Group Title: military reform in the viceroyalty of Peru, 1762-1800
Title: The Military reform in the viceroyalty of Peru, 1762-1800
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 Material Information
Title: The Military reform in the viceroyalty of Peru, 1762-1800
Physical Description: ix, 331 leaves : illus. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Campbell, Leon George, 1938-
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1970
Copyright Date: 1970
Subject: History, Military -- Peru   ( lcsh )
History -- Peru -- Insurrection of Tupac Amaru, 1780-1781   ( lcsh )
Peru   ( lcsh )
History thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- History -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 322-331.
Additional Physical Form: Also available on World Wide Web
General Note: Manuscript copy.
General Note: Thesis - University of Florida.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097710
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000541671
oclc - 13077462
notis - ACW5216


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%0 Old SO 4115uMINA

u;Ho P ,HED,~ FAlID, ~.ri0 PI.ILLEDj, pE:"EeTIVE LrI


-ithough j di;nerlation teairs the na~mi cf a single autlhor,

it is the product of ;deas rnd inspirjtion receri.rd du.rin4 th;-

studint's graduateF carecr, To ProftEt Tor DSmid Bus~hncll, Irelli

Ilackul;*, John, nahon, and clndrcs Su1r~..x, .hc. hJ.s pro..ided otOh,

Iou j since~r; debte of gratitude.

Ishould~r cleo ie to thajnk~ the p-rsons ab~o iidid in the

prepajration of :Fis dislcrtatiion. In liims tht staffs of th.

cour t-5 y Dr. Fellax l-ncgr; L,.ma Flaed his ixtraordinar, brr

a: my ipo L a503 nd heilped ~iT~y r-scirch in m~an*, waysr i ow~e a

financial dbtr of gratitudle to th~e Di~ision ofi Freigil n Studi-5

of the DEpartm~ent of Iealth. Educatoion, and '.elfa~re for thei

generous assistai nc hich, Fupprted~ m, reserch, issMr *i~

hi~son of the Istitut:. of In~ternational Stuidiei kI~ndi, ass~irct

rene ir, on..'ro s u:,2. n 20 ill 6 I ndet-tted to thr jtaff

of the .renice General de las Indjis for :'.:irr cooperj.;cco,

fIrs. CFR; lii L-scno obhl; I,pe th- ruin~uscr'pt.

thi lorr,Last r-as Ire of grartittde. Nlot onl, has he pro.ided n; withh

financial ;support and sound ad.Ice thr~ougho~ut grelruate school, but

150J rrit much~ that has conltrbibuted [o my. de~ielopment~ a.. a scholar., heF has ow~n 6 ilose snd .alueJ frie-nd. Finally, I hiere,


ricate~ my~ wife and children, from their rours of perpetual jilernce

While pt raise mj: be distributeJ uidel;? blalTe cannot.I

assume all responsibilYit or errors of fait 3rnd inIC.TErprtaton

contained in !he manjusCript.





AClitiouL E Di ll Iif S . . . . .

LIST DF TktlLES . . . .


Ar IrTE OilCI T:TIoil3 . . .

AB5 TFI:CT . . . .

I. THE: DEFEll?.iS OF FEi.U AT nlDiEIlTUFi.' .


Li VOL U llol . . .

FEVjOLT 5 OFl 17;8C- 1M ... ..

VJ. h U r,: Tib r b L T P : O t

.., ...





. . . .

5E.'Ell rEi.PS

. . .


. . 207


BIBLIOChrAPI. . . . .


'Table Page

1,TEM.O EU 76 15

SEV'Er 'rEiPS L FC 17627-17:- . 44

j. THE r.PriI' OiF PEcU lii 1'7 . ... .. 7 '

0, UiT O C NCATO r0 F TEFGtn rT
1769 ................ 105

5, *-DT.JS N F 1 U C .A N T 114
Alt~unFH, 81...... ,.. 183

6, THEi F EFri ni io THE FI JO. COr'FOrl r il DF THiE
CIPref' iF PFUFI, 178'1 .. .. .. 225

7. OF C/.ti l."T !011 OFl '. VE rT f*"u I fF;.rrTP,
EG E.T ... ~.. . . . . 228

3. THE. lIlLIl lA OIF PEi.U, 172'7-1816 . .. 238?

3. THEf 6r.:' OF PEFU. I 16 .. . .. . 1


Figure PagE

1. 11ap ot Pru,............,.. xi

4 IrOTE 011CIlTATI iusi

The research ior th~i dissirreartin <*as done in fo~ur pr;ncipal

archives : the Arrchio tCneral Je lar Ir..:laia in St.illc, Spain

(her~inalter cited as AGI~I, the A~rchi.*o rl3ionjl. Linj (hireinsfter

cited as AHL1), the EanirCoft Libra~ry if the University Of Califoirr~ia

at bEirele, (here'rr~af[Er critd as ELI andJ rhe Eibliamen ne-~ ccinal,

Liona~ (hereiraf~tr cited ai P.NL), In order to facilitate citing

these Siources, attee.iatiions r.ill tro used. The njnr.. of the archi.e

wil tI e inairlarcdi, el fo~llolwed by a iolon and the name~ oi the remo

(ecrtii ; call of i th rch;.i where rhe pajrtirular documents i. to to

frand. Thecabbil~.;atesito for these are as follous:

AC r.uodencia de C..zce-
IsL iAudienciD de Lirn-
IG luc~ifre~nte General
PA. Psal Audiencij
FH Feal Mlaiie~ndj
PTC Fejl Trib~unjl cel Coajulade~

Thle rema e is llo.;rd LL the number oi the csolunme in which

the document-~ wasr foulnd. W.heri-ea Possible, thi'. cu~nb.::r i'. fol

lovetd b, ?Ihe r.uniber of~ the errsedicncer (;ct... Or documecnt) itself,

aLtug in ma., intae t hes Jar~re Lur~rlumberedd In this caie.

thie doiicunen ii .dentiFied by ;he namei~s f the correspondents,

the location,, the date jnd the page numbrrs,~

For c>.anplec j letter fro5m Vicerol t~ilnuil de iPara T~o Jos4 deL

Ilvel, Lie1,. JanUir, 1_,1775 I)C bichi wa1;s lcaltd in the Archi~i. Gene-

ral de las Indias in Scenior, inudiencij de Lirr~a, volume 149I, wrould

be cited as AGI:AL 14490 Amzt to. Gilecz, L~ime, Januar) 12, 1775.

Particular !itlc: are enclose-d ir. quotation neart.r aInd citid

txactl; ;e they sppeared

Sou~r ce: .Ichesi res t on flic;E The` Cat ;;de in 2 rFu
ulnde~~t~ r tl.

404fTTED FI051 4NDYEr..44 thTE4TO.

..-- R ......3r, .si rk.e fearce. 4-..f~r ,,,

Figure 1,--Map of Peru

T1' g



Ab~strict of; D;sE.E.*Eation Presented to the
Grjdu:-to Coulncil of the Uni-serrity of Florida ir. Partial Fu~lfillmcnen
of the Fequi~remdnts ;or thet DEgree o f Doctor C.1 Phile Oph,

THE rilLIThr..<. FEFI~if e IN THE VICEF.0'i'aLT'i
OF PFFU, 176.7-1~00

Leon~ George Canipt-eI1, .Ir.

Chairan: r. L.16 IJ. I~ctlitter

Du~rini the; jievntcunth century* the defer. e of the SFani;Th empire

stationred in thr pred;dioi or prrioni ]rt:loae. aln he. iron:16.r of:

the tar1 eiere;alte:, th dec;-:i*,e defetj of Spain at the ha~ndi-

et irear tritain~ dur~ing thr- sEen iiars \!ar (1756-1;6 I dema~cn-trjied the

inaddqu;,, o~f these~ pre,;idil troo,,p; to deftnd rsuch a rvast recgior Cand

led [o j ma~jor re:.rg.=nizatiuPm of ther New~ L'orld sr.iie. This re~orgjrniza-

t ion of t ic mili tar i cro-r.r i icd one of a -cr i,. 0 cre lures knowni col -

lecti\cl/ as Ence Clourb:OI idfOrmsl ir, honor oi th,-ir creator, th~-e Bourbon

mo~njrch Cha-r les i I Il.

The intention. of' the Spa~ish croa~n war to rrplow there garriison

irirop kithh bactal~oni rei;-, in the. coloniej in an clierr

tc. b-:ter d-;fer~d igainjt futu-i attact:.. In jddition, a mn1iitia w~as to

Lte creatcJ on a regional tbarsh and diisciplined b; veteran cconrand bnd

staff groups a~i~ch we~re to prc.ide themi writh periodic training, While

thij approach was; sulcessFul ir. I'ew S~ppin, the ina7~cnse r.ize of the

V;icero,alry of P~rru pra.cntEd it' efecitiv.* implc-narrjcaion there. The

d;isance betweeFn towrni and c;Itie and the rural rnature of: the kirngdom

mieant that thei militia in Peru \here too rridely dispersed to epe~ljte ar

tactical unitsj during :,jrline.E, 00eo.Cr. [he lsCk of rwhirc6 in LEEST

highland regions mald the Span~ijh rluhorlities reluctant. to grant two-

neini.ons as of f icerr to tr~i ed Lloads. .hose l .,*alt'.' to the roien \,;I

freq uc-nly juspect. The discipline of the r..ilitiss broke~ down becaure

nmilitia cr..colis:lons t.crc instcsd grianred to thi: rcrele notbilit; in

Limer whlo rart.1,, ii cuer, tra.*allfr! to rlue; pro-irnes ro inspect; thtir

compjnic .

A decrade of IndiJn rd.l lion, ibegir~rn:ng writh; the Tupac Amaru

re:c01t in 1172.0, fo~rctd th~e c.cntual Ji-tandin3 cof the ;nltrirr nidlitia

e~cept in ccrta in large c it ies sich ai CuL~o r here biodies of urban

militia rar..eined as a form of ci;il nu3rd, Thereafter a discipline

milItrij in Peru retained onli alone the coast, Thir reduction in

thC s ii.. of the rr~ilitria .:n j of ~ the baiio ttAllic..1 that had t~cen raised

i r. the co~lr.~irr ? rClo.tined vithI th~e arr [.el cF t*.o .ue.'an regimrents

fro~r.. Spin in 1/$.:, jign fle~d 3 return to rhe trradtionall form~ ofr

dzefense, and use- j tacit admission that the ii litary reform hjd failtd.

Furthier limitations \ere place upon thP rr~l;tor, reformi by thet

disrupt i.c viit-r: ir. oi Josr: rntonio do direchle 6nd the creat ion of the

Viccro,jllt / f :Fhe La Plac3 in 1776 uhich re..o.ed rhe silr-r minles of

Charca. fromn Peru's juri-dicti:on. To replace this source o rc.cnue,

tar le:cle :E~re ;inreasd in PEru I-hich pro~iked further distutjrbancs,

Effors ro co~llec; a "r;~iliarsr, ci~ntribution"' to p6, the ralariesC of

Vetee n tranin cor c ere de feared b, miIi t i resistajnic. Embrojiled

in a long series o~f European arlsr, Feru waUs forced to restLr~ic irr

jrmi, to rhe defense of~ Li.T.. and3 ccitain orher large cities ."long the

Ihe failure of the Ar..,l of Pcrru to~ uhieve rhe pow~er dnd prejtige

w~hichl e -ucce-s-ul refo~rn m;?ht had~ brt...Iht aboIut caused ti alra to

be una~ble to asierr its forlero m; i ;ltar or pri.lleged mll; i tary jurii-

dictioin, .-t the expense of civil -*utholrtitt a the nrm, of N:eu Spdinl

,raj; 3ble to ..0, Arllhoua~h creole. t, 18:00 Iiainonp;.l;- ed loajth te regular

.jnd mi liti; compo.n;. nts oi the Arrr. of Pe~r~., the, lere a co~rnerletime

..;er the i;~.Le of FESdo or F'14Tro military priv~legIes, und opposed br

a pot.;rlul c;.;l jurisdiction which wasj e2Brcised b ..en of twealtfh

andpretig. i th ccnant.,In Limj, courts ..e-re unwrilling to grant

the mi la -r, .pecia l pr iti legei. s nce- the, *.*re not conirderedd to bc

the defendeirs af rh*. L.ingdcm. The .icero, himself enforced a jtrict

code of c~ilitart juC.t;ic. Iri Peru the reilitry) referrr .>SS largel/

aborrire and the ariill ..evler guccieded in becoming d corporate itr?

group. INot until thes wars for indep:-nder~ce did anfrhing resembling~ a

pr~ctiorian traditic~n tjke h:-lJ ir. Psru.


Th~ir dissertjrtjin is a jtuc'- of the reformn of th~e hrmy of Prru

r~hich took pljce during the periioJ 1:62-1796j undir the aSpSieSj of

the Bouirbon, Chsrles III an~d hi, son Charles IV, jrd which colnci-

tut~ed one o~f rhe group of necasures collectivtal, knoun is thi Ecurt~c~n


Thi; studl, rpec~ificall, i, inte~ndsed to heilF fill thr: isrre-ortant

h;ir or icl needs:. Frirs, it of ft rs addition sI infrnjl l.... regarding

thle Vicer7:sllty of Frru during a critical Epoch~ ir-i its hirtor;. Peru

rwas the oldist brd we2althicr t ;of Spjinl'r oosseion~s inl South Ameiric~a,

b~t unfortunatel it, has recei.Cd thT historical l ttentiol cOm`

.:nensurate- \ith its impoilrt.Bri c to thi ers;.ir- :ijrSe.jr, su3Ces of

Coolonilal Peru ba:r the maI:rks5 of pjSsion and b;leS. Ijorge Essadre.- per-

haps Peru': rirejtesrt lIving historian, hje i(.plainec' rh~i phenlomenonn

in ter7ms of rthe " war" \rhich he fICll ha; rsged in hi; iountr*,

tlet.Een those ECholjrs \lao defend :pain', ;ciron:, and rhore wrho dowrn-

grade rhe... inl fc~;r~ of the ladijn cultures w~hich, the Spjnish diepl;ced.

Such u. polec~ic, 1:< airair~rir~s, has made the wrriting of objects.i colonial

histor~i ;racticall, ;m;posibls.l' T he c i gh t ecth cein tu r ; --s nabiche ;d

btcrwee~ rhe drjact..e i~c rits ofi ccnnludit .nd independein ce .rhich flank it

on ei ther s id -hcs t..:-en 3ErI~ ~ iou-,1 nieglitid nIr. his r egar d. This

p'eriod de-scr.r:-cs a better fatE, :.Odd.,i e b ac te p e u s r

of indqcccndence.i such as Jos; Got-r~cl Tuncac An-riii, tht Ir.dian rfbel rwhose

re.-olt in 1780 :sj rh~e miost iign~ificnt challengt to ro,al authr ity~r of

cth centr*r,, but1 aljo other ;rmpo~rtnrt .cne-ts s~urh as the Bcourtbor Peformr,

which hiitorianr J.11* recently ha.e cose to' regard as crucsil to a full

underictndndin of t~e independence period wrhich follots.

The second purpose ofi th;s nore is to ihed additional light on

thEie rforllais shi.:5 hai.i not been studied ar a wrhOle ot this rlritinrj.

Thr m iitary reo~rcan; L tion i s e spreci jlly po rr ;nent i n thiisr ecgard.

snin.- : rL tuchleJ u'on 60.1~ <.as PFfeced to, se.rral o~thcr 6caurtson rcforn~

meau.res~, inciadhi;g the S/pulj;on of the JesuitS, the creation of [hE

La Plsta L;itro, 1:,., :PC intflndant syitc m, and man?; o tht ficscl

action: ;rntndrd tc. produced addiiional re..Enue.

Finajlby, the stud, *ariII cramin~e the grea rh of Ihe inilirar), .:Orpara-

t1ion ;n Foru. Tlife authG' iis inte~rrsto in deterimin;ng if the stated

p~urF(oses of reforrming thie ins~tiftution I.Ere oCh iS .Ed or no0t, And th"

co~niequences of such a rreformr. Fcr other studies oi thc militar,. during

thiii period~ c~;r.t/ 1.'thoutJ thc.n the js:vnmption that Jll royril laws- 1.crI

3(pClied and i -e*uted un :form~l* thrCUIJOugho the emireI T tenld: t be. Perpet-

uated by default. Thii ic~ud, sttcmpt? rc.dem~onsrtrat tht in fart such;

wa~s not the case. Orcun the histo~rical reajlit;es of ejch region ;impolsed

changis .Jhich led to th~e creatic~n of m-il1 i tar init i rut ionis t.hich led

gree: 1- ill Leves of LE.;l, com-pos-ition, and function. There d~iffrenci s

often asruiie an i.7partant role ;n understar.d:~-g th- subsezquentr histories

o~f thle arcer in rluestiojn, jnd should be recognized fo r Elis rejson,.

The- CSin~jifnicac of ?th E.:0rbon FeforTvIs li;C in the fact that

the, so~ught to effecc a comprlere fiscal and adlninrirtre: ive reno.J.aica

of the- Spjnish els~Fpiri in Am~Erica. 10 help achic~l these purpoies,

jurisJi~ictrion boundaries \icirh. the er..pire ucrz rhdrjawn to ;rcincrea

eficienc,, and adm~inistrator ~ rsnour js intend-.nts a~cre d~isathche fromm

Spj;n tc. eppl, precedents wlhich had beien succrssiul earlier in Fraice.

Capable adm-iinietratcrs knowrr as :; r tori-gunrrl*Fs *rrre .ent out to

in~tstigate current; condjitions jnd to implemenr Ith reform program,~

Mejrures wertr also~ taken toj ingure ;internal security including the

expu~lsion in 176' of the l.cuirful Sci~et, of Jesus. the- crownr

rEgayrd ed as rlu.C sI Ce

Inl 1778F ;3 'Ifree (trade" TregulaioTI was: la;Ssed wlhichi was; dignedrr

to increase eiCnoc ic aro:ih b, permini~ng iynar~eled trade rwit~ii thiE

colonies themiSel..e- and \ ith tOC riTlninsula EffoT[ rCts ucre j ma o

3tics.u1lat. co~lonial industrries such ji and brand, manufacturer

b, conterrrln thanl~ int~ Troyal mn:OpoFlieS, Fleasuresj deigned~ re; increase rea.ues~c a~re central to~ the Eourtalh jrogrami b:Cijus ojf Spair':

const ant in*.cl.ersent ini Eu~ropean \ljl Dut ie wer pI llaced upon.3 ITan,

colonial products fcrme~rl, ccluded frojm pjlsn,ment, a le.l of sales

tax:e; andJ tributes <..rc increased, S-ientfic~ mission; frlCII Europ1Fe

wrere~ dispatchedd to factorie~s and n-inO2 to appFlr tech~n*:.I~gical 2lde~C~es

and theret*, inrreasi productility.

The underlying reason brh nd a ll ofi rhrse rias;urci r<*0 rco

CLtrengthIn the e..*~ire ;n order that ;t m;?ght clelenj itself fronl eZ-

rtrnal aggrehsso, and bear its fair share of the erponsc; of ruch

dcfense, As historiian ~., A. Hurdlircy:l he: srtate

Thei riasons for thesc sori;.in inno-.ations: here in :he
bro~adest setns of ihe- nordl sLtrategc, Elf icincy ;.- Jdin~i;strJ-
tion, thle rch'bllitation~ of colonel trsde, arcri not so each ends

in thE~inSelF s js 1ieans toI hn end; and the end wae icolo~nial defenie,
the protection of the emTpireJ against foreign gglresisin, particularly
EnglIi jh aggress ion,

Such p purp-ose dictated that the size and quality o~f th~e small colonial

armie hi ;impro:ld.

The p~rOp~sed ...il1itary refo~rm icnsisted of four mjjor par~tS, FirT,[

a scr icj of new: fort i ficat ions \were to be bu~ilt and older ones its~pro.ed

in order to prorect the shiipping and p:pulacions of thc cojstal port

cities, 5ec;rlldly the qual it o. f the Spjnir h regular fo~rcer ervirg

ir. the garriso~ns througrlou[ America \rjs [o be upgraded. Third, additional

regular3 trooipS, Inour, is, fiijel (fircr', or perii.:rsent bettalicrns were to

bE raised ar;l-hin rhe~ colcnii a trbii.aches. Fnna ulil a Ob

raised and dis:plincd in order that it could bear rthe major share of

colonial di-;enre. The relat he inmpostancte of this m~ilIit ia incireased

after the S::arish defeat in thre Sen Ycarj tiar (175;J-1,03'1, :inccu nor~iv

ras~ les~ javalabrle to construct fortificari ens or to raise sdditional

regla Eoos.Ins~tead iof garrijaning thie co~lonies w!ith veteran :roojps

as it had lonrwerly~ donei throughout~ the se.cantELnt h ci~tur,., Spain Mriit

our .nerzrn icl-roInand and staff SrouJpr from- th-e Peninsrulj to trjin and

discipline r!hesi Inilit; a, Talken tojgether, these f;ur mneasures wesre

inrended to create the first modern armies in Spanish America.

The several iihapterj of the di~ssrtationr sre designed to 11-

lustr it; tht stjges i~through which thle referrr.1 programJ1 passd ;Ind th:

chjanges~IC~ abich c iircuSt nCe in.p Sod uJpon it, The Emplhasii thlrou houtll

is uipon th- effect t.hiin thcse chsnges had uFpon the iunct ional i r, of

the reformi itself, or to what degree the ;tated object~ives of the

re form re re achiin~ed. Chapter I oiffri an of the defenice of

the Vicero,altr of Fcru itne:~diatel, prior to the reform in border thit

the readcr can better E~aluiEst the changes which oicurred therrclter,

Chapter II decrc~ibes the inipect of thle Se*.cn 'Icars Warr upon Spanish

miltay pliy.The wajr ictsl( pro~ohed~ twro oesures, one~ of ..*hich

:Ias an init ial r,.o'ri liration of forces at the r iime of Spain's cntranic

irnto the wajr in 1762, Ther end of the~ :wr th~e followri~l? ;ear caused

thij mobili;ation~rs to bc :rjctise and inn-.1 in nariire but the

stinging defeat wrhici Spai~n hjd sullFfere at the ha.ndj of Great Britain

created thec prrconditionsj ior 3 thiroughgoing reformr of the arm~

injtitutid in 17C6. b, [He ViECer Madnuel dE Ame: ; J .unient jid designed

to jt-or t continlued Eritish i ntrus i on i ntoc the Emipi re, one of the lead-

ing histor ians of' this pelriod has c laimed thit this reform "m~i~i1t -r i;ed"

Piru, enablin~g it to w~ichjtand th~e serrio~us challcnnge of Indian~ rev~olt

during the fo~l k ing decades, anld toj hold bc heel h ~ m:.cant for

indicates, have~ir, that thisj ;nerprertation is dengi-rously m;slcjcding

and rhat ierrjin featrii 5 oi the rzforii. itsc If might ba.e jctualli

helped tor pro*.o':e these later re.nti.

Chapter III treats the th~id st~ge of the reform r->ich coinciddd

al~th rhe ;arri jl in Peru of th~e V;iliol-Generall Josi. Anto~nio dr Arirlhe

in 17T7. His counterp;ort in Iltu, !Jos de, hadl ;ni ti~~:d

a jcric: of nathures in that region which r..ateriall, aided the jsuc-:Es

of the Ecaurbon refo~rm~ progran~. The different c~..periene of Areche in

Peru Jamiionst rstes that er;on l i t cronfl ict s aiid cconomice circumstances

errer tO $Tff~ec thE outliom e of the viritation, Ihe mi;litar, reform

progrsnm, and the future of tle ..icer,~roal, it=,ciF. 11reo*.*or,

it aljs poiSnts up. the face th6t ofteLn the r~fOrm1 programs did not1

CilititutE i harmoniOUj wrhole. Eac~h rhe creation of the Le Plata
ViceTS.lrcia terdi t~he EmergerC. C fisalcrasre initiated by ArEChe

actully wcrk.ed ert cros piurpoiE4 rrLth [be mTi itar, reform, pre-mcnt-

ing its full ir..~plCTeltr.entatin andJ alrtrring it. ~couriE. Thii factor has

not pre-.ioui, 'eer, considered I in ssessenntj of che ;ucccss and

i gni fican~ce of the Pourbon Feform; Th-is chapitr illtroduces reveral

doC~ument=. vrhich il luSt ratr that the re mril1i tia plamed ar.

impo3rti~nt pa;rt in dcfeatinJ thiSE fiscal refojiirm and in at least one

inst3nci prosided -, mojel o.F juccessful resistence to ro,al suthority

wrhich was utfilized by the leijderl oi thc ;ndigoirousl ree-llionj ishortlh

there-ofter, Thij constituted a reinrcrpretation of the c.ents of the

periodr, and of their slqnificanice within the context of refo.rmi

Chslpter IV dcicribes the Ind;Jn rebellion, 1.hich pr.TOidEd the

fir-e true tcet o~f the effectirnces of the milarz reform, and

which led to an important reorientarion of the programs, aFter 178:4.

Chap:er V describe the culmiin~ation of the nilitar,' re-forrr

wrhichi taool place betwen 1!78=' and 17?b. Here. it rrill be ihounr that

ihanges resulted I'romr Ih- Irndian we~ri which cau:ed [bc comnposit ion,

l~catiCon aid .i;~ssion ofi th. Irmri, of Peru Io be altrerd. Such ch~nges

rise t'-. quest ionr oi L.hether the purpozes jtated jt the tiime of it.

formatiol; n hadl in facE been ACh;E Cd, :r whetherl i qulite dif ferenlt

inistJinatin hjd been cre'aJted by, tGE end of thle concur,,I Arnd if it

had, s.hat the rionseqi;encis of th;is w.-re,

Chapter VI deals wi rh the expandid m Ili aryr pr i. ileje- chichl-

accor.ipanied th~e reform ~program.e These pri.;le~es, or fueros, incllude

the right of so~ldierr to be tried by their m-ilitary tribunal rather

thjn the o~rdinary, ori royal juriidictio~. Ei rt or i n L;l It I. ~c,4liste r,

in a book: on the subject, ho~lds thiat Euch pri.*I leges5 .are abu~sed in

Heieuspai an~d th~at me~bteri of the srne,;notbl., the militic, utilize~d

them-i to underranen tne prestige jndr authority of the representeri*.es

of the king. He offers this as one evplanat ion for the d isintegra tor.

of Spjn~ish go.ernment in :Ic~ Ipain after 180P, and~ for trhe creation; of

a praetorijn trjdition in rhatl country."' This chapter will prisc.-.

several cases wrhich ;Iluitrate the extent to u~hich the irom, of prru

rwas jljCo oble tc. LeC;Ome~ jn ellecti.e coirporjti interest group, and

o~ffer some hypotheses regarding ;it 3?blity to ope~rjte ;n t'ii ahin

Finall, a con~lurion r;Ill succmarize the findings~i of these cha~ptus and

offer so~i a hpothleses regarding their sign~ifcancE,

Jorpc Baadre, cr-t~ioditcij ~setre el destino hinst~rico del
Per.$ (Lime. 1447!,. p. 4B.

P. A. Hur~ph~rc;,: ondl Jo:hn Lync~h (tds.), Thep Origins o' the
Latir;~n Arerca P. .lut ionsi 1E0.05-15*1(L or. 96

3Allan Jai.=3 1Lethe, "The~ rlilitar*, Fefarm in the Vicero,alt,
of Ilc~w Gr ranada, 1 7: 3-1796 doctor al d i: :erta lic;n. UniveCr -I [*,* of
Floridla ((,aicst ille, 1967)i; ColojnFl Juan Be~trinj (rre.), FI

cLon' c..ilitar (Eue~njg Aires, 1935).

F, A. Hur;nphre,J, Tradition and PG olt in Ljtin America
(Ljndon,. 190931, p, :5.

:rlanuel de~ Amar Junientr, .'tc~....r;e de Cablrns Edici6n ,
FScudio;: pII l icniinr de Vicenic Fedjrfacez (0ar do Floi eririno

Lle rr. ric~lister. The "'Fuicre 1: litr" ;n :!-.r Spjln, 1764-


The defense of the Viceroyalc; of Peru had als.a*,s bcrn eacrcly

restricted tr, iactrs~r of geograTpll; and demog~,?rapFhy~ In addition, Peru'r.

isolation, maJintiinid t, thl rreachcro~us Caple Horn passage. prielented

the need fcr a large st-arding nrmy,. B*, the middle ofi the eighteenth

certLI.tur t hiS s i tuartio ;O aj rjpidl changJing f1 Ilj;4igaonJl i npraiement s

reduced the hazards of the pajsage and English seatorrne e~Ferlition

began to jipPEjr wit[h increasing frequency, raile Indian uprisings also


The Vicero,jlty oi FeruI in thE eighteenth centur, emblraced a huige

area of approximately, 2,!300,000C Square mile5,, mIor than ten times5 the

si-e of ipain ;itsl .~ The ,iiceroy ir Lime. bold ultiinate control o*..r

the d~itricts of Tueurin,: Paraguay, and Buenos Aires, alio, but due

to the great distarnc~e from Lima~ the, wrere~ pructicallly auton~osouj and

rwill not be con~sidrred (Is part of the ..iceroall, for [he purposes of

this stud,. Peru wasr 3i.ided into the jud~ical diltricts of Chjtcas,

ChieandLieThel Audiencia of Charcs,, or UppFer FeruI exerc;Sed jurirdictionn the districts of 6uenoa Aires, Paraguay,

and Tucum~:n to. thle east. The control o'f the viceFro, Cnil. to

thle south wasg :imited to "grate~ and ;rnjortanr matlers" such oi defense,

irnd as sucih it Irill be iricluded in thic stud-,, although ir. fact the

president oi that aud~iccia relat~ivl, autonomous due to the:

formid;able iieograph; c berrierj FCpjrt[ing i t from~ Lime~. The Audie~ncia

of Lime, rtritching along the coajt iromi Piura tc* the Atacama desert

to the 5south and rests:ard across th;- Andes to th eBrazilian fro~ntier

(ro~ughl, the co~nriguration Of present[-do, Peru), ras the imre~ediace

concern o~f the .-i~cro,, although h bore ultimate responjibilityl for

Allthough thec .:;;re., iri Line ues. the mostr poverful Spanish

auth:rity ir. South Arr.eric3, thi geogjraphical b~arr;ers which aiilict

thir regionr sc.e~rel, ; Unirte the erercire of th~is i.rer. The co~act

lineof eru trad-e outsom 160 mies.For the m~ort part it ir

L.3rrcr. desrtr, j.i ior a iewr, which tra.crsi it at ccertairi

points. Echind this deserr ij loc~ated the -;er.0 andl tht- forrmiidable

Andej mo~unta~in rarlSge J.C; rises to bIc ahtS oft twe~nty thousands fCee

PaSt the~ ieastrn peaks- of the Andes lIe the- ii-.eits?.a and thL sel~

(Jung,3i ) reio;in; .h;~~ich exte to thle Brazi lian fr jnt ier.! Such

geogjraphic d;.ersity haj pre .tr.led the dP~Elop~ment Of ;raCrnal COmr-

muncaion. ue to the sret-orne n~ature of the Span;:h hAmerican

emp-irt, moist o~f thl ;ities Of cojloiaii l Prcu rrere- located amoirng th

cosrtal descrl near Lhe ri*.ir. lrhich ecaiptied Into the sea and allo**ed

agricultu-c to be estabtl;9hed. The largest of these w~ai the capital

of Limj, ''The CitY Oi the 1.Triggs," Irhil Ch 17',S had an e~trr~tintd pop-

ulatio~n oi 54,C000, c ..luding Iregro sla.r and Inrdijni. The other

ciries of Cou~io, Funo;, and Arequipe aere located jlongJ the western

sierra, at Ilihi.-iht u to, th~lltcr thloulandJ fiet. Nrhr n

caitern Pe ru <.ai. pi act icrallI: unir.h,1bited c.*crpt t-- I ndijni.4

E, midtcntur; ,n 1.;.- iero*,tlet hi. an estirr~ated population of

5,.5 nill iion pcup~lc, the nejorit y of ah).na w~ere I ndi ani. ;nhabit in?

the aiontanR and sierrra regions.5 Ai nidcenturj Cstinate5 of teida

populationl of PEru Fi1: their n~umber at appro~imjatl*, 2.5 m Illion.~

While there are no accur.:ste fijurej for Feru as J w:hole: the popula-

tier, estimates of Limia tell us something acjout the ethnic icompos"tioi n

of the :iceroyslty in rreneral, Gcncrall,- speakin?, the coast was~ a

N.'eroid arca. The Span;-ls na.*31 lieutenants Jarge Juan and A~ntonio

de Ulloa fcit that rNorocs arnd mula~ttos conit;tuted thi lar~ei t singljl

group Ir. L imia, rrork.In? mos~t l,' a;, mulrteers anJd jgricul url jlbrr.

The estic~atced that thr m~en~zo (j mixture of In~dian anr! white) Forme~ld

th: accordd largest group. These peopl tenlded to populist the sierre

region, often tre~ple.*,d as mJll tradesomen, The nuntcr of whtit: ir.

Limit and a ISewhrlTe u:1s particularll, snall in relat~ion to th.. othir

races. The number ofi Fe~;nlnulares, or Spaniard: born ir, Spain wrho

0.*ned propeFrty in LinS has been ist imsted at1,l The total number

of wh~-ites in Lima, ;rncluding creeksi or Span~iardj born Ir. Peru, has

been estimated ;It bet.*eer 15,000j and le~18,000 Although iiari, of thesee

had becn ruined as thL dirECt reiult of a ..iolint rarthquslke which

istruck: rth cit. on Oc~tober 28-, 1746~, a rrealth*, upper class rich in

real property, ;nd 18.0:, managedl to~i maintRain itself throughout the

cintur; II: Theie isojlated citiir. ruled b., .i pro..incal Elite, an~d

the ileograph~i tsrriars wrhich sepjarate them~ prcvented an*, cenral-

ized ;Jii r~istratio~n of theC .;cero,;lt:* ard produced .:- rgrioaira;n

which ir Itill previlint in Peru tojdaj.11

The Pac;fleic~; cc..-t1ationi of th~e Vicrroa,lt) iof Peru haJd

qror.Lc-d thal an isolet ionl ?.-ich~ hjd not E.- en ifforded to

Sp~air."e circum-Caribbrai colosniis. Th~e ritiors oft the Cape Horn passage

tendid to; dettr large. cxpeditions~ rhich might assault itr chores. E.,

miidcentury,, home.*Cr, navigat ioJnl impro.
the artrolabF had rFduced th hjzard; of sucih a crose ing and had ended

[nc. cii.Eurier of rplenidl ;solatio~n. ProoT of this .rjr to comse writh

the insas inn of Adecirjl Georgi Arneon In 1,41.

Engl~ish and Frenrh csrsa rs hjd frequentl, iailed off of the coast

of Peru during~ thei F i*.tcenthl jrd se.-nteenh ccnrJr ics bute hjd done

lirttle jctual damage:l due to their 5slalll nur..ber. E~at histo'rian Jolr3E

Or.1, the bSenceilr of 5 commonIlj plan Jliongl j"ll the f reebooteirs
the distance of Pe~ru from their t.Des, the contrrr, sainis, and
t~hi inte~rnel dirrinsion~, salved PFru from worl~sC depredationis.

Third assecrtion is bu[[rE.sed E., the :ecT rejt of Juan andl Ullea,

uhoi reported toe the k~ing thiat th- i.p-p.dirion commndejnr d L; the Englishi

Admiral Coo~rgE Ansrc.n u.ich hEd captured the part of poitj in no~r~~ rmn

Peru urou~~ld undoubtedly, base been~ abler to cupture Lim~ bshe crcrpt for

thie faict that lesses suffered in roundingl thle Horn had reduced his

force to twoc rhipi and? onl z r00 mn,~n E.en so, An~sor had caypturred

Pjinj :-nd forTc*- iii raniorsi b,' the viceri*.; Juan and Ullon strissed

to the icron that, a; j reiulr of the espedition, G~r ea r~itan had

patherid :-officient go raphicjl inlformation about the Peru.on co-ast

to mount c;n iffEciiC in.asion oi the -.icrroyalty in thie future. 1

In addit ion, the ej thlquater of 1-'66 had jffects:J the fert il t, of the

soil in PeruI v.-ich forced it to ir;.port w.hea :.nJ otherr foodsjtuffs

fromt Chile. This r..ade it .er, .ulncrabll- to i blockale ts, see which

covld poisibl, have forced the surren~der of Limia through itarvation.

B, .nidcintur;* or.1, the And~ei provided thi icoastal citis of Peru

witrh any rort of internal barrier against the depredat ions of the

hiortile~ Indianf <.ho inhabired the montanlj jnd .il*.. region. Third

defence had its limitationi, however, since there er:e numerous

passes throu3ghout the wes-[trn cordi llerj whre those Indian. rould~

pe~netrate and raidl the jmall iettlcme~nts of Tarrms and Jauja to the

east ofi Lnma. In 171+2 jn In~~nd. ca:1ue (ihief) of Cu'Co) JUan Sontof

Atahualpa, rose in rebellion agjinit the crownr and procla~iimed himself

thing of the Andes.1 Local minlitia oere rai ed in the iutco rcgfon

to put do*.n the uprising but their efforrts wrie uniu~cejjful due to

a l ac k of d i sc pl ine, org an i -at ;o, andl r r ai n i ng In 7 Vcr*

Jo.A Antonio nanso de =1clasco disparched a force of 100 regular troop;

from Lime~ under th~e coma~~nd of ienrral Jorc de Lliime: to gubduLe rhr

rcbelj.. rcombination of bad *ea-thcr, epidrn~ic,:. difficult te`rrain,

and ineptitude defeatedj the efforts o r h': expedition. Juan~ Santos

and his folloiiers ujed guerrillJ ractiic to perfection. keeping to

th~e highl ground: andJ nd.rCr allowing themiil.*es to be draun ;rnto a

pitched tattle .lith the Spjnish forces. For chircecr. ;ears Jan

Sjntoi raided the small rou~ns n rihe Tarme-Jouia jrea ;rnd use rle*,ar

cjptured. His suicces iaj drjamatir proofii of the in;,bility of the

Arm. of Pe~ru by, raidc;.ntur, to maintain thC intro njl iecurity of the'


The coroposition~ of thr Ipanish colonial ariniesca t< d i*.;ded

into [<:3' group:, regular s nd nilrisi. The iirrt of therer wre~r regulaJr

Spanish arn/ troops rwhich- were sent out to thle fronti:r garrisons

rhich dottedl the coast s and borders or: the var ious .i cero* al ci e B;

sidcentur, thir com~iponent r~umtbererd inly, 1,.5,,3 nr-n (Iee Tjble 1i.1 The

econd, or mri lit; b, comp~onent Ias se-pjrjtEd into toro classes, provrin-

.ijl and urban, mo~dellEd jltir the mil;I~t iib Oj :ain. The firit Of

bese organ;zed after the thirt,-three in l nt r r :g i mehts c h ii h

lad been forrred in the thirty,-three pro.' niee of CjjAl le It wajs

frequently referredj to js "disc ipl ;nrd'' Ri lit ij due to the facrt it

assessed~ a itandird rjble ofi arganiatrion, a .eteran training carre,

Ind regulb r inStructio~n in tsctics and thi hasndling~ oi jrms. Urb~an

a lit~iD on the othe-r hajnd. poirEasd none of thr-Fe jttributes. Ther,

rce ~rc. ;rrl* ado hobodcie whiih ;iri sponsorEdr b, guilids or corpor5-

ions uithin the airge-r tour~f and cit lee, In general they worr rjispd
luring pEr;iod of' imne-diate~ rcargerncy to defEndd the cit, fromT attack.

The omiinipres'nt danger of c~riairs rcqru rred thjr ?arr;Sioni be

laintaired alcn7 the coast of Chile and Peru, The southern port of

Ijldi.; a was garriconed a ?th an infjntr., bttal~lon numiberingr 31C r,cn

=n~d a ia.eir, b.B~jlaon GE 1 5, The ;;land.Oi ChlC-e and Jujn Frerner.-

for; off of the Chilcan coast weire also garrisoned dur to the raeli

lirbor they offered to me.~prrit ion: which bud rounde-d the Cape, Chiloe

,id inentr, andJ drjgoon comnpjnies numberin? ninet,-i our nen, wrhile

loani F.-r njndez had jrn i nfjn t ry com~pjn, .r; th f iCr -F .e. The capital

,f Cantijgo jnd itj port Of Vjlpardisc:?- 9Uerle guarde by o fany-jOur

1on drngoon compjny snd a ~ift;-three majn srtiller, Com~psn respec-

ivel ,

The interior of the :iceroyalty hjd no forlial garriron; until

be Juan Santo~ rbcellion~ of 171. The failure of Geniral Llamas to


THE ARrhi of PEPU, 1760


L irr~a

Company,, c.I the Vicerigal Ca~rd 160
Halberdicer Chasrd of rth \fcerc,* t2
Companies of thie Colljac Carrison 100

Cal laoj
Po,*,il Fogirrcnt of Linaj 272

EC..T~pjni; 9 Oj I rifanrl[ a nd C ri 156

Con-pary of Inf antr*, 67

Valdit ia
Bj~attaor of Inifar;c* 31",
Fattral i on of Ca eI r, 18:5

Ch I loe
Company; of I nC n r 47
Cors.pwan I of CDr jaoons 47

Jujn Ecrr~arndc2
ComT~para, of Inlfbn[t r 45

Sanr impo-Valparai ro
Co~l.parl, of [*r goo0ng 411
Co~par,~ clf Ar: illr,' 53

lotal Fegulars 1,55:



TABLE (icnt.)

F.egirrent of CIl.IT.ercei 299(
Turel.e Co.r~panics of Sipani.-.rdr 1,113
Eighteen' Cori~parnic. of Indianr 900
Si.* Cowii~pn; ic of panic.- 300
Eight Coar~panic. uf Iarl,reos 33-i

Trotal Irijilr,t r,* 1 lit is j 004


Eight. Co~irpeniice o Spjnijrds. 443
Three CompT~anei c f India,; 150
Eight~ ccnpar.;c- of pjarcic 453
Sc an i.-n~panies ort iirerno. 1001

Tot al casa l r Iri i 1 I t ;e 1,16E.

Sourc.:: AGITAL 1490, 'EA~r~jro ccd la rie:Istl que el flarquf-i de

Dicle.n~t~rr. d 1,53 e la~ tropeu de infjnceris . .qie-
.ir~C tn el PrEsidio dell Callac .'' Callao, DEehcrtr
1, I'E53, p. I; iAnnt, nerroria deCb n.pp, i97-4398
5005.1, 61-?2 tr,68-co9; I;- .Tr ia d .r i rr rt~ nsm die

Vicero, learcoi de Ve~ljrus c doe not cite figures for urbsn
an-Iiit ib in the other to.-in- oi the \.ice rr Iat y bes ides timerr. The
faict that he does no~ r.Ind~ictes that their rtreingth ses subject
rc. consji der ible .jr i ~t on. The itren~gth~ gi-,-en shouldd te. regarded
aj ;5litieriae at btc airilcE tincre nc. Ha, of accuratrl,*
ing there, Me.i-ilir~r derl :irrc.* Ilnam de Varljesco. F. r.14,

capture tre- Indian rebel co~n.ined the 11ccro, that expeditions

sent from LimeJ could not chpact to defeat w.ell-CITrganized ?ue~rrlla

bands and that permanent fcortificjtion;. would ha~e to be erected

to protect Span sh settlersr in the Jrej,2 In 1746 a presidio wajs

built in J.Luja and another in Tarmla. An infantry compon? of

six~ty-sevcn men wras sent ti- thre fo~rmiel.,whle the 18ter~ v3E Froid~d d

comnpanies of ca.Jlr, and infantr; totalling 156 men. Ai ca.miryi

dhtechment wasr erttlished in chr corn of Santa Cru- de la Sierra

too trJ..erse the frontier to war off imipending attack, The

majo~ritj of these troops cere local recruits supplcoentedd b, regular

forces fromr the Culloo giarrison,21 The :icero, was. peiziirticr~

about thce future of these garriJons homm~er. To hli; m;nd onll the
Church could eLr cffecti.el/ pacify the Indians.

The fortress of Callao, the port city of Lime. 035j in j totsl

sItau of diseipair at midccncur ,, mirroring the gene-ral ;na~ttcen ion

to defenc whlich cha~rai ct;erie the period. uigte16

earthquaker a tidal ~a.e had engulfed the city, drstro,;ng the fort

and killing p~racticjlll, al of the ;nhrabitant of thei garrison, 3

Viicro, rinam dE Velasco dcdicated h-imself to the task. of rebuild-

in) Eho~ fortrcl35 but wasi unsucicss ful due tc a lad.cki of n, mon:,,

and mat~criel,24 Althojujl the new, fortress, ch-rliterned "Peal

FElipc" in ho~nor of Phlillip V, wajs begun in January of 1747,

it ris still Ivofinished when Vliceroy nonuel de Amiat arrived to

repljce VclaSco, Ee ~rylly noted that the "fortress" consisted of

nothing reere th."r. a ;imTple outir v~all rwhich was unsiuitable f'or

mounrting connierl, and thatr it seeme-~d to sr~i. the purpose of con-

finin? the soldiers btterr than of protecting thr- kingdom.25

Actujll;, the rr.nunting of cjnonnr .:ruld ba-.e done~ I~ttle to

the iituationi, 4ine the mo~iuth of th;- Callac. hdrbir wa5 w~ide jnd

pljed invading thips outi o~F the range ofi the cannonsn. The judg-

ment of~ Juan jnd I.Ilice thjt ther fortres; wasl inadcqucltee to detir
an encen~, attack: till wasj *.lid a decade ofter miidcentury.

The prcscritid strength of Ehi .c~eran garr;-:on ht Callan

wo,j sevein infantry corr~npanii; of 100 r..cnl e;Ch~ and a Yicenty-manl

jrr ilIle ry c oii~p n*.*.7 It is do~ubttul if thi; strenlgth- had icar becn

main~tained, cren prior to the 17i t erthiquiar ke The French .i;ger Frceer writing ejrl~ir in thE century, netedj that the

gjTrriCon wasl neer jt full Streamh ond that three wrre scared ,

er~i~u:ah oldier-: thir1 to ri.ountf the guard. n ThiJ :.iew wasji

ilnfirmed;. 5, the incobin3 V~iCero, I~nam de~ Voljsco in 1745, wlhO

decrCibed the bezrtal;?n as "nine cornspan~ie, without fired numberr,

and writh man, uselleSs mrnmbers, and O~hCr (pljrced 3;.n fCTecrely

to the~se uhe. iugiht not to hold lhiem,"2

The fr.=ud and corruption inrhi sje oi1 Of military ranks was

bti o~ne r,,sanifesarion~ or a g-.ncr5l mslaiiC which pe~readedJ Peru

by rdidcentury. Service ir. the clarrisons fA~rc a o

popular wIt;h Spjnish riegular triops r inc; promote ion ve,: often

slowrc in arcas fsrrthest rerio*.cd flcomi thel crounr. Mloit odiou;, of

all w~as service in the presidio of Valdi.ia due to the presence

of the fierce Araucanian indians. Each year a \eteran company ass

dispatched from the Calljo garrison, but be-cause of the high rate

of desertion, it becarP necessary for miililary' officials to enlist

local recruits to fill the rant.s. Jusrn and Ulloa had estimjte~d

that no Inrecr than o~ne-quairter of the soldiers in the Calljo

garrison were Spjnirh, the rei Tt rSUrjI)by bcing local conscripts.]

The situation became increjsingly Horse each year since the go.Ern-

o~rs of underpopulaced areas such as Valdi i3 often granted these

soldiers military discha~rges in an effort to retain them as per-

mojnent. rcsidenrs., This forced further local recruitment to fill

the ranks5 to. srenjth.3

Often service in the ;nfantry battalion at Calloo ~as pEr-

formied for the benefits wrhich accrued~ fromi it. CoinSiquenltl ly

positions in the battjlion were pu~rchased at hi~gh prices. Juan

and UlloJ remrarked to the K~ing that

it is very comm~on [for] all those officers and e.en
Field) marshals, who work. in the mechanicalJ trjsdes of [Lima]J,
such as sils-orson~iths, psinters, shoenlakers, tailors. and
similar po it ions, to COrne frocra Lima to enroll, tbe it in the
artillery, or in the infantry, not writh the puirpo~se of,
but only to enjo, the Pri.ilecged mi Itajry jurisdiction, and by~
this r~eans to free fromn the persecutions of the
conitab3lei, or from 50ome cmjll fines of other julsticci; thus,
thei fird it con*.cnienr to turn o.*er all the pal fromi the
position to the principal officer to abomm the rank correspondjs,
retaining cniz the pa~i .*leged ti tle of soldier or artil ler5 -
r.iE n, b.'han t he sit uar ion of hold Ji ng a re . i ew ar i ses ? t-ey are
always advised in time, and are all comlpl~tel, present so rlhat
never a majn is lack:ing. So it ii thj: nor o*.er twenhty-fis
or thirry Isoldiers ] are actually in eroice, and all the
rest are those iho or~n~n~it the friud,3j

The normal procedure \ias 101 the aSpirantj tO the position to gi.e

a present to the cc.:..psn,, after which the twro would

bargain as to the percentage of theg fr.anthl5 payi which the former

would turn to the latrtr in e.<:hjnge for the privilege of

hol di n rank.. Thh aoulnt ;aried depending upon the rank to be

f il1led- and thz nuiibe r of applicnt ~. Since Pa,' in t~e or tiller,

company rwai higher than in that of the infsntry comipjnies, po i -

tio~ns ;n it werre the reas highl; prizcd.3

Vicera;y rname de Vsljsco recogn7:efd th-:- shortcomings, ~ of the

Cjllao battalion -nd maic. some elfort to imrpro.r its organization~.

Thier efforts, hotever: \were insufficient to overcome j century

of inirtia, Art thE request of Veles~coI thC cro'..n i-sued it, ap-

pro:ni of a Plsn to drjt. up j ni regulation co.*ering the Caljoo

gari'"o~n. !'n Jul, 1, 17E.3? the Penlljamentoi pri lj Cuijrnici'n

del Coll:O was~ pub~lirhed in Lima,. The riguljtionr rensried the

unit ar the Pegiment of PFoyal Infantry of Limea, and redu~cd its

r ize to cl tsctallo~r. of sc .cn infanc ry conspjn;es and an artil lery

squudror. \,ith j to~t l strength of b21 me.. I Nonethe less, it

.e~enis that the resiment wras frequently understrtngth.

One hundred :01diers fromi the Callao garrison riure quartered

in the .'icer2gal Palace in Limj for the protection of the .iceroy,.

in addition to gujrding the palace these troops provided guards

for the royal Lrcasuri, the miint, jnd the tobacco monopoly wajre-

housre. Detachmernts jlso pjtrolled the cit; at night to suppre~s

ci.*il disturbances. FurthSermore nothing Fteems to ha*.e been done

jbout the rrore serious lack; of training3 which pre:.a~lld jt Callsio.

Upon hi arrival. Viicro, Amat remjrked that "Thr fee~ soldiers

that wre~r regulars lacke~d the trjirning in the~ milari exvcrcises

that the, ought to have had,"

As a royal personage the vicero, enjoyed the services of a

viceregjl guard com~prised of a comnpany of ca.alry and one of

halberdiers, These comrpanies rrere ionmposed of Spjniardr wh~o wrere

personall, selected b, the viiceroy himself and great prestige \was

attached to such service. The cavalri comnpjn, consisted of 1F.0

Solddierr, a lieutenant, and a captain, Fift,-three supsrnuiierarii,

urcrc avaJilable for ieremonial o~ccsions. The com-ipany of halterdiers.

numbererd sixty:-tuo soldiers. a lieutenane and a captain. The

viceroyi 5lso retained the se~rv~ice of an honorary comipan; knownh as

the Spanish Cuard which accompanied himi on public excursions to
lend dign;ty to h~i office. The functions of the Vricero;'s

Guard, besides the protection of the vicero: himself, were to aid

ro*,al off cials in th~e collcrtion~ of ra/cs and in the enforcrmrnt

of the decisions of the royal court:. Vicero, 11snso de Velasco

attached a higher significance to this guard thjn to an; other

unit ri thin the v~icro~alt, t~aiuse of these duties calling it
"th~e principal respect of the go.ernmen~t."l

The second com~ponent of the colonial armies val: the militia,

which has been defined as "c;itcan soldiers" whl-o are organ;2ed

into units arnd trained in times, of national emergency to reinforce

the regular unitj.42 In Peru, as in the other Sp3nicsh possESS oIODE

in Americaj, no provincial orr d~sciplined militia in the formal

sense of the wo~rd Cr.isted b-, midcenitur,. \.'hat militia ciompanihES

did arxist hlad been raised in the larger interior towns~ such as

Tarrra. Jauja, Cuzco, and ArEqui~pj in response to pacificc

cmergencias su~ch as the Juan Santroj rebellion. These, hole.Or, urrer

mirely 33_ h&~ bodies wIhich diiperrsd uhin thie dang-r hjd pajssd. In

i ;ense the) consrtiitutd pri'.*te ari..ies ulich carre; into being in

response to the inability. of the crourn to protect. the rettler of

these rural arias.

Along ther cojit rhe. formjtio~n of urbjn m; litiJ urnits .ras

jomew~hat icare organizedd sinii th-: cities were larger and sonme con~-

tinalt*, <-=as presided b the frequent threat of rtaborne inlas;on.

In genecrjl these urban ec~-mpsnics vile Sponsorad t,- one of the local

trade guilds or municipal corpo~rationr. and wrere des gned tor act as

a sot OfCIV] gurdIn SallaO., for Eialliple, theru 0cre 56/6n

compan;ies~: ine of seame~n, o~ni of resident-: ;nd trade~j meT., a third

of~ mjster carpenti.5, icul'srcrs and shipfitterrs including the

freeNegoes .howored i th no~l pds.In addition, thert

weire four compaCnies5 oF Indianr drescr from the suburbs ofi r1agdjlena,

1irallores, ind Chorrilless, LhoE job ;t wra5 to transport pro.*isionr

and amm-iun~ritio to the presidio at Csllao in the evencrt of an at -

tack: by, a fo~reig~n potrL.T

Thec infantry: miilitia of Limea was orgjnizrd according to race

or t rjde i n accordance i i th e sta~bl wished t rjJdi t ;n. ThE Fegimient of

Commerce waes sponsoredl by the conulado or merchants' g'ld. ThE.

reg me~nt cwe- coT.posed of siv companies., totajlling 349 men, each

composed of r..embers of a pjrticular guild, including tailori.

shousaikcrs, silve-rsmiths, and rrtians. The Spjniardr in Lims

jcueral districts of the city. In addition, there ware Eighteen

companies cof Indians numnbering 900 me~n, six com~panies of peitdk

(anione containing flegro blood'l rith 300, and eight comnpanies of

morenoi (pure-blooded Ilegroes) with 39.2 Inn. In addition, Lime

had a cavalry ~ regiment including eight colmpbnies of Spaniords

tntalling 44! Intn. three companies of Indians with 1501, eighr

companies of pardr.:- virih 453 menr~ and se*.en comrpaniies Of morno:

numb~ering lul men tor II. Vicero, flame( de VElasco claii edJ that

se.cnt -s i companic s of mn iit i a t ot alli ng 4. I.0 mlen E xi 5t d i n

Line by midcentur; (;e; Table II. 5

In co~nclurion, it wOuld scenil rhat the Ar..,* of Peru in-

capab~le of defe-ndin.? the k~ingdiom fromn attack midayj through

the eighteenth centur;~. In pirt the im.Tense geogrjph, and 5mall

population acred to defeat any attempt at rainta~iing n internal

secuir it r as thr unsuccer i ul erpcdi tion against Juan Santos~ hjd

concluJ;vely~ proven. Second),, the smalI veteran contingents,

located on the coast. wereT too scattered jrnd understrength to hole

formeT d an effecti.*e tactical unit ccapebl or taking the field to1

repel an enemy in.asion. As~ the Frenchmajn Frecicr, refering~ to

the gsrrijons in Chile, said

What ria) be said in gener,7l of the strength of the
Spanijrdj in that Countrry is that their rlilitary power is
com-iposed ofi flrn who aorc mTuch SCjtftlrd jbo..*, not disciplin'd,
and ill arrdi'd .. thc Spaniardf ha-.e no Foirifications in
their Landi where the- rme, secure ther~i;el.-es, unices they fly
to the flouintainr

11uch of whatn has been sjid bbout Lth 3panish regular forces in Peru

can be repeared iibou~t the m~il1it i i The sacking and rknsoni of Pait6

bi Idmiral Ar.scin wias prce-F, nort onll of' their ineffect;.eness to

repe~l a foreign in-..ader, but also that sn,; alttempt to call them

once act;.e dut, fo~r jrny length of t ime would bankrupt the roy)al

treasury, by Inidrrntuir;, Europe~an trjmellers had reported this

weaklncss to their hejds of itate. Frezler dispelled the rumor

that the Viceroy of' Foru iould raise 100,0.100 foot Foldiers and

20, 000 c a*. r, t ro:op In realit,, the Frenchmain jssrrted, he

could ariii no? mrore than orn-fifth rhis nuli;~ber. E.en this ona a

gcnerous eIst~imate, as was de~monstrrted durinD the ;fforr t b Viic-

ro, to~ mobli i ne the I.rc. of Peru~ during the Ycarj vlar,

TIhe An..;i of Piru hjd been juf Eicient to protect the major cities

frotra beingl raided t., hostle Indican bands and had generall;

dri.en off carsarrs. Th.. Ansjon espeditio, jnd the Juan Santo

rebellIiion wreITI preludes to change~. With [Ie fall of and

Hajni la tc the Englifh Nj.'3, durinD the S~Evn 'r'ears Ilar it becaii.e

patentlyi c.ident that a strong, \Ill-organized C)ped icanallr; ioCIe'

coiuld posses, ;itself ofi thi V~icroJit, of Feru if the dEfenyes of

that rpgion weir re not drarticall, ;ir.prov~.ed. Shortly there:after the

Tupac Iriioru r-bellion demnonstrjted the fuirthelr need for a force

capabic of mintanrining peace !ir~hin the confines of the l~ingdomn



Jean DE'colj, Dail,*Life in Colonial Peru, 1710-1820, rrans.
Miichjl Heron (Londonr, 19t8), p. 44.

Zienmoria del virre, Jo;l kntonio flanso d; V~eljjco,, in Iles..ories
di lOs ..irF*,as que ban got~trnjdo il Pert durante il Lfnemp del cojlo-
nijic Lsparic, III (Lirmia, 1E59), 78, 174-17F5; Primlerj pateF de la
Pcljciln del .ire; rlanuel di "An,. t , Juni;.nt, ibiid., IV', 153-15'.

Frederick E. Pike, Thei It~dern Histo'ry, of Peru (Londonr, 19671,
PP. 2-}.

Carlos [Ijniel ValdSrci 1, Ceograffa derl Peru Virre injl (L ima,
1951), p. 20, This is an annotated re~putlication of' the "Discrip-
ciftn geogr~iicj de ljj prov.incijs quF conmpondn los re,no, dEl Peri,
Buenos Ar,res i Chile: per Dr.~ Cosnin Bufne, C;1 dr~it Cic de meit raiti-
cas, y cosr;ligrdo ..s:or del Feru" (Line,173-l'81 Eue~no diuiectd
a cinius of Lirus for Vicero, flanso de Vclj c~o in 1755.

-'llillij1; S. Fot~ertso~n, The H~isoryj, of' Amri~ca. in The ~llorlt- of
blihai.P ter =,osEl ,, 10 .ois, (Lon~don: 1821), III, 3;'0. Febecrt io~n's
estir.latr: was estrj polated~ fromi rribute records. and fromi j:les figures
of copier of a pjpal bull throughout Peru. Late-r estirina;es irdicate
he waJs too hi;gh. cA 1796 cinruj set tho total populjtion at 1,0; F,122,
rhile~ one, tsLken in 1812 estimsted 1,5?C9,,551 inhabitanti.

Tlhe Indian iopuljtion of Pi-ru Jt ;n, timea ir still the subject
of grest debate. Vicerce Mus- de Ve ljsco est5imatedb LhC tweil Indian~
popullj[ ion outSdid olf Linij jtIlor 1,00,.6 flenmori. de flanso de \lelasec.
p'. 79r. Febcrtjon utilized th; figure of 612,780 tritulariei citEd by
Vclasco arid lult iplie-d it t*,* foulr to include d L:ll.erl and ai~~nor children,,
arriving 3r a t isurE of 2,44Lj, I20 Histor, of Arcsericia, Il, 370,
Vcicroi Ilanual de hrmat cited 761l,i 96 tritu.rar~ic in 17716, tlicmoria
dd: nDjL. PP. 235-238, Later ~cntuj figurii indicate that all thiee
f i gures w etre t oo high, Nor:te the racial comllpositiofin of FFru ;n 1:596
and 18(12:

Sp~aniards includingg creoles) 135,755
Indians 60S,891,

Free :Jegmeis ,nd miulsttes 41,256 40,356

Total 1,076,122

Spsniards 171,025
Inrdia 95~ 34,793

Ncg ro 819, 241



Pik~e, 110derr. History* of PEru, pl. 16,

Jorge Jbar ,j knd onion de Ullea, A VO,*80~E to South AmerciCL,
'The John Adarms~ tranjlationi abrid3ed, 4th ed. (rrlew ior.? 19r;4), p.
195. Jujn jnd Ulloa we-re tw~o ,ourag Spanish rna.jl lieutenants jeent
out to; A.T. r icj on b 5c ienti fi c -pedi [oLn SFponSored b, thi: French
f'cadem, of :cienrce. The, firrt arrived in Lias-e in October? 17rr0,
in res.ponre to j plea from the vicero, to help dc.irC dcef~ense
against the Arsonr Cmpedit ion. ThE Ir o~bi ertaion; dur inq j t hric -
,ejr rilidenre in Lirra are amon3 the- most ;r~fo~rm~ti.e record of
thjr :*ice-ropii t*,, first bino pu~blis- ed ir. 1746., Perhj ps mor~E

the I.irng on the social, c.:onomic, anid Foitiical coniditioni of the
"Peiru:15nn Pcaln;" Ther0 pro.;ided the frirt documiented prooF of
the conditions which thi Ecourbon Pe-formsr rere in~tended to upgrade,
Put~l;;hed 5, an Englishroar. in 1ET6, the rew.air. thec most damning
indicuresrt ofr Span~ih rule ;rn the New~l World.

Juann and~ Ullrea, Vc1 p. 135. Fsrure Buena~ escim~ted rthere
werer about 2,000~i Indianf in Line in 1;55. viiacorfa

---- do am deVeeso.,p.99 Juan an~d U I a cs t i a~t ed
Lime held biCucen 16,000o and IZ..00 rwh;[te. Vy.e us, .~ 193, Comne
Eueni. estimaTe.~d 15,00 somierlhSt la[Tr. Vjlc~jirCel CEO9ral~j FI, i. 1
icompjri thi obscr...ationsj aBout the upperi 'lass of Linia ma~dE
by Juan jnd tIllle, ~,llE pp,. 193,-195, arirh Ihoie ir. ALIl:I 15251
'Dosc~ciriptii dialogada de todoE lo; pucblo del Virreinjto del Pcr;,
\,rittenl btt..oen 1761 jrnd 17:i,. and ,cite in iuillermo CispedEs dcl

de la ce==ci~i n de Virre imic del Plat; !Se.ille, 1947), p, 6,

JJacques~ Lamber~tL Lar;n Ar;crirce: :ocial StrruCture and~ Polic-
icalInsituicas (erkele; i an Los AngelEs, 1967), p. 151j.

'Jorone Banjdre L l.11 nalttd. la CiLIdad~ rl CamFpo en lj
Historii ddl PerTu 2nd en. (Lime,, 19 7), p. 111,

Jorge un aiijnd Ant~on~io de Ullea, floricia ,ecriete de
Amb~rica sobre_~ el esFon.a.niia,- olitico deli los rc~nor
chi Prur~ _L~o.*.r'iinc de ?Guit:-, Iostas n~l c' u C ranjd Chile,
2 vols, in one ILondon, 1836), 1, 27.

Oscar Febres Villjrric 1, "La crisis agricola del Peri en

(Lime. 19641, 102-i33. passim
Francisco Loo,;:a, Juan Sicos~ fI Invi-nci~le (Lirmaj, 1952)
offers thr best c0.ersie<* of this ir..portant re-billion.

The ccorregidor of Jau~ja, the rlarqufs de CaSa1tores pUt Ihe
blamTe uponi the author;tiec In LimTe. In a letter to~ the .2cero,. he
n~oted that it wrag an 6xiom of arfBlare that "b soldietTr ill not
fight, finding himself vch;loutr uniform. unshod, and unfed."' Loa,-za.
Juan Santros, p. 196.
lbid,, pp. 35-!76. 11!-116.
A detalerd dejsc;r;ptio of Eparlih ml~iltor,' organization~
can b" Foulndd ;n L. i,. McAlirtpr, "Thle F.eorganizat; on of the Arrm,
of' New Ipji n: 1763- 1 F7,"' n?;psn;: Amer ic an Hl~1istor ;c I pr;.ion.L
1'rllli (Fet-rujr.. 1','33. 1-32.

19Amat. Iemorira de Cablell rno. pp, 43-49L8, 500-501, t661-I;FT
C6-6, 5ince these~ are staindjrd tJbles o:f organizations it car,
be assumed that nonre of th" qarrisons wecre actually, at inll

SL?j,.a, Juan Santos. pp. 11!-110,
b.Id ,pp. 120l-121; Ierno~ria dll rname de Velasco. p. 106,
See t.,CI;AL 14500, Peqlanientii ere la nu.Brnic;ln de la plaza de
Feal Ph-elice e , ,. Limre. Juvl I, 1:52, p, I. icor the clarice of
trOops inualtd.
11eri.orie de flame~ de vehjICo, pp. 65, 19'.

2AZl:AL 9;'3 ,Alonso dr Ortega tC. Juanl de JEcts Santa, Tarm ~,
M~a, 30, I'4', p'. 2. Cited ;n Lo~a,2a. Juan Santo;_. p, 11 Other
desc r ipt ions of t he cAatasrojphe urh;ch. accorjrig to? the .2.:ero,
left L;iiTO ''IDIr~ l fl, Sl i n 011115 TUlfd," and killed so~me 12,000
personsj are to be~ iound ir. thle Iliirlor~i de flamel~ de Valco pp, 110l-
112; Ilanuel do tr~idit~uru, Di~cionsr;io h;St~r;co-Liojurif 'io del Prer,
II 15.. nd d. L;ITj. 1931- 19"hi,, VII, 169; A True ani1 Particul arr
Fielation ojf th~e Dreadful EarrhQual.E uhich Happer.'d Jr Lime, t
Capital of Pe~ru, Jnd the IJoiahb?:orina POrt of Calleo, on the L2Eh of
oictober, 1T46. 2n~d ed, (Lo~ndon, 1:4s.)
rfcendiburu. VIIl, 1 5.
Amjt, Memoiria de Gotierrio. p. xl.-i

Juan an~d U~l~loa FI tllic las scret% 1, 23-27!

271gif., pp, 1$;0-141.

.n; dr, Frel;er, c;ted ir. Trlue and Parrti ulnr Polation,
Pp1. d-9.

'Memoria de Manso de Velasco, p. 2i62.
For ;I critical report on~ tht .iciro,;rlly Illurtrat;.e of
this irujtion, srr [th jnon,nouj "Estade polit;co Z d.el FnG de.I
Per;: Cc~bierno 5 in le ,is, miinitros rcla.vados, Teloros c~on po-
brcza, fcerti lidjd sin i.o, sjbidurfa dessettimeda, reii;eies sin
honor? ciudaeje ;in Amor patrrcio, la jlusticia sin templo, huirtos
per come~rc20s, iintegridad tenida per locur;. Fe, il mj,or di ricos.
domainios, pobre de rtecoroi . (IMadrid. 175171 uhich has bcen
partiall, republished ir. F.;ta Foruiana (Lime, 1680), IV. 147-140,
35-6.Scholjrs bilil.o Ir5 author \**as Victorino Montero de
Ag~uilb, a Captain of the Halberdiir Guard of the V;icro;. Jnd j former
corregi~~dor ofFuj 4 n alcaldc, or tragiscrete of' L;ime,
lont~erou reflects the hot rd ofT thC Crcolc ar;stocrac, for the
Span i sh me rchant clr IJ which v3 j jpi r ing to poritions Of ;mpo'ranCE.

31JuaJn and Ullea. IIotic ;a5 eC~rEts. I 140.

321d. p.12; Eolesla o LEnin. esr~i~pitcin del Virrdinar e.
dcl Peril, Errfnica "nl~dite de cornicnzis del Siqlo .'Vll iPntario,
1958), p. 70.

Juan jnd Ullea, rNoticiae serrete: 1 I 141.

Jul*, 1, 1:53; nmrpi~ar de Manso de Vclesco, pp. 271-272.

3 ACl:AL 144l0',tractrco de la reist~a que il Mrarqucs de To~rre-
tagle, Comiiscric. de Gucrra ,. dirige irn el I de Dicrambre di 17528
a la troupe de \nfanterfa . qur sir*.e en ci Fres Edio del Callao
.. (31100, Dcecnber 1, 1;5e. Thij res.ica reflects the nuimber
of troops detached ir. Lima, Tarma, jnd Jaujia, wlhose inclusion ~ocLuld
brin~g the regime~nt mort nearly to strpngth.

ArCl:AL 14:10, "Extracto de la re.ist6 . .," lallao, Deciember
1, 1:58; Hemoria,~; d ManSo dr VElaSCO. p. 2iS,

Amjt, erin.rria de Gobierno. p. -1ii

'Juan andI Ul loa, Vu,teL. c. 18),

For the history of thiis honor guard, see Guillerrrs Lobr..aln
Villcn;, "Las; ComTp3abS de CentilcshombrcE Lanzas y Arcebuces de la
Guadrdia del Virre~inato dcI Pere,"I rnularCis dr; EstudioS Analricanos,

Memorial do rasodeclesco, p. 28e3.
N~cllister, "'Peoganizat ion," c, 4


3i i sa r:Carth, C i vil-flil tor, Fe aI ronr i n Argent i na, Chie
and Peru (Berkeiley,, 19;6'1, p. A.

4A True And Part icular Fe lation. p. 11.

JI5nemoriss do Ilnam de Vel~Asco. P. 24

Amnadler Fre-::iir, PI \o' : toj thr- Sout~lh-:lc a and al-ona theF
loosfts o~ Chili jnd Feru. in the ,Cari lig,. 171'. and 1719
(Lo:ndon, 1ill), p. 103.

4Juan andl Ullos, Iloticias fecrrtjs I, 121.

A True and. Particular Pe~lation. p,5-


Spjin'r entrance into the Se.c r. Yarz Undr on Januajr? 22,

1762. pro.oked the first mobilizatio~n cf the Arm/ of Peru since

1740, Perhaps miore im~portantl1, it forced the creation of a

large bod; o~f urban mi litIs in Lima, jn,j to a lesser e/.terd, In

the~ outl,inJ regions of :hF .icero,alty, ilhile the defeat suf-

fered !i Spain ajt thei hands of Great Erirjin the following ,ear

Jili-nished the nee-d for j large m~ilitar, builJip: it olro created

the prreconditirion for the first thocro-ughgoingn reforni~ f the

Spanish co~lnia~l arm~ies,

ThE control P.urp3Te of the Frec~h Eourbons; was to strcnglthen

their all*, ipin jind its colo~n;ies ir. ordiir hjt the, might aid

in the deve~lopncn t o~f the Frenzh Eccndray! and in the French ztr~ggic

jgainor Great Eriteini. In this regard, the, lwere fortunate to

have Chajrles Ill on the throne of Spain. His re ign I:175Cj-1799)

has beeni chjrjcterized by, one hir tor i n as con.tituting "the apogee

of thrEe centuries of Spjnih colonalinjlSn ir Am~ericj,"2 Onie man-

ifestarior, of this u~ar to bi seen in the capable administrators

wrhich he sent: to the INew, \orld, B*, the miiddle of thF eighteenth

ccentur it hjd become ro,jl police to substitute career nail;tar,

en~c for the clerics who had formed r, monop~lizedd the higher po;ts

in the coloni~al bureaucrats under the Hjpsburg,. Tw:o reasons for

thir wre~r that these m;en could pre..umabi, be counred upon~ to deter

English a~ttacks upoin colonial ports, arnd their !trict code of

mi~ilitary honor use. felt to be a deterrent to their in.c~l.1-.emnt

in the cOntraband trade.3

Thea appointment of the former President of the Audiencia

of Chile, Colonel rManuel de C1not y JunienE, to the2 position of

Vices, of' Peru, rras parricul.-rly fortuitous for thi lat ter

kingdom.~ Amjltii hdcoiipiled a brillian[ ier*.*1cz record as the

Comm~andanr of ther Peyir;ent of~ lragoor-~j ( Sagunto durring the

campaign in Aifriici and Ital,* before~ beingi named to the Chilcan

porst in 17f5.- His ;rri~al in Perll on Ocober 12, 176.1, to arsume

the responsibillities of tha: k~injdom~ care at a critical iuncture

in th-e hi~stor, of the ;iceroyalty, Hist orilan Guille rmo Ci.pedes

del Ce~tllo has observed that

The Peru'.18n .'iceruialt, was in the m~iddle of a critical
epoch; the rwar uith England, ine~itable and near at hand, p at
[Penr;'s ] extern3l ecurrt, in dan3er; it, political an~d
admiinist rat he t ructure had proacn to cs antiqujted ;nnd in-
effi~ciern; Jep c~ciali problemin rrre about to emplode ..iolentl,
in a great uprising .. Fortunatel,-, an inteligent,
nerger~tic, diligent, sndl efficient ma~n ruled the destinies
of the .;icro,alty,, Oho varnerd of thij cr;sis and confronted
it rwith all his energies and m~ean;: he tried to accure ther
country nilitaril, ,. he clamored fo~r political reformsa
which *,.ciri later amidl be irrprllntedl bnd diemonsrraed ari in-
donirable, at times~ ferocious, onerg; ir, the face of indis-

Am~at considered hinleli as ai men rrith a rc,al cr~anidate to rule,

a charaictristic which increased his efficienc, at the erpense of

his popularit;. In his nemoria he stated thrat j thr alter eno of

the him Ofcl he enjo~,cd the highcst co~nfidenie of thle crown,

Popularity ht- fch, user inconsistent ultih hij task, of rebuilding

the streng~th of th:- .*iceroiaJlt and he Oaraciously refujped to curr,

Fa..<.r writh thi limei~o elite.' Hii choi;ce of the beau~iful mtrtiza

jCtress5 Mlicarla Villegas ("La Pcrrachcoli")j was repordsd as an insult

b, the class-conicious ar;Isocrac, if Lirnj w~hosr company, h- shunned,

At the cnd o~f his term of or'fice, the incominrg .isitoir ge-nera held

thjt "(Amiati . hadJ tecn hjt-d ir. the k~ingdomn and in the capital

for thc harsh us,, in wrhich he trreate jll pccople,

Attention to ord liarr, jffairi \wa; a tajlk that the ncr. ric~eroy~

wraj fond of,. in his ner":.rcr he confessed that he icle it wa~s "the

Fr~ot interesting of' the acci..[;ite of the vicero," and that he felt

h;onored tc. hj.<~ been silectedj fo~r the task iof defendinti ;nd presr..*-

irny thF .* iicere.*a y,0 He had denorir rate-d this at tent ton to~

resilitjr, jffisrs during his rc-nure in Chilt. Thcr:, Amat~ hajd

noit~icEd the "e-.C1rei .-a number"TI ofI unemiple td cre~ol:i (Amelricajn-

born rwhi tes) in the Sant iag.r; area, and dltermi~ned to ulir ii therr

both to rnhanclc the pretige~ of hir po i tion and to h-lp maintain

internal order which had been noticvjtly lack~ing to' t-hjt time.

He rthrefore :rlected file~, ''uncultivatecd periconsl of the icountr,"

wrho a~re abller to prose:1 their purity' of b~lood~ and ferrriltd themr into

j fijo icompan ofi mounrce dragoons. A ucekl; program of driil

jn-d instructionn in the handling ~f racjposnj ar~ intittuted by Amrat

himieilf tc. inrlirase their :Ikills in the nlilitjr, rrts. Such a

cheane const ituted- a departure from the esrJablished t radition of

leadership szt by hii predeceslors, special, insolrar as he

treated thes- creoles, In plar~c F the strict o~bedience which

former Span~ish sdminir-sctratrs in Chili demanded from the subjectr,

Anct granted to then, both "respte and preset of emiployment"t' in

return fo-r wh i h he rece;
co~nipan, of gentlenmen, "Jersed ir. politics and manners," was the

pride oif the creole, ofr Chile. The f ierce pride in the ir ow~n

jbil1i ties which the icompar.; ethi iti ed cjued an obser rer to unlryl

note that the creoles wrere finally, ma~de aware of the deeds of their

foreFathler. ''ohich perhap: their e.eicutors had not read to them,"

Thi s ense of inc ip~int nat ional iism was to full,; mani Fet itse-lf

by~ the end of the icnturr,, and nou~here rwas it [o become miore e:'ident

Ulars in the ranks~ oi the reorganized krrn,, of Pcru, Phose Thrnk wreir

also to bE filled L5-, creole:.

The deClaration of Ijr against Creat britain, a~nnounced L,

Spain on Januar, '2, 1:62, allowed Amai to e>.ercise hij ;kills as

a m ii tary leader, r. nh tlar' 2 he reCi~; dC by~ Vd of Panama~ a iecret irder from the Iinister of the Indier Ju~lian de Arrijgir,

not~ifing hnim thjt both couintrier had rec-alled their respectii<

ambasradors, and thilt a formal ec~laraition of car w~aj imminent.

Amrrat was ordered to "put Peru in a jtare o r derfensc"' and to

performi rhi tAsk. Iin termsi of a mjniFeit :rsr." A second order,
12 on IIA, 10, confirmed that rvar hjd been declared.

In response to the first decree, Amat had issued a circular

order tc. all the cor regidors juthorizinJ them to enlist militia

rvi thin the If~ coar tal jurie dice ionr, and had inc luded j series of

inrtructionI intended to place those reg~ians in a state of readiness.

To preaint jbuser from occurring during the le.;e- b*, which the

mil i tij wa to be raiSed, 3udideines \rer provided tco.*ering this

procedulrc.l) All herds ofi livestocC. werre ordered driven to the

interior to pre'.*ent their capture. A coastL guard waj to to Posted

and Indian runnerS usrBC to be cnmple,cd to relj, newrs of a landing

to th-e autho~riiies in Linia, PtrhupE rr.05L imiportantl;, Amiat dirEittd

thet officijls of Ehe F.o~jl Treas~urics in thcse oreas tc. unders.rite

all reasonable defeni c pcnditures reco~Tmmnidd bi the corregidors,

rather thajn plscing th~e burden of rsuch ar. exprnse upon th~e local

citzen. a va cutomr,. Dcfenit was th.:rct., taken out of

private h"nds and assumed b; the state,

The dEClaratioli of rwar aljo nullified the 1750i Treat, of lladrid

which had ~estbl i hed the border be-tween Pe ru and Braz il, requ ir ing

increased .igilance along this frorntier as r.ell ss along the coalst. '

I r. March, 1762. iimar rlss ardired to cupel the Po~rtuguese frair the

Jesuii r.iss~ions in the lIojos rcgion- but the expetditionn failed wrhen

it. s memership was~ decimatecd bi tropical fever. Although other

expediti~inS werer 5sEn oiut laer, the, failed for the sawi~ reasons,

jnd no further jtte~nipt: are ma~de to oust the Portuguerse from these

regions, 6

Thle strateg, of Vicerc., Imjc for diefedinD the Vicerc,alt, of

Pcru took into consideration the financial limitations of tr,;ng to

garrison suIch Jn c:tenSiVe territer,. 5nd uttemiptEd to utilize the

harsh terrain as a dete~rrent in l~ie o f ortificration5. hnmat hoperd

to avoid the irper~ienc o~f his prediceisor, the Miarquei de Lilla-

garcia, wrhose actioris in calling couc the milir~a and raising 3

naval expedition to defend against the Anson crpedition in 1741

had bankrupted the ,iceroialt,-, forcing hima to suspend the pe,mcnt

of salaries to the garrison troops and tc. the members of the F.o,-al

Audiencia.1 Nrot or.1,* did SuICh a situation pro/ok;e ill LIIll amojng

both civil and reil itar, of f icialj. vhoje loyalty ras im-portanrt to

the cro-Irn. the e~xpenditures had done northinig to deter the inva;;on7,

and had leit Peru financiall; unabic to prepare fo~r subsequent

m~ob iliz At icn,

Vicero, Amat \las werll awrare thiat British navjl exhpeditionr to

Peru voJuld be, especially; nou that Spain and Great

Britsin wecre at uar. He told the k~ing that

Uint i nOr d i tance has been our tuleark and 5ecurTi [,. but
todla*, the difficulties5 ha-.e been conquetred ,. Fore ig-i ns-
t ions do, not fear the Cspe Horn or the Straits of nejgel lar.
The, think of rreating sports of call where the, canl jet up I
residences, regroup their iForCes and strengthen their pljrns,

IJonetheless, le Felt it was~ impossible to attemipr to defend the

ent ire coast froin attack with tr~oops sIch aj Villeg~arcia had tried

tod. lre3r he considered it to re u~nnece; sor,, Amat

belic ed thiat the constantl, chjnging3 wirnds miade the of shore

shoals and reefs treacherous for snyone not hajving a perloct idea

of their location. He also felt th;at e~en if ani enera, capedit;ion

wajs abic to makee a safe landing.. it could gjin no appreciable

amo~cunt of \Iealth ir. most of the small toursj, and it; presence voauld
ser.*e only to create ill feig rn h tnpope20 His

strateg, :ras simply to forth,; a fe\. presidial areas which guarded

the m-ajor coastal touns. At this point. IiO:,.Er, he does niot Seen,

to hj.e determined wrhether the smller towrn+ should have been

c*.*cuatted or defended in the c.ent of an in..-asion.

Of ;mmidiate concern to the JiCeroj 085e the difense of the

metropolitan Limj-Callao area. One of his5 first actsions folloii-

ing the outtreak~ ofi thef rwr ria to lead a nlountedd c..pedition

along the coasltbetw!eenh Ancin and Lurin, a distance of about

fiifeen mil1es, to familiar;ze himself ulth the terrain and to cha~rt

the area which would to mortt suirtabic for launching a counter-

attack;if an inva;;on ilhould occur. A diligent student of military,

raticsi, Amlar. felt that iuceis in unJrFare often depended upon the-

abilit, of 5 comm.~Tander to r.lodif, hii plin of battle in o-rder to

itake sd;anta~e of the physical geograp~h, of an aria. It wrAs this

3bilI~ti to jdopt to circumstances, he noted in a dictum, wic~~ih

often~ acounted for ,ictor, rather thbn superiorir, ofi numberl.21

From che roptdillon aroii an elabLorate Flan of shore btteries chich

were arranged in series of conentric riry jrou~nd the citi, to

be marnned t,; Lpecif i iC m Ilii a; IComp3ies upon J gl*.cn i i nal .22

Foremo ar in hiis plan of defenie wabS tO comnplite the fortressE

"'peal Felipe" of C.-llao rrhich had never been completel, reb~ult

after the li1J4 zarthqunke, The1 militar/ situation~ of (allao and

Lirie in generjl was deplora'ule. A high.-rankin3 offiicer of the

Limj iurtiomshouse.c- Juan de Eche.*arrij, iharacterized Peru as being

"*rithouut presid;o: \rithout troo~psi withou~lt cnnontallg, ,rithout

gunpondrer a-id totall; defeniflss .. Calljo wasr reduced to a

s inple outer vbll," k'hat mili ti a witch In the lit;, he

noted~ wre comple~tely lack~inr, in mrilitar: tra ning.2:

On June E, 176-2, Amjt led j mounted procles:ion fromt the vice-

regal palace to the fortress fosr his first tour of~ incpectio~n As

a symbolic gesture he ordered that 100 cannon be mo~unted upon the

wialls to protect thr harbor, Amjt alic-ordered thjt a foundr, be

conrtructte to re-pair the wreaponry which rwas in dijrrepjir The

followi~ngI I,*ear the crown appro.Ed hi: request for a .eterjrn com-

maindant of artillery, sending out Colonell Antonio fini and j cadre

of instructOrs to colmmandd the brigade of artilleri at Calljo and

to d~irctc w~ork at the foundr:. The results of sucih a cor~mmtitent

to ordnane we-re imTPre39;.-.-e,

The commitment tor reform of the Cslloo fortrrss led to other

imprro.cirents, notably thjt of Ilie studi* of matjhir..atics which hjd

pre.i ously be rn nPJ le;ctd i n t he: .i cero, sltI,., During hi., cour of

hth fortr~ss Amat learnedj that it: ptntagonall despr. hajd been the

idea of a frenchnan. Louis Godini, j former member of thec Frencih

Ec;Cent;if tic ed;tion sent out tor5neasure the CUrsaLture of the

earthl in 17j4, -srhe had remained in Peru as a profersor of mathemjtics

at the F.0,.31 and P'ontifical Uni.erityt of San tiajrcos in Limai. WlhilL

the Epan ish ofic iial j helId hat Godin wasi the only mathemat ici an of the name oilrhin thec .icero~alt, the creole titterl,

asserted thjt gevcral of their number at San Masrcos here qualiFfid

for the ionmmssion of designring the fortress, but hjd been pjised in fa.or of an "incomrpreheni ible Frenchmarin for the job. All

of th-m admittcd,, that no formajl egiJne':rs existed jt the

un.*.ersitL.2 juch infOr.jtion in~censed Analt and drover himi to

i nt rodluce a proglram- ds i gned to produce qu lif ied mat hemst iiicJian.

HE emplmi~ned in h;4 regmoria that this branch of learning vajs ro

important to defenNe and "guidance of the trli tary, Art" thjt ;r

mu~ t be de.eloped. Th~e results of such a program ri 11 be

d;scujssd in the -ucc-eding~ chRpterS.

A second considerat ion of the ;icero: was to Stem thel

corruption that flourished amng~n the officials of the pcart of
Callao and the commai~nd of the garrison. Hi: efforts to end

the pract ici of these po i t ions be ing heredi t r i pro..oked the fi rst

sricrou; cr i: i of author i t of h;s br id cjareer in Peru. In j let-

tir to~ the 1Inistr, o~f ther Indies he stated firril : h;s belief that

offirces shouldd be, graned on th- bari of me~rit and nindijidual

capacir.,, rather than b, hererdity, because rsuch a pract ice excluded

rhe qulal~ifEd aspirant unless he: htiFppene to be I'pjlth,*,2 AmerA

rited ;pec~if;all*, thep pit~ionrjS or Co~llcissa~r of ilar and Ilat, and

reference to Pedro T.agle ; Eusrtalnusce the riorquis de Torretap~le,

a miembier oi the crco7le ariitocracy of Lirna wrho had purchased the

war Amat~ dijcoverred that Torretagle had t;en charging3 the Sioldiers

iof the garriso~n For their uni Forms and For t ime of f in Lima,. Duc

to the exigerncier of wlarl Am~aC wlai unjtle to rei~cn.e Te~le until

after the end of the wrar, jt which thrre he re lie~cd the ent i e

Guardia Iliaor, or High Coimmand, at the port and rent thm to Spjin,2

E, de:.i at in3 fromr a long~-s t and i n trad i t oio of pe r,,i ssi .enes s

Amat incurred the wralth of thcse displaced of f cialE. W~hG LOOk their

griev.ances to the king. The ?o~ernor of the presidio of Callas,

Fran~cijco del Ioral. had also been remno.e~d by~ Amat fromr hi; post

for his refusal to leadj the expedition being readied to oust the

Portuguese from the Fran~ciscjn miissiorns ir. Moto GrossO. I ns t ad,

De l Morjl aent ilto hiding,. feitning9 ;Ilness, libers neris of' the

peace reached Peru be petitioned Amjt for rhi return of his poji-

tiojn but eas refused. In his correspondence w:ith th~e crown, Amjtt

noted that in countries liker PerU \rhich a stjte of wiar had reduced

to a comnplete ruin. if ruler5 COntiniued to iicid to the jcherce

of indi.*iduals such as DE l noral, it would hei.e"'.er. fatal

conseqluences. since these mien were icompleteli lack~ing in sub-

orc~inatiio, And honor.3C H.e Ftted h~is intention~ to~ place the

post of iovernocr of Cjllaor in the hands of inspectors gernerjl of

the jrmy, who uEi reent ouvt fromd 5pjin Ir. tht future.!

E;any of these displacid offiidels tool. their cases to~ the

court in Spajin, Jr;fendingt their conduct. and accusing the vicero,

of numeroui wron~gdoing.s Josi noral~e de Alramt~uruu referred tc

these me~n as papJace,os Iparrot;). r.ho not on1, slandered Amat but

at the same~ timeI scorned PEru end the \igorr and ability, of itr

people,. for which he felt the, should be hanged fo-r treason, H

noted th~at frequentl: those whlo arttalckd the rice-ro; in public had

priv.*atly Expressed admiration for th~E man,) Althouah none of

these allegations werce sufficient to jsccre the ouster of Amrat,

w~ho enjoyed glri-t popular i y amTong the ministers of Charles III,

there is some indicationn that these dissident :.oice; rr-Ire heard

ir, high places. Following the close of the .-'ar, thec v;icroy

wrIote to the crownT that he had pac~ifie Pcru satiijfactril; and

that his onli remainsring ei~nemcs rrcro ;n the Courcl cof the Indies.

The most notable o:pect of the ;nitial moGbilization of rth

arm,. in response to~ the; Se;en learE \Ir wras the ireation of a body

of ridlitia, since it 'r3 fro~m theSe comp..Tnies that a disciplined

~il 1 ;ia nolllJd later be creatEd. Fol the pubi k~at io of the

declartJ[on of varJ, ARi1at requEStd a report fro.T. the cjptiin for

the Fo,al Armior, citin3 the total nul.:er of f irear..m: e.hiCh -E~re in

wor kingl condit; I on. The report was~ not encouraging: gunponrder and

ir~un;itrion wriE in 5hbort Fu~ppi, and there wecre inrufficient arms~

to rupplr the soldiers, The conditions. bare ri bod thJt rhe *.iE-

ro?; not forced to purchase oabers and broadeors ds froan amT:ng the

rei5denltj of the citi to Lquip the militia of ca.-alry B the

End of it..T.t'E. LErmT of Clfice: thif situation had bcon miarl:edly

on Ita,* 10 Viccro,*! Amat-~ re:*iewed~ the unit restcre w~hich he had

requeJted fron thIe corimmaners of the .arious urban comcpanies that

hjd been ;n eiistence in Lime prior to rhis time, and found them

to be 'IjmallJ, undisciplicaed, and withour the leach[ order."' For

third reason~ he ordered an edict Fub~lished requiring all sutjccts

of the k~ing bea~con the ages iof fourteen and sii~t r3 present

thpemsel.cs at a rc.ier, on the folln:ring do,* in the region of the

city kn~own jF "'Los Peines"' to be enlisted in their proper militi3

comnpanies. Thep ritmberj ofI the, nobilit: Urcr re-quesrted to preient

themsel..ej toi the- SClecret)r of the .*icero, to rEcor~d their narnes,

along uith the number of slazrEj and unpiToli; unih;C each po~slessed.

Since Amat~ was desirous ofl h;ing the nouilll:, create andl fInance1

add1L10nal comnpanies of militia, effort; wiere majde not to- Jlienatt

this group. 110 penalties for filing to appear at the revieu wr~er

establichid, other than to iRY that persons Irhoie absence was un-

aut hor i ed would be i dent if id bj the aut hor it ics.3 The coopera-

tion ofI the large ha.:nded cliss v-.'s psicnt~il to iecuring the at-

tendljnii at the re ;c.10 Of thei r o~nCTrus Csla.CS and rctjincrs.

Thi iolloringg daj, Vicero, Amat appeared at th- re-:iew and
a .ed his mii t ar iommnande rs to form~ t hi r iomTpan;ies. The res is.

confirrred hi; or~Se jujp;Cioni: the cojmprnicrs rjngcd in size (rolnn

t-renty-f~i~ie. to tw~o hunrdrel men, all of1 them without~~ uniformsi, .jnd
comrplrtel, la.kin.: al,: knowrledge of their uis Alhoug~h iuch

a siruatiOn wasj no doubt dijcouraging, the niumber of peT~rion who

had t ur ned out t .: nl ist offlered jome encouragesacrit Aa

riecretar, obsecryed that the r-dict ilicited thE desirid responie

among all groups in Limj

Gentleme~n, titled perioni, jndj the most <-.ealth; luickly
offered thr:sel9CI;: andl thuir ;on5 . [it ] cu3ed rIO less
comma~tiion amTong the masrc: and cornmen people, principjll,
am~on3 the Ind;ans. Pardo:, and flo~renor who emlulated :hrm in
a Imost \rsrth, rranr~cr.34

The rtequcst m'ade subsequllentl, to the no~bility of Lir..a that

the, raise andj outfit aldditionjl com~panies of miil;tia struick an

apparent l, respoIn i.<~ chord jamong rcreeks <*.'ho hulngrilyr sought the

h-:snor andI prest ige whlich cnmanaits d from a rajnk:ng .a~il1i t r ,. comm i -

sio7. ThE Con~nondant of Infantr;, Co~lone I Fe~l;x thrales de Pram-

buru ,et an exanlpic bl rjising and out fitting a compAny, ofi infantr,.

The Conde di lor Torres followed b, outfitingn a comnpanl of iav.-lry,,

Feli>, de Encalada unfifornmd an inFantry com;pon, designjted as "La

Reinj Madr-," Juan Francirso Ilichiru, j prominent -rerchant Of Limaj

formed .8 Compan, of me:rchants, Pcdr(. Joefi de Bjret* ra;ed a

compani of mrounced r'drgoonJ **Eata.ia,"' and Francijce rMarino de

Lobera fo~unded j granadjier compjnj "Principe de Asturias."

Th1 nobilit; ofi Lima formed intor a reg;nimen ofl twe~l.c: comranie:.

Amst himself acceptedJ thet po:t of' Colone ~lj an omma~ndjant, and under-

rrratl theF Icost of rai:;?n icour grenadiir rompanice- to be- attached

to t ht anit. Ir, addition, the Audiencia of Lime dre fed n

ir.*antrl io.:pan , of 100! mer., .dl~ile the cat."l do, C mun ci pal

council ;pt.rJsored ,C00, and the Co-Sallado in addit Or.31 1,O3O.

5c~ne~ oi the urtan CC~rrpar~is: cof Indiani, pardos;, .nd mcr1ncos. rwhich

had st;i-ted prior to the mt~iliz-ation, were reorgajnized. Fcr

exampi~le, ths ;;qghrten coipanici i f parrd:. lIbhre
into a tbattalie~r. :.f nine co;npanie- ai we~re the thirty-three

comi'nir i of Indian:.. A t~sttalion OF mo~rer~cs libre- rwith ten

comani: .asals ceatd.Vtc-rjn troops~ from~ the~ ?arriison

at Callas, rere asrigned toe thtJ.1 1-=ter three btdtal; c~ni toj gi..

t he. i n t ruct ion i n Ith hand i ng cred f i rring ofi cea;on. In ad-

di cian,, iach c..ili t ia Croipar.* which ska new~ly formed recei.ed ai

chajrter from the .ticero/ defining the limits of its dulle, and

obl;gationj, Since no ger.errl rcguljtion co.ered their crgan-

izat ion, the .;icro; i Pei ii ciall g r ntedj each the r ights and

priv lycge of miilitij fser~iCe. ;ncludi g thC fuirC. iiilirar,

tremption~ fromr thF palnment of icrtain ta,:e-, and lim~itatiojn; on the

distance from Liml thiat each com;pan, L.ould had~ to travel if ialled

Although the i .20 of the ~i litia created b, Auslt remanin a

ma~tter of ipeculation, it is not undul, Fr..portant since no ;n..arion

b, ar fore ign po ~cr was~ made toI tE5t it. As a result the compjnies

LAFe dac~rtis~ated ghortly jftrr rrcr. of the Fcace Of Parir rrache~d

PErU, anet not reorgan;zed again until th~e reformi of 1766 O ore

in~teret ir the drgree to wyhich this initial molbilization~ wa~s

carried out by the correqidores thro~uqhout the *.*icero.alr,.

tajble rompiled t, 4rc 's rrcording sccretari iets the total number

of mlilitia cr-reted during thi ,per 1E3 at 54,580 men, which he

obSe~rved hid bPen "'drccied, armed and .rr,* sk~ilifull, instructed

in the uje O;' oral ,. , withut including in third figure thr

regular troops . and ne-arl, ten thoGuIsad sla.,;c thjt caln be~

equipped in anr em;er36nc,., Such ;rn rstimste (se Table )i

press distortionl if thi; mi~lita is rrgarded as ;r tacticajl v-apon

po55sEsing the requisite ClkillS and training~ to protect the vicc-

royalt, from sn attack b,- sea. As; the followvin3 cnapter wi~ll il-

lustrjti, the~sc troopi did noit deserve to be regardid af a dsiciplined

miilitia in the formal LenFE of the rrord.

Viceiro, Amat was~ decrrmined, houc .e.r, to retairn the~ captal

ina rinobi lized itate for at long iri porribic, Although the riEwi

of the~ peace rcochcd Lime i~n Mrarc~ :0, 1703, i~att rhofi not to

pub~lic;ze it until Umlcr..t-er 5. As5 late j as~i n,.174: he was till

requi~ring thei m iit ia to dr i I)on e accki ,. basi Simi larly*,, t he

production of gunpo-~der and miortajrs vr cont;nued. This training

produ~cd ai certain pride a ong th-citizens~ of Limj in the n~ilithr,

T^.BLE 2

SEVEIJ YEAFS uAkF, 1, 62-1 '63

Urbjn rMilitia

L i mia

Piginment ofi the Iobilit'r
ComTpany o~f Lare,crj
Co..pFan, of Student 5
Pegimientl of Spanish Infantrr
Pat ralI ;on ofi Me r chjlnt
Fcgimentr of Irndians
Bttarllion of pardos
Bot t jl ;n of' mocrer~ig

F~i-g~mimen of La.jlr, "DoI Los Feyes"
Brigade o~f P~,jl Fusilcari
ComTpany; of I nd i an
Comp;n, of morenceo
Co~rspany of pajrdc;

Coasrtal Fro.inces

F.e-ginrnent ofi DllJ.ista
Regiment o~f the Villu de Arrnedo
FRcgiment of flala
Rcgiment of Hu~arurj
Regimnrt of Cairet
Regimenr of Chincha
Fegimentr~ of Larnt-seque
Regirr~cnrt oi Quilibuai

Fsgiment of Corjtjallo
FPegimecnt of Lj fluerte dei Cbnta
Pegimirnt of Yuarochiri
Fcregiment o~f P~isco
Fegimenrt of Ica
PeoJinsetri of Camai~nS
FegimEA[. Of Cangl IC*

TABLE 2 (cont.)

Regiment of Plura 2,025
Pegimelnt of Trujillo? 1.498
Fei-qment of Santo 942
Fegiirnent of Pis.Io 116
Fegimeint of~ rlJacj 292
Frg iment of Arac am-3 46,'
Pegic..ant at floquiaun g00
Fcgimcnt of Arequipa 2.5.9
Fegrirrent of Tarnla 4,308
Fcginient of Jiaujj 1,222
PE? imient ofl Hua,-la; 2,647
F eg imenlt olf Conch~u- o 986
regi r..e n of C h~ach c~.. c.*a 5 7.
F:cg iecren of ,3j, ac arrbto 1,07? imer~t of LIruI 1lt..ab 2:00
F~egimntcr~ f Ho~llnJ tlice~ 1,400
FRegime~nt ofi Husirnachuge 3 !912
F~~egimentzt ofHaalc 6

Sour re: ALI:k L 1100 Co'nlr*.:ndi der las p're.en.:ioni s que rel E CC-
le~ntI inl~o SteE.:r i*on !::nuel de- Amnt~ hi..:. .asr. 1=. de~fin a
de~ 1- Cuerra Co~ntra Portugal, Inliterrra. Limia, rr10 cimber

The author, Ant[onio de Elre puru, cites a to~tal of 18. 900j
inr-ant r, mii t ;a and 35,650~, mi li ti a in L ima and the
pro;~0~ c'mate co-l provin.cC3 Thi- figure; f o~r in:'antry m~ Iriiti apper..ied, =nd presumibt., jri rnot includ-d in thF LOLi~il; 300'~.c,
The,- are probably based on estim~atres of 5secre sort. Sin~ce all ojf
thi figu~re- are in~flatid. the alue of thet rtalr; is to sho.r hth
locst ions i n rhi ch Ea mot..lizat ion of t he riitiIiIi:.- Was~ empihasized..

capabilities of thcir m; litia b, thi time. Thie Caceta de Lim~a

rcrc~ud that in the: future Peru avou~ld be ablr not onl, to? wage a

defenr i.e rrar against ;n cenes,- but jn offensi.e one as rellI.

rrhen ncews of the peceC was5 published, Marist s sccretari voiced

thL difFPpol~ntrnli nt unhich ;t prc..o!ed jmngcn the militia

Idc. not Inow if thrse faithfiul .a~sslr are co~ntent alith
ruch happ, neas; alth regard tor th comiinoni gooid and resigna-
t ion of the rril of t ~heir .. or saJddend at
the occasion to -al.e the i-cet auirther c rooF i.: their 10.s
and lo,alt, eScape frOmi rheir hands.

If a irofe.-ssiona militar.* had not com~ie into biiing by this tir..e?

thcre w~ere indications at leLst that the pr.ichololnscal condition!

for rcreting one :..cre at hand. There, co...bined Irith rhe cruihing

defeat of the ~can Year! viar. were- to forTce thi ;;eation of a

moidern profess onal armi in Peru to defend it 5Aganst future attick:.

The termi~nat;3o of the Se.en lears IWar had a profound effect

onl Spjin as ~..ll asr ts colaniecs. Hi-torianss ;re in 90nural a3rce-

Imint that th~e hucali i t ing defeati which Croat Br itain ;nf lictcd upon

Epain and France cor.nviced thei ..jquiShe.3 allies oF the need fo~r a

radical rcor~ientatin ofl Bourboln jdi iinistCrat i rr pol ic.iei.~ There

rare too; rcason; to~ 9Lupport 9uch j decision, First. they had to

be ablc- to pro~tctr thcnmel~err should 3 seco~nd \irar against Britain

break; out, jnd secondli, Spain~'s em~pire in A...erica had to~ be

preser.ed from~ future attack. if such should occur, The seriEs of

programs e-.hich stemmed fromi- this decision are collecti.i l knourn

ae rth bourbron Pi fors.~

Spai~n hlad long realized thz need for ihonge rith~in the? core-

riercial and jjdorniisr native spheres of its colonial eiipirc, but the

fJll of Ha.-an3 and flanilj to the English in August, 1762, con.inced

it of the need fo~r a iclonialI military, reform as well. Ha.ans had

longl been the- sent inel protect ing the outbound 3; fleets on

which Spain depended so heasil? for re.enuJe. Iti fa11~ll demonstrate

the fjllib; lit, of 0.erdependence upon f ixed fort~ifcat ions which

hajd. until t hij t irr.0, forced the bas is Of Sp anish mili;tar..* strategy,

in the INew world, The eare rrith wh;ic Ha*,ana hiad b~Een ijptured

al-o made an open secret of Spain'i enilitar) wejknesres in the ic w~

world and3 heightened the chances of future jcttacks, since from

Ha.ana Grest Brit;Jin vo~..ld ha.- a rtaging 3ria frolnrr.hich to at -

t jck Verjcru; and ne:-ico Cit,, Another fact nIo[ lojI upIn the

Span~sh juthor~iirs Wrjf that o'.er 700 Reirchant sh;ps loaded rith

Engl~ih manufacture- had called at during! itr el~jern ILonth

of capture:, Ilherres prior to th~i t;ime not nore than f~ifteen had

cjlled during sn, ,ejr. li0[ onl, wrouldd EngJland oi desirroui

of recapruling the:se marketsl once alain but it could re ;ncrEasingly,

difficult to placate the Spaniards. themsel. as unrion their

entiquated ronmmrcial ;ystem wefre alt:red, Produc r onl and

protection were the kc*,s to Eourbon policies in the IlJew wor ld.

The colonies hjd to inrcrese production in order to finance Spain'j

return to grcocnejs. The, rwere also counrcrd upon to bear the it

fair Jhare of defense cxpenditures.

To eiecct these changes, a Secret Commhterre For Impe-ri3l

Defenrse rsj forned. The S~panish 11 niStcer of Fore Egn Affairs,

the Ind;ES and Finance. the Marquis de Grimajldi, Julian de Arriage,

jnd the, rarqulrs de Esquillchr respctis.*oly, metr in rladrid alth

thcir French isounterp~arts to outline a general plan for the defense

of thp SPan'sh ColoniCs, Althollgh thel aJreed on the ni-:d for

irepro.ed fortif~cjtions, the fall of, tught~ there, that larger

nuraberrs of trooip_ rere nceded to :Ipport the small numberi 01

presidial ;oldiers throughout the em~pire, sinic thd deteriorited

state oF the~ Spaniish treajur, r..ade it ;mpossible to rupplment

thEiii veteran unit; to th~e pojine that rhe, might COnititu~t an

adlqujte itjndin3 arm,. lorce.-er, the Span~ih anj French~ policy-

maklers,, Tr tariious Te5reasns were quest;rionin the ..'jlue of re-gular

troop; in thec Indea. As Airriage noted

Thei prreidio-:~ of Amerlca do~ not h~asi a-nd cinnot~ hate. the
troops ne-cejsar, for thcir defen:s. There ir no mone, for
thc p'a,me~nt of ruch tro~opr .. andJ all the Infantr in
Fpjin would not be enough to presride what i; needed there
..thrre ir another highl, ;respolrtant obt,rcle, wihch ir
that the troops rwho go~ to, thC bodies and~ become cor-
rupted .. ai a result in a Iho~rt *..hili the*, are- north
litrlic .ore than th~e milicis .. Although it would please
e*.cr,ane for rth to recruit soldiers in Cidiz for the
InJdis, it \loold cost the Crorrn a .ogg~e fojr the hundreds o~f
parjsites wrho for~ti..El, seek to goI to Ame~TrJIc an~d it is
-ibundantly ilear that thlre reirutit: uouldJ not remainsr in
the Corps longer than neicessri to area.e good their icjcap
The result ;,f all that I ha:e erpressed ii thjr one ca~nnt
count on miainta;ining [he pr~esidi s of Armerrca cwith a suf-
ficient nuvmber of regulAr troop, for their defpnse,50

The alternati.e to regu.lar troo~pi w~ai to baie colonial defenses

up.on smTall o~ur.!bori of Spads;h regular units who would be frequently

rotatcd, su~.pp~lcsemented b, larger numbers of fijo (fixedJ) bjttalioins

of .oldiers raised \i th~in the colonics them:cle.*m., Yet since both

of these m-ejsure~s required Sut-sjrtantl jimounts 01i mon~e, to pay, the

salaries of the-Se sold~iers, it wasj neCessaryT that these unit' b"

supplemented by a mi litia, greatly increased in rirz and trained

and organized o~n a standard basis lik:e the pro: incial militiJ of


In order to test the efficien:: orf this re-.ised defenre rystem,

the Spanish cro::n dispatched Field Iarshjl Alejandrol O'Reilly to

Ha-.ano in April, 1763. O'Recill, was to determine thE CaUsci foT

the fall of the fortress, andJ to reform the fij e. nd regular bat-

tallonsr. In addition, he wras to reorganiic the militia OF the

island upon j dil-ciplinerd baf i i. In Jul,, 17iG, O'Felly~ comp~leted

his mission~ to Cuba and returned to Spai~n. The fruit ofi his labor

wa~s t he Fegl~iamntc para 16 a l~ic i a dr i nf ante rb : cabal Ic r a de1

la Isla de: Cubj, first printed in Hasans onl June I:., 17th4. 2 I

wasr from these pro'.isionjl tables of irgasnizat;on, ai wl~cl as

from tables Wrhich had beeni drawn up -arlie-r in 1;'j4 for the use

of the Spaniish pro:incijl r;ilitia that a basis for the creation of

bodicr of disc ipl inrd m~il1i t a in INew Spain, the Philli pines, NewI

Crsnads, Peru, and the La Plata Liceroyaltiezs not estjbl~i-hed.

The cin~cpt of a suppleme~ntary, mil1i t ia n o no~t a new~ one in

Peru, Juan jrnd Ulloa had recomme-nded that onre ber established to

aid in the maintenance of coastal defense :

\!6 art of the feeling thjt thr principal deffriei of thO-t
population which cannot be com;prised w:ithin ;he enclosure of
a prot.;idd f ort i ii c jonl cons istC i n the i nhabi tant t al inI
Jrmg to defend thiemselv.el, or to oppose in, attemrrpted i-r, myI
landing, by forming bodjies of mTilitia in all the ports.5

This, honres~cr, rwas only an ertension of the concept of an urban

militia, in whichi nc thought was given topcriodic training or

formal organ izat ion. Ini the ncew Proglram, th~e couphas; s \rould neces-

sjrilyr be upon trainring an~d diiscipline.

The first quidclines for the formation of such a militia in

Peru ecre dispatched on 110, 11, 1:E0 in the Ferris of a roijl order

entrustcd to colonel Juan flanucl Campcro, a regular officer wrho had

bar, senit out as the nerr militarr, go*,ernor of lucumi~.n. Ac company t-

i ng t he border rva; a do-.ume~nt ent i tled Plar. de 1 iic; ia : o ecsta-

bltrdrienro necai;ded.: The plan, convinced Vicero, Act; that

a ~isciplinednd miritia "rose nor only useful ut~i neiie sar ,

successi.- experiences confrrml this fact E*.*er, da,*"5 In Dicember

is-nat ora~l~tie 11
defense strarce, and its failures. In the letter he rt>[latd his

belief that the nj.;?u~ional peril: of the Cape norn pajiage \Dere

no longer i50f icieni to derter an cran, ;n.aircrn, and his awarernesr

that no heli could be isent fromi Epain in timre should such an c..ent

oiccir, Eiffrts to,*hir p~redece-forir o raiie landing armiies to

comilbat 5uch in.ajions hjd faled fromi j mil1i t r, st andpoint, he

thought, iirs:e the numbers of troops abhich could De rJised weare in-

ruf ficient to; the c.rcnsi.*c coastl1ineI ls a uws

from an econlomic viervpoint, he felt, since such a rieasure forced

small to-enj to donate for ber,and thuir rerocurcii jnJ bsner-upted

the royal treasuries, Once this happened, Amjt n~oted that "jll

waJs reduced to discontent and confusion,'' the arm, dr~ited apart,

andc- the tourrs were as defenieleiss a b-forc. For the abo*.e

reasonS, Antiat reitcrat~d his preference for a m~ilriti a-shich sought

no pa, for its ser.icer, an~d which w~as read/ jt a moment'r notice.

Those he had raised in Liriia, he affirmed, "uerce not infrior~r to

the mrort coloran foldicrr front Europe." Aircad,, he boastcd. he

had raised and trained a larger number of thcje than Cam~pEro had

as timatCd.57

0.1 Augusjt 24, 17t5. the crowrn issued a seion~d guide-line fo~r

the crllanizati~on of a discipline militia, wlhiich :-s republished' in

Peru js the Fegllamr~nto cot~re 165 mil ciie del Virrc~njt dlPeu

Since the forcler plan had presumabel, onl;- bcen intend-Ed to con.inic

thle vic-;r ,- of the cefficac/ of raising a militia. his enthujiastic

support of the plan opened the via, for a more detailed regulations

designedj to plice thij mi;litia or,~ a footing co~nsistL't writh [th

Spanish ProJ'.in i als. 'i'el nea~hcre in Ihe regulate ion is therr e an,'

inrlication that Vicero, hlmat~ was~ tund to 8dhere to rhise guide-

l i nes. Thes fact that the mrinirrcrl- of the crown co~nsi dredr Ama~t

to hai~c no peer as an admilnif trator and mT; ilitr, t..pert aCcou.Lnti

for the f eIcb; lit, him, to reorrganize thr m~iIi tia along the

lines he felt mo~sr suitable.

The 1166 Lcqlamentto contained a series ofi step; governing

the raising and organizat ion of units of driciplined m Ilitia in

Prru, First, rthe go.-rnor or iorr-rgidoJr of a particuljr d strrict

uas to take a icnsur of the population within hiis juricd~iction ;In

order to detercs;ine the nulabcr of person a..-ilablr for dut,. Each

regiment was~ to be raiccdd uithinr a ten-lcjsgue rai;ur oif a pro-

vincial capital, the rt;iegimet rtaing thle narsie o~f that tour.. Although

nlo ment ion was ro~ade olf th~e n~umberl~ of C1mipaniies alich Lvere to be

rjised, in mostr cases olnl, on~e bttallonl iioul be formed.~ Often

conpaniiie cere raised ir. small to*.ns distant fTire the capital rwhich

infriquenti, rrould train alth thle battalian but wh~ih rrere attai chd

to it for ejdministrar;'.e purpoSES. The req7u(ietin vrEnt on to state

that each infortr,* battalionl wajs to~ contain nine companies of seventy-

Fi*.*c m-,:n Each. c.alry or dragonj regiment: rrne to bc compoired of

n ine comp.:-ies o f fi ft ri.rn each, which weire to bi grouped into

squadrc~r~j of' three csampanies For tactical purpoje .

Enlistmenr proceidures ere- nor jpelled out iin the regulation,

arlthoughl a rjther iljborc-t' prroess for enl;Fement <.as in uSe in~

Ilew Spjin. The reguljtion did motion., that ranl. r.-*a Lo

be~ granted ir. line w~ith jocial rtatus. All officers And sergeants

ac~re to be grernted th: act;i military pri.iliged Juri diction as

lon? as they hr:-d the ;r ran*,., abihle inlistcd pprlonnel enjoyed

the i+ pr i.* il~ges only when called onto act i.s duty,62 The regula-

t iorn rwrnedj that mi I~tia of f icer r or pro. incial oif icialj wercr not

author;ije to: employi rsldieri in jnyi capacity which interfered rriih

harrtcstir. their crop or cther trades. The jole master of' the

m~i li i i, i t noted, v.=s th; r.;?ng of Sp-in.6 The regulation al so

stattd that the militia ar;r to be prco.idcd wiith :eeraln traiining

cadrc- to ;intruct them in miliiitar; e:..rciise and the handling of

s.E jpons. Althoiug7h it \as clearl; intenided to pro.;de enerirn

troops wihere-.*er poisibl;, the other rnam~berrs of [hE conmmand and

staff grOupsh acre alloucid to beC drawni irOm "tlhe most decorated

per-ons in the pro.'inces"6

The capture o~f the "cojld and tstrile" lIal.ines (Falhland)

Islands off the coast~ of euslnos Airesi by. the Englisjh in~ 1766 created

a climate of urycnc, in Peru w:h~ih gave dr. ;dded ;rmpetus to the

format ion of theje mili it ia companic s, s ince from them Great Britain

could launch a full-scale attack on the Unat Coast without the

danger of the ir mo.cments being detected and re layed to L ime befori-

hand. Such news~ proo.oked Am~at to pledge all h~is efforts towardsr

securing Peru laienst a ;eaborne in~asion. In ar. ef fort to d~o

thij, !he .-iceroi made3 numerou; o.erturej to enlist the supportt

of the creole elites of Lines, in thie hope that the lov~er classes

would enoulate the ir exar.aple and enter th ilt iiIi tia v.ol untar i l,

Formerly;, he had organized the hcgim;ent of the lo:ilit,, o~hich

became a .:rcole unit encomipaissng the merubers; of the best fanilie~s

orf the city, In grant ing ruil1ita r, fue~~ros (pr i .iIEge s) t o t h i

unit. Am~at ma~de ;t clear that m~emibership r~culd not abrogate ani, of

t he pri.;legcs w hi ch t he, alrcad, enjo; ed. A~ creole

has obsjervedj tht "'the jo, wasj uni'.ersal"I v.Mhn thii rCgiicarr~t wasc

created, and that the creols doubled their attention to the miilitror

C>.er ci ie, qu i c Ils nia:ing inrd lerors,"6

The oth.-r urban unit of Limj, tht Battlic~in of tierchantj, was~

alro reorganized into ten cormpan~is oT lift*, ruen each, and thirty-

nine officers, icommanided by the Con~de de Torre~.elarde It wajs in

thi; rra, that the nurearour Spaniih nerchanti of Lima werre brought

into th~e militia program,

Ir iit ia service w;aj less Populor among the regroesr and mixe~d

bloods rho f i lled the: en~l i tcd ranksj of thleie companies To begin

writh the inhabitants of the city wecre unuccd to the demnands of rrar-

t ime and conrequchtl! afrjid of them. Amat noted that "all the

people suffered from~ cowajrdice, jnd upscr" and that in the past

the, hadl abandonedfi the cit. when newsj of an in.asion hjd reached

them,7 Alt hough t rjining o~f the miiIit ia had ben at tempted in

the past, th*. d;stan~ce of j Eu~ropean En-ni, fromn Feru~ian shores

caused an ai r of uinrzal i ty a but such erer igEs and the. rrere taken~ ..eriou1 ly.72 EjpECiall) problema~iltical lia the in-

corporationn of th- lirgreesi of Line,? jn au~d6c;ouS group \Ihiih was~

jla.3,s at oddF a ith the ricerTo). Although hi. re ourcer mere-

short, Pmat h;d gold cedal rude featurin! a bust of Charles III

and grjntcd thiem to the ~comimcanders of the coaspanies of pardos,

cor-nce,? and Indijns in jin el fort to raise mocrale among~ theIst

grup.The rrlcheme jpparcntl wo rkerbd: jnd no report t-d cost I of

.ioilenice he.e bien loaitid surroundings thE Enlis,[ment of the50

group- '"nCe the ,ail1i ticl. This, brought exprc5isrion of amazementrn

from certain I3bservers, whoC notedJ that the :.ii e rs, "accompl i she

m~ore b*, being ;3reeajble thanr i., icric" and comparedd him with

Alr jnrder the Greajt who utillized similar n..thods5 to incorporate

the defeated r:jce-do;nian ;ntoj h~s army;. The m~oral FtEin~d C 801.

sag:.cit*, produced better results then the sw:ord.7

Acit' j's deP interret in the r..;ilitia persisrcd long~ after the

i n iti al reorgani zat ion. His ',iresence at the neecl L:;re.*le in the

Dlay malaicr_ (main square) of Limia prc..ided the~se eerciies withh a

Jignit, wrhich thr-, had befo~rL porssessd. Miorieoutr, his

passionate respect for a careerr at armsF g.7.. this vocjt;on a nerr

lustir, AccOrdingJ to onle ObiScr.rT, the ud~eilt of Viceroy; Amjt

caused the proficitent har.dlirig and firing of wecaponr to be looked

uper, as a b~adge of honor ahich distinguished "accomplishedc and

gallant mern." These creoles~ profejssd dirdaini for "Ex~cesive braid

and crimming" \rith had distinguiished the Spanish soldier and

which to them seemed a m~ark, of *.anite rather than o~F r:- the

ling7 The regulation specif led that reviews rcre to be hel~d a

minimum~ of mIIe a iear but n-ade no ment ion of Hcell; dr ilsI Vice-

ro, imat had difinite ideas on the bubjsEt though. and called an

untrained soldier "a tbod; that Only r to embsrrjrs.' Dur ing

the war? the~ Ilerchjnt's gu;ld hadj 5ponsOred thie c~nst ruction~ of twro

barracks in LimJ for rhe trainin~3 of the militia companies. Each

neek. a company of infantry and One of Ca.alr; uould occup; the

barraiks to rece-i.e daili training session under the Juspices of

veteran officer fromi Callao. TE., artillEr, deta~hnint practiced

o~utsidr of the cit,. by firingj it a rrall ultU1 espec~iallyl for the

purposes. This practice rljr discontinued t, the in 1764 the object~ions of thi ,icerio., who feared the consequencesp

if the m~.ilitia lost its wor5tf;e rtadines. Wlith the- ;ntroduction

of the 1 66 m;1l it a reliulation into Pcru this 4.eekll training wras

agjin resumed in Lima/7

Periodically. Pimat would ;tage etercises in the ple pr.a na~rr

to decionrtrjte ther proficiency of thE rili1i tia which he had created,

these reviews; were festi*.*.: and glslm-orous offairs arttnded L, th

best people of Lime~. The plaza usres decorated l'or such an occasion

and tapeari~r.; were hung fromr the tbaliconies fronting thie JSuare,

Frequently f;ghti broke our amocng the lowe~r cljasss fOr the spaces

not occupied b,' the nobi lif,'. one such demOnsItration was~ he Id On

floer..ber 4, 1772 ir. honor of thie birthday) of Chiarlir III. A <-ride

trench wasr dug across thec middle of thi rquajre to simulate a ri.*er,

and a bridge ass built jcrois it. Thie militia of Lime~ ras divided

into twro opposing armiet- and acr up .:alpiitec at tech end rf the

qur.Onei side use, to hold the bridqc tL he other at tacF.ed

it inj 3 ser; s oi stages wrh~ih rarre exp~lained to the arssmbled

ci7tizen in order thajt the, m;ght pasn a better bpprecijt on of

m; l tjri t ct icF. Pe.iews5 general l btgan witrh ejch com;pan, i jss-

ing before thE ro, l balcon, on wrhich thr c.icero,. jnd h;5 milIitarry

advji ;ors j r:E i jetCd. At 3:30l the*4 t-rminjted and theiice-

roy., and hi-i rarty entered carria~ge for th' procleision toI the

church of Our Lad; of Ilonserrat, the patron ra;nt of the militia

of Limaj, rhererI a high massi \as, iclebrjtead. The stree-ts were jammed

ior the occaiion.~ Follow-.;ng the miss, the millritia companies took.

tseas long the P imac where the brigade of jrtiller., put on

j demonrstrtion of fireworksi. Crenades were lobbed into the river,

erploding and sendin? up plumes~- of ipral, At the cojnclusion of the

f irch--or'w; the p~rGiesiOn rcturnled to the plaza reafor *herL dinner

and fsirriticis laited lo~ngl into the n19ht.R

Viceroze Amat took. a similar inlcrcst ;n the .cteron~ cor.-.poneint

of the Army, of Peru, and consistentl upFheld the ir dimands. for

higher pay, and moore generous be:nefits, He hadj beein in Chile w~hen

a regular battallon rev.olted beca~uje the govcrnnment hbd fallen

into arre~ars on their pa;. Thus, wrhen the crowrn askEj hinl to drf8

uip a re-ised pa-, schedule in 1766 to helip offset rising :osts,

Arilat tabled Ith border on the bas is thst such 3 m~easre waJ i nj ur ious

to public isfet; due to thi effect it would pro*.oke on th~e .ct-ran

forces. In a lartsr ?.0 the COf"Onr lifit orgUrd that L*h lr he rwas

full. aware of the e~pensc th~ih this comiponent caused, anid the

pea~rt. o3r the ro,al trieasur,, .cateran pa; scale \ere jlrE~ rea ,

lowI that the iiould barel; suftain a cornr.:c0n soldier, miuch less an

<.ii cler, Hie obser.ed that in Peru "the poor 1Jegro JourTni,,-man" rrj

better off than thE SOld;Ier. He exprEsld lear' that if p;, was

slashecd further Isold; Crs vould begin lea-. nrr the Prn., fur oic-

cupaticons, and the king rwould: b -ithout an array to defendj hii porsien one.

Ar it itood, he icit the reguljr anld fijo troops in Peru erlEi cni,

capablr o~f dcieniding ircent; of~ thr Sor'Ent,-six pro inece in Peru.

This r:cludcd the highljnd rre as f ile 1 al .th "bjrbsroius Indijrns

and innumerableI castes." Ama~t \rent On to CitE thi grlEat respeCt

.~hich .ctuar, troopFs enjo,ed alchin the ..icer-c~it..* and their' .-aluE

to it. As in, he pointed to the catalr, compan, of the

Guard oj the Vicerol, wI.thl7uC Ihose prC~esece,? hi noted, "the P.0 '.5

Treasury would not co~llect a rceal." He wrarncd thate if the preiidial

troropi e.*er JoiniJ rrith the Indiani to cppose the royal auth~ority,

no~ one ",rruld be ;Ible to: put out the lire the; thi, coulld ligh~t."

In addition to su~ppoting their' pl1Ea G f.r bttcrer payr and

i ncrejsed beneii it i, ;rmat sFppleaJ the firs t comp~reh~ensi-.e regulation

to these regular Ond fi~j units ir, 1770:, intended to better their

ojrgan izati on and d i zci pli ne,5 He rstrresed rhe de~elopment of

technical expcrnise arong these units, at alll. As mentioned earlier,

the ..icrc~y was; particlarjl., ;nterested in de'.elopingJ rth iicld ofi

mjfthe~nAt ic Ewh i ch hi co7nside ri d i-essentIl to: njt io:nJl de fens i nce

mjstzr*, of thii; Jc;ienc helped the artillari brigade hit iti targets

.nore accurate~ly, nd becanuse of the .arious applicjtions it iinigh;t

hjve in erecting new~ fo~rtifica'tions. H; therefo~re 3rrangid thjt

6 ball .at San 11arcos. bei set aside for the teaching of th~i subject.

\dhichh was to be taught by Cojl..e GEune. thi seniorr cosi.lographecr of

the.icrsat.,On Feb~ruar, 21. 1766. A~nal pub~lished an ed~ic

not if,ing all cadectc, ;eondd lieultenant;, and li;utenjnts in the

rcgurlar or fijo~ couF~rspanis that thi-, night comei to L;anj andt enroll

as fulltian- s itudents of ...atlreri~atic at Sarnae w1To hile drawrind

the r f ll ..H tar sa aris. Of thr "inan," o fi c;e rs ashe took

ad*.antage ofl thii offer, threce .rere gradjuated inl a special pu~bl~i

examiination o~n Junc II, 176~., .iirrh the ..iccro, ritting a honored

guesjt, the three engaged in c~n orel e,.3mination. Jfter which thel
werer grjnted d~ilomj; jnd phein promiotions. In a simiiljr al-

fort to maiJntain the morale of thu regular iorces at s high It..el.

Arnnot *.oiced strong oppos'it;n toj the Crow~n's plan to ship deseirters

fro.T. the Spanish arm~, to PeruI to ser~z in the fijo uniits rhere. He

ex~plained thatr thay could nezreli desrtI jgain if gi-.-en rhe o~p-

Forrllnity 5'nd go ,f I to- li.< r.i th the I ndi jnr: Iorn~ingi oit larn bence

to tzr ror ize mcrchsncj jnd t ras~el lr. In light of the rirnall numbrit

of regular troops in Pcrnl, Amat ~..*ntured thati such occurrence s could

carnbine to r.erthrow, the go..ernmec-r if jllowerd to proceed unchecked,

The border w~as subgSquently rrithjdrawn.e

The ..1cero, felt that th~e capital cities of Peru and Ch~ile

rrre closeo enough to the coast tor permit aid to be dispatched

rapidl; to other areas in the e.cnt of an iniasion b: sea, since

a wrell-tquiFpped field arm, could CG:er a[ If65[ twrenty leagues in

a dat's niarch. The small size of the majority; of the Chilean

coastal .*i llag~e; led hrim to jok~e that it would be Easier [G 010.e

them b; ting th~e rude~ shacks to a horse's tail than to \rBteC ;n,

additional mioney uporn fortifiraEIGns. For this reason Amn~t

reco~mmended thatr Valp rai3e and Con;epir~n nort be gh.en additional

regular gjrrison troops, but instead thjt thEir deifnse bc left

to t hr rcgularj of Sa~t in lZo ca~6te thi rt, l league airay HE

simililarly rbrote ofi Veldi.ia as unrworth; of furthler fort~iificainl

blaming its present condition upon the Comlpan; of Jesus o~ho, he

miaintained, had alwra, used the ir influence to defeat proposals

to increase 7.lirtr, conjtruction nmojngst the Araucanian Indians.

The one iiception to the general rule of not larcoasing

fortil:ications~ was the island Of Chilsf, lochitcj off Of thF Ch lean

cosjt, .rhich Amtnb bought to mTak~e thi bulderkr of his southern

defense i *E per imete r IChloe rwas a loicai~l sropoff for an,. marauder

rounding the Cape Hlorn because of the awaillale frijh water and

plentiful vwild animals which abounded on the island and had barbored

the Anwsr. ihlpedition earlier. As such, it coulld increarc the range

of an cenem; eipediticon, frceinJ it from~ the nrEcssit/ of putting

into a minl.-nd port for repairs or suIPPlies, En.eloped in Fog for

niarly all theC yea~r, fror.n Chiloe an exp.edition migh;3 direCtly ;It-

t aik Sant i ago or L icna wi tout Fejr c i bei ng spot ted. Thee rwere

somed of rlth considerstionr which le~d V;icroy Amat to refri- to the

ijslnd ;s "cOne of the principal k.e,r [C the 6ccur E*, of the king-
don~," ;rnd wh;ch cjused himi to increase the si-e of ;[5 ;Ijrriion,

Although the- island came~ under the~ julris~iction of Chile,

the stillingnss of the president of Chat judiencia to jbandon~ Chiloc

to an earn*,; rrompted CI-nal I0 req~use thlat ;[t b Cranticrred to thr

Viceo~al, f Pru.Sinie the .-wagd br rea from Ch loi to Cjlloo

wasr iatrr than from Chli~lo to Valdi.;j, due~ to more f3 crable tides,

thli requelr made Sinse- On stratergic 3rounds,? hnd L .135 3ippro. C

b, the in o~n? Aiugust 20), I'C',. In ajddtiorn, the .10ro~, ,,j

granted pe-rmisi.;n to for;il, cthe island anid to name a m; iitar,

go.c rnCr t hirr, Or Mrarih 2e, 17F.5, Ar..ajt njmed Captain of Drbgoons
Carlo; Ea-rjn3:r rc thE port, E, ]"'76 che island ras g~rrisoned

ti; 146 rcguljr troops9, the majoriC, of' themi situated in the capital

cit,* of San Cjrlos.

The newrs th-aC Grcat Dritain hsd po;ssrsred ;rrelf ci the

rrbl..;nes (Falklanldi Islands off of thle io,-t of~ Eveno-3 Ares

hei'iitened Spanish fears that a recon~d Gar oagainst that nation u55s

forthcoming. In ordir to assure itself that the Viieroialt of

Peru could surmouint sulch an in, the~ M~in;str, oif the Indeie

riquested V~iierol Amatr to make a full report on Ehi defenses of

the **iceroyalty in border tha: the king night dieciid what mleaSLres.

iif an;, werce neceSSJry to secure chi kingdomi fiomm jlattack Anlt's

rcFple, dispjthed o~n r 1. 17t68, asj a rimarkablyl canjdd

documenrt. detailing the uc~aknests~ in the- Peruciar, ann, as urell

as its r rcngthS It al ric s ignalled aJ deparrturC from the original

strategy) oif defcnse \hich .4mar h~ad E,prcised during the earl, part

o~f the 5estri er ',e!lar

B, 1767 the vicero,, seems~ to has~ conceded tGreat Bri taiPrsn

control (a sr the- high seas. and the foll,* Oi ailetupingJ to ?arriso~n

PeruI against anY -eabcrnc ;rl.jision which that rnation might :cck to

carr*, out. "There is no forcr that i s ale to oppr:e thEm~;

there dire noct cno~ugh troops n*:,r eno~ugh .onie, i r. th world to, gar-

ri-lon and Ecrrif, ruch .jst territories. ,95 Inrtead. chiore

to co~nentrate n~c1rost eClujiicl, upon~r cth dEfenser and Fiort;ific-

tion oif Lin,a alonel.. The or~tress "'peal Felipe" (to be comnpleted in

1774 I, the artillery, foundr,. andJ g...npLo=.der facor, rere all symbol:

of hisempasi. 6 In his report, how, Amat .c~iced deep concern

about thi stcuri[, of the cit*, uhi~ch had "ndear SCEn the thrater

of 11arrs" and whoie iabulo~ur s.E-ith maidd it the lo~gical points of ar.

English attacl.. He laiernted th fact rhat isomr, and pricit; out -

riuiiiLirid able -bodji e.) mn~ in Limes andJ cited th-e pre:cnce: of numorour

troublesomec coates1 rhose~ conduct he feared durir,? wairtime. Although

the. peopl-' had a ten~dency to flee in the face of dang,-r: Amat hoped

that his presence I1Ould put al nj Ind toC Fruchracics B, Fur-

roiurldng the: citl ulith mnilitia t~ hold oJFi ani approaching on;es, the

vicero: at least felt he would be able t~ trransport the better part

of~ rth jil.rcr anrld other ?ealth lorei [he nCIantainS te~re tIE c;t,


on the Subjc~t of the mrilitijl Anlrr 15 mo~re circumrpect than

in hii. arlier staerments. \fhileo he cat Cgor izd the mlici [i of

LimeJ OE "numrclou,"l' Amat co~nceded that companics from~ the. outl,-

irng Hould be unab~le1 to jrs;st in the defense of the

cit, unless the ; had jmple fojre~lrrning, due to the d;stance- in.*ol.ed.

LiCken'se, he noted~ that rhile the bjttali(~r. at Callao end the Vice-

ro 's GuajrdJ e.ere toth trained and read, to ait in ojn cmerrgncy, somer

ofi Lh-:e troops rwErC ~7ralwy ;Cr.ingt 3n the Indian frontlier and thecrc-

fore unj jilrrble, nori-ovcr, he estinated that j,000O troops wrould

be needed to gjrr ison thC fort1reS in the r.crnt of a F iegec. He

therefore ccnridered it "indip~spensabl" that Perru rrcei, -e mor

which he felt hid deter;r irted to their Ipreoar cand~r ion. S since

no~ne of them hbd had rembat~j cr:.:erience. Amjt urgedI th;.t Wed~.1-

train~ing tr- resuri~eJ throuyhout th .iceroialt to impro..e their

self-discipline,, j~iJ strengthen~ their characters which, he noted,

"is so rsc30 that b tj n~iiht ie rapablel of miak.ingl then surrender,"

Hie had little .goodJ to sa atrout the regulars c.ither, referring to'

them aI m.En of lorr reputationl who joinecd the arm*~, only toa am~dd

jail in Spairn. He clo-ed by emphjsizingq the need for dri.-ingj the

English cut of the laili;nas, since not o~nly did these islands preside

them a bagi. from which to in,.jde Pcru, but aIlo would allour Ithem

to~ carr, ho~rses to transpo~rt their cnnon onCe a beaChhead had


Fo~llsring the British occupation of the Mal.*inas in 1!68,

Charles Ill had re~quested his Mi~niser of Fo~reign Affairs, the

Maerquics dE Grirs.ildi, to prepjre a mrem~orandumi outlninin the mieisures

\which he fell should be tjakn to defend Pcru against the pos-

sibilirl of foreign jrttack. On Februa~r; P5 of the following ,ear,

Cricalidi subanitted his report, entitled "'E;tedo del Peru," to the

Miniitr, of the Indles. In it he remarked thatr the numerous rumcrr

of Bri t ih schCrs toE f Estbl ish thEmse~l.eS upon the ma~i~nljnd of

Spanish Amrrica dEmianded that p p'rcigran.of milir~r, refo~ri; be

un~dertaken i;. rhat kingdom~ to presecnt its los; through in ajioni.

Cr imialdi stated that his under itandinj :hat pract icill i the ent ire

CGoSlst1ine o3j u~ntclcndcd jnd rher (51100 was~ garrisoned b, j iorce

of lesr thjn 500I me~n had cauied hic great woJrr, about the recurity

of t he .ice r o alth., He thecrefore Tirecommenlded that the Ccro**n iencd

an initial ship.Tenr of regular troops to Peru at once, and thait

each year this be supple-menred with other jlhipr~.cnrs of soldiers.

arms, and miunit ions. to~ "prov~.ide hope for the com-ilng year" to the

cit izeni. of Peru in thei r irfforts to difend againsE


In respo~nse to the reports of Amar an~d Crnimaldi, the cre...n took

a series of measures intended to better the organization and Elli-

ciency of the Armyi of PEru. Whi le much of thi- program wasj either

notr full, inmplemented or alloiled to lapse after thie English were

ousted fromr the 11al.inn5 bi Spain in 1770, Aratil[ uorkEd ecieedingly

hard to retjini the arnmy in thec state of reiidnines ahicl it had

enjoydj in 1763., although the YCing: in an order dattd

October 21, 1719, ordered the Feqlamento para las milicies de in-

fanter;J , saballeria de la bsle de Cuba applied in Peru, Aimat did

not crder the rtgulat ion publ ished and -eems to have left the

m Ilitia on the sam footi00ng js it wasi iince its inceptio~n.1 The

cro.:n also crcjted the post of ;nspectior general of the veteran

and pro:;nc~cll troonp*- of Peru, and appointed a ;oldier and

adm;n"-trato~r, Erigadier Gen~eral Francijco Ja.ier de tHrales to

fill it, but thlij meaC;Sure wasC alyo aborthe due to~ a series of un-

fortuniarc ciiru171-tences Earl, in 1769 tieralej and: Ms~ ucond in

comanra-d Colonr:l CGaltjsar Ser.,arnat left fo~r F-ru rrith a ba~ttlion of

the infantry Fegirrecnt of Fortugal, c;omposcd of ir fusilect coiiapjnie;.

ani art i ler, ~corpan;, and th; rt'i cavalr, roldierl. ThL)e troo1PI

weret to sEr.i aj reinfo:rii erenants for the gjrrisons .3r~d also as train-

in~g cadresi for rhe militia. Bad we:athcr pre .*enred the flatilla5

from- rojunding tht Cape Ha~rr, bnd ;n A~pril the, ucrc forced to~

return to lbnts~ideZ. From~ there flo~rales and! Ser~~nant ,tructs o~ut

0.erlan~d o~n their o.wn, recrhin~g Santijago in February, 1770, Ilorales
never did reach Peru due te an unfo~rrccen set of circumstaanei.

This loss of *.igorous Icoderjhip vas~ to hinder arttempts to rcnrganize

thea militiai espec;all, in the provin~ces whEre [$6 :Ubins~pfector

disliked and fa-red to go.

In an attempts to alrrest the declinir,g le..el of moralit) Jacrlng

the oldier;, kilal placed Peru under ;ometihin quite like Iar t ial

larr during th~i per iod. Discipline to Arrat the iornerjtonA of

any prv3gram of reforre, wit hini the rsii itar institute ior,. In hii s

MEmonriaa he uirore "It ;s lclar that obedience to the rigid Mrilitary

PReligion is the basic: foundation upon uhichi rests the glory ar~d

C.u~ccus of Arm:, and the m~ort riiinjml deceit and condc:icnder.:e
ought not be allowed to transcend it." In order to reduce these

vices to~ their minimum, Amat freqluent1; callc-d out the Cjllao

garr;-on~ ;n the drjd of night to ditermine if the tabtler of stren~gth

reported to him t*, the comm~an~derrs ar accurate Units found un-

acco~untjbl, undertrerngth we~re rc.erel, disciplined. The number

of officers pre~cnt at all previous vra: doubl-;d alro to ~ro*.cnt

future jbuSes irom occurring. To chect, ilrft in purchasingj snd

ruppl'r. the vicerol appointed a LcoFrnptlrollar tudit che arcouinth

of the commissor of In a letter to the k~ing defending such

StrenuouIS melaures.S. An:at ;tatEd thjt writho-ut con5Itir.1 viildnce.

Hii rlajilti w/onld hJ.-e "no troocps, jrms, treas~ury, or dercr,:.,10

L'uringi the Year; \-ar the vi;cero had jiilcd sul-pected

wrongrdoers through a reries of legal iubteirfugi-s because of thI

delay: ir..ol..ed in recol.*Tng rapid judgmntns from rhi croun.106.

Eic r. hen dealing alth nil Iitary cjses Amjt wa.s lIable to r;aker mot--

rcrs into his o~n han~ds rather than turr. [he ca:6 over to a il~lar,~

court, In 1;72. for eisample, who~c j ring of soldiers from Call~oo

which had teen tcrror;zing people on the tre etcs of Limei wia; broker,

up. Amat ordered thernl to be; ma~rhched ;rnt thi pljza .na,or where they

arc~r to be read the passages of the mni li tary ordninan~c pertaining

to t he rt H there, decreed that the; should be b headred and rhair

head police On pikte h. a rrarning to; others. In another as~e a Par diSputE bttwe!en the vficriii and creu iof the

Span;sh ularihips Astute andJ 56pte~r;.rlir harbored at Callaco, Ana~t

mariche to the harbor at the head of his guard and boarded the

ihips. Bypasiring the jurisdict ion of the cjptjin, the :.Icero, hsd

foJrt,-three suspecti jo;Iled snd deilared himgelf a iourt of m~ilitjr,

Ju;tiiCe to hejr the casE. In 5 cruel trosest, ojf justice,. he

declared all of~ the~ defendants tc. be guilt, rf nautin,, turu permitted

thLm [?j hold3 5 i~:ctor. rhemnsel.esF to see w~ho could lose their A's a rE.ult, ninE L:EIe hanged and U.?;rty-f our .rtrre ?i.en

wlhi~ppngs ;Ind length, jjil Fcerntenes In his r:e...c~r 3. :Imeo!

e-prcise j gome d; CJiscomot[ ;n! Ltcn rorced to prorced in such

a foihio~n, tut defended his actions t.: no~ting that lenienc; ojn the

part of~ ...ilitar; cIo.unan~ders h_d been~ the ciluje o-f reptated mi-

t~e-challer amo~nl the .oldiers,103

Although the Peru~.iar, mi litij had1 no roreign unLr to~ f aght

during~ thle .iicregenc of rlnUCel de Amalt, their itr.ici-i erei

utililEd numerous tire-, to prE.,ar*.e the inItrnal security of the

k~ingdo~i. Tro of the moTi; significant inrtances ofi this wrere the

QulitG ta> TClcl iin oi ii5 and the C-:pul--ion of the Jesuits ;n

17i6!. The conhduct of the mi li ti 3 in tjch of these ci rcumstances

helped t~ dete-rrr.;ne thle limniti of effecth-eness of th;~ii couponent

of the A~rmy of Peru.

In Quit, a rd*Gillion brOl.e o~it Ifollot.Ing the jttempt b,* the

go.*ernor of thorI cit, to lin.rrse -s .;les t;- upar. care brand. In

retalistio~n? 2 ri.*?ng bandJ of F~.OrnSpeople C~n the CaningI Of Junle

22 de 3tro,cd the Quito custombouse uhich had been built to hold the

resenues frorn this tar. After a feaI tentathe attemlpts b, the

dudie~ncia and the ocial militia failed. thle rebe~l- greu stronger

and possessed r ofl the ent ir-1 c it , rlien the necgot i -

tionss bietrten the go~ernment hnd the rebelCS bre~..e dolin ce~nmpletel;

the V~icero, of Ilen CransdJ petitic~ned Amat on Jiuly 23 to send an

exp~ed;iion to~ liberajte Quitej. AmaE~j quic'l;~d, crded ts.ol ilom-panies

fromn the infantri Pegiment of pardos and tuo fronm the "Prince of

Asturijs eslttlion" of thi Fcqiment of Spanish Inlantir; jlong

withi an artillery, detachnment and 50.000 PE5C'5 ti. be Isent toI Cud-

,'aqul u~htre thle, we~re to unite uith soldiers arriving from Fanmam

for t he oc.rland march toj Qu ite. Wlhen the e-peditio~n a:rr;.ed in

Quite, holw'.Er,, thle revolt hadJ atread, been ended by ne-got;~iations

and the audiienc;i was in proper control :f the cit,.1

ThE QuiCe i~lpedit~ion again pointed up the fact that the

irilitia of Limj was~ of little uec e: a p~jeaekeeping force ini the

m~orr distant part of the interior. due to- the timle which it took

then, toj rceac t he ir dest inat ion. In *.*iew of this distance betwreen

L~ime .:nd Quito it is romwh~at dif f icult to see rwhy thr Vicero, of

rlrv Cranada requcsted from the fo~rimer c;L,. but m~ore dif -

fi cult to explain why, dicrruy~l Amnit should he..e acceded to thij

request anld outfitted a fruitless expedition which cojt the

vicer oyalty aome 112,000 pelo One student of the rituotion has

speculated that A~cnt \,s1 trying to demnonftrjte to the crowun that

he rwjs ;Ible to mii 1itar i l defend Quit o. whichi had once formed a

part of the Viceroyajlty of Fc-ru, in an effort toJ hs.e it anid Guj*,s-

quil rejoi;ned onic again. Thei ;inorpo~rjtion of Guaysquil especiall I

witLh itr fine harbor and :hip chaendler,, m~ad4 reinicrpo~ration a

favorit- idej in Limaj ior s centur; thoreafter.11

'The e.xpulrion of the Comipanyr of JejSu frclr. Amiericj in 1767

olf frs oni rtrilin~g instance in which the reo~rgonized ~i litia \.ere

able to~ aid in thea e:.rcut icrn of anotherr im~portant Bourbon ref ore.,

and demlonst rate-d he.*.~ such a mil~Ii tia COulld be noojtli zedtr rapidl; ro

iuit the purposer of the cro.*n. Thi weralthi and indepindent policies

purTSUed b) the~ Corripor.; ma1de it a real thireat to; the absiolutiist

Ch-arles Il an~d h~ad cau:i.d him to e:-.pcl the~ order from Spjin sone

,rars be fore, Ir. Peru the Jesuit. were.T jnmong the ntrongest of

thr; arioui religioni o~rdrer, posses-sir. S large Ilndholdingi. and

rioot dif~icult tjsks undertakein ty hi;- go.ernr.,ent.

Or. March ?I 1767. ir-,truct iong for expul iion rere sen t b

the Cornde de Aranda, the president of the Po,-al Council of minliters.

to~ thIe . ar i us go.irnors of the AmerZTi canl ki ngdoms. Oni hugur t 20

thi3 order jirrl*.d in LimJ? deli.ered byi an offical of the Evenios

Aires gorerr~r~ernt. r~Jose merc~ presence pro*.oked rumrorr that romec-

thirng was- afoot. The o~rdrr hjd beer. :ent o~ut to the interior cities

of Fieru froni Euenefr Aires ramrshat earlier and Jiruit hous~e3 in

Chluquisjcj (Auguit I;), Cuso (September 7), Moqu~quu3 (Sptembter

7): jnd liojoi (October .5-S) had all br-in ilosedr without inc~irent and'

their mernters mairilhd towardsd LimJ for e~vcntual departure.t The~

situation in Limj. ho:ve'.er: prornriid to be considerjbly more dif-

ficult sincc thL caijFa~l containtd fiis of the largest and \.Ealthi.St

hOuSLC of the tweLnt,-f il in all Peru. In addition, the necuorl of

famil Ij nd properr, ties which its mem-btrihip maintained vicrh the

upper classic of the capic.;l mieant thac a riot mrighC break. out once

the ex~pulsion order becare kno**n. Therefore. although thi order

mjdr. no specific mehntion of soldier, being us-d,, Amajt detrm~rined

to use thL militira to injure the succtes of [he .Lnture.

The border re:tiLed bi Awrrj ga*.e nio specific date for Juiting

the Comipani other [han to jsay that it shoulld rake pljce promptc~ly

-31ttr the roco ipr of the order, Thorcforc, Amat chose jep~cr:.ber

8. thL birthdai of our Ladyi ofI IlonlStrrtT[. the cron jiint of the

mnilitia of Limn, rabcn 3 r-.-ic., olf the mi I~tia ;nd parsJd TLtr

sch~eduled in the plaza mayor. Sin:e t he ralitia t jo:u d alIre jd, be

a~ssmblcd. no supic~iion \.iuld be attach~ed to their prLnce w~hcn

thle order ri~s carried out. Areat hlsO ordered the *-*arShip, San JIosh

(El Perujno) outfitted for taking the Jesuits to Ital,, simTul-

taneousl lettin3 it to k~non~n that h~ wiar planning to se-nd it to

Acap'ulco on a trade mission. Although the vice~roy, would hb.E

preferred to urtilz only the memberi of thue Ecplment Of thet

Ct.'bli c whli rh vas composed of mrnlb-rs of the uppir c lasj. for

the task~ of exupelling the Compnly,~ hL felt he nee'dvd mo~rL mni

than this. Unifotunatel,, the records do not indicate. which ones

we~re ucilized. All that is Iknorn is thst ten grtniodicr comp-~aniej

weire invited to attend a formal dinner in the F:0,al Palarc fol'oring

the IT~ass which ended the>. Af ter the dinner Lthre wras Jancing

and entertai~nmentr including plays and readings. A w m h

high~est ojfiicials in the cit, appeared at rth rear entrance of tht

ralace and riqueste-d admissiion, show\in3 the r..essage which Amac had

3ent themn earlier in order to gain it. At th;* [irriE the .icero,

read to therni Cle E pulSion order. Not lorig thercafter a fijo

infantr,* company, fro~n rth CJllac garrison 3L the pjlait LC*

rel~i:t the com~pan*, on dut,* there. Third com~paq. the mcrndbers of

the Vi~croy'5- Guard, jnd the militia, ga .C the juthorities a force

of 00 olderl.,These weire d.; irti fou~r elujl groups and

diSpatchetd to the fouvr nmain ho~uses of the cit... F, 5 3.m. the

houIes of the: JeSuits wrere all occupied and their r~nembcrr in pro~-

rectia.e cuitod,. In addition, troopF had been scrnt out to seize

the i>Een;.e JEuit landhorlding' outlE~idt O~f th-e City,;

fewr r.ceks [he Pciru.;an Jesuitr .rire jr iea i~n :heir ODs, Lo 1131,

and ikile. In a Ilettr to !th cro..n, 'icero,, Amal boa-ted Char

"The Jesuits hawe beedn throw-r. out, and I threwr ther~i out like a

Although the cre**n consi~dered the espulsion of the Jesurit cio

ha.e been necessary to pr~ese*.c thc colOniies iorse subSiquent dC.elop-

nc..ns rtend to raiSe the questSiOn that PerhaPT it'. L.Erall effec[ rwaS

detribirlrntl toj th;s end. orn the other h and, the ilkill and ef-

f lcieni; rrh~ih the: mii ti ra and f iJ1o troops of Lima rr.anifested in

the affair indicateJ that ;n l~u~iu of freign rrars to fight, their

talents could 1e utilired in dernestic :slthirr r:tho.uc con:ern

about their loyaltv to th-:~ PCin~g

'This -ituatiin demlonstrratd as uell1 a; an, the irr.prover~vnt

rwhich Vicero. Arnist had effected in the Armi of' Peru, w hich, at the

t ime. of his arrival had beer. under;Ltrength srd ir. a denr..ral;-'ed

con~dition.~ The .creran, or reglular corrponent, rwhich compored the

back~bone of the arm,' at mlidcenturl, hadl neacr be-r, held ir. high

regard b, the ;nhabitants oi Peru, due to~ the fact that as

Span~isrds the, could be~ ~counted upon ro tre t bioth the Claners

and the crealces cor~drsccndingle. jrnd al=.0 brcaure the, w~er't rnienters

orf the low\er~ clare in Spain, in offect. th Callao garrison us,(~

becaui e o~f it; nowc~rious lack. of discipline, j laughing Etodc..

There i. noa doubt Ithart befrr the cc..iinj iJf this VicerC,
(11mat [ he CrIt inc jok.Ed vich orrc apparEnE factual b.3- is
si~ce thcrc .ajs noi Ether [nmilitar,I or~aniiation to be iiun~d
ivcopt thr= 3iood judgme~nt io a rrtrea[t Fcauj h"garion
the ornor;, the~ mil;itia th~e cnnon, ojrd, demo~nstrated thit
d-fan-cs \were attributable to, miraclii. The ad anrages <*ere
ch~a,, j i~th thE enerniabs, but through thc hiere, of Go.d! .e I;.ed
without fear, cinceited ;n Loth ipirir snd ne~cs:res.iis ic
iforner icer*,s]laced the judajCi? toj place the blame: nor
concern de.elopedr ior the:, of their arnms, which beCamei?
rust, fro.,i IsCl, of ure llt

8, ihe on- of Amiat's termi of~ ojffie thij iitujtiojn sein~s to

hla'. chanrged. CertainI,' discipline waI much impiri.*edj duL 10 the

iron rule ojf the .i~cro, w.ho ,ar.ed a:. a court of fiirt incstanic it plij2ed him. aith th; Jrr;val of th: tarnalirin froni

the Fegime~nt of Pot'iiua in 1710 the size~ of the -ateFran corrpOnlnt

rvas SubStan[;ial, increased h-st ; had beer, .-s

B, 17i7 the IRegir.nt of' PO,al Infantr, of Lima held reached a strcrlgth

orf 690c..ensr, 320 ofj Ihich \01. re~ulari.l Thle Cire or~ the total

.uETeror con~tin~gent in Perru anr: Upper Peru (E~el; .*ia) 1,3E2.

Ar. additional 1,8934 troops werre located in rth presidiosj of Ch-ile,

In all, the Vicr-ro,alty of Peiu and its deprndenc, Chie could counr

j,?ci regular troopr within thpir border;.ll

Ar,atc's accomp~ilifhmn~cen riilh the mr;il~iti rere eqully' ;impre-~i-.e.

The urbajn ear tal in of t'.erchantsj and Pegimrent ofT the flatbil1i ty had1;
been reo~rgjni-ed and nurnbr-red 495 and 3.4 e rseciel; The

remjirling milIi r a compn~yjiei i n Lrima verer clas s i ;ed as d i cipl ;ned

andJ rcre pro.ided rwirh ;icrern training cadres conposed of1 r\,ent,

of the orfficers ofi the Feyimentn of Portugalj jnd an adit3ionayll IIIent;

si:-.officrs an se nt' rom-i the mil~ it ia Fegientc~ ofi LFpn;ish

Iinantrry~ (Feimientlc del Ilifero~l 1:ho rmre dispe"rsed among themnll S

The several com~panies of disciplined milit~ia s.ere reo~r?-nized as

ThE Fogimrnent of Spa7nish Iniantr, rwh-ich in 1762Z had ioailled

rrrsnty-re.en compni~b~Es had be~en reduced in Jize tc. (\no batarlicons

rvirh ninetter, cournparnie-. numibering 1,3:7 mer., including ;ts co~m-

mi-and and stjff groupF. In ice offiice crarps werre the ii..:mb~ltCT of the

L~ine nob~iilt,? Ir h lowerrr-born rwhites of the c6p;tlj Ferxing in

its rnlijted rents.12 In addi tion t o t he "i rce ro.npanie~s" o~f

scritnes: l:tuents, and arTisanr: which had been raised in 17-:. t\oo

moreT companies of mcsti2zo tailo~rs. ificered b, Spanish nlremberrs of

the: r3lors ?Iuild, had been formed in 17c69, each writh j conr-;1

strength oi ievent,-fi.e men. The "free coma~rnies*' all had Ithir

or. Era~ininrg cjrdres and totalled 4'4 mren ;n all.121 The Feire;hnt

of pardos stood at to~o barttllons of nine compa~,niEr each rorail;ng

942; me~n, abhile the Ba~tta~l ic; n of~ morenols num-ibered nline companies

orith 4i4. The F~egiment of Indiani jtood at three battalionr w~ith

a total :-Erength of 1:45e. Ir, all1, the inf jnts m iit a of Lisa

nulibered 5,251 soldierrs by~ 177. The artillery br;?ade had been

incleased in skie to 1i-.e consp~rnies rorallin~g 344 n-rr, t, rhr saci-r,


The ca. al ry mcili ti a showed a simil; r i ncrease i n s i z. In

add;iton to the t\ec urban unit; al read, n.entione~d, there was~ j

'f ree" comlpany~ of lawyers \ith i.*enr; iis neer., f3J Cur correrie;;

knownrr ilS "Payal Furileers," who werier Sparnijh noble uirh huntin3

experier~co. These compnipdi si de CLAjrldoel (compnljI;Cs of hulnters)

j', they/ of ten ref erried to rhem~iorlve nuimberld 157 more, Io a-dition~,

there Isee three com-ipjnics of pardos~ numbetring~ 100l eree, three of

moreno:~ \,th sc cnr,-secrn, anid a cormpan*, of rainep;'-nie Indiani.

Those sex\er, compan'ies of cattes horned s Peginerrc o~f Nationsi

numt-ering 2.30: c ooi in total.

The Feionrnet of Dragoorne had been furnedj b; Viceroy ,;rnal ir.

177) L, comb~ining into it the comTpaniesj of drjgcr-rns wrhich had bear,

formedr in l"'65. 1,; 1776 it rL: comiposed( of three Fquadr.--ns aith

three carr~pa~ies each. writh a EOtal CCtrn Eh of j362 nmen, r di

tio7n rragioon reginents had beFrs raised in the outliing arejs of

Limj b; large landounners posseising both ho~rjes jnd re~tainers. In

the Lorig~ancho~ rlley, f~r ear~nple, reginent of dragoorns edited

formedj intoo te, cor,ip-anies Irth a total :Lrength of 445. re~an, all

under the corimand of the na~rquis de floscoso. Aniorher exisrted inl

the Carabjil 1 .Dller. coi''t5in Iof fl:C: compFanies~ tota ll 1i ng 310

won underr the~ con-.manld of Colonel .10: /.ntonio Corda, a wyealrh,

creaks. Anr additional regiment numbering 180l nen exif1ted In the

sut.urbt of BEllavi 3sta[. Byi 11776 he ;3 c.lry a nd dragoo, n riitIia of bi

Lis..:s and irts iiimmedite sut.urbs stoodJ a[ jurt 0~..Er 2,0070 troops.

Vicer3, Areat personilly considered there. Chiaijr; CobliCTr to bE

the: nmo3t uiEful ars., i.1 thE IervicE Since [h5, could rapidjly [ra~erse

thF coStf to; ncret ;,n eneirmy on nEjr ( ima,1

ar, giii n t ime is more di flicul t to: EsIimate~ ince the FriClice of

sc-rlding1 copii of~ the re~..-lou- to timel doe-; not 5teem to b~jE e been

fo~lloj.-sed. The distin~guideLd h;istrian Icnditouru jtates that prior

rO 1762 r.irre c.Ere regir..ents of mi Iirln onl y in rcLI. ,' Arequipj,

Cuar..ange, Trujillo, Tarrma jnd three or four m~ore pro*.inces abkich

he doers no:r ident~if,12 e, rhe Endl Of thRI Mar, an estie.aced

25t,000i i;I; li a hjs berrn raised in response Ec. the 5ieen 'iiars L.'ar.

E, the end of the .icercyccli cf nzrnual de Amalt the total nurbery

of m~ili tia ;in P~era r-as es timared to t.. four times [his r~uinbrer, or

f i cE "fre consparIIFics" oi If i nf ialr r~,which tota~lled3 60n, 75 ITen, 125

iqujdron-, Jnd fiif, "free .:or..panier" ofi ca~lir, nurtctring 22,273,

and eight, Fquajdrons and thrrteen "iree coiwipaneie" Of dragoe;ni

The size i.t theie figurei amidu be ruipect e.sen Ii further

prooif of their ci*;te[nce wcre; j:..a labl Since it is not the," are

even lers reputjble jnd co~nscoucrntle unriorthy- of icouh auecntion.

In cases abcre vi~denc~e is c.*.*alsble, it cani be jECn thPI [he

co-~Pnpanie in thcre battjlions frequzntl, existed .ir some distjnce

From each other, reducing the tactical utility oi the reg~iiicnt im~-

re aur Lrably.,. This wras clIejrly c widente in a lettLer wr i tten in 1 770

to Amajt by the 90.ernor of the prol~ince of Santa Cruz de- la Sierra,

Luis AlI.arez de rrj:e. In it he noted thiat ;ine moStf of the ni~liltia

wo~rked on large landholdings located wecll outside of th-e town, the*,

could not be freed for i ulfficient jlrou~nt of t imie for them~T to

trTasel to toun to drill ri th the ir cocpanies.. Therefore hi

proposed that the ,.icero, provide hirs rwith ;uiFicien~t funds to cover

the cost of mlaintaining~ thesee soldiers in to\-*r for a one-mnonth

training period wrhich hi felt would be rsufficiint to turn rhem into

effect i e ;oldieri. Teei oidcto htA.a.hnrdti

request) hone..Cr, Thle go.CrnOr bliO Comnplanined that the effort OF

interior gate.crnors to train rlheir mili~tia wieri frustrated L. the

authorities in Lime, w~ho paid far mnori- attention to the companies

located on th; coast. H- rearned that the rumerorus Indians arnd

PortugueiSt required as rouch accen~tio-n as that bein? gi.en to the

po;ibility of an Engl;ish invasion, sincee thij region w~as "the

ke, and doorna;. toj piru."ll

Such a telling comment indicates about the militia

bu ildu~p in Peru: namely that t he em~phas i i by 1776 Ira; almor t

cons~pletely upon the creation of coastal units designed to protecct

against an English it..asion. A proper di c i pl i nd i i li ti a d idi not

exist in the interior by 1i77. The onl, exception to th~is general

rule wrere the net'~ con~pjn~ie raisedj in the largerr raininig to:rns and

cities of the highlands against the threat of Indian attack.. More-

o.?r, alo~ng the coast. the emphasis, seems to hJ.e been on thle

creation of mounted "fling squads" lrhich could ropidli lover the

area in case of jn invasion. For F.smple, ir. the prs.inci-s of

Chanrcl,, Canta, Hudrochiri. Jaujos5, (ari;tr, and lea e-*hich ringed

Lima, ofi the 6,6r19 mili ti ia \*shich hid been rai sEd, all but 5r00 w:ere

molunted c c 3\ 3lr ,. o dr goon un it s, rrume-rically, recruitment hadJ

been hejmieit alonl thi northern coast from PoGita to Chimbloti, rrhere

16c.62~ rri I tia hjd b~een raised. To the aouth jlong1 the ALJcome~

desirt. less thjn half oF thij number of mi Iliti had ti-enr raised,

moat of them closre to the coil, of Arequipa,

Ir. the interior, most ofi the milI tia units conterfd in and

abtiut the largt r tou.ns jnd ctite, iuch a Jaujj (13.2501. Huanca-

alica (:,0911, aceZC !1.177J)? and La Pa: (4,LJ*L), Iwh;h reflected

more than an*,chin3 the Span~ih desire to jvert raidej t., hostile

Indian. It is practiiall, certain accojrd ing to later testioin~,,

that all sof the m~ili i~a rji Ied outs ide of the immledijrte L ims jrea

.,c-re o~f an urban~ clalsif C~iction, laing standard streng~thi and

training cadrci, due to the reduced dangr af attack in thcse

areas and the rcarcity of veteran n troop;. (See Tablt ;. 1

In co,-clusion, Vicer;.y Ilanucl d!E Am~j preslided ove~r ji eral

of the earll Fourbon PReforml, and! instituted others ofl his ownr,

such ar the teaching of mathema~ticss and Ileutonian ph,jice at San

aro.In addi t ion? Ariat reirient~ed resli t ar, st rjte.]; to ut ilI ze

the harsh topography~ of Frru to deter inemi, ir.Lasions: retaining

selected fortificjl ionl; onl*, for the purpase of Froec~t;ng certain

populated rres~ from cjpturee and ransom;. He also suCcEjEdd in



THE ARfrl OF PEr.U Itl 1776

1, Pegular Troops

L i r1 323
Cal l6o 78:
Saniago j3 2116
Valdivia 357
Chilce 100,
Juan Fe rnandez 56
Tjrmj 156
.Jouja 6~7
Sanre Cru- de la sierra 26
Ch Ilean F rollt i er 5

Totral 3.256

2. Dri

Lime Coi-paniie of Ilnfancr/

PRe-ir..ent of Span;,h Infa~rcr, 1,347
Bttal~jion, of ncrchjnts 495
F u3imrEntr of I nd i 5n 1,455E
Regimnt o parles 42
BaittalI an of mo~sr r~ui 535
"FrEC comlpan;es of scrible,
StudentSI [ailorS, iEt. _Ai$

ToalJ 5,251

Lima Companies of Ca..alr-, and Drago~ons

Pecg;Tont of the rlobilit, 380
Compon, of Lar,crj 75
Companies of Spjniardr 157
Compan~ies of flat Ton 250
F.egirnent of Dragouns 362
Dragoons of Lurigencho 445
~r agoons of lfar iba; lio 314
Dragoons of tiC 11asista 150

Total 2,19:

TABLE 5 (cont.)

Pro.* neesi rur roundilng Lima b,P09
Cojstal Proj.;irrce florth of Lima 16,06.2
Coastal Pro.-nin ect uth~ oi tima 7,752

Interior Cities:

Tariria and Jj .js 13,520
Huanca.elicj 5.(093
Curce 1,7
Lai.c Ttiticac Bsirn 4,017
Lj Paz 4,974
Cojchabailtll. :, 595
Porce; 5,912

Total Infajntr, lil ;t ;a 60, 775
Total~~~~L Ca0r iii 2273
Tot al D'r Joon Mili i ; ia 13,348

CF krl TOTAIL 96.S396

Source: Guillermo Cispedl..s del Costillo, Lime~ , Puenos Aires. pp.
85-E6; All:kLL 65j "'Estado general que m;anif'iesta los trorpes
mnIl~icinas .. quc an esce .irre ,nato del 1 Pru se han
al;stedo ,. n.d.; Amat, Ifneeria de Goblerrno, pp. 571-
373, ;23-724.

cin~pletin33 the fortress "Ped Felipe" at Calloo despite finan~cial

l~imit t ionj tr i;ch h indered- h is ef fort I. Third, he reor icnted

Pcru mays from its former depcredence ulpon a large and expellsi.*e

ma~y rhich consumed much of its resenues,130 In its pljce Airst

created jn ibnpro.ed r-tanding jrer.;. increat ing the size of the

regular contingent considernbl,. Finally~, he crieated the first

disc; F lined mi li ti a i n Li~ia and ordered t he crejt ion of: Inon*, othe-r

urban uinits throughout Feru,~ In so doing, Amat encounteredd t~e

oppor i tion of' the Chulrch .rhich created a pj,cholojg, of distrustr

toj these ir~noi~ations, This wa~s no~ doubt due to its fear of hj ;ng

its orn pri-.i legeid status disTinished t*, the rise of a comrpetrit i.i

institution to powrrc in the form of a p~rofes ional mil ili~tr,. Somei

p'ersons, for c;-:0mp~lle, quies~l'cind 1.hother the propondcranec cf

clerics in Lims ryos necessary for ;ts securit, n~ow: tha soldiers

rrre theri .3

One of Vicero; AN~ir'i primiE. a~rlllccomlihmnts5 :rj to reSLtore

the digni ty of mi litia serv ie as an hocnoratble forl, ofi emplo**nsent .

Doe o~bser.e~r called this the vicerc,'s "grtatest trium-ph" and

no~ted thajt arnilitic posts hich hadJ forne-rl, been lit onl, for

Ilegroes ctre no*: "hungrily sought" b, sons of the b~est fnl

of L~ima, wlhjse fathers encourjged rther. to purrue a cjreer ofi arm!

rather than~ letters.13 The fact that mani ofte.-rcroe

would baomie increasingly jignificanti as the period rwore on.

Thesis cant ributions hjas led sjpanish hi stor iani Vicenrie

Podrigu~ez Cajedo to concluded that b*.,' the end of Amiat's teric.

t he maili tar iza i on of the count r ,- ras ach i e ed, and ,he n, .I
year's later, the Tupic As..a~ru re.mitl occurj and in the epoch A.-rl
of [Vicerroy ] Abascal the civ21 orl~ for indcpendence begins, c -
the :icerJ;yalt, of Perur uIll jlwrays be the principal center
of resistance to the d oth. In the final analysis, such
facts hae.. been accom~iplished, thank; erhp cte raia
tional ct forts of~ don Ma~nuel de Amriat.*1

Since thij interpretation of the period is dangerously misleading,

it is neiessar,, fron- jn historical -.ieu~point, to clarify the


To begin rrlth, the iailitia buildup in the interior cannot be

pro en, bnd in fact subsequent developmcnts after 1776 indicate

that a d isc iplined mii ti a cA..n: into rciistence th=re brefore

or after that date, 'I'hir, colmbined with the failuree ofi the .-arious

e pediritins sent during the twoj preceding dechdes to iutJaic Indiar,

rebels indicates thbt one ccnnot properly, rpea!. of the interior

be ing ''ni;lI t arized" in irn, si-nle of t he wo3rd. Onl: in L;ime could

a proper army be said to he.*E itisted b; this dite.

Secondli: the ri.alry bLtween whites in the Ar..ay of Peru

caused a cler age al; thin thart institut ion which mil 1it jted against

t he uni ty requ;~i t E t o ar e iffer i.e ni li t ari t ic~n. It is an a..Oin

of Latin Ame-~rican histrar that Peninsular Spaniards held the top

positions in society in most~ of Spanish Am~erica and in addition,
co~mmanded the bcst political offices and highest salaries.

This rcatemeretl is gernerall; trur in Peru, althouJgh du;- to their

loyalty creoles seem to ha e been relati-.*elj Ilcll off in thiat

kingdoll.. SL ill, there wertt not enough positions of resp:.nziblity

to be gi.cen to all those dos~;ring theii. Ercluded from, pos it ions

of honor anrd responsibi;ity the creoles entered the militia after

1762 as both a means of reaJff irming their loyalt, to tht king and

to ;mpro-e t he ir ourn posi~t;;ns. Crcoles monopo~li- ed the senior

oFficerships in thu militia co~mpsniie created ir. Limei during the

Se.*en Years :..'r.13 The pr ide wh i h u;mjnjted f rm be long ng to

this militia wajs jn interesting b,product of the mobilizion,.

sin~c it heightenede the tension c>.istirag btcrecn crioles and

Spaniar ds On~e icrole obscr~er, urhoise brother wajs t he i nfant r

commn~nannt, boldli assserre that

W's do` not he-.c to for~ Engljnd, Dr., other nticurl, o~r
Hell ;tself, due our discipline, instruction. artillery,
arnd~ i jrms.. doubt that1 other better prepared and
disciplined [militial cjnr, e found on thE dsi and hour that
a drawe~r sour~ds.13t.

The bitte~rness oi the LTrole noirLlit, towa:rds the Sp~an;ords

in PeruJ was deep~ and def initc.13 Elich of it can be seen in the

contempt held L; the crcole militira ior the Slpan;sh regularr roops,.

wrhe:ai the; icit werer at.aricious, dijsslute, and expensi.*c to main-

tjin. Thc; felt that thee ioldicr fo~rgot their trjining in the

Indles, and msirntained that if onl, the crctoksr vere gi;cn the

prope-r instruction, the, wou~ld ie-.ceed thim in the handling of

arrars wh~ich~ \,ji z;nside~red to be a Elrolpran :;rtue~.1 Creoles5

ci led as proof of thiis the e~ample of the Captain of the Vice-

roi's Ccard Victorine Coinzales iornteroI a creole w~ho had bcon

appoiinted to train the companies being readied in Lima toj pursue

the rebrel Juan Sjrntoi, a spectale urhich drewr ?reat croards of

admiring creolas.13

Although Amat privjrch, referred to the members of the

creo~le nobility, ar "cil ;nd daring" mar., to \~hom corruption

ras an attribute of their birth, he acLi.el; sought their ParticipJ-

t ion in the mil1it ij ;ince th;s group could beti af ford to bear tht

expense of rais in3 and out fit ting new, icomplanie~s. t In so doing,

he oughtt to help heal the br-each beteer.;t cr;-cles jndL Peninsulars

rrhich threatened~ the unlit, of the k~ilngdom,1 Thal he and hi6 succcssors

1-acre uniu~ccessful in thiE w~ill bc shourn throughoiut the follorring


Finally, it is \rrong rto giv.e to thE .nf litia created bi A~rset

credit for the defear of ther iebel Jos~4 Gabritl Tups.: Armeru ar for

prolonjing the later \Iars for ind;-pendence. Iri the first place,

as Chapter IV vrill shot** \L Hs not the FrOvin~cial militia, but

rat~her local irregulars., ofiiered b, Spani;Sh regulars, w~ho finally-

sub ugated the Ind~ian forced. CAlthough it is altrhout the srope of

th~j papir, therL if goodj e.idin.:c that this combtination alsos

fornc;d the basis of the a.rmi of during the rwars for i ndcpe-ndence.

Viccro, hi~mal left Pcru s irh rhe warnings that internal rebel-

lion poied 3 far griater threat to the iccuricy of the Licroyalt,

than did the threatr ED an enrernol attack., although he urged thiat

Jef;-nses a5ainst both Jange-rs be II;mainained Ir. a broader ,eir.,

he called for a thoro~ugh3oin3 re:ormi of the adarlinhistrat i *e s;plens

to end co~rruption ard iniustict.6 A~lthough h;s I...litar; reform

progrjl.. s--as iiot without ;ts JetraCLtorslh it p~iroided a iolid~ ba.E

for the later rrfOrrmi pro.-orked by the Wars5 of the American PC1olution.

Stanlc, J. and Ebarbars H. 5tein,: The riolonial Heritage of
LainAmria:Easts on E~cnojmic Depender~rlc~c in Perspert iE (I!-o

Ior t 1,0, p. 89,

lb.J, p. 103!; blrdooro E~rsh, "Colonial Ins-t;tutionss and
lont empor- r L.=tin Ameri ricj i" H1I r an ic A~E r ican H?:(ccricalI Fc.-i es ;,

ticnditburu: 1, 4tl0-44I,

''ispedes de~l C-astillc., Lirsa LE ences Aireg, pp. ;2-7)., flemoria de lobicrr~~.C. I $.

:Jod5 Cruci Po 0, "Tujl idades mii li tjres je Anlrls," Arluhr io

flicac h v i lkIge s ur5 ; t h;r [cen-l1jr-i.1d cour tesa l i ;ng

the6 .;c-re., in 1;61. In IS'GE the erlEe introdLced and' the .;ce-
ro, fell c.idi, ;n los.e rith the ,oung girll. Whein h-e tookl heri as
hisrai tre s, he can al ock d te .cer yal ,. He built htr j
ho~uce, rthe 0~..sntj dei Finc~jr, and hadj the Finac. ri~Lr di erted.
through it to siciulate the famous Albainibra ofi CSpan. .Lniat took.
no ef forts to h-ide his Ic e, and of ten parad~ed opent, al~th Ii~caela
through thc Sftruts ofl Lirr~a, He alsoI preferred to spend timf writh
her f riend; in, thi thEavC r:lher thajn **ith~ neoa~t-r; oi the, thr-~a
a r i oc rac y. Hi r n~i I.rearnei, "L h Per r ihe-l i," app re nt I st criure d
fTn ror jn-rgument in r.hi.:h A1,:st I:refrcJred her jas j purrj chClu
( btch inreerece o hr ow ~irhHE built the
fam-ied PascO de Agnesli andl the t~ulif aght arena Ac~ho to pleast hetr,
miuCh tC thi dlsmo, of ir. cii tics,1 <--.o1 accuStd hlimI of miisusing
public funls. U1ih en AGE left PEruI ar 1;70. heC left IlijCad prearvers
Sh~e subsequentlly bo~re him- a son, 113nucl de Amadt Vri]gnges lattr
to becoiie a signer of Peru's .'ct of I ndE pinde nce. See Descola,

ilnton;G dt Areii~c to Fernando tiarqu55 de La Platra, V;icro;
oF Lj Platal Lirra, February 1, 1783? P. 1, cited in Eunice Joiner
Gate~s, "'Don Joj4 Anrto:ni cl de Arche:. Hic- Own Defursse," E .anic

Jajst ric~raict de Airambturu, "l'sticles del .crdiedrc. .cntajesei
istado po;litico, de ii Fer.1 .aJo~ jaidla go .ernacl~n de el E/ecilen-
rbimo Serio~r fron rlanuil de Aml-iat Jurnient." Fek,~L V (Lirrla. 19671,
!35-33j. A\ranlt'ururj Ja a sealth, creole- who~ *>as in Ch le during
''rnata's presidenc,, .nd then later returned cr. L.iao where he became
al ru~lEr for tIe AudiienciB and a p'rojecuror for the Inquistition.
HE Ilaer rlaS maide rectorT CIf jar, Mlarcos C.C Heendib~luru II, 99I.
Amjr alsoa raised in u~rban milit;[ia in CLant ijcag cnd enforcedj -tr;It
rullEs at thes presidio ;i ConzEpelin an~d Valdi.la3 in an tffort to
end hth icorrupt ion lh ich led t~e re, BEfoI~re hif .jrri~ l.
A~racit~turu ncotCS, Po,-el lan;: r.ere noth;r.9 cr.0re than "paintE. ;rages
tC Irbich rt.crernce ;j lent."'

12Arniat, Fier..aoria de Tr;t;icrn... p. 706; AGUA:;L 1449: C?rpendio
de. lIo- Pre.cnln- qu l Evalentis ime Ecii.;r fIl..ranuel de' AinlSt
I-, ara ITila Cdeft i-sa li Culcrra contra P-:rtil Iq 3Er .
Lirta, rt..-a-r~t.*-r lo,. IN.}. p. I.

Waen. p.12. For j jucc i n analy,s i of the s te 5
wrherct., a m~lliia coilpan-, .>as raised. see IR~klis[ter 'Peorgrani a-
I don?" ;p. 22-24.
C.,rnlgendi- a C. 21, TheI author off the Co:~nr.endle <--as Anr.a~no
di ElcPurul Vicerr., Arnat'i. sErcrarr, He notes that iAmat "iuCpplEJ
cronE, in hand, the cobslaile to obtaining iutlerf. And .ihicles \.hicl-.
areL no~t custe-mar, in- Ithse area;; as a, m~an, are icound there
tada,." Pr;o~r to r[Ms. tro~op-: scre bIct tr~ feed th~er~l.dcj off the
land as beit the, could and of ten stolen to do r

A5mat, r'.emor;a de iCotierno..7 pp 1.-a-e-e~

I 4mratl liernoria de Gobierno. p. 57:, \GI:AL 6c. 3, Feort fromrl
Vicero, l\anuel del A~mat Cc thei long: Lire~a, ilece...Lr 10, l"63, pp. 2-4.

Alrnat. ner~.;ria de Cojt~;crno. p 283

Ibt-id., p. 703.

201tsid.j, ppF. 746j-767. An~at eln~larrcres the parts and thcir
suirtabilit, icor an ;n.;ljion on pp '-73.

21 i., FP. 322, 71,7.

221t id., P. ?kS.

2-I tuid. ? p. .

AGI;AL 1491. Po,ajl order irom I:ingr Charles Ill to Vicerro,-
Am-at, Iiadrid, INo.cmber 22, 1764; Arjmburu, p. 317, B, 1777 veapons
Sh~ipmintS b~rought tht total number of rifles ;n the Limed armor, to
12!O000. The: icosr bristled wich 400l csnno~n, of ubi~ch "Beal Felipe'
mounted 186~ of all cait~.:r. CSjpedes dcl Castillo, LimJ euenos
hlZis c.i notes 111

25ramburu, p. '99.
Amatj, rlemocria de Gobierno. p. 124.

27HGI:AL~ji ll9 "esuJIln pe~r mernor de let jrjbes [sic ) dolen-
cias en quc he rnformede-es:ta t bestaj 9:bcrnaciin del Per;," Li~ix,a
rMarch 12, lyi.?, cited in CIspcdes dil Castillo, Lnia , B~ueno:
Aires. pp, !'j-2.0; A~mjt, ninor~i de Cobicrne,. pp. 3',3-35.4; Faor,
pp. 11I-12

25AG l:AL n.c. Letter fri-, vicero, Anitt ro Hini-.ter of rth
In~dies Juliin at 4rriageJ, Lime~, Noc.ernber 15.. 1769,~J cited ;rn Pozo,
Pp. 12-13.

AGl:4L CS..3 .. nal to hrriage,) Linla. Ilo.cmber 7, ITEE, I. I;
Am~at, nem~oria de- Cobi:rno. F. 530.

AcGI:AL 14 1, Pcpojrt Gf Vicero*.*Amat to Iingr Charles III,
Liwa~, Jajnuar; 5, 1764, citej in Fco~, p. 14.

3Del Iloral wasr tEnporarl, replaced b, Pasblo 5eenz de Eurte-
mance rBho had been ed~uCated in Spain jnd uas jn ofiicer in Ithe
E0,0 Arr 4 oni~ru *,78

32ramt~uru, p. 315.,

Si.GI:AL .34, Amal to7 Arr~age, Lims, Janae6 .6- .

Ai list o~f ther un;ts and th;ir ofiice-r cosrps i. ret out in
Elexpuru, ICoopendic~ pp. 10-14, passim.

Ama~nt, rlcio112 Jo CobiernL, p. 734; Elerpuru, iciyppndio. p.
Elc>.puru, Cc-pendi~c. p. 3.

3 Ibid., pp. 3-4
AmatC nowoT~ria dC ~Cablerrc. p. 715,

/'llexpuru, CO:Lrirdio, p. 3.

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