Title: Some correlates of empathic counseling behavior of Episcopal clergymen
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Title: Some correlates of empathic counseling behavior of Episcopal clergymen
Physical Description: ix, 91 leaves. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bosbyshell, William Allen, 1933-
Publication Date: 1970
Copyright Date: 1970
 Subjects
Subject: Pastoral counseling   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida, 1970.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 87-91.
Additional Physical Form: Also available on World Wide Web
General Note: Manuscript copy.
General Note: Vita.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00097705
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000871890
notis - AEG9123
oclc - 014361020

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SOME CORRELATES OF EMPATHIC COUNSELING

BEHAVIOR OF EPISCOPAL CLERGYMEN















By
WILLIAM A. BOSBYSHELL















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY











UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1970

















A C KI; CW LE DGEt,,E NTS


The writer is indebted to many persons for their suggestions,

assistance, cooperation and encouragement in the development and

execution of this study. Grateful acknowledgement is extended to the

fol lwing:

Dr. Ted Landsman, Chairman of the Supervisory Committee, for his

helpful guidance.

Dr. David Lane, Dr. J. Milan Kolarik, Dr. Delton Scudder, members

of the supervisory committee,'for their won particular assistance and

encouragement.

Dr. John A. Benton, Jr., and Dr. Helen D. Benton, of the

Episcopal Counseling Center, for their support, encouragement and

assistance.

The clergy of the Diocese of Central Florida and the Diocese of

Southwest Florida who participated in this study.

The writer's wife, Caroline, for her encouragement, understanding

and invaluable assistance throughout this project.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

ACKIIGJLE DGE.IENTS .......... ................... ................ i

LIST OF TABLES ..................., .......... v

ABSTR CT...................................................... ii

CHA PTEF.

I. THE PURPOSE OF TH' STUDY................................
Introcuction........................................ 1
Purpose of the Study....................... .... ....... 3
Rationale of the Study ............................. 3

II. REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES......................... ..., 8
Introduction......................................... 8
Research on the Pastoral Ccunseiing Process ........ 9
Research and Assessnmnts of Clinical Training
Programs.......................................... 13
Research on Effect .e Ccunseling and Psychotherapy.. 17
Research or the Personality Co-relates of
Effective Counselors .............................. 22
SuTmmiary .................. ... ............ ... ...... 24

III. flETHODIS AND P:ROCEDUF.ES OF THE iTUDY................... .. 25
Statement of the Problem ............................ 25
Theoretical Basis for Hypotheses.................... 26
Formal Stateier. of Hypothceses..................... 29
De ini tions ......................................... 30
Sample,....... ....................................... 31
Procedures .......................................... 33
Tape Recorded Data........................ ...... .. 34
Training of the Ju g .............................. 37
Stati.tic.al Treatl ni of the Data ..... ............ 38

IV. REULTS Ar! ALALYS'IS I .- THE DIi. ...................... 41
The Tr&;i: inrg V'J ri : ..... .... ... ........ ......... 41
Fcrsonel t, Va ibT s ....................... ....... 45
Int--.ac zicri cF hc 1raininr arnd the Personality
V .aria e ....................................... 54
Age an:d E'per ience .. ... .. ... ....... ...... .... 56
Weekly l.u:: Spen'i Cctln:c in... ......... ..... 59







TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)


Page


CHAPTER


V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS....................
Summary... ................................... ..
Conclusions.........................................
Implicaticns.........................................


APPENDIX


A. PERSONAL DATA FORM..........................................

B. HINTS FOR TAPE RECORDING COUNSELING INTERVIEJWS............

C. A TENTATIVE SCALE FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF ACCURATE EMPATHY..

LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................
















LIST OF TABLES


Page

TABLE

1. NUMBER ANiD TYPE OF CLIENTS SEEN BY 45 CLERGYMEN WHO
--MADE TAPE RECORDINGS OF COUNSELING !NTERVIEWS'........ 36

2. JUGGE RATilGS ON: TEST...................................... 39

3. THE SQUARE OF THE MULTIPLEE COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION
BET'.EEN ACCURATE EMPATHY SCORES OF CLERGYMEN
AND CLER.'YIMEN 'S TRAINING, PERSONALITY AND
PERS Ci'AL FACTORS...................................... 43

4. FEAP.SON PRCDUCT-lO:IEIIT COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION
BETWEE;J ACCUFITE EMPATHY SCORES AND CLERGYMEN'S
TRAINING, PERSONALITY AND PERSONAL FACTORS........... 43

5. ACCUPAT EMi',PATHY SCORES OF CLERGYMEN BY LENGTH OF
TRA IlilG................................ .... ..... .

6. P01 Tc SCORESOF CLERG'YMEN BY LENGTH OF TRAINING............. 47

7. ACCURATE EIFATHY SCORES OF CLERGYMEN BY PO1 Tc GROUPS...... 49

8. POI I SCORES OF CLERGYMEN BY LENGTH OF TRAINING............ 52

9. ACCURATE EPATHY SCORES OF CLERGYMEN BY POI I GROUPS........ 53

10. ACCUPATL EMPATHY SCORES OF CLERGYMEN BY LENGTH OF
TRAIl;;;:G AN;D POI Tc GROUPS........................... 55

11. ACCLPUATE EMPATHY SCORES OF CLERGYMEN BY LENGTH OF
TRAINING AiD POI I GROUPS .......................... 57

12. AGE OF CLEFRG-Yi-;E BY I.ENGTH OF TRAINING..................... 58

13. EXPERIENCE IN THE MINISTRY OF CLERGYMEN BY LENGTH OF
RA I G............ ................................ 60

14. WEEKLY fIUMP.EF, CF HOURS SPENT COUNSELING OF CLERGYMEN
BY LEIIG r, 0,- TRAINING................................ 61








LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


TABLE Page

15. WEEKLY NUMBER OF HOURS SPENT COUNSELING OF
CLERGYMEN ......... ..... ........... ................. 62

16. ACCURATE EMPATHY SCORES OF CLERGYMEN WITHIN
LEVEL III TRAINING GROUP............................. 67

17. ACCURATE EMPATHY SCORES OF CLERGYMEN.................... 70






Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the
Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

SOME CORRELATES OF EIMPATHIC COUNSELING BEHAVIOR OF
EPISCOPAL CLERGYMEN

By

William A. Bosbyshell

August, 1970


Chairman: Dr. Ted Landsman
"Major Department: Counselor Education


This study investigated the relationship between pastoral counseling

behavior and length of training in pastoral counseling and measures of

self-actualization in Episcopal clergymen. Segments from tape recorded

pastoral counseling interviews were rated for accurate empathy. Accurate

empathy scores for the clergy were compared by length of training in

pastoral counseling categorized in the follcving groups:

1. college nrid seminary education only,

2. college and seminary education and a three-month clinical

training experience,

3. college end seminary education and a six- to twelve-month

clinical training or professionally supervised counselor

training prcgr=im.

Acc'urate oUTpathy / .res for the clergy were compared by the two major

scales cf the PF'rsonality Orientation Inventory. The relationship of

pastoral counsel ini behavior and selected pastor background variables

(age, experience in the ministry and time spent counseling) was examined.







The hypotheses examined were: that in a sample of Episcopal clergy-

men level of empathic behavior in pastoral counseling interviews would:

1. be positively related to length of training in pastoral

counseling skills;

2. be positively related to a measure of self-actualization;

3. be positively related to the two-way interaction of length of

training and a measure of self-actualization; and

4. be positively related to the three-way interaction of length of

training and a measure of self-actualization with each of the

following variables:

a. age;

b. experience in the ministry; and

c. weekly number of hours spent counseling.

A total of 45 Episcopal clergymen, out of 64 who volunteered to

make tape recordings of pastoral counseling interviews, submitted tape

recordings. The subjects provided tape recordings of one or two

pastoral counseling interviews, responses to the Personal Orientation

Inventory (POI) and responses to a Personal Data Form. Eight three-

minute segments of each pastor's counseling behavior were rated by

judges for level of accurate empathy according to "A Tentative Scale

for the Measurement of Accurate Empathy." Time Competence (Tc) and

Inner-directedness (I) raw scores were procured from the Personal

Orientation Inventory (POI). Length of training, age, experience in

the ministry and weekly number of hours spent counseling were recorded

from the Personal Data Form.

The coefficients of correlation between ratings made by professional

judges and ratings made by three judges used in the study were .81, .76


viii






and .89. The independent variables (number of months of training, POI Tc

and POI I raw scores, age, years in the ministry and weekly number of

hours spent counseling) were submitted to a step/ise multiple regression

analysis in which accurate empathy scores formed the dependent variable.

Accurate empathy scores were submitted to a one-way analysis of variance

by length of training, P01 Tc and P01 I scores. Accurate empathy

scores were submitted to a two-way analysis of variance by length of

training and POI Tc scores and by length of training and P01 I scores.

-Statistical treatment of the data yielded significant results

(p = .05) only for the P01 Tc variable, but the direction of the

difference was opposite to that predicteJ by the hypothesis. There-

fore, the results of the study did not support the hypotheses.

On the basis of this study, it appears that clergymen who receive

training in clinical pastoral education programs are not more empathic

in their counseling behavior than those who do not receive such

training.

The major implication is that counseling training programs for

clergymen need to be examined to determine whether the trainees function

as effective counselors. The stud.. suggests that a need exists for

Further research on the pastoral counseling process.
















CHAPTER I


THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY



Introduction


Pastoral counseling as a profession has matured in the past

twenty years and additional training in pastoral counseling continues

to be the primary in-service education requested by clergy (Ergood,

1970; Dittes, 1960). A need exists, however, for empirical research

of the pastoral counseling process which will contribute to the knoi-

lege of pastoral counseling and serve as a resource for the improve-

ment of training programs in pastoral counseling.

Additional training in pastoral counseling continues to be an

important concern among clergy. A recent survey of 50 percent of all

full and part time clergymen in Alachua County, Florida, reported that

95 percent would like to see opportunities offered locally for ministers

to improve their pastoral counseling (Ergood, 1970). A survey of

several thousand Presbyterian ministers made ten years earlier reported

that 80 percent of the pastors want additional training in counseling,

counseling was the skill they most want to improve, counseling provides

clergy with the most "personal enjoyment and sense of acccxnplishment"

of their pastoral activities, and over one-half of the pastors feel that

their seminary training was deficient in counsel ing (Dittes, 1960, p. 143).







Programs which provide seminary and post graduate training in

pastoral counseling and pastoral care have been increasing to meet the

need. In 1967 the Association for Clinical Pastoral Education was

formed by the union of four diverse groups into one national organiza-

tion i'hich trains each year about 2,000 seminary students and ministers

in its 233 training centers (Johnson, 1963). The past fae years have

seen the sccepr.nce of clinical pastoral education into the curriculum

of seminaries (Thornton, 1968; Hall, 1968).

The church-sponscred counseling center has developed as an

institutional response to enlarged demands on clergy for counseling

services, By 1964 there were 164 church-sponsored counseling centers

in the United States offering counseling services to clergy and lay

people and often in-service counselor training for clergy (Hathorne,

1964).

Pastoral counseling, however, is deficient as a discipline in

the research function which is important to further development of a

ne.' area of human knc.iledge. Tisdale (1967) in an article titled

"Pastoral Counseling, Counsel ing and Research" noted that,while there

is ab'.ndant descriptive and theoretical literature on pastoral

counseling, empirical studies are extremely rare. The two oldest

journals in the fi-ld, Pastoral Psychology and The Journal of Pastoral

Care, are devoted to reports of clinical experience and discussions of

theoretical issues, with only an occasional report of empirical

research. flinistr Studies, which began in 1967, is an attempt to

communicate serious research on the ministry to interested persons.

llenges and Dittes (1935) and enrges (1967), by editing and publishing

over 950 a-bstracts of psychological research on clergymen, provided





3

the original impetus to organizing the area of pastoral counseling to

enable the growth of research. Clinebell (1965), in a discussion of the

future of pastoral counseling as a professional specialty within the

ministry, sees one of its important contributions as conducting research

in the area.



Purpose of the Study


This study was conceived as exploratory research in pastoral

counseling employing techniques which have been developed to investigate

the process of counseling and psychotherapy. The purpose of the study

was to examine the variables of training in counseling and of differences

in personality functioning in order to explore the influence of these

factors on the behavior of clergy in counseling interviews. Counseling

behavior of clergy A'ith various levels of training was compared in an

attempt to answer the questions: Hcw does length of training affect

the pastor's counseling behavior? How do differences in personality

affect th3 pastor's counseling behavior? How does the ccmnbination of

training and personality affect the pastor's counseling behavior?



Rationale of the Study


This study co.nLined research and theory from different but related

disciplines, dra~-,inl primarily on theory from humanistic psychology

and on research techniques frcn counseling and psychotherapy which were

appl ied to pastoral counseling in the effort to provide empirical data

on the functioning of pastoral counselors. A hol istic outline of







theoretical constructs and empirical techniques that, taken together,

provide the rationale of the study is presented first. In the review

of the literature section the terms and techniques are discussed in the

light of their role in the study.

Pastoral counseling, as a counseling process, is defined by

Hiltner (1950, p. 11) as essentially similar to other types of counseling.

In terms of basic attitude, approach and method,
pastoral counseling does not differ from effective
counseling by other types of counselors. It differs
in terms of the setting in which religious counseling
is aone, the religious resources which are drawn upon,
and the dimension at which the pastor must view all
hunan grc'th.

In one of the fe.- eimpirical studies on pastoral counseling Hiltner and

Colston (19610) examTine the distinctiveness of pastoral counseling in

terms of the total context in which the counseling is conducted. The

unique context of pastoral counseling incorporated the setting (the

pastor's study and architecture of church buildings), client expecta-

tions of the minister from prior meetings or from hearsay about him,

the shift in relationship from more general pastor-parishioner to a

more intense counselor-client relationship, and the aims and limitations

of the pastor's cour.seling function (Hiltner and Colston, 1961, p. 29-31).

Pastor counseling is ccistrued as a process which is continuous with

the counseling prc:es in other professional areas (psychotherapy and

counsel! ing) by Hilzner in both theory and research so that techniques

used to eL:aniine Lh. co:-nseling process may be employed in research on

pastoral counseling.

To say that pastoral counseling as a process is similar to the

counseling process in psychotherapy is not to deny the distinct role






of the pastoral counselor when compared to that of the clinical

psychologist or psychiatrist. Oates(19 2-2,196'+) presents pastoral

counseling in terms of the symbolic role of the pastor and focuses on

the uniqueness of the interpersonal relationship between the pastor

and an individual or group as the distinctive element in pastoral

counseling. An assumption of this research is that the pastoral

counselor is distinct in his role from that of a psychologist or

psychiatrist, but this is not a hypothesis to be tested here since all

subjects were clergymen.

Hiltner's concept of pastoral counseling as a process which

". . does not differ frcm effective counseling by other types of

counselors (1950, p. 11)" raises the issue of what constitutes

"effective counseling."

In research on psychotherapists and counselors which relates

counseling process to client outcome, high levels of the counselor-

oFfered conditions of empathic understanding, respect and genuineness

have been related to positive client outcome (Truax and CarkhuFf, 1967;

Carkhuff and Berenson, 1967; Rogers, Gendlin, Keisler and Truax, 1967).

"Research seems consistently to find empathy, warmth, and genuineness

characteristic of human encounters that change people -- for the better

(Truax and Carkhuff, 1967, p. 141)." Research evidence indicates that

effective counseling is characterized by counselors who are capable of

offering consistently high levels of accurate empathy, non-possessive

warmth and genuineness in their interview behavior.

Among the characteristics of counselor conditions accurate empathy

seems to be the most regularly identified as the crucial variable







necessary to provide effective outcome in counseling (Truax, 1963).

High levels of accurate empathy when communicated to a patient increase

the likelihood for the patient's improvement and low levels of accurate

empathy from the therapist may actually lead to patient deterioration

(Truax, 1963; Bergin, 1963; Rogers et al., 1967). Accurate empathy,

as an important element of effective psychotherapy, may also be seen

as a relevant and essential ingredient in effective pastoral counseling,

as Vesprani (1969, p, 722) comments, "this has relevance for all of the

established and accepted forms of the therapeutic encounters from the

usual forms of psychotherapy to pastoral counseling."

An encouraging recent development in psychology and education is

concern for positive human functioning in addition to the historic

interest in mental illness and deficient personality adjustment.

Interest in positive human functioning has generated the concepts of

the self-actualized person (Maslao, 1962), the adequate personality

(Combs, 1962), the fully-functioning person (Rogers, 1961) and the

beautiful and noble person (Landsman, 1968). Shostrom (1965) has

constructed the Personal Orientation inventory (P01), a self-report

personal attitude inventory, which attempts to identify persons who may

be described as self-actualized or fully-functioning. The P01 measures

pcrsonrsl attitudes along a continuum from self-actualized through

noir.al ;o non-self-actualized. The POi purports to measure personal

attitudes in terms of the attitudes of self-actualized persons, rather

than in terr.s of psychotic or poorly-functioning persons.

i';s study used methods developed by the behavioral sciences to

inv.es'igate the functioning of pastoral counselors. The theoretical

constriits of Carl Rogers as they have been refined for research





7

purposes were applied to the interview behavior of pastoral counselors.

Personality differences of the clergymen were measured by the Personal

Orientation Inventory, a measure based on the concept of positive human

functioning. The intent of the study was to expand the knowledge of

the process of pastoral counseling using techniques and tools developed

in research on counseling and psychotherapy.
















CHAPTER II


REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES



I ntroduct ion


Pastoral counseling, an important aspect of the work of

Episcopal clerg'.men, has been the subject of only a limited amount

of scientific investigation. f;enges and Dittes (1965) and Menges (1967)

have compiled abstracts of research on clergymen published from

1930 to 1967, which are an invaluable aid in the psychological study

of ministers. In the cc.,pilation of over 950 studies on clergymen 53

studies of pastoral counseling were reported, and only three of the

studies on pastoral counseling used data from real or simulated

counseling intervic'.s.

The education of clergy in pastoral counseling has been accomplished

ni inly through clinical training programs of the type nao administered

by the Association for Clinical Pastoral Education. Evaluations and

studies on the outcome of clinical training programs provide informa-

tion on the- expectations and outcCCoes of clerical training in pastoral

counseling.

Data on eftfctive counseling cand psychotherapy have been increasingly

available Frcr counsel ing psycholog-" and counselor education sources.




9

Effective counseling and psychotherapy are characterized by counselors

who are empathic, warm and genuine persons. Our knowledge about

pastoral counseling would be expanded if similar methods could be used

to investigate ingredients of effective pastoral counseling. Likewise

training programs in pastoral counseling would be improved by findings

of studies on effective counseling and personality characteristics of

effective counselors.

Current research on the ingredients of effective counseling behavior,

especially that inspired by Carl Rogers and carried out by Truax and

Carkhuff among others, has provided methods for investigating the

process of counseling which have been applied to pastoral counseling in

this study.



Research on the Pastoral Counsel ing Process


In early research on pastoral counseling Hiltner and Colston (1961)

addressed the problem of how the pastoral counselor differs from other

counselors in the context of pastoral counseling. The unique context

of pastoral counseling included a setting, client expectations, a shift

in relationship for the client, and the aims and limitations of the

pastoral counselor. The Hiltner and Colston study aimed at a comparison

of setting and client expectations of two client groups but data were

limited to the setting variable. Two matched groups of nine counselees

received counseling from the same counselor, one group in a church by

the assistant pastor and the other group at a university counseling

center where the pastor was known only as a staff counselor. The TAT,

Butler-Haigh Q sort for self-concept and three subscales of the Adorno








Authoritarianism Scale were administered to the subjects prior to

counseling, post counseling and six months after the termination of

counseling. All counseling sessions were tape recorded. Clients were

rated at the conclusion of counseling by the counselor for change and

outcome and rated themselves on the same dimensions.

The results were not statistically significant. The author never-

theless reported a trend toward the hypothesis that: ". . people seeking

counseling help from a pastor, when other conditions are approximately

equal, will tend to progress slightly farther and faster in the same

amount of time than they will in another setting, like that of a

university counseling center (Hiltner and Colston, 1961, p. 21)." The

authors co-iment on the meaning of their results that:

S. the findings .. .are mostly not . .
statistically significant. On the other hand,
the results suggest that the trend . is in the
---direction of the pastor-and not the other way . .
. the moral for the pastor to draw is that his
being a pastor is certainly no disadvantage to him
in counseling with people who are prepared to
consult him. . if it is results he wants, he
has no reason to eint to be something other than a
pastor in order to help people (Hiltner and
Colston, 1961, p. 170).

The strength of Hiltner and Colston's research is found more in the

descriptive, clirical material used to illustrate the counseling cases

fro- each setting than in the empirical results. The small sample and

incomplete data constitute technical limitations of the research. Using

the same person as counselor in two settings does control the counselor

factor, but no ,iieasures were taken of counselor behavior to establish

the equivalence of couirselor offered conditions in two settings. In

the wriLtr's crinion, results from this research cannot be generalized




11

to clergymen generally as Hiltner does. Colston was not (and is not)

the typical pastor. At the time of the research Colston was completing

his study for a Ph.D. in Psychology, which is significantly more

education in counseling than is received by the average clergyman.

Research is needed which attempts a comparison of pastoral counseling

by clergy with different levels of training in counseling.

In an interview. survey of 50 Protestant ministers and 50 social

caseworkers Hartman (1963) reported that,although both groups dealt

with similar problems and employed similar techniques, the goal of

ministers was aimed at a harmonious God-man relationship and that of

the caseworkers was aimed at achieving stable human relationships.

This self-report survey employs no first hand data on counseling

process or attitudes of counselors and contributes nothing to the

understanding of the pastoral counseling process.

A cno.parison of 17 Episcopal priests selected by their Bishops

as most effective pastors with 17 selected as least effective was

conducted by Benton (1964) using the pastors' ftsponses to the Pastoral

Proble- Response Blank, card 13 of the TAT and three self-reports of

their oaqn effective pastoral counseling situations. The pastors'

responses were recorded, transcribed and rated by judges on five

dimensions. The effective pastors, as ccr.ipared to the ineffective,

sao~ themselves as more identified with people, saw other persons as

more able, tended to relate to others more as persons, saw their role

as being acre involved with people, and perceived the purpose of their

pastoral t3sk more as one of freeing their courselees. Benton's study

der o,istrates that gross distinctions of effective and ineffective pastors,

as selected by their Sishops, can be distinguished by judges on the






12

basis of their responses to situations at least one step removed from

the counseling interview. Perceptual characteristics of the groups

tended to polarize at opposite ends of the five dimensions,

Crews (1966), in research on the responses of 105 Methodist

ministers to a filmed interview which was rated by judges for uncon-

ditional positive regard, found that two-thirds of the ministers did

not manifest unconditional positive regard at the midpoint level in

the simulated counseling situation. Use of a uniform audio-visual

stimulus in counseling research provides added control and is an

advance over the purely verbal stimulus of the Benton Pastoral Problem

Response Blank. Uniform input, however, may tend to reduce the

individuality of responses provided by an actual counseling interview.

Crews reported on several other factors which were related to

counseling behavior. Age and years of service in the ministry were

negatively correlated with unconditional positive regard (UPR).

Educational level and time spent counseling were positively related

to UPR. Clergy who had received training in counseling manifested

higher levels of UPR than clergy who had not received training in

counsel ing.

In summary, the process of pastoral counseling has been the

subject of a very limited amount of empirical research and that which

has been conducted points to the real need for further research

particularly direct study of the pastoral counseling process.







Research and Assessments of Clinical Trainina Proarams


The current goals of clinical training programs for seminarians

were presented by Hall (1968, p. 203) on the occasion of the formation

of a single national and interdenominational agency, the Association

for Clinical Pastoral Education, from four regional or denominational

groups. They are as follows:

Clinical pastoral education, by placing a student in a
context where he is pastor to persons in crisis, with
supervision and educational resources available:

1. Helps the student become a''.are in depth of the
troubled person's human struggle.

2. Enables the student to be open to himself and his own
experience in depth.

3. Gives the student opportunity to hammer cut a theology
based on experience so that he can think theologically
about the concrete stuff of life.

4. Helps the student develop and grow toward maturity.

5. Enables the student to become a competent helper to
man in his basic struggle in life, whatever the
cultural context.

The concern of this study is how well these goals are being met,

particularly ho.c pastoral counseling behavior -is influenced by the

clinical training programs.

A questionnaire survey of 122 persons who had received clinical

training at St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, D.C., found highly

favorably attitudes toward the training (Bruder and Barb, 1956). Clergy

indicated that the program had made a significant contribution to their

vocational decision, personal development and insight. Subjective

responses to questions asked by the supervisory personnel are difficult

to evaluate. Bruder (1960, p. 40), recognizing the difficulty of







assessing the impact of clinical training programs on a minister's

personality, reported that: ". . much experience had led us to doubt

seriously whether the many students who have reported gains in developing

self-awareness have really made such gains." He also notes that until

that time there were no "exhaustive and carefully documented studies

with students who have been trained (Bruder, 1960, p. 40)."

Studies which a.sess the impact of clinical training employ three

major technique_: self-repo-t questionnaires, pre and post training

cciparison.- and cc.iparisois oF clinically trained groups with untrained

groups.

In a self-report questionnaire in which 64 supervisors and 365

students aind former student:, were asked about their expectations and

realizations of clinical training, Wanberg (1962) found that an under-

standing of self was the primary expectation of students and supervisors

and that,while students rar.ked learning pastoral skills as high

priority, super'.iscrs ranked it lao. He also reported that students

felt that per;'-_-l g ro.ith and self-insight were the most valuable

realized achie'.e.-ents and they felt the amount of change increased with

length of the program.

Frori self-reports of 33 Episcopal seminarians who had completed a

thr.-m-.io-.' c;i r, ic-l training program, Fairbanks (1964) found that

stLdJcn;3 rate in order of importance the supervisor, program and center

end studeni.s stated that the clinical training program emphasized self-

understancding, service to persons and pastoral care skills in that

crder. Stude.-,ts carecI that the training was helpful, should be required

of all seiinar icr.c. r.d felt that the supervision was good.




15

Frcm these studies it may be concluded that students of the program

tend to feel it has been helpful but no empirical evidence concerning

the impact of the program on the personality of the students or their

counseling behavior is reported. Other research seeks answers to these

questions.

In two separate studies using the "MPI and the interpersonal Check

list pre and post a three-month clinical training program, Gynther

and Kezmpson (1958, 1962) reported no significant changes of public or

underlying personality or in the self-perceptions of students in the

program, although the students reported perceiving changes in each

other. They concluded that after three months the group seemed to be

in the preliminary stages of development.

Results indicating personality change were found by Lucero and

Currens (1964) in a study of 37 Lutheran ministers enrolled in the

three-month clinical training course. MMPI scales L, K, Hs, D, Pt,

Sc and Si showed significant differences in the Jirection of mental

health.

inasimilar design in which 13 students were given the Cattell 16 PF,

Edwards Personal Preference Schedule, Allport-Vernon Study of Values,

and the DAT-verbal reasoning, a self-concept test and Peer perception

rating scale, Swanson (1962) found personality shifts during the 12

week program. Significant changes were on the EPPS need for achievement,

order, dominancy and aggression; a decrease in sociability on A-V

Study of Values, an increase in discrepancy between self and social

self-perceptions, a progressive increase in peer rejection, and no

change in personal insight or insight into past performance. An increase







in usefulness of the student's visits to patients was noted in a

subjective rating made by the supervisors.

Pre and post program measures of personality change in students

produced conflicting results in three studies in which this design was

employed (Gynth-r ar.d Kempson, 1958, 1962; Lucero and Currens, 1964;

Swanson, 1962). Ob/vouLsly, additional research is needed on the impact

of clinical training programs on the personality of the trainees.

Studies cciiparing a group of clergy who have received clinical training

with an untrained group also report conflicting results (Smith, 1945;

Kim, 1960; Keller, 1961).

In an early questionnaire and interview survey comparing 133 clergy

who had received clinical training with a matched group of 130 who were

untrained, Smith (1945) reported that,although both groups did equiva-

lent amounts of counseling, the trained clergy showed a clearer

conception of their counseling function. Ninety-one percent of the

seminary graduates indicated that seminary training should have contained

more counseling content.

Seventeen semi-inary students with clinical training were compared

to a matched untrained group on the TAP Social Attitude Battery,

Interpersonal Checklist, Religious Attitude Inventory and a Security-

Insecurity Inventory in research by Kim (1960). He found that the

clinically trained group had less authoritarian attitudes, no difference

in self-acceptarce, more conservative religious attitudes and signifi-

cantly more insecurity feel ings.

Keller (1961) cc4mpared 29 Roman Catholic priests with pastoral

counseling training to a matched untrained group on the Religious

Apperception Test. Priests with pastoral counseling training were




17

significantly better than the untrained priests on all dimensions in the

following descending order of magnitude; self-insight, adequacy, affect,

sensitivity and freedom from defensiveness.

Studies which endeavor to assess clinical training programs, while

slightly more numerous than those on pastoral counseling, provide almost

no data on the influence of training programs on the counseling behavior

of clergymen. As to the influence of clinical training on the personality

adjustment or self-concept of trainees, the results are conflicting,

although most studies report a growth in self-insight. Clearly, there

is a need for more research, especially studies which explore the relation

between clinical training experience and pastoral counseling behavior

of clergymen.



Research on Effective Counseling and Psychotherapy


Empirical investigation of counseling processes has been extensive

in recent years and research techniques have been developed which

employ direct investigation of counselor and client interview behavior.

Early research on counseling and psychotherapy indicated that

on the average counseling is no more effective than no counseling,

although some counseling is effective (Teuber and Poc.ers, 1953; Brill

and Beebe, 1955; Barron and Leary, 1955; Rogers and Dymond, 1954; and

Cartwright and Vogel, 1960). Changes in behavior of the clients were

employed as outcome criteria in the studies by Teuber and Powers (1953),

Brill and Beebe (1955) and Barron and Leary (1955) and differences in

counselor characteristics were not considered. Cnanges in client self-

concept rather than changes in behavior were used as outcome criteria in

studies by Rogers and Dymond (1954) and Cartwright and Vogel (1960).








Improvement rates in patients receiving counseling and psycho-

therapy were reviewed and summarized by Eysenck (1960). Nineteen

evaluations of more than 7,000 cases treated by psychoanalytic or

eclectic approaches to psychotherapy were reported and improvement noted

in 64 percent of the patients. As Eysenck indicated the 64 percent

improvement rate was less than estimates of spontaneous recovery of

untreated neutotics which was an average improvement of 66 to 72 percent.

Results from research cited above tended to confirm the average

ineffectiveness of counseling and psychotherapy, but it should be noted

that none of these studies attempted to differentiate counselor

characteristics which contribute to client outcome.

Research on the role of the counselor in the therapeutic outcome

of counseling and psychotherapy grew out of the work of Whitehorn and

Betz (1954). In a comparison of schizophrenic patients assigned to

different psychiatrists, it was found that patients of seven doctors

had an improvement rate of 75 percent and patients of another seven

doctors had an improvement rate of only 27 percent. Differences

between the two groups of therapists seemed to lie in their attitude

toward the patients. The successful therapists were warm and attempted

to understand the patient in a personal, immediate and individualistic

manner; while the less successful therapists tended to relate to the

patient in a more impersonal way, focusing on the patient's pathology

and an external kind of understanding.

Study of the perceptual organization of effective counselors has

been reported by Cnobs and Soper (1963). The perceptual framework of







good counselors contained the following characteristics:

1. With respect to their general orientations, good counselors

were more likely to perceive from an internal than from an external

frame of reference and in terms of people instead of things.

2. With respect to their perceptions of people, good counselors

saw others as able, dependable, friendly and worthy.

3. With respect to their perceptions of self, good counselors

perceived themselves as identified with people, adequate and self

revealing.

4. With respect to purposes, good counselors saw their purposes

as freeing, altruistic and concerned with larger meanings.

The perceptual approach to the study of effective counselors was

applied to Episcopal pastors by Benton (1964) as noted above. Effective

pastors were distinguishable from ineffective pastors on the basis of

their perceptual characteristics.

Carl Rogers (1957) initially proposed the theoretic specification

of empathic understanding, unconditional positive regard and congruence

as both necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic outcome.

His students have developed scales for measuring the counselor offered

conditions of empathy, warm and genuineness and conducted research

which has related the level of counselor conditions to client outcome.

Truax (1963), in research involving both hospitalized and out-

patient cases, found a high correlation between mean levels of counselor.

conditions and personality and behavioral change in the patient. He

reports evidence to indicate "a rather strong tendency for therapists of

improved patients to be rated at consistently high values of accurate







empathy, thrcjghoul the course of treatment, while the therapists of

patients who showed deterioration hod a relatively large frequency of

lower levels of accurate *npathy throughout the course of treatment

(Truax and Carkhuff, 19.7, p. 86)." Similar results were found when

therapists were rated for r.on-possessive warmth and genuineness.

Bergin and Solc-on (1963), using the accurate empathy scale in

rating ther-py session of fourth ,ear clinical psychology students,

reported that the student's levei of e.Tpathy was significantly related

to his abiiiti to pr,'Juce outcome as judged by his supervisors.

Further evidence relating high levels of accurate empathy, non-

possessive warmth, and genuineness to client improvement has been

reported b' Truax et al. (1966), Truax, Carkhuff, and Kodman (1965),

and Truox, \lar3o and Silber (19,6).

In the writer': opinion the investigative technique developed by

Truax and Carkhuff (1967) and others has two advantages over research

on counseling which employs the perceptual approach. Direct ratings

of recorded counselor behavior require fewer inferences on the part of

the judges than are required in evaluations made in research using the

perceptual technique. In that research method the counselor characteris-

tics under obseri-ation, counselor pFrceptions of himself and others,

are inferred b, judges fror counselor verbal behavior. Two estimates

are made b' th.. judges; first, an assessment of the counselor's

behavior, and second, an inference concerning the counselor's perceptions

which mitival :d his be'hvior. On the other hand, a direct rating of

actual counselor behavior is used :o estimate counselor functioning

according to rating scales de.:sloped bo Truax and Carkhuff (1967).





21

In the research technique developed by Truax and Carkhuff ratings

are made directly from recorded counseling interviews. Research on

effective counselors, which uses the perceptual approach, has not employed

ratings made directly frcm counseling interview behavior. Ratings

were made fran self-reports of "Human Relations Incidents" in the study

by Combs and Soper (1963). Judgments were made from typescripts of

replies of the pastors to The Pastoral Problem Response Blank, Card 13

of the Thematic Apperception Test and three self-reports of pastoral

incidents in research by Benton (1964). On the other hand, direct

ratings of counselor behavior characteristics (accurate empathy, non-

possessive warmth or genuineness) were employed by Truax and Carkhuff

(1967) in research on effective counseling and psychotherapy.

In this study the Truax Accurate Empathy Scale was used by judges

to rate the interview behavior of pastoral counselors. The scale has

been employed in research noted above and found to be a reliable and

valid instrument. The counselor characteristic of accurate empathy

has been found in the research to be more closely related to outcome

and more highly correlated to client improvement (Truax, 1963; Bergin,

1963). The single counselor characteristic of accurate empathy was

employed in this study as a measure of effective counselor behavior.

Research on the association of counselor accurate empathy and

client improveTient has established only an association by correlation;

it has not demonstrated a causal relationship and no causative assumption

was made in the study. Effective counsel ing was defined as including

a high level of accurate empathy which tends to be associated with

client improve-ent as reported from the results of current research.







Research on thq Persona it, Correlates of Effectie Counselors


While the therapegetic relevance of the counselor-offered conditions

of accurate empathy, non-possess i.e warmth and genuineness has been

verified in substantial body of research, the relationship between

perscnaliL't characteristics of counselors and their ability to offer

facilitative conditions to their clients has been relatively unexplored.

Theorists and researchers have proposed a positive relationship between

the counselor's ability to facilitate growth in clients and his oin

personal adequacy (Ccmbs, 1962), authenticity (Rugental, 1965; Jourard,

1964), self-actualization (flaslo-, 1962), fully-functioning (Rogers,

1961) and level of 'wholeness' (Carkhuff and Berenson, 1967). Shostrom

(1965, 1966) has developed The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) as

a measure of self-actuaiization or positive mental health. This

inventory attempts to identify the self-actualizing person, the one who

is more fully-functioning than the normal or subnormal person from the

perspective of the attitudes found in self-actualizing persons. The

research conducted emnploying the POI suggests that the inventory is a

valid and reliable measure of psychological uwell-being, personal

adjustment, freedc"n from neurotic symptoms or self-actualization (Knapp,

1965; Shostrcm, 1965. 1966: Shostrom and Knapp, 1966).

In a study of 30 graduate students in a beginning practicum course

at the University of Florida, in ihich the P'OI as employed to assess

personality characteristics of the students, Foulds (1969) found that

ability to communicate empathy ws significantly related to 6 of 12

POI scales, genuineness to 10 of 12 POI scales and positive regard or

respect was not related to cny F'O scales.







Bergin and Solomon (1963), in a study of 18 post internship

psychology students, reported that the D and Pt scales of the MMPI were

negatively and significantly correlated with accurate empathy, as were

the Consistency, Order and Intraception scales of the EPPS. The

Dominance and Change scales of the EPPS were positively and significantly

correlated to accurate empathy.

In a replication of the Bergin and Solomon (1963) study on a

college companion sample, Vesprani (1969) found that only the MMPI

variables had significant negative correlation with accurate empathy

scores. The EPPS variables were either nonsignificant or in the direction

opposite to the hypothesis.

Although accurate empathy may be correlated with any measure of

personality adjustment, the Personal Orientation Inventory (POi)

(Shostrom, 1966) was chosen for this study. The subjects in this

study were a group of Episcopal clergymen. Since it may be assumed

that such a group contained below normal, normal and above normal

individuals, the POI seemed to be an appropriate instrument to measure

personality differences among the clergymen. The P01 was designed to

measure psychological well-being rather than defective emotional

functioning so that positive correlations with high levels of accurate

empathy could be expected. The POI took about 30 minutes to administer

and provided two major scores which made it adaptable to this study.

An analysis of the POI revealed that its items were appealing to a broad

range of normal, mature adults presently functioning in society.







Summary


Careful scrutiny of current research on pastoral counseling

indicates that a need exists for study of the process of pastoral

counseling and of the relation between training programs in pastoral

counseling and actual counseling behavior of clergymen. There are no

other studies on the questions examined in this research. However,

current investigations on the ingredients of effective counseling and

psychotherapy suggest a rationale and a method which may be used in the

study of the counseling behavior of clergymen. The use of techniques

from behavioral science research in the study of pastoral counseling

will help to fill the existing void in communication between these two

disciplines. This is the need to which Hiltner (1969, p. 13) refers

when he states that: 'With very minor exceptions, however, it is still

_true that the findings of experimental studies in the behavioral

sciences have had very little effect upon pastoral care and counseling."















CHAPTER III


METHODS AND PROCEDURES OF THE STUDY



Statement of the Problem


The primary purpose of the study was to examine the influence of

two variables, training in pastoral counseling and personality function-

ing, on the counseling behavior of clergymen. A secondary purpose was

to explore the relationships between pastoral counseling behavior and

selected pastor background factors, namely, age, experience in the

ministry and time spent doing counseling.

Accurate empathy as measured on the Truax Accurate Empathy Scale

was the aspect of counseling behavior rated by judges from tape recorded

pastoral counseling interviews of Episcopal clergymen. Level of

training in pastoral counseling was categorized as:

Level 1. college and seminary education only,

Level 2. college and seminary education and a three-month clinical

training experience, or

Level 3. college and seminary education and a six- to twelve-month

clinical training or professionally supervised counselor

training program.





26

The two major scales of the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) were

employed as measures of self-actualizing or fully-functioning personality

behavior.

The primary questions investigated by this research were: Do

Episcopal clerg'qien with more training in pastoral counseling manifest

higher levels of accurate empathy in counseling interviews than those

with less training? Do Episcopal clergymen who are more self-actualizing

manifest higher levels of accurate empathy in counseling interviews than

those who are less self-actualizing? Do Episcopal clergymen who are more

self-actualizing and have more training in counseling manifest higher

levels of accurate empathy than those who are less self-actualizing

and have less training?

The secondary question was: What is the relationship between

certain clergy background factors like age, length of time in the

ministry, hours per week spent counseling and the level of accurate

empathy manifested in pastoral counseling interviews?



Theoretical Basis for Hypotheses


Clinical training programs for seminary students are intended to

provide clergy with sufficient training in counseling to enable them

to develop proficiency in their pastoral counseling function. Clergy

report that their counseling tasks provide a great source of personal

satisfaction, while at the same time they report feeling inadequate and

in need of more training in pastoral counseling (Dittes, 1960). An

increasing nur.ber of seminaries require or strongly suggest at least one

quarter of clinical training for seminary students.




27

One of the stated goals of clinical pastoral education is to "enable

the student to become a competent helper to man in his basic struggle

in life, whatever the cultural context (Hall, 1968, p. 203)." A

clergyman is a helper in various ways as he relates to people, but one

of the most immediate and personal helping roles of the clergyman is that

of pastoral counselor. By receiving training in becoming a more

competent helper the clergyman ought to become more effective in his

pastoral counseling functioning.

One hypothesis of this study was designed to examine the relation-

ship between clinical pastoral education and pastoralcounseling

functioning. Students of clinical training programs report finding the

program helpful to them (Wanberg, 1962; Fairbanks, 1964). A comparison

of a clinically trained clergy group with an untrained group indicated

that the trained group had a clearer conception of their counseling

function (Smith, 1945). While empirical evidence concerning the

influence of clinical training programs on pastoral counseling functions

of clergymen is limited, one theoretical intention of the program is

to train clergy to be more competent helpers to man. Pastoral

counseling is one of the more important ways in which a pastor is

helper to his parishioners. On the basis of the goals of clinical

pastoral education, self-reports of clergy and very limited research

data a hypothesis was formulated which relates the amount of clinical

training to the pastoral counseling behavior of clergymen.

Several goals of clinical pastoral education are concerned with

the student's gro.ith and insight into himself. Clinical pastoral

education ". .. enables the student to be open to himself and his oin





28

experience in depth," and "helps the student develop and grow toward

maturity (Hall, 1968, p. 203)." An assumption of clinical pastoral

educators seems to be that an increase in self-understanding leads to

greater competence in pastoral care and pastoral counseling. This

assumption was formulated as one hypothesis to be examined in this

study.

Gains in self-awareness and personal growth were reported by

trainees of clinical training programs in studies by Bruder and Barb

---(1956), Wanberg (1962) and Fairbanks (1964). Changes in trainee

personality variables as measured by psychological tests were found by

Lucero and Currens (1964) and Swanson (1962), although Gynther and

Kempson (1958, 1962) reported no significant changes in trainee personality

or self-perceptions. An association between higher levels of personality

function as measured by psychological tests and higher levels of

counselor empathic behavior were reported in studies by Foulds (1969),

-Bergin and Solomon (1963) and Vesprani (1969).

-It is a-stated goal of clinical pastoral education to increase

self-understanding of trainees. An unstated assumption of the program

seems to be that increased self-understanding of trainees is conducive

to impro',ed pastoral counseling functioning. Research on counselors'

other than pastoral counselors provided evidence that increased

personality functioning is associated with higher levels of counselor

effectiveness. On the basis of the goals of clinical pastoral education,

research on trainees of clinical training programs and studies on other

counselors a hypothesis was formulated to examine the relationship

bet-een personality differences in clergymen and their pastoral

counsel ing behavior.






Formal Statement of Hypotheses


Specifically, this study was designed to test the validity of the

following hypotheses:

1. Level of empathic behavior in pastoral counseling interviews

is positively related to length of training in pastoral counseling skills

in three groups of Episcopal clergymen.

2. Level of empathic behavior in pastoral counseling interviais

is positively related to a measure of self-actualization in a sample of

Episcopal clergymen.

3. Level of empathic behavior in pastoral counseling interviews

is affected by the interaction of length of training and a measure of

self-actualization in a sample of Episcopal clergymen. The level of

empathy is higher in the groups with longer periods of training and

higher scores on self-actual ization than in groups with less training

and l1]er self-actualization scores.

4. Level of empathic behavior in pastoral counseling interviews

is affected by the interaction of each of the factors of the pastor's

age, years of service in the ministry, and the number of hours per week

he spends counseling with the two major factors.

a. Level of empathy is higher in groups with longer periods

of training, higher self-actualization scores and greater age than in

groups with less training, lower self-actualization scores and lesser

age.

b. Level of empathy is higher in groups of clergy with longer

periods of training, higher self-actualization scores and more years of

service in the ministry than in groups with less training, lower self-

actualization socres and fewer years of service in the ministry.




30

c. Level of empathy is higher in groups of clergy with longer

periods of training and higher self-actualization scores who spend more

time counseling than in groups with less training and lcqer self-

actualization scores who spend less time counseling.



/ Definitions


Following are definitions of the terms, concepts and variables

employed in the study.

Pastoral ccun;eling interview, or pastoral counseling session, is

a face to face meeting between a clergyman and an individual, couple

or group in a stationary setting (pastor's office or home, or the

person's home) in which the pastor and the person or persons con-

sciousl' explore a problem or concern of the individual, couple or

group. This definition includes marital and pre-marital counseling;

counseling with persons in developmental crisis, e.g., adolescence,

educational decisions, vocation choices and retirement decisions;

counseling -:ith people in situational crisis, e.g., death, loss,

bereavement, injury and illness; counseling with people experiencing

personal problems, e.g., drug and alcohol addiction, sexual and emotional

problems; counseling with persons having interpersonal and religious

problems. A pastoral counseling interview does not include telephone

conversations, sacramental ministrations like confession or unction,

brief hospital visits, or casual conversations around the church or

communi ty.

Accurate cijpath',, or empathy is the pastor's "sensitivity to current

feelings and his verbal facility to communicate this understanding in a




31

language attuned to the client's current feelings (Truax and Carkhuff,

1967, p. 46)."

Level-of empathic behavior is measured on the Truax, "A Tentative

Scale for the Measurement of Accurate Empaihy" (Appendix C).

Length of Traniinq is determined by the number of months of clinical

training or training in counseling received by the subjects as reported

on the Personal Data Form administered to each clergyman in the study.

The measures of self-actualization are the raw scores from both

the Tc scale and I scale of the Personal Orientation Inventory.

Age is that given by subject on the Personal Data Form.

Years of service in the ministry is defined as the number of years

the subject has been a priest in the church. It is calculated by

subtracting the date of ordination to the priesthood from 1970.

Hours spent counselir.g each week is determined from the answer

reported on the Personal Data Form. The whole number is used, or

the mean number in the case of an estimate spanning several hours.



\Sample


From Episcopal clergy in the Dioceses of Southwest Florida and

Central Florida a sample of 45 was selected so that there were 15 in

each of the three training level groups -- college and seminary training

only, three-month clinical pastoral training and six- to twelve-month

clinical pastoral training or professionally supervised counseling

training. All clergy in each diocese were requested to volunteer for

research in pastoral counseling in which the/would be asked to make

tape recordings of counseling sessions. The sample was selected frcm





32

those who were will ing to participate in the research. A preliminary

survey of 120 clergy from the Diocese of Southwest Florida and the

Diocese of Central Florida found 74 who agreed to participate and 46

who would not agree to participate in this research on pastoral counseling.

The final sample of 45 was available from the 64 clergy who agreed

to participate in the research. Of these 50 actually made tape record-

ings of counseling sessions. Five of the interviews could not be

rated because of difficulties encountered in the electronic recording

process. An additional 35 clergy completed the Personal Data Form and

took the Personality Orientation Inventory, but they were not willing

to make recordings of counseling interviews.

The clergy sample was limited to active priests currently

functioning as rectors, curates or vicars in congregations within the

Diocese of SouthwesL Florida or the Diocese of Central Florida. Deacons;

and perpetual deacons who have not completed college and seminary were

not included. Administrative officers of the Diocese and clergy in

non-parochial ministries were eliminated, as were retired clergy even

though they were currently assisting in a congregation. The clergy

sample of 45 who made tape recordings consisted of Episcopal priests who

are currently pastors to a congregation. An additional 50 clergy who

met these criteria completed the Personal Data Form and were administered

the Personal Orientation Inventory.

LiniitaLion of the sample to Episcopal clergy was intended to provide

some control over the factors of denominational affiliation and

education other than training in counseling.







Procedures


Three types of data were obtained from each clergyman in the

sample: the Personal Data Form (Appendix A), which provided information

on the pastor's education, training in counseling and current

counseling practices, the Personality Orientation Inventory (PO0), and

tape recordings of two 45 minute counseling sessions.

The Personal Data Form and POi were administered in groups of ten

to fifteen clergymen who live in geographical proximity at the occasion

of a clerical deanery meeting. The Personal Data Form was completed

first, and then the POI was administered. Clergymen who did not

attend the deanery meeting were met by the researcher in their office

or home at a later date, where the Personal Data Form and the POI were

administered individually.

After the Personal Data Forms were completed and the POI admin-

istered, the researcher met with the clergymen who had volunteered

to make tape recordings of pastoral counseling sessions. Mimeographed

sheets containing "Hints for tape recording counseling interviews"

(Appendix B) were distributed and questions raised by the clergymen

were answered. Techniques for obtaining clear and audible tape record-

ings of the sessions were discussed. About one-third of the clergymen

used small cassette recorders which they found more convenient to use

than larger reel-type tape recorders. On some of these the background

noise level was high and voices were hard to hear. Fears and inhibitions

about making tape recordings of counseling sessions were discussed and

methods suggested which were intended to reduce the recording anxiety of

the clergymen. Most clergymen have never made tape recordings of







pasForal ccunsel ing se.s ions. This was not included in seminary

training, nor is it a customary procedure in clinical training programs.

Each clerg';,.an was requested to make 45 minute tape recordings of

two (2) pastoral counseling interviews. Parishioner clients were to

be asked to permit taping while being assured of the confidentiality of

the inter'.'ie.. Clergymen were guaranteed anonymity of their counseling

behavior. All personal data, P01 scores and accurate empathy ratings

were coded and handled by the code number. The clergymen-subjects were

assured by the researcher that he was not involved personally in

judging the tape recorded interviews.

The Personal Data Forms and Personal Orientation inventories were

administered in February and March, 1970. The clergymen were requested

to send the tape recordings to the researcher by the end of April.

A letter was. sent on April 20 reminding those who had not returned

tapes. Beginrirng on Ma', 5 those who had not responded were contacted

by telephone.



Tape Recorded Data


The practice of making tape recordings of counseling sessions

was unfamiliar to mo-t clergymen and was a source of considerable anxiety

to man, of them. Rather than allow the difficulties which were being

encountered in making tape recordings to negate the research, the

researcher s.ugg-sted alternatives to those clergymen who mentioned the

problem. Some clerg men found they were able to record one session

but no! tro. Other clergymen were unable to procure the cooperation of

any parishicners in making tape recordings of counseling interviews, so





35

role play situations were suggested to these men as a means of procuring

a sample of their counseling behavior.

The number and type of clients (real or role play) seen by the 45

clergymen who made tape recordings is reported in Table 1. Over two-

thirds of the clergymen saw real clients in the pastoral counseling

sessions. More than one-third of the clergymen recorded two sessions

rather than one session. Distribution of number and type of clients

seen was almost identical for the three training level groups.

When a clergyman was able to provide only one pastoral counseling

interview, it was strongly urged that the session be at least 60 minutes

in length, in order that the eight three-minute segments could be

selected from the middle 40 minutes of the interview. Twenty-five of

the 29 clergymen who submitted a tape of one session were able to

provide an interview 60 minutes long. For five pastoral counseling

sessions which were 45 minutes in length the eight segments were

selected from the middle 35 minutes of the interview.

An additional five clergymen submitted tape recordings which

could not be rated because it was impossible to hear the voices of the

counselor or the client.

From the tape recordings of the pastoral counseling interviews of

each clergyman eight three-minute segments were randomly selected as

the segments to be rated. The first ten minutes and last ten minutes

of the interview were excluded for purposes of choosing segments to be

rated, to lessen the possibility of opening and closing conversational

remarks being selected as a sample of counseling behavior.

The segments were given code numbers and copied onto another tape.

After more than one-half of the tapes had been received, the segments












TABLE I

NUMBER AND TYPE OF CLIENTS SEEN BY 45 CLERGYMEN WHO
MADE TAPE RECORDlitGS OF COUNiSELING INTERVIEWS


I c. ient 2 clients


Total for Tapinq Group


Real


Role play,


Training Lev!el I


Real
Role play


Training r Level II


Real

Role play,


Training Level lil


Real

Role play


6 15


"--- I --







were cut apart and reassembled in random order into the rater tapes.

Each rater tape contained 20 three-minute segments from at least ten

different subjects arranged in random order and identified by code number

only. After the segments were rated, the mean accurate empathy level

for each subject was calculated from the scores of the eight segments.



Training of the Judges


The persons selected for training as tape-raters were three

female university undergraduates. Part time undergraduate students,

given adequate training, are used as judges in the research program of

the Arkansas Rehabilitation Research and Training Center (Lawlis, n.d.).

A study was conducted by Pare (1970) in which 72 raters, drawn from

Junior College, university undergraduate and graduate students, were

given a thirty-minute training period on the nine-stage Truax

Accurate Empathy Scale. Significant differences in.mean rating of

segments of psychotherapy were reported only between the undergraduate

group and the combined groups of Junior College and graduate students,

which was attributed to the mean age difference between these groups

(Par6, 1970, p. 70). The ratings of the youngest students (the under-

graduates) had a computed Pearson product-moment correlation with the

professional judges of r = .70. It was implied by Par6 (1970, p. 76)

that: ". . the training of raters is not a complicated job requiring

many hours or a highly skilled trainer. . that almost any college-

level group of people can be trained quickly to rate level of accurate

empathy and that such ratings more likely can be compared on an

absolute as well as a relative basis." The experience of the Arkansas





38

Rehabilitation Research and Training Center and results of the study by

Pare (1970) were considered adequate justification for using university

undergraduates as judges in this study.

The three judges were trained according to a method developed at

the Arkansas Rehabilitation Research and Training Center (Lawlis, n.d.).

After two sessions of training, the judges were tested for reliability

by computing the Pearson product-moment coefficients of correlation

between their ratings and professional judges' ratings on ten counseling

segments recorded and rated at the Arkansas Rehabilitation Research

and Training Center (Table 2). Since the computed correlations between

the ratings of the judges trained for this study and the professional

judges' ratings exceeded 0.75, the judges were permitted to proceed

with rating the research segments.



Statistical Treatment of the Data


The hypotheses were tested in a stepwise multiple regression

formula to determine the influence of each of the independent variables

(training level, POI Tc score, POI I score, age, experience in the

ministry and weekly number of hours spent counseling) on the dependent

variable (level of empathic behavior) (Li, 1964).

An analysis of variance was calculated for each of the variables

by training level groups.

A one-way analysis of variance was calculated for accurate empathy

scores by training level groups, POI Tc and P0! I groups. A two-way

analysis of variance w.3s calculated for accurate empathy scores by












TABLE 2

JUDGE RATINGS ON TEST




Arkansas
Center Judge Number
Rating 1 2 3
ft


Pearson r
r
r

r
r
r


T: =
T:2 =
T:3 =

1:2 =
2:3 =
1:3 =


.8198
.7652
.8911

.8975
.7621
.6794


I -- -------







training level groups with POI Tc score groups and by training level

groups with POI I score groups ('lyatt and Bridges, 1967).

The .05 level of probability was selected as the level of statistical

significance for the rejection of the null hypotheses. T tests were

calculated between groups where the F ratios frcm the analysis of

variance were significant at the .05 level of probability.















CHAPTER IV


RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF THE DATA



This study-primarily examined the influence of two variables,

training in pastoral counseling and differences in personality

functioning, on the pastoral counseling behavior of Episcopal clergy-

men. The study also examined the relationship between pastoral

counseling behavior and certain pastor background factors, namely,

age, experience in the ministry and time spent doing counseling.



The Trainiha Variable


It was stated in hypothesis I that: level of empathic behavior in

pastoral counseling interviews is positively related to length of

training in pastoral counseling skills in three groups of Episcopal

clergymen.

Eight segments of each clergyman's counseling behavior were rated

on the Truax nine-point scale (A Tentative Scale for the Measurement

of Accurate Empathy, Appendix C) and the mean score was recorded as the

accurate empathy score for that subject. Raw score data on level of

training (number of months) formed one of the dependent variables in a

steprise multiple regression analysis in which accurate empathy scores

were the independent vriable, The regression analysis produced Pearson


4!







product-moment correlation coefficients (r) between each of the

variables and multiple correlation coefficients (R) the square of

which (MR2) was an indication of the amount each dependent variable

contributed to the total variance of accurate empathy scores. In

addition, a one-way analysis of variance of accurate empathy scores by

training level groups was performed.

The correlation between length of training and accurate empathy

score was -.094 (Table 4) which indicated a negative relationship.
2
The multiple R was .0236 which indicated that the length of training

variable contributed 2.3 percent to the variance of the accurate empathy

scores (Table 3). Differences of accurate empathy scores by training

level groups were not significant at the .05 level (Table 5). It may

be concluded that hypothesis 1 was not supported by evidence from

this study.

The accurate empathy mean score for the 45 clergy was 3.26 (Table 5),

which is belci the midpoint of the scale (5) and below the level (5)

which is considered facilitative in counseling relationships. The

group accurate empathy score of 3.26 is comparable to scores reported

from research on counselors who have completed master's or doctoral

training. In a recent article by Lister (1970), in which he reviewed

research conducted by himself and others, the follaving accurate empathy

scores made from rati.igs of counseling tapes were reported:

28 master's students 2.46 (Melloh, 1964)

30 master's students about 4.0 (Blane, 1967)

30 master's students about 2.0 (Foulds, 1967)

58 master's students 2.53 (Antenen and Lister, 1968)

18 doctoral students 2.50 (Bergin and Solomon, 1963),








TABLE 3

THE SQUARE OF THE MULTIPLE COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION
BETWEEN ACCURATE EMPATHY SCORES OF CLERGYMEN AND
CLERGYMEN'S TRAINING, PERSONALITY
AND PERSONAL FACTORS


MR2


Empathy
Empathy
Empathy
Empathy
Empathy
Empathy
Empathy


with
with
with
with
with
with
with


POI Tc
POI I
Experience
Hours
Training
Age
Total


S1416
.0591
.0317
.0188
.0236
.0114
.2863


Total of all variables contributed 28 percent of the
variation in accurate empathy scores.


TABLE 4

PEARSON PRODUCT-MOMENT COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION
,BETWEEN ACCURATE EMPATHY SCORES AND CLERGYMEN'S
TRAINING, PERSONALITY AND PERSONAL FACTORS


Accurate Empathy with POI Tc = -.376*
Accurate Empathy with Experience r = .129
Accurate Empathy with Training r = -.094
Accurate Empathy with Age r = .037
Accurate Empathy with Hours r = .034
Accurate Empathy with POI I r = -.009


*Significant beyond .05 level, one-tailed test. Critical value
(p = .05, one-tailed; M=45) = .2939.


Source: Wyatt and Bridges, 1967, p. 283.


Accurate
Accurate
Accurate
Accurate
Accurate
Accurage
Accurate















ACCURATE EMPATHY SCORES OF


CLERGYMEN BY LENGTH OF TRAINING


Accurate Eropath-.
X S.D.


Traiinng Group


.1 (N = 15)
I I (N = 15)
III (1i = 15)
Total (II = 5)
Total (I1 = 45)


Anal,.sis of Variance


Source of Variance


Between Group
---Within Group
Total


0.7799
25.5625
26.3 424


0.3899 0.6409 n.s.
0.6086


TABLE 5


3.44
3.16
3.17
3.26


.681
.745
.900
.774


S S


M S


__
~~1~1_


~


- --II- --







Counselors are helpful who function at level 5 or above on the

accurate empathy scale, counselors are neutral who function at levels

3-4, and counselors who function at level 2 or below are harmful to

clients in a counseling relationship according to Truax and Carkhuff

(1967). As counselors the clergymen in this study were neutral in their

effect, some of the time with some clients they were helpful and at

other times the pastoral counselors were not helpful.

Comparison of training level groups reveals that clergy with no

formal training in pastoral counseling have slightly higher accurate

empathy scores than do those with formal training (Table 5). For the

groups with training there is very little difference between the

three-month training group and the six- to twelve-month training group.

Length of training per se did not improve empathic counseling behavior

of clergymen in this sample.



Personality Variables


It was stated in hypothesis 2 that: level of empathic behavior in

pastoral counseling interviews is positively related to a measure of

self-actualization in a sample of Episcopal clergymen.

The measure of self-actualization employed was the Personal

Orientation Inventory (POI) and the scores used were the Time Competence

(Tc) and Inner-directedness (1) scales, the two major scales of the

inventory (Shostrcn, 1966). The Time Competence aspect of self-

actualization is defined as follas:

The self-actualized person is primarily Time
Competent and thus appears to live more fully in
the here-and-now. He is able to tie the past and
the future to the present in meaningful continuity.







. The self-actualized individual's past and
future orientations are depicted as reflecting
positive mental health to the extent that his
past is used for reflective thought and the future
is tied to present goals. His use of time in a
competent way is expressed in a Time Ratio score of
approximately 1:8, as compared to the non-self-
actualized Time Ratio of about 1:3.

The non-self-actualized (person) is comparatively
the most time incompetent. This marked time
incompetence suggests that the non-self-actualized
person does not discriminate well between past or
future. . The person who is Past-oriented may
be characterized by guilt, regret, remorse, blaming
or resentments. . A person who is Future-
oriented is an individual who lives with idealized
goals, plans, expectations, predictions, and fears.
. A Present-oriented person is the individual
whose past does not contribute to the present in
a meaningful way and who has no future goals tied
to present activity (Shostrom, 1966, p. 15-16).

The Tc scale raw scores rather than the ratio score were used for

this research according to the following criteria:

Non-self-actualized range 1 17

Normal range 18 19

Self-actualized range 20 22

(Shostrom, 1966, p. 16).

POI Tc ravi scores for an adult male population (N = 66) reported by

Shostrcm (1966) were: Mean 17.2, SD 2.9.

The PO! Tc scores of clergymen in this study were similar to the

POI Tc scores of the adult male sample reported by Shostrom (1966).

The POI Tc scores of the clergymen in this study did not differ

significantly by training level groups (F = 1.8052, p>.05) (Table 6).

All groups and the total group are close to or within the normal range


as designated by Shostrom (1966, p. 16).











TABLE 6

POI Tc SCORES OF CLERGYMEN BY LENGTH OF TRAINING


P0O Tc Raw Score
Training Group x S.D.

I (N = 15) 17.60 3.20
II (N = 15) 17.00 2.77
IIl (N = 15) 19.00 2.87
Total (N = 45) 17.86 3.01



Analysis of Variance
Source of Variance S S d f M S F

Between Group 31.6001 2 15.80 1.8052 n.s.
Within Group 367.6013 42 8.7524
Total 399.2012 44







In the multiple regression analysis the MR2 indicated that

Personal Orientation Inventory Time Competence score (P01 Tc) accounted

for 14 percent of the variance in accurate empathy (Table 3), which was

the largest amount of variation contributed by any of the independent

variables. The coefficient of correlation between POI Tc and accurate

empathy score was -0.376 (Table 4), the largest coefficient of correlation

between any of the independent variables and accurate empathy. The

relationship between the POI Tc scores and the accurate empathy scores

of clergymen was ir. a negative direction (Table 4), which was opposite

to the direction predicted in hypothesis 2. The analysis of variance

of accurate empathy scores categorized by POI Tc groups produced

significant differences (F = 4.1689, p (.05) (Table 7). The negative

relation between accurate empathy scores and P01 Tc scores of the

clergymen was indicated in Table 7.

It may be concluded that hypothesis 2 as measured by the Time

Competence factor in self-actualization was not supported by evidence

from this study. The evidence suggested a negative relationship, that

an increased Time Competence score was associated with a decreased

accurate empathy score.

Even though in a negative direction, the POI Tc variable of self-

actualization had the greatest influence on accurate empathy scores in

counseling behavior of clergymen in this sample. Clergymen who are

less time competent, below the self-actualized score and in the normal

range, tend to function on a slightly higher level of empathic behavior

in counseling interviews than those who are more time competent. This

is similar to findings reported by Foulds (1969) in which a negative









TABLE 7

ACCURATE EMPATHY SCORES OF CLERGYMEN BY PCI Tc GROUPS


Accurate Empathy_
POI Tc X SoD.


I (N= 17)
I! (N = 12)
III (N = 16)
Total (N = 45)


3,65
3.04
2.99
3.26


.535
.807
.826
.774


Analysis of Variance


Source of Variance
Between Group
Within Group
Total ,


POI Tc Groups
I vs II
I vs III
II vs III


S S
4.3632
21.9791
26.3423


d f
2
42
44


M S
2.1816
0.5233


t Test

t
2.2975
2.7154
0.1589


F
4.1689 *


d f
27 *
31 *
26 n.s.


*Significant beyond .05 level.







correlation between POI Tc score and accurate empathy ratings of

counseling behavior was reported.

Personal Orientation Inventory Inner-directedness score (P01 I) is

a measure of the Support Ratio which is a combination of inner-direction

and other-direction in personal motivation. The motivation of the inner-

directed person is defined by Shostrc-i (1966, p. 17) as: "The source

of direction for the individual is inner in the sense that he is guided

by internal motivations rather than external influences. This source

of direction becomes generalized as an inner core of principles and

character traits." For the other-directed person the source of motivation

appears to be outside of himself in that he ". . appears to have been

motivated to develop a radar system to receive signals from a far wider

circle than just his parents. . The primary central feeling tends

to be fear or anxiety or the fluctuating voices of school authorities

or the peer group. .. Approval by others becomes for him the highest

goal (Shostrcii, 1960, p. 17)."

The support orientation of the self-actualizing person lies between

the extremes of the other-directed or inner-directed person.

He can be characterized as having more of an
autonoi cus self-supportive, or being-orientation.
Whereas he is other-directed in that he must be to
a degree sensitive to other people's approval,
affection, and good will, the source of his actions
is essentially inner-directed. He is free; but his
freedom is not gained by being a rebel or pushing
against others and fighting them. .. He discovers
a mode of living which gives him confidence
(Shostrom, 1966 p. 17).

A support razto between other-directedness and inner-directedness

of 1:3 to 1:6 has been found for a self-actualizing group. A ratio of

1:1 was reported for a non-self-actual izing group (Shostrcm, 1966).





51

For research purposes the Inner-directedness raw score (PO! I) part

of the support ratio was utilized according to the following scale:

Non-self-actualized range below 84

Normal range 85 95

Self-actualized range 96 110 (Shostrom, 1966, p. 18).

The P01 I raw scores for an adult male population (N = 66) reported by

Shostrom (1966) were: Mean 81.1, SO 9.9.

On the-POI I scale 45 clergymen had a mean near the norm (91.27)

(Table 8), but considerably higher than the other adult male sample

(81.1) reported by Shostrom (1966). The training level groups differed

in POI 1 scores (F = 3.2362, p /.05), and the mean scores between

groups II and Ill were significantly different (t = 2.37, p < .05)

(Table 8). Group III with longer training in counseling was signifi-

cantly higher than Group II on the Inner-directedness scale of the POI.

In the multiple regression analysis the MR2 indicated that P01 I

accounted for 5.9 percent of the variance in accurate empathy (Table 3).

The correlation between POI I and accurate empathy was -.009 (Table 4),

which was in the negative direction. An analysis of variance of accurate

empathy scores of clergymen by POI I score did not indicate a difference

among the groups (F = .3968, p \ .05) (Table 9). Accurate empathy

scores categorized by POI I groups indicated a trend in a negative

direction (Table S), as did the accurate empathy scores categorized by

P1I Tc (Table 7) and by training level groups (Table 5), It may be

concluded that hypothesis 2 as measured by the Inner-directedness factor

in self-actual ization was not supported by evidence from this study.

The P01 I variable had the second highest MR2 in the regression

analysis. Taken together the two P01 variables accounted for 19.9 percent









TABLE 8


POI I SCORESOF CLERGYMEN


BY LENGTH OF TRAINING


POI I Raw Score
T S.D.


Training Group

I (N = 15)
1I (N = 15)
III (N = 15)
Total (N = 45)


92.06
88.33
97.53
91.27


8.42
8.06
12.71
10.45


Analysis of Variance


Source of Variance
Between group
Within Group
Total


S S
642.3103
4168.0586
4810.3672


Training Level Group
I vs I
I vs I I I
II vs Ill


':Significant beyond .05 level.


d f
2
42


M S
321. 155
99.239


F
3.2362


t Test


1.24
1.39
2.37


n.s.
n.s.


. . _I~I~
_~II~












TABLE 9


ACCURATE EMPATHY SCORES OF CLERGYMEN BY P01 I GROUPS


Accurate Empathy_
z S.D.


I (N = 10)
II (N = 17)
III (N = 18)
Total (N = 45)


3.42
3.15
3.26
3.26


.602
.942
.703
.774


Analysis of Variance


Source of Variance
Between Group
Within Group
Total


S S
0.4885
25.8539
26.3423


df
2
42
44


M S
0.2442
0.6156


F
0.3968 n. s.


P01 1


__ _ _~ _~I I~


_----LOL----.


-- -~LL






54

of the variance of accurate empathy scores out of 28 percent which was

contributed by all the independent variables.

An association between self-actualization and empathic counseling

behavior was not supported by findings from this study. A negative trend

was indicated but confirmation of this requires further research.



Interaction of the Training and
the Personality Variables


It was stated in hypothesis 3 that: level of empathic behavior in

pastoral counseling interviews is affected by the interaction of length

of training and a measure of self-actualization in a sample of Episcopal

clergymen. The level of empathy is higher in the groups with longer

periods of training and higher scores on self-actualization than in

groups with less training and lover self-actualization scores.

The correlations of accurate empathy scores with length of training

(-.094), POI Tc (-.376), and POI 1 (-.009) raw scores (Table 4) were

all negative and the accurate empathy to P01 Tc correlation was

significant at the .05 level. (Table 4). An analysis of variance of

accurate empathy scores by the POI Tc variable also produced signifi-

cant differences (Table 7), although the direction of the differences

was opposite to that predicted in the hypothesis. When accurate empathy

scores were analyzed in a 2 factor design, training group by P01 Tc,

no significant interaction differences resulted (F = .16, p~ .05)

(Table 10). The negative trend of POI Tc scores was indicated in

Table 10. It may be concluded that hypothesis 3 as measured by the

interaction oF PFO Tc and length of training was not supported by

evidence from thick study,








TABLE 10


ACCURATE EMPATHY SCORES OF CLERGYMEN BY
TRAINING AND POI Tc GROUPS


POI Tc


x
S.D.



x
S.D.



x
S.D.



x
S.D.


1(6)
3.85
.620

1 (8)
3.45
.500

1 (3)
3.79
.382

(17)

3.65
.535


1 (4)
3.19
.665

I (4)
3.00
1.00

S1 (4)
2.94
.944

(12)

3.04
.807


1 1(5)
3.15
.621

I 1 (3)
2.58
.764

11 (8)
3.05
.991

(16)

2.99
.826


LENGTH OF


Totals Training


T(15)
3.44
.681

T(15)
3.16
.743

T(15)
3.17
.900

(45)

3.26
.774


Source of Varia
Ro'ws (Training)
Columns (P01 Tc
Interaction
Within


Two-way Analysis of Variance for Accurate
Empathy Scores By Training and P01 Tc
nce S.S. D.F. M.S.
1.010 2 0.505
) 4.619 2 2.310
0.358 4 0.090
20.574 36 0.571


Training
I



Training
I II



Training





Totals
PO0 Tc


F
0.88
4.04
0.16


n.s.
n.s.

n.s.


~YII~
__ _~


__


_ _I









When accurate empathy scores were analyzed in a 2 factor design,

training groups by P01 I groups, no significant differences resulted

(F = 3.25, p>.05) (Table 11). The negative trend of POI I scores

categorized by training level groups was indicated in Table 11. !t

may be concluded that hypothesis 3 as measured by the interaction of

POI I and length of training was not supported by evidence from this

study.



SAge and Experience


Hypotheses k4 and 4b related age and experience to accurate empathy

in conjunction with training and personality variables. Hypotheses 1,

2 and 3 jere not supported by the findings of the study and the relation-

ships between accurate empathy scores and training, PO1 Tc and POI I

were in a negative direction.

The age variable had a non-significant correlation (.037) with
2
accurate empathy (Table 4). The multiple R2 for age was .014 which

indicates a '.very sal I effect on the variance of accurate empathy (Table 3).

Mean age of the clergymen when analyzed by training level groups was

not significarntL' different (F = 1.94, p>.05) (Table 12).

Hypothesis 4= was not supported by evidence from this study. It

may be concluded that age by itself or in combination with training

level and personal it', variables did not influence empathic behavior in

this sample of Episcopal clergymen.

The e;:.perenrce of clergymen in terms of years in the ministry was

similar to the ac, variable in its influence on empathic behavior. The

coefficient of corrdl t ion between age and experience was r = .867. The










TABLE 11

ACCURATE EMPATHY SCORES OF CLERGYMEN BY LENGTH OF
TRAINING AND POi GROUPS


POI i


I.(3)
3.62
.375

1 (5)
3.17
.716

1 (2)
3.75
.530

(10)

3.42
.602


S1 (8)
3.58
.785

I 1 (6)
3.20
.789

S(3)
1.88
.451

(17)

3.14
.942


Totals Training


II1(4)
3.03
.571

S11(4)
3.06
.916

11 (1 0)
3.44
.685

(18)

3.26
.703


T(15)
3.44
.681

T(15)
3.16
.743

T(15)
3.17
.900

(45)

3.26
.774


Source of Varia
Ross (Training)
-Columns (Pol I)
Interaction
Within


Two-way Analysis of Variance for Accurate
Empathy Scores by Training and P01OI

nce S.S. D.F. M.S.
0.948 2 0.474
2.374 2 1.187
6.585 4 1.646
18.167 36 0.505


Training




Training
I I



Training
III



Totals
POI I


x
S.D.


x
S.D.


x
S.D.



x
S.D.


F
0.94
2.35
3.25


n.s.
n.s.
n.s.


__













TABLE 12

AGE OF CLERGYMEN BY LENGTH OF TRAINING


Years
Training Group x S.D.

I (N = 15) 40.80 8.20
11 (N = 15) 36.26 8.05
III (N = 15) 41.26 6.64
Total (N = 45) 39.44 7.83




Analysis of Variance
Source cF Variance S S d f M S F
Between Group 228.84 2 114.42 1.94 n.s.
Within Group 2470.27 42 58.82
Total 2699.11 44






59

coefficient of correlation between experience and accurate empathy was

.129 (Table 4) and the multiple R for experience was .0317 (Table 3).

The analysis of variance of experience of clergymen by length of training

indicated no differences among the groups (F = 2.68, p > .05) (Table 13).

Hypothesis 4b was not supported by evidence frcm this study. It

may be concluded that experience alone or in combination with length of

training or personality variables did not significantly influence

empathic behavior in this sample of Episcopal clergymen.



Weekly Hours Spent Counseling


Hypothesis 4c related weekly number of hours spent counseling in

combination with level of training and personality variables to level

of accurate empathy.

The coefficient of correlation for weekly number of hours spent

counseling with accurate empathy was .034 (Table 4). The multiple R2

obtained from the regression analysis for hours spent counseling was

.018 (Table 3).

Mean number of hours spent counseling was not significantly

different among the training level groups (F = .55, p .05) (Table 14).

Hypothesis 4c was not supported by evidence from this study. It

may be concluded that weekly number of hours spent counseling alone or

in combination with length of training or personality variables did not

significantly influence the level of empathic behavior of this sample

of Episcopal clergymen.

Table 15 reports the percentage of clergymen who spend different

amounts of time counseling. Over 50 percent of clergymen spend 1-6












TABLE 13

EXPERIENCE IN THE tllSTR' OF CLERGYMEN BY LENGTH OF TRAINING


'Y' ea rs
Training Group x S.D.

I (N = 15) 10.93 9.29
II (0 = 15) 7.00 5.34
III (l1 = 15) 13.40 7.72
Total (il = 45) 10.44 7.82





Analysis of Variance
Source of Variance S S d f M S F
Between Group 312.58 2 156.29 2.68 n.s.
Within Group 2444.53 42 58.20
Total 2757.11 44














TABLE 14

WEEKLY NUMBER OF HOURS SPENT COUNSELING
BY LENGTH OF TRAINING


OF CLERGYMEN


Hours
Training Group 7 S.D.

I (N = 15) 8.27 7.02
II (N = 15) 7.00 7.42
Ill (N = 15) 9.73 7.01
Total (N = 45) 8.33 7.00



Analysis of Variance

Source of Variance S S d f M S F
Between Group 15.12 2 28.06 0.55 n.s.
Within Group 2150.82 42 51.21
Total 2206.94 44










TABLE 15

WEEKLY NUMBER OF HOURS SPENT COUNSELING OF CLERGYMEN


Number


0 -
1 -
4-

7--
10 -
13 -
16 -
19 -
22 -
25 -
28 -


1
13
11
4
6
4
1
2
0
2



45


Percent


2.2
28.8
24.4
8.8
13.3
8.8
2.2
4.4
0
4.4
2. 2

99.5


x = 8.33
S.D. = 7.00


_I~





63
hours a week counseling. Of the clergymen 22 percent spend from 7-12

hours a week and 22 percent spend from 13-30 hours.
















CHAPTER V
/


SUMNARY, CONICLUSIONS ANJO IMPLICATIONS



SumITiary


This study attempted to examine the relationship between pastoral

counseling behavior and length of training in pastoral counseling and

a measure of self-actualization in a sample of Episcopal clergymen.

Segments from tape recorded pastoral counseling interviews were rated

for accurate empathy. Accurate empathy scores for the clergymen were

ccrTpared by length of training in pastoral counseling categorized in

the following groups:

Level 1. college and seminary education and no clinical training

or special pastoral counseling training,

Level 2. college and seminary education and a three-month clinical

training experience,

Level 3. college and seminary education and a six- to twelve-

month clinical training or professionally supervised

counselor training program.

Accurate empathy scores for the clergy were compared by the two major

scales of the Personality Orientation Inventory, which is an attempt to

measure self-actualization. The relationship of pastoral counseling





65

behavior and selected pastor background variables (age, experience in

the ministry and time spent counseling) was also examined in this study.

An empirical approach to the question of the effectiveness of

pastoral counselors was selected after a search of the literature

revealed a need for research on pastoral counseling which employed data

from actual counseling interviews. Furthermore, research was needed

which examined the influence of clinical training programs on the

pastoral counseling behavior of clergymen functioning in a parochial

setting.

The variables of length of clergy training in counseling, personality

functioning, age, experience and counseling time were stated in terms

of hypotheses related to empathic counseling behavior. These hypotheses

were that in a sample of Episcopal clergymen level of empathic behavior

in pastoral counseling interviews would:

1. be positively related to length of training in pastoral

counseling skills;

2. be positively related to a measure of self-actualization;

3. be positively related to the two-way interaction of length

of training and a measure of self-actualization; and

4. be positively related to the three-way interaction of length

of training and a measure of self-actualization with each of

the following variables:

a. age;

b. experience in the ministry; and

c. weekly number of hours spent counseling.

A total of 45 Episcopal clergymen, out of 64 who volunteered to

make tape recordings of pastoral counseling interviews, submitted tape





66

recordings and became the subjects in the study. The subjects provided

data in the form of tape recordings of one or two pastoral counseling

interviews, responses to the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) and

responses to a Personal Data Form. Eight three-minute segments of each

pastor's counseling behavior were rated by judges for level of accurate

empathy according to "A Tentative Scale for the Measurement of Accurate

Empathy." Time Competence (Tc) and Inner-directedness (I) raw scores

were procured from the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI). Length of

training, age, experience in the ministry and weekly number of hours

spent counseling were recorded from the Personal Data Form.

The coefficients of correlation between ratings made by professional

judges and ratings made by three judges used in the study were .81, .76

and .89. The independent variables (number of months of training, P01

Tc and P01 I scale ra.; scores, age, years in the ministry and weekly

number of hours spent counseling) were submitted to a stepwise multiple

regression analysis in which accurate empathy scores formed the dependent

variable. Accurate empathy scores were submitted to a one-way analysis

of variance by length of training, P01 Tc and POI I scores. Accurate

empath', scores were submitted to a two-way analysis of variance by

length of training and P01 Tc scores and by length of training and POI I

scores.

Statistical treatment of the data yielded significant results

(p = .05) only for the P01 Tc variable, but the direction of the

difference was opposite to that predicted by the hypothesis. There-

fore, the results of the study did not support the hypothesis.








Conclusions


On the basis of the results of the study, the folla~ing conclusions

may be drawn tentatively concerning counseling behavior of Episcopal

clergymen and its relation to their training and personality functioning.

1. Clergymen who receive training in clinical pastoral education

programs are not more empathic in their counseling behavior than those

who do not receive such training. Additional computations made by the

writer indicated that the only statistically significant differences

on accurate empathy scores were reported within Level II! training

group between the clergymen who received training in the program of the

Episcopal Counseling Center, Tampa, Florida, and the other clergymen

in Level 111 (Table 16). There is a possibility that the type of

training could have some influence on the accurate empathy scores of

clergymen who received pastoral counseling training at the Episcopal

Counseling Center.


TABLE 16

ACCURATE EMPATHY SCORES OF CLERGYMEN WITHIN
LEVEL III TRAINING GROUP


Accurate Empath
x t

Episcopal Counseling Center
Group (N = 8) 3.73 3.4075 *

Remainder of II! (N = 7) 2.51

t (p = .05, one-tailed, df 13) = .1.771


*"Significant beyond .05 level, one-tailed test.





68

2. Clergymen who are more self-actualized in their attitudes are

not more empathic counselors than those who are less self-actualized.

This is contrary to the results of Foulds (1969) who found a relationship

between a measure of self-actualization and accurate empathy scores of

counselors.

3. Clergy who are older, more experienced or who spend more time

counseling are not more empathic as pastoral counselors than those who

are younger, less experienced or spend fewer hours per week in counseling.

The level of accurate empathy offered by the counselors in this

study was mostly at levels 2 3 (Table 5, 10, 11), which concurred with

levels repo Led in research on counselor education programs reviewed by

Lister (1970). For almost all groups in this study the accurate empathy

score .js within le.el 3 which is in the neutral range of effectiveness

as counselors. Since a level 3 accurate empathy rating is belcw that

consZidered facilitative in a counseling relationship, it seems that

present programs for training pastoral counselors could be examined as

to their theor/ and :-'occdures in order that clergy receiving training

could be helped to teccme effective pastoral counselors.



Impl ications


more qgeeraer- concr.rn of this study was the implication of the

findings for the training of clergy in pastoral counseling. Since

clergy do a lsrre .-,-ont of counseling, adequate training should be

provided for tili ii-portcrnt aspect of their ministry. For the past

t\!enti ,' ors rnost -f the specific training of clergy in counseling has

been pro,. ided in clinical training programs rather than by the seminaries,






69

The question should be raised: Is the clinical training program

effective in producing empathic counseling behavior in the clergy

trainees? The findings of this study indicate that clergy who have

not been to clinical training programs are as empathic as those who

have received such training (Table 5). Thirty of the clergymen had

received clinical training as offered in programs of the Association

for Clinical Pastoral Education, and eight of these thirty had also

received training in the Clergy Training Program of the Episcopal

Counseling Center, Tampa, Florida.

A comparison within the Level II training group between eight

clergy who had received training at the Episcopal Counseling Center,

Tampa, Florida, and seven others in Level II! showed a difference

on accurate empathy of 3.73 to 2.51 (t = 3.4075, p (.05) (Table 16).

The Episcopal Counseling Center Level II1 training group had an

accurate empathy mean score significantly higher than the mean of the

total group (t = 3.079, p <.05) (Table 17). The Episcopal Counseling

Center Level ill group received training in counseling of a different

type than the usual cl inical training program which could account for

the difference in mean score on accurate empathy within the Level III

training group.

Clinical training programs are similar in many aspects which differ

from the program of pastoral counseling training offered at the Episcopal

Counseling Center, Tampa, Florida. Clinical pastoral education programs

and The Clergy Training Program of the Episcopal Counseling Center may

be contrasted as to their clients, supervisors, procedures, counseling

theory and students.





70

ikELE 17

ACCURATE EUrATH'' SCORES OF CLEP.G'i'ENI


Accurrate En:rpathy



Episcopal Counseling Center 3.
Group (ll = 8)

Total (i~ 45) 3.26



'Significant beyond .05 le.'el. one-tailed test.



Clients of clergy trainees in clinical training programs are

mostly patients or inmates of an institution (state mental hospital,

general hospital, or prison) who did not request counseling but are

.visited by the "chaplain-trainee." In most cases the patients or

inmates could be considered to be experiencing an emotional or physical

crisis. In the Fpiscopal Counseling Center Clergy Training Program

the clients are teenagers and adults who, although they are experiencing

some present difficulty in living, are still capable of functioning in

our society The cl iens have ccne to the Center seeking counseling

as a source of help for themsel.ve.. The problems clergy reet in their

regular Fastoral counsel! ng tend to be more like those encountered at

the Episcopa; Counsel ing Centcc than those of mental hospital patients

or prison inmates.

Supervisors of clinical trririinig programs are typically clergy

who ha.e received t'o! to throe V',ars training in institutional settings

under the aegis of the Associztion for Clinical Pastoral Education.

Their training is not recognized by an,' degree granting institutions,





71

universities or seminaries, and there is very little, if any, emphasis

on. research in the training. The staff of the Episcopal Counseling

Center is composed of people with doctoral level professional training

(an Episcopal clergyman Ed.D., a clinical psychologist Ph.D., and

a former professor of counselor education Ed.D.). The staff members

of the Center have experience in teaching, clinical work and in

conducting research in counseling and psychology.

The principle technique employed by clinical training programs

in teaching counseling process is the verbatim report which a student

writes of his meetings with a client and then shares with his peer

group and his supervisor for their comment and criticism. The primary

technique used in the Episcopal Counseling Center is the audio or

video tape recording of counseling interviews which are observed only

by the student and his supervisor. In the opinion o the writer the

procedure employed by the Episcopal Counseling Center has the advantage

of using the empirical data of the interview in a setting which is

-more conducive to self exploration and personal growth than the

procedure of verbatim reports used in clinical training programs.

The theoretical approach usually taken in clinical training

programs is the medical-psychiatric model which focuses on diagnosis

and treatment of the mentally ill person. The Episcopal Counseling

Center employs a humanistic, person-oriented approach which concentrates

on providing a relationship in which the client can explore his feelings

and perceptions.

Students in clinical training programs are usually seminary

students, many of whom are required to take clinical training. They

know that the grades and reports will become a part of their academic





72

record. Students of the Episcopal Counseling Center Program are active

clergy who voluntarily, seek this training for which there is no academic

credit giv-.n. The clerry cnticipate gains in their professional and

personal devel o-nent.

An irnt;erated didactic arnd e.-perimental training program for

counselors h5s been dev.'lcped .which enables counselors to offer facili-

tative levels of accurate empath, after fewer than 100 hours of

training (Trua;x. nd Carkhuff, 1967). This program employs the accurate

empathy scale and other rating scales of counseling process as part

of the didactic process in t.hich students learn to use the rating

scales cn sECgi-nents of counseling behavior of others and on tapes of

their oc'n counseling.

On the besii of research on the counseling process other than this

study and the urite,-'s experience in training programs for pastoral

counselors,. th- following suggestions are offered as ways in which

cducationril p,'ogra-,s in pastoral counseling could be altered in order

to train clerg-/ whc .:ill be empathic pastoral counselors.

1. Transfer t-e administrative base of training programs in

pastorl counseling froi. medical and penal institutions to outpatient

coun, cl riqg ccriers so hat the cl ients seen by clergy trainees will be

repres-ciiat iv. of the t.,pe of' person and problem the clergyman will

encounter in his p-rcchi al .inistr',. The clinical training movement has

been inl.r'uj.enLal in getting practical education in counseling

recogli.ed ,;- j; .a it;l part of -eTinary experience, but it has jelled

into a me .ical- insLitutional treatment mold which is isolated from the

findings of beh.:.'ioral scci.ec research on the counseling process.

The tire is ripe for a shifz in clergy training programs to outpatient







counseling centers, of which there were at least 164 sponsored by

churches in 1964 in the United States (Hathorne, 1964).

2. Make the use of audio and video recording of counseling

interviews a primary procedure in the training program. The use of

audio and video tape recording of counseling sessions is the standard

tool of clinical psychology and counselor education programs. This

technique provides primary data for the student and his supervisor.

Even in hospitals and penal instutitions, where most clinical training

programs are presently located, compact cassette recorders could be

used by students, although their use has not been customary in those

settings in the past.

3. Shift the theoretical emphasis frcn a model in which the

counselor sees his role as one who provides diagnosis and treatment

for an emotionally troubled person to a model in which the counselor

responds as a person in a warm, empathic and genuine manner to the

present feelings of the client. As part of the focus on counseling

process, didactic use should be made of scales developed to measure

the levels of accurate empathy,warmth and genuineness and level of

client self-exploration in the counseling interview. Often, an

unanticipated outcome of clinical training programs has been to make

amateur psychiatrists of the clergy who in counseling attempt to

diagnose the patient's illness and produce a cure. The goal of counselor

training, in the opinion of the writer, should be to produce effective

counselors, persons who can respond to a client in the counseling

interview with accurate empathy, non-possess;ve warmth and genuineness.

4. Begin to build into pastoral counseling education programs

research projects that can be used to evaluate the counseling behavior






74

of clergy graduates of the program. A design similar to this study could

be devised in which a personality inventory and ratings of counseling

behavior could be administered to the students pre and post training,

and a follc'-up one year later. !n order to improve pastoral counseling

training programs, research should be conducted on the counseling

behavior of the pastoral counselor to fill the existing void in the

knv~ledge. This type of research is not easily conducted, but if the

research were conducted in conjunction with the counselor training program,

it could be acccripl ished. The results may well prove beneficial to

improving the training of clergy in pastoral counseling.






























APPENDICES



















APPENIDiX A


PERSONAL DATA FORnF


Date


Mailing Addre-s




Phone: Church Home

Deanery

Code Nlumber (Social Security or Birth Data)


Code No.


Birthdte Place birth

Marital Status Nu,

I. Education:

1. Col I ege _
Degree
Ma jor

2. College
Degree _
Major

3. SE-,:inar, ___
Degree


Age

:n


. of Childre


Date granted
Minor


Date granted
ii nor


Date granted


Name


--


--


(Las T (r- :rs t) km i dd Ie i n it i I









4. Post-graduate
University/Se minary
Degree
Major


Date granted
Minor


II. Experience in Ministry:

Ordained Deacon (Date and Place)
Ordained Priest (Date and Place)

Positions held (chronological order)
1. Church City, State
Position (Rector, Curate, Assistant) _
Began (Month, Year) Terminated

2.


4.



5.



Ill. Vocational Experience Prior to Ministry (other than part-time or
temporary work)


1. Position
Employer
Duties
Began


Terminated


-IV. Training in counseling

1. Clinical training clinical pastoral education
Dates began and ended (month and year)
Place
Supervisor

2. Additional clinical pastoral education
Dates began and ended (month and year)
Place
Supervisor


_~_I~


~II_


II _I








3. Graduate Work in Ccunse ing/Ps'Fcholog',
Dates began and ended (month and year)
Place
Courses _
PracticL'-s, supervise ion experience, hours or
Seme-iT;ers __

L. Leadership training, group dynamics training (e.g., LTI,
Institute: Advanced Postoral Study)

a. Date and Place
Type training prograin
Supervisor (leader)
Experience involved (lecture, discussion, intern-
ship)


b.



c.

5. Short terr-. in-ser/ice training in counseling (up to 3 months)
(e.g., Benton 10-12 week ccurse,'weekly seminar with pFsychiatr st
or psychologist)

Date ____ Hours per .-i ek
Place
Supervisor
Theory.' and discussion (hours)
Counseling with supervision (hou rs)

6. Long term in-service training in counsel ing (riore than three
months --. e.g., training at Episcopal Counsel ing Center)

Date Hours per wee.;
Place
Supervisor
Theory and discussion of ccr s,-s thoursi _
Ccunselirg with supervision ; (ho-rs)
Croup session personal expl :ration (hours)

7. Other types training

Date Place
TyFe of program
Superviso- __ __
E;x,-; riencce irvc lved









V. Current pastoral counseling practices

1. Approximate no. hours/week you spend counseling _

2. Where you normally do most of your counseling

3. Number of persons seen for counseling last month

4. What problems are brought to you in counseling?







5. What Records do you keep of counseling?

Recordings

Verbatim of parts

Brief notes

None

6. If you keep records, what do you report?

Content, problems, themes

Feelings and processes of client

Feelings and processes of counselor

Other

7. What resources do you find helpful to your counseling functions?

Journals (specify

Consultants (what type)

Previous training

Persons (relationship: wife, friend, other clergy, other
professionals)

















APPENDIX B


HINTS FOR TAPE RECORDING COUNSELING INTERVIEWS


1. Make sure your equipment is working properly before the session.

Check it out, make a test run so that you get a loud and distinct

recording of counselor and client.

Place the mike between the two people.

RoRo air conditioners cause electric hum. Turn then off!

SSet up the recording volume, if you can.

-Be sure you have enough tape for a 45 minute session.

-Use 3 3/4 inches per second speed, if your machine has it.

(If you use another speed,\rite the speed at which you recorded
or the reel before you return it to me.)


2. Obtain permission from your parishioner or counselee before you tape.

Experience has sho-n that most people will cooperate with

taping, if you are confident and casual about doing iti

Assure them of the complete and absolute confidentiality of the

material. You might ask them to tape with the provision that

at the end of the session they could withdraw their permission.

Tell them it is for research in pastoral counseling, which will

enable us to learn more about pastoral counseling and help in

training clergy in counseling.





81

Often it is easier to tape with a beginning counselee. Then it

is just part of the routine to them.

-Any type counselee or problem is O.K. The main concern is that

this person has come to seek your counsel or guidance.


3. The major problem in taping counseling interviews is counselor

(pastor) anxiety about doing it.

Anxiety and concern about taping is a normal reaction. We all

fear judgment or criticism about how we perform!

Most clergy are good counselors because they are concerned about

people.

We do our best counseling when we are our awn selves, not trying

someone else's technique.

Please, be assured of the anonymity of your tapes. I will not

_be listening to tapes, nor rating them. The raters will be

people who do not know you. I am interested in the group

rating scores and not in individual measures.

The only cure for taping anxiety is experience. So, just plunge

in and do it! Make recordings of several sessions and send me

your two best sessions.


4. Thank you very much for your cooperation. This research is exploring

areas of pastoral counseling which I think will be of great benefit

to the church and all who train pastoral counselors. Besides, I need

your tapes, as soon as possible, to finish the research and get my degree.

Send completed tapes (2), one on each side of the tape to:
The Rev. IVilliam A. Bosbyshell
St. John's Episcopal Church
Route 1,
Naeberry, Florida 32669 Home phone: 472-2529

















APPENDIX C


A TENTATIVE SCALE FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF ACCURATE EMPATHY
(Truax and Carkhuff, 1967, pp. 46-59)


Accurate empathy involves more than just the ability of the

therapist to sense the client or patient's "private world" as if it

were his own. It also involves more than just his ability to know

what the patient means. Accurate empathy involves both the therapist's

sensitivity to current feelings and his verbal facility to communicate

this understanding in a language attuned to the cl ient's current

feelings.


Stage 1

Therapist seems completely unaware of even the most conspicuous

of the client's feelings; his responses are not appropriate to the

mood and content of the client's statements. There is no determinable

quality of empathy, and hence no accuracy whatsoever. The therapist

may be bored and disinterested or actively offering,advice, but he is

not communicating an awareness of the client's current feelings.


Stage 2

Therapist shows an almost negligible degree of accuracy in his

responses, and that only toward the client's most obvious feelings.






83

Any emotions which are not clearly defined he tends to ignore altogether.

He may be correctly sensitive to obvious feelings and yet misunderstand

much of what the client is really trying to say. By his response he

may block off or may misdirect the patient. Stage 2 is distinguishable

from Stage 3 in that the therapist ignores feelings rather than displaying

an inability to understand them.


Stage 3

Therapist often responds accurately to client's more exposed feelings.

He also displays concern for the deeper, more hidden feelings, which he

seems to sense must be present, though he does not understand their

nature or sense their meaning to the patient.


Stage 4

Therapist usually responds accurately to the client's more obvious

feelings and occasionally recognizes some that are less apparent.

In the process of this tentative probing, however, he may misinterpret

some present feelings and anticipate some which are not current.

Sensitivity and awareness do exist in the therapist, but he is not

entirely '"ith" the patient in the current situation or experience. The

desire and effort to understand are both present, but his accuracy is

loai This stage is distinguishable from Stage 3 in that the therapist

does occasionally recognize less apparent feelings. He also may seem

to have a theory about the patient and may even know how or why the

patient feels a particular way, but he is definitely not 'With" the

patient. In short, the therapist may be diagnostically accurate, but

not emphatically accurate in his sensitivity to the patient's current

feel ings.







Stage 5

Therapist accurately responds to all of the client's more readily

discernible feelings. He also shows awareness of many less evident

feelings and experiences, but he tends to be somewhat inaccurate in his

understanding of these. However, when he does not understand completely,

this lack of complete understanding is communicated without an anti-

cipatory or jarring note. His misunderstandings are not disruptive by

their tentative nature. Sometimes in Stage 5 the therapist simply

communicates his awareness of the problem of understanding another

person's inner wcrld. This stage is the midpoint of the continuum of

accurate empathy.


Stage 6

Therapist recognizes most of the client's present feelings, including

those which are not readily apparent. Although he understands their

content, he sa-etimes tends to misjudge the intensity of these veiled

feelings, so that his responses are not always accurately suited to the

exact mood of the client. The therapist does deal directly with feelings

the patient is currently experiencing although he may misjudge the

intensity of those less apparent. Although sensing the feelings, he

often is unable to communicate meaning to them. In contrast to Stage 7,

the therapist's statements contain an almost static quality in the

sense that he handles those feelings that the patient offers but does

not bring ne.- ele-erents to life. He is 'with" the client but doesn't

encourage exploration. His manner of communicating his understanding

is such that he makes of it a finished thing.








Stage 7

Therapist responds accurately to mcst of the client's present

feelings and shows awareness of the precise intensity of most of the

underlying emotions. Hoever, his responses move only slightly beyond

the client's own awareness, so that feelings may be present which

neither the client nor therapist recognizes. The therapist initiates

moves toward more emotionally laden material, and may communicate

simply that he and the patient are moving towards more emotionally

significant material. Stage 7 is distinguishable from Stage 6 in that

often the therapist's response is a kind of precise pointing of the

finger toward emotionally significant material.


Stage 8

Therapist accurately interprets all the client's present,

-acknowledged feelings. He also uncovers the most deeply shrouded of

the client's feelings, voicing meanings in the client's experience

of which the client is scarcely aware. Since the therapist must

necessarily utilize a method of trial and error in the new uncharted

areas, there are minor flaws in the accuracy of his understanding, but

these inaccuracies are held tentatively. With sensitivity and accuracy

-he moves into feelings and experiences that the client has only hinted

at. The therapist offers specific explanations or additions to the

patient's understanding so that underlying emotions are both pointed out

and specifically talked about. The content that comes to life may be

new but it is not alien.

Although the therapist in Stage 8 makes mistakes, these mistakes

are not jarring, because they are covered by the tentative character of







the response. Also, this therapist is sensitive to his mistakes and

quickly changes his response in midstream, indicating that he has

recognized what is being talked about and what the patient is seeking

in his aun explorations. The therapist reflects a togetherness with

the patient in tentative trial and error exploration. His voice tone

reflects the seriousness and depth of his empathic grasp.


Stage 9

The therapist in this stage unerringly responds to the client's

full range of feelings in their exact intensity. Without hesitation,

he recognizes each emotional nuance and communicates an understanding

of every deepest feeling. He is completely attuned to the client's

shifting emotional content; he senses each of the client's feelings

and reflects their, in his words and voice. With sensitive accuracy,

he expands the client's hints into a full-scale (though tentative)

elaboration of feeling or experience. He shows precision both in

understanding and in corenunication of this understanding, and expresses

and experiences them without hesitancy.

















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without psychotherapy. Journal of Consul ting Psychology, 1955,
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Benton, J.A., Jr. Perceptual characteristics of Episcopal pastors.
Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesvil!e,
Florida, 1964.

Bergin, A. E. The effects of psychotherapy: Negative results revisited.
The empirical emphasis in psychotherapy: a symposium. Journal
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Bergin, A. E., arn Solonon, S. Correlates of empathic ability in
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Brill, .. Q., and Beebe, G. WI. A follaw-up scudy of .;,,r ieuroscs.
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Bruder, E. E. Present emphases and future trends in clinical training
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Bruder, E. E. and Barb, M. L. A surma;-y of ten years of clinical
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BuLgcntl J. F. T. The Search for Authentticity. Ne.; York: Holt,
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Cl inebciL H. J. The futLure of the specialty of pastor:al counsel ng.
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Creiws, D. W. Counseling behavior and religious beliefs of Methodist
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Dittes, J. E. Psychology and a minist.-y of faith. In Hofnian, H. (Ed.),
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Ergood, B. The Alachua County Clergy: A report from Assessing Southern
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Eysenck, H. J. (Ed.) Behavior Therapy and the Neuroses. New York:
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Fairbanks, R. J. One seminary looks at rcinical training. Journal of
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Foulds, M. L. Self-actualization and the coTmunication of facilitative
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Gynther, 1. D., and Kempsor%, J. 0. Personal and interpersonal changes
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