Group Title: comparison of certain experiences by life stages of selected groups of self-actualzied, modal, and low-functioning college students
Title: A Comparison of certain experiences by life stages of selected groups of self-actualzied, modal, and low-functioning college students
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Title: A Comparison of certain experiences by life stages of selected groups of self-actualzied, modal, and low-functioning college students
Physical Description: xiii, 298 leaves. : illus. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Duncan, Clarence Wallace, 1934-
Publication Date: 1970
Copyright Date: 1970
 Subjects
Subject: Experience   ( lcsh )
Interpersonal relations   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida, 1970.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 295-297.
Additional Physical Form: Also available on World Wide Web
General Note: Manuscript copy.
General Note: Vita.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00097715
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000869396
notis - AEG6421
oclc - 014269069

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A COMPARISON OF CERTAIN EXPERIENCES BY LIFE

STAGES OF SELECTED GROUPS OF SELF-ACTUALIZED,

MODAL, AND LOW-FUNCTIONING COLLEGE STUDENTS













By
CLARENCE WALLACE DUNCAN













A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1970



































Copyright by
Clarence Wallace Duncan
1970













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The writer wishes to acknowledge the assistance of

many persons in the completion of this dissertation. Special

appreciation goes to the 478 students at the University of

Florida and Santa Fe Junior College who participated in this

research. This study could be done only because so many of

these students were willing to give their time and share

personal information about themselves.

Words cannot adequately express the writer's

appreciation to his doctoral committee chairman, Dr. Ted

Landsman,whose research in the areas of positive experience

and the beautiful and noble person were part of the foundation

of this study, and whose personal influence has been formidable

in the writer's professional growth. Dr. Landsman has been and

continues to be a valued friend and mentor.

Dr. William Purkey and Dr. Franz Epting, members of

the doctoral committee, were very helpful during the designing

phase of this research and again during the writing of the

dissertation. Dr. Bobby Cage was the writer's statistical

consultant and gave all the time and valuable advice needed

for the project.

Appreciation is expressed to Dr. Walter Busby, Dr.

Carolyn Griffis, Dr. Ted Landsman, Dr. William Purkey, Dr.

Robert Myrick, Dr. Allan Dahms, Mr. George Huber and Mr.


iii











Robert North for allowing their classes to take the screening

test used in this research.

Special thanks go 'to Lourdes Valdes, Marta Konik

and William Persons III who provided the ratings used in

this study.

Rosemary Brant gave many hours to routine clerical

tasks, test scoring and typing. Hers was an invaluable

contribution. Thanks is also expressed to Mrs. Carolyn

Lyons and her staff at Professional Typing Service for

helping the writer through those final difficult stages.

Finally, profound gratitude and love go to Vicki,

Renae, Laura and Paul Duncan, the writer's children, and

to his wife, Rose. They helped him endure the frustration

and anxiety, and shared with him the joy of his work.














TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................. ...... iii

LIST OF TABLES ................................... .. vi

LIST OF FIGURES ................ ...................... ix

ABSTRACT .................................. ........... x


Chapter

I. INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF THE
LITERATURE ...................... ......... 1

II. PROCEDURES ...................... ..... ...... 19

III. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA ...................... 48

IV. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS ...... 135


Appendix

A ................................. ............... 158

B ............................................. 171

C ............................................... 174


BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................. ..... 295

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ....... .............. ........ .. 298














LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1. Sources of Male and Female Subjects in
Each Sample Group ...... ..................... 26

2. Interrater Reliabilities ................... 28

3. Personal Orientation Inventory Time
Incompetence:Time Competence and Other-
Directed:Inner-Directed Ratios ............. 50

4. t Tests for Differences Between the Means
of the Modal Sample and 478 Students on the
Personal Orientation Inventory Time
Competence and Inner-Directed Scales ....... 52

5. Chi Squared Comparison of Personal
Orientation Inventory Mean Profile (478
Students) and the Modal Sample ............. 53

6. Geographical Backgrounds ................... 55

7. Do You Enjoy Competition? .................. 56

8. Childhood Religious Training ............... 58

9. Perceived Parental Pressure for Grades ..... 58

10. Religious Preference ........ .............. 61

11. Active in Religion ........... .... ...... .... 63

12. Rating of One's Own Mental Health .......... 65

13. Parents' Marital Happiness ................. 67

14. Parents Divorced ........................... 68

15. At Least One Parent Dead ................... 68

16. Fathers' Education ...... ............. ...... 69

17. Fathers' Occupations ......................... 70










LIST OF TABLES---Co-ntinu d


Table Page

18. Fathers' Mental Health ................... 72

19. Mothers' Education ....................... 74

20. Mothers at Home or Away from Home ........ 75

21. Mothers' Mental Health ................... 77

22. Subjects' Marital Status ................. 78

23. Subjects' Marital Happiness .............. 80

24. Spouses' Mental Health ................... 80

25. Total Number of Experiences Reported ..... 82

26. Number of Crucial Experiences ............ 83

27. Distribution by Life Stages of
Crucial Experiences ..... .............. .. .84

28. Focus of Experience (Positive and
Negative) ................................. 87

29. Focus of Positive Experiences Alone ...... 88

30. Focus of Negative Experiences Alone ...... 89

31. Subtypes of Positive Experiences ......... 93

32. Subtypes of Positive Experiences (Duncan
and Landsman Samples) .................... 95

33. Subtypes of Negative Experiences ......... 99

34. Positive-Negative Experiences by Focus ... 101

35. Sharers of Positive Experience ........... 105

36. Sharers of Negative Experience ........... 105

37. Experiences with Opposite Sex Peers
(Positive and Negative) .................. 109

38. Opposite Sex Positive Experiences ........ 109


vii









LIST OF TABLES-Continued


Table Page-

39. Opposite Sex Negative Experiences ....... 109

40. Location of Positive Experiences ........ 112

41. Location of Negative Experiences ....... 114

42. Experience Scores Showing X, Rank
and Kruskal-Wallis H .................... 117

43. Total Autobiography ..................... 120

44. Preschool Years ...... ................... 122

45. Elementary School Years ................. 123

46. Junior High School Years ................ 124

47. High School Years ......... ............ 125

48. College Years ............................ 127

49. Graduate School/Adult Years ............. 129

50. Analysis of Variance for Ages of
the Three Samples ........ ............. 130

51. Differences between the Self-actualizing
and Modal, Modal and Low-functioning
and Low-functioning and Self-actualizing
samples ................................ .. 148


viii














LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1. Personal orientation inventory profiles-
means of three samples and 478 college
students ................................... 51

2. Three samples; focus of experience-
percentages compared ...................... 85

3. Three samples' percentages of positive
experiences distribution compared ......... 92

4. Three samples' percentages of negative
experiences distribution compared ......... 98

5. Three group comparison of experiences
which changed from positive to negative
or negative to positive ................... 102

6. Percentages of sharers of experiences
(positive and negative) ................... 104

7. Percentages of positive and negative
experiences with opposite sex peers ....... 108

8. Location of significant experiences
for three sample groups ................... 111

9. A single continuum model of mental
health ....................................... 153

10. Two dimensional model of mental
health ..................................... 156










Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


A COMPARISON OF CERTAIN EXPERIENCES BY LIFE STAGES OF
SELECTED GROUPS OF SELF-ACTUALIZED, MODAL,
AND LOW-FUNCTIONING COLLEGE STUDENTS


By


Clarence Wallace Duncan

August, 1970


Chairman: Dr. Ted Landsman
Major Department: Counselor Education


The purpose of this study was to compare the life

experiences and situational variables of samples of self-

actualized, modal and low-functioning subjects. It was

hoped that commonalities of experience or personal background

might be found particularly among the self-actualizing sub-

jects.

Four hundred and seventy-eight undergraduate and

graduate students were given the Personal Orientation

Inventory (Shostram, 1964). From these, 30 self-actualizing,

30 modal and 30 low-functioning students were selected for

further study. The Personal Orientation Inventory was the

criterion for all three groups. Each of the 90 subjects

completed a Personal Data Questionnaire and a Structured

Autobiography. The Personal Data Questionnaire askek about









personal background in terms of family location, religion,

occupational and educational status and mental health of

parents, spouses and subjects.

The Structured Autobiography solicited experiences

from the preschool, elementary, junior high, high school,

undergraduate and graduate/adult life periods. Each

experience was rated by a trained graduate student whose

reliability had been established. It was rated for focus

(self, interpersonal or environmental), type (positive,

positive-negative, negative or negative-positive), subtype

of positive experience as described in 1961 by Landsman

(conquest, excitement, beauty, completion, interpersonal,

earned success or mystical), and subtypes of negative

experience (failure, sickness/pain, interpersonal, boredom,

loneliness, escape/disgust, fear, violence, death, anger/

hostility, mystical/drugs). In addition the raters designated

the principal sharer and the location of each experience where

possible.

In this study there was no relationship between the

individual type of reported experience and the level of

functioning. However, when the patterns of experience were

compared, important differences emerged. The low-functioning

subjects reported a consistently negative oriented pattern

while the models reported a consistently positive oriented

pattern. The self-actualizing subjects were more like the

low-functioning when the total life was considered, but showed










considerable fluctuation among the life stages. When

individual types of experience were examined there seemed

to be a consistent trend toward larger positive scores

from preschool through undergraduate for the self-actualizing

subjects although the scores never attained significance.

It seemed that the peers and the school were the

most potent sources for positive experiences and the home

and family were most potent for negative experiences. This

holds some implications for the role of the school in the

development of superb human beings. Unfortunately, there

was a higher rate of negative than positive experiences

with teachers.

It appeared that the low-functioning and self-

actualizing samples were most alike and the modal sample

stood apart. It may be that there is no single continuum

from low-functioning to modal to self-actualized in the

mental health model. It is hypothesized from these data

that there are, in fact, two developmental continue of

mental health. One is the low-functioning to self-actualized

continuum. This continuum begins in pain and is marked by

coping and struggle for health. The other continuum begins

in a healthy self-concept and is marked by the gradual

unfolding of self through a much less painful developmental

process. The end result of the former continuum is hypothe-

sized as a sense of unity of self with self and others and


xii










the world. The end result of the latter is contentment

with self and a sense of tranquility. Both are hypothe-

sized as positive forms of mental health.


xiii













CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


After many years of preoccupation with mental

illness and adjustment, a growing number of psychologists

and educators are beginning to study the superbly func-

tioning individual. At present, too little is known of

the extreme positive end of the human growth continuum.

Maslow (1962), Rogers (1961) and others have developed

some descriptive criteria. Shostrom (1964) has published

the Personal Orientation Inventory which effectively

identifies persons who fit the criteria of superb func-

tioning or self-actualization. Landsman has looked at

various types of human experience and has hypothesized

that self-actualization is essentially the product of

positive human experience (Landsman, 1968). However, the

bridge between positive human experience and self-

actualization has not been empirically established. The

purpose of this study was to start with a sample of self-

actualized people and look at their experiences to see if

and when their significant experiences differed from those

of samples of modal and low-functioning people. This is

an attempt to answer the question: Are the remembered and

reported life events of identified self-actualized persons


- 1






- 2 -


in fact different from the remembered and reported life

events of modal and low-functioning persons?


Rationale


A growing number of people are interested in

actualizing their potential. The popularity of the

various kinds of growth groups is an indication of this.

Carl Rogers (1961), Abraham Maslow (1962), Ted Landsman

(1968), Everett Shostrom (1967) and others have suggested

that there is a definite link between positive human

experiences, constructive interpersonal relationships and

self-actualization. However, some data indicate that

certain types of experience popularly thought related to

superb functioning (religious activity, family stability,

etc.) are not related at all (Gibbs, 1968). Human experi-

ence and self-actualization theory at this point needs

some descriptive studies in which the experiences of low-

functioning, normal and superbly-functioning people can

be compared and significant differences noted.


Related Literature


The work of two men, Dr. Abraham Maslow (1962) and

Dr. Ted Landsman (1968) directly influenced this research.

Maslow (1962) outlined a theory of self-actualization which

in essence says that once the basic biological and emotional

needs of an individual are met, he is free to unfold his






- 3 -


own unique self. Maslow sees the self as interacting

constructively with its environment. It is highly self-

aware, inner-motivated and able to fulfill its own growth

needs.

Based on the study of positive human experience,

Landsman postulates a "beautiful and noble person" who is

a product of many positive experiences. While both the

self-actualized and the beautiful and noble persons are

essentially the same, the latter appears to be more

compassionate and spiritual. Landsman prefers his title

because it is an external view of postulated internal

characteristics. A beautiful and noble person is one who

seems so to others. Self-actualization, Maslow's term,

appears to use the inner experience as the complete

referent.

Other writers are also interested in this sphere

of inquiry, and have coined their own descriptive titles

for it. Carl Rogers (1961) speaks of the "fully-functioning

person." This person is one who is not static, but is

fluid and growing. Fully-functioning for Rogers is a

process of becoming. It is an openness to experience and

an ability to live in the present moment. The fully-

functioning person is one who is able to trust his own

motivations.

C. W. Morris (1948) was one of the earlier persons

to wonder about abundant mental health. While much of his






- 4 -


writing is preoccupied with a comparison to body types

(Sheldon's typology of ectomorphy, endomorphy and

mesomorphy), he sees the really healthy individual as one

who is first of all responsible for his own individual

growth and who is open to the possibility of change and

growth. Morris advocates self-creation within an open

society. Everett Shostrom has contributed to humanistic

psychology by building upon the work of Maslow, Rogers

and Perls. He has amplified the concept of synergy, which

Maslow described in Toward a Psychology of Being (1962)

and in "Further Notes on the Psychology of Being" (1964).

Synergy is one's ability to transcend the opposites in

life, particularly within one's own personality. Shostrom

sees the self-actualized person as being able to experience

and integrate the opposites in his own existence. Spe-

cifically, the self-actualized person is able to express

at the appropriate times anger, tenderness, caring, lust,

weakness, power, etc. These opposites are part of every

individual. However, the low-functioning person cannot

recognize, or finds unacceptable, parts of his personality

and thus cannot fully use himself.

Within the general study of self-actualization

other writers have made unique contributions. Clark

Moustakas (1961) lifts up the value of loneliness for the

development of the full person. This is an existential

loneliness rather than the anxiety-loneliness of the neurotic.






- 5 -


Neurotic loneliness results from an absence of values,

convictions, beliefs and from the fear of isolation.

Existential loneliness is the loneliness of the Self

through which one comes into contact with his own inner

being. Moustakas says that this may be a very creative

experience and notes that many composers, artists and

writers must be alone occasionally to reconstitute them-

selves. One of the characteristics of self-actualized

people is their reoccurring need of solitude. They cannot

constantly be in the company of others.

Sidney Jourard (1964) emphasized the need for

self-disclosure in the development of self-actualization.

He believes that it is only in the process of being fully

known and accepted that one can completely experience his

own being. The self-actualized person is in touch with

himself and, as Shostrom says, able to live out all the

dimensions of his personality.

Victor Frankl (1963) sees self-actualization as

the result of purposeful living and warns that preoccupation

with self-actualization is a deterrent to finding it. He

says that one must lose oneself in a greater quest before

he can become self-actualized. In his book, Man's Search

for Meaning, Frankl described the Twentieth Century neurosis

which has resulted from lives without meaning, purpose or

goals.






- 6 -


Leonard Gibbs (1968) investigated the effect of

sex, home and educational background, work experience and

extracurricular activities on the self-actualization of

college students. His findings are rather curious. With

an N of 97 males and 153 females, he found that within this

sample of self-actualized college students: (1) there were

significantly more females than males, (2) parents had a

high school education plus some formal training, (3) there

were 1-3 siblings in the family, (4) the mothers worked

full time, (5) there was little or no formal religious

training, (6) the subjects were not presently practicing

their religion, (7) they came from high school graduating

classes of 101-500 students, (8) they attended a large

state university for the first two years of their colle-

giate experience, (9) they were enrolled in a liberal arts

college, (10) they were not working part time in college,

(11) they had been exposed to work experience prior to

college and (12) they had been involved in high school and

extracurricular activities more than nine hours per week.

Those variables depicting few or no significant mean

differences were: (1) whether or not the parental home

was broken or intact, (2) whether or not the parental home

was nuclear or extended, (3) the amount of time the father

traveled or was away from home, (4) religious affiliation

of the parents and (5) the amount of time worked while in

high-school. This study is interesting insofar as it






7 -



questions some commonly held opinions about the value of

traditional home, family and religious life upon the de-

velopment of self-actualization.

There have been several studies of the self-

actualizing process. Jane Rosenthal (1968) examined the

self-actualizing process of university freshman women. She

found that: (1) on the average, university freshman women

students do experience positive growth in self-actualization

during their first year in college, (2) the Personal

Orientation Inventory scale measuring inner-directedness

is the best single indicator of the quality and level of

the self-actualization, (3) inferences from interview and

autobiographical data suggest that students who scored high

on the Personal Orientation Inventory other-directed scale

experience more frustration in their routine activities,

(4) students who scored high on the total Personal Orien-

tation Inventory may expect a growth pattern showing the

greatest change in those concepts in which they scored low-

at the beginning of their college career; the students who

scored low on the Personal Orientation Inventory may expect

a growth pattern which shows similar changes in relation to

most of the concepts of self-actualizing over a period of

one year in college and (5) positive relationships exist

among data obtained from the Personal Orientation Inventory,

the interview and the autobiographical techniques.






- 8 -


E. J. Green (1967) examined the relationship of

self-actualization to achievement in nursing students. In

her studies, she correlated the Personal Orientation In-

ventory (1964) scales with the Scholastic Aptitude Test

(1961), the cumulative grade point average, sophomore

nursing grade, theclinical practice grade, and the com-

posite score on a satisfaction questionnaire. She found

that her student nurses scored lower than the general adult

norms on the Personal Orientation Inventory. She also

found that time competence, spontaneity, synergy and self-

regard as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory

scales were significantly correlated with her achievement

measures. The aggression and time competence scales were

the only ones positively correlated with the instructor's

ratings for personal qualities and attitudes of the student

nurses.

Elizabeth Drew (1965) correlated the level of

self-actualization with general academic achievement and

extracurricular activities among high school students. She

found that of 1,000 senior high school students, superior

girls were more often involved in art and music as producers

and consumers, read more books, held 5-6 times more school

offices and saw themselves as potentially creative in their

future professions, creative arts and intellectual disci-

plines. Those scoring in this way were also inclined

towards self-actualization, and tested higher on learning






- 9 -


motivation, openness to psychological growth and tolerance

of diversity, complexity and ambiguity. She gives no

specific suggestions for helping the low-achieving student

become more self-actualized.

Puttick (1964) developed a scale which identified

the upper 10 percent of a teacher's college population in

terms of mental health. Since his standardizing sample was

limited to an all female teachers college population, he

suggested that his scale should be used cautiously with a

more heterogeneous group. Puttick's scale was seriously

considered as the criterion instrument for this dissertation.

It was developed for use in a factor analytic study of

positive modes of experiencing and behaving. Puttick found

that a basic factor was "trust in the inner self" which

appears to be directly related to the "inner directed"

scale on the Personal Orientation Inventory (1964) used in

this dissertation.

Fred McKinney (1967) developed a sentence completion

blank for assessing student self-actualization. The stems

were designed to elicit answers which would help the

practitioner assess the student's effectiveness in meeting

personal needs, his openness to trial and err r learning,

his openness to new experience, his sense of personal re-

sponsibility and his democratic social interest and adap-

tive behavior. McKinney's scale is not directly built on

the self-actualization constructs germane to this study,







- 10 -


and therefore, his test was not considered useful for this

particular research.

For the purposes of this study, the Shostrom

Personal Orientation Inventory (1964) was used as the

criteria for self-actualization. It is the only one to date

which is specifically constructed to measure those charac-

teristics associated with self-actualization as described

by Maslow, Rogers-and others. Its two ratio scales identify

the time competence and inner-directedness of the individual.

Time competence refers to the self-actualizing ability to live

most fully in the "now," unburdened by guilt or anxiety,

finding joy in living the present moment fully. Inner-

directedness refers to the self-actualizing life style in

which one's motives, morals and goals come from within

rather than from peers, family or culture. However, the

test is sensitive to the self-actualizing awareness of the

thoughts, needs, and desires of other people. There are ten

subscales measuring self-actualizing.values, existentiality,

feeling reactivity, spontaneity, self-regard, self-acceptance

nature of man, synergy, acceptance of aggression and ca-

pacity for intimate contact.

Where many tests are negatively oriented, the

Personal Orientation Inventory purports to give the level

of health in terms of self-actualization. In clinical use

it shows the patient his relative personality strengths. In






- 11 -


research it can be used to select samples of self-actualized,

modal and low-functioning (in terms of self-actualization)

persons.

Aside from the theoretical base of self-actuali-

zation, this dissertation was built directly upon the

experience research done by Landsman (synopsis 1968),

Privette (1964), Lynch (1968), Fuerst (1965), McKenzie

(1965), Blough (1969) and Hayes (1969). These individuals

have pioneered in the exploration and taxonomy of human

experience of all kinds.

Landsman (1961) has been most concerned with

positive human experiences which he has categorized into

conquest, excitement, beauty, completion, earned success,

human relation and supernatural relationship experiences.

These experiences can also be studied in terms of whether

they happened primarily with oneself, with another or others

or with the environment. The conquest experience is one

in which the individual for the first time acconmlishes a

skill or overcomes a problem. The excitement experience

is closely related to the conquest experience. One person

might spend his evening sitting home watching television

while another is racing across an open prairie on a motor-

cycle. It is impossible to adequately describe the ex-

citement and abandon one experiences when the wind is

whipping around him and his life is literally in his hands

as he negotiates a tricky terrain on a powerful cycle. Of






- 12 -


the two people mentioned, the latter will have the most

intense positive experience (providing his skill is adequate,

of course). The beauty experience is one of the intense

positive experiences. A young lady described an experience

in an Art Gallery. Since early adolescence she had had a

copy of a certain painting on the wall of her bedroom. One

day while strolling through the Gallery, she happened upon

the original of that painting and was so overwhelmed with

its beauty and magnificence that she stood and wept before

it. The completion experience is that moment when the end

of a difficult task is reached. It is generally an ex-

perience in which there has been a good bit of self-invest-

ment. The earned success experience is knowing that one

has succeeded and done a good job, and incidentally, knowing

that any praise received is worthy praise. The human

relationship experience as used in the positive experience

category is that experience in which two individuals are

caring for and open to each other from a brief instant of

time to a lifetime together. The intensity of the experi-

ence may vary from a very slight touching of two lives to

the deep human-to-human experience which Buber (1958) called

the "I-Thou." The supernatural relationship experience

involves those experiences which are of a religious-mystical

dimension. These may be difficult to categorize in each

instance, for they may involve an intense awareness of the

Diety, or they may just involve a special, transcendent






- 13 -


relationship with the physical world, but the quality of

the experience itself would categorize it as a supernatural

relationship experience.

In addition to his study of positive experience

Landsman (1966) reports the following factors to be related

to higher levels of personal functioning:

1. That solitude during the functioning is more
facilitative than the presence or cheering on of
others, even of the important others.

2. That a solid foundation of early positive human
experiences is necessary.

3. That during negative experiences the availability
of a helping person facilitates the 'uses of such
adversity.'

4. That the existence of a deep seated, powerful
yearning may often be involved.

5. That one can learn to be or not to be one's best.
ennoblementt).

6. That the worst and the best can reside in the
same self.

A study of experiences in terms of intensity and

personal involvement was reported by Lynch (1968). He

categorized intense experiences into four groups: pleasure,

suffering, bitter-sweet and sweet-bitter. He found that the

preponderance of reported intense experiences were suffering

experiences. Pleasure and bitter-sweet experiences tended

to open the individual to even broader involvement with his

world. Suffering and sweet--bitter experiences tended to

close off the individual. Lynch also found an apparent





- 14 -


relationship between high self-esteen and the quality of

openness.

Negative experiences and their outcome whether

negative or positive were studied by McKenzie (1967). He

felt that there had been an uneven emphasis on the role of

positive experience whereas Lynch had shown the prepon-

derance of negative intense experiences. McKenzie looked

at negative-negative and negative-positive experiences.

The negative-negative experience is one in which the impact

on the subject was negative and continued to be negative.

The negative-positive experience is one in which the

original impact was negative but the ultimate effect was

positive. McKenzie's one significant finding (< .01) was

that the presence of a helping person could change a very

negative experience into. a negative-positive experience.

McKenzie's second task was to develop a taxonomy of negative

experience. He tried to use the opposites of Landsman's

positive experiences but found this unsatisfactory. While

he suggested a rather involved alternative, he was not able

to develop a practical system.

A study of experiences which caused the subsequent

life flow to change its direction was reported by Fuerst.

Turning-point experiences were viewed in terms of whether

they were positive or negative in their subsequent effects

upon the subjects. A turning-point experience was clas-

sified positive if the subject "said it was positive and






- 15 -


reported beneficial results" (Fuerst, 1965). The four most

common positive turning-point experiences were reported in

this order of frequency: illness or death of relative,

moving to a distant city, engagement or marriage and

influence of a significant other. It is interesting to

note that the most common positive turning-point experience

is loaded with negative possibilities. This is true of

many positive turning-point experiences.

Privette (1964) looked at those experiences in

which a person functioned "beyond his predictable modal

level' and called these transcendent experiences. Through

the use of factor analysis she was able to show that
/
transcendent functioning is a describable psychological

entity. The principle psychological components of tran-

scendent functioning are a clear focus on Self and Object,

the relationship between the two, and intense involvement

and commitment in the situation.

Those interpersonal experiences which opened or

closed the elementary school child to further interpersonal

experiences were investigated by Blough (1969). He found

that positive-positive experiences would be reported as

opening more frequently than any other of the negative and

positive combination. He also found that the continuing

relationship experience was more opening, and the brief,

terminal or single interpersonal experience was more closing.





- 16 -


However, he was not able to identify a causal relationship

between past and present experiencing.

Black and white young males were compared in terms

of their positive and negative manhood experiences (Hayes,

1969). No significant difference in frequencies of positive

manhood experiences were reported by black and white males.

Forty-five percent of the positive manhood experiences were

with Self in relation to the environment. Twenty-six

percent occurred with others in a reciprocal loving and

caring relationship. Thirty-six percent of the positive

interpersonal relationships were with female peers. The

largest number of positive manhood experiences occurred

between ages 15 and 17 for whites, and 18 and 20 for

blacks.

Hayes did find significant differences in the

negative manhood experiences of black and white males.

The white subjects reported more negative interpersonal

experiences in which they felt unloved and uncared for.

Black males reported more physical abuse and personal hu-

miliation. White males reported more personal inadequacy

experiences.

Reports of peak and nadir experience were collected

by Thorne (1963). He asked subjects to complete a sentence

beginning with "The most exciting experience of my life was

when ." or, "The worst experience of my life was when.

S. ." Thorn grouped his peak experiences into six






- 17


categories: sensual, emotional, cognitive, conative,

self-actualizing and climax experiences. He suggests that

nadir experiences may be classified as polar opposites.

Jones, Allen and Haupt (1964) borrowed Thorne's

sentence completion technique to gather and study nadir

experiences. They used the polar opposites of Thorne's

peak experience categories. They found that nadir reports

usually involve experiences with death, illness, tragedy,

loss and degradation of self.

A study of vivid experiences (both peak and nadir)

was reported by Margoohes and Litt (1966). They asked

samples of institutionalized psychotics and normal college

students to report the experiences they recalled most

vividly. The college students reported more peak expe-

riences, but their descriptions were more flat and stereo-

typed. The psychotics reported their experiences more

vividly.

One problem is to discover what kinds of interpersonal

experiences are not only constructive but amenable to being

constructed. Landsman (1966) reports a study done by Mary

Baggett in which she experimentally attempted to create

ennoblement experiences for a group of 12-year-olds. Twenty-

one sixth-grade boys and girls were given the opportunity

to help a group of kindergarten through second-grade

children with such things as reading practice, playground

supervision, escort service to the nurse's office, etc.






- 18 -


The experimental group was compared with a matched group

of controls. When the children were asked to rate a series

of experiences on a -5 to +5 scale, they ranked the helping

experience at +4.47 as compared to lots of homework at a

-2.0 and going to camp at --4.29, so at least in this one

instance a positive helping or ennoblement experience was

created.

There is a basic assumption which underlies the

theory and research thus far presented and the research

later to be presented in this dissertation: There is a

direct relationship between life experiences and the level

of mental health. Somehow, the individual is a product of

his experiences, and considering the various studies re-

ported by Landsman (1968), nearly 50 percent of the sig-

nificant positive experiences are interpersonal experiences.

Still, it has not been ascertained just what experiences

are most crucial for the development of self--actualization.

It is hoped that the study to be presented in the following

pages will shed some light on this area of humanistic in-

quiry.














CHAPTER II

PROCEDURES


The purpose of this study was to investigate the

life experiences and personal backgrounds of three sample

groups: a self-actualized group, a modal group and a low-

functioning group. This was an attempt to identify expe-

rience and situational variables related to the above levels

of human effectiveness.


Definition of Terms


Self-actualization

There is no common nomenclature nor even exact

agreement as to what goes into a supernormal individual. In

the interest of consistency those characteristics which the

Personal Orientation Inventory measures will be accepted as

the characteristics of self-actualization. These are com-

monly accepted characteristics, although different re-

searchers might add certain things which seem more important

to them.

1. The self-actualized person is time-competent; he
lives in the present rather than the past or future.
He is not burdened by guilt over past deeds or
anxiety and worry about future events. His greatest
joy is in the moment.
2. He is inner-directed, as opposed to other-directed.
This means that he tends to be independent and self-
supportive. He lives more to please himself than
others.


- 19 -






- 20 -


3. He is flexible in the application of his value
system.

4. He is sensitive to his own needs and feelings.

5. He is spontaneous.

6. He values himself.

7. He has a capacity for intimate contact, warm
interpersonal relationships.

8. He can accept himself in spite of his weaknesses.

9. He sees man as essentially good.

10. He can see the opposites and superficially
antagonistic things of life as meaningfully related.

11. He is able to accept and use his anger and
hostility.


Modal Personality

This term is used to denote those persons who are

normal or average in their level of self-actualization.

The term was chosen in preference to normal, which implies

that anything above or below it is abnormal; or average,

which has a rather negative connotation. The modal person-

ality is one which represents the midpart of the normal

population continuum of adjustment.


Low-functioning Person

This is the person whose personality profile

represents the opposites of self-actualization. Basically,

these persons are not time-competent, are bound up by a good

deal of anxiety and guilt, tend to be governed by the de-

sires and wishes, values and goals of their peers or family







- 21 -


and in all other areas seem to reflect a very low level of

functioning. The term low-functioning was chosen in pref-

erence to neurotic which carries with it a more medical-

diagnostic connotation.


Positive Experience

This is an experience which is perceived by the

subject as good, desirable, worthwhile and constructive.


Negative Experience

This is an experience which is perceived by the

subject as undesirable, bad and destructive.


Positive-negative Experience

This experience is first perceived by the subject

as positive but for some reason is later perceived as

negative.


Negative-positive Experience

This experience is first perceived by the subject

as negative but for some reason is later perceived as

positive.


Limitations of This Study


The greatest limitation of this study was in the

identification of superbly functioning people. Selection

had to be done either by self-report, clinical judgment,

objective tests or combination of all three. The objective






- 22 -


test was chosen as the most reliable method. The Personal

Orientation Inventory (Shostrom, 1964) is the most carefully

standardized test of this type. It was specifically de-

signed to make the desired selections. Published data

suggest it is valid for identifying self-actualized persons

(Knapp, 1965; Knapp & Shostrom, 1964; Shostrom, 1964).

It is recognized that neither the modal, self-

actualized nor low functioning groups were randomly selected.

It is conceded that the relatively small N and the lack of

randomness limits the applicability of this study.

The use of the autobiographical report presents a

problem common to all self-report measures. It is impos-

sible to assess the impact of subject bias on these reports.

An attempt was made to minimize subject bias by assuring

confidentiality and by being candid as possible in explaining

the purpose of the research. Jourard (1969) has shown that

candor on the researcher's part helps to minimize subject

defensiveness and response distortion. However, it is

impossible to assess the amount of distortion in this data

due to subject bias.


Research Hypotheses


1. There will be differences among the personal
backgrounds (geographic location, characteristics
of parental home, religion, marital status) of
the three sample groups.






- 23 -


2. The frequency of positive experiences will be
related to self-actualization at each of the
various age levels.

3. Self-actualizers will report a greater percentage
of positive experiences than will medals, and
models will report a greater percentage of posi-
tive experiences than will the low-functioning
persons.

4. Self-actualizers will report a greater percentage
of negative-positive experiences than models, and
models will report a greater percentage of negative-
positive experiences than will the low-functioning
group.

5. The low-functioning group will report a greater
percentage of negative experiences than the modal,
and the models will report a greater percentage
of negative experiences than the self-actualizers.

6. The three levels of mental health will have
different patterns of experience (positive, positive-
negative, negative and negative-positive) at the
various age levels and for the total autobiographies.

7. There will be differences in the number of
experiences related by each of the three sample
groups (Self-actualizing, Modal and Low-Functioning).

8. The elementary school years will show more crucial
experiences than the other age groups.


Assumptions


1. There is a level of personal-emotional-mental
functioning which is above that of normal, ordinary
people.

2. Experience can be studied and, to a certain extent,
quantified for purposes of comparison.







- 24 -


Subjects


Subjects for this research came from the University

of Florida's University College courses in Social Science,

College of Education courses in Educational Psychology,

Santa Fe Junior College's beginning course in Behavioral

Science, and University of Florida graduate level College

of Education courses in Educational Psychology and Counseling.

After securing the cooperation of the instructors, the

researcher visited the classes, explained that he was doing

research on the life styles of self-actualizing people and

would like for the class to take the Personal Orientation

Inventory. Those persons whose scores were within the

self-actualizing, modal and low-functioning categories as

defined by the manual were asked to participate further.

The students were not informed that scores in the modal and

low-functioning range would be included. After all the

instruments were completed, interpretation of individual

Personal Orientation Inventory profiles was offered. This

interpretation was given in class or by individual appoint-

ment.

A total of 486 students (184 males, 302 females)

were administered the Personal Orientation Inventory. It

was given until 30 profiles were found in which the two

basic ratio scores were within the self-actualizing range,

30 within the modal range and 30 within the low-functioning

range. This gave a total of 90 subjects who participated






- 25 -


in the research by completing a personal data questionnaire

and a structured autobiography. Of the 90 subjects 26 were

men and 64 were women. The male-female division was 9 to 21,

9 to 21, and 8 to 22 for the self-actualized, modal and low-

functioning samples respectively.

Table 1 shows the number of male and female students

from the various Junior College and University Classes as

they were included in the three sample groups.

The experiences were categorized by three trained

raters, all of whom were graduate students in Counselor

Education at the University of Florida. The researcher

worked with the raters for six hours (three hours in two

evenings one week apart) until acceptable (.80) reliabilities

were obtained. In training the raters, structured auto-

biographies not included in the research were used. After

the various categories were explained and discussed, in-

dividual experiences were rated independently and discussed

until a high rate of agreement was reached. Then a series

of structured autobiographies were rated independently to

establish reliability.

Rosenthal (1964, 1966) has shown that experimenter

expectancy can bias the outcome of research. Thus, in an

effort to prevent rater expectancy bias, the raters did not

know whether the experiences they were judging were from

modal, low-functioning or self-actualizing persons. Fur-

thermore, they were given equal numbers from all three








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- 27 -


samples in order to avoid the development of a response set.

Each rater judged one-third of the data and his third came

equally from the three samples.


Rater Reliability


Interrater reliability was established by using the

Winer (1962)method based on analysis of variance, r = 1-
mean square within people .
mean square within people The following reliabilities
mean square between people*
were established (see Table 2 for details): Focus of

Experience, .85; Type of Experience, .89; subtypes of

positive experiences, .84; subtypes of negative experiences,

.84. In addition the raters were asked to record the

principal sharer of each experience and the location of

each experience.


Focus of Experience


The focus of experience refers to whether the

experience is primarily with the individual self, with other

people, or with the external environment. Dividing expe-

riences among these categories follows the precedent reported

by Landsman (1968), McKenzie (1965), Lynch (1968) and

Fuerst (1965). It would appear to be important to the

understanding of experience and its relationship to Self-

actualization to know how an individual's experiences divide

among these categories.





- 28 -


Table 2

Interrater Reliabilities


Focus of Experience

Source SS df MS r

SS Between people 39.7889 29 1.3720 .85
SS Within people 12.6667 60 .2111
SS Between judges 1.0889 2 .5444
SS Residual 11.5778 58 .1996
SS Total 52.4556 89


Type of Experience

Source SS df MS r

SS Between people 225.08 47 4.7800 .89
SS Within people 50.67 96 .5278
SS Between judges 2.54 2 1.2700
SS Residual 48.13 94 .5120
SS Total 275.75 143


Subtypes of Positive Experience

Source SS df MS r

SS Between people 209.2778 23 9.0990 .84
SS Within people 68.0000 '48 1.4166
SS Between judges .1944 2 .0972
SS Residual 67.8056 46 1.4740
SS Total 277.2778 71


Subtypes of Negative Experience

Source SS df MS r

SS Between people 547.4546 21 26.0692 .84
SS Within people 180.6667 44 4.1060
SS Between judges 27.8485 2 13.9242
SS Residual 152.8182 42 3.6385
SS Total 728.1213 65






- 29


The following is a "Self" experience. Although

there was an interpersonal component in the experience,

basically it involved a young coed's reformulation of her

personal identity.

One of the biggest disappointments that I've had
in college was being rejected by a sorority. I feel
that the details are unimportant. I learned a lot
about people, this university, but more about myself.
When I didn't get in a sorority I thought about not
being elected to school offices and I really felt
insecure and inadequate. I couldn't imagine what there
was about me that could allow these things to happen
to me. I thought about myself and about what I had
hoped to be. Rationalization or not, I redefined my
goals and aspirations and I started to be more of an
individual, doing more of what I wanted to do. Also,
until recently I'd degrade sorority girls not realizing
that its the system that's wrong, not the people so
much. In a way, not being in a sorority made me be
more independent and being an independent gave me
freedom to move in any direction I chose and with anyone
also. I move with different groups of people learning
from and enjoying the variety and freedom. I'm not
confined to a certain group nor to standards that I
should maintain.

The following are two Interpersonal experiences.

They were from different persons. The first experience was

positive and the second was negative.

In January of my senior year in highschool I was
very depressed. I had never had a date, my figure was
not really developed much (at least not to my satis-
faction) and I felt terrible. I was convinced no boy
would ever take me out. I went to see my optometrist,
still extremely depressed; in fact I burst into tears
in his office. He asked me what the trouble was and
I told him. I was shy, underdeveloped, boys didn't
like me, life was miserable. He was very reassuring,
and said that it was difficult for him to talk to
people too, that he didn't have many friends either.
He said that my breasts were satisfactory, and made
me feel that I wasn't such a freak as I had convinced
myself. His kindness really helped me to regain some
of my perspective.






- 30


And last, the experience of N Some background
needs to be given before explaining two major incidents.
N was an art student I met who at first I had no
particular interest in. Then he started coming over all
the time and we were living together, spending every
second together, and sleeping in the same bed every
night for six months without making love. So every
night I would lay there as he was sleeping, thinking
that I must be the most sexless, ugly person in the
whole world. Then I thought since I have no sexual
experience whatsoever, am the least forward person in
the world, etc., N must perceive this. So one
night after planning for about two weeks, I mustered
all my strength and told N one night when we were
being in the woods, "N if I spend all this time
with you, I have to get something more out of it than
this to make me sure its worthwhile." I didn't even
mean sex as much as I meant some reassurance of affection
other than a willingness to see me all the time. I
remember I even wrote myself a poem about it and in one
line I said,
Not attraction, not repulsion
Love for me has this compulsion
I must know.
But N said, "well then you shouldn't spend so much
time with me." Consequences: when you're shot down
you start, or I start thinking of why you are inadequate.
This time I was totally willing to give everything to
a person who I thought was accepting all of me, and it
was rejected. After dropping out of school and two
more months in a hospital, I saw N and he told me
that he felt he must tell me something. Since I was
amazed that he thought he had anything to say to me,
I said, "OK." "J I'm a homosexual."
Consequences: renewed suspiciousness, renewed
feelings that I am a naive fool who has not ever gone
through adolescence and may never. Belief that I am
as disturbed as N for sustaining an obviously
pathological relationship for over six months.

The following are two accounts of Environmental

experiences. They are from different people. The first

is a positive Environmental experience and the second is

negative.

I'll never forget the first snow. It was so white, so
soft, so clean and unspoiled. K and I ran all the






- 31 -


way down to Huron River and played and played in it.
We did not see another soul outside. When we finally
returned to our apartment, we were completely exhausted,
delightfully happy, and almost frozen!

I loaded atomic bombs aboard planes while on an
aircraft carrier in the Mediterranean near Russia (during
the Cuban Crisis). I was sure that the world was on
its last legs. Interesting feeling of being near so
much power, enough to blow us to the stars. Need to
pray was urgent. "There are no atheists in the foxholes!"


Type of Experience


Type of experience means whether the experience was

rated positive, positive-negative, negative or negative-

positive.

The following is an experience rated positive.

One particular event which was of great significance
to me was observing a clinical psychologist work with
an emotionally disturbed child. This occurrence in-
volved simply the child handing the clinical psychologist
a mutilated piece of orange with saliva dripping from
it and having the clinical psychologist accept it as a
gift, appreciatively, and actually take a bite of it.
Upon observing the childs reaction, it became obvious
that the psychologist's action had been the correct
one. I then resolved to be like that clinical psy-
chologist.

The following is an experience rated positive-

negative.

I fell in love with J It was a beautiful but
very, very sad thing to happen to me. J became
pregnant after graduating and (the child not being
mine) we broke off.

The following are three experiences rated negative.

Two of the experiences are of particular interest since

they deal with the same trauriatic event, the assassination






- 32 -


of President Kennedy. The first experience was born in the

horror of the German Holocaust. All the experiences are

from different people.

A man came to live with us for three months. He
had studied in Europe with my father before WWII. His
name was L and he was German. I was afraid of him
for reasons I couldn't fathom. One night we had chicken
for supper-roast chicken. There were three adults
and three children to eat it, so we ate it aZZ-only
the carcass was left. I was dancing in the kitchen
with the carcass dangling from my hands. My sister
was laughing with joy. L came into the kitchen.
He hit me. He took the carcass and yelled at me in
German. My sister ran out but he got me in a corner
and yelled and yelled. My mother and father came and
made L sit down. I went streaking up the back
stairs and hid in my closet. My parents came up and
explained that L was Jewish and had been in a
concentration camp-and this had destroyed him in a
way. He had come to live with us to try to recover,
and he saw my playing with a carcass as making light
of starvation.
Later I sneaked down the back stairs and peeked
out the crack in the door. I could see L sitting
at the table eating tiny bits of the carcass. I cried
silently thinking now I know what war is--what evil
is-that all that is evil in humanity created what I
was seeing in L and that I wanted to find and
embrace the good in people.
I wondered why people hated each other because of
religion.

November 22, 1963 I came into Spanish class from
physical ed. One boy said something about the president
being shot. I thought it was a cruel joke but said
nothing. Then the intercom came on with a confirmation
of the announcement. It wasn't until I got on the bus
and noticed tears that I discovered that Kennedy was
dead. When I went home, I went to my room, closed the
door, and wrote a long letter to my friend about it.
Wasn't that a hellish weekend?

I never will forget the day John F. Kennedy was
shot. I cried the rest of the day. I made a scrapbook
of clippings concerning the death (the first time I
had ever made a scrapbook).






- 33 -


The following experience is rated negative-positive:

I returned to school in September, but began getting
headaches and pains more frequently. I went twice to
the infirmary where they issued pain pills and began a
test for "mono". One night in the first week of October
the pain was so bad I was rushed to the infirmary. I
had taken the maximum of pain pills and was using three
heating pads. The next day I was to call home to let
my parents (and F ) know where I was. I fainted in
the phone booth. Needless to say my parents and F
were up the next day.
I grew weaker and more nervous. I couldn't walk.
My father and F returned home Sunday night. That
night one side of my face lost all muscular control and
I couldn't hold things in my fingers, though I still
had gross movement. A specialist was called in. The
diagnosis was polyneurites, an inflammation of the spinal
cord. Doctors know very little of this disease. They
don't know what causes it, how to treat it, or how to
tell how far it will go. In fact, I was only the third
case they had heard of in [that] Hospital. Well, it
continued to get worse. The doctors explained that the
paralysis should stop at some point (though they knew
not where), would plateau, then begin getting better.
I went in the hospital on a Sunday night. By the
next Saturday I was in an iron lung. They were treating
me with cortizone and nerve relaxers. Have you ever
had a part of your body fall asleep and then it felt
like needles. When I felt, it was like that. I
couldn't possibly eat and was being "fed" intraveneously.
That second Sunday night I required a tracheotomy to
enable me to get air to my lungs. Two days later an
infection in my lungs set in.
I could go on and on about details--but what is
more important is what it meant to me. I'm not sure
whether it was the way I perceived things or the fact
I was so doped up, but only once did I cry. I got so
choked up literally, I almost died--decided right then
and there that there was no point or help in such display.
I had complete confidence in my doctors. I knew they
were doing all that was possible including someone from
New Orleans, although I knew there was little they could
do. My family, including F were always close by.
In fact they had to do such things as close my eyes, or
wipe the saliva from my mouth. I've always thought that
mentally it was harder on them. They feared for my
thoughts and life but (heaven knows why) I didn't.
I stayed in the iron lung two and a half weeks.
Somehow, the paralysis never reached my heart or brain.







- 34 -


A few weeks later I returned to my home; stayed in the
hospital two more months. By this time I could stay
seated when put there, but could not move under my own
power. My paralysis was gone, though there was no
strength in my muscles and I was in an extreme nervous
condition. After all, my entire nervous system was in
an uproar!
Everyone was wonderful. Flowers had covered my
room and letters were coming each day. I can't begin
to say all the thoughtful things so many people did.
It was so stablelyzing. It restored my faith in
humanity. People do care I survived-perhaps I was
worth living. People do have feelings. Love can carry
you through ordeals. So on and on.
By summer I was walking again-not my old muscular
self, but a much slimmer, less coordinated self. I've
improved! I seem to be more nervous, or else just more
aware of it. I think of my experience often, but there
is no fear or regret. It has not inhibited me in any
way. I have developed emotionally and feel quite in-
dependent again. One point though, I tend to think in
terms of before and after this experience. (It was
this experience, rather than marriage, in which my
husband and I grew and developed so much).


Subtypes of Positive Experiences


The following is an example of the Conquest

experience. The young lady in this experience is a victim

of cerebral palsy.

A very significant and traumatic experience was my
moving away from my parents (at age 25) to live in a
house in the same town with some other graduate girls.
I did it only after more than a year of careful con-
sideration about its effects on both my parents and
myself. My parents were very upset-almost unbelievable
so even though I knew it would be very hard for them
to accept. They could not appreciate my driving need
to prove my independence and also feared "what will
people think". For me, there was no other way to become
a person in my own right. I knew I had to decide: to
move out on my own or sit in the safety of my parents
home and life and become less and less of my own person.
I have never regretted the move. My parents adjusted






- 35 -


slowly but well, and now are probably glad, although I
haven't pushed them to admit it. After I moved, I found
real companionship in the three other girls in the new
house. I enjoyed the feeling of independence and
equality.

The following is an example of the Success

experience:

I remember when I was between 8th and 9th grades
(summer) I was playing Pony League baseball. I made
a fine running, one handed catch (running from center
field to short right) on one play to end the inning....
I ran so hard that my cap fell off! Well, I received
applause, and upon returning to the bench, was referred
to by one assistant coach as "Willy Mays". I felt
real good--especially since I hadn't played much due
to poor hitting that summer. (It was really bad not
to hit well, since I always was very good hitter prior
to that year....it was the first year I wore glasses,
incidentally).

The following is an example of the Beauty experience.

I went to the Chicago museum of art. I was wan-
dering through it in a state of great happiness when
I suddenly found myself standing in front of a painting
of a nude called "Egyptian Girl". Years before I had
cut a print of this out of a Sunday supplement, framed
it in cardboard, and hung it in my room. (people made
fun of me because it was a nude). I never realized
the difference between a painting and a print before.
I had thought my little print was beautiful-but the
beauty of the original was almost more than I could
stand. I burst into tears and several worried ladies
tried to help me-but I could only say to them that
there was nothing wrong and I would be allright.

The following is an example of the Excitement

experience.

As I have mentioned earlier, I felt quite insecure
in my relationships with others in junior high. I had
many friends, but no real confidents--except three
friends who were equally naive. At our 9th grade prom
they made announcements of "notables". I was so afraid
that I would get "most athletic". I had doubts about
my feminine appeal, and was rather husky. Well as if






- 36


it were a dream, I did not get "most athletic" but
"best all-around". This meant that many students had
found in me something worthwhile. Perhaps I did have
a purpose in life. Perhaps I was worthwhile. People
meant alot to me-for they had done alot for me.

The following is a Completion experience. This

experience follows several others, including an unhappy

marriage, divorce and a readjustment of life styles.

I graduated with honors. My parents came to
graduation and were pleased to see me so happy. I had
a good feeling about everything that had happened the
past four years, and didn't feel diminished by the
unfortunate situations because they made me a more
sensible and sensitive person.

The following is a positive Interpersonal experience.

I came back and met J J was 25 also (one
of E 's "friends'. I lived with J for one year.
During that year I learned more, grew more, changed
more, laughed and cried more than ever before.

The following is an example of the positive Mystical

type Religious experience.

That week in camp I had what Maslow would probably
call a "peak experience" (we called it "mountain top"
in a religious sense way back in 1949). I made a
commitment (not conversion) to do God's will in my life
from that time on. I know this has influenced my
actions ever since. As I look back over two decades
since then, I see definitely that full surrender to God
is not contrary to self-fulfillment; rather it is the
greatest and surest means of fulfillment making use of
resources transcending more human potential. I consider
this week one in which I truly began to "be" independent
of my parents, both in a physical and spiritual sense.

The following is an account of a positive Drug

experience. There were not many of these, and since they

involved a kind of transcendent relationship to reality,

they were included among the mystical experiences. The






- 37


inclusion of the drug with the mystical experience is not

intended as a polemic for drugs or an equation of the two.

However, it appeared to this writer in terms of described

experiences that the two can be included together as para-

normal or mystical.

During the festival I also tripped on mescaline for
the first time and I'm convinced that for me it was one
of the best things that have happened to me. I learned
so much again, about people, myself (my faults, good
points, ideas), about my environment. I appreciate
nature now; little things make me happy. When I trip
I'm conscious of every second, of everything I do or
say or think. Nothing goes by unnoticed. I've tried
to keep this consciousness or awareness with me then
when I'm not tripping because I try now to do as much
as I can to live everything intensely. Also, I'm more
conscious of my environment-socially, politically,
ecologically. I guess it takes different experiences
for different people to let them see, really see, to
let them wake up. I think that I was asleep until I
was 16 or 17 and wasn't really awake until I entered
college. Now, I feel that I'm really doing what I want,
with certain restrictions, I guess. I couldn't go to
California tomorrow because of my responsibilities and
the investment of my parents money. About tripping and
drugs in general, I feel that they have been good for
me. Also, I'm not as nervous as I used to be. I'm
not in a hurry to do things. I'm more tolerant of
other people. There's been just so much good for me
from drugs. I know I have a good head and so I'm not
afraid of getting too involved in it. There are other
things to do more important to me than drugs, so I know
I wont let anything like that run my life. The people
that I've met are of a different mind than the sorority/
fraternity/jock format. Granted, some people get hung-
up but more of the people that I know aren't. Turned on
people seem more sensitive in every way, more honest
and they accept you for what you are. Individuality is
prized.
I just re-read my spiel on drugs. I hope it doesn't
seem like an over emphasis on such an important part of
my daily life. Its the results that are important to
me.






- 38 -


Subtypes of Negative Experience


This is an example of Failure experience.

One experience that stands out in my mind
particularly is when I tried out for cheerleading at
age twelve. I was particularly vulnerable at this
time as most adolescents are and the whole process of
training and trying out was quite traumatic as I was
anxious to be "in" with a certain group of girls. I
was too shy to even practice at home where my teenage
brother (an unsatiable tease) would be watching. I
failed miserably and was hurt, embarrassed and resentful
of the girls who had won. I never tried out for cheer-
leading again and just decided that I was too shy for
large groups as a rationale for my failure.

This is an example of the Sickness/Pain experience.

Actually this was the week after I graduated. I
was due to start registration at the University that
Thursday after graduation. Well, I was awakened
Wednesday morn with a lot of pain. I got to the hos-
pital and was given a shot. Well the next morning the
doctor told me I couldn't start school. I went through
a lot of tests-that showed I had gall stones...I got
admitted to the hospital on a Sunday a week and a half
later for an operation, but on Monday, the day before
the operation, the tests showed no stones. Well, the
doctor didn't know what had happened...He said it could
have been nerves. He really couldn't be sure.

This is an example of the negative Interpersonal

experience.

In the second grade my teacher told all the gentiles
and all the Jews to line up on either side of the room.
Then she asked the gentiles as she picked off the Jews
one by one, whether they thought the particular Jewish
person was quiet or not. All of them were voted unquiet
and the teacher then said, "This just goes to show how
Jews are an uncivilized, unrefined etc. etc. etc." And
the implications were my first experiences about why I
had to be born Jewish, discriminated against etc.

This is an example of the Boredom experience.

In my senior year I really hated school. Most of
my class time and assignments were a waste of time. I







- 39 -


actually got sick three times at school that year and
had to stay out a few days each time. I think my
sickness was brought on by my mental condition. Near
the end of the year I stopped doing a lot of assign-
ments because I worked and had less time and because
I had stopped trying......Graduation was a big disappoint-
ment even though I was able to wear an honor cord.

This is an example of the Escape/Disgust experience.

My parents offered a neighbor boy our car if he
would take me to the movies. I threw up!

This is an example of the Fear experience.

I was going home from choir practice and some boys
I knew who were my age chased me and threatened to take
my bicycle away. I was very frightened and cried.
Then they left me alone.

This is an example of the Violence/Hostility

experience.

I was jumped on my way from the elevated train to
White Sox Park on the South Side of Chicago. It is a
five block walk. It was 3:00 on a Friday afternoon
when a black youth about 1-2 years my junior approached
me and asked for a dime. Anyways (after telling him
truthfully that I had nothing), I was jumped from behind
by three other black youths (same age approximately as
the other).
I chased the four youths across a four lane busy
street and stopped short when I saw about 20 youths
(friends of theirs) sitting on the front steps of the
"asphalt jungle" highrise that the four boys ran into.
Ten or so of the boys approached me. I stood my ground
don'tt ask me why) and was punched in the mouth, upon
which I turned around and ran to the El station. A
black cop filled out a report and we drove by the high-
rise. When he asked me to point out the boys who did
it I said "they all look the same to me" or something
very similar. The point--I was pissed off-yet, in
retrospect I empathize with the poor kids of "asphalt
jungles" everywhere who have no recreational facilities
to speak of (that they can afford), and live in cramped,
poorly constructed highrises.






- 40 -


The following is an example of the Death experience.

My grandmother was killed in an automobile accident
when I was in high school. The police called and told
us that she was hurt and asked us to come to the hos-
pital. When we got there (the whole family) he told
us that she was dead. Even my father cried, and I cried
because my father cried. (The same thing happened at
her funeral). My brother didn't cry.

The following is an example of the negative Drug

experience.

I had a bad trip on LSD. I lost touch with reality-
there were only electric particles left. I would never
take the drug again unless under supervised conditions.

The following is an example of the Loneliness

experience.

I didn't have many close girl friends during this
period and one time I saw two classmates (girls) to-
gether and one girl pretended to duck the other into
the water-fountain. I wanted to be their friend so
I went over and ducked the girl too but I pushed too
hard and she began to cry. The playground teacher came
over and slapped my face. I rarely allowed myself to
cry but I did cry then.


Research Instruments


The criterion used for selecting the three sample

groups was the Personal Orientation Inventory developed by

Everett Shostrom in 1964. Where many personality tests are

negatively oriented, this one purports to give the level of

mental health. It consists of 150 forced value judgments

based on the types of judgments patients were making at the

Institute of Therapeutic Psychology. It draws on the

theories of Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, Eric Fromme, Karen


Horney and others.






- 41 -


Reliability scores were from .91 to .93. It was

validated on 650 freshmen at the Los Angeles State College,

75 members of the sensitivity training program at UCLA,

and 15 school psychologists in a special training program.

Retested after training, the latter two groups showed

definite growth in inner-directedness.

The Personal Orientation Inventory was also tested

on three other groups: 160 normal adults, 29 relatively

self-actualized adults, and 34 relatively nonself-actualized

adults as nominated by the clinical psychology societies of

Orange and Los Angeles Counties, California. The test does

discriminate between the self-actualized and nonself-actu-

alized persons on 11 of 12 scales according to Shostrom

(1964).

Robert Knapp (1965) compared the Personal Orientation

Inventory with the Eysenck Personality Inventory. The

Eysenck measures neuroticism-stability and extraversion-

introversion. High- and low-neurotic students were selected

out from 136 undergraduates on the basis of their Eysenck

Personality Inventory scores, and then the Eysenck Person-

ality Inventory was correlated with the Personal Orientation

Inventory. Low-neurotic students tended toward self-

actualization as did extroverted students. The Personal

Orientation Inventory and Eysenck Personality Inventory

are from different theoretical frames of reference, but

seem to be tapping a common core. Knapp and Shostrom (1964)






- 42 -


correlated the Personal Orientation Inventory with the MMPI

and found high correlations between the Personal Orientation

Inventory and the Si and D scales of the MMPI.

The manual gives high reliability correlations of

.91 to .93. An independent retest (fifty-week interval)

study gave a much more modest correlation of .55 for the

Tc and .71 for the I scale. The mean correlation for the

subscales was .58. Although this is not as high as would

be desirable, it is well within the range of reliability

similarly established for the Edwards Personal Preference

Schedule and the -MMPI (Ilardi and May, 1966). On the basis

of the above studies it was felt that the Personal Orien-

tation Inventory would be a valid instrument for this

research.

The demographic questionnaire or personal data

sheet was developed specifically for this research, and

was intended to elicit personal information so that com-

parisons could be made between the three sample groups.

The Personal Data Sheet elicits the following

information (see Appendix A):

1. Marital status of the subjects

2. Subject's number of children.

3. Whether or nor subjects' parents are living.

4. Marital status of subjects' parents.

5. Age of subjects at time of parents'death.

6. Age of subjects at time of parents'divorce.






- 43 -


7. Subjects' evaluation of the level of their parents'
marital happiness.

8. Subjects' evaluation of their own marital happiness.

9. Level of fathers' and mothers' education.

10. Fathers' and mothers' occupations.

11. Subjects' evaluation of fathers' and mothers'
level of emotional functioning.

12. Subjects' evaluation of spouses' level of emotional
functioning.

13. Subjects' self evaluation of emotional functioning.

14. How much the subjects' parents pushed them for
academic success.

15. How much the subjects enjoy competition.

16. Urban or Rural background of subjects.

17. Religious background and present religious activity
of subjects.

The structured autobiography asks the subject to

describe an important experience or experiences, good or

bad, which happened to him during seven specific life

stages:

1. Birth through preschool.

2. First through sixth grade.

3. Seventh through ninth grade.

4. Tenth through twelfth grade.

5. Undergraduate college.

6. Graduate school.

7. Post 21 years of age, but while not in college or
graduate school.






- 44 -


Number 7 proved not to be useful as a separate stage because

the subjects were too young to have had graduate school/

adult experiences. Therefore, 7 was combined with 6 for

the analysis.

Previous experiential studies had asked for no

more than three experiences from any one subject. This

study asks some very personal questions in the data sheet

and also asks for many experiences to be remembered and

reported in the structured autobiography. There was some

question as to whether enough subjects would cooperate in

this research by taking time to complete the total research

packet. A pilot study was made to study the feasibility

of these instruments. Thirty-five students in an intro-

ductory course to guidance and counseling were given the

Personal Orientation Inventory, the personal data question-

naire and the structured autobiography. While the number

of students who clearly met the Personal Orientation

Inventory criteria was very small, too small to make any

statistical analysis of differences. The subjects'

willingness to respond on the research instruments suggested

that the personal data sheet and the structured autobiog-

raphy were indeed useful and would give the kind of infor-

mation needed.






- 45 -


Scoring the Personal Data Sheet
and the Structured Biography


Scoring for the personal data sheet was simply a

frequency count of responses which would be fed into a Chi

Squared analysis. For instance, the following illustration

shows the Chi Squared table for responses to the question:

Are you from a rural/small town city/metropolitan

background?

Rural/Small town City/Metropolitan Total

Self-Actualized 4 24 28

Modal 9 21 30

Low-Functioning 14 15 29

Expectancies for the most part were based on the

modal sample distribution under the assumption that this

group did, in fact, closely approximate the normal population.

A Chi Squared comparison of the modal sample and the mean

Personal Orientation Inventory scores for 478 University of

Florida students showed no significant differences (see

Table 5 Chapter III).

Scoring for the structured autobiography was more

complicated. A way was needed to establish statistically

usable positive, positive-negative, negative, and negative-

positive values for each life stage and for the total

autobiography. For each life stage of each subject the

four scores represent the percentage of his experiences for







- 46 -


that stage falling within the particular cell (negative,

positive, etc.). For the total autobiography, the four

scores again are percentages for the whole life history.

Each percentage was multiplied by 100 to give values

ranging from 0 to 100.

For instance, subject #29 had a 43.7 percent of her

junior high school experiences rated positive, 6.3 percent

rated positive-negative, 43.7 percent rated negative, and

6.3 percent rated negative- positive. Of her total auto-

biography, 49.5 percent were positive, 5.7 percent positive-

negative, 43.8 percent negative and 1.0 percent negative-

positive. Each score was multiplied by 100 to give whole

numbers. Her chart, then, for six life stages plus Total

autobiography was:

Subject 29, Female

Positive- Negative-
Stage Positive Negative Negative Positive


Preschool 36.4 9.1 54.5 0.0

Elementary 54.5 9.1 36.4 0.0

Junior High 43.7 6.3 43.7 6.3

High School 66.7 0.0 33.3 0.0

Undergraduate 61.6 7.7 30.7 0.0

Graduate/Adult 23.5 0.0 76.5 0.0

Total Life 49.5 5.7 43.8 1.0

Because these vere actually percentage scores, analysis

of variance was not appropriate. Thus, the Kruskal-Wallis






- 47 -


analysis of variance by ranks,


1H = +k 3(N + 1),
N(N + 1) n k


was used to test for sample differences at each life stage

and the total autobiographies. The patterns of experience

by each life stage and the total autobiographies were com-

pared by Chi Squared,

X2 (0 E)2
X E


Summary of Procedures


The research methods used consisted of identifying

sample groups of self-actualized, modal, and low-func-

tioning college students by use of the Personal Orientation

Inventory. The sample groups were then given a research

packet consisting of a personal data sheet and structured

autobiography. The experiences were categorized by three

independent raters with previously established acceptable

reliability. The information from the data sheet and the

experiences from the biographies were compared and ana-

lyzed by the use of Chi Squared and the Kruskal-Wallis

analysis of variance by ranks.













CHAPTER III

ANALYSIS OF THE DATA


The purpose of this study was to compare the personal

backgrounds in terms of objective and subjective data of self-

actualized, modal and low-functioning persons. The Personal

Orientation Inventory was the criterion instrument for

selecting the thirty subjects in each of the three groups.

Each subject also completed a personal data questionnaire

and a structured autobiography. Three trained judges rated

each experience in the structured autobiography for its focus

(self, interpersonal or environmental), type (positive, nega-

tive, positive-negative, or negative-positive), subtypes of

positive experience (conquest, excitement, beauty, completion,

interpersonal, earned success, religious/mystical), and

subtypes of negative experience (failure, sickness-pain,

interpersonal, boredom, loneliness, escape /disgust, fear,

violence, death, hostility, mystical/religious/drug). In

addition, the raters designated the principal sharer and the

location of each experience. While these two items were not

part of the original design, it was desirable to include them

for future reference in designing self-actualization research,

especially of an experimental nature.


- 48 -






- 49 -


Use of the Personal Orientation Inventory


The manual suggests that time-incompetence/time

competence and other-directed/inner-directed ratios be used

to select subjects for the three groups. Time competence

is a measure of how fully one lives in the present moment

as opposed to being burdened about guilt for the past or

anxiety for the future. However, the totally time competent

person would not be realistic in setting goals and would not

have a healthy sense of responsibility for past deeds.

Therefore, a self-actualized person is one who is basically

time-competent but also has a small but healthy amount of

time-competence. This is expressed in a ratio form, time

incompetence:time competence.

The same pattern holds for the other-directed:inner-

directed ratios. The self-actualized person is basically

motivated and reinforced from within himself. However, he

is also open to input from other people. Thus, his level of

functioning in this area is reflected in the other-directed:

inner-directed ratio.

The manual directs that self-actualizing time

incompetence:time competence ratios (hereafter designated

T.:T ) are between 1:6 and 1:22. The remaining T.:T ratios

are given belc.: in Table 3.

The manual designates self-actualized other-directed:

inner-directed ratios (hereafter referred to as 0:1) between

1:2.9 and 1:6.4, meaning one part other-directed to between






- 50 -


2.9 and 6.4 parts inner-directed. The remaining 0:1 ratios

are given in Table 3. Each subject fitted within the appro-

priate ratio boundaries for his group on both ratios.


TABLE 3.

Personal Orientation Inventory Time Incompetence:Time
Competence and Other-Directed:Inner-Directed Ratios


Time incompetence:Time Other-directed:Inner-
competence directed

Self-actualized 1:6 to 1:22 (1:12.4*) 1:2.9 to 1:6.4 (1:3.8*)
Modal 1:3 to 1:5.1 (1:4.1*) 1:2 to 1:2.8 (1:2.4*)
Low-functioning 1:0 to 1:2.9 (1:1.6*) 1:0 to 1:1.9 (1:1.3*)


*Mean ratios for self-actualizing, modal and low-
functioning samples used in this study.


It was important for the purpose of this study to

establish the statistical similarity of the Modal sample and

the Mean Personal Orientation Inventory scores of the 478

students who were the pool from which all three samples were

drawn. A Chi Squared analysis of the 12 scale patterns of

the modal sample and the 478 students was performed and no

differences were found (see Table 5). A t test comparing

the time competence scales of both groups, and a t Test

comparing the inner-directed scales of both groups was

performed (see Table 4). There were no differences.

Therefore, it was assumed that the modal sample was statis-

tically representative of the average of the 478 students.

t tests were not appropriate for the remaining 10 scales

of the Personal Orientation Inventory as these are subscales






- 52 -


of the two basic scales. The manual directs that for

statistical purposes, the time competence and inner-

directed scales should be used.


TABLE 4

t Tests for Differences Between the Means of the Modal
Sample and 478 Students on the Personal Orientation
Inventory Time Competence and Inner-directed Scales


Time Competence Scales

mod= 18.3990

X478= 17.1600

Xmod- X478= 1.2390
mod 478
Std. Error = .7834

df = 506

t = 1.5815

p = n.s.


Inner-directed Scales

Xmod= 88.8694

X478= 86.4400

X mod- 2.4294
mod 478
Std. Error = 3.1140

df = 506

t = .7801

p = n.s.


In studying the data one of the basic statistical

procedures was the Chi Squared analysis. It was important

to see how the self-actualizing and low-functioning samples

differed from the modal (normal, average) sample. Since the

modal sample was shown to be representative of the averages

of the total subject pool, it was decided to use the modal

distribution to form expectancies for the self-actualized

and low-functioning samples wherever possible in the Chi

Squared analyses. Any significant differences then would be






- 53--


TABLE 5

Chi Squared Comparison of Personal Orientation Inventory
Mean Profile (478 Students) and the Modal Sample


Modal 478 Students
E O E O

Time Competence 18.05 18.40 17.46 17.16

Inner-directed 89.07 88.87 86.19 86.44

Self-actualizing
Values 20.23 20.3 19.58 19.55

Existentiality 21.32 20.76 20.63 21.21

Feeling Reactivity 16.73 16.77 16.19 16.15

Spontaneity 13.4 13.7 12.97 12.68

Self-regard 12.48 12.53 12.08 12.06

Self-acceptance 16.99 16.93 16.44 16.53

Nature of Man 12.64 12.87 12.23 12.00

Synergy 7.07 7.06 6.84 6.86

Acceptance of
Aggression 16.73 16.7 16.19 16.26

Capacity for
Intimate Contact 18.97 18.93 18.36 18.41


X2 = .0668, df = 11, p = n.s.






- 54 -


differences from the figures for the modal group rather than

from some generated percentage.

Where the Chi Squared tables involved more than one

degree of freedom and any expectancy cells were less than 5,

the smaller cells were combined with larger ones. If there

was only one degree of freedom, the Yates Correction Factor

X = ( E )2 was used.


Personal Data Questionnaire Results


Geographic Background

There was a difference among the three groups in

terms of their geographical background. Eighty-six percent

of the self-actualizing group and 70 percent of the modal

groups came from a city or metropolitan background. Only

52 percent of the low-functioning group came from a city or

metropolitan background. Table 6 shows the Chi Squared

distribution of the three groups. The difference was sig-

nificant (< .01 level). Seen separately, the self-actualizing

group did not differ from the modal but it differed from the

low-functioning group (< .01 level). The low-functioning

group differed from the modal at the .05 level.


The Role of Competition

The subjects were asked if they enjoyed competition.

The differences among the samples were slight and did not

attain significance. Individual comparisons were not performed

since the total Chi Squared table showed no differences (see

Table 7).






- 55 -


TABLE 6

Geographical Backgrounds


Self-actualized and Low-functioning
samples vs. the Modal sample


Rural Urban

E O E 0 Total
Self-actualized 8.4* 4 19.6* 24 28

Low-functioning 8.7* 14 20.3* 15 29


df = 1, X2 = 7.90, P = < .01.


(A)
Self-actualized sample vs. Modal sample


Rural Urban

E O E 0 Total
Self-actualized 8.4* 4 19.6* 24 28


df = 1, X2 = 3.29, p = n.s.


(B)
Low-functioning sample vs. Modal sample


Rural Urban

E O E 0 Total
Low-functioning 3.7* 14 20.3* 15 29


df = 1, X2 = 4.61, p = < .05.

*The expectancies in the above tables were based on
the actual modal sample in which 9 were from rural and 21
were from urban backgrounds. Thus 30 percent of the total.
in each table was expected to be rural and 70 percent, urban.






- 56 -


In the following table the self-actualized and low-
functioning samples were analyzed for differences between
them. The modal sample was not used and the expectancies
were generated in.the usual way, i.e. Rural Expected = 18/57
x 28 = 8.84.


TABLE 6(C)--Continued
Self-actualized sample vs. Low-functioning sample


Rural Urban

E 0 E 0 Total
Self-actualized 8.84 4 19.16 24 28

Low-functioning 9.16 14 19.84 15 29

Total 18 18 39 39 57


df = 1, X2 = 7.61, p = < .01.


TABLE 7

Do you Enjoy Competition?


Raw Data

Yes No Some
Self-actualized 13 3 13

Modal 17 2 11

Low-functioning 13 6 11



(A)
Chi Squared Analysis, Self-actualized and Low-functioning
samples vs. the Modal sample

(For this analysis the "no" and "some" cells were combined.
The "no" cells had to be combined with "some" because a
"no"-"yes" combination would be a contradiction in terms.)






- 57 -


Yes No/Some
E O E O Total
Self-actualized 16.43* 13 12.57 16 29

Low-functioning 17* 13 13* 17 30


df = 1, X2 = 3.83, p = n.s.

*The expectancies in the above table were based on
the actual modal sample in which 17 were "yes" and 13 were
"no/some." Thus 57 percent of the total was expected to
be "yes" and 43 percent, "no/some."


Parental Push for Grades

The role of the parents in pushing the subjects to

make good grades was investigated. More parents of the

low-functioning sample were reported as having pushed for

good grades than were parents of the other two groups. There

was a significant difference when the self-actualizing and

low-functioning groups were compared to the modal. However,

the self-actualizing and modal group did not differ signifi-

cantly nor did the self-actualizing and low-functioning group

differ significantly. When compared individually, only the

low-functioning versus the modal samples differed (see Table

9).


Childhood Religious Training

No statistically significant differences were

reported among the samples regarding childhood religious

training. The self-actualized sample gave the only "no

training responses. Individual comparisons were not performed

since the total Chi Squared table showed no differences (see

Table 8).






- 58 -


TABLE 8

Childhood Religious Training


Raw Data

Yes No Some
Self-actualized 24 2 4

Modal 23 0 6

Low-functioning 27 0 3



(A)
Chi Squared Analysis, Self-actualized and Low-functioning
samples vs. Modal sample

(For this analysis, the "no" and "some" cells were combined
because both were small.)


Yes No/Some

E O E 0 Total
Self-actualized 23.79* 24 6.21* 6 30

Low-functioning 23.79* 27 6.21* 3 30


df = 1, X2 = 2.303, p = n.s.

*The expectancies in the above table were based on
the actual modal sample in which 23 were "yes" and 6 were
"no/some." Thus 79 percent were expected to be "yes" and
21 percent, "no/some."


TABLE 9

Perceived Parental Pressure for Grades


Yes No Some

Self-actualized 7 11 12

Modal 4 11 15

Low-functioning 13 10 7






- 59 -


TABLE 9(A)--Continued

Comparison of Self-actualizing and Low-functioning
samples vs. Modal sample
(Chi Squared Analysis of "yes/some" vs. "no.")


Yes/Some No
E 0 E 0 Total
Self-actualized 15* 18 15* 12 30

Low-functioning 15* 23 15* 7 30


df = 1, X2 = 9.73, p = .01.


(B)

Self-actualized vs. Modal sample


Yes/Some No

E 0 E O Total
Self-actualized 15* 18 15* 12 30


df = 1, X2 = 1.20, p = n.s.


(C)

Low-functioning vs. Modal sample


Yes/Some No


df = 1, X2 8.53, p = .01.


The expectancies in the above tables were based on
the actual modal sample in which 15 were "yes/some" and 15
were "no."






- 60 -


In the following table the self-actualized and low-
functioning samples were analyzed for differences between
them. The modal sample was not used.


TABLE 9(D)--Continued

Self-actualized vs. Low-functioning sample


Yes/Some No

E 0 E 0 Total
Self-actualized 20.5 18 9.5 12 30

Low-functioning 20.5 23 9.5 7 30


df = 1, X2 = 1.93, p = n.s.


Religious Preference

Differences in religious preference were reported

between the self-actualizing and modal samples. The self-

actualizing sample reported less protestants, about the

expected number of Catholics and Jews, but more "other"

(atheist, agnostic, etc.) than did the modal. The small

cell sizes of the "Catholic," "Jew" and "other" categories

prohibited the use of Chi Squared Analysis unless the small

cells were combined. However, by combining all the nonprotes-

tant cells one may infer how protestantism relates to the

three levels of functioning. There were significant differ-

ences when the low-functioning group and the self-actualizing

group was compared to the modal. However, when all the groups

were compared two at a time only the self-actualizing and

modal groups differed significantly (see Table 10).






- 61 -


TABLE 10

Religious Preference


Protestant Catholic Jew Other

Self-actualized 12 6 5 6

Modal 20 4 4 2

Low-functioning 18 6 2 3



(A)

Self-actualized and Low-functioning
samples vs. the Modal sample

(A Chi Squared Analysis of Protestants and Nonprotestants.)


Protestant Nonprotestant

E O E O Total
Self-actualized 19.33* 12 9.67* 17 29

Low-functioning 19.30* 18 9.67* 11 29


df = 1, X2 = 8.62, p = .01.


(B)

Self-actualized sample vs. the Modal sample


Protestant Nonprotestant

E 0 E 0 Total
Self-actualized 19.33* 12 9.67* 17 29


df = 1, X2 = 8.35, p = < .01.






- 62 -


TABLE 10(C)--Continued

Low-functioning Sample vs. the Modal sample


Protestant Nonprotestant

E O E 0 Total
Low-functioning 19.33* 18 9.67* 11 29


df = 1, X2 = .28, p = n.s.
*
The expectancies in the above tables were based on
the actual modal sample in which 20 were protestant and 10
were nonprotestant.


In the following table the self-actualized and low-
functioning samples were analyzed for differences between
them. The modal sample was not used.


(D)

Self-actualized sample vs. the Low-functioning sample


Protestant Nonprotestant

E 0 E O Total
Self-actualized 15 12 14 17 29

Low-functioning 15 18 14 11 29


df = 1, X2 = 2.49, p = n.s.


Religious Activity

The modal and low-functioning samples were dissimilar

in religious activity with the modal group being most inactive,

and the low-functioning sample being most involved in religious

activity. No attempt was made to define the type of activity

represented (see Table 11).






- 63 -


TABLE 11

Active in Religion


Self-actualized and Low-functioning
samples vs. the Modal sample


Yes No Partially

E 0 E 0 E O Total
Self-actualized 8* 9 17* 13 4* 7 29

Low-functioning 8.27* 15 17.59* 9 4.14* 6 30


df = 2, X2 = 13.82, p = < .01.


(A)

Self-actualized sample vs. Modal sample


Yes No Partially

E O E 0 E 0 Total
Self-actualized 8* 9 17* 13 4* 7 29


df = 2, X2 = 3.32, p = n.s.


(B)

Low-functioning sample vs. Modal sample


Yes No Partially

E 0 E O E O Total
Low-functioning 8.27* 15 17.59* 9 4.14* 6 30


df = 2, X2 = 10.50, p = < .01.
*The expectancies in the above tables were based on
the actual modal sample in which 8 were "yes," 14 were "no"
and 4 were "partially."




- 64 -


In the following table the self-actualized and low-
functioning samples were analyzed for differences between
them. The modal sample was not used.


TABLE 11(C)--Continued

Self-actualized sample vs. Low-functioning sample


Yes No Partially

E O E O E O Total
Self-actualized 11.8 9 10.81 13 6.39 7 29

Low-functioning 12.2 15 11.19 9 6.61 6 30


df = 2, X2 = 2.29, p = n.s.


Ability to Assess One's Own Mental Health

All subjects were asked to rank their own mental

health according to personal criteria as either above average,

average, or below average. It has been assumed that the self-

actualizing subjects would be able to rate their own level of

mental functioning more accurately than the other groups.

The Personal Orientation Inventory was used as the criterion.

Roughly 46 percent of the self-actualizing subjects were

accurate, 50 percent of the models were accurate, and only

10 percent of the low-functioning subjects were accurate.

Only the low-functioning subjects were ever more than one

level away from their level as measured by the Personal

Orientation Inventory. No self-actualized or modal subjects

rated themselves as below average. Table 12 gives the raw

data and a reduced Chi Squared analysis of self rating.

The self-actualized sample was not different from the modal





- 65 -


TABLE 12

Rating of One's Own Mental Health


Above Average Average Below Average

Self-actualized 13 17 0

Modal 15 15 0

Low-functioning 8 19 3



(A)

Self-actualizing and Low-functioning
samples vs. Modal sample

(Chi Squared Analysis with "average" and "below average"
cells combined.)


Above Average Average/Below Average

E O E O Total
Self-actualized 15* 13 15* 17 30

Low-functioning 15* 8 15* 22 30


df = 1, X2 = 7.07, p = < .01.


(B)

Self-actualizing sample vs. Modal sample


Above Average Average/Below Average

E O E O Total
Self-actualized 15* 13 15* 17 30


df = 1, X2 = .53, p = n.s.






- 66 -


TABLE 12(C)--Continued

Low-functioning sample vs. Modal sample


Above Average Average/Below Average

E O E O Total
Low-functioning 15* 8 15* 22 30


df = 1, X2 = 6.53, p = < .05.

The expectancies in the above tables were based on
the actual modal sample in which 15 were "above average" and
15 were "average/below average."


In the following table the self-actualized and low-
functioning samples were analyzed for differences between
them. The modal sample was not used.


(C)

Self-actualized sample vs. Low-functioning sample


Above Average Average/Below Average

E O E 0 Total
Self-actualized 10.5 13 19.5 17 30

Low-functioning 10.5 8 19.5 22 30


df = 1, X2 = 1.83, p = n.s.


or low-functioning sample. However, the low-functioning

sample was significantly different from the modal in self

rating and generally in the hypothesized direction.


Parents' Marital Happiness

Each subject was asked to rate the level of marital

happiness in his parents' home. This was an attempt to






- 67 -


relate the parents' marital adjustment to the subjects' level

of functioning. There were no significant differences (see

Table 13).


TABLE 13

Parents' Marital Happiness


Self-actualized and Low-functioning
samples vs. Modal sample


Happy Neutral Unhappy

E O E O E O Total
Self-actualized 20* 20 4* 6 6* 4 30

Low-functioning 20* 19 4* 3 6* 8 30


df = 2, X2 = 2.63, p = n.s.


Parents' Divorced

A related question dealt with divorce among the

subjects' parents. More subjects than usual did not reply

to this question, possibly because of its negative impli-

cations. However, on the basis of the replies, the self-

actualized and modal samples were very similar. More

divorces were reported by the low-functioning subjects.

However, the differences did not attain significance (see

Table 14).






- 68 -


TABLE 14

Parents' Divorced


Self-actualized and Low-functioning
sample vs. Modal sample


Yes No

E O E 0 Total
Self-actualized 2.78* 2 23.21* 24 26

Low-functioning 3.11* 6 20.53* 23 29


df = 1, X2 = 2.07, p = n.s.
*
The expectancies in the above tables were based on
the actual modal sample in which 3 were "yes" and 25 were
"no. "


Death Among Parents

The subjects used in this study were too young to

have had much experience with death. The self-actualizing

sample reported more dead parents than did the other two

samples. However, the self-actualizing sample was older

than the other two samples although the age differences were

not significant (see Table 50). The raw data is given below

but a cell size of "1" precluded adequate analysis by Chi

Squared.

TABLE 15
At Least One Parent Dead

Living Dead

Self-actualized 24 6
Modal 29 1
Low-functioning 29 1






- 69 -


Fathers Education

The levels of the fathers' education were similar

for the self-actualized and low-functioning samples. The

"modal" fathers had a higher level of education with more

college graduates and graduate work than the other two

samples. However, none of the differences were significant

(see Table 16).


TABLE 16

Fathers' Education


Less Than High Some
High School School College B.A. B.A.+

Self-actualized 5 8 9 3 4

Modal 2 7 4 9 7

Low-functioning 5 7 8 8 2



(A)

Self-actualized and Low-functioning
samples vs. Modal sample

(Chi Squared Analysis with cells combined into "no college"
or "some college or more.")


No College Some College or More

E O E O Total
Self-actualized 9* 13 20* 16 29

Low-functioning .9.31* 12 20.69* 18 30


df = 1, X2 = 3.70, p = n.s.
The expectancies in the table were based on the
actual modal sample in which 9 had no college and 20 had
some college or more.






- 70 -


Fathers' Occupation

Some differences in the fathers' occupations (blue

collar, clerical, business, or professional) among the three

samples were reported. When the self-actualized and low-

functioning samples were compared together with the modal

significant differences emerged. When compared two samples

at a time, the self-actualized and modal samples and the

self-actualized and low-functioning samples did not differ.

The low-functioning and modal samples did differ significantly

(see Table 17).


TABLE 17

Fathers' Occupations


Self-actualized and Low-functioning
samples vs. Modal sample


Blue Collar/ Business/
Clerical Professional

E 0 E 0 Total
Self-actualized 4.48* 8 23.52* 20 28

Low-functioning 4.80* 10 25.20* 20 30


df = 1, X2 = 10.00, p = < .01.






- 71 -


TABLE 17(A)--Continued

Self-actualized sample vs. Modal sample


Blue Collar/ Business/
Clerical Professional

E 0 E O Total
Self-actualized 4.48* 8 23.52* 20 28


df = 1, X2 = 3.29, p = n.s.

(B)

Low-functioning sample vs. Modal sample


Blue Collar/ Business/
Clerical Professional

E O E O Total
Low-functioning 4.80* 10 25.20* 20 30


df = 1, X2 = 6.71, p = < .05.

The expectancies in the above tables were based
on the actual modal sample in which 4 were blue collar/
clerical and 21 were business/professional.

In the following table the self-actualized and
low-functioning samples were analyzed for differences
between them. The modal sample was not used.

(C)

Self-actualizing sample vs. Low-functioning sample


Blue Collar/ Business/
Clerical Professional

E O E O Total
Self-actualized 8.69 8 19.31 20 28
Low-functioning 9.31 10 20.69 20 30

df = 1, X2 = 2.16, p = n.s.






- 72 -


Fathers' Mental Health

Each subject was asked to rate his father's mental

health using the subject's personal criteria. Significant

differences occurred. The modal group generally saw their

fathers as more healthy. The low-functioning students saw

their fathers as less healthy. The low-functioning sample

differed from the modal sample significantly. The self-

actualized sample did not differ significantly from either

the modal or low-functioning samples (see Table 18).


TABLE 18

Fathers' Mental Health


Above Average Average Below Average

Self-actualized 13 15 2

Modal 16 10 4

Low-functioning 7 19 3



(A)

Self-actualized and Low-functioning
samples vs. Modal sample

(Chi Squared Analysis with "average" and "below average"
cells combined.)


Above Average Average/Below Average

E 0 E 0 Total
Self-actualized 16.53* 13 14.46* 17 30

Low-functioning 15.47* 7 13.53* 22 29

df = 1, X2 = 11.14, p = < .001.






- 73 --


TABLE 18(B)---Continued

Self-actualized sample vs. the Modal sample


Above Average


Average/Below Average


df = 1, x2 = 1.20, p = n.s.


Low-functioning sample vs. the Modal sample


Above Average Average/Below Average

E O E O Total
Low-functioning 15.47* 7 13.53* 22 29


df = 1, X2 = 9.94, p = < .01.

The expectancies in the above tables were based
on the actual modal sample in which 16 were above average
and 14 were average/below average.


In the following table the self-actualized and low-
functioning samples were analyzed for differences between
them. The modal sample was not used.


(D)
Self-actualized sample vs. Low-functioning sample


Above Average Average/Below Average

E O E O Total
Self-actualized 10.17 13 19.83 17 30

Low-functioning 9.83 7 19.17 22 29


df = 1, X2 = 2.42, p = n.s.


~_ __
_ ___ ~I ~~_I~__~I~__






- 74 -


Mothers' Education

There were no significant differences among the

three samples regarding the level of their mothers' edu-

cation (see Table 19).


TABLE 19

Mothers' Education


Less Than High Some
High School School College B.A. B.A.+

Self-actualized 2 13 7 7 1

Modal 2 13 9 4 2

Low-functioning 1 18 4 5 1



(A)

Self-actualized and Low-functioning
samples vs. the Modal sample

(Chi Squared Analysis with cells combined into "no college"
or "some college+.")


No College Some College/Plus

E O E O Total
Self-actualized 15* 15 15* 15 30

Low-functioning 14.5* 19 14.5* 10 29


df = 1, X2 = 2.79, p = n.s.

The expectancies in the above table were based on
the actual modal sample in which 15 had no college and 15
had some college or more.






- 75 -


Mothers' Occupations

Important differences in the mothers' occupations

were reported among the three samples. The differences had

nothing to do with the type of job the mothers held outside

the home, but whether or not the mothers worked outside the

home. Mothers of the modal group tended to be homemakers.

Mothers of the self-actualized and low-functioning groups

tended to work outside the home. Both the low-functioning

and self-actualized groups differed significantly from the

models, but did not differ from each other (see Table 20).


TABLE 20

Mothers at Home or Away from Home


Self-actualized and Low-functioning
samples vs. the Modal sample


Homemaker Away from Home


E 0 E
Self-actualized 18.37* 9 10.63*

Low-functioning 19* 12 11*


Total
29

30


df = 1, X2 = 20.07, p = < .001.

(A)
Self-actualized sample vs. the Modal sample

Homemaker Away from Home

E 0 E 0 Total
Self-actualized 18.37* 9 10.63* 20 29

df = 1, X2 = 13.03, p = < .001.


-----~








TABLE 20(B)--Continued

Low-functioning sample vs. the Modal sample


Homemaker


Away from Home


df = 1, x2 = 7.03, p = < .01.

*The expectancies in the above tables were based
on the actual modal sample in which 19 were homemakers and
11 were away from home.


In the following table the self-actualized and low-
functioning samples were analyzed for differences between
them. The modal sample was not used.


(C)

Self-actualizing sample vs. Low-functioning sample


Homemaker Away from Home

E O E O Total
Self-actualized 10.32 9 18.68 20 29

Low-functioning 10.68 12 19.32 18 30


df = 1, X2 = .52, p = n.s.


Mothers' Mental Health

There were no differences among the groups regarding

the reported level of their mothers' mental health (see


Table 21).


~I~ ~~_ __
_ ~~_ ~ ____~II_


- 76 -






- 77 --


TABLE 21

Mothers' Mental Health


Above Average Average Below Average

Self-actualized 9 19 2

Modal 8 19 3

Low-functioning 7 18 5



(A)

Self-actualized and Low-functioning
samples vs. the Modal sample

(Chi Squared Analysis with "average" and "below average"
cells combined.)


Above Average Average/Below Average

E O E O Total

Self-actualized 8* 9 22* 21 30

Low-functioning 8* 7 22* 23 30


df = 1, x2 = .34, p = n.s.
*
The expectancies in the above table were based on
the actual modal sample in which 8 mothers were rated above
average and 22 mothers were rated average or below.


Subjects' Marital Status

More self-actualizing subjects were married. The

modal sample reported the least marriages. Divorces were

reported only by the self-actualizing sample. The only

significant differences were between the self-actualizing

and modal samples (see Table 22).






- 78 -


TABLE 22

Subjects' Marital Status


Married Single Divorced

Self-actualized 11 16 3

Modal 4 26 0

Low-functioning 7 23 0



(A)

Self-actualized and Low-functioning
samples vs. the Modal sample

(Chi Squared Analysis with "Married" and "Divorced" cells
combined.)


Married or Divorced Never Married

E O E O Total
Self-actualized 4* 14 26* 16 30

Low-functioning 4* 7 26* 23 30


df = 1, X2 = 31.44, p = < .001.


(C)

Self-actualized sample vs. the Modal sample


Married or Divorced


Never Married


df = 1, X2 = 28.85, p = < .001.






- 79 -


TABLE 22(C)--Continued

Low-functioning sample vs. the Modal sample


Married or Divorced Never Married

E O E 0 Total
Low-functioning 4* 7 26* 23 30


df = 1, X2 = 2.60, p = n.s.

The expectancies in the above tables were based
on the actual modal sample in which 4 were married or
divorced and 26 were never married.


In the following table the self-actualized and low-
functioning samples were analyzed for differences between
them. The modal sample was not used.


(D)

Self-actualized sample vs. the Modal sample


Married or Divorced Never Married

E O E O Total
Self-actualized 10.5 14 10.5 16 30

Low-functioning 10.5 7 19.5 23 30


df = 1, X2 = 3.59, p = n.s.


Subjects' Marital Happiness

When the reported marital happiness of the three

samples was compared, apparent differences occurred. The

modal group reported only happy marriages. The other two

samples reported moderately happy marriages. Only one

marriage was rated unhappy and that was in the self-actualized

group. Both the self-actualized and low-functioning groups






- 80 -


differed from the modal but did not differ from each other

in the level of reported marital happiness (see Table 23).

Statistical analysis was inappropriate because of zero

expectancy cells.


TABLE 23

Subjects' Marital Happiness


Very Happy Moderately Happy Unhappy

Self-actualized 8 5 1

Modal 4 0 0

Low-functioning 4 3 0



Spouses' Mental Health

Each subject rated the mental health of his spouse

using personal criteria for mental health. There were no

differences among the three groups (see Table 24).


TABLE 24

Spouses' Mental Health


Above Average Average Below Average

Self-actualized 10 3 0

Modal 3 1 0

Low-functioning 1 2 1






81 -

TABLE 24(A)--Continued

Self-actualized and Low-functioning
samples vs. the Modal sample

(Chi Squared Analysis with "average" and "below
cells combined and adjusted by Yates Correction
for small cell size.)


average"
Factor


Above Average Average/Below Average

E 0 E 0 Total

Self-actualized 9.75* 10 3.25* 3 13

Low-functioning 3* 1 1* 3 4


df = 1, X2 = 3.03, p = n.s.
*The expectancies in the above tables were based
on the actual modal sample in which 3 were above average
and 1 was average or below.


Structured Autobiography Results


The Number of Experiences Related

The total number of experiences related by each

sample in the structured autobiographies was compared.

Highly significant differences (< .001) emerged between the

self-actualized and modal samples, and between the modal

and low-functioning samples. There was no difference between

the low-functioning and self-actualizing samples. The self-

actualizing and low-functioning samples related the greatest

number of experiences (see Table 25).











Total Numb


Self-actualizing

E 0

468 504

df = 2, X2


82 -


TABLE 25

er of Experiences Reported


Modal Low-functioning

E O E O Total

468 389 468 511 1404

= 20.06, p = < .001.


Self-actualized vs. Modal sample


Self-actualized Modal


E 0 E 0 Total
446.5 504 446.5 389 893

df = 1, X2 = 14.80, p = < .001.
(B)

Self-actualized vs. Low-functioning samples


Self-actualized Low-functioning


Moda


E
450


df = 1, X2 = .04, p = n.s.

(C)

Modal sample vs. Low-functioning


il Low-functioning

0 E 0
389 450 511


df = 1, X2 = 16.54, p = < .001.


sample


Total
900


--


I


Mod






- 83 -


Number of Crucial Experiences

Each subject was asked to designate the "three most

important experiences for making you what you are today."

There was no significant difference among the samples

regarding the number of crucial experiences reported (see

Table 26).


TABLE 26

Number of Crucial Experiences


Self-actualizing Modal Low-functioning

E O E O E O Total
67 76 67 58 67 67 201


df = 2, X2 = 2.42, p = n.s.


Distribution by Life Stages of Crucial Experiences

When the crucial experiences were examined in terms

of the life stage during which they happened, significant

differences emerged. It had been hypothesized that the

elementary years would produce the greatest number of crucial

experiences but the data suggest that the senior high and

undergraduate years are most productive of crucial experiences

(see Table 27).






- 84 -


TABLE 27

Distribution by Life Stages of Crucial Experiences


E 0

Preschool 33.5 13

Elementary 33.5 26

Jr. High 33.5 24

Sr. High 33.5 55

Undergraduate 33.5 63

Graduate/Adult 33.5 20

Total 201


df = 5, X2 = 62.13, p = < .001.


The Focus of Experience

The experiences of the three samples were divided

by focus, i.e., primarily with the self, primarily inter-

personal, or primarily with the environment. Further, they

were categorized as Focus positive or Focus negative. For

all three samples the interpersonal experience was by far

the most common, both positive and negative.

Table 28 gives the Chi Squared comparison of the

frequency count of the positive and negative foci among the

three samples. The self-actualized sample differed from

the modal but not from the low-functioning sample. The

modal and low-functioning samples did not differ. Figure 2

shows the percent of each sample in the positive and negative

aspects of the three foci experience. There is a strong








- 85 -


Self


Interpersonal

43.5%
I I


38.3%
1


Positive


3.3%


1.4% 1.1% 1.4%
1.4% 1.1% 1.4%


Negative


38.9% 37.5%


Environmental


31.8%


45.5%


10.6% 10.7%
8.9%-


8.9%


N
H
-,



41
co


5.3%










r0
i0
0


8.9%


Figure 2. Three samples; focus of experience-percentages compared.
Ninety subjects (30 in each group).
Self-actualized sample = 480 experiences
Modal sample = 379 experiences
Low-functioning sample = 483 experiences
Total 1342 experiences


I -I r r 1- I






- 86 -


similarity among the patterns of the three groups even though

the self-actualized versus modal did attain significance.

When the patterns of positive foci are examined for

the three samples, the self-actualized and low-functioning

groups taken together differ significantly from the modal.

Yet, when compared self-actualized versus modal, or low-

functioning versus modal, or self-actualized versus low-

functioning, they do not attain significance (see Table 29).

In this comparison the self actualized and low-functioning

subjects reported less interpersonal experiences and more

environmental experiences than the models, and self-actualized

subjects reported more self experiences than either the models

or low-functioning subjects.

The patterns of negative foci also show differences.

When the low-functioning and self-actualized samples together

are compared to the modal sample, differences at the < .01

level emerge. However, when compared in pairs, only the

self-actualized and models are significantly different. The

difference between them follows the same pattern as that of

the positive foci comparison. The self-actualized subjects

had more self experiences, less interpersonal and more

environmental experiences than the modal subjects (see

Table 30).




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