Group Title: experimental analysis of the paper-reinforced bar pressing behavior of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)
Title: An Experimental analysis of the paper-reinforced bar pressing behavior of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)
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Title: An Experimental analysis of the paper-reinforced bar pressing behavior of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)
Physical Description: viii, 58 leaves. : illus. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Jansen, Paul Edward, 1943-
Publication Date: 1971
Copyright Date: 1971
Subject: Reinforcement (Psychology)   ( lcsh )
Conditioned response   ( lcsh )
Hamsters   ( lcsh )
Psychology thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychology -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Thesis: Thesis -- University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 55-57.
Additional Physical Form: Also available on World Wide Web
General Note: Manuscript copy.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097675
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000568585
oclc - 13681343
notis - ACZ5322


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..! EL. E.IE 'T l. I. .1 .'. .Li OF THE F.!-E. Ch 1 JF F )
B ? P ET S i7 '.S F L 'i T -t. ','i. Dr E
H--.;? EF. I, '; i.v r i; 11.1 i 1.-,

B . Fd. "- .J J,nsen

D;:-c. r it n rr .: .m h, I ra "'o ,- ci l ..,i
thI.: Ln r i r, o. F : riD
in '.rci..l Fulfill- rt. ci .I.. .-, uir.-.-r,r Fo.r: the

Ai .;:l.'.: l. Dl;CE; I;JTS

1]he author wrncefu'll: a-ck:.iowl'edgJae the in'.'slible c j-,Cop rat iz.n

of hr. DE nnris J-.'.ai iir clie pl r an ing a3d c.-.:i ioin of thu pre ene

s.;eri.' of e:.:pe iriIm t ih-e t:r.lior also :. 'i.h c co. E:: pre- his 3ppr c i- -

tir'n to Dr. [. A. Dc hury' for t 'r.-inl as ch irrnln '-. hi i im.L tct e.

an to Dr. i .. >'in Dr. 1. r. Llo.J. Dr. E. .F. :lala;oji and

Dr. H. S. ircon: pic r or er'.' ;r a .i ni:.mL, rs oA his slicr'.'i ior

cd .rr?,' i i i-'e support and en. u r geme..r o Di ina jierr i -.

derpl. appr' atcd.

Ci : -1 i",-, F U :T S S

L IST C-F l .', i. F i'.'

LiS-T 'F F I [C-I II v

A .- TF., 'P .i

l :T r C'L: T [ .;i 1

I _i. H .CD 1 1

F rE rin.i 25

E i _C t ,_'f, l -'i,. 5

iE i- 'F M Il, ^.'..- I T.:h. 5o
E iL [. [ IIi_,& l_ i i] _T -v. S,


S Seqiunce of F..peri-nnc.lI ilTnipulj-
Liori; Jnd !uni tr of Sessioni f:or
Lich PLoccdure 19

2 t,,anr and :;ediar, fer:7i,;n l '.'jlus for F-IP .ale lian LC'2rs Ullnde Fre.r-si'.'e-
Rt io .:hedtlcs of Food a.d Fapcr
De el A '6

LI 'T 'Of I- iN' LF C .

J ,F P0rF 0 c1
p1 F i. r ,.: 1''.'er' apparari:, ii l i' ; ti-h drJ ( )
an .d i r, ill-l r,. l, l r jl. i'r (,:',
:i-C : pla e? ,,J, ard mr:, h.u'ii (.- 13

2 R- pr i,'rp c. i"i" *,'..r ',ji ci ., re. or'! ; rom

ti '-.,J -rat i,:' ',:-,,: J, l,-: *:'. i_ ap,:-r ,.- i .: t' -6

',lh'. i _r.- r '- [C'i ji-J t.,- i j[ ala r.:_ r [- ,,,-,,J ,.r f;::,.J-
fr 'i ...h.:.l' cC p jp.r J. : r, d2

S i : r : '.'e r.ulic r i' r :.- .: J f or
Ic_-ie L. r ,-r-i u;_r r i .-i- t o r
-ch-.J, r. r "- n i r F, i C I L:' .:,2,',,nr D',,.i .-,.t
rt*:: r. l i' -,.j : ti c L.r, tcp r: .:c ri 30

5 [' .-pr ._- ,r a t i '. ," i j ; i r.; :c r', i
fI "ale h 'T.-- Etr F'- u5 r I.- r 3 3r i; lr -
interval 45 seconds schcedulc oif Frper
delivery in the old f-nd ; '-:- i...': ot
the apparatus 31

6 Representative cumulative r:.:,r-I of:
male hamster M-20 under a f. :.A-inrc r al
3 minutes schedule of paper r.: -,rl,,r: t ,~iCr, 32

7 Representative cumulative r-icord of iiil.
hamster M-ll under a DRL sc'...d.: 1 oi
paper delivery 3"

8 Representative cumulativ. rc::r.I; c-t
female hamster AW-1 under i f.-eJ-
ratio schedule of food r-: i[foircm:-n 35

9 Response rates from four c'.*:;- r i'. ,
sessions of female AW-1 und- r ,-.d-
ratio 25 schedule of food r' 37

10 Representative cumulative r :> -,J; .:-rf mAil
hamster FM-1 under a multipiL t lli-l-
interval schedule of food a :',.- r :it'-, : e--
T r. -- r r[**C r. 3 1 -. .-'. m il', 13r r .' I i}'t -
irJ-Ir 3 a r r L.'." -in : r' at ci oi; pP: r
r ei. i r.': re .: i t 38

LiST OF F'ii;ES (i'C tC inued)

11 Pepr ts n[.act L cin.ul1tnci.e rcc.:!-is of
fe.ia lI ac.I cr. .'d1- 5 -and ,-.1'-2 un r n
Trul tipl' f 'i.-'-i- r.aci,? schc ,J i ,:. C o d
ard paper r, infor c i-rrnt 41

12 Pepresien. tcl '. c. 1.lcc; '.e records of
female l- 3,~ e r .A.'-1 und-r, r a progre: z '.'e-
rati- c. -h d l. f f .? (top r(, cc.,rd. an ,
paper i' .:. [ c o, r. record) r, i .r e. '-r ,.':r t 43

13 Fprc scnrar i c- rul3 ati. rccrd cfr
-r ilL hai ster .r .i'-3 und.c r a p .r i'.e-
ra.tio .ci,.d ,le o. f fo..-od d,;l I':c r, 44

.'bstract o Dit.- r ir ion r LCcnc.d co the CrjduJte
.C in.:il of the C L'n z t of [, ; l i n rF rcial Fulrf l ,lient of
che re ,iL .Ot 'r LZ oc tlo c '.gr,_Ec of Doc tor of rF ilosophl "

-.L E:'.F I L:I. IAL L -i: i t 11 F!.T fr FL FClDr
PAF FL .: I L L. i'. :I 10P of I OLDi.El
i i SI Fr : I..I.T OI.' IL 70 11


Pa3,l Ed ':s .d Ji -n

[,c*c- ,r, 1971

h'la ir znl Di,:.,-31a d A. tD 'ab'.L q',-
ajor a i: r t e- r L: PF cholo, :,.

E r.-. er f -::.p Tr Lrerits ai c I:nductL ui ing *-:o ranr c iondition-

in rc ch_, n- iq r.. [ ij, ti, r,. [ -, r'. 1 c1 i. -. d l..,,r, c.c r

i ,ici.'cr LC 'I'i 3 t aC 1 t ._ ic i i : '. ri o 1 f-3I-. t

ert ,d as t-c r. -fons.e-c -'onci[i~en- aC E t (r ; noin-fo -r:I nc) an3rd tle

sch:- jdule .f r.r-in orc.:er. r t ina-t "-re u''d -in: cl uded tf ed- inter'.val,

*.,sri3tle -!intr 'r,.a[. ftried-ra-ti pro r cE'_-r'i'.'e- rat.o,, 3.:i' dlift'ferential

r.: ri ot ,t .:-..a.- c f tI: race f f r c E-I-' lI. In -i-.. ic .ion, iritipl.-

f_ :.-3-rac i.:.-- t" -. dJ-ta .; ar id ,,ilciple: rial:- l iric -.i l-- ariable-

i rc.ri' -.. l:.' .-t'. .!U di.-.& A wit. r ir _ap-' 1 ,_ d o ,,d rcinf.,or-:c nr.t

alt rnm t ri ,j Lrh clsii .. irn ch cu c rI-1'.l compon,.nt.. c,:l-' male and

fcisal hamitrc: .r -:d.:d in cl,-. -,. r..p rLmr=ntE .

C'_mn lat r e'...2 rcccordl th p ,rforanir, or-: chicao-n h1-iister

indi:catred thl r p p r d. l .:r. an 1: i .I 3 S pOi..?' t reinfor,: r

O._r a.- ahli1 t ir, ind a ..-iraInnr :cd:: WJ l.-con ,:.IL-._. [_ ot"

re:[-pondinr.3 ,1 ch ha,.i:rer i. nd r a .i e '. L r .C, oft" e-.: ri ntal

c :.- it oni .

.c pr t.:i' E'r l ,a-c ciO ch dJulCs t' ..:jd 3id ;1 rcr d li:. ry

Ui t d 3 to i an..e :; icta t h rela3C L' 0- 'rui ci r n:r., nc -i of : eI'a

Icr [p..-.;ir ic r '.in oreccr-,hha:n r.- c,'i .: t .-ir[ rE-:porid, -Id to hiCE;i-r

v.' L .

cer'.,in3l ratio for food ':han rh,:, iid fo: p.3 er. Thi ph-.n'rocnon

;:as obsar'.'cd in inrir.als ths: ':arc not tood-depriv.'-' and, ; .eneral,

food-de.Lpri'. ac ioi' .' rnot found to be a nec :;sary conic iirn for

e tatl ishb .rnr of food- .t nri Ln .J o.pcr.:.-it .ehai ior in -he hli r.nst.-tr.

Th.: result of thbse c:.:rer irc-nts are di;c.u E iin tci-rs ofi the

eni.'irorrnrra.nEl stlMult i .accuC-ul3Lc:d fooJ and rne-:tin .-rat.ri l

that rTa,. h.a'.' pl, i.;olo cal i;,nifricIn.:, for bibernarionu in the


'. L i i

IN r ir [ C T ['0:l

in Ith-_ -crus of : p.irm .cs co b'. de cr ib:ed be ci, I E o 1li,

of i:.eha.l. ral r._'.a.rch L -n erg Eoch are cr.l-..d to the PFE:L, l

concept tof "A.'inorCt. ent", t which form- the ti 's of i-ian .ori,

behai'.ior, dJ- elopm'ent, nd lar Lrn.. iThe t. w r res arich top[:. to l

presented .are p c' :i. s -. ,c if ic or "in ci [ l c .." t' 1 inW -:rc- rnt 'r

S-iduli l L'L :cr.s of r oinforc: m,:nL r. M'.re sp-.,:ific all;, che e-.[ i -

Snt: ac-: c ncer'ed i th i i i tii in r L.rial as a spcecies-spe; if

rt inf cr t ,:for te..: oldcn ha'-msterr, and T: th-e eff :Cs of S.:lcdl .

clI .. p .r- nra r io f c, r r E.- '] ,.:c.r :ial n ccPt, ii .te-tc. tr.paral. part r

(inuce r.'al schli.dul . or afti r p t ticular qu.j ntIr a Lar u r.rl. requ -

rrents ha B- ben r ec (r.atio. acl-hd: i e t .r .T : r ir.ri..ii, ha i. t een

dJ .-t;:r d .ith chi- nrit:r tion of adi. I;,4 r r.:rl t L ... c ,.cher data

coLlelcr.d u r t 'di. tia r l [po i L.. r. nfor -cer i fcod a.-] r'a r',.

'.lec,, ren chl-, n ji n in of r,: -: *:...p-. r ih nts dI '. at. fro..'. Lon' n-

tional r-soi c., an aCCt W.l I be made to C.' :- ; iiurrr

.and conridtr tch ir * ir fictiar:-.

F'e in for: e -..; -- t.

ij'h-n tci, t'-'i.i: .s-dll-tEn. :ntFrr pr Ecintat ion of ra cit iSon t S f

client to c._s at.l ish and r incr. n ai ,. r... rc- on e in crl-- r.:- rLOire .

an :or.antn n, tl-at -.'nc, i[ w.ri: C a "p.- itr. r intforc..r". FooI

senit3a un rc a toold-dLE.r'.L.ld oran-is, i Euch ran ..crq 0:i is .ill '

t': ;c iC, 1:1,On rC a 'ate r- e-rl r d or anria,;i.m.

Fo'ci '. rC inforc t. -i *LI 3 1t oo anid ':t .:.' I L c 1on-: F-.

us-d L: p- ci,.tolo'i t:s to d,.j ep and i.I -,it. nr, j l'.rcad ca- .i of I ''

behavior patterns. i'an:' pi:chological theories have teon dc.'elop.:d

or the basis of the results of c::prpciricnts using food and v:iter ai:

positive reinforcers. I;pocthe:t ical p;-ch1ological processes isuch as

drive reduction, need reduction and ccosic-.n reduce ion h'.'C been pos-

tulated to explain these results i'tim l 1901).

p-ecices-t' pjcil Pc intorcerent

M;in:, t'.pes of en'ironrir.ncal c\ ms- L are Inor'n co function a-s

posi e'.' raein force r within n .a :it-.te: s ,or ecnue. For e:-;acF.ple, ;hen

a lee-'r press unlclecd a r.nri[nk .heel for 20 seconds, altilO i r ats

in the: uhreel r.aintArined hig'.r r:sponise rices on the le.'.'t than

did rats .with l[e'.'.et that .'ere incperactI.e (.:agan and Perl' n, 19541.

11iC us i r.'nl,- s aiiiL C -h\v rd anJ T.,a intained a level of nine out of tern

correct panel p'e;sses ;hen the result of th-e correct response \. .

the opportunity to 'vi.. l a 3CLi'. e Laborator' area Cor 20 se.cords

iE.j, 1953). Doe irnirc: (Teron.r.scu;) pressed a lever 'hlicb ralcased

sand into an a:cOc E ibI. ai.-a of the e:.p r*ir.enrTral chamber, and respon-s

rites on this l'.v r higher than r. i: s ..n a second lever uhich

did ;not produ'jce sand ,, ing and ', 190'' .

In all of the .abic.'e cases, r.:lnf r.:ers \.'re der.onstr..i ?d to

function in situacion rhac \.,r.' unr.ela .-d to pribar> "dri'.';E" or

"needs", ithus. whilee food and wate-r are; alNor. c ,jni '.ersjall, :acce-pred

as r.inforcn .rs acrom Fpecis, it is alio tru-e chat oth-er e'..cnt

car, finrction as reni forc r s of equal Lehavioral siW nificance, though

'ith les. s ,:rcss-species generalit'.

:ScIc-ulJl. of r rintforci : rie.

Anochir ptoperc:. of p-i rti'., r.'-iforc:rs emnr,,:r w hen tree

c' ncE are sched, led in a con'sisti nt ma-nr..;t respo.'ns are .c .i Ated

in c:r.porCai pacr.rI.r chic ;rc. repl ic le ich indi idual or snimiir

s-,d a.:Lo .:.s: : er.. r (F r c.: r &. jirner. 195 ). .T'c-rt -ora k ., V'ell 'n.-er

and Mhorse '?(9 1 and F rd Ml'i.-') has emprili;- d ClE irip:.rcance of

thie :.;Il] il. of c"'- i: pr.I r nC3 trl n ia u .ij dir2ntj de.:c. inirLn of

behlI Lor. Char:ca .:rirscL fi*:ed-incer'. l and fi.. d-r.3t :. pi[ce.rns

Of r.:r:l'pon' jin (c rst r S _inn:-r. 1957 ) :cre mrtr t L I3 e.1 -' rcsponse-

proi:cdu.:d c le.:cric hi ock il -quirr. l rin.:IL a d .: 3L '. [ appro-

FP'i c e-.p t LMITI ail 1 hli:tc'OUe Tlil: e r[' ile. .T e pi Ctr:. -r .cre in L S-

cin';i : i:h bL.c r:.r ch F t r-cr : prod. ucd r ilh n foo-d or cer i.' the

*:O t;rliC C 't -: riL 10 o n 3r,. '.lleher (1i -.1I ha-e a u el.d

corparA L e -c:hei ule-.::.r, ro lld p rccr." cof riE. po i'ndi ir i-a r int ind-

tL d i f..i'ernt r.p : C-'f I. t c ac c 3 U S ,: Lh- equi ulj enI-e of t Ch Se

c' -nr ar r.a -r,(orc-e T-ii r crccers i re d.iefirn .ai iuch in

c r. O. f l .h ir '.i ir. co mu crt in l' h i :.r in p r.;ic.lar situatic.ris

or -on p tci. l r s-I.:l..1. "'.'.. .or.n .r ifini ic : on of r._ ir f.rcers

are at :c ;E in-cornpl.ce. unril e:,F.r icnc al .. .dence i s pro. ided co

d: ,- rmin und-cr h.:ac *:.:,ditions e -nc Q:; is a F p: i i'.c u. infLE cer.

U-a E of cha A uI ir,1 r Tch i s.

Sch: lL-- tL S Lcchntiqu 3 ier d c-. lop.-d F t rncr 193.,: a3,d his

.cudet in o:pposic:' c n to the g.-ierail aciicEpccd cradi; iorn of the

Echa icri3cs s w o jus. j i atS in ,. -a. -trO.c I che LChj' Lor of org3l isms

(- .. Tolr,,r, 192 ; mull, 1'-2 12. :e :.-i ie i .. i-: ill., pro' ied.

iac .- .*h.1.s .a.r ainti. l di h, the L.iO mo i3 .iLmple l-:-i ul. .:

reinr forc:eEn. C rncinuJ'uj r infor:er-Ert :orre:c oal i nd

cx: [; : c ion, o.* r r.o r -:i for.:eciT.e- t in.:orr.ect l '-.L o:. i. M il- e the

data from. ch.- sicuE ies; a r,- u'ndeniaL!'. al id, ch r t cene:.iliz-

sl-ili a: ross re-infore r: a.d i.cross --::cie: suff.erEd te,:cau. of

[he particularly narrow range of reinforting cuntinrencies actually

stud ed.

As was noted ibo.,e, thcre are t'.o major t:.pcs of schedWElc

of reinforccmr nt incer'.'.l schcdulos and ratio schedule;.

two categories are, in turn, fjrtherr subdiv.ided into fixed and

-ariable interval schedules IF l') and fi..:ed and variablee ratio

Echcdul.s i'-., i.'FV. Each or th c-.:- Cur "basic chcdidul.:" of reinfi.rce-

rent prod.Jucs a charac eristLC Fpattern of re-ponding wh;cn the. are

used to establish and maintain a simple, arhitt ai'. operant rre ponse

such as bar-press in the reperto re of an organism.

There are three main reasons for .:int- schcdulce of r inrfo.rce-

ment to stud: behavioral phenorrena. Firir, schedules of cn. iron-

mrental events such as circalia -i r.'thms or Ie;':l., pi',chccL 's c:.crt

considerable influence in the da '-to-da:. life of all ani-ialt, 'an

included. Se.:cnd, schedules of reiin orcmcrlent, irn ludling their inter-

actions and by-produ:cts, can be used to uncover nr~. information

bout the wils in whichh comple-. behavioral seqon.:rces can be ,rindr-

stood in termrs of their consequences Firndl : 1962). Finall:,

schedules of riinf crc:-o,.nt can be comb med with alutc.w7a cd pro-

gr aning and recording cquntpm ~nr to allow researclrs to s tud.

behavior ustin' chronic, lo,'-tcerm rp ra.dims Il-ason, Erad.. and

lol liver, 1968).

orrie corncretc e:..arriples of che Juse of schdu.: l .rng techniques

can be dra.n from the rsc.arch of Icit. lbaum and of Falk, lrho 'ierec

st ud, rin, operaint bLcha. .or mainta incd Li food anj i iater r in forcement.

Each of these rre earchcrs rimle di.:co.crics that ioiild hai', tlen

tMrpc.sible if the MorCet siplisti c approach O:f the traditional imaze

ex.perirm.ents icontrinu.u.ous c-i.oforc rent *'r rno ruc ) I'a.J

-e ,- u-el.

T.A ir. l.baum (1 .'' shc.-ed thaLc b:. -ing :f i.-..-r ac o scl-hedI..I s

of" ood reirnforcement it Iec3Te quL t, ea;" tco disc,; irinae bet' ,Lri

no'ri al, food-Japriv.d rats .and i otl-ala ic.c -h; pcrpi3.ic ratc u ih

the rnorr .al rats 'orl iin; reliably on A...h:d'ule a; higb as fi:..d-racio

25 i, A'l. tlhe h:pcerph.aigl racE would d udaIJ lly c.:-ae re spondr. in; 'hen

th-e fi*.d-ratio req.airementr. ,nt i Wl-er than f .--:,i-racio 1-.

E.-.perimen.tal findings using .ar.i.u -cheO...Cl.:s of food and c.icer

rA'nforce ,,-nc ha e 31 > rro'.'ied .3 con iwdr. al: e ho.y of info rraci.on

on r.te homnTc.: scar c pro..:ess: in.,l-,.d -r feeding and drrI ir. g and

Mhr ir intr, rlaci.rI-.hiF- th.t .co :ld hav.' bc -n ot[ -r.s ii uria li'. li l .

For ;-,a .rpl., F 1ll ( '1961' .derr.r.s rat.d rlchat .hen r s '. ..r for food

onr a sch 'a lie t :,' r.lree to four ciraes rheir

norTal dail .act r d ring a rc re-1hour ..ort! s ion.

lhis |hecoos,_non, cr.r, ed "s:l-.edule-inJc. d ol d i i Ia", 1i just onr

of ra,,. .JI-,on,:[rat ns thar cte .or. rcquLre.i .nricr of a particular

c.- .dile can l-.i'..E profound .aff.: r.s on occl- r be-a'.i rs not ir.,:[I.,

related co c-hc r.rn force-snc cl-_edul, in effect.

Once the pot..,. c l use r'ln s .. r-i t e c.:-ed. l in c chniqu,

i-; ~ ablit-shc.d, i.pC tCc E:Fer tLMent I.O Itr g hl-er. car l1e d g i r.ed.

in cti.. Enur; of e:-p rnim...nts to be pr.cs-rc .-d 'b-lo., E- he during

cechriqu.,s c 'r, sed to scudo LI. re-t in. t aei'. ior of th.e .olde.

har ster. Wr.-fore describing l t. [ acr. .al e...perIr- cs, i t.?or-ra-

[cion .at.i:oL oltd.n i.--sc rE- .' 11 tE r*.- idd. 0. data col l Ct-d

in o.'.h r Stu i s. of r ,t ing tch.l- i.:.r "-ill be d cu- sea and criticized.

Tl - oldcn i!3- c t:.-r

-e ,colder, ha, .,.: r (''etsocricctu. auratEsi is drescrt-d'

rodenr of the family Cricetidae, sutbfa tlt- Ci ;cetirn e. Tihe hasr-ctr

I Pi s a sol lifc for rat ing, i:c.- tarin, .3nd the first

f.,'' i.eeks of life. .oult hirmstrr ar knco'n to e tabli li ;.nd defend

terricories, :..hich che ",3rK" L.' rdbbin.g cth ir fl-n'k scent cla3ds

age inst cbjec- ts in their .-n- iromrenc. If L.- ham-rire-r are forced

to li'.e to ecthcr, the' iill devi.'lop Jo. ir.i .nc.-- ,-.Lss-ion -A :.ha.'ior

pattLerns cha3c re r.quite -table ; ime (C-rant i ..i.-in;osh. 1'631.

Hrir rcc.r are t l so -'nown to di -r rrnu tc h ib rn.ri t o "hoard"

lar'e quantities of food, and to b ild ;e.scs in cheir burros.

PFoth r-le ajd ir sale har ; ters r build ni cs, ind .:hnr, chc:. sai gatcherinc

i.iz tiiin riterial the: r'.'p- all' insert tc he r mnscer into th.-- ir l'rge

cheek poucheL: before depo- icin; it at the 'rcst site.

e t ir Ft ch : v ior

The- literacure *iL ai, w ith iie.C: rifn L.c h '.'icr c' t -ill i'e

rev'.'e'ed in tl-c s sci c .:.n iil bt:- cornfiined c .'-peri~r enti- s on ri.',-uilian

ne t inr be'-a-.ior i ncc rh: c...Fer ir ents co follcu. ar. I. -istud. of the

nesting beha ";or of a part [Eol r rI i-Trl., CI e golden h- r.trr

I .!es.c: r i c eJ C s *.r i tu 'I.

.i s ing beh-'.'ii r, in a furncrtional s nse, is one '.'arie oc

beha-, oral Ehi r-rc resil t ion orrionIl:. plo: d b: ri.ll a-iimals.

T-er-.orel-,il-cion is a tc:.pic of p-rtic-lar -i noifican.e in the life-

c-cle of all :-arrTi l n spec le and this i nifica r,: is reflecte d

by, the f'cc rhat both rph: ;z lo icIl and b.-ra. iorj l ':tcir ha'.'e

e.'cl' '.; d in ,:h s.-r. ic : of cher-ror,-S,.lac i t IFror:-s r : Er.:-n. I"'61).

:.o;t of t[he st d i ed of rn. itri : k i.' lor LI h.i ha-'.i; ap' i:-.-'. in

Ih- arsi'ia 1;1 cra cure h .e a fr Ce- -ac ;e F p roc.E dur ir d .i rn inn

cth c n, i r. mac rials r the a 1 3 1 .. iu3-la L Ei c r f o r h iL tL -

natr i l- .i' s iti on pro..'T s 's .at.n se-..-ral foT",_ca o'.'ar the ' .

t i vder i "'1' i 1 d Iat c o ac 1 cci...11 te c r ps of crc-Fa paper

Ech [ *..:re h-"ii'_'- r.. ; 0O et lh L'. JL of til L -c -. *-rd rla:. I. o Co -rtejd Cl,-

numb r of rrip: u ,.c i.hrv.r i l' 2 'JSd a c.n i oJi, i- ar r r.

roll of p Vr a n d L rd--dJ O:.; rj.anr C f paper he r -. pil ld

ion-m Chrl r1oll in a : i..n r. ci perL od. In -.,r. ri,_nt i.-..E irent

EL n r. L L; a. h i co-I otl r 1,3. d 10peCd .rl-,nid of q1 .3r. t ica-

-i.-, of L'.-.. n -ti I. i, ifor 1.. i r t -. ,n iqu- 'r. plo,..- .'*

7,. :.3ri 3, e ?i conr .inLn: E aJ" of a.-.c elelor, Jnd 'Ehe: _.j re d.j

o 3' r.jn i..dere rer..c''.ed in a3 .; -hl r : i .,- an. d i hi E. ;'a : ';.eR

-hreda-_ I iI.r,a-r,tcr Hi ff. PO' i and atrr.- 1'-..?). D rn,-ir-

,r 'C: Lo'o0,p h- 3 *!- ;- l..pu ; ticr'-quian i i.' 3tr- io proC du for

the ri n In o. rtud ,, d .-'-3; :.Cr F la'ced in i'- rta .

Ian. [h C .ao r-.c of 'dc. h r-l-redd d da l', ''is '.s d as .3 r,a'u ur, of.

r.e buiil d ir,: ID nenl.r :, Ta: lor and i rvoi., ';,)' I.,-! 'anr [i ri ,

ri- c rLr- te al i'. aio of ha.,. r:- r r i ha'rd (1C',') l.' i1 d tIe .rouniE

Ocf Trra'. an antirial c pulled nrro t s .c':ae in 3 2.-h-.:-. i- .? d (i i .ec

3 -..: L.'re = i 19 ). ir, ;rudn. i ; hch, rn, caL ri ; tl a-i o of triir . of d c a rnii c ror :.- ., ..-. d c'.'. -'echoe' of qulri f in;

n* -r :, -. tor, t-oec i of tih- fr -.- ::- .:c .3 t r,', i.' irh r h. r-L'

plll in, co. L n nrc. Loh i r ca. from 3 car. .ar. cop, or pll ti ri in

p.:p'r strip_ th- i rc 7i'jn: o'._r r. h ,d e of r-, ;.. !.3 n r.Co.ok

.31 'i_ ur of r-. 3'-, janr : f p .ap.-.r lr.-d, d, th._ 3r,.oii, of

.0oc Eo n rCiL nd rhn i ..,pc- of r[: c rhar -'- 0 .: -, -, r :.r.-J. Le- -- ,nd

I'or;. (I9"'') also used rrcc jCC -CS to oLLton CO ir.'lsure the nCo- ing

behavior of intred strains of nice.

In all of tie evperfin'nts a .ted abou%, da3a Icr.- ol l.:aced

under condiions; .;hOri L 'he n;e tirL mil.-r iil:- re prc-cnted on -1

free access or ioncinruoau reiiiit..OC, ..ict biit s. eany', orher schedule [..

of pr 3e ntat ion of nl sc ingc ,.rcria l a-croe Croni L i'.'3Fl hi.a. e'.'r.*", rJd

schueul ingi tech!niquesus other than c orn inl.u u tLAinrccment c n .ield

data that riould not tc oh:.r..'td li,- g -irnple free-:cce:s procedure: ,

a? was dem-.u.stracoeJ',.

Teit.:lbaur (9l'ih6. has made n con i.'ncirs case trha the mr.:.s

fruitful !3Lairacoy r. n tliod I:jai3ila for rth.- beha.'i oraj i.'.e tiga-

cion of hcm-.:oeta1ic proccs'.-s .uch j: feeding or the-rrarortulaEion

is ope rant cornd iioning, i iih thu inrcrpoiated, 3rbtcrr': operant

usuallyy a bar-press) us. d in c-njunct irn srich th, l.'I c ctroiecha.nic al

prograr":,,inS and rcc rrdin equalprrm, an irncitocr can pro;iarj

a complicated series of Cen. l eve.nt- .I ,chL dales of r.inforce-

ment) and then, on an on line Cuiri.i lati'.' record, r, can n -, th.i ionint-

to-momentr t'ffecrt of cth '.aricous s,:hd'julea on an animal' operant

b.ha' [or. The 'ff..t-:; of c-.:pcrim nrtal rmanipulatr ;.s 'an ch.:n be

asse;-- d as.. ing he .an sch.dul ing and record l g procedures: just

outlined Co provide a pr.--ma.iipiU.l3t to I:-.:pre-rir.; nLtal baseline.

T: o rec-nct ;tudi.-- hti .e d-a Tr.r. n rartd the practi cal t;, y of

emplo:.'ing operanr tcchlniq clr: in th.. tud: of m-nrn alJin n. ring

b.ha''ior. Jani.en,, JoIJSiJ -, and Lurnn.. ll (19 I h. a shli-wn

that lhamsterTs will learn an arbicrar., opcrant r..-pone when the

pres -tr t ion f n.r ting material 'ap.3r -r :trip; is i; c r.:sponi e-

contingr en. t c.V nt. ,'a r ccntl:., Ole, ,',d 'lo '.k (1920) ha c

Fpro'. i2cJ 1a :. c. e a C. : I' li cj ion i of th l I Lan n __ a l. ? ':.9'i .ud:.'- ,

Iusin p'r.-IJ] nin- 1 Lnternal 1:; c.ur .3 -, r. ,' 3 siubjec c .. A. onir

Ei 1.. -ll la.b: .acot.: ra -ould r 3 dL ,' build Sr.- a c rt .- 1 .1 ..

I..' a] tcarp-.- urs indr, .2, t, b ut the f i r c t i c rne -

tbuild ir "irns r n.:c" ha n.ot b.e n .. l...- :e L ;.Lo n I h. la c t: hundred

.r o 7.: c 1raLl J-,n of 1[3 ora tor rac i ha -i alo ... 3 LChtL t.ehs: or

itu r t[,rn de c. r >or.c. o the i: '; : h LE L al:.or or.,: ra r n.:.' a- ke

sc -c i a F:,or c t.,je:.t for n.i- ; l[d.iin --p r Tr r.mcit hai-. ,r. -r

t. c r. re L:-d in the e r p ri....-n s c.:- C-.:lo. h e been- in th. la bo-ra-

E m '. Ic.r s- hort.i tin i- thir ra,:. ,i. r,.: it ; i n t..l or: J r. il

firrl: e:t-,bl! -,.:.J ;i.n ih ir r ;.-i;o ;.: r.:FEp r eo r,"

:'.',-c ". ,"-. jid ,:,t ",:,-' .:-5

In the j' -i c-f :. rirr ir.. c-h i i: n :-'.' n t i. n

.l a'. ior c. t'h .i 1 .:ol- I.. i ir, -r i:i I b i.:.l..:n incro i '. O -.. :i'pO n-i. ri,

cl. -. h -r : r of r-.: r in: r. r j-r. nd i t' j tJ4 l. rai.: r id -j ing

C I f. i,. _t .[s c..-, i.: nt Lf h- i i in.: r .'e c -'ai.-. Ch, ,:q i. i-

cti n :,f r,,. inc: t 1 co .- rc at 1:31. us t-c : Oa p n t .n .al, ..i I,

u ij _n; -c',: h du;,les of :infor.:eF,,-1r.i : 3: n ana ..t ic t .:t.-l I;.- ,-dd ti on

Lo stud i. of n .- t[rin t.: ha'. or. J t '.:ill .1 be prp i .: r.c or ch.-

fc.: r r.or.ed p.:,. t h i 1 r of. : a. han-.r.- F,-.od-r.- infor.:.-d

I:ha ;.ior ca n i-er'., 3 con.:-r.:rC po tliE of cOi m:'Ti- r r o a i -S i

sch-duil.- f.:. s of ochi r rc Jorc:r-r i..h 3- ne:r. c r : r i lat,

since 3 I: od. of :-'.i ,.r ;ient. ; lI t,.r r ure on food- inrr ta n ne-1

opF-ran t..i n .ior i 3 s .a 11 la- I i. i nir L9:6).

,h.: ..:- :pe r ir.'.- :. e de '.:r- '- tr. l.:. h '..- :.- -:d ,peran r c r- 'h-

rniqi. : to pro.':e tr .: n ti ; L..: a -:1 i o l rh lai.. : -r, Cne r: .p t '-i t

c .ndr i lo.ii pro...- d.i har s pre. .- t.Ia c r produce i in t,.-


:tudy of hGr.o- aiL .c bav iol 31 process e such as Cli;ca e dci r ibcd

in great detail by Ta iae Ibaum (1'9.66). l1iic pacific findingh s that

sill .,be presented i _. lude:

1) ThI- E;ffecc of 3so.Im buic schledul.s of paJ p3r rc;nforcl,.-lt,

including fi::ed-ratio, fi.:cd-i[n er".al, '.'ai'i: tle-inier\ il ond

diffi ent ial reinrforccment of0 low rite -ch.-dulcs.

2) Fi::e: d-ratio and '.3ri .l,:-inLerl l .;.:lh dule of food

reir forcc-ent in boch food-depri ._d and non -food-depr i\ ." an iiTMil.

31 h-c effects of nmult iple : si-hed.L of food ard parLr r.:inrorce-

ment include i g multipt le fi:.ed-racio-- i:.: d-ra io and matltc le

*'ariabl i- in cr"al- ar' iaull :-inter a! :che.i ul eis.

Qi Progres. L'.'e-at -ico schedule i of fond and pf'.-r r. infoIc' C iCt.


'-AI j .. NE

ihse Tut je c in ch t.e pr.: n t ic re of f riirni; its ar 13

Adil j olIn .- i -a : c r : 'I 'c ir cize : u 3 ra. c ;. Ti anini al .4

.-31. : irnd F r- cl. s, ':rc purc.: has.,1 fi-roi th. ianor Farms, a -

burg, :'.i ''orJ and .- e .pr. ro.:iiac,1. 1 -150 da,: old ; t-n c ing

iUe.. g n- .,' i d.i'.'d all. h .~-u.d chr.:h.u: 'i c Cisting in nr..d fi ed

.tandard rac ..:.:_" shi a nr. i':;. ro.,) ,tih r m.. o"abl.:e I ioe:.i,r'.OLm .an :.:. ,i iA3= d t:.r Y.',-u continuousl': a3 i lM A N-.- .:!-en c-W hoo.,,

ca-.: : ini chc lon room IholdLin ra:I1. Lut .ere ri i'.i laulc

d~. rin; z...,.- i ; En al : ion .

Co.:lon: r..',rcc r, H t pE: ur u m i parained. a 0 F. i.l.01 A

12-12 l i i-c-d ar .: was .. i.La inc in r Ch. r.oom: . ch the l ih

c.f from 3 a m. co 5 p.m. .AL1 c.- pr E-cal s ,- 1 ion1 i;EcL'.; :cond..ccad'

d cii, ri -. dark- phase ofr the l i2hi : :.'; .

S.:. ..:r, icnz of -e sari-: las ic pa i:r d:el i'.';er: afp ari u, '.er.:

ij:ed i ti .: c ,_ :p- rimE c..e I,- 'i r:t 3M'.mp 3ri-tu- i T: p-' I vas an

*.rli r l that had : : r l ;eAct.'i.:1-. ; i hi .: .. l iiTiii.ced O ch

:.-cord par3 c J .- T p.: i .i. liosc of r.chl data rtha wi 11 pi- -ed

"' ou ..ri: collec- ted usi,; i.- s- c.:ond apFarat u: 'T. : II). Wti d a c.-.IlL'..ed .i -1 h.h 'older apparatc. ill b..- inclu ded as

th, li '. ri i 'e Li.O '.' i i..'li to be .ade..

T'pE 1 Appracus

The T:'pe I apparatus consisted of a motor-dri.ven paFer

and spall bar io,.ntr.d on .3 Plexiglas panel 18 cr. by 18 :m. The-

panel could be fitted on the front of a lhrarsrr.'r iome caig- in place

of the n-rral '.:ire r-eth covering. All animals rere tesc.:d in their

home cages w.ith this appfarats. The sounds of the paper dispenser

motor and che dim flash of a n.'on bulb accompanied paper deii .erv.

major difficult:. c jha dti,.lopd using thi; aFparatus was

that during testing it was im~,osiblc to iolatLe -h- animal working

for paper from the rest of the h-a3,r r colon, or from the pr.-gsrajmmirr.

and tecc riding e. uil.prent. It \as otS rved chat cte tind th.- r.ce.r

in their hore caj s wa advanrca.i ous in tch c Lt eliifn&t.:d r.uch lor o and cenr mark in lher. tor the hcr cage fr.ature

of th earlier r:-scin ; ci ir. ion w:.a c;rri:d over arn incorp.orated

into the e:xp rir.ntcs using the T: pe II .appjaratu.

lvpe II Apparatus

The paper deliv.*ery device trued for most of cht data c.ollec.ti. on

in che pres.-nc study is sho-n in Fiigi.r 1 Thc drive (a) and idler

(b) rollers were made iof aluminum, rod, 2.51 cm. in diameter and 1.27 cm.

wide, and ':ar-e c ncetr dc ill, d to fit the r.icor A mcdi,.m

knurl .'as nachined on ch.M roll r ;irt'ac, I Bet cre- lIctd the

dri.e roller to thi motor .haft, and rh, idler roller ran Erc:el) on

its shift tc). T.-: idler roller le assembly. was h. d Lact;.een the ide

place; (d) Lhich are mounted on the motor housing (e). Tension for

the idler roller .asj pro ided. I.., oneu. or ti.o l-ar-,,; ic,':.ber L.ands (nc-

shown) loop.d around the o
the cop of hie sidE pljc. Thi paper Jri.; I ocor t .s a 30 F.Pi-

eFiib -,-)11 E: rr ro I. I. r a 1, 1 -, r J r 1.. 4 '1 3

;,o or -oj *r,

shaded pole AC motor that ha. Jc I'.' red more than 10,00') paper

scrips itclih ut malfun.tic.r.

The deliver. ry r.cchanr iu.m nm, 'iains;r the rear of the

sctiulus panel that for is the iront of rle e.:pecr i .en ta charnb.-r.

The 3 cm. strip of 1.0i3 cri.. i;ide r l.t. pe paper ha t -er'.'-d a the

response-cont ingent e.'cnc -'r, infCr.:e -.-rtt ';3as dli'ered chrc ,;h a

hole in the pnel. TiH e p c:-i.p irnc- al .:har.b.-r conr i cted of the

subject's here iag- j ir h a Fl-. i:llas top fitLct d o -r it. Ti hor,

ca 35~s- as 3 3ihr.ann rac cage ith the front cut o,.jt and r.placed- b-:

a removable r3 cmr. ireh hard,:are clorh front that held in place

b a7 a -pring dulrin, non-c'.p,-rinra l p-. F Cio d Dur n; L-..'p tL ir cn

session-s h- front of rh ca,. '.: r.rr;:..-d and chi ca- e a-w locked

in place a3 ainst ch, stimulus pinel. .'ich th.- 'lxesila t'.p in

place rhe :'orl, ni s-pac:e a'z, 27 Cr. hiwh, 1 em. ,'ide, and I5 cm.

long. The ca-c floor ie3 dvidtd int. front and r3er Hil'ci b,

a 2.5 cr,. hi6h angle iron, arid che rear half of th.- flo,:r ;as *:oered

rith .62 cm. r ,e h hardiarc cloth whilee ch.- front half lad th.-

-st ndard 1.27 cm. nte-h floor. ihi- arriance i enc iias d ctatcd i rch.

beha.'Loral p cttctin of th-: h r.,-er-. il.icr a -trip i- dli red,

rhe hamster qujc l:, ch.-.- it c-ff js rin-. th.- tr-:ns n of che rollr;

and stores the strip in i t: chet k pouchs. t'h-n the pc;jcl-tcs ar

disccnded i aboiu:t 2'0 cm. of pap3 cr th. hiamr tar srt.p- IT-:. prc-i in2

and unpicuchi tlher nest rmr.r.rial in its preferred nse st ite,

usually a corner of the ca;.. Sinc:e chi paper strips fall Ihrough

the I. 7 cr,. mesh floor iino rhe: front .f th- cae: inri, tcl, dr.:-ppinn.

pan below,, che di' leid floor arrrngem.ent ,ncoCuri;id rr'npO.ulhi 'g in

th,- rear of rh, c ,;-- -here the r.c.t -as l..s litke .. to pr.. id._

sc ,i'li for .eha'.'iors tiat '. re sti E i. L ich .,on ri'nued r..:pondi.., n

on the k.-.'.

Me,, n nip l.a indr mn a; a rliAr i' "Hart. 3id i'gEorn ':,, Ilid-l

.A", r uritJl -.5. :I.. to h ri rhh e p Fape'r del' r.,; r, holu- and 9 ci..

*ib'o- th. -:ia.', flcor. .' for,:.- of 15 gr. T,- iFopenc-d' th .onLtact- of

the l alnd aLti-.'icd a re p; n: i feiedLack rela l.ocatcid behind the

:trimulu- rin.l. .A second LE.*, .'-i d 5 cr.. t. the ritlc af the

first E ,I T is E---.ond -.' and its i3 o.:iated o...AJ .:hute u.;r;

co.- r.:d dur ing ez i o 3 ',her food' d li .er" i. not pro-gra'.,nid. Mrl',nr

fo:.od dc 1 .. r: i'a programmer -.v lo'i. re infoIr ; r:r.t con t C. of. a

S. ing L g ,5 -... No .. : c- pe ll- .

W: ;E iirjl-.u pane-l id paper d ic ..r: afFpp rac3 r., houid

in .3 ojound- att r.u lr d inc.o .jae .r. c i at .d ."' an ,-..hiar.c tic:;.- r.

r. p r..r- i re r.:.:or ed :n Ri ctL rom an'd *,m-'alar..'e

rc,.rdrs. .:L1 rogrramri n i rnd. rc.-orJ i ,qultpF" ,n r i loccatedl in

an .adijccr, room.

Pr'-.. ,: j,., r,:

Thl, hl- arrmt-r. i:r iri' t allo..-d E:u"ur i dai": of Ad uptat iocn tr

clt-: homi. .a E .'f r dn :' :- .r -nn p r imentL a l i r oc dur c; i.. r- be.i: Dur inO

Ehii timi all hib ter_ i:cr ct.'ted- f.r their akil it co rapidly ,

cut .off ho:rr 'r- ip of l-- r ic':k r t.ap pap Cr hl-at '. rc in.ert into

their .. ,; : thro.,-. tilh .Cir fr' iPc, i .. e'.pErim.i C rt had shi;n

that an ,:cca io naIl hli mter co',ld not cut of-f the paper icr ip'.

E-:p r -r, ca a s -si,:.n i.,re, h-eld diil an.d .h s'i= : on L[. an

.ith 1'0 rr.;-uc.- of adaptio, in rth- ,rncI -',r Durii-, ilardrL ta ion

ch.: refpaor .: I;.'* a da L. and 3 r.d light m:urir, a ir. chti Lop

of the Ple. as cage cao'm r, iI.rina.s:J TIhe. start of a session istgnal ld by the offset of hIe hI1use c and ;th onc.t of an

AC 'uhlitc: light tran illuniinatir,.; Lh-. r.5por-O '-:cy. .Ac the end of a

session, tch le. light 'one off and the houce liiht "as again

illumr;inated. fessiono lasted fre.: .30 to 3'i0 minute d.:pend irg on

the schli.dule. in, effect. Hore clrh n I15 paper Scrip : ..:re r t ppi:all: '

deli -.rcd in .3 session, e-no..lgo iwatcrial to provide a lart-.. cup-

shaped nest.

LIbjcctS re d'pri.,-d of mosc of their prev.'iou: day': .accuIou-

lation of paper 6 to .3 ho,.r prior to a Iess; ,:,n. .. nall aront ef

paper, Eufficienc ,atj i pA llr,: .;j; left n t hei ca -; ince-

pac: e-:peri.-nc. hliaj i-ho nr that if all paper ;a: rernio.ed, the i'rst

inpo.chin ocpi ode of rhe :-sicr' ..3 oftr.en follo'.:ed by,' \-r, long

pauze. rather r.ha an inri'cdla e r-turn to cth: l ,. '.' ual obs r'.3-

tion of Lh-e ani.r.ols durtnn cth.-e paFue-: s-ho'.ed that the harr.i cer

typicall:, cenga'ed in groom.iii .and ne:t b,.ildin 3Sater urnpouchin-

ch.: accumulated paper. L a i'.rg a nmall .tof paper from the

pr-' sio. s es ion d.:cre sed th. :. -:pir ode of bch.a..Lor r.t-ac ::er

incomp3atible s-ich I-:. r:. iponding.

One or tc o 30-.-,in,.ce s..s io ri o f ft.:.e .:.op rant lE'.'cl of I y'

pressing were obtaind before rragazirie cr3j tolin ':a.s .e n. The onl:

progranir ,:d -on .qucnc. of the C;. pre -.: during thc:e s- ion: ..'as

the opp ratioch of Ch t ftc.i; ac! relay S irndard racga ine rrai i-nio and

shaping procedurE: s S inrner, 193' l :c -re u'.:d in :-iu'.eqtlc:nt ; ior

until the ham te:-; r rec re:-pon.iing r L-ailt. ; or a fi_..-d-rario of one

re pornie FR. 1). A tone of on.'--F'cond duration 2.5 KiH-, an.] l;, 72 db. accoimpan i.:.J pap-r d li 'er, I.-.:n fo.:.d s:-;: ion

L. re pro, rar-.ed, or '. en fo.-. .s pr:e 'r-.: dutiri a mui i.ple

sch-dule., a 4.5 i:h rcone of one--.cond d4ratin acco -.ari ed food

del i'.'ry,'. 'c!' ule rcqujirc-r.entr i~. :- :;rluall r:i d afte.-r initial

CrirUrnig il rc.l,. -amrEE s .ere r z.-Fro.' ing on the Lermin-al valuess

of ti..; .lniJueL inpo.:e'. A ico..,.r- :r: z, ;- r i r of .-ach hirris er' -

..*F .:c [i..:nra L i,:. i r;or; i jco.i d J r, Tables i--a to I- .

T -.: re. n 'forci .nerC t ;ch; d..lo. [cir vtr program r-,-.:-d included the

the f irstt resp c .n acf r a 'i".-d period of crima h a. elaiija-ad.

C. a i l.le-Inc-tr.all V'.'i, [ ch reinfor.:;emertI fol -s the first

r:-spon- in- l r a riabl- p-er i:d f .Cine has el ps-d. 1h. ch.d--i:e

is id.lenri-fiEd. in c- eTm of thi-e av.era:e int er'-Il L.-e .'- n r- inforcon.r:..ita.

D. Differential FEain r.: en e .f Lcf Fac r.-- i .L .A re ion3c : i .- rein-

for:ced onl:, lif at1 l asr a Fp:c.ilic pe rio i cf tir. ha ilap -ed

:ince chr last re-sp .i,- .

E. Pro;r.:. i .--Faj. cio i r.n'i. Eac'- reiin rorc ; rent fol Icuins a- pro re-'i el.,

incru ; iN- number of resp;.ornz. T-hu tChl firr re;inforce-trnrc night

require 5 the s;. ,ornd 10, h.- -hirdJ 15, ardJ so on. T is

ovAl.d be 3 "prograzzie rar io-5" i r'5, s,:h.--Jule, ;ic,:e coach reinfo:,rc:e-

r,-ent req-'ires' 5 m.or 'e re-sFon'- e rchi-in tl..- on: Lh i t pr,:e.Je-s it.

F. Nla iple L:-,,' -., j"il.rLIi, T.Wo f'or ror, I h l,:,j are:- pro;r rTLTed.

to opCL.:r3. al rnai e- ,. ih in ]-,e pti :,nc-: orf a .difI rnt n ti-iulus.

In rth ir-iur. irl sI ,hlr- i.r: rog;ra.3 -nd in r-h r.-:. ,r rd., corI onent

Ier cha3n-d ac r- j[ul r inter=r. ]s s-o E-a the food a- : nd ipi pcer -.:- edcul: -

and their le:specti' rc response Le'.s ad reinforc.Lont

vsere operatci e alt ernate ly.

Otler addcd cent inIJenc ie s iare scnct ires proiramr.ed in conjnc-

t in with che-.- schedule-. and such additions will be so nor.ed in

the Faijltcs seot ion. ihc's, added :cnicing'nc .s i-rc;

a. Lisited liold ILH.i. This concringcncy s.gnifi..s thie crmination

of th-e scheduled a.'a lib iit of tlh reintor.-erer. t if rhe respornsc

t3 be reinforced does- not occur \Jlthiin a -pecifled pc. rio of cim..

t. Time Our i'TO.. This connr. incnc' eane tcl'a at certa n aicnallcd

times rc:poni-' on tho op.:rant nnipulandJu.r l a'.e no proera-,..pd

c-on-eq,'inces. res arC' pr.o. rarr-,-ed at th,' bc innirin' and : n.Jd of an c::.per -

r rental ie-sicn, and Ict': sre n co.-nponenir. of a multiplec c:h-:-dule.

c. C-h nce-,.c'r [ela;, (CO .. t'his contirny-n. i2 _J 3 t j mul 'l

schedule: cto insure that i no Sui,: Crt ic i:i conditioning

.'hen an anini al is changing front one re P...nse v'. to th-e o'chcr if

a response i: made during the. CODi. the o.:ct of thl- ne:-. comtpornent

of the .:. Led.le is1 dc l-i3ed for a fi.:cd per Jod of ime.

T'.LLE 1-a

.1 :r:- f .F-er -r i r linr i F p. ci .n ari, 3 .. in er
I., ' i, :i -, lf:,r E .,cbh F rocedure

Proc ,c re

FR L F fc.-r

FR Paper

FR 6 Faper

F. 8 Faper

FP 1'. pp. r

FP 12 Paper

FP 20 Pr'a r

FR 25 r[ap r

FR 23 F:..-,d

F. 25 F-per

llt.i 25 1F 25

. I rc r. a c r. 3 t I

PrF,.5 Piper Fitr c

rrF5 F:ood








liiim-'r:t ?r A'.1- I

Han: c r .U- 2

F r 3.ure 3c, s i on

I I riper r

FF 5 P.per I

FF, 10 3

FR 15 PFaper 6

FF,. 20 F iper

ER 10 PFaper

FF. 12 Pape.r 1

FP, 15 Pfjer I

Ff, 20 Faper 3

iF, 25 F per I

FR 20 F.3per 7

F 25 Faper 8

i 5 Food 1

F 1 0 FP..:.4 2

i P 20 F C. Lo.

SF. 25 F: od I

FP 25 Fap,-r A

flu-L IFF 25 FF 25 10

Al.err j irc [r, a l"

PrF 5 F .:.,:.d Fir c S

PrF.5 F pEr r


Sequence of Ex.:pF rirntal ,nipulr ions and 'Number
of Sec ions for Ea:h FrocedJLre

Hamrster AW-3


FF. 1 Fa. er

FR 5 Paper

FR 10 Paprr

FR 15 Parer

FP. 20 Pap.e

FP 10 Paper

FR 12 Paper

FE 15 F.ip.r

FE ?0 Pap. r

Fr: 25 Paper

FP S Food

FR 25 Faper

FF 15 Fcood

FR 20 Food

FR 25 Food

tILTT FP 25 FR 25

, r. -rnat in r, lI;

PrPFS Food First

PrF5 Paper

T a ions









ilansrer A'-4

Procedure Si : ion

FR 1 Paper 4

F, 5 Faper 1

FR 7 F apr 1

FR 10 Paper 3

FF, IS PapeFr 5

FE, 20 4

FLr 10 Paper 2

FE 15 Faper I

Ff 20 Pae.r 4

FR 25 F-per 7

FR 2 FsZod 1

fF. 5 Food 1

FP. 10 Food I

FR 1? Fcod 1

FR 15 Food I

FP 25 Fape.- I

FR. IS PaF.r 4

HuLT FR 25 FP 25 10

Al r nat in,; a ll

PrF. Paper Fiist 8

Pr FP Food S

TAF.I E 1 -c

Sequence .:.f F.:pe ri :- al :;ir, ir.1 ,-l ion's arid
of r c inr- for IE. Pr.:.ccd'u c

Ham r .2. r All-5


FF 1 F per

FR 10 FFaper

FR. 1; Fiper

FR 15 Fap-.r

FE.P 20 Faper

FR 25 Fa p r

FR 5 Fc.od
FR S Food

FR 8 F :od

FR 10 Fc. o'

FR 12 Food

FR 15 F,:ood

Fr -5 Piper

FF. 15 Piperr

MiULT t F 75 FF. 25

A lce i.i r Da, il'

Irrf Freod First

IrF'5 Papter

"e : ,l'.




t s,-,ic r EF-23

Pr :..-edur-

FF. 1 r p.r

F. 3 'aper

FR 5 F per

FF. F per

F-. 10 P3p.r

FF. 12 P.iper

FF 15 rd p r

E.' Hr P i, 'i

FF. 10 Fapaer

FF 15 Pper r

FF 13 Faper

FF' .0 Paper

FrR 2 Paper

FP. 25 P .per

FR 20 Faper

FR 10 Paper










^:j -i''i


',:qucnc, of Experinenct l ;I ;ipal.t ion nd [il.l-, r
of 'e -.lons for Each Procedure

Ham3in:t r t1-10 la;. ter F-1

Trocedur.-e : "- io, r: c es on,

FF. 1 PFaer FR 1 Paper 6

FF. 10 FPper 1 VI 10 -c F. Fiper 5

FR 15 Piper 1 '. 15 s,: rap r 2

FF. 1)0 Pier 5 10 :ec. iper 3

FF 20 FaFer 1 1. 20 *-c .i-p.rr

FE 25 Fipcr 'l 10 Paper 3

Ff 30 Paper 2 .1 20 -.c Pap,:r 1

FF 35 Pap.r 1 Vi 30 c. r.Fper 3

FP 40 Paper 2 FrP 10 Papr 2

FP 45 PFFer 7 FE 15 Fiper 2

FF 50 Paper FR. 20 Paper 1

FR 60 Piper FF.5 p r r 1

FP 75 Paper 3 FF. 30 Fap, 2

FF. 35 Piper ? FR 35 Paper -

FF 80 aper 2 R 30 Faper 2

FR 100 Pap-r 5 FF 35 F 'Cpr 2

FR 125 1 FF 40 Paper 3

FR 150 PaF.:r 1 FR 45 Paper 7

E.-. I :.iC TIC N 1

I.LEF 1-e

L.-qicCe of E.p.ari :niLal :AnlipujLLn..'n: an! ;imber
of '-c i-L,. for C.ach Pr .ce'iur,

HamiL:er t1-20




Pap ;r

F ap.e r



FF 1

FR .

F 10 *ec.

FI 30 se,:.


FI 2 ,nin.

FI 3 i.iin.

Fi rT in.








Pape r


F ae r

Pope r

Hair-er F-5


FR 1

VI 5 :ec.

''I 10 cs c.

VI 20 :ec.

V'i 15 c:c.

V.I 10 ;: c.

VI ."'0 c.

VI 45 sec.

rF TII.'CT i',J

NOa S -A *Lo: T









T,,LLE 1-

Sequence of E,.pcr'-r.i i.L l ti ipul ~ ir- c.'ns and NuiTrbur
of Sessions T .or E chl Fr'cCi-i'c

iHaims r 1-11 r tF -I

F roc ,.Jure

FRP 1 F.per

FR 2 P2[er

Vi 10 'ec. Faper

. I 16 ec.. Faper

SI 2) sec. Faper

'.I 30 -ec. F,-.c.3

lii.1T Vi 30 sec. -C





'1 30 s1 c. 10

llam ter IIF-5

Frocced -re

FR 1

FR 5

'.'I 10 sec.

Vi 6 'ec.

VI 23 sec.

Vi 35 sec.

VI '.5 zcc.

Pap .- r

PaCe r

r.3pe r


r'roc dc-Jur


FR 5

FP. 10

FR 12

DP.L 15 --

DP.L 20 ,

DP.L 30 s

Ses i o'ns












Pape r


Sc LC'ons





r : i. i r T3

Free operi ii C rac:; :aci 1:c.. lo rai inI Co. 2 c.:. 2 Cr. FonzEs

per lialf hoo.'r, l;ga-'f .rn- c Lin_ anid Shapini r a conpl cr. I ih rin

c '. ,_ cio ,_r., ,- i on z .

Fi'Suc 2; pr ."- 3iC .. *r.irzaul3j rc*--'rdl fC*i)t choice,

fci.l, -.. .l:j., LI Lt-23, '-3 and '-.'- i... nd, i ::.:,:d-r r io .chc du

of p pEr deli. r-. re' : p le: r..:. t-,.. ,-. ,: pan rticallV fro.n

th, La L- lin.-. andJ d*J i ; al r,.h a. r-: in J cr rcr rl-, delir.'Er ,:,c a

SLi'p f *:- pap:e ., Oi" -Je caccL r l c LL -..:.J-rao : cc r.-cr of 'c;fr.n l-

in i "a;- p nr'. in ri ._ i. _c:.r i'; t I. '- c f ,tos i :,.. ii i l al c.r-

n 3 in '..i h fpi :c-rA i n fo ircr3. ,r.iE i Ca S- i IL t .i .'.I _& iinr.r, 1937).

.i'..:rd .' for ahim t r F-23 .'az rad- o:n rlc i h ,:-ioni r of re-Cp r.-3-

in on -a .. ad-rac 25. zch.-dujl. .'hitl. F..-ord 0 uas r-,ade on c.,,

-',' h E i .o.n.

LWn, pau.:-; -u i "i: h-,,_ i i-cc...J r appeared i ,ra ...,rula-

tC'. records, iLuc were ai .nt in ci ir..ajo' iric of -a sion,,z. lib' n

pau E; d d .:.C1--i r he-. s.-alL. :'.- .. :.-.1 o:nl .ja'f c :'0 ro :( zcripi

of p'ap- .r hid L.-I,, 3.,L,....i. lr. and a r c.:.nMi- -,i.l. n-:c hid ltE Jn

t:. cal:e Ihi ip.- in chl. animal' .. '. i;u l nr i C' LW. ; Of r h-am. nr. rz

ducinr ; F.p-cir'Intm3l Ze1 zionz ind.i at-l c i. c,.i p,- auze in r.':pnc ing

wae c r l .'.lcAr Mce *_,np:.ic-Lr *of pJ.C 3an] cc-dircced

a ci'.ici "E : i.,,;:h 3 pap r c.:-.,- Lr, :tF .,.ri -..rc rnir, E cn p .Zi;ii-,

Mrj n.- -,'i .'r.c j t:hI ior -L. c. :r, f-:.l[Y.-d. Lb, a period of




'2I -

.11 'L



e~: C...

(~.) ~

ut s

t2 3s

r.periti'. rear; against the v.alls of che :case, and :ratc:hLng

chem iith the icr pas.. ii -;c.:reot'prZ pict.-rn of rLeriQ3 and

ScratcL hinrI s high prot.att LIc C lha icr rh.aJ is ot- er.'ed in

hamscers during n p ti ld rtS.: Jo. aS .,, 19'.9).

The toc.r,::cT r.Wto roc.t ii. i re 2 sh,:;.' re rc,-rEnr.a cLm la-

rir.. records ft:r m c.i c.Lher fnale ham c r.,s'-, ..'- .an1 ,A'-:. FCcord C

:-.a. .i'- '': r.Fical performance or. icL fou.rct- session of an FF, 15

:Lh, dul.: of F Fap r dl c .. 'htile :eord Di hc,.'s .1'. p.erfo r,-ance

or the r th rd s sain:. of an FF 15 scihd...l in th ese records, pa sJ

from 1.. prc,:, g i.e.. r e ..p: a 1 cor rl d wi. iLr. h tcl- col laEr.-L

i--;ha.-. [.r *J s,rih.d f:.r EF-22.

Fi ure : s;h.- s rei res:c'i .aci culnulaci.e rEcoL dI C1i L;'. nO reO

hamiT, ers a nal and a i-ir.M 1c, i f .-.d-racr. sche.J ii..: of -paper

re in orc. mcan c. i-i. ,E cord 'd : q r.: d U Zi: h 'e older, I

apparr. s *dsc r it cd asto' i rc.ord-J i Fin sg r, 3 .'. teen

-o lOip tJ ir. -ic mar.c. r .i r ter an-d E .in..:r l1'. r.o gzi.' a

brtteer .I:u al ,s.r,:cn atirn .-f an C: IL .. L'. charge in re pcn's,.

rac.e, I .:- I .v c r [ciTc Th r,.L..rd for -l1 Ch M,-1al; '.Ui mil ade orn

th-: 'r.h : sio.n c.f re-pon-din on a fiy: d-rac io- s.h.dule of 60

rcsponE s andJ ihe record.:r for F- the fem l.-, 1. a o .i i h-e r.h

se sios n of r, c- po'-cd i-in on a f i' -r atc :chid.ul. o'f '. r. : po '- :, -. Slei

pat. r of responding characct rL.: ic of chEJlE. cf

re inftor:-neEn is app[.ar-.'t in l-es riCOLrd s (FcLr. r ad-,.j in r,

1957,'. Eoch harsters w.r, tro. ;r. jaduall to t se h i.-her

ische'. .le lu, witCh r: .io si- rEquircr E .- nc I. io. rai i d in incIcr.: nir

'f 5 or 10 rc: cnses '-Ih. Lch-.: .r had stat ii:ed- at a lc- er 1 C. l.


-___r ---



tc--- " "---

2 -






La ~


Fiicure sho-s thrlec cvn;cu iCe:iflS:vn of le.male EF-23's

responding on 3 fid:..d-r c io 15 schedJl oLf Fi ape r 'c infoirc.,ment

IboLLOM, *:cL!3aps.d recot:. s), and three scss;i.ons of .O\. lcc [i.'n chat

follow.:; d cop r.corcds). 1he fi. Ed-ratio record '.wecre front t-he 17th,

l.ici and Ilch 3an3 icn. s *of r.zporinding on tche fi. 15 acledule, and the

Sxt' inc e ion records :*,. r 'r.d. ,n crhe ni-. t three r:. ; io.ns TheE.

records were all :cllccced u:sin thL T,ipe I aPFra s u In ile

e.cti:nct[ on s-ssions rie fla. thing ne:,n bulb and chb paper dispen:;r

'hotor scill .op rat d :.n 3n FF. 15 'di3jon3l hatch- mi arl.; Lbut no

f3par .3s d li r,:rcd. hL-se rec.:.rds *l.:d oni-s: r e- *'P;ic3 re pour-ndlyri

on 3 if ..c--rar-'. :ch dJ ulE:, f'ollo: d Ld t pical *:::icinct ion afccr

El r.. .po-nd.r;., i:ich F st -r.ei'for ,c ment pa-,:e gradual i .:.cming

longer, an-.d r i.o n ing o:cutt i i le ._ frcquent1:'. 0 '..r, r._;-,r-ondinr

did oc:..:ur, i>..'.',er, tIlhe I-J iL- of respo. ser s ch-jractr .i ic of

fixeL d-ratlr ;c,:c ules still 3pp.aredl.

Fi c re 5 o;lr3s to ';. epr:sEnitati' e ciimul3aci f i' cords ,o

h3msti. r F-5. 3 fLer3le. r.jpondin on a '.'ariable-rnccr-31 5 seconds

t'[ ',f" ) sc-h dule of 3p-er del er.. tih e record m arr'ed "OLD" tias

rad oCn the 'th' s :31n on in ch e :ld: r, T:r, I apparatu 'hile th-

"liTl.'" recoIdJ .33 rmde .:n the 7rh t-es ion in the rm:'r- recent T.pye iI

apparacus dccribed. a. ,. a. Fro-ym che lope f -, t : collap.-cd records

it can Ib-. s.een that the raCL .:.f rE.sponj ing in cflh older appi ractus

s,[j.ed con 3 can Ehr .-l"U ,hOut C i. ZeCI i.ln, ..i11i : E- C L i 'a'S lzele 3ra-

tincg Er t; r ti -- n- ier apparaLc s.

Figure 6 o)1,3: a Ent:tie ci .laCiti e rc idpr ,n for -h3ai er

11-20, a mi cl responding 0" LA._ 7:th ses:.ion of a fixed-intr al


I ,1,

uJ "" "' "-

I -^^^---- '


, r


^ ~- 1"" -.

'"C _- 9







*., C.

I J4


I -.



'* 1

1.1 C

rl -

c' c-

0 V



'. *i)
U -


*- .I
L' C

3 i'

*u j

C' *




E 1'

230 Rs .,'

> ,-

rrU 1




c-.J =

3 minT ,tes IF 3'' sch ul-.e of paper d.I r:.'.: r T is rc-c.rd ''3 s mad.

Lusi~ clrie TI:.p I app;ratC.u : ILmited hold iI.1 c ontiri Lncyi oLf

20 -ccoIndJs p rr..r,....:-. into th-is sch.d.le, so, thit if no rc pon.rse;

*:cc, ,rrclJ '_ th n-i ', '_c,',J t20 ic 3 rweinlCorceT .r c \.n s 0'3d:- .a 3.ail '-le.

the schedule. '-a r..c le.:d .and another 3-rrin cr.- h.3.1 to elapse

before a strip of Fper 1.3s jgainr, sit j'le. tAltho gh the cl:ssic.:al

Ios itr .el:,y .:ce.l- r.a G fi:.:cd-tinr r. 1 p r3Cr..rr, of resi.,l1 di n; i .-rst._r

& S innEr, 19. 7" never r:plicacred in ch: ai in o or O' s:3sio.-z

of i_-.:-J-iqL C.;l re 'ponJing, the fc r.-reir .:.r ..-r..?.nt pa,. e char3crc r-

S.Cie : f :.ed-incer. r did ... mtimeas o.cur, fr -.. 1-.ple a. ip..:i.t r. -l.

OC-.:e clhit lI-,_rr..-r r '.-: pre.; in c h: bar. t-,.. '.,er. Lt: re-i r on -: at c i

lii i rnd fa tr c.. l Incant race trhro.uh:lou[t c-h: .'h l :t f lie l i f :'.J-

i ter' .l p,.ri~ Po:nt A'b'1 shm i ,C f the places ii rhi niial's

respnJdin; the l irri..:, ho-iJ ,'ca Ln;-ic. chased the ha;iostCr

SiTo :- a pr:o; rr..r...j r. i Lf.o'rca.; Enn n In ge 1 6ril, tlhin. tc his an Lr l 3

fi-:e nrer l1 perfa t' ., La nE'. r strcQ; y ;, dr h- :;oncrol

of ch,: pre.a lin :; :hedul. :as th- re-po-lir,; of .,i-i n ls of FP 3 ln

'1 sc h diul.:s h i L..e-r,.

Fi;ur.- 7 sh:;'s a rcprez.entr;. a cni,.ulac. .: reo.: rl f i-sc, r

H-11- a rimal r.sp.:r.nlin on di ffr.ccio-l reinf:.r:-neoc o. f ci ; rat.-

tDrLi 20 seconds ;ch-e ul-- of p d. i'.:r'. Fh'i record vs: ,:ida- cn

the '. rh .es.:i. .o f : lD L 0" rspo.-.din ,using crh. T p I .appa tu-- .

lr.'jd r this ;c.hejule. thlrc mi :. be a F usoe f ac lea t ',: s .:rc'i.J

t. forc a rE3poF- pro ji.ucr ,i ;rrip o,: pap. r. Figure 7 *.1rTonLtrare:

.:-ood DPL '- r- iniC11i- J 1.:, p-aper, with responses '-ell ;spaca.

and no lo', t ui r. ; of reri. ird ir,; .-. .:ict.

Fire ;hc..; c oo r.,o ,- .ti,. r.-,:ord; from hamster .,1-1,

[.rale, r spca-o I;r, cth, first l rl o,-,' second (top' -e i-on







I' o
cr .


FR 25 fid

(24 H. I prizd)I

Figure 8: 7,[r~icrrsWi.. urularl r..:.rda o Unat vammc ,~~Fr *'-1 ndaj.r
3 fkcd-ratio -~ chcdula of food~i rO~fcrcncrc, M ammrr m
n.>o l1imd-i..pri.. .i in rm.. rcop reco..rd nd wf
*1.?pri.. .1 in El.i, ctr..m ri.:. rd.

of a fEicd-rat o 25 schedule of fo:.- prc -;entat ion. ihe dia1onal

hatch marks indicate the delli'.er, oi f a 5 mg. i:;-c food pellet. As

w'as noted abc"-e food-r:3a nctla nd operanr t. r lla-. or 3a studied in the

present sr rie of cxpg rir.cent as a pjin t of cor,pari on for tih p.3pr r-

mirr in ta inr d re spon Lr.g I'o; -c d is of fiood-a ointa ineld .perant

beh.A'. ior u-c animals aiac hIi. .e tcen reduced to 90', or S ". of theiir

free- feed weight at thoi c iri of tes..ting. inice hajrstcrs board food

abc..e and be:,.nd cheir irjTiLdiace requJircrmicnt~ c ic i a3 hIypothe'ize:d

that e'.c-re food d: pri"acion ''..ild h.e unnecs;c r.. in order to studi.

the haminrc. r's foo'd-wiaint3ined behavior.

EoLh records in Fiur-e e iiere .:ollLcte.d using the 11

appear tcut. In che cor record, the ihl isct.r 'a: i not depri' e d of fooi

before the e a i.on began, and three large pelle.: of rjr ina Lab

Chow- were left in the cage throughout thi sess ion. in the b tccten

record, the ar.e har.cer ia.3 deprw'.ed of all food i2-. hour before

the ses ieon began. In both records, it is ,ite apparent tlat aa ood

Ff perforr.nce va.j being min intaced, and chat the depri.atj0on condition

had no noticcatle effect onr respond ing. Figure 9 shoas hiiarirer -l '

retfonse rice on four CO-'-cULi.e cfood-min nied :csiLons. This

Figure, like Figure ,. iho,'m thLac food d.pri'.at t-:n had no apparent

effCL on FP r.ezonsc rat In 'i mrirr.r:, bLo.t food I.FIur, '"I sna

paper (Figure 2) c.Oimpirable rates of 1 re ponding

in Lhe- hamsrter, and food depri .t io;n pro.'cd to be an unnecess;ar co.n-

dition for conducting fot'od-raintaincd oi. rant research.

Figure 10 slhowa r-.pre .e :j Jljat i'.'e records fr:om crso more

tarrc rs., Fl-I1 and liF-.. H1-1. a r m le, raE ma intaincd at appros~-

riatel;': W0'. of if;rec- cdin t,. ~ ,od ec.Ig rand u-a" tr,-,ir..d and.- r a





o 0 0

G:03VS EUd S3S;l:dS3l

*- L

?I .2 3


.) 1i
"1 'a

Li C 1

(4 .3

1 1 C
r- - .^

C -,


*- '
C-) : r
f i -i 'j
c'l -^ ir

"- 3*

J '0
'" *r 7
o -.' '
it r '
*C I

T l



- "P


- 2- L

2 1] U


e- C

rC *-, ~

-I U

o) L. L
2i ~)

'1 CL



'2 2

U C.,




rrultT pl e ..a 2L-I0 n.r.3. 1 cc.:ids -hi-dJule of bOLth f -:od d:nd paper

J1 i.'c.r:. iTe food anJ p.aiF-.r r : L" e .&:he.Jjle a lcern.icred

at't- i the fir.-t r in t'.,rce T:rnr, that A..a- d I i'.er.d .ft er 20 _inute3

h ad p-i e iJ Cnrce the initiati on i :f c pF rr icul ~rc.r.psoncnt. F-.,

h1itt h Tiark-, i ndicaced lE '.er;, if a -.5 r3 ;. .,:. P; .- c Io: J pellet I urin-

the fo:cd cor ponencr n d cf 3 ci '. r:ripF oI' te!-t 'pe r pap-r ,4uriln'

paper .'T-.po.nents. l.n'r-' r d t i: d~ .-n o t-he line e-.ent p-?n

i nJir.jc t, p r C :.rp.,c.:rerints. i .h lew thr.- fic.:I J componcentr, .: ,rr ;.spondJ cc

chl up'.irJ er-.:c rs in of tl-i- i., ner p.-n. A l iiTced F hold ct '0 ) second;

Uwa in" e f' -ct durt i boC h cc.m .un nc; snd ia 50-ecS :nd t in-.- .,uL i T1

i'a_ prco, ra,; :d Lbe c n c rI: |.:po nent- In a.jd iiic ..-, a ch -,r,,:-o'.er

delay (COD) of 20 seconds f.:.r 1 :' r:pe ; i -: i.a. p roT rar ,.- j jirin

the last 20 seconds of th(e i pF rti,:-- hi rec.-rd 'a-; m-E .-i t[he

6th session under the multiple r iri l3lc L-nt. r'. a 1 3 r0 ,: n ,j hedile.

With the exception of the ;ingle l.on. pau:- in thi frI -t

20-minute food c.:..-rnen. both c.:, p:,rent, ll of thi; ch.-h vule r,;inc irtne

typical variable-int.r.;l .patcrnrIs .'f re ,Fnd ijn lt Ilo'g pau:e

in the fir-t fc-,:d components: i' a re-ular f-ature of [thi airnal':

performance, and it ,iiall: c:cc',rred at th:, point. ;'-cr cre hiaict,-r

stopped eating the pellets as they wer.-,d. arnd L.-an rt.:.ring

them in its cheek pouches.

The bottom record in Figure 10 hI-o..,' r:pre .-nii nc .. p rfo rran-e

of a female hamster, HF-5. :.rn the lit!h 'i -'ein ndcr a

interval 45 seconds (VI -"'i -chedul.lue Of paper dell Cr:.. '.o limit.-d

hold c.-ntinr,.-nc. '..* in .- fee .r ,,rin, ch i ti 3-1' .al' : p rir..-ntal

in tc' i. .n cradual decce e ,in re ,-on.n rat' a- ch-ic se- i-n

progressed .;as a chir:ct. r isitc f.a'tre of this animal 's per-


Figure 11 shous reFresenta ti. c cu uulatl .'e records from t,:o

feir.ale hamster, A1.'-5 and AU-2, under a multiple fri:'.ed-ratio

25 -chedule of paper and food deliv'.er,. iTh.F records for Loth animals

s;ere collected on th.e Sch csssion of rEsp..nding under the- rulClple

schedule. Eoch records weere collected using thi T:.pc II apparacus,

as weIre the records to follo,' in Figures 12 anrd 13. Upvard

deflect ions of Ihe i 1t- I el in e'.' ee pen indicate p;:p r corponants.

while dou.n ard e:-.cur sioni of Che- peri corre Fpond to the food compo-

nents. Tihus in b.'ch of these records paper compFonents i i're presented

first. The paper and icod components of the schedule alternated

after thc first eirinforLem.c nt that a'as dcli'.cred aft.-r 10 minutes

haid cl p['ed .inze rhe inite tii:n of :i particular conTponen t. A

20-second C L' for -keyw r.--pon.,li: vs- progratured betecnci the corp:.-

nents. -nd the hamster- t.picall. ur.nouched paper and food during

these dcl- ,, periods.

Poth record. in Figure Il hie.' od FP re 1 o. F pondrin under .:ah-ih of

the components of che maltir le schedul.-. Fe si.ons rates tended to

be slightly:. higher during f,..od cor-.poi.ntcs. rut this ii duI to at

least tr-ao xtranrou f;actor-e. First, tc tcc I longer for a I-an t-er

to tear off a 'trip of paper ;nd insert it into its cheek pouchele

than it did ro pici' up a food Fcllet and nrscrt it into the pouches.

S.ecord. there ..;r .:.ftc-n rcla t .el:. 1.:,n-: iause at the beginning

of the first paper component o.:" s:iE- on, for : arrple, at point (a)

in AW-2's recc rd. "'isual imonitoritn of the hi-am-ter ir.dicated that

the.' t'pictall chei'cd on the r.ecal ifod-delL 'er. clute during the

FR 25 poaer
FR 25 food


.a.,. .AW-2 W a,~r a Nw iple C- d a i ncel 1 offo
.rA r QL. wiI~jT~tl~-J'l~L'iJfj'C'

tine out iTCO) period priced ing the Erc ion, and they ..ere often slo';

in react in; to the paper IPe light ';hen it first car e on.

Figure 12 shot's cro repcresenca lt .e c 'Ar ati '.e records for

female ha slte r Ai.i'- l rnder r proEgres i.'e-rat LO (ir0't i clihcdule" of

food and paper d.- lv ei r.. ihic c record shows reprc.-entc.i i.e fo.l-

maincained performances on the Si se sion of re spondirn For focd,

and the bottom record sho'w repr.:-ntct.:t' paper r-mainrtined rcapond-

ing on che 3rd E ; i- rin of re spon ing for 'p per. i'he sic. si; r. :.'ere-

autoniticall, ctr in.acd it '~hen cCn minutes had elapsed incL the la-t

response a. s .Ji iide t( ddos, lg'91,. C'-in'.'ard det ICCtionr of the tWjie-

line p.en indicate r sp..'n eso, tc he unlit l.e.. dUri, a c sev iori. the

hamstcr v'as not i od-depri-ed during the food-nj nta.ined iess ion;.

It is quite apparent from rh.L-.. re:-cord-s ti rt food raincaini co-nr ider-

ably, Iwor pro;re '.'ve-rar tio respodirn than paper in the hji-a ster salso

see Tjble 2', and tcrnirinal rac io as high as 25i0 tespon-ns for food

vere not iun:corTn in thi: animal's performance.

Figure 13 :hw3; a r-prcs-ntc't'.c icuM.uat t'.e record fEr hini- ter

AU1-3, a female, rc-pondi&_; under a Frofrec : i.e-r;tico 5 dciedule of

food deliver.'. iThis record riads .on che 7th session of respondtr. g

under the PrFPS scheduled of Afed deli. er,; and :.a from one count in.os

ses- ion tha IasC : d o' r chr-e hours An unu'i; Jj feature. of this

animal's perforrmnce -w: chjc broker and erratic runs of responceF

occurred per fodicall:, during a session point "a"'i and 'iual -r.onit.or-

ing indicac-d tlih t cht beha.'ior 'i; correlated .ith l r ncc -lt el

froc-ing of the h .-icter in front of the r rr ln e .. No fatiguee"

eyplanat on can account for this pattern of, since lIatcr








*. U
o -'

*Ij j









-C11_--'--~~ --~

, "4--

in the s-sicon, for e:arnplc., a poine b. high, con:rant rarcs of

rcsp.ondiri r: picall.' iere oh.'er'.'. d.

Tatl, 2 s!o:.- mean ard median terminal rato '.aluce for fi.e

female ham ter ; hat I.ere i u d to sEtudJ progr :-si'.'e-rat: .chdule-

of food arn paper l le mean and riedian .alues and cstadard

erro rr c re ,ori:ju d for eight -i session of r :-porndir for food, and

eight -ess i ons of re-porn ng for paF-r. 'cr each animal's food-

maincained performrnc: corn ared to its pFaer-imaint:.ined r rforrance,

it can se..en that food deli :rV' produced high r r- rriral ra io

.aluE than paper. Sic nc [ ro re si'..--racio ichciJule ; s re d 'eloped

co S t..'d nor. nationall a ec r of difr .renn re. p nfor.:cr iHodc:. IP61.

vcs- A Cold[, 19? ) it ca'n tb concluded chac food deliver.:

will maintain muor. t:eha'.or in harimsr.r charn .ip. r del w.ery. .-'.cn

in animals Ctha har.e never bt...- food-de-'pr i.d.


Mlean and :lcdian TrrIinal caliejs for Five. FTale; Hams t-rsr Under
FrcCgrc Sv.'e-f.atL Schcdules of F.'ood anid Papc r DCe Iv.'ery. TieC fian
and 11edian '.'liue-:- and Ztandard Errors UCre Conpur:d for Eight
Sessions of Fi spondJing for Food and Eight Tees ons o:f iresp)ndLng
tor F iper.


AU-1 Ai:'- AU-3 Al.-4 Ai.-5









50 29 41 -4 43 :

29 ?*2 19 17 17 '

50 25 38 24 3

32 17 15 13 14

3.5 1.6 2.8 1.1 1.0

3.2 1.1 1.8 1.2 1.1

L[ IS U St'10:i

From rih rIe ulr a of hc r'.re. nc scr i; of e:rxperiniTcn ic can

be concludc- rhac paper del';. can b- u.ed- as a re:pornse-concingen,

ei''crc for er catlifs l in.' and r.a[ncaining ~; .chi-..Jl -Lonrroll,:,J pacc'-rn:

of re;pond,.n in the hanI.-,c; r under a i. e -i ari- c: ,f iriirn al

c i:..rltio r. CLarac eri ; ic .chldlul.--concr olled r pFac c rns orf r e pond-

in -.' L..e, an de nir.- LrrEra d for I .-'ed-racto, '. riabl.:-ir.n er'ial, and

Siffereart. al r info- L trc-,r..: t of I.' rc tL s. hc- ,Jul,- of paper elt i. ,-r

I' F ig.urc 2, 3, A, 5, and 7). i .-.... -i ncL r.a3l -:i, dul, s of paper

el.l r di. nor ; 1 iC:, ; nci l pro- 'c i t- ChC slCLt. l;: a lcelerated,

"- call:r-ped" paccErr of r:.ipoindl~l tE is charici eriscic of fr t .:d-

interr'.'.l -chld.:ul-c -buc ch beih.avior t:,p .:V ll: concroilld bt FI

-.: .:1 ,.l: n ia or r mew;r'..;j Fi-' .-ure 61.

5.'fn pro:.rc,- : '.-ratcio ch .e ulE t of food and pap.r deli er.-

,-re us'e-- c. i. n'.ic.-t ac ho rlac .ie reiL'.' or. in-; scren:2c of

ci- se c'.'. po it re'; rfoI 'o r harscer'- con;si.ncEntlc: r.: : onJde ca

hi-l- r co irr-.inal r.ciio for food rhan che. did for paper FiSure 1-;

Table 2). il'nr hams c r .A'-3 3. c; i.cod iund: r a pr re i e-ra aj io 5

-ch-'dul for food d lsti'..r iFiure- 1 'T an erracic p.ncc-:r of

rcF.pondinr o.:urred. which p rijod of hi :h race and lo'.; ciac rELpond-

ing; per LOd :al a- Err.c in o : ..TTp l ; .-.plana ion of thi

bi:ha. tor can be offere- d ac this ci' Hio.-. r, s rince- a pro crE,: i..-

tat io -sci-dule of rc-- forcerr. c do,:. noc d i-cri-inace -t.:ci een fast

and slo:. rates of responding, it is possible that the schedule

itself imparted some of the obser'..d \ rtiabilic: into this animal 's

performance. For exarmple, both the slow iun Ca point (a) in Fig ure 13

and the fais run at point 'b) iwre. reinforced in this session.

Finral1l, ic ' demonstrated that food dUpri'.atic-n 'a nor a

necessary. condition for e-cablishin; arid inclaining food-reinforced

operant Leha'vior in the hamster. :euringer (C96- ) has prt-viiouSly

dcmonstratcd that both rats and pigeons 'ill wiork for food in the

presence of free food. In ei'ringer' stud,- it s'; to food-

deprive both species in order to *esr.blish- the ,o*:erant behavior in

the anira l's repC tt irA e, tbut the beha'.ior ltccr maintained in

the presence of free food. Furtch.:-norc, the anirials trad-. fewer

than 500 responses per day in thi free-food condition. In the

present stud', harl itcit responded ac races or appro'.inatel:, 5,000

responses per hour in the presence of free food IFigure 8, cop

record). Thls-, the selection of an appiopriace ipeccis is the only

operation necessary to establish and maintain food-r informed

operant behavior.

Once it has t.e n eisrac lil-..d that ne;stin -n tct riAl paper)

can serve as an effective positic.'e reinforcer for the hamster, the

question of jh., this is so chen arises. In studyir.g the *om.plex

interplay, bcn.Lc.:n orani sm and n'. iconrnt that character rize the

life-ccle of all iajnralian sfecics. it is often instructi e to

look for phsiologic3a f U3ri.,es of iti.- orginisii, hat hb '. arisen in

the course of evolution and chac, in turn, in tluene.. the a3. *s chat

the organism .'ill react to its current en. ironnmenc. In the case of

the haim i cr, it :ais noted in the Introd'i action thit hai sct-rs are

l.norun to hil:.rnra c It ;s not an o' taL's IM rj sugjest [lha

hit-rnac., '.: p nrid miiuch oA their l i i .-ithcr preparing for htL irna-

iorn, hiternina in or rec O'a ring iron hitl rnation. I-oth '. ha,.iorjlly

and pl-h.s lo .io c ll. .. The cornnct ion LtwecihLc hitcrnaci on, and the

r enforcing proper ie: f c E.stirn ma ri l .'ill no'' t propou ed.

Zince h msrcers ar. -;im. L ilian h itLrna cor the. .arC ch.:refore

inot sc icCly cla3 sifi, d as h:,onE'th.r l-rm h l t is, ha; on --

rimei reLulaci thr ir bo J, cte peracurc l1e al3 mr;ar.ia chat are

hon,oi 'h. rirrn, arnd juse variou' [ph biological and b h'.'ioral rnechani 3

co iin-ur a conr: EanrE _:.j, temi-.Fp.:Crr e in c i th i face of large

chbais in a-ib inC ECari.rature .t orer tiLes, ha rccr5 are

funcet onal poik lochsr. s, in cha .c undeJr ecial condi icion' their

d:. .J,. pe rasreiure ujll r s rn]J fail ..t ch chjiges in ambirnt ctrrptera-

cure, an,., at low enrouu h C.-rp -lracu .rc tchl rill hitber:ii e. Al o,

w..n he biiLo. cemp.erarcjL of a hiteirnat [i hamscer -approaches O 'P,

ano'tchIr ph :iolIocal m chankir of a ,cE un nr oriin orr wiill

gradually. I '.a' en a h-T er o'.'r j [cG -or- tc reec hour period, 3n.]

this arouJal pre".ncr. [chair dJea h t:, fr e:in r'Pr,: ser ,

Br. 1'., Ch. 9'. Tie fiuncrcio.nal poiLilother r of h.AmiterE chta

was noted au-o.e appears most reliat-l:. when three on ir.:romntil

fiac orE conri'.'.r to provide a tri;gerin .:r relie :1;.; c;im Ul'j :.

sit acion. lTi-, factors include 3 relac i.' l, loo' En.irori.ncal

temperaturee, :ou.plel with the avai lail ic. of tboh foi.o u.n r nesting

rn3 r ial chat can to h.:.a'd:d .. ane i& L.,Tan', 11-.). acij : rn ,ma3 aerial,

for the ha :cer, a ear- tc .er'.c as a sorry of "rclca --r" in eliciting

cr i lo:'ing phl, iolo:ica *:l M i.,n to occur in .1 .m inner 3n lo:gous. t

the rel-Ica-ser rc la L.h irnn :1':5) h.a ; dc.ion cT r j cd in th.. courship

patterns of ring dov.'s. In L, h rman's studies, en.'ironmenCtal st iruli

such as the sight of a conspecific dove trigger endccrine icchanisms

to change in prrdiccablc i'avs. Thus nri.sting martrial, to the hamster,

has both behavioral and phy biological cthrmo-rcLglatory Fs grlficance.

and it is quite po'siblc that. under conditions of only mvrr.del,

lo.' Ernvirornrental temperatures such as in the priecnt study (66 F.

+3), a han:ter .ith nestinr. material is ph:siologically diffr' rent

from one without ic.

The pl-hsiclogical importance of 3 large supply of food wouldd

scum to be analogous to the signifiincn of nsitirn miatriul .or

the harnsccr. ince liars errsstorc fool rather than l. :om ir obcse

prior co hibernation, food has consiidcraile ignific:arce for lamsters,

be'.ond an.' irimnediate physological need for it.

Two lines oif evidence wouldd sug.ast that food may be mTore

important than resting rmaterial for succe.s.ful hibernacion in the

hami ster. First Pichards ,.1965', in studies of hamster rnestine -iha'. ior.

demonstrated thai hamsters build nests up to a particular sriz, and

then cease. He SuLggeCts chaC fc-dtack from the neit itself controls

the terminr aion of nest building in haiMEst. r. Thus there appears co

be a "cutoff" mechanism for han tcr nEst building chat has not Lern

d.monscrated in food-r.-lart d icha'.ior.

The other evidence for the relatively, greater importance of

food for hamartrs ..omns from th. presenEt stud,. The

ratio data esreci3all indicate that -upcrabundant food is a more

effective. reinforccr than nesrting I rcrial for hjam c:t:s. Thi is

not surprising. since a hiberna:i tr. h.irstcr wa'ens peri.odically, to

eat, an. if the anijri.. L has an Insuff'ic in food :uppl, it will 1iN.

It is. hlirefore apparent Lhatc s solution ha proJuced t1eha':ioral

and ph stolo ical TrechaniMrri in hair.cer related ro hlterlna lo, n,

3nd th3c clhe',s: mn&- .l i ,Tr require Lhat de'.'o e a consider-

aL.l .ar,'our. c cf r !r and en-rc:." to accurjatrin food. To pri-

mall.,' -; f ici-'nL, Eh.- b-eh-.'ioral trchl nismT. should be relat*i-el.

irnenitc I.'c co Icial ilJuctuatio.,ns in rhe abundance -of food idep-

ri'a ion or 3ciatrion 'i nd this appear C to t h: e case :,-WI h.iir. cers

I Figur. ,) Thus1 the inc that ha-s2c r' are IhLlrnat .inr man '-al

can help a pl a in sore .f rl-.f tI.nus al finding, of- Lthe pr: sent e..*eri-

trnc Pr..L i; ll it 1 1 r A fe renc.:.- to iod-ma inc 3 in d b h .'or a.

An.ot- r i'.: r. of" thi presen.-nrt :-rciL of e -erTi.-a c clha sorn.e ateLraci;or. c ij;s se ." cpe rinc c-cndiricon

rech.niqu. E in t e' -rid U i O f in 'ci.~c b.-hj.'i or '.:uilh as hla.t- cr

nert tuild ;. The. hbar E- r in lcht' E e:.c i'.p ri c: T '. cr-a in:

hin hlic l- .: ihojlo. ilE. l.C L.;- l.i m d a natural3 1 occL rin chain"

:equ-ieni- of tah: .icr,. rich ;3per r.i n s-r. Ln; 3 t he fir er

link, and paper nan t jl3aP t ;, pilin cl'.- in, cc-. repre--nL ing

tie L.:r-;Lnal l itl:. lhe secondd I nrk of ltha cl in. c.n.r.o.-inl, c r.-d

"ir. c in; b-ha.t:.r",U i'- feel: aVA.'l able chrou. ho. ut 1, ch i; e-pe irr'en[t.

Conisequ-ientl the hamEcer haar; d an :ppor .nit" rto engs ;, in alc r-

nartil '.' .i icO- 'r iln i ng'i cthb \err al-.a, .: rncn rr:-r a 3il3ble

d'ur ing the cour-se of an .:-.p-r :.ntac l -ion, and freque.r.t d.trect

ot:-'r-.'arion- confirmTed that the ham'r-cers did .:nc i az in Lt.l-h : nd

o her-r nI -t -d ire'.: L- .tEd h '. itci r djr in .: r od of n:,.r,-n :.:.nd ing.

hE-e oti .-'r-. :ion C C: ri-,C a i ith Chl 3 ;pro.prt 3r. a Tr.r.ardt s,

che tclh:..' ior" of cthe l- i cn' 1 in of the chain- miii t i be

under e* c: > ir',.c.n al control.

It Cappcar L .it the schedule of paper delivery chat is in

effect de-cerr.ires how much nest-dirccted collateral b.:-h .'lor will

be e.hibitcd in a s-es;sion, withi fixe-d-ratio schedules producing

considerable: less disruptive nesr-d irected behavi or chat .'ariable-

inter'.al schedules or DI!. s.chedilctj Thus the response rate

engendered by, a particular schedule of rcinforcer.cnt is seen .o

exert a -crong influence on how rruch distrptive tehaviot will

appear in an e..:perimental session.

Ic now app.: 'rs that the daca froT th,- present e..:pcrimcnt

are rel.-var.c to both the i..: tho.dolcg:; of comparat i.c psi: bho ogy, and

to the cross- pccF iea aspects of che :*'erimental analysts of

behavior, ..'i th ILtgard to i.e ps- .chl c.log., these -, :-.:p rii .ents

point co the ad.'.nr ages to ti gained from au'corating the stud; of

instinct ive behavior. Ey us in opF.-ranr condTi iioning prc-cedite i and

instrui~ent3tion it ',5 possible to continuously nonicor the acquisi-

tion of nesting. materiall under many .-;p.:ri.-entrial conditions and

over long Feriods of t ir,,. K3.':anau I'l%6 ) has proviouslly d.-nc.ns. rated

that .'hi e-footed m;ice iPiroi '. .C: u can ria.ster a ve..l ccrplic t.ed

e::.p rirriental regimrin liha includ.: operant control of ch.;ir f.:..ding,

drinking, gross ac t.ivict', en"iion :ntal ll.minacrto1 and access co

the nest site. Operant control o...r raterial acquisition can

now be added to the above list of bha.'iors, and interaccicns among g

all of thsc-'beha.i .rr can be i'.vestigated.

The pr..esent :-:.poritrnt also ha.e iniplications for the

eoxp.-rimental analysis of 1.:'a,.ior. On th.- nost ba,;i level,

belia.'ioral data haLve teen gathered on the golden hamster, a Fpeci.s

that has long the subject of o-medical ir d pl ..siolog ica

investigation, but l-iat has been iclat i.-'; l 1 inored I-,' bcb.a. L ral

scientists. Ecsides adding basic bcha'.'ic.rl data on a3. unr cudied

Tpeci.:es and on 3 ro'. el re i -it. rce i iPr. .per' ihe prEsent e..per LiTr.e ts

al. o e :Ct.:-d the ; a 1[icr 3 :l rthe c p,-,nce pt Lo "schc. ule-c- o n rol of

t ha";' .i ".. ,.-: rLepl e Icable pact-c itn: ..' r ;c pondiL, '.jirder paF rticular

schedjijle of rein f ot'r-e en t art dj -:'r:. st 3 r 3 te d in ncrca ini c nrEIcers of

p ciLe rand ir;ch i ore re iL t-rc rs, the p.:.-;er the co:,ncept of

schcJd'le -.-:.r.C r.l -Io' e.ha'-"i >r %\iIl CLc'c t. be rab c L Er I all., a acceptedd

air,.:r-., beha.' oral scientisct.

L:, .rinsin: the paper-rr.a int a i..d L: pr issirin bLeh3. i Cor of che

hair.scer und,-r *s:h.-dule co, ntrol -one ir. in ci: e.c ,. '.-s at inr a

single l irt. in a bi.iol.'L5 i C l ., i-rp.rrta3rc h.: a of .: r,r.s ,ir, he li

of th.-' i Faccors s'-uch a th i current cr -..: ct strar of L he

lis a-ster ;11ill intEracc :.tth en'. 'onmentl a 3 ctora uch a r.- tc peracure

or sch.-du-le of re in foi :- ..: rnt to Jcerci r,-r,:- the natu iji .:, th or inL : i -

:n. ir'n- L nt itr. t racti:n at an: in t inc. It is to i e h-:.ped that

l-he present ;cries; .:f e- :pF e' i.-:crts help point the i'a,' c el ucida3t rn

the i-r turc fir co f i.ple'.., naturall 1y o k.> urrin,;" chain- of behavior

that al:....jr..J in the Echolo,,ical lic i a ure.

In c.nclj I er. an o-e[ tc r. ;, r; I'19 O) would -eeIn to

be approprice. He 'r ates: "i-.a3t L nf.t -a il: i apparent, c. n Lt the

educated and i;i-.3Crhe ic r,.n cienc-it, 1i-- s h c heh t *h c icnr is i ., pri-, sac.t inr order in. rnatI . O nl'. th- r are d :sco,' .e c-rni .:-Jr

to. I.e useful ir, a r.ra tib l .;. E-t the rare disco'.e r .es jre!li

lbuil upon a foundat ion of irsiall ft1 ri ns,. none .:of ch. -: .. :.LJd-

rhat. in, in Lhehrse 1 L' ..; liou '."hich che final sceep :oild n e r

ha e eein t[al-.e ; raj. r c.,n cern .:.f ie. ce r i t he- :o-undne .: of

the ba i.c edifice. . C'tfen, data ar .F.portanr onlE as chc-,


c-stabl .h or r. fute rth soundnrc-- o ocher dsc or of soe.?

conceptual izatic of natural ph.:no.mena. The- serve to crcngcthcn

the inter-al consiscenc. of the science; in this role che:. ar

fundamrrncal to he ad'.3ance of knowl-:-'g (p.33).

Ic is hoped hlat che present d3aa will add in somr, s-a3ll

part to our c.'.r Sroi:'ng knc'ledi.g of the order rc be found in

behav'.ioral phonc-,ena.

iEJ F E i !,i- EL`

F: cl-,.:,l. i:, 1'. 3. Q, ) ,- 6i .

., rd, L. P. F; -....r.dinr, ir r :.- t a i.aincr r ',d urn..: r r. n i. -
inde r. -rdnr. e ic,: rric sch l -nd r, c po s.:s rod. c ij c.. .- c rt
sl-c:k. ,Journal :I f [he r p.F r ir-... l .-nal .-: .:; .:. r,
I ,.9 12, 1- 1 .

D iin.. H. iU. T.. m;n. C. F' E'.:- ct.:rp.r al ur rh rnoid anj .adr..nal
ca .rc-ir cf h ;: anr.icrs J rr c :ld e..;:po' hd hJ rntion .
vi t c .:.rrp r i. r,:, c r En :c' rm .o l: '1 -. 'U ;3..

D.-n.-nt r '.. H.. Huff. F. L.. F.- '., in, P*. _- s r.-'', 11. r.
i'E .; rnrlI b. L.:-' in rch. r .L: E I- ,q.anr tlU i o:. f n i..
-' 'Id [n -n i, E'. i r.l :'62. 11 -.9-.- -''

['. :n.r ,.r. '. H., Ts lor, F.. E., arrco. 1 . I- rnal teha'.' ,:r
in rhl, rn r sn in r t i,.I i-ion 3jr.J .iuar.c i : c; in 3f n-est
bui lj in ,. I hia-' :, -. 1'?6 3-., L-L .

F ll-, J. L. Produce on of :: L ,] I b' n i r. c. ir r; _-nt ,fo:d
s.:h- diu l i: e C I '::. I I :3, 1 '?9 1 '?:.

F.r -er, C. B c. : i n n'c7 r F. f_-,hedl, s of r'- inforcer c ent. : "'.rk:
Aip .l.; ,:.n-CC r nt ,i r:,i -C rc:. f 3, 1'6 ;. 7.

Fi r.. . ,.n *p..:- I*'.. nr I o te l in. fo r o tu ld jin ln e lor Ln
riult i F o .r nt c t.hs i ior r .c -rt rr c ir' J., r l of r.h-
E' An l '.L .3 cl i -r I'6P, h.. 113-t I6.

Gr nt. E. l;ncl ir or sh. J. H. A corr-:.pari n :f ch: :,cial
F[ -' cures :of s-rr.- c.r'.nir .rn l r ab..rrtor., r o. n-.n.i, s. F i r.t ,
I' 3, 2 '-_1 ':.0' ..

tIoU -, 1. Fr r'rio *i a;i.r.. of r-..'rd trencth.
Li i.i .,:c Il .l, l 3-, *-]-I-'l.

Horn, '". 'Ed c,) er r-n h i..r: r s of r-s ;rch arid ai-pli.- ria rn.
Jeu '.'t : pl- .. r. -C .n ur -:Crofts, 1 3 o.

Hull, C. L. P'r ric r of t h- i': rm e '..'. : pl .on i- ur;v,-
CrI .f f C 1>43.

Jansen, P. E., Coodnian, E. D., J' D., & Eunncll. 1.. N.
Pap-r :a positive reinforced for saquisit ion of a bar
pre_.s rc- ponse by the gold-en hamstc-r. Ps\honorn-:
:cier nce, 1969, 16. 113-114.

Jo, iasas, D. Changes in the open field beha'.lor of female golden
hams-scrs. Ps'.:honcrmic Scie-nc e, 19r.9, 1 16-127.

Kagan, J. SL F -rl.un, H. The re:.ard value of rurrn ing ac i'.'tt'.
Journal of Cior-aritiV.'e and Ph-siolo ical FEr-.h lov',.,
1934, 5:7, 1i,.

Kav.anau, J. L. Leh. ior of captive u.'hLtc-footed mice. Ccienc'?,
196;, 155, 1E23-1639.

1:eesey, R. & Goldste in, l. ULs of" progress v,. f i:-:-d-rat ic pi c.,dJures
in the a se. -smefnrt of int racrrn ia[ reinforceo-enit. Jiornal
of the FxrT.'- ri .n-ical .'nal .' is of Peha. ior, 196 11,

Kclleh,.r, R. & ,'71rse, W. H. :ciedules uiine no-:iAus sc inul
IV: a tr inc.rlrlci- ing si ,i.c po pcF or'rr.:rc scriedule in che
squiricl monint'e Jlo)jural of the F.-perit.-.rca 1 Anal.31 is
of Feha.i or, 1969, 1 l c. 3-l I1 9.

Kimble, C. .. Hil1 ard and :artais' cord ti or ir: and l-ar in g.
I._w -',.rk: '.ppleton-Cenruury-CrofEc 19't1.

Kinder, E. F. A study of the nest building ajcLi'ic: of the albino
rat. Journ al of E:.- ,jfrir,:ncjl o [o.: 1927, -7. 117-161.

King, J. A. ., l.',cizranr, R. G. Sand digg r, ing cont in-ien upon Lar
pre issin ir. deer, r ice (Fcrocr... cus I .r, final Eha-. icur,
19'.. 1.2, '46-&.-0.

Lane J. 'estc-t ildin behavior in three ;pec.t of deer ice,
FPcron. CU:.. F.P-a, iour.1969, J5, 22 :.--03.

Lee, T. C. !S .ong, F. 1. i. Ti-,pEra ur. e .fftect and strain di fft rences
in the i- r,:t build iii behavior of inbred mrnic, Ps'.,:honomic
Science, 1970, .0, 9-10.

Lehrman, D. .. Inceractl ia t, i.:een internal and e:- er-al en. iron-
ments in ihe- r.- ulat iorn .of tch repLodu.:t ve .* f cha
ring dove. In F. Peach i'F .), Fe.-- and tbeh .ior. :.,w
York. John I'lle' 5 ons, 1965.

;Iason, J. ,'., BradJ, J. V. 5 Toll 'er, G.A. Plasma and urin.ry
17-hydro:.- cortici.'.aeroid re=porn5e co 72-hour 3'oidanc
sc si c ns [ he r.onkr .e F r.cho-ao; atic: i l. i icine, 196S,
3J C60'.-630.

1t'or: U. H :. -l lher, F. I S:h.E-.ul as f n.ia..encriCal d*-t: rminanj ts
o.:f b.hl 3 r. In I J.:hc. ii ald I Th.e rhe.r" cf
r- inlforc- .e .: .:l l .: c . :. or.: ippl et r.- i rn ur.-
iCrt.' '19M'i. C:b. 5.

'.cr r, .'. .I. An ir:l re. p.nrid f r f' .l in cthe ip.L.t : : of free
.o.'d -:i, I r 19. 6'A 299-401.

C'ile,', tJ. N:. Gloc t. :ic E. 10. ie- ,t in' nia rsal as a reinfor.:.u.- n[it
for .o'-r 3nc r j' iocr in ihe rar. FE c'Ih i nl:;1sn .
1970, 11. .1 3.

Pr.: -:r,. I. .. r-o:.'.n F. .-. r'. -.3r -.- an r l r.hl,' i ol.: .
Fh ladel ph. a: i'. F. aunijer C, .., I .

F.tchsr-i :1. F. I. '.spect: of nat.-rnal L.ha" r in th-; clder
h3.aj:r. r. Ph.D. The ;sis, Camtrid-i 1.'n v.'Ersit I .",.

Picharda. 11. F. 11. ECff.CLE *: .. t r zj.'; ,. and prc?.:* tercn. on nest
tuildinr i, tr-- ,ol..n h 2- r. Pi rl F- .i,, 9r. ,
17. HiOK-,.

Ficht.r, C. P. To. al -- f r.4tu l a r., i nict iCon in arinal: arnd
h1iu- n t inr: Th: i r ia L..:tcu. ,r- 19.2, 0.?-103.

fidri n, M1. Tl.tic:; of .ci n fic r arch. ['.E York.: [a ic
LO .. ;. I. ';, i.

Ek' rii r E F T-h ;h icr o:f .:rc iri ; 'e; Yrtkl : rppletc n-
C- nt r ,-CrofL ;, l1.i. .

T-.ircelbau P. F';nri. arnd ic:..--d ir:ct. d 3:Li. L, in l, r ic
and- al rat'. J .rnal .a f iompn araci .. si ii ;h llo :'ic: l
F ch.I:le; c 19 7'. 1il.. 4 :-' i90.

Te telt[ l at' F. The u-s of opEri t Mir.thcd in th- a ;,_2ir'ir aid
cc:-rcrol cf r' cic'. i'ac n l tates in H r. I Ed.),
Oprl anc t-fa a r a rea :of r:-.Lar:- and acppli .:ac n.
L.ou ',,', k: .:0 pl .I: n- e> ur','-,r,.f r 190:,.. E f i -. r57 0 .

Telm,.an, E. L. Purc : .- l, ha U ior inr alnill ari- r.-3r. ll.:- "' rk:
,'-r pl- ton, I932.


Paul Edward Jansen \ -~ born AuJgust ., 1'-'I3, in Poscon, I'.as a-

chuOsUects. He attCended ;cl'0oI,[s in E.o;ton ajd N;;oL.i.ood., t.jschrtts,

and graduated from Lo:ton College High School ii 1961. From 1961

to 1965 :Ir. J-an-en accended tche .'ii .er t; i of N:or.r Dar e, 1.'ch re he

rec-i'ed a P.A. Ln June, 1965.

!r. Janrern entered the Craduate School at [he L'liv ,Er. t of

Florid in Januar., l9,'6. Fromi li!.6 to 19 ;, 'MIr. Jansen Iaj 3

teaching and rec-earc, as;i.c ant in the DCepartr.en of F: cholo'f,

and he recei cd an ,!.A. in Pa; holo;:.' I June of 1';0. 3.fii-c June

of 1970 !Ir. Jan-en 1ii;, bE,-n a Craduatr Fellow, while prtupr.ini a

degree of L'oLcor of Philosoph:, wi;ih a mTiajor tn Fc.:-holoy.

I cercif:' cihf I h:v.- read chrb ru. J.' Jand that in via. op nlrlOn
it confcrrm to acc.. pihlc ihrC Lani rds .of scholar ly pF rtentation and l
full adJ-1quacte, in .cop.- and qu.alic i; a d i: er action for the d.
of rocrcr cf rT lo'oFp'.

[ic.nald D. btjr ih
A ssOc iati- Frc. --. r o f F'P cbo

I c rc if'.' rht [ h a, read rch i: A Jdd and rhat in r.', o r. inion
i confr )rt s to ai.: pr b jd ta da t o'f scholar F:re i.:nr aci.n and is
ful l: delqusr,: in acor. and q alic a d is-. rcit i on for the d. agree
of r'oc or of ThilloSophy.

Fo erc L. K ,,
As -is- anir ro rf sor of f h. ,iolo '

I c..r if chat I hi ra; 3 hi -cud and thait t i r, :.. opinion
it c:or,'OrTT t o acz E... [ta I. s- n'jard o.f scho: lar l pri -'-r t a, I on jnd i
full' 3J-.d uace a in i c:.- and q Iali ., as a d L tr t cri on for thi d, :ree
,.f oc tor of hr lh i h 1 h.

'A;oc itc-a Friofe;ro r f Enr .:.r.loc,

I cert f ait I ha ".. ra.d thi icuJ'. an-d char Ln iti,.. o linio
it : o,.rorrr,- to acc ptc .ble rcrnd ar of scholar l r. ::n at r ion .and i:
full:, a.J.qLuat:, in -cope .and qa alit., a L d i -rC a ion for ich; d. r
of Doctor of Fhtl,:.sorphy.

Cdvard F. i13 jI ,:.di
A i -~a t F rof. :or ,:f :cholo:.

I *:er rt that I hi e r,.d this -'Litd: and thiat in :,. opinion
it con c',r.Tr co .:cepr..ihl, :trndaJrds of -iholarl pre i nationn arnd i;
ful l: a.jqu.-at in 2cop, r'dL qual iL .s i disescrat icn for the d.gre
ofi Doctor f t T r"iloh . V. Hr, p LcI.;f
P fo --. s r -.f F-'cholon y

iT i disC. s rcat ion sub.ri ttij co cl-D r'epsarccrent of FL : holo g.
in the- ,oi'l' o f Art- and c incr and : t th-. LIra.jiuac E o iJ i u il, and
i.a: .accepr.d aj part ial f ulf ll r, ren of ch-_ re u sirr.-c i ic for the d-:egree
of Doctor o f L'ilosol:,-.

ec.,I:.b..r, 1971

[."-an, r.3adi,ac,- 3cho0ol

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