI1,.':cr OI" dEpu ti -, ill be ba.-:J On Cutt.an E.C,1e anal ki';s

of roll call otes.

Irn anal r i:i-, h t, O Lba ic l'diens ;ions c ciL .aac "it. which h the

stud,' i c:nci rnid, anr ;in.l;c.,r..r c i c l s -bI s.d cl.' ",ge 1 1 be

con- ide r- :d L.hc dcqrcec r..:- which :

( I) Ifla r.onw; parr E ; 5 ho .' -: i ;, ,i ar o.: io-cc :n-...r,;c .c:olo'ii cal

corrcl- r. i rrCjpcr ... of r. ioin r. ha c c ngrc 3r ii o al reili.entari e

ulho t;le ;i l.' r [.s t n-.i roil al i .

(2) il-rmic sJ pro. inci l par"ier w- ihi r.O, : rin lar cl ass -rCl [te.l

e ologqical correlares ha c rcpr.rn.. at :.C 'ACl0 tSl.e s ilar issue t :r,.Ji .

Concorsc.1 ,, an indicator of rej;onal clra.s-qe would d be the dcgr:e

to which:

(I) lnatj;c,.; id partly i; hou dissEimi lar sc.:ico-econorir;c bt i 's cf

support b. regon.

121 ijt ion jide parties show,; sr.m; r ba-tes of support but their

repres ntrat .es in the Chamber of De'putis differ b, region.

(3) Various proe'.nce Ial Fparti s iLh i r ii; lar socio-,-ecorioric bases

hia.-e re:prs-rsentati /es '-ho di f fer b, region.

Authors frequent differ in [h.: na,;' th d;.ide Argentina into

regio-.s. But despite the .ar;et' of cla I ification schemes an the

cl'nculed4ged fact that economic region saldcnm fol low political tound-

aries, the ta: cnom;.: differences arc most often the: result of dificrrcrn

degrees or detail or are concerned ,-'ith rhe placer..nt of rmarginal

pro. inccs. Thus, for instance, oneJ: i writer rny di'. de the nation into

Litoral and Interior while e ai-other will subdi'.ide ir into fi.e or siy

regions. althou. h w; th little if an,; cross. -cutting of the Litorel-

Interio;r boundary Or the pro'.ince of Cordoba, technical' not in the

L;toral but in some respects reser-bli n it more then the Inter ior, nia,

be cl a3 i field in the former b, one writer and in thi latter b; anc.ther.

Such details notwithstanddngy there is little disagreement o\er the

bro;d base, of regie;al differences.

In '.'ie of both the historical dcc.-elopriment cutlined earlier in

this chapter and r.ethodolog;ical considerations, it '..as decided for th:

purposes of this -sud, to di.'ide the nation into three regional groupings.

These will be buenos AireC (federal capital and pro.incc-) the rernini;ng

three proinccs of the Litora (Sanrta Fn. Entre F'os, and Corricntcs)

and r.the Irter ic r I, cnj::D. : rn Juan. S ra Lui : L.a F oja. C Kt.-- di

Estero., I ta'.,arca. T-u.urniin. Cal ,. C..rd..:* .a nd J. ju.ij I This tnri-; .

..., .di.;sicn uld eri. r:. r:rr e r h- ioi, ples t rp,:r 1 A h;.:M h could

te u:,..:. tho.u: .-i- t:rt in th. ,-,aj .:.r li- r n:er, 1th *c iatur,

regi:ronal :,nrr. oni r, A r.:.rec tailed :si; fiction ... regions. :r

the othr.l r hand ,.i hc h:. i diS C o .ed P re .uL;.. l p olit al patr.rns but

would ha.e run into n ar.,r. l i 'ifcultiec --partr. icul.-rl, in r.th roll

call ar. al,sis--due to :n ;rn a Jneuat nui.'ibcr ...t ci E:i ;n 5.:me Cjae k:.ric .

'i1 ford def i nc c ,:n a ;. hu .' [ rr ; ...r ia] e t; t i,. th r,n

a rtio:.n which are potentri ll. c..pAble Of bec :'m n r.the f.cuS of poll -

ical :,[rugI lE- and lo, I taltie i --in a se 5'-r: p:cr.t ; Il c atle :o bec-:.r.,i;rn

nation, thc.msel c s i ". The thrE -.-u, cl ; i cati i -r n [.c t. u:.ed ir tlhi.

stud, :*nf:orms irth this deli irni; on; r hLt pro. i,.:c Eu.rI u.s5 ~;re:. *'.: ;n

fact a s'p3rar .a I: iari- during th. 1L,'.0' .bIii tC he Int.: rior arnd Lit:'ral

could certaiily be said to ha C tL:cr "p... cent l' I I',' l 3p;bl" of bt.:C' c ir n

SuCh rhroughout r,.o oi t tihe n in-r:c nth c ~nrur',.

Alsc. ftoll.o inr Altford the ise tof ch rc .T. "c l as ;n th. pr c:'ir

Stud, d, ees no. n crsC r i i M'l an, con:.i: ; u's nc i j r .Tlb::r hip ;n a

,soci al class r eConocniic qarcup. Uhile the 1Ic .l C las Consc.:iouSn.re

and itj e fFect on pol i ct; al bcha-. icr ,e no doubt iip rta t r er c..;r c.al

quC3ti:n, the concern here i; 1;IT ttd to ti he degree of pl it cal

di .ergncc of ob.jc: L i'.:l d fin d .'-L ij-::on.mi: '.iroup.- Lir' rat or

of available ccnlu. d-.a Ta.Ie a .clear-cur correlat i:..:r bItr'.'tr: .*or.in

arid soc: ; al .:l.-a d 'i; f L lt f'or -.e r I C. he I ,: t :i%.l e peri od ur. er

Stud.,. nmal.;ng all [he To:.-c imp.orar tr a Lrc-.A "group'" ;n rpr etr ..n

of the ter.i class For -.-. c lI:r iin: it ri il be po: 5; c to e ii aure


class: *rnli b/ :.uch rlss indicator: a: d 9qree *f urbani-: :c,.n, nraLure

and c tent of acii- ul ural ac:i it', etc. For cther .ars, j-ali.tle

daL include ir.jAe. .A f the urbrn and rural cl.s praTi;. th r ;.r.-.por-

Sion eumpl .ed in di fr.. r nt c a'te r ies .of ecCnomrrc acti it e an.-' chi:r

rather ;ophisticatcd mT-iure,. Alt h:ugh th.: anrlsi: m1 thus h-, : C t

,;.r so.-.c.h t itro o,.- time period to a.:n.:n r, it is telt that o.er the

fiit,-, ,ar span it should be pFcs':' bi to di z.c er .,th sufflicenc

aciurac' the mljor 5s:: ial send co:'nomC.i bL:c s or thr .ariou; pC'l i cal

groups .nd to .detec[ i .-, i; n f if;can changes. o. r tirr .

r,:, L

Edrnun d Pil e ri I i- r I-'i0 h r i "p-r, ;. : L,:.Ji .:* n-r ur. ;[ '
t:r pr: .T..-. rT,. -l b,. t l- i r .i:l i . nd : :. r c -i[;a -r..a i;r r e L ..ir .
: .T paert l -jr print ;iph- i i. uicir i:- .i-r' ill air--J Ser "r'tzc.u l. r
oni [hi C .: Ct Li ti- Pre- t .:erc i. ri[cer.t i' Tn i-. r i .: EJT. n:J Ejuril t
(dIol I; Lrcd..i: Ce ,r.r : ] 11 r s, 1 Ep.- I." .

For ar, .:arl f.rr.juI -lr ;.cr. .:.f r '-u -: rn.:c:t *-r i r. re; [ ?r. l- L .' -
and ur[; ul 'i:. n: r, Isc -:I.r i l .4. AliTr nd. "i r. r'.:Jui: r. I : A Func rt[ n l
A\ppr...C ti t C .ii. r ac i .e F..I i : ; i n Ti PF'0:I i i :. : iel.,, i, _r --:
Al .r- ..J on d n Jt ire'; S. C. :-. ri (c,' i If rinr. ec- r,. r J : .r;r,.:E .: r, I. 1 ,i.er:. ,
Pri:.s 1i9641: p. 3- 1.

'nn crn c i rod r pr idri J .: ;rn the IJnrl .d SLjt '., .ii T n.r.. : r.-. r
Picherd E. IJEL. :I..JL PrC- i ,.! r, L i P r Ill.:,. or1: ? Si [ ..ol i 1i6- l ,
an d lh .-:I:-.ri C Sc-rc ni- r. [i- .n-c.- l ;nl i [h r I- hi '. H.-l:. e (: l ori
C.o l u,;bi .n. U i r., F re ;, 1 L; .

[a .id E. :r.. T i: P.:li: i :al .':ITI ilc i r.: rred c t l'. ..i- ,
19.,', p. pp. 1 -. -1 .

e', ...r lar.;r n Lip: t., F :li i[ ci 1 lan (C rd .:- r ., '. '. -: .rchr,l
E..-:o i,, 19 1;i. p. I.

D i d Ea:c.:.-. A S l mi Anil F i: s t Pol i t i al Lite r e.. iri :
Johl- it le,' Sci.r:, 1 .1, pp. 2.;,i- '.

.:ll.r r i:. Jar .:: ;rt: an.J [,. ; d i P. Se-n l. :S-- ial Clea a.-I; and r;d ,
Atf ilii ,:.n. Cj -riT.ran Gr. :L Pr i c-, ., r.id tle iJr ted Scatr. ,L A ,er i;:- r,
J:,i r I r f S.t c;, l :-,-.. L *:1 (l'a I i. l1- : ,.

FF,:r j ci: mr. lete discu n of ,;c I.t,.d:.l...,. e ..Lpprndice: A r ,nd E.

i, -,bel F(;i ) Fennii Tht A -r ; n, -.utl l : (ii .rI : : -ii Ian,
1945i. P. 'iii.

1 -The .:la c ; a:tejirent[ f r.h h p i: it ion is r:,.;n..:. F. Sarmii, nt.:- '
F E.:,.rnd.- : i i .:.i r, *; r t.a i E' u :r.,:., ;r : Edi l L r -.I C lar i Jj.I
S: ). F ub li U h d .:.rigir, l in i .. and .:i:.ilt le in -.ri u S pari: h
-.nd Eng li h id; i:-:.

FFor a *o:,- J i :sc i:r. c,-. Ar -ent nr hist:ri.:.r ,ph'y, S J.' J-.-ph F.
E.ar ,., r, "Th H i t.:.r iir pih. .Ii thl: Fc-: d. I F lats~ i r nc '. 1 :.0, "
Hlisr-rar;: : ;.: i- I ll; :.,:r i ie... '.'-, (1 b c f r. Ir : '.- 2 .

CGn c.o tlie pi:i .rC: r:.C f this p:.;i; c n *'a Juan 4i ..-are.z. La: i i',cri cs
ci il : r -Inr i.a (na iE n:,.. .A r s: ELU[EE; ., I:r.. .-riginrally publ;l hc
in 1 ?2 F.' rhup. the iTio ( [l.or:u'l h .cujd i: llTr.:.n Eur ir n, Ec:.:n .r.
,L r. : r, r,'i* ri n Ft e .,.ralis 'n (Carmt.r ;id.c: Hur 'urd Lin; cr it, Prc:s.
I94 .

13Sc f cr c.-e-.pl4 J.'n La:arte, Fe,:LrI l-..' .i: .. .r3Lz .:.
in l .:ultr.r arr. rl r, in EuE rrin A;res : EditLri al CSt-:dr L;s 3r, Jro r-
1 Tc.rri. 1, 5 ). ;.. 43 .
F.rber to C, .rc C.:.de rn Ecqu i-l iG, l .:.. L: f r n.:. r .1
Arq:r.t r,..- r,:..er ri, (I.B.- r, A;re s: Elitcc.rial P ; d.':.: 1:' 7), p. 1 .

15Alarez. p. 25.

16Corts Cc.rn, a-d C.ll.:., pp. 15. 17.

17A ..,jr z. p. 2 .

Ern .2to Palacio. H; r.:.- ri dJe l Ar.,n.i i -, (4rh .d.: Bu jnoi
Aires: A Feta Lill .:. Ed;or. 1965'. 24b.
] C,
'Burg; r, p. I '.

2')Ibid.. p. 123.

2ib;d., p. 139.

2 Pa . io, I 307.

23 urgin p. 121.

24Ai arez. pp. 4-5., 4

25Burgin, pp. 12-. 137.

26 enr ic ., p. t6.

27urgin. p. 147n.
J.ames; P.. S.:obie. "The S ;.n; f 'canc of rhe September Pe..olu icn."
His ,pa.rir ri'--ricar. Hiu :ri :al Fc.. .-,: .L I (il ..,, 19611. 240.

29Eurgin, pp. 237, 2,2.

30Ibid.. p. 2LJ-.

Al.arez. p. 51.

32Rennie, p. 54.

331bid., p. 61.

34Al irrz, P. 52.

3Scoi;c,. p. 240.

36 iquei A-:;.el I rr.:- S c:r.: F:, .. r i ol *. c r l C..- -
ci :'o (E.u~rori: .ir-e : rn.p., l : pF. 4 .

-Al .are:, pp. 52-53 .

PEr.r.i pp. :. 102.

3-Hu.ber H err ;rn. uill_t.ltLLiLLA.iLfa.It..LtL.k I 2nd eJ. N-e., :
Alfred 4. I.l opf. I l.i61 p ,i... In chC e- r':nt, ,cL r I: trao I:E' t r.o l8IS .
c p:.-:r s rhro.ugh rhE Fort of f.c ,:r ;.:*--aino:s, e-n:;ri l ,- i: C .ist ;n of
,r:.i ; --ro. : t .',dil, fror I:. 0,0i t. ?'"..0 rrons per e l :p r
through cha' .: ; t*, ro.: : fr ,omr 1I20, ,:,ir tIop, ir. Ir.. [.. 6 ,11:1 :(' t,-,r ir.
1889, but drorp., ,..o le s h a half I t a ..i .unt d.uri, ti -e I Ioll.:,; i
dn c::J a:. re iult .:.f Ev r.o:, Airrl s' gro, n. ".a :,r ,.i.:.r," f ;,ipor ts.
See .-.;. P jri r Ltc e r i, I l.. : r .t r r :r : c r, [ T r..:. :. I, 1 i rn r ,: ;, r. m -,-
e.i'.', r rr-' ,:. r, ._.qIj'7 -1-:1^2lj (La FPlaca. Arg,-rr. ir-: r,; ri. d. --' rla:i.:.r onal
J- I F'I :, ';6.. r.. 9 -9'.

L AI ar: p. 32.

ItI!.id p. 33.

4 Calculat ir.:jin fi guie in Eurgirn. 117.

43'Fiani, I12.

l a4.r,.t eri. pp. ,,100-1 1.

Ser -i, Ba 'j E :luri i hKis .ri.:- .- rat i fiCi :.'i n i l ri
I. Ar etr. tirs (Euenr,o. Ai r .; :- Uni eri id:d JE E'u-:r.no A res. I rli c icut de
Socii logl.:. 196- 1.. pp. 21-22.

'Juan r :, :. Agul la. "La' der; i ,.r :.r.i r ,,ic '. Il de arr l ..
del int erio-r." in f ra1li -,,:. c n.rrral K.. A, .4qull (e d. I E'u r.-r A; -:
Edic io:.nre, Lt.lers, 19'... p. 1 13.

7The main lin :of Arg nt n-'i railrod n ,[:'r. ,. t nJ Out f ro:r
Eu-rno: hi re;. ;n th forr of a fian. ,;ch i.., line-. co: nnectin.g one ip'rL
, tf the [I ter ior i r ,i h ,an:ocher .

The pI-r. n ct ionis p-l ;i:; arg.u -J in C.rrongre in I S b :-n
who: i ret l er tco e:ome kle ,iT:mlitc : z :f f re.r trade S;c trn.iL:rt. h3.C
bc-n e.pla ined a'! W.irng ch.: r .sult of a rc:.p in r, crld pric -. thich l.d
tc' the c ron.'icL ion in Ar.crn t ira o:f rh.e ad .j.- Jt.jc :-f p'.r i'rr i the nr -
t ion' vi l .I o I .i F re c.nt rg ;E t d. d Lut ) stag, 'n rh- *. l. I r-
.*ilt fC t e li.e- .:l. indu- rt [h .t. c pro t iL ion st Crti i-rnt disappE:are j
'Ihen rn .. te:h.ii u -. :Il .-I d ; .pro:.e-d pa.:rt i ip : i.: n I;, i int .- 'n C ':na
market. Se- EC rt S C'.,ron e .:i, Callo. p. c2i.

A. C', it:. "Intr.nt ion.r ir. ,rg.ncirns,. 1St0-1930C'" IntEr-
A,.eric:r. F'-ornor.ici.': Afi- ir-. I (L ::: .ct.-r. i9 7..

5 PcrhaF:a th l a s i.: rpole-iT i: i r, or of c1 -3 pla J. F.t.Alber-
d;, I.a F. ,JCo ji co r..r nt in r corI.-.l i.Jd d t.- 13- .0 .o[_I_..ijiul. dI i.E 'ti..
. ri r.c.r -. fti i IBuer.n, Airc : L;ibrer a La Fublicid d I. IS. I

1Buryrg F. 143.

52'rPobatb / t iC .:;c [horc.ugh anrd tbeL t do.: c. er ed JStud/ of t i s
facer of Arg-rt ine hiitcr, i .Jacino rjCdorne, L_,i tirsciJ a t:rrratr, ;er,[
argent i rn.a (rd ed.; E.uncern 4 res: Edicc;ne Por.pulares irgcr.t n:,,
195') The I -ork '.a; o: r ;gira i 1/ pu bl;sh'd in I9, .

53'.erir i I p .
2enrrie. p. 33.

5 IL id., pp. 70- 1..

551tid., p. 69
56 7
5 LIbid., p. 7u.
5 ibid.. pp. 139-14'. A:ccordiny to this author, d itr ibut i on of
larnd following the Indian i ars of the I:'0.O'0 .as : heirs or cia:a.pa;igr
leader Adclic. Aliina, 15.,0)j hectcr:z ea:h iet'e d frcrntera, 3,000
hre rarr: ; chirefs f t. a[t al I;r or rcg i ri t s OOlj0 h-.cicL re ; scr e-irnt
mraj or -, 4,3:.": hecE.ar c ; captains. 2.500 hect -ires; 1 i utcr,ar aLS 2.00')0
hrcrtars ; and rion-cConmiss i n'J ocicers. 1,5060 heccares.

i'Jo s Lu;s de I r.az. Ec ruc..turc. sozi;a; 1 de una c;udj ..-rc n.j
(La Plara, Argentina: Ujn;.ersidijd riJcional dc La Pluta,. 1j65), p. 69.

J'Corti. Con.Je andC-ll,, P. tO.

6 Jam s F. E.coL;e, Fc.'.lut i.:r,O on the P li s f ,S ci .l Hi tur,. of
Argentine 'Wheat[. 1860-1i0 (Aust rin: Un; .,rI;c, c, To a-s Press, pl4 ,
p. II3.

6 Ibid., p. 115.

62CorE.s. Condc 'd Callc, p. 55.

3 lb i dI ., p. 24.

4Bug., p. 16.

r5Gi, o CEermiani, PolI [ca ,' s- i: dAj en ura F joca de trarnjic rn;
de la I oci:':ad tra._ i onal a 1.a; c.ci; :l.e de ,Ij: a.S (Bucric.s Airc : Edi-
torial Paido.- 19-6). p. 1i .

Jos S. Car.npob;ssi, "'istor de lo- part ido- politicos argen-
t;n,.s, 131C'-1'43," in Luo' rt riir.. oli i:' escructura .ieni_ en
la rajent in. Caupotc-as; it i__ (E[uetros Aires: Cooperajura de Derc:iih
, Cirencia- Soc i -es, 1963" pp. 16-17.

SAl. areL. p. L..

'C r ,mani, p. 219.

'Al ,,r M .-:. p. Q .

701bid.. rpp. 7, -7E.

7 Fel rnii p. 40. Th- aulrh r r.o., t-hat irn the pro.. ;r.:c of La
Ri .i a the f i: u : -:ud i I I F .-: ni, c 'I ; rQ 5 ::ul. h. 5.c I Zrido.rn ers shuc
an.d tli'h n di cr ;L.u.t the: ;r prc-pcrt arh.iq S his ;.:- Iers.

7 JcosE M z. Fa:. lcmIiT':ri;.3 I, l QuLcced ;r. Fcr. ;n pI. 4u.

73Cerr.arni, p. 196',.

74Cir. o C:rrianri Ei cru-.Eurs s c.: l Je I a Arq. nr. ir (Eueno: Ai rc.-:
Edit.:.rial F. iqal, .1955, p. 21.3-219.

S'Cas t C. C ;'r I *-i qrai.. ri r I ..l.n i:i. ,': ..rn I t rc r.a ( Euten's
Aires: EUDE AA, 19* 1' p. 2.
7 Carter C ,oir i. '" rq ent ion a a le," C:ur r,,"' :.ar ti
StudJ;iE. ir. % c:t.: and H; ,:,r VP I (c0, ber., I9 l' Alth.. ugh
inicigrj ir ;ir, [.- UUn;t d St.aces *5 9greate r ;n a5tn.lute i; ure. the
Ihigles i propo:rtioi n f fol r ir- nr-t.ornr rccci rded ir, the .p:puIat i:r at an, r,.
time .s. 14.7 per centr ;n I. f arl ag rn in ir n I'

7Wh ren a.llo. arnc. is rrad- For the rran -r...: re urncd, the i et imi--
migrT tio.r las tbeer e-t; mate at 3.5 nil li.:.n. Se" F f : la .: I,:.lnctj.uJ:.
M'ija:i'tnes interrn s w ri Ian 4r n (Euer,':.s A-r,: : CO'ii ; riS : inral-'
d.- Hcim:naj. a Lizi;ar. : de la T.rre. I I l p. 34.

"Ccrrani, E; m ruct.ra :i1 .. ;*. 223.

9 no rGe T.armia "La me..ili s c: ial ern la Argent ira, App:.- di:
II ir Span;ih edi t i:.r, oif Se,miTour r rt;in L ips t and F irhard E.-nd.,
..i li: iSa .c' l ri e 1, s i ..- i .jad ir.du, r;al 'Eu.:rnc. Air.s: EUDEE;A.
19 31.3 p. 320.
GCerria.ri E ,ru rur a .:.' i . p Tlhe p.:r :enr.r e .f
fore ; n-bo:.rrn high in manr,' oF ice n:.[ion l territoric s, but in iosi t
case: the: total population .,: imalT Also. mu.:ch f the Foreignr.-t rr.
population o'f :so'.I- o the tErr ic, ;er t ,.s fr rr,. neightcr ;rI cCounrtr e
ratlh.r than cof Eurcpen origin.

n8 er p 9-9.
P.nettleri. pp. 93-99.

"Thrro.IghoL the fprc. rnt cs u.,. ar, at [ ,ei-ipt ,ill be mc: e .o coni 'rr,.
to the Argent i n, I aSS i i c ja i o f r', icultIural :s t abli hment The
Engril;h "rar.n:h;rn W;il be us d'J for a.r.a3'Jcr t icl.K co ers all t,pci
of li.estock es t:blishm nt r i ile "t rmi;ng" ri ll be tho -q'j .. lncr of
the Spiar i:h Wjri:ultura, rcfr rri;r. j t 11 forms oa crc:. lFar.-T,; or:hi rd .
i;rc .ards. e:c. "AgricI ture'" in Engi l; h .ill be used gcr.:ric lI.' i .:
r: cer to broth t p-s ; ; t;.; ii s.

P3Fanetc;.r i . 18. 21-22.

84 .:S: bie. Pc'.olJti. i ., p. 33.

A! id.. pp. 35-36.

Ibi'd., p 45 In Guersc Aires pr*'.*i ce hor 'v.er. th l ndou 'ncr
"haj rno: dLctire tO: subi'. ide his property, at -le st nr. at the pr ces
I.hich the p.nr.i less rn~ arri .al could hope to am.. ort i ."
James P.. ScO:bie, "Implic:atinc--s of the Argirnt ine 'lihe- Econo.: ,.
1870-1915." In e r-Am-r can Eco:nomic A f -jr '. IV (Autmiirni. I'ic.0'i 12.
,'TCort .s C..nd: a. Call', pp. 6-9-72.

8'Ibid.. pp. 72-73; and Sc.b;e, Pa.ol utor .. p. 49.
go9. 6p. 3.

91See, for e v iampl Al'.ar.z, p. 79; lonrteaqudo, p. ;'; Scobi ,
''Implie ,ions . .. p. 18: and D.rdo CnE.:-, Juan E' Jusci.o aIe luchai
so: ;alyt en la Arernt inr (E ucr':s Aiir s: Editorial ALPE. 195 1. 343.

hAt the i t che Cr i tc de A l :oraEC h r-n t inant- tari-Ti-rs retL. leJ
againsts conLract conditions. rintS *.crc rurnnirg 40 to 45 per cent of
the h r' est.

93Scobie, Fc'.clut irn ,. rPp. c7-6-8.

Germani. E-structC.ra s-c i al p. 223.

'95t .s i. p. ;
596 .
6Germ rn;. Pol:tic , aiociedAd p. 195.

97E rge L.'ythe, Irn' dustr in Latin America (lie% 'ork: Coluimbia
Un;.ersit', Press, 19 5'l. p. 93.

98German, E:rrnctura social .__. pp. 223-224.

t996' p. 61.

1OC' f.enni., p. 143.

Al :r-z, p. -'.

102.j, ,i C r l :. Agull "Lc c i."cr .rL : i :i al hi: -' r i .: ." ir.
A.ul I:. pp. '.

103c ir ri rr.a,;. "El pr.:::-i urtLan ; ci- r n c r. la AI q rna."
F.e.S ;. I :.r r ,,,.ric r. dJ rI e-. '. .:. ; .-ale ., II (1 'l,.l, 3 ''.

SFor J t.-i lid ii or, :' th-e .r. -r. l- I abor T j .?,. rit
1920, s E. S': ] c ar. r.: c[[ El .r,: iW, Anr... .indical 3r.irnr.irn : wu
l--nt is : al-r v 12 ,.s.; Bu .:n,: A;res: E-ji. .:i.:-,, La;.:,. 19'-,0-'11.

PFar e [ ier .. 122.

I li. d.. pp,:. 145-140.'..

10 "C.--.rc~ C.:.njc rand GC lI.o. pp. 'i6.-:' .

Fan c[ri:Kr p. 12'-. The j. uthlc'r s s ri r Lie h' i [.i : pl j, d
ar i :p r.Crt a i i' ;nd; ricc cpar in br s a i r d.':. 9.: ,, rrIT. ar. jl re E :ircce.
thu- al i ni th Social i l cc : T.o.Vc r. heir par lI; aT.r .a. r .'i s r. 1 I obrc
legislas r ;c He :.call-: t e C W j.:.i I lr..l Trtb-ajc, pr- r:.Cri c d [r.
Congress in 1'l [h- "I fir :c erri .u t f.cr[ i t I. ,L,:'r legiIl i[ r..'
Ibid., pp. I, 1 l' ..

11 CrcTsC C.'ndj .- iJ Gallo. p. p .

I for e -, .-.ple. L.:.:rCct ; and Ar.nt.rm i.:. Eri.r, E',erc. Ai. .E;
CLor.r: 1 .I r.' r i n1 ; r n' I ~. u .e Air .c : Editor; 1 T ; rr Liber r -.i
1953'. Fr. .. o:, l- are Still -.:i .ransei t r c the ion : i ,:a-i l c,
the I l. ricr, u l l P.:. r tor tc .: it, c :, f C-.rd ..:.-U W e Alc: de
Greca. [rL r. .c 3 ca. ; l par- I n1 .. n jr.:en[.r.s 1 IF..a. r .. Ar rgent r,. a;
Editorial Ciencia. 519~5 ).

'12'F cCnt I e pirical siudites .hi, :. ha e te qun rI. tec'r anrd ac r irs,
di pel l'ni- el d aj u.'h.pc i 'ons ."Lou[ .Ar".ri c r ir. p.l i i i n. u. D ;r r'.
C ant..r.. [ a r i.a -r rr ,-r er.n .klC a d ':i. L c ; 1'. I : I I '-'
(Buen.: Ai res: E l ctr I-al Wd.1 I nst i-cu Tor :ua:c 01 lls,. 196..i
Ezequ.; G l l, .h ard Sil I a S;.i.1. "La for.T.ac,: Sr, d- I p.rc id.:
polfr ico conr. porr..: .: .o : l C. F . -l ~ .'' in r ni' n i. n r-
did de -.A .. ,rcuac. S. D; Tell, rI al, ed. I (eun., i r .. hir : EI.DEEi.,,
19'. 1'. pp. 1i 4-i-'.; P' etr H. Smith, "Li:- radiccales ar r: ;n.:ls l.a
dcfer.-a de 1c: irc : re :e : 9 r,sder.:.- 191 .-1930. e-.-: rr .l I.:. Ec--r...mi .:,_.
tNo. 2[ (Apr I -Jurne. 19L -), pp. 795-i'29: and Ir4.6: Iza3 jirr: "li,-n i-ma r, 1C
clase er In .- par cid.- prl I co r. r in.:'.i : l : ..' del r sdic li -: :,"
Pe i: La .t;ri o:,. -:ricann Je 'i .. .iolo :.. II I Jul., 1 '6 19,.-231.

Il3 '.nqng the f. iS u.i su S ,hiich he c protl:'d the La.i; of part
support Chrough the corrl at ion of electionn data with Ccens:u- .ari abl
are ierr,-an. Etr c:ura zo:ial pp. 247-263; and Callo adr. S;3al,
"L3 f r.:.rici- n . "

l14Thi 9aul of a sample rcricJ e.ery [en rears cculd not be
com-pletely fIoli.:,ed due to the ab-:nce of elctiorns be.ceen the o.er-
thro:.Lo of Fer n in 19.5 and the election of iS95 Due to di s [:.r ;ng
factors in th;is elect n ,lich i ill tAe discussed in the ap.prp ratee
chapter, it iwi dJcidcd to use the election of 1960 rather than that
of 1953.

"Sec Append.ici- 4 and E. for det ails on metho:.d lo?;.
For iscce t,pol:.l;es. see Pc.b,-.r.o) Cort is C.onde, "Problcema dj:l
creci n.;. ori:. industrial, 18 0-1S 14." in Di Tella L t .. L p. 4:
Pacnctrkiri. p. II; rand Iligucl Mngel C rcanr... La _LC.i', r .tl l (Burnsc.
Aires: Edit c ri al Araijc., 195S), p. 34.

'llThi is ,a for elect ii.ns hroujh I91.6, i.hen there uie fOiur teen
pro.in.es plu3 the federal district. Altrhoujh s K i nat finall tcrr orlcs
attained pr,,.-inci ar.tus during the Fertn re;irre .and thus .part icipa 'd
;n the cl cti)on. o if 1960 .and 1965, the : original boundaries uerc maintained
ror the anal,sis o:.f tese elections in order cc. i11o co-TpjraLtil ;t, 'ith
the four earlier period, The sm-iall proportion of the nat onal po..ula-
tion reprsenrt.d these ner pro.ir.c s a.nd the few decput ies the, hid in
the Chamber o.:f Deput ie minim;ize an, "di t :rt ;on" ca'us- d b, thii approach
i-, 1960 and I 65.

'I Fobert lf.rd, PaL and So ierj. (Chicago- and ticll l
1963', p. 35.
li p 79.
"lb..__ ., p. 79.


THE .'AC'IC SL AFF'.IvE, 1?16-191'

The: l -l elecL ion ,iad trhe adiministrat ;on h-ich followJcI j h..c be:-

widel'. hal ld as a [urnin: point in Arg nt,-tne 1 r.ory. Lt-, h h r ch.: ,ear

i crlk.. ti: b-eginni ng o,- r the ernJ o reL*p ctC .ble poil ;rH c .r.J rcsi.r..: .ble

ig e-rrn,.:nt carn j p nnJ .n onei pol it iclr idjc:lo a .'afril; Iat; o but

fe; '.lould disagre: that it bro.ugh.t a las inig change ;in cw:t arn in

.tyle. if not al'..,s inr pr'-.ramr :nd in po P:l;i t cal f.rrtuie,--c.:.

o:f ren and fr grc.up --.oulu d .ar, gre5[tr l, o r the rn-c.t fife, car:. but

und-rneatlh there. could be ;:,-r p tterrii. f part iar..s. ;p and p cl;i cal

culture: uh;ic-h r.c f:,r, j dur i r Cthis p riL.d.

An underst.anr.inJg or:f th era can perh'apE test begin il;th a StudJ ':,

[h.: pol tical groups: crontenrdingr in the 1916 electioCn. no'w. .t amnrn,.

these--a[ tLhe T.,-ren[t and in lasting[ i ;mporct.ce-- li the Uni.n C ca F 3-

dical andJ i : loIng-ctiTe l.ader. Hi-ip.'.Iito Yrig n. Freu-tl JI .:cr ; bied

as the-' "mi-ost leda.ed ind mot Fat-ed ian irn Arcntinr h;5isr,," 'r v:.n

was the major f ig.r- in c-he F ad cal I o.e ert rr., s..hLrt l after its

birth in rhe- late nn:n-it enth cen.,tur, jr. h;s J.:jlh in :13,. I ;t

oft en dif ficult to sepFar te the IT:-. .' i an roa, :Qh, ar.; Yrgoi,'c n I iled

to Say that the UCF "is te na ;On i rel f" but ii .t pcrlh'p. nore

justice he often :c.uld ha c jid "'lr rarti c'est ri-oi."

It is oftenn difficult to p;np ;rnt the birth f a pol itical M .ie-

ment, but the partr : which 'ai. to a-rr.' Yr i.o,an ito the presijen:e in

191t. C, r pFrobati, b, : t I.- dj.aed fromT S-:pt'o-i.e r I. 1r 9. in th-at rlte,.


a group of about 3,I000 p r:.c s --mo l, un; .,ersi t SLuden t --ne in EucrC.

Aires to form the Lni:.i Ci.ics de la Ju.rintul. According to i s stirc-

iTm nc oF principles, the groLuF stocd for ci.il Iba ticis. free and fair

suffrage,: guarant':d autonomy of [he pro. ince': and muIncipal tiics, more

honest administration, and an effort to ra;se public spirit ;n the

per.fornianrcc of civic dutis.5 Numerouus such clubs tere 5oon in opera-

tion in the c ;t ar.d on April 13, 1890, a Sptcific pol it ;Il group-- he

UniSn Cl ;ca--was organized under the leadership of Lea.dro In. Aiom, a

former AutConomI sta.

Combining elements of the old LiLeral elite and the necul, pl;t-

icized sons of European irrigrants, tihe new politic l imo.er.ccr.t was born

of mounting dissatisfaction c.er worsening economic conditions and cla!

of 3go.crnnental rcsponsi'.cn:ss. The lEcrer ,ears of h Ith-.SO's had Leen

irarl.ed b, sc .ere ;nflatic.r. which benefited the e.-porter and. the land

speculator while bringing Economic hardship to the =Ts all nerchant. the

worker, and the immTigqrant farrnr. The ygorrnments of the period ,cre

tightly linked to the cattle export interests and worked on the apparent

police' that ha"t as good for thos interests was good for the cou.intry.

The "order and progress" administration of Julio A. Foca (1803-1 3,)

--whose pol icics *cre largely follow Ve b. Jurt2z C lmrrin (186E -1&S 3)--

has been likEned [t that of Mc.-:;co's Porfirio Dial during the same

period.7 Lie those D thothe o Dli:ire5 gqasa rise to rc..olt.

Three armed uprisings hj.e a place of honor in the arly history

of Argeqnti;n, Pa3icalisr--1890, 1893, and 1905l The first of thse--kno.,n

as "La Nov.-nta"- -3ns the rmot important both in its dcmonstr.aton of

the d'pth cf discontent and in its cctal/ytic effect on the mo.io.-nent

I.hich a, o e.,: r.r : Un ; .'.. ,r '- ; C i d cal a I s p 3nn i ri anid lea J.r-

ship :er.. oli ci::, b,.L iE ;. ri[ r L rtc arid L readjLth of psarEc ; pac i,ron l -r

th-: result ro fa.:cor b.e, ,nd the ir, luncri 3o1" [he nr .lI organi zed p ;' t -

i*aI opFp:; i -" s s I :., i-L.,;r qr -.rt fiari r r r b- r. r c.:Cndi tions

of tenuree .n d for har'.: ,: pa,i-r:rc. in old r father tLh n Lhi rai;dl ,

de. l 3 uiny p ..:r .:, t .-J r, in the ISS. 'j J'ile [h f in n :ia .: r i i o

'0 j ; r. ra ar ,T.I an. i ried iu.-n rr ur ;' ur.-rs and d- dd j [the, [.. ,-,co .

oppi c.rn.:'nt r the r.' A r Celi..jr, ...:rn. -nt. The ; 1][ -r ha- i t5 l. lr.

co--ipla; i i a.; ;n t the dd.i in;is. tra E cn. r.d .cn f.:K ore t f:.rriCin of

the Uni i.r ,ic a 1: a Jij I[t.',J rh-.: pr e i;..i s cptri r a 7r u:,.- -L rf iuri:.r

oft I ers i is c.n id:; rin9 a re.cl .t ia ;rl sr tch: 'lho. rnrinc. c '.h-:r the

nrel, tf r.': L-id Uni n Ci i c, c.al l.- fr.r r,: j iutri in I 1990. thi; d .i di id.:rnt

of icer .r, up--no. cor,i sid rablt. i Lar.,r ;n number and i r: ldin jd i q q e rniral

as wr-lIl a me' n ',F juir i.:.r rad.:--'-as qui t. [: .: c er its s-r. ; :ec .

The 18 0 rc.lr a. u c chus '.pc.sF ite cI re:cti :n to e:cono ; .:r; I

ard irdi idual i nst;[ tu i'. al gric .ari.;c s. Eut ;. aj5s [:t happi.;r rcpesat'dl.

in the suLbsequ,:nr histor of Lth Fadical i-,'- ..c: -n these .Erie.'.ini ci

were. r.]i Lh, r r:cog.ni -.e r,.r re, -ed;.d b ch.- part, 's leader .:and it as

usual I; coni dcril E.f i ient t o C n.rri rn.:c 5,.L-piri4 -1 :ner j' i. at i ns

abccijt p:,li ;i al ethic Hence. *-rh;l ec..:n:, ,i.: i ,:Lor; *cr- t.a. ; -

hind r.h. re.* :lts L .f both I .iO -,nd l-, I. Lh.: ,mt n rho drs a ccd chei- rc :.lu-

tiona.r proc. I amrr, 5;t:on did r..i nnd: rsi ,, -in. h. h factors -nd did nrr[

ir,.t rprer ch-; r.- i n th -s.e prc..:lar. cl r5 I F' rd n.q g .th,: 1 r c.l t

one au.th r rO.T e; tEh- the F'Pd;.:5als u:.:eS ful I er.n i ,.-:d th.- 5upp.rt c-1

ri:; tui irali tL;. "n;'it ecauS'j [he f;irin.ler und rstc.'d, or .-;.r.. e.cn

interc s edi in, th.. p...l; i c i, l i isu s or pe rs;on; ;tie in' o l.cd but

bt.cuse thet/ iue.- outraged at Lh, corruption of rural .authori t Irs" arid

at recent act ;.rns b,' ant Fe's pro -inci 1 go.erniment ;r thdravlng th

right of foreigners to ote in l-cal elc;:i- ns : n.. 1 ,'ir.g 3 provincial
cereal ca ..

The insurge9nts ;i P 18-) ,ere uniuccessful in their attei.pt to

o.erthrow ther 9: errinmnt, tuJl r aut tht l-irn onl,

after a prol.Nise olf' Ctal[ a-l nst[i [C. the Car tic ;pans and led to the

re signat ;:r or Presidlen t Juire Ce lImaTn, 5 iTaior s5,'ibol of the targ t of

the re.olut;on. It ; as, in the noros of one historarn, "a boJ, l'..

t-ut rnot a knoi-l.out,. For the ol i'j rchh ."13

Thc Uni.rin C icJ obtained it:, first e eiictcoral .;nc r in Miarch cf

the f.:l lloj.ing j c.r, .'hen Alemi and Aristi bul : del Valle Ic ere elcctcd

nat ional senators fr.on. the federal district. But the .ji.ersit; of

the group's nrimebi:rship ,as soon to cause the first of a series ou splits

and internal struggles which in grcatcer or Iesser degree ha.e count inued

e cr since. Tihe schism came at a meecting of the Un'.rn CIi.'.-:a's national

i:oirTi ttee .:.rn June 26. 1591. A fact io.i he--ded tb, Eart olori rl cr. adopted

the name Uninn Ch ica Ilacional and sought an accord nith the go.ierning

grour-s, .h;ch on the c. c of the 1892 elect iorn "se.ned to te repen: rnt.

The rcTmain i i nig imbers, under thle label of Union i. ;ca Radical anj th-:

continu;ng leadership of Ale.': called for relentlesss struggle" against

the go.u:rning ol;iarch. 16 Addressing a mass r"sn;et ;i in ODceR Ler of

1831. Alan said: "The, ha. I called us intransigent radicals and w:

ha.e a.:cepte this name i;th pride; and with pride our program i;s

intransigient.'17 ihis conflict btet.een ;nransigcnc.; and counproirise.

bect :en absteintion and participate ion., has b.n orne of the mnosr basic

di S ;i;.c C C-, C I; n Lh. ad I Cal MO C r t .

o:r wa. all .,,il ;n n h i C .ic L I ci- it Ulf. *I hI, re

there ij .a gjrc .*Ir ho ;t lit, b..- ''-:r. "II r. .anrd his iiilnl ', H; -::,K CI

'riqgo ern. The latter. alth.oujh- lrE:d, of considerabi e influEL n.:ce:- i th;

th- part,, did not frr-quen-r the pi-r he yad.qucrt.r and i mH T ings duri.;

th, e early' 1 0' Inste3 he sent aide's ih T rno or,- .ne, and ,hc. in

fact rC.-r, spi'e d.. 7 r n.d to cbstrict the- r--. lucionrar; pH1 of Aji 1.-

The ri.'alr, for lca.dryIip of the part, brd'.e into the fpen ;rn 12 ;

h.ten-i the t:ow .T.m n led unriel :ced r i.ol u io-.r plFits--'iri;ci, n in the

pro.irnc of Euenoa Airec an.d Alerm in Cantca Fe. When Lboth upris nigs

faii d. thc party .antcri d a period of C ri i- in .h tih Ch. hoCtilit

-tOt..-ri the t ir leadcrs di.idel the folllc. ar5. Tihe- F ladic ala ,-r

further i.e.lenied ,hen Jujan E. Juito tool. h;i leftist follower, outr o:,

the part, in ,1.9' arnd Licandro ..d. I Tirre dIparted to, ard th Center

with h;s follc n.'i nj in 1l)9;'. AlTm's Suicid. in 13 6. anrd the d-fecti;:.n

of these dissident jroJp 1iat YIriYgo,-n lith undisputed Ice--adrship of

th.- part,. although ;ntrn al ,:onilic [' Jre to c':i on i nue.

The LUCF. re;itratted ;ts "irntrans --nce" ,and refus l to joinr in

coalition rith oth-r p;:rt orn t;-: -E of the I 3 ele-ction, nrJ fol-

lo rirn Poca's elect ion to .a second- t.rrm as .rs:-;d:- riCt hat ',ear t'L

part E -ci.-d almost to disappear for .or-- i- ars. During th;' time,

ho,.re r. ir igi o, n i said. to h5 : been iTethc.iCicall' Flottirn 3 c re.olu-

tion ;f 1' '5 and de oting n i imu h ef fort to i;nninri ,our, .n il i ar- / off cers

o..r to the cause o*.f RPadic.alisin. The 1905 re.ilt, comriir.n e a t ilT

c'f general, gon- ecionor.ii c cond;t;: ne. n ,id not dro.J the popular support

ihichl .':rn t to the- t o arli r upr i in.;,: in p.ric. of ccor i c crisi; 21

Ilii, ctheleS:e, ; *:. ausd th'- go.eri, tr.r to d:1.Wjre 3 i[.LJE t- .I' EI e in

uhich p'ol :.; o*:cl sd lator un;ior c-:,nf i'.cj d their pjbl ic:.tCion- r-

re C'd latcr ie3ad r and jd p:.-rt..d so : or l. h'ne It also nc,a ha,.

Caus d !J :T,6- f th.- TiOre refil cti c r.inber: of [h: gC..cLr ;ing. elite

to begin r. hir: ;n ri rcre s.r ousl, i, [he need c:, adj ur p.l; c.: t

Ehe .-hanging r iq o al slruc' ur- of .hi r [ i..:n.

What t pe ofc ..ri a 'as H; p6. i '. 'i O this 'Tim. A l .ster.r .,

".ho. ri,-s rt' r s. l1-n-q the p'-rionrif i.: ioci .f the U.- i;'.n C: .ic.j PF dic "

Al hoj.ijh .a toriTr sch.:ool [ :ach: r anJ lite-lorng pol ;t;*: n, he a.cided

public ;C.pp ar an-: -s --c. ri b fic.rE his orin f i c. loc r: --arid pr i'f-rred r,'

m3inpulate the part. Irom i behind cloSd doors. hitr. h hAd tc. :pcoIa

to a pFrc, r.r.Ir;ng in ch- earl, da,S &o his carcer, he wuuld allude

to: thro'a, dif ft ;ul anid t.alj ;n 3 I: c.ic, his O:cris [h.n repeat-

ed Icudly, b. 3 fri n.-.d. La..er : r, he did nrc speak cr app:ej r at

ir..a in i 3t all; h A r nr h;s agen hi fr; nds, his poi;t c .

flunlics. 2 DOspi'. h;s public ret icenri --o r perhaps due to a

ri,stique tngendrred b, ic--'ragC.er de.elop:d a ide anrd ser.;l

fc.llo.-;ingj i h;ri the par t,.

To Yriy/c.-n, what i3.: rieedeJ iJ Arcent irna ra a -egernerratia i

in public roral it,'. His slo3gars--naticrna l preparation, the cauIe,

norali[,--often so.ri-d d mocre reliious than political, and hc on.:e

charact er ;ed Fadical s,, S a "ci ic rel iioi.,, 25 A-, onc author

pur i "there has ne .r bern a character iwhcse moc.! ac ;on as ,.'cr

obscure. or whose personal it, '*as rnore secret .e . . W thi out.

be n-c I innte ll; ..r. he -1, ini :.ac urif.[a li.o bible Said i':'. b .' -

rapher: 'l ri r,.erc L d .r.nd fans z, c. a, c:f ..-ri fe ;Ijc-, he i-, .

ccir.irnc, that h I.-e c:.juntr, nee.Jce'd .:nl free clI:c .'. [:. te i::.iIp l el

tra i-f .r.n .-d. '

Fre, e :t i ; :n-. p lu : C:,,.-. I ; inc,- 'i h ti, O-,s- i .ic i :n. i re i t- t

Lhe cn I, hin r. ir, tlic .., cr a pr: r ,T, 1.,; cli hIe l ': l.ad J ur iy. [ h-

,c:3r ter.:.r Ic. I c in r, lih 5 pFcrhap:. O re ; th .e j.:r ;r-n;c

c-i [the era. 'r ; i,cr, **- b na rr. t, pr.:terrnce. ar. tr ;. r; e

ITucIh IT r c r a re cO uc : ro r ch.-r, c.:r, r. :.u[; i.nal ; A r cl-er q- i ;.

i ,mpare.i, c I. r'r qg r cr. : c 'de ch ar. hc -,: T C ha. r. r .: I re

onr rc. Clu, ioiCar, plans rthat c. ,oulId pl 'e h3 iT. ; -. th-: pre. Ci r h lan

for i el:cor al r:fcr [, that i.ul. er.a-,le ch-. UCi:F to ccTC tO pc' *r e-t :- -

full,." I dJdinq clI,;c [h;I n.q1Ehl p l:1 n Chc la:k of an, part, p ro .qr,.

be,:r-d a]uc t al. ab-utc pcpul.r s.: .ereI1 a-nd dr i icrsat i e
ri:ral i .

The a inc ransigen.- which 'I'r; g:, en ; .rc[ed th. e LIUCI- IS; tciofold

--elecr oral ajteir nt icr, nd refu al to. p ;r[; i; p e i c:cal i; i cr. c .-crn-

mrtent Ever si;-ce IS 15 'rig:q-t.er, hadj r ,-- ear.cj1 refused :ff icce and

candid atur-e in: ludinq rna[ icei-l scr. a r n- ;[r:iIal d,,p L '., n, ; -; Ler .nd

g -, ernor. Li l. e i se he as the. mTajr for-e behind thi: L:jr .' I t ;.r : .

of elect i;on rcr mn, *,ears [r he hgrunds [hat chel tal l.r.t inC- .i

fraudulent. I did ro no r act r 1h-:.-, rcy ,ears 5 the ad cal' h iJ t.. ren ai n

i r c[h-: pc-,li .:al 1 dern r- for he c:,r.c endedd char. "'-hern one pl aces

f ai lh in che ca;.u tfor l-i h or.n- cruql 3 -s. cr prc er .-S L.:-. e all

else tr pc,.er c.- principl :. .ii tL t[h ..I :io tch . Ictcor ui ll

COle in duE tI-,,, .

But nr.t all F radical: a rrred i r.h ''rig0,cn thar the pjr cnl,

r,..Id tC p. .r 'a3 chr.'ough re.-.*lu[ on. In I ,)? a ;.rorii renL F liC.al

Ic.der in CArd:L.. a, Cedrio C. ,ol ina. r si.gncd from the UCF ..jith the

accuric [r ch [ a:rt is

Ii. .:r c nc los in che i r he1 d jual r ers. 1 l i, onrks in -3 iC ,n ri
9i i n; n,-, r..- signs :of li f than cc.~ c i-al inrdi ca ci-ns of ,
co.nsp rac, ;r the .f rts ial.in people tb l ;e.e c-h.c jp .rt fr.:.,i
.'iolc nt re clut -n th:re is r.o: sal. a in--f ar f ran, s r.'ir n Lhe
idea31 of justice:, ofr I;berti, and I,, den, therr because the
re.'.lu io: n 'of a part, W.[itli'ut ;de.a i0 just as bru[ al a ;'ln:E
-3 ;> a IL. Cl iie riLent l thout' elec:icon' s.?

A Pa.di;c re.-:.lur ;,iln :..ull d riu..ipl, "trc.ii:- rrc.. he said, but ch-: fcl-

Ic iring da;, wr uld ":ee enr hrrned iolance., ;i;qu it: i. orit i s, ard

Lhc ar. of elcctroral frud" be,oi-.d C.hc Contrcl :of the idea ijs I ad. rs

of thC. parL,.31 Later the: sare s.ar, .a di isd t P-adical fac.io n ]cd

b/ Leopo' ldo lle:l issued a i.rnrifei .c ha charging n ..ce-si ; .- "'Cpersonal .-

in the part 's d;rEticnc anj cri i c i i n the rrorncou. -tL bl ; n:r e" o.

the abs tcnEn in a-id re. :oluc io:nar,' t.c ;cs .and the rel irance or "enigmat. i;

phr at s ra.,her than or, Frogr ams. 3

This internal conf l;c[ ec'ecrn tcho-. h., i.a noted the UCR. I t ic,.:,.

and -CL I;-.e pj l t l; cal par: and those ,.ho considered i t *a moo.crlent

de:Lincd to recriTi che r nat in .i a re ..ol uc bi n--th f:rnTeli rere kncion ;.

a-ules the I.iatter as rijoS -- asa tc. grc.ii in intent / during he rne.'t

couple of ,eirs as c lecoral reforiT brightened the prospcr..c:s at th

pol I:. Sc .-eral pri-, inc :, 1 FI.,di cal parties defied 'ir ;I:,-n and prepared

to enter ele ti-:;c ,on and the part,'5 natl;onal coiiin i;[LOe auLhor i red

liin;U t d p l it ical part i Pic ;pati in 1312 against the leader's recor:-r-

rn-ndajlion. E ci ir. a r reFal ir.i he hadl lost LO tl-ie eleci c insist

. le.n-r.; Cf thr p:rt, rig.: .rin I Ea[ ined he I, d dea arcnd .,i:-.1 of re.ol j-

tio:n. b t 1- rh< Wt :- li thr:t it s-j. thr e cnl,' ,I to: p- r andr r.hj[ ;

Ja. rne.:es;ar, n irJer tL -. O.:., ;.h ch pol t;c r.aqerer r ior he rilt

the nr3a i nc. r,.:;d.. 3 ThIj or. [ I-. ,i th. I 1C.:t ; n ,ih;i .' Ih 5 C tal.

Ih-i and.- hiM part, r:' i,[r;cro al p ." r., t:he nla.r, O h', l lng r .re:.' e s.uch

faith in :h -.:,-rr-t a ,i : era of fr r. l I tc ;.:-ns se o; r. .-ould ha

prtfe rreld a IT.; i r. r, upr;:' ;ri to a ccr.tn.: t at tIl, po.l l ..

Othel r T.majo .-.j.ps c nt.nr; ing ;ri th 191I. clr-.; rn ;Ir cludei. J rh

S'cIaliS tt, F r P r :.e ; c [i t D roo-r i o:.f Li a-.dr.. d. la Torrie. and th.

raotcr h t r.o:. r.:r .- jr. uii; nq :,of pro n. ii r.-r i ..'s ; h car, be ai-.5

sifted as "ca 'jerar ri..e. 4 .br;iEf IlK. at *a- h cO L *jrr.i.., !; i n r,

c'der bit'or': 9g ; on .3 dn tu5iiC'n of lc.,ct.ral r k .'ri, h,li

clearEd thIe a ', r th. pe.-.;c' Il c..-rCh:. tl-:. -' iir.n--' r ig' ., r,

[t riT f r tbhe .:. ni ng. .':n; r .ac ; roul --b, s, of th b[ ll c..

So, i al. :' die..1 i..-..J irn r .qc, irni3 ,lur ri;r ri la"crer half of cth

nrii r' ench : r.r, .r '. Fr.inch. Ir l; jn. jrd 3Sp:.niS h :, .cial ;;c rou.:-.

e.'isted in Buer, Ai re:. but iI-E, op-racLd s-par:tc1 i.nrcil the -arti;t.

Sociali' m .,ai :n."ii J in 1 ,''. under ch: le -',erh1-:i of Juan-, E. JEu, co.

From the ;li, he left [he Unr? onr ;ci a Fc a J;Ic l un[ 1 h; flou dc.: thE n i',

part/. JuJE[o act .s i e in orqa.-i,;;, .. ;mrii;.jgr,, la ,or. J.t cO 'a; a

hars- cr;r ;c of" th. sc-called p 'olitc,. crill thi r.at err of pErs nal-

isiT. and ;C.1- ce . ha en CW ,pict A' f r. rat 'ion' p:i.-, e ; ;[ : TO

him the F.adi;Ca : r-.prc n.,t'd [thi;s a.lad, a: such ,z: dId tih co.n er.a-

t;.e-. .jr.d fr':m i-. t. .ginri n.i Q che *c. :i l 's : I ere to fi ll,. a cour-S

inl dependirt :.f c, tT-c Lhr. P gic; r .r. rnd 'I'rig ,cr. i 's Ca e a it, thcir lfcort

to c.han both [i-N: a[l a-id th .:oncEnt n[ f Are ,nir p oli tI c: .

Although the cci._.er.aci.e 3Co.erriin.r.i t had passed a l .ilc h d amount

of legi slation fa.o.r abie to the horl ers anrd the F.a ilcals cons Jered

t r msel .cy, rcprc entati C5 of the l.ow r cl ses it :.aj rhe Social it

who .erc to x.c precedence to social and economic concern,. i.'h;lc

the F.93;. .. ; as dir ctin'g progresss. fron ab)o.e" i' n li ne w th ihe

irnter-sts f the 3ro..t:rs and e:.i c -;or rs and the Fadical ,cre coliern.

i r.h pr in c;plcs O:f formal dcen cra:ci and ic regerer a io thc 3Sc ial -

ist. dealt ,,ith mTarters of "rages. hours, factor, condition. jn
unio'.i ation or

Depice the ir concern for the social and econcnl,; o Cr tre polir-

ical, r the Soci al i 5t i. in a rr.a ne. a cons id--ral betr-ter rc.:ord j nr rrespFct

for the demoIT:cr.atr pro:ce s than did either the conrser.at i ." or the

a.Jicals While perhaps in part the result of ne c r L.;in i r poa.r.

this no doubt alo ,.c- parr l, the b,productC c the nr.e "stLjl'" of

pol itici represerntd b, the Sciali sts. The part,, e.oluticn ksr from

the outset, rejecrej both fraud and violencee as political eTians.

Instead, the Social; is strcised organzat i.n, program, and education.

Through cenLers, through libraries, through forums, the Socialists

,.ored to raise the cultural and ci.;.: le'l : of the orl.er as well as

tr, ing Lo iipro.: h;S econo-mic le It jas, irn short. dIemc ratic

Socialis', of the EurFcear s ,le.

Alfrcdo Falacios, whose colorful pOli tical career Las to span

orre than half a ccnturi, t-care the first SoL.alist deputy, in Ancrica

Lihen he ,isa elec-ted to the national chamber in 1t04. His election came

durirgy a brief e lperimr nt .ii h si;n le-renber distrr;c s, a-n. the 1905

return to at-largc c actionn -*;[hi, cjach province and the federal capitr.

pr -.r. ted an, furi.th. 0C: j l ; i.t. '.; or ;ie urn il [he IecC o r' a r- forr.i

tooL. effect in 1912. That ,ar bt:.[h Falaci; s .-jd JJ.;[to *:.- f.ed ral

capital se at in the Chami-.er cf lieputic :. rL erc the, .re j';oned thM.

follc.;ir.n ,ear b i-rolI S rFep-Lt. an d i- ; Br 'C. I 191 Lin-.

Soci al; ts in ch: c a:. Q ;t -. or., ; deputy, sel i t ih UCr 's cIre .

Althcl.u:h [he Fjadic: s cre :lsC: 'ir.ni;r. nuni rJ -r of ClecCti n;i

during Lhe 1912-1916 period. the .:;c or i;, of thr: ':add;ii t: i;n lhe

c capital br.iought h.jrch cri;t;ci;' f ro.,Ti [.he LUCF. Yr; go,'.-.' par ey C l a; T..d

[th Soa.iali: i-rori es o ere the riem El [ ,,of ns;rin ter ':c.,npIrac L, [he

F.giriern iich- real ized it could ,ot ir. here I.,. the fr ud a3rd i'ler.c:

it l leg-dl I* til izeda e l e here rd L-Whus n -, ,,up ,rter.d tihe SoM.iaI i :.ts a -.

mncar,n of blocl ingj:: thei F:.aJic lls. A c[ : th.: Sioci alI ; s t ie- l.s : he

ICF sa;d it ,as a3 groJup "cc'io poi. 1..oi l, of fore;.-g. rs o jre .,Ste.0-et

er.eT. ;e of the coorrTioO good.

Within Cor.reu, .. the gr. ; ng bloci ofr Soc;ialist jr, F'jical

deputies ofter rljajed in rc Citccr O nt.ro...: r ,il h eja h oCher thlan

either dj d .w;rch th .: conser'.at i aior c t,. In 1912. a -Faji,:c l .:3--,n or.

Jos5 Ca.i Io C rotto. chal Ile rI. ng t-he e leIctin r of ,.lj t .On t- he rjnds

--aincrrn othec- --ch.ct he helped ipre.- ranr ipatrioc[i. ;d.ca;'' around th-
courcr anj that he auj fore;gr-bt:.rn. Insults. threat. and an :c-

casional file folder rere hur led : m:[.e Ln the ri.al blic. Ch: rou'J]h: 'u

the 1912-16 p..riiod, and in 1315 [h- [ensiron re.achL' the po.nt of i du-.I

tctucern Paii cios and UCrF. depuit, Mcracio O,hart ara An as 'a.natc ;or

atten-pt :i9.:;nr, sL J.* .t i r downtanr P iuenos Aires ,al .-; al 31legedI to

h.:.e Le-n the our.-row h or ar. inc dent .i chin th, ChaitL.er crf Cieputisc .

Al ch.-.ugh at cTT.:, the, .carc cr r oLEain n can o-ca.onal dEput fro

the pro .incr ., the sLrenr th of thC :,idal3 5- frc.:nm he- Lefgin..i r.g ias

li iited to -hE fedi ral cap tal. Tihu5 ,,li kl oscU-iis a c i -b ed

part,, he: Scci ali SL also .er ir, eff.:ctr 3 regional part,. S ;-il ar ,

local in character ".m; Lir.ndro j ; d,: 1 Torrc.'s part, in [he pro ;nc. :o

Santa F.:. firstt Jnder the n:i.; ofC L;. a .ell Sur and later that of F'art ;.ji

De iT.6c r a t a Pr.:.ores i a.

Like. Juj to. a founder. of ch. Uni. n 1C .ica F adi:c l ard a part ; ipanr

in [rh 1890' ;n;urrec ton. De la Torr- resigned fro:., the cUC in 18i.3

i r[h a sharp tla.r aL Yriqgo,en for ,lat he called stcrtitce and r.g- '[cie.

leaJers-hipF of the part/. "I ami no long-r d;.pC"oid," he said, "to

continu: contr ;but irn m ,'modest efforts to 3 part. Which, ;mpoLcni: to

real le [hoae o:.bjcc ; es whichh the greacTi majority, h:.ld an'd aploaiJ.

seres o.nl, to provide Hip.lit- rrigc.,en 'j;rh Mh- pres[t3C; O' national

conn-ctr. l onE for his narro.-i and personalistic acti; ie ."

[e la Torre cpnirt the nec[ te n :ears in- ol :d in Santa Fc polFC ; ic.

and in international rra. l, em,-erg;n in 1)0j as th.: leader of the

nrtil formTed Liga deI Sur. The ne, .-roup :orib;rnej an ;deolog, of

pol itical liberalismru ith inLrcrc c s sp cific to r.le iinT.igrar. t aji ;-

cultur3ali s t of the southern part of the prc..nce of SantA. Fe. At cth

national le~.~l these' increst- stood priaril in opposition Lc [hose

of the large co:: ic-: -n :of Euenos Aires pro inc: ; at the pro. incial

le:el h. -,, sought greater local al-ic.ic.nom, from the iTorc conser.ati.e

cai;ral in the north. DE la Torre had t:en greatly, ipressed uirh

[he local sc f -9j.wernr;ent he had ul tn'Essd in the Un ted Starcs, and a

major plank ;n the Liga', fourd;ng program ias a call for municipal

.auto:orn- and the ri -4h: or lural d; trcr. co eleCt the;r cnr. pol ice,

court t an:-.1 3cho:.l :, ; ,: ; 1 .

For a rt.. D, 1 a T:.rre : m -.cmc. t pr- ad to : son- o.her pro. ir.c

of the. Litcoral jnd I-,tcrio-r-- c lea- no. inr a l -.-.ej ie-ned.- to repre i .nt

;a i -blc riddle r-urnd bet.e r' the F ajic: .t ad 'the re reoct r naor, o

th- c :n'i- r..ac; ,: gqr ups. In the 1i.rn. run, ho.W e er, its p.:,lit cal i:p..-act

wa; pr ;i ril, pro irc; al rather thir. r at i:nral ir -S. t .

The co.--n:r aci.e:., T: e[ I, comp:iTip.n.r .r f he Sai-.:al lejd F:qIIer

,Ih-ch he I Fid;cal I k d t r po ra, as .a ; n;is t r mach in .rcrl in rele .i -

lessil, aqa -ist tL ",ill of the p-opl' , re l ar rr ,,,n :. -:erc r -l1 i:e: :1 rnd

,,:.n,.: lithic pol; r iical part,. The, icre. rit-cr, a l c.oK; e co'; licio-n ro

pro:. i n.; ; parz ics l,,iclh--: hil i he ,, rno di ubic i:, nr.d a c rt in ur n ir in

the face -:I the Fadicjl thres: --c onti ; ,uc-d it r" flct a ron ,r id rjtbl

di ersit or irn .re;r s ard St e. The ac p cart i s Cre ,p call C:p-'':.:ed
of tlhe, "traditiOal and pl 'rful people; .r cach- pr' ;ircc, had l ttle

in the -'a, *of forral orlan; a[i-n-,I~ r.rucrur., and rWl]eJ prriTar;l, *:.r

the perior.al prestige .Of lea-dIc rs :,,id on rad ti :n.l, f, l; : l l , lt;ie .

Al thc-ug '.rigo en Jdid nor'r -;sc:r;i, ir. e in h;s '.p ,:i; t. 1.0 the.

other .,.as .j .ons:, eratle ar;-. ;.r.n ': th. e p rtice of the F 9;.r. n The

Partido I Cons-r do-r .oF Euerin Air,; pro ;nce prot: -i caCe the

clo:Ses -- t least during so..a : '- riod --': the UCF' i t- r.rE:t,p_ ,-i a

narr.o"T-bjcd, rather :;-presi i.e poli tical jroup I.h;icr retm ined po, ;r

throu lh :ide.-sprcad fraud ancd co er':;.i-, In iOT.C : [1h" Inc erior

pro:..ir.ces, :.i tle other Ihan.j, :onricr .i; c. 9ro u; h 'c lep. the p.:.11

honrest, ha e go.a.eir,.-1 Il .nd hj ,E produced ic.",: of thL. neti:on'.

MTO t re-...cred p.o-l itici-anr and Swiate-iT.,. Tl Cre ialso has tce n a

d ffcrrencie in pe r-s I; ,:nce or "sta, ;ni jpo.'r" a.ng conr'r r. at i .e pr.) in-

c ial partri s i n ..,-ic pro,..inc Es I-.: t rditir nal part i s crumpled and

som c- li-es d;iapp a.-.d inr, t e face o f ch: F.adical3s and later th: Peron-

iS.., whilee Ic n ..[chers --parr icularl Cor r nr. cs, C.6rd t* a. and rnijo.za--

cone r ar ; s ha. c,:nt rinued to :.c of consid ratbl iL portanice ,-ip l i ti :a l

There .a3 dissat is action am on-j con er atl.e a: ,ell as in cht

opp.o i tion psarc ;.i ji; h cth pC.olit i:al pattern ihich had d-.e lop: j in

h.; last c iuplc of decades of the rnen tc-cnth :cn.ur The for, ac ion in

191 of ch:- F'arct; -o rc-.: rnista b, Foquie 3; n:. Pcna r a- an effort b-, a

qroup i; thin th- ruling ":lass" to
participant ion. Tentc ,e ars l arI r chi ,saiT-: Tman pro,.-.oCt d fJ rorn [ h

prLs; dcnc, the elector[al reform .&h;.:h ajs to bring deferac t[: his clais.

Altchouh 5ienz FraW'Es long-tcrn. concern with ele.:toral reform would i nli-

cace that his rrm ti .a ion Lr.as rather altrui sti there wEre those iho Sao

electoral reform as the bl:st wa of coping Ail thhe Padical "'rhreac."

In the earl, ,ears of [thc [. rnt e[h century, the idea .as current arnc-r

ariious TmemT.l rs of :he .i;gar:h, that the best .l, Lto dstro, (.he

Radicals Li-s [c let [heT, go.ern. thra as oCpp S I ; ;ion th:/ re indesitru L-

ible but chat che, lad ed the abl;l;t, t, .go.rn si CC s ful 1 4 Carlos

Pell egrini. .h.:D as ice pre id.ent had a jsuiTed the presided c, fo lo.iri

the 1o90 resiinatic ;:n cf JuSrez Ce iian, called Radicalism a "tCrcmpC:ramrnt"

rather than a part. ard said "it has r:, be allowed to go-crn so that it

correc:s ;ielf, learns. aor dei- scr,;;s itself''

In caBmpa; n spL--hes preceding his 191" calcction to the presence.,,

a-In: F. ana cinte: ndi th r Elect:oral reform .as chL mTostr pressing rg need of

the nation. After his clict'on, he held a series of :confr_ rnccs .;lth

ri Q ,- -- 'l-,.r, I--: h d i....:,. ; rj.:. Loch p ir cipal. d i-,n h.- PF r cJo F; p u-

blic r .o in thl i ,I -- '.r.,J .,i i-, the radical le de- re ..hed a co-,r .T.;ise

on pro. i;, ons f c ie pr.p,..:.,: r l' r., L. I I. ~I'i;go, n r:e: rte id :r,- th- .

iTIc..- t i nr 5 E .:. ht' f .rE, ': r.,cl :,nal .: ,.r t rr .: : : C.r. 0:- L.: r 5, 1'1 nd I h i I

re f ius i.. tl-F p re i ..-t al ter t. par ticif te n i :-- rr,....-,c th

fad; ls: a- rred to .nd [ch:;r cle.:c[ ral l. b: t i n i r, ;f [h. prr .:. e.:

r .:.r. ..: r- Jppr,-. e, aE d rn, f.:.rced.

The rir..t Fph-: oCf tt,. r i'orT., tr, to C -.nr,.reS-:. in the fi;n l days

Cf 1910, Ca. lish d A -i e'.;stin s,.te. :of .c:St L. r r ;:. s ra[ .'n :and provided

f:.r Chi ur .j Ir the. .:,; i ir dr f t rejf L r r rat 'anr a :hU t ;.a i-; :f or er

rc ? ist rra t n. Arn,-:h.r til 1l -:rt at C[h-. ; ai [m;i e place. i r.h.: .. :r.duct of

-leci;L .rs u-nd- r t 'h f.ideral juldi:cil ,. s c r. The f inal a :,-d ,"-aSL -i gnif-

ic.an[ bill, 5-.n t to Conqrc. AuJuJ It Ii, I l Fn.ind ~am,-,o al I, l 1 er.-d the

e / i in. ci t,: oral ,- I [e.. It[ .,3-. de.- i nred, ;n S erz FP' '".a rd:,

''It: 3az;ure c[~: rci.edo; of thle el .:; :r [Ie c.rnsc ic ntiou.i *:: cir. t-

bal lct," .ard the hI n: t can. a s i~g. i -., retu.rr. ".h,;ch reil:E .t h.: pujl i:

wil l."

In arddl [ iri:n co proc. id nr, r.d:.,..r -Juifra:r e and es,[al i : I r n the

c_.,:re r L liallot, th. L I 1 *t arir.Ed .i 'r ; [c,' r pr: -s-en.ata ir. Alr[h uj l-i

S enz Per;-, ; sai d c, ha.e t. -.'reld a plurjI-l; , ..., h e .i .~all,

C'-.Ii..rc.;rI.i:-d i ith Yrir c., i:. n *-.hr. :,- c -cjle. ". i- i c .C-ipletr e I i LeC.l

under .h;.h ed.h pjrt;, could put up c arid tes foir :nl ,' t'c-rlhird oC:

t-he a.a il: tl: i- jat i n [ h n .i i r-ial :h-aj r 1 [D.pu[;i ij and. nr

pre-. i -J tia; l el. --cticrn [.. -r'-;r.J of Ch: pro ;ri,:c f. allL Er. rd -.t r c

prc; Id-:nc l 5 lec t i r Th.. practical et ffec orf [hi ,ter, .a. [o

gua r, ant:- th. s- c,:c-d part ., ir c ',c h d i..ri t -iabout ,Ir.. :--half h1-

repres.,nc -ti cr.n a. ta'ne I b t hr 'jinn;r. parr ,. The public .. press, and
Con. re-: 9-nri ll, rc,;t d fa.*urdbl, to the pr'ccs-d r-forira. t .ut the

no,. lt,, :,'f rthe inc-orpl.te list s ,stcir a'.e rise to e.t'.-isi.e d Lebatc 3nd

S ,4
po it. iC s.

The el.:-c oral lan brought an iinte.rsificat ion of p lit ic l ac; .it

and,. rwih the first nat onal elect in in 1912. an indic t ion of [he

chanr.e thdt a.iait.ed the rna ion's polir cal fie.5 espire UCP skepti-

c':m o. about the C.n:rcL.i'n[ of0 [he ne) Ia. andt the part ;' app:rrert

bcel i f that all elections under P.4 iirn adirinistratc ion aere ;n.ariabl,

fraujuln.-n. che PFedicals Lion the 1912 elect on for n.o[icral JdF:ptiiF in

the capital a.d in the pro ;ncc of Sainc Fe and L.uJ n ,ino.- icr r.prri:enta-

tonr in cth prc inc.s of Euien.s Ai,'es., Crdoba. ard Entre r fo. These

.*I,;c r;r s g a.e thc L'CP cFle d re deputy;: in the 1912-1913 chj-,L r, h.!-ile

the Soci il;s 5 n on t .c m rinorit, seats in the capital and Eie I.Ij- d'Iel

Sur roa) :he rinorric r.' ea in Santa Fe. The Padical bloc in the Chciibtr

of Deput;i increased to ,rint,-eight in 1914 as a result of -.7ctories

in Entrr Plos and Sa-ia Fe and minoriLr representation fromn th. cCpi'tl.

Euenos A;res, Cirdoba, Corrient..s. and Hlcndoza. Winning the capital

boosted the Socialis: bloc to nine depr,,ie -ihile tlhe Liga del Sur '.on

tou mn-ore ,iiinorit, s5eas fro,:T Santa Fe for 3 tc-tal c-f three deput iCs.5

But cthe pre; i.cnt ial election of 191'6 would bc the b;] test of

the n-.i polio. of "fre le-Ctions." The d-ath of Presider,[ S.enz PLna

and the succession of the more conser'.at i : Vic orino de la Pl :a.

Sicn.- F'Pa's .-;c prLr;;dnt, cacusd ;cEnm fears of a return to earlier

clecI On pr.ac.:tice The -na. pre: id.e i al .a red the- nat ;orn, h.-n; .*er, thja

the 1I11' C l l,:iEin i uld be fa;r and q.juararcied under [he nei l13.--.nd

kept the promiI. :. The face [cac bath ',.cJ..z Fe;la .nd CE I. F I sc. ,i crc

rather ; r .p:. tnr -,j Ert po: I r. a' i i u ; d [ pt r. 4 a., r p,, i ;,:-,1

groups Ta, ha ;t ir luericed chair illin; ; r. to all]., a F ical, i ctor .

licr, the. Uni.n C '. ica cajical held its rac .'n. c'-n enti; r., i'-O

of the 1 6 de lc.ate : o.. .r[ed the candida:, of 'ir; ,, ,r-. .:r pretidenr .

The F:adlcal caud;I as nrc lac t[ h. corn t, i r-,. jrinJ d h' ar. ,T,; r. L;

i S senrt L.. ;ilnfor.r. hin ofr the- no;nat iai he ai l irine i [ "n, [houjht

has r.e. r : rbeen c: *,.err.n the .c un.rl ," h-e Said in a repl, nocr tu the

a.cor.e i:on. "but rather bout-: a plar. f fu-r" aeri[cal repara tio; fi'-a

.hich. in Mi, judqI .:rnt I .muTi sacriF; C he holding o' f ac ,, publl, ,r' ;.-

The con.enrorn reneECI .Jd i[ apple' al and 'rio:,' n f final ac:C: r..Jd. nh ale

there as little -;rnrE for the pre iten al nomins ioi-, t[e ro rajor

fa LcLicn ith;n [ch UCF, fouu ht ,.. r the ;.:e preside c ps; i:on-,.

Yrig ,.ein' fact n .:rn, i,[h the rojo, Pel F'I B. Lur.a rc, i ingq W lhc,-

ron ca rt ion *.ojt3e; r i f -n;r.f .'ce. fo'.r '.:ul leader VicertCe .


Lisandrc, de la Torre. the e, -FRdcali ,ha, rounded the Li. a deI

Sur in S, ,sl Fe, ras nomir at,-d ;n la,. 1915 a: the pre; idr nt iil ic3didid tr

cf the Parti du D 'n..:rir Fro, re ;-sca. L;ke 'r. i --r er.. he t f i rst

declined t[e nrOMirn Aii'on but .-c .cpted after Further urjirng b, the

can..:r,[ or I t i the first of r..o: pre idential candidac;es for De

la T,:rr. ; b.rh ':rc tj be uns ucce a fuI .

The Fari ide D -nirat. F'r.jrE ;. sa 'ai founded i n Decembr 1914.

jo aru;ou pro ier:al p;rc;s facing rh'- FrthprCspEt f comper: ngj ich a

nat iunall orqani ,..J KIUC in t[he 1'916 pre idcs fd nti l cl ecr.i or,:.. LF. b',

Dc I: Torre, the rie par't incorp-.r~.ed Ei ht 9o'.c rn i n p; : inr; l
parties a and o -ri;n:r rit, par ie' --incl.ing the L;o d l Sur after

th. electoral Jz.f;eat and t brCea -up of the t, rop. [' la Tcrre jiJ tihe

part; had been rh,: cutgro'r1.th cf sincere belief niorn. liediers o.f the

pro. ;nc; al part is [hat: onl a ,o..re detmocrar.ic and re-:ponsi .e -.[ ,le

of pf -l; ; cs c.jld rcn he r PaJical ad.-anc A I s he add.d, rhcse

pro. inc ci; I leaders had bcen ; llin3 ng sac:ri r e personal 3A-bi t or, in

crd,'r tr.: ha', a prcst igij:.us lacc h; ich could rau supper: froct n.n-

con,. r at ;.s ai C Ic as3 co rn.cr.ar i.c s.

Fci go erning con-:e r .at i.e pari tie. relr.a ineJ 'Iut of t Pa:Lido

Dec.i-Cra. a Projrcr S r.a but a,:.rio [hen c ias the one *,h;ich ciF unc Jr d i mos

--t ie Fa:t ; J.. (onser.a dor o.f Bu-rnos Aires. Ilarcelino Ugar[r ih e 9.'. crn'.,r

and cr c.:.nse r. ci .e c aidill Io ,:,f that poirerful pr.-. ;nce, hjd presi;dent al

asp;ra[ions hir- i l f :nd refui'ed to back DC Ij Tc.rri candid.. H

nort onl ',. ii:uld rct Cal.c h;s Parr t dc Con:n ser .-dor i rtc C .he P rt do

Dcrn.crata Pro'grc':, is a. but is -aid to h .. o .;d ed m:O,-i. e, e:; f; l D 1-,

Torre 's group in ce.'eral prc.;.nces .and Lt h3'.c co:.nsr pired uith Pre-,ide-t

de la PIa:; t[o chL iart ; in e.crEl oct-.er rthrojqh feder-il intcr. n-

tic-,. 6 In add J; ic n tr thhsc ec.-[ernal attacks, he part, had di f; cults

witr.h internal c:-nl I Cr lirr.mi the outset i as a result .-.f the d;iF ring

intere-ts and approaches o.:f the .arious pro ;rci l : r oups nak.inrg up

the Parcido Deacr.at a Progres;a.6 3

The th;rd1 pre ; de cnt i slate ;i t l e 1916 election ,as tha~ of

the Part ido Social ista. F:,jnder Ju',r B. Just:' '.-,as the part, norinree

for president; ;Icole Pepetto, elected nati,-nal deputy ; n 1914, ',as

C-it .icE pr rc i. n,:n i c:rid I J l .

The UCF rec.ci..Jd 3 larger popul ar .cm ;n [he Apr;I 2 el .c io-,

;,Ern all c[h .oh[lEr par ,;. co:. birn.d. Th.: Fa.:6l~c r. nriEarn d or iiT..r.:..

their r pO'Si; .:,l ;n tc e c :,p; c l. Euer.cn:. 4 re .rdct C ..:rr; cr,cs, En.re

f,-: ilM nd.:u:a. a nd ".an[.: Fe hb ile *::.c ; i ;r.; r, i r r t-t;,,-..: .icr.-.r ; i i n

Sarnt ;a o d l Est :.'r and TucuJnS.n The elc;.t on F- rn-pa c [he ULF Dl,:..: ;r,

the Ch.Mb' r O,"f D[Ipi l. i rc: frr c .-f,-.jur il(iT.lrT.t r .orC [h.an c ri one-ch;idj -

the ch i .ob r. The Lcc; l i rcs ,c r.n : nl, sc:.n. pl .:c ; c he c.api .a I

lea.;ri. th i r .Jdepur es bI: : [ rcine .e..t-.rs.

Din censic.ri .ao.nj c.rns r ;.,;- p.-,r;ci h.a.J ir.t.-E .i i ied .i he

e lci;i on appr': chO d. lead;-r.i [c- tthe disJ n ; r: ,;r .n crf ih P r dr i do ..' -..

c:r.atr. P'rcjrcitog i j : ic r .: r [the r i- m s of h l rt..r d ,the .':ec ;r. nq or

the l. ctor.al ;. ll: y .. The Far ; d; ns r sor r .:' Euern, '.rei .ard. ;

allies ;n ro.th r pro.i n ci cs h:d pirecntEd urp .l.d d j i aCE .:.F Cele .:ri .r

thise p luE part c;e d elc c i n.. rr:c.,i e 1 To-rre coal t c i n prow.T: d t h-

,r .did o i: ng li D. RP,:.as in I he eleci : ral coll e... D1espice the

initi l success of the Part; do Dcir.t cr sc Pr.o ie:.isc. ;rn 9-iri;ri supF.:,r

r.y co.rser.ati.e pr ., i .: c; al p.arties. onl. Ca a.c- r.: > r, Lu s S r.n ts

Fc. and Tucum.,'r. rrc,.;nedJ f.; E ul to ; Ic ajl r it (he .Ju 20 -,e;c r

of th- clecI rs . Th S, the Pa r c 7 c.'. : r .a r a r : ; l [ je or ; n.j I

slat: dre" ..nl r., cr --ghr e -:cr.:.ral c :re c 'cI.pared t~ 10i" .ores for

the ,ut[c i cuej f: re--fort, of ,hi ch .ere fro.r. crh E:u vn:. : Aircs conis r a-

C .C, .

In spi tE' of r; igo, .I' I'argj p:.Fiular :,c t rot.al he did not h.- e

the 151 c cc :[or j .oc.e ncJr, cJd o i r-i [he pr.: sJ,-5 .:nc, Hoid;ng l, ke,

tc. the election erE le ti ..:o-c-1aled r;issid nt Prdil'cal o Sanes Fe. ihc

had .orn in that prc.. nce and uhose nineteen electoral t'..l .-s could qI gi.

the i :tor, to Yr i 3o,, n. The diss den-:' of the Sant a ;e P.,dical .-s

the :utqro th cf a part, f;Ig t s;5 ..rinths earl er tier, the "greet

rni.j:.i t ," of th-: pro.;rn.:i.'s UCP leader -c pro c.S d the nat i:.n-l :coTii t e '

chc ice cf a gubernatl'rial c andidate, and l hi;r opp.oiC,: It ;Cn. to the.

nat ional co',in-i tee incl ined these electors n t Lo .*te for 'ir igo, n.

There aj5i qreat 5uspe-rnSe and a con. iderable arcounL o'f rn ne.cri nq --one

of the ele tors allegedl, .a5z offered a LI ank check in return for his

pr.:.i-ise not tc .ote for Yr;igoen-- 6 but L.hen the ilecoral col le~ c T *

Jul, 20 the Sanrt Fe dis ide'ntc cast the;r nineteen *.otes f.:.r the UCF

candidate. This qja,.e Yri ,'yen one more hr.an the required 151 .ote5--arnJ

the president, *of Arg nt na.

Election Anal/ is

The Fadical -espFeci al ,' Yrigo 'en--1 ;ked to contend that F.adical isr

and .rgerti n;dJd ,ere e5sent all, i ,nor./au,.su ; an, Airger, i re, prop- rl

inforiued and freed cf coercion, could not help but be a F:Jdical Foreign

obser..ers ha.e been in general agreemi:nt that the UCFP as a part, of

the urban n;id le:. ci.jas, representing. itT interests against those Of

the landed ,liqarch, and, later, those of or3anizerd 13b.or. Eut few

empirical studies ha.e been madi ofc the deiT.?raphic and soc o-econoi.

correlat.-s cf electoral support for the UCP or an, other part in the

Ar.ent iie pol it ical s',stem. 6

The present section and the corres.pondin- parts of subscqu.ent

chapters will report the results of multiple reorossion anal 'sis oc

election returns uith crnsus-dcr;.ed ariable- in an effort tc: e*'plorE

thl bases of support for the different pol itical p.3rtic; The unit of

anal s, i i n all CL SI ; .-ph d r r : .T.t r.c:., ,:r court c rad all i le c r.ni

d.ta represent :cte- for n.ra i: -i 31 *d pu ic Injepenridcr.[ ri .ties ;.

the regret ;c.r. an l -.I;: re r he ,i.ij:.r factors or licern :; .rs o tt i E j

chroujih an or h,:.r.n l f a: :cr ,al ,. : ,j k W u JOts a .'*.,-: cr be, ; n

'ppcr.di., P. Each couurt, ra-, in, cr. *; c,.h 1 -: [..r is reir.: r.c:d b, -

factor score; i: 15 these ,:c res M',ich are :.rre,-laed i;i h each ..,j'or

part,'S pr...p.-.r :,r. K : r [ h- LCt I .i: e C-Ct in r C:O. nt .

Leccuij: rhree cens uses eldinr .iffer r n. r.ute r j nr, E, :. I

.-r i ,.a.1 -rE re needed to . : r. [h f i F ear per d,:. ur,.j:r .[ud , there

vill Et se on EC .ari -r. ;,: ir rhe ri.u -.b:r ,r. nar .,rre :.f ac r : rr i abl ,es

usedJ f rci .:.n :l. :I;l r. [ -:r.. :. her. ; r : e'-, in ppl nrdji n, hi:.r-

c.er, r.he t pes f Cenr us d [ta ,hich "l.:-d" he f.] *:.on each f 5:[Cr a

Iwell a: .jn irer, c: .rrel a en f fi: ac .r Ifr,:.,, di ffer.nr r c n:r.:u-e: r ef le.:

a certain Corinuil, i of majo. i r a:c :.r :..-r Lr hal'-cE i- ur. TheV

fir st tL c elc I:c i.' ;s n S LuJ;ca d- -19; e I..' 192' --; 1 1 te ,o rrelated u ;r h
factors froam data of ct.h third r.' :r.-,n3; ,cer.us [-sker, in 15141. 7he

ne t r' o elect; on:-- 1 36 and 19W.6--'ill j ti i facc ,- .r.l, f rm.- tl,

fourth na[i :.nail Cenr u: c.f 19 ,,h rl h f in- l rIC e lc r.; .:.r peri ;

1960 and 196j, ,ill use frac:.rs der ed fror, a combinatr. n of da r.

from rhe- fifth nrat ional c.:n.us o I' 19 pl U :- s special cen.us-- of:

th-. e -rl, 1910 's.'""

Crrre I t ion- in this. a Jnd ubt cerqucnt ch-jp;I:Er tjill tc stu,J;icd at

the r.a i:rnal :',2 re i:.rnyl 1c1:. 1-. s 'E ncted i n [he :.rc .ioj cha Tr. ,

of the ari ; ,5 rn hi.:h Ar.erntin a c ulad b "r._gicnair l i d.' i

S,-e eec' -.: ; rel ,I r his[or c i ll. anj conr ptu.alI to di. ide Mhe na t :n

in to [ hr e re ]io.:: (f I the fed. r.,l :pir. a ai nd [ e pr:'.in:c of E'ue- :,

A;rez; f(2 1 he ,r.re, Li ral pro, ; .Cr: ...f Cor. :,ri. ,c Entr- Ffo-. anJ

S-nta Fe; and 3' tih r. a 7 1 .; ., i ie pro'. I c e of tht Int-:r i...r. For

purp(-'z; of clL ti on anal si;. tr first region c-. Irs ojnl, the pr.. iri-

of Buer.n:io ;re; tbec.rauS- burndary proble.Ti maI it C .Tipr ': [ cal to iinc luj-

Lhi c Fapit l i. ct -.rn data. The a3tb.nc .- c action; n Si omrle of the :i-i ll er
Inter ; r pr .rinces. on c.-rt a;n z lcc iL n a/ ear- ai ,.ell at the failure

of a par icul ar part, to run in i-0.Tn pro. inr s Will result in or .e

.aria at;o n n h. CC.Tompo c. t ; i of regional groupingS for c r.relat i on

anal ,si The n-' : tc. the ctabl s r'-portr n- regional correla onI ; ,ill

in all c:a-es specf: the proric-~s ard part ie- i.hich ar; includecd.

T,, part., group;ingr are used in the 1916 regr' i. ;on anal,sis.

All Radical parre; ;ncluJingj [he Diis ;dernt Padicals of a;.-r 3nt Fe are

jroupid under th-: label "'P-adical s." Secau:e *3j the coiTpl CatCed ji'j

shifting ; r lationsh;i aior-1g .he ariui cnser. atl.e p r es. ;[ .*as

Jecided c c:on;;jd'r tLhe.T together rather thai' tr, Co distin uuish between

the DL, la Torr: Grcup and the Ugarte-led .r oup. Hence all p rcrie.

.hose pre ,iJencial ela ecctors .cce.d for a candrid ite othIr than ','rig:, :-,

or thL- Social ;i s' Ju;i:E are pla-ced ;n the ctec3or, of "''co-scr at i.es."

The Soc ial i .oce is n anal 'zed due t:o th.: part,'3 l i it .eld signify -

ican-ce oucthid of thn federal capital.

At the nac iona l end regional le..ls, a step-wij e iotultiple regres-

sion ias carr idJ out Lhreb, the equation for each part, e:.entuall

included all i IJeo.d nd'ent a..rijable;. For ease of in-C:rpr tulL icr--Z.nd

because the f actir nal,s de il t i t i uci h of thc intercurre lion

among ;rnepcindjn: ..ar;iablHe a n .-rlier Stage of the anal. i -- he

imiTple correl at i n co.: ficienric uT each part, wi;h each factor ,.ill I t

sho.n in the at le- i, al.:,n .; ch tchc T u plc; e co: rrLel a c ef r c r *t r

the part, irh all faccori. 1he relatr e r..p-rtnce Of rh. ..3r

faictur ;n rth. niultip : re rcgr i in :qj U- l i:.*' ill te d eJ ir ILtr. in tiE


Table 11-1 :ho,'s th- *:correlat i:on c.ofrr ic;ients a ch l. t iti.".al an

rea;or.a l le 1 for [th. c... irmajor qgro.pEj cC-: cr.c d.mg in L Ih. 1 ;I cl .cti ns;.

It ; r. .ad i apparent chac--ac c r icrij l I :.e l at lea.t --thc 2rn r.al

d;-:n io: orf ural ia.-ur tani n E [he h iiqn; I'icanC .a ri lIor both

'.ad;cal and cons r ai... The IJU F [ :Cded to qC r ; i Su.p:*:rr Ir.:.-

areas, arled bltj t he .ar:ru urt.3r [n- ep Cei-, u c*:h r aC[tr ;i h; l:

the c.,onI er .at. ic.: E a S o 'c.ht greater dJgree dret Ch-: r EupF.: r I ro

area la1. in) hce the charjc er;-:.r ; Alth.oujh the c.rrelr;o.n cOar-

r icicn c of: 1 .31 -and -.37 "e pl air. c- 3b, 'ut I' 1 per c:-nt a;r, 1 p er

cenCt. re F,-ct;.cl ,'of th par cie [ ,al ar ak[.:o .tc-, the high

nurrib.r ;ro C E-: ;ir...:l ed g;i. c[he corre.a I C;, i a scaE ist ic l ig- l cancc

c. greater rhjn .01. Thu., [here ;i I'c [har, .:.r.- chance :"r a hundred

th'a these c'.irrel. t ion ioeffiCi ;e E .:uld be thi hijh i r here .*ere

in fact no rel3t J;or hip bec.eern h-e "ur.Lai oi.'" fracor .and Rte 1]1Q%

vO'te, Io.ne r. [he .o[her rai:3 .rn ; c.o:r.ra ;t, car e-pl anr .ai ..uch

as onc per cenritf thie ,OLe o', ; other pFrr. "nd [he protjuc corre la-
tion- of c ,r .ti at i c a I i ; ,cari :

As Woulj b e-pcclcd 'r : em ch e>rCrenmel -ak. sim Ipl corrc latron;,

the renai;nir n3 r. hi irniejpr.:ncnt .a. ;ablc [co g ch r acijun: for bu[ 1.2

per c nr [ io.cre of t[h IUj:F .: r;a rnce .alt r the urt a -,;i f act.:r enters [he

rmult iple regret i on equat ion .adJ t'.r;n, he to tal c.:pli;;rF- ..ariance t

10. pe r c.nt. For Ch.: corns-r .at i* Iser l ; c is c pl gained b. :hc



I 1-1




Ranch Fural Farm-
Urban Scale T'rnc, Scale



Cons r.ati e


F ad I c 5 I .

Ccrn: r'. at 7i



Ccnser'. at -; E


P.ad cal

Corl r.. r ac i'. 5


-.37 7

. I f




-.03 .09

-.02 -.06

-.s0 -.01 11

.01 .04 -.01


.3 1-"

-. 2 -';

.02 -.07 .08

-.06 .04 -.06

' Significance at .0 1Ic.el.

.-'Signific nt ai .05, I ..c1.

aFadicals scan.Js for thce Uni'n C .ica PFad;cal; Cc.nser ...ati.c
rcpresicnl the 'Par;do C.onzer.*ador.

Ca _'- ;

Mul [.

I_ _________~_

__ =_



bFP d i c -jl ir I lud:-., L h- Ul,'li L.r I] ic .
Fi :1.5. -,nd .:r,nt a F.;- F lu lc he J Un ; .r. C: .;c
Fe. C. n;fer -r ; es re: .r 'sen lr he Pl ,r t id.:.
L; .er l in C'orr; re ; tl-e C. 1: ce r r .:i ,n
the Psr[id:;, [ n.,. r DL n S nr. Fe.

F. i c l ;n C : rrintr, -.Er, rj
F:d'c I I'lV .,r.L.E ;r. S;nc.
r..'j :.r,.:.,,i; I d t F, I r ;d:
F':pular in Entre F :i, an i

cFci. : ls ;r .:lj,'dI ch Ur, irir C; .; :5 F.a ic.al in C :raTarc a C. r-
d.'b-,s. Juj Lj rF 1, i end:-: 3jr L ui 5,d Tu-:u-'jnr. C:- r [ 5
incr lude [he C, .ncen r.r ariA r, C ;r..,r, 5. the .arc i C.:c. Ie .-: r at in C.r -
dcba. the Part i[ : F .rir,ic i -t i;r J'uju. rnd La F; ;. c the Farr i :
C.:.n=e r r. r-.j.r ;r, r ,d:.: r and Tucu Tiinr. an t he Ur; in Pc. F pul r an r,. Part; do
De .-c rato ;n ',anr Lui;.


other three fai:tors as the nc.atc..e correlatior. .,th urban;si.i accounts

for 14 per cent of thei .ariencc and tle final ..' I aj; :d .ari dance i b ut

14.7 p:r cent.

troving to rihe regional lm.el, it can be seen thac the national

patterr. general l, holds in Euenos Aires pr:'vince and in the Inrerir.,

but that 50ome tril.ing '.ari:; ians o appc ar in Ih Li[ r.la In Euenos

Aire. the UCF rcndcd ct recc .e mor .ocs ir. chc urb.arzcd areas but

the corral atc on cocffic;ent of .15 is too lo to Ue :, st atist ical

significance. The rural t-aZe of the pro.. ne ': c.an erv'.' i .e iS sore-

what stronger, hint..er, ith the cc.tff iciernt of -.2 or the urbanis-ii

factor carr, y a s; ijif ancc of greater than .01. Furalism, there-

fore. ,i.s 3 better indic nor of corin r. sicr'.; e s rein.ch than urtanismT .ras

of Fadical strerngth. In i~ultiple regre.si.:n, all four factors e-plained

but 4.6 per cent of the LUCF .ar;ance in Bucrnos Aires. For the con:ser.a-

tiv.es, rural sm acc unrts for 8.1 per cent of the .ar dance 'hi le the

addici:.n ,of the other three factors to the eq.sation increcues the

e planned .ari:.nce to onl, 9.1 per cent.

In the three prove: inches of the Literal, the urbanrism correlat ions

hold at about the .a1Tme level nd in the SaTe direction as at the na ionel

Ie.el, But unlike the rest of the country, in M the Literal there are

also ocher significant corre lat on ;; the uCF. correlateC strong', with

rural cenarnc, and oderatel, .,th large farming **hilt the conserat ies

register negativ.el or these factors at about the same strength. \Ihen

the factors are int r:.duced into multiple regression equations, rural

tcnanc., accounts for b. for the greatest part of the e.-plaincd *..r iance

for both parties. In the UCF equation, tenaric,' e-pliinrs 30.5 pcr cent

cf th arianc .:: h;l urban s., C ar. :a t an- ranch 5s :1. ac d 2.-., I. ,

a ..:' 1.1 pc r cent r:s :.:. i el For [th. :. : t e-s, the n ac; t .:.: r

rela r ic.-, h r.cr-er.r:,* e pla, ; r.: 26,.- p-: r :cer c. th. ar ; a n.: c T ,o cr.h

the r ,er i n; a :.r, e.l- a-d t e..e 2.0 and 3.5 per cent Fc.r a r..t

e pl.:;nred arijnce :*.r" 34.3 per cer.c

LUr.j n ;i r., .a a .tri3onger ".. .,r i,' the Interi :r chini in an :.tier

re' i cr. and ch,. :rI, o-n f rn, -;f i;can. F-r the PF d c l a the .:.:r-

rc l .jt on :. .4? ; th ctlI f a.:t :r a. .:c : s for 23.. per c:nr r. *f tt.e .it

varIalc.: .h le the r: n.air, .a C r .act: t pat hei Ec plainr Crl, 1.2 p.r r C.r.t

niore. S iI; 1 j I t[I- .:onser j[; .es' trCrn.:] i, n a[; orre I c ;: c ;ilth

urb.ai.s 'Ti 3 j rcr 2 7 Fper c r.[ :rL [c har part, ar;a-c.:., to u :h

the other three f acr' ,r. add ljes [han *.:.-, p er Cen .

Sun.iiiT i:inl [he 1916 lc t -, .as. l ,,i t :a- te c.rei thL r 1" the

icui in. cpc ndcrtd n .ari able u r; i L r. i fa5r ch. it rc. n sr ir ..-pl ai n-

ir, dj ifercci -re ; s uFpF:.rt f.:.r the .aj.:.r pci l t; al 3roupi:. It is

the ci,i *.pl i .a: ,- r ariabl: f :; n;. f i ic nce at the national le. l arnd

in the rcj ioni c Eu'rnc A;rcs pr: inc: 3a d thel- Interior. bile in the

Lit.ral ; t is c,'c :fi three sa;. i; cant factor. (f the three regci.n:,

trhe paol i c c. cucii;.-.F Ai rce apple ar; tc be t Ih- l; ast r. ructure. "- -.:.r

is -: ructured .lc.roj dicnicl o' 5 nrot t appF d t, th: a 1 ~ able t n ::..S jata.

Thus, d-pitc a si nif i.:ant jas ci,'cat i:, a i [h rur al is r. :,Ti.ore than 9'i p.:r

Cent .:I the ar iar:- in Buieno Aire. c.: ,- r ct ;' cte reirai n u-r.e.pl a in.e

-' al l f ur factor Fr the Ll(I., th ur.I >pl aine r i a. Ce exceeCi,::,

95 p r c:rnt. In th: Inter i or. b,- contraLt. it see n: qui c clear that

thi: JCF .jl.5-,c ;t. s p.c.rt aic l, ;n c h.- urL.ani :C arj e : uh li: the

rural jarea .ctedj i: co : r 3t i .e. "'his s r.ng urb jn-rur al ;ichlc.c ,- ;r n

tc lirter;or is s.me. 'hJ t si n,,;l.r [t the nin ctc'rith crentu- era in ..h,;ch

th: c;t, riirchan.c. ere unit; jr; c; ,h; le the councr s e US j dJ.T.minatcd

t., the federal-e "hne i tuast on i s r, t rithCout ir..n, ;n .inlc of r h,

UCF claim thjit ; ai [i-h reincarnation ojf Federl i 5...

Ihe co:rrl.-l ;r ions in the Lit[iral *dec. er..e Speci al attcnt;on. Thr

siqrificant c.rrelaitorn, .;th urbanism. rural terar nc,, and 1:r.e far ring

indic Cie that the F d.:ic- l strengEh in (tl Li l ral a5s gqe eraIl i; the

m.:.re prosperoijS regionrs .:f the agriii ltur al coloni an.j iar' i Si :al

f aring--.f ten tb, ;nr.iigrant --on rented lanId. a l -c II 3a in the cit i

and fariTi tc.jns o the req;.rn. The reg.j-i .c c,.rrr:l at ionis t the c rn-

s5 r a.i..e ..': e rith the's sanme three Factors ;nndicatc support firon

the poc.rcr and rior,: traJd ti.onal areas, r.:fre-entif ng perhaps a cor,;;..llcral

aiT-n.:urt Lof subs;iser.:e forminq on owned plojts. The fect tiha the rr-.moer-

c; strc.ni coefficienr. for urbanis.i andj l rg fr arJ;inr.j lost rr.o-. oF

their str rn.Ith after tenancy entered first in t-he regr -s:L.ion Cquja ;rI'

is acc.:.unte. for b, inrercorrelat'or ,nonr g :hese three .ariabl : in the

Litorai The orth.:g'..nal mn th,:.. of faclc r anals'/ i uSed on the cen:u3

e>trs cts .ari abls .;rh little o l no inter.:orre l t .on. but ...hen onl a

part ci the distribution is used--as it a5s forr each or the regions--

.arious int ercc.rrelati cons c an appr ar u;thn r each region. Thus, in the

Lit:ral, urbanism correlate at .41 rith rural tenan:,' and .2 aith

farm scale hi lc the latter t o factors intercorrelate at .27. In

short, the "d; isappearsnce" of urban;sm and fari scale in the r- multiple

regression doe rnot indicate that the, are net important e:.plr, acor,

.ari atle but rather that in the Lit-'r:l urtbni .-n, land rental and

1argc farr -,s \r, Oiten fOurid together.

F oll IC: 1i Ana! -is

The 123 ..:-r u3 ,':i :.er. d 3r E.E,, t.i e .J -ing C. .. 191;. .-nd 1 1.

sei sion: 74 :f t[h Ar.-icciriner Ch Jr r of Depu K .* r I :.: ..- un jer

ni n r. .rn d if .e; I r.ent p r I 1s. Thi pr..oli r ati.. ,-, 01 P.rL .rT.

is the co.:nt.i;ner d rcy. l r f rh ar ; of pIr ;rn.:; par: e ,: o r ar c;

.rnd-:r diI'ferrent r,:,.T,_ u .:h fall into the g9Erns- l C:[I.e:or, of "con-

scr. ati C" a.d tlhe f,[C thjr. e n the : ,., pjr3L, i:I .n ofr.r, chsnrj. i t

na I,, F ro.Tm C l-t.:E to a.ri hnc r or '.o nrcc ard ou: %Df *.:,~-. I iC .o n .

Irn order to ratr. ionr l ize iclTi:,,h3[ rLhi r r h r ccirifui ln Fpr. Lr"',

rp rt;ies, deputy S ,1ill be gro.jpeId inro hrce "t.lo-c "--Padi: S ;ali.; ,

ani:j *.oiir. i.e. This r'cl o -. th-: r -.c dure s d ; r- ; el io

anal. ; and, as iA ll b1 s-een. .::,- f...rn .*: rU. he Cr n? cr ... urn of hr.

chamber, Depu,,r.i.:S c Ct d j n 1916. .:r- a-siigned LE a t.l .:: ;n che s;r.:

riTanrn r hi-a[ he elei cCoral p.-rr i;. r-: .claissif; i d; th-, nm re lI'.eled.

F' 5di :c I So, :.1: i i t o-r conser ci e to, h ba: ; c f t h ;r p.ar ; c hoj -

of anr.didate i r. the e1 Gr l .:.-,11 e. For tihe C. rr ,-O e r d Fpu[ i

Sele'.r ct d in 19'14. rh I ;nl e3g becucee parries ,; nn;ingr i d piur, sa-'. ir.

ea:h pro, ir :.: inr 191, and tho.: u;tnir.in3 S.ar in 1916 a 1 rstatlI ls-.j

rhroughh a .:onpar i 3son of major; and minor -r t c :.Andidsat ,:. [hr p.ar.,

identify icartior, and rh.ir r; al. i, eA'a i h Of [hie to el:E ion s.

On Ch :. b sis of all d pu ;tie iho ,-:r ed dJrri ng th-e i 'c-.'ear

Fpe riod ri' C :..' ser.iat Ci. p ar ie s--i .ludiin3 ho t: La:l;n .. Dr la rre

and [hth.:w e 3 li:;. ; .ir Iqart.r -co,'p:.'ied Eh: largi e-'t bloc i ich f f -,-;r,;

..m ',mer;s. ni, si i.ht l, ..h;hi;n this iere the F ;.jl.:; jl ,.ho had fif r -

fi d: uicls u' ing t[h period. S~ nr:[ed earlier, rh. he So;i al ; tii bo

ras ciOTwC :._ :j cf ri -,: mncmters.

A tot rl1 of thi;r -tc. contre ted rcll 1 calls 1 e rer helid dur ng trhe

1916-191' p iriod on qu.-;L icris .at el-,er th.ar. the : le t i n of chab,-,b-r olffi :er s.

Th- diff er nce Le[-e.n the mr,i or;t, and ri nr r it,' c:t r.any-ie fro u 1.3

per Cent, rep.r.s .rn:i r a oner,-. te .pl. ir to 64.5 per cent ;n the .E:,.-.

unr.r l. dir . ide ca. se. The Jis tribute [.n of the roll cal 3:.corJ;rng to

the nia.jni cude of thce di.is' in is Thourn in Table 11-2. The discribu ion

or the roll *:all s o:n the basi i : .- decree of : .p rt icip.at i on c.-an tIe seei

inr Tatle II-3. The fact t hj3 nmore ha3n half of the .to[e5 had IEss than

60 per cern partic;pacion and that less than 70 per :enc orf th deputy [i

[rJ ;rin t.ent,-eigi ht f the thirc,/-;to roll calls reflects tc -h the

high rate of absenTrelim prc.aler ;n Argent irne Cla-nber of Deput ie, and

the Cus ori o'jf .at5 [ ai ri r.g from a rt,[e t, lea. ;n the .:ha'nt.b r c iTipo rar l 1

Of the [hrcc part,' bl'ocs under stud,. jnl the Social ists ajin:-aired

a cons;stcnric h,; h e.c i of cohe sc ;;.ne ss during thc se5sion.r In all

but one *:. f the roll calls. all Social ist deputies : c in9 tool. the saTe

stand. Once, on a budget all ccal ion C. fight ho:'f anri ~c,.uc-th disease,

the, spl ; 4-2.

The cumiTulaci .e sa;lnin.j [ehn;que .h;cli si ll be seed to anal : tihe

roll call .jre- of this and subsequent ses sions of the Chaitber of

DeputiC hai [ro imports nt bcncn-fi ts n this [ ,p o, stud'*'. P'.n.-, n Coriu-

;clonl/ as "Cutttman ical ing" af': r L.ou s Cuttman. '.:ho de-.eloped it in the

1940'. thI proc,-dure (l l dent if ies the major iss,.u areas or di-J;l-erinsions

: ,f confl ict ;n legiilaci .e sess ion, and (2) rants boch the indi: idual
roll calls and each ofr the deputies of the -dircnsions. The fact dhat

all roll calls *'h;cn fit a sc-le can te said to reflecc [he sane attitude

.*r issue di;,ension m..akes Gutti.ian scaling on important tool ir reducing



PeFr c =r c re jrir r c e

0-9 10-19 20-u 30-3 3 40- 54--1 C

IkInter i~t
Re, I I C 1Is 7 2 3



Per ce rc DC, Dfr-UL ,e I 'e n

50-59 '60-69 ;c-79 AJ-~33 g0-3j

IlJarber orf
FoilI CalIs 17 11 2 0 2

che dimer,n: ional i of a Icgisl at i .e scsi on' t ; n.j record.

Tu rnt, -four of che thirt,-tc roll c, lls fi one .r more of fi.e

scales ; c n;trucce. for the cuo-,ear pcr o t under rtud,. Th; fact chat

a higher proportii.:rn did not s,cale ,as at lease in pare the result .,f

rather r igid criteria for sc alabilit ,--out 1 ned in Appendi. E.--plu- the

fact cha t sn,- issue rea: had onil, onr roll call. The l:rgcrj cof the

icales :or.[;-c ; [i.,l ..e roil I c ll -hi le the other four rangc from tc.

to five roll call- each Orl, .ne roll call oas found t.: Fit n-ore

thar, one 5.:a e. The nature :f the .:ale .. the num b r of r.:ll cal l.

and che number of deputy es assigned a scale po.sit orn onr, each one is

:.h.:...ri irn Tatle I I .

It can be seer, in Table 11-4 that tbe w.een half and ti.ree -fourcth

cf t-i deputies cre included in three of the .calea, uhilet thc ocher

t.' eac,:h cont ain o:,nl s ; ghtch t ore thau one-th ; rd of the chajiber's

rmembe r sh i p. ThI; i -,a'1 ;I :e of the "r. li io n" jnd "ir.e t t ions"

sc c le ;5 the result of their be i r. imposedd o f cn [ tco roll calls

each, thus al Il,,in: ornl, members hoj respor.ded .:.r both .otes to be

scaled. Desp;ce the effects of a gcnerall hi.h le.el of norn-responsc

combined ,'; ch rather r;iid criteria for scalabilit' ho'eov'er. all but

ie.tencenr of the 123. deputies iho served at si,-e time during the tuo-

,.ar period could be .'placed on onr or more of thC scale.s. Thus, ;

stud, of the ;nd;i.idual 3CalIe and of the interre lation among them

should ,Ield "iportc ant data on the *.*ocing strucitre of the chamber.

Table 11-5 :.h.:w the rank-order correlate on3 F.mong each of the

fice scales. The correlation coefficient. rangrin from .00 to -.61-,

providce statistical evidence of the fact that there ,'ere ...eral

TALE 11 -4


: JIc & t Vlu.-. EluiLt r
c I aI I De* c

P.)r L i .5 r. I ei~l

Sj.3j r Pr:. c.. Er PrC Pr'S.Jjjr I r, Juj L r

FIe i F. Frc. Cbu r h

F.:.rE i gn P. I Dc .... r r .J LhCm r

SI E -- L I i [ ;.:.nzri~ r e z. c;3.~ i c. r.

TIELE 11-5


Sc lc

Prc. .

.e I i ii r,

Par t i,3r I .,c C -.0' -.64E -.05

S 'r Fr, re ca.41 16 49 ii3

1 -4 1 -D 1-1 0,.33

Fo~r e3' i I ri t 5 sl, .00

Iio .e, t -
Cj 3 L I :-r-z


distinct d;i c -ns;. on c c l ..a'-,3 in th, 11 cI' -1I 1 chamber Lnat. thcse

di;ens;ions w re nd r th ; r asio. ;i ac Ion -.iEth part, and re- io i ;II Lt

st jdi-:d i r :-n anal', ; of thie indi i dual i cables.

Part isan i ,uei Scal.

Th- Part isan I s.es Scal: 1 .: i he cut-.rot. h cf arn -I'fort to scal

s .cral part-. .oces At tle tbe.3irrin.3 oc:' the se ic.n dc:l inq r i tih the

credent i ial f .ictoriocS. croner.at; canJ;d da:ic f ior .ijput,. Wh n it

,r.ajs ie n that rhee rol I cail i not cnI / .iere i'A'tull scal ;r but rhat 3

nriTter O- .ates on oc-hc r ;iJsu2 al -o scaled ; th thl-:, the, scale Das

xFpan ded c.n roll c.ll .at a tiTe untr l a ct t ai of t.;el .ec r-as found to

f it. Th'e Li, major biocs 'er- ; in general cons i der at-. rr re cohc. i .e .:r.

the r,:l I a i. co.-.pris this scale Lh:an th-eir a.e-a fior the iicle

session, 'hi ii n t examin;ajt n ol" F thc content 01o the roll calls slho -,

there, to ibe itiTi; *-h;ch night ,iel be c..pected [o t ;ci t partisan

respond; es. Thr.e cf the .ot s dealt i th pro.-incial electi :c ns ;n r hict

ccnscr.at .e .ep*iuties h3d be:cn elected. rhi le four concerned the inte -

-,nri ion of conser .a i'.r -dciriinatd Duen:,o Ai res pro.;nc. Thi renia;n;nr,

fi.e roll call s in thr scale deal ih rapport icoinrent t -,. and budget

riatters, the arrest of a ccnrscr.. at 1 deputy, and the bre iJ;r or

diplomatic; relaC ions -..;th Gcrir ,.n 4 "po ti i." ate in eachi cse

'as the pro-adminis trrt ion position, as indicated t,' the vote Co th-

r-ajorit, of the PaFdic-l bloc. Each pc-sition on th0' scale .5 based on

a "Contr;.ed" ;tEii; the r[t- end iter'-s contain [rt ,i roll calls each, I:eiT,

2 has three, aid lr. emr is corip.-.ed of r .e roll calls.

labl e II -6A shos tie distri ut o of s-le t,'pes a-morn. the three

part, blocs, hile Ta ble I I -u sh'ois their rel at i n to gc.-graph;c region.

T .EL I I I-(A

PA Ti Ia j : ,;;iIE S; C4LE

5 l: l r T

Bloc 0 1 2 3 'I Sci!J Tota.

Fpaic, l 0 0 0 9 27 19 5.

S,.ialI.ts 0 9 0 0 0 0 9

C..ns r i es. 25 9 9 I IS 59

Tot a 25 I. 9 10 27 34 123



Pegi i-o

Sca e T,pe

0 1 2 3 L Sc'ld

To ,al

1i 9 0 2 I I

2 4 2 6

5 5 7 2 10

25 18 9 10 2;

1 42

10 30

16 45

34 123

EuLenos Ai re

LI teral

Inter Kcr

T,.t al


The corceIr, r. i r ; on c. f tjnt,-f ; con :r..a:r e and [.';n['t, .en .:a cdi c ]C

at opposi .:e endr r. [ .Ch a.;on l I n rh, firSt c[ ble :ri cat c th 5 c r ':.n

clefjgqe jlln.nq parrt l in- es refresened b., this scele. The fac: [h.a

thi rc -*e .en d:J-ru u[ i rE-.re ntn[ ;r.n all three blocs fell ;nto th: ;nt:r-

,ediat sc ale 'p,- ,.'o. .e .e-r. shc .5 that .:en n p art isan I su: otherr

. i a T,;.J.l: r. rur.j ;rI r' hat there ppa reintl I r -r: : nurr-n ber ir "brokers

ih,: c'pe r td be[.rc E n t h. hard c r c of- "9 :gc.ernm *r c" an. "'jF.p.j ; i ;t n" in

the 191C : -1918 se ion. The i.ent i iCat ;.:n theI depur i- found in

the ;intc rr..-e ;ate c-. al po i c t ; oio- ar.. n ar.njl,'s of Lheir i [a tr;tb.jtc

c:-.-paer.:d tirh [h.-r Of the t .L Enl e.n F. dical nd E n t,-f .

coni.i r aD .-s at the c r : ,l F cs .. ions should Fr.:d. de ;n igh[ ;hrO t[h

pjrt ;i.n t ruCtura or.- th cFhambeb.r.

The T',p-e 3 s al:-e :pr.sh ; ion. those- ..1'ose po ';s i on i as pro-a.-r;7n;tr;-

ti:n :n all ro lI ial ls I ce'Pt cth appro.. a of th Ih1916. clic ;on in uh ch

t thconer at ;.es 'on the major of deputy ies n Eunos AIr,: pro i;nc-

.i, j the- .c, cr:. s- .-cr di plon- t ic r l At ion-s ; th Cer ,n':, 3 helJ b'.

rine Pa.dic.l anrd ore conser. c ,t i .e. Four of thec.e F d;cal. i--three

"d.i;ider." -nd orn- ..rr.h..dox--are From Santa Fe, t.o are rom, En re

P.fo;, .and one -.:h ;i rron C5rJob.3 eueno s res pro. ;-ic-, n-d the

capital Thus, the break frrm Fart, *jn;[t,, thojh sl;.l ht, apC ears to

hj..e comn Fri,--ari] I from pro-..inces of the Li.t ral. The lo-n conser .;ri.e

'iho fel I i n ch; p iC rn toward the pr.-adii n; s cr ar i.:n end oCr the

scale tias a ireber of che provincial Concent r.aci in C iica of San Juan.

Of the nine corn--er.at ies h .hro irile up the populut on of Scale

Typc 2--lche j edi an p:O ;tiE i:r of che scale --_e.en are froan the Ir te-ri.r

,nd ,tw f rom the L; coral. Domr.; n a in this scale -;pe are deputy ies

fr'o.' th. no,rl .hA,.3, ; h r.,-. rr.:.T, S;It[-. tic. from.. Tu.:u ria n. and .-.rn each

fro.T. Juju, .rd I-,tJ.-nrea. The O.ther Ir..c-r;or :cu[, ;I fro r Ci rdoba,

,rhi C h .r, L; rti ,al c,'I.er a ; S arho pla : e I [h s ,-:'i5. t pe ar-.

frer En, re Fi' s an. C:rri,:nt.,. Placing in th;S scale ,a. ;r.iica.e.s

that j dji-Opu 3upf.i.-.rt: tC : 5jadT ir. tr.jti :,rn *:tOf i.e : Jf th. r a l. r :ll

cal l on, th: ,cjle but hr La5 en 5 5n [ i-j,,,, iir. [ icratir n :[ar.l :', 11

the -:l:Ct;:in f a cCAnr:e r :it Jd'pu r r.: Juju f aTn. j. r.[ [.

alcohol anj rtobLacc.:o ra.es. (I l L tL ill relaa ; rin to the ;r ter.enr i.:n O

Euc r.no. A rE,: anJ I1l he arf- ii .:F a CO~ni r. r t de.u[, ir To ,i.' n.

in a.!d' l;on Co th. roll call o n GCer..r.n a d. h- PuLn-.:,i Aire elect; r.

- ih .l'h cor.pr ise IE !., .

The Tpe scale pF i'.ir; ;nclu.des [h cho he h pp.rt.:.C th

-,.,,inistr ,atl n On ith refusal [i: a pro. e the election. o:f the rur.r.r-up

r:f r a JlFpul, se-t ,'hi.:.i ,' ;nir r--o:f the s aii: a, rl-.-dje t tieLcr : the TL

Orf the Iele:t ior and Sr-ar;rb. In. arnd on 3 r;ild Se-j.ace Lubtc;r utiOr. for

the original l *Jeput.;: bill cricicizir;ng ih- pr.--;.j er. 's ir.E r.e nt.L rn :.f

E'u'ene: Ai res ;pr i r,;e Tlhe r ne-.-e t-ir Soc ial k [ lth I .J rn ,n c.:r,. r. -

ti.,s fill in o th; scale [ pe The cornerr, a se'. ;n lu.d to If'r..-

Sancr agc del Ester.:.. L"., fr:.. C.':rr aier..te ran one each froI. Cat aiaren,

Erntr- FLs. rlcrid r a. Sran .uarn. .an- Sasn a F. Th- Tpe 0 scale p.:;[icn,

the mT,.t anc:-adiT.i ir.n ration. ;i helJ b c hclte n ,jen.n Au: r--S cors r.a-

r i'.. t C o f ro -T. Co--r;ient e a. '- f ra''. La I .l: a, ai ndJ 'rne ea-C h f ror

C. brdobs. 'n Juan, and Tu ulT.rn.

Table II -6'C and I -60 .uijr.nTari :e the re icr.i d .i r ;but in o f

scale c'pc. t, part, blo The .gre r s ;c at i':', fro, the pro--l.iin-

is rat i_,n pOuio';e n amo'-ngij te P. ;cals c3 '.3 rom n leg c j e oi: f the L ;or al.



Farti.-.rn I :u Scale 1 pci

0 1 2 3

0 0 0 2

0 0 0 6

0 0 0 I 10

0 0 0 9 27

4 S.: ~l e Tot -al

1 7 20

6 17

19 55



PFrtisar n I;ues Sc ale T,pe

0 I 2 3 4 Scale' Tocal

Buenor ; Are- 18 0 0 0 0 I 19

L;trarl 2 4 2 0 0 4 12

Ineerirr 5 5 7 I 0 10 28

TorlI 25 9 9 1 0 I 59

Pe ; ..r.

BuEnc:. A;ire

L; oral

Inter ior


a.r:. d ..:1 e enl. c: Cr: ri S. al. T c i L a,-J F dic:a l [he Ir. T ,:r;

j.-d tu-rijo -irt .On the .;.chcr n.:.; rih., j 3 hi c ritncer.: rat on 3 thL e

pr..-a-J. ri-i[tra ion e d o. cr. sal e. Ai.rng co-:ns r ir; ;, ch...- :.t

E:ur.- Aii rte c n : is rn cj roj r [ hf "ancr.h.:.r" h a-nt i -.iT;ri l[ atr [ in

.i--d [ ie scl: Ii C :ncr : .: [t t E FJ;ic l i it [ 3-c Cr. -.?r at e:

cf [the. Int r r j i l at E h. t n l'r:T "th ; r r" nd :.r [te ,:ale, 1-

thc.ijql- .r Lh.: Li.-r al c:rier aj ; spre aJ ja. r tire .. scale t .pes an

.h;-' n.,r. de ; i.. -i n lth n -.1; the PaiL ,1 Lhat r-q ion. .

Fc.r ; qr. Fel1 r ,r. Scal

Their pa r c; i- ii: e n at i-rn L: the Fo re i. F: l.;a .:r.s :cal :I.

.ial e .':lui :1 t, .;th th. ju sti[ n o* n utr ai t, ;.. SE I uJ r i

Su,4C : i,:d ;i T bl I1 I r., h t th i t ha this seal. c-rr-i[t: r at h-rr

t rc.ngl --a Sau- cLeri cient : -.6 --i th tim PF r ; ,r. Isu-: f .ale.

Eut[ ;nl *.. I-I the hil-cE ro ll call i hich c.h rpri. [th; s.al -:iiIJ

f; i i'nt [ Ihe I.ar r F'P rti isr Issu-, S 31a ; -hus, h;l he u;ti. ,r.

breal.ir.j c ip l o .a -.:; rel3t .:, .i 'ith C-er i, .. ,-I r i ~ l a part,-

rcl at-d ; su-' did ha.- di nm ns ;.r, it. n:,r In -ontrait to lt-

Par ;san I u,:s S ,3l E. it ..:3 tr.-. F ad;: jl I .h, ; ted the r,.ia t fi: r .:.

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