Group Title: study of the effect of examiner race on individual intelligence test scores of black and white children
Title: A Study of the effect of examiner race on individual intelligence test scores of black and white children
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Title: A Study of the effect of examiner race on individual intelligence test scores of black and white children
Physical Description: v, 44 leaves. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wellborn, Emily Louise Surgenor, 1937-
Publication Date: 1972
Copyright Date: 1972
Subject: Intelligence levels   ( lcsh )
Mental tests   ( lcsh )
Special Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Special Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 38-43.
Additional Physical Form: Also available on World Wide Web
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by Emily S. Wellborn.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00097648
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000871568
notis - AEG8791
oclc - 014276554


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i [ii~ ,5..r:T, iTl':'i f rF L ,. L T:i I L l-' 'l.,'iTL
DISEF:.T.vli i-Al I E:C it EL ' '' tt'AE
C.OLu'Ii: L iOF THE 011ii1. .:r ..I FL'r ,* 'iA i 1 i' f 'l Ti..
FULFiLULilIIT O' THE i L h ,i.E lf-.EllF iI F. Tiu_ D L'-. iI E I 'F
D[OiC T-' F *jF i H iLi. 'Pi,'i

ii i L ; i r.,i.M.,i

Copyright by
Emily S. Wellborn


The completion of this study would not have been possible without the

combined efforts of many persons. My sincere thanks and appreciation are

expressed to my committee members, Dr. William R. Reid, Chairman, Dr. Cary

Reichard, Co-chairman, Dr. Myron Cunningham, Dr. Richard Anderson, and Dr.

James Whorton for their encouragement, assistance and valuable recommenda-


My appreciation is expressed to Dr. John Thornby for his contributions

to the statistical analyses of the data, and to Dr. Madelaine Ramey for her

contributions to the statistical design of the study.

The cooperation of Mr. Earl Kilgore at A. L. Mebane Middle School and

Mrs. Helen Teel at Alachua Elementary School is gratefully acknowledged.

Finally, to my husband, Charles, and to my children, Bill, Ricky, and

Linda goes a special thank you for their inspiration and patience.

Acknowledgments ..........

List of Tables. . . . . .

Abstract . . . . . . .

Chapter 1
Prcblm. .............

F.: 1 of the literature ...

L' . . . . . . .

Chapter 4
Results. . . . . . .

Chapter 5
Conclusions and Recommendations.

Appendix ..............

Eirli r.:. ari 1. S .. .. . .......

roiyraiL.:iL Sketch . . . .


. . . . . . . . iii

. . . . . . . . v

. . . . . . . . vi

. . . . . . 1

. . . . . . . . 5

S . . . . . . . 19

. . . . . . . . 19

. . . . . . . . 26

................ 29
. . . . . . . . 29

. . . . . . . . 38

. . . . . . . . 44

LIE! .-F h-.lL L

Table 1
Mean Age of Students .......................... 1'.

Table 2
Analysis of Variance Summary Table ..... . . . . . . ..

Table 3
Mean Full Scale IQ Scores for Black and White Subjects
by Examiner Pairs .......................... 22

Table 4
Mean Full Scale IQ Scores of All Subjects by Order of

fl- -40 Fulli i I.. '. .r l f: r thiC :k i-i lilhi :t El ',--' ,tr ,
4-..1 iL .r..f I .J-AI- hl -ad JIni ofti- r .

Abstract of tiLs:-Erjlt.-n Presented Ec crE.
Graduate Council of the University of FI.-rijd in Fjrcirl
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree cf Dpcc.:-r of .irl .:*=iC-ph

A Study of the Effect of Examiner Race on Iiri' lLJa irelligii:Enc
Test Scores of Black and White *r.iidrnr


Emily S. Wellborn

August, 1972

Criirnan. Dr. William R. Reid
C ,.,-.r- ri,,in : Dr. Cary Reichard
laj..,r LEirLm-nrL* Special Education

-_4The purpose of this study was to determine if examiner race significantly

)jfre.d individual intelligence scores of Black and White children at two

rij l lIvels.

Three Black and three White female examiners administered the Wechsler

inr.eiian c i~,i. for Children to 24 Black and 24 White children in the

:c.:.n, ird cr. ir.j grades at Alachua Elementary School and to 24 Black and .Cr.Lircr. in the seventh and eighth grades at A. L. Mebane Middle

3;cr il. *-r[icrL-.tely equal numbers of boys and girls were included in the

Tr.e licE:, of the study provided for each child to be tested by a Black

-nd L' i iiFcE .- miner with a seven-day interval between test administrations.

in L*r.drr c.* d r.ribute retest effects between races and among examiners, the :cr.l ,1 was alternated so that equal numbers of Black and White chil-

dr.n .c r.:d. rd, level were tested first and second by each examiner.

L,.-1i ,.-.f ariance procedures utilizing a factorial with replications

it rr i 0 anc I.o Ii-i J3Lc.

1C v..z-, *ri1uJd dJ Lh.c c'..-r. .,: r.:, J d If, r-rc.:- in rac 1 lt ur. :,- cc ;d -C'r.r -

.c .tcrl-:cr crid, 1w l P I .. i tr. c, -i- E c I cL id t'ilc *im..iric r'..


Stu-ief : or-pirin-. t[he iifcllij en.e l ra.ial, atiiri... .nd sc*-3 al gr:-.jps

5it:-.url in Ei- r ir** f 31un l !li[ CcCr3*c.jr.. TDii. .zB"? i a11j6li 3 tlCEF i [u

&cl.r Iucn Ctr tche crn *[1 me :EnLur'. iEn Eihi, EtinCt-3L...ljri ti5lur ni

tIC1 a d.a:Cepted 3EA a *al1d1 and re'.1able Ia1mejSjrE c* i rdiv.idu3i 1 n EC l I-

;-:n' rc I tror. 1 13; I unne, 1 17: F r a; nd: ,' a-d Tccc r. I' .I". n, i ct i 2 ;1

L.' la ,'23 .

Ii.e -lde n.e ifrori Lhc:c earlier c-dle ic.- e ill a- t. idence wi:ri ha

s.'-.i. ,r j ,.rec re, .:C l hr a dc.- -L r vr t j tra c th.,cr r, dJi iertC.c- L

pc r f :.r nci -.rn rn:. j i diuY int Elli inC tE. t which ri.) be ae ct rthuc tl t:

n'tLerlr;i ii p srti'.-ular c- .5.1a e -ci :, .r r.acttl a r-.p. S t ., 1 4 8,

*.* ry liti' 'J I :Qu-'en i 'hu rn 1- .t ; I ii1 s 1W I I L -.

L'cru n tr jr d ) I.r f- rr...e in i r.E t 11 rnr t- c. 't- Et .. En r cici I

rc-. up b.l'. s r. .-r LeJ ; r. unc .I* r- search cc-nclrnir3 crc.: ..iEurt.-

rurcur. controv' erz.,. 'oC.e in '.'e tlC .Lr rh .'e CA. -luded trat grc*p dii-

f-irer. I in, E[C.illn .r are du: c. Innra f a.corr h.: h art Pi.'L ai lerli

L--to dii._tEiun3l and en.1iru,,nl eni al j.anni -lratic-.n.

iun c:, 't59 81 ir. a rc'.,'iC' .f apr-fre' i el;.' .- .i-ed >= d al n;.i icth tcl-e

irac ill,.er e **1 IJe..rre .and l white ia rrn r crd the fc-ii..l oi thli. L cr-'up.

. L.- 1-..jldj Ern.r rnc r . lt L hie x in c i at ion . 11 p cinc Li r hnc

p -,R: e O.:f we i ni nauc 1% diiferene bs t E[ E r. uilj.. rono arid i tr d ce =-nited

t. in ceitif .c e c.. .' (p. 116-.

I-F :ent 1, iian.. ir.e L Lga3tc.r h..C conc luJi th ri e ro.p dif er nri.- in

inrll ience are due to en irurn.i-ntcl and ocl ial facccr u4l i ah .i r ien-ble

to educational and environmental manipulation. The position of these inves-

tigators has been summarized in an article in the American Journal of Ortho-

psychiatry (1957) which was endorsed by 18 social scientists including Otto

Klineburg, Gardner Murphy, Jerome Bruner, and Anne Anastasi. They stated:

"The conclusion is inescapable that any decision to use differences in the

average achievement of the two racial groups as a basis for classifying in

advance any individual child, Negro or White, is scientifically unjustified"

(p. 422).

Following a UNESCO conference attended by sociologists, anthropologists,

psychologists, and geneticists from around the world, Tumin (1963) issued

this statement:

Whatever classifications the anthropologist makes of
man, he never includes mental characteristics as a part of
those classifications. It is now generally recognized that
intelligence tests do not themselves enable us to differen-
tiate solely between what is due to innate capacity and what
is the result of environmental influences, training and
education. Wherever it has been possible to make all
allowances for differences in environmental opportunities,
the tests have shown essential similarity in mental charac-
teristics among all human groups. In short, given similar
degrees of cultural opportunity to realize their poten-
tialities, the average achievement of the members of each
ethnic group is about the same (pp. 5-6).

Although more and more investigators are accepting this latter position,

the variables which are responsible for the discrepancy between the measured

intelligence of Negro and White groups are still largely unexplained (Dreger

3nd Miller, 1960; Kennedy, Van De Riet, and White, 1961; Rosenthal, 1966;

.,il--r and Theye, 1967).

.~uong the many variables which may affect performance :n a,. intelligence

test are socioeconomic class (Arlitt, 1921; McGurk, 1953, McQueen and Churn,

1-'r'. ['D.j ch and Brown, 1964; Burnes, 1970; McFie anJ Tr.;.-.p:,:., 1970); caste

Jif -r.-.c (Canady, 1943; Dreger and IlIil-r. 1-' .; r..nned., i'nr [- iiet, and

White, 1961); emotional disturbance (Hammer, 1954); nutrition (Zach, 1970);

using the tests with groups not represented in the standardization sample

(Kennedy, 1965; Williams, 1970); and examiner and examine variables (Trent,

1954; Pasamanick and Knobloch, 1955; Masling, 1968; Dreger and Miller, 1960;

Kennedy, Van De Riet, and White, 1961).

Of these variables, the variable of examiner race has been examined the

least (Littell, 1960; Dreger and Miller, 1960; Kennedy, Van De Riet, and

White, 1961; Solkoff, 1971). These authors suggested that although investi-

gations of this variable have been few and inadequate, examiner race may be

an important factor which contributes to the observed decrement between Black

and White intelligence test scores.

The significance of this variable permeates the entire educational spec-

trum in our culture. Standardized tests measuring all aspects of personality

are routinely administered in public education from kindergarten through

adult education and job training programs. Educational decisions based on

standardized test scores mold and alter the education and training of each

child within the United States.

Special educators are especially concerned with standardized tests

since the results of these tests are used to determine placement in special

education programs and to design educational experiences for exceptional


With the influx of minority group children into special education classes

following racial integration, knowledge about variables contributing to racial

differences in measured intelligence has become particularly important. Dunn

(1968) has estimated that well over half of the children in public school

special education classes for the educable mentally retarded are minority

group children. Williams (1970) has called for a moratorium on all t--icli~i

c tI F.i l -'= jnal1 rlt-l CrtiTirrito [ r.- Cd:[ jar. ia all al.i-.

In a recent article, Ross, DeYoung ..=n ich-rn 1',9 r1 .- : .,ir-I tEh the

continued existence of special education ir,n r f*-t-lb: schools depends upon

more accurate and less discriminatory placement procedures and the develop-

ment of curricula relevant to the needs of exceptional children. They


Recently, suits have been brought against public schools
for placing certain children in special classes for the
educable mentally retarded. Through the courts parents
are challenging the placement procedures, and the
effectiveness and harmful impact of special class pro-
gramming. Special educators are urged to initiate
immediate reform in testing and placement procedures
or there is a likelihood that changes will be imposed
by the courts. (p. 5)

Present Study

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of examiner race on

individual intelligence test scores of Black and White children in the second

and third grades and in the seventh and eighth grades.

Most of the variables which have been correlated with performance on

psychological tests such as socioeconomic class, caste membership, motivation,

etc., are only indirectly amenable to educational intervention. In contrast,

if examiner race is an important variable in psychological testing, direct

educational intervention is possible through matching of examiner-examinee


:LAfPI E R nju'

R iL, .. OF TlHE LITEF_ "rLP

licc L taL.ur E rtainrin re to ar.InE r a-:-. a a 3n irndPr.d-r rnt 't atifabl -

iarrd I .Ini *trul.-J u,< riar ila of E..auiiir race u ir., iLt..- 141t.

*;.r 1nfiord-E in. C Ir EC lli;. r:cE c le a [E -EE L i- J l. n 1 Ec'L h -t i egroc

and 2$ i Lr E t. a.-- -l- m. Hi.- iound Lh.E LQ 3v.:. i, 3 tor e u. r li r-- i.l.- d

ini a rag-- Inciirai of i.i\ points undnr thI ri.gro Eumyincr and in Q codiI

I:r O.Iio[5 =.-.m 1 ari a.Lerai.- Jd:r3-i- of 5a1 printL irnr- r Lhe rerc.

.'ta t1.r 1'",- .1 ri .- L i Lan 's p iorieer : E i.: and :or .iu d hat

r~ t li.u- .l.; i-: al rw ikn '-, i: rl. a- '-lm e ono l -:n- 'lrc e a -i r an.? vil-r.[ e

'rre anir.-, r ja,. ck of rar.Jo. m o n nd a irT,. rc of ijb3.: cE arnd

l ,.1 : f ; c ti ;: t i il i ni f i: ant rE. ult a p r: iud d in; :aliJ i:condl 1u :rt.

Viit r ill.t i rand Fis-=in r 1P 5i -: >J-r ..C.J p .-.e prual FlF. 'rr -

.* .riimc-c i n whii r, pr-ic neii, r al, anJ dcror'j or: o:rd: E re lj .J :,n

a tL c L ,c -:[o Th;.'. fr rnd a ;igni ftr. a L Ilo r L jiC Oir. iri .- EO .li.roga-

cor., word: for :lI' -=bjT i .- w.rlinn. .'i ch a blad- c' -:nri r than fo i la.:k

i b =-c uth 3 '.'tice C:-a.nir or for Iiriie t.bjictZs orl:;in- with 3

Witi c. -.. in r i. r ia L -A 1. ir.,: r.

Irrit L''i u-d a ij..k adr.J 3j hitie Ea.r..i-nr to r-rEsEnt a ritIhir-

iirti[cAi.of tak t1:. l tick 3ndJ WicEj 1 InJp arc-n. :lIhilJrn.. e f U..uid

ihitr %iin blaic- *:i.ldrr.n eir- e.jminrd b:. Lhe r. .ic 1 r. l l atiEOr r.nnv

r.fu-;cd ao mAk: 1 c ulec ion 15 per cent of Ch, ciiF.e. H..Low.L r, the lack

childrr imaid rn.c evadi.Ji r-po-3nsi to tri. Bladl e aiuinr. hi.r*i- .r 3 no

differencee in the r.ipon,-s of Whitie childr-r n tO elchEr etairn,er.

Pasamanick and Knobloch (1955), ts..:- nii E .ir.ner e, f.:.,ndJ a : ni ,,:,nc

difference in language responsiveness ar.- lnrua e ,...-i j la.urij

by the Gesell Developmental Examination in nNir... nrir-fnr ar 24 months.

No significant differences in physical or '-1r. iciral J.1 i.:pf.: r. had been

found in the two groups of infants during ti, rLr-E I ar:.i-. '1 the study.

They concluded that "apparent early awareness of racial differences and loss

of rapport has serious implications in the field of ethnic group psychology,

particularly in the use of verbal items on intelligence testing" (p. 402).

In a study involving 40 White male college students, Rankin and Campbell

(1955) measured Galvanic Skin Response to a Black and a White examiner. A

real GSR device and a dummy GSR device were connected to the arms of each

subject. One experimenter read emotional words to the subject while a Black

or a White examiner "adjusted" the dummy device. The found a significant

difference in GSR's for Black and White examiners.

Pettigrew (1964b) reported an unpublished study which used two groups

.. El'.a 3jdulc equivalent in income, age, education, and region of birth.

Ir.i r:.-c Inr.r [ewed by a Black examiner answered more questions on an

inl:ratlr.: -auc 'y and a synonym test than did the group interviewed by a

Ifa t L i i- Xl- r.

:ilr lr ar.-i Theye (1967) reported a study by LaCrosse (1964) in which a

ir- -1.-..;r.-r retested Negro subjects who had been tested with the Stanford-

ir;: iri.lii,-..:e Scale (L-M) by a Black examiner. The same White examiner

risi s-ccItd WL. subjects who had ae.n c i c..l r, i a Wi. t 3 .-i i. in-c r the

rcc:t .:;En,. ti,.rn, the Black s-bji-:ci' .:.:res .-r-i ac gn aiiar l. .i ir than

prE '.'i.:..u i.res, whereas the W~ ~c :-.Lejec /' i,.:-'.: i r 1ig ii l.:iar i, higher

Eh -- pr. -: -ui .:.'res.

Pelosi (1968) reported a study by Kennedy and Vega (1966) which investi-

gated the variables of examiner race, subject intelligence, and grade level

in conjunction with the incentive conditions of praise, blame, or control.

They concluded:

No differences in performance were observed between subjects
seen by either Negro or White examiners when praise or neutral
comments were made during testing. It was only when examiners
made derogatory comments to subjects about their performance
that differences occurred. Under the blame condition, there
was a decrement in performance of subjects tested by White
examiners. (p. 9)

Baratz (1967), working with Black students at Howard University, con-

ducted a study on the effects of examiner race, instructions (neutral or

anxiety-producing), and comparison population (subjects were told they would

be compared with Black or White college students). Examiner race was the

only significant effect. Type of test and comparison population were not


Katz, Robinson, Epps, and Waly (1968) showed that performance on a

test of expressed hostility was influenced by race of the examiner. Seventy-

two Black boys were administered a hostility questionnaire and were then

divided into four groups. Two of the groups had a task structured as a

neutral research procedure under a Black and a White examiner. The other

two groups had a task structured as an intelligence test under a Black and

a White examiner. The subjects were retested with the hostility question-

naire. When the task was structured as a neutral one, there were no signifi-

cant effects of the experimenter's race on the subjects' hostility scores.

However, when the task was structured as an intelligence test, significantly

less hostility was expressed when the examiner was White.

Pelosi (1968) investigated the effects of examiner race, style, and sex

on 96 Black males involved in a youth training program. Each subject was

randomly assigned to the treatment conditions and was given a battery of eight

tests including six subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the

Purdue Pegboard Test, and IPAT Culture Fair Test. No significant main effects

were found for any of the variables under investigation.

Caldwell and Knight (1970) used the Stanford-Binet (L-M) to test the

effect of examiner race on intelligence test scores of 15 Black high school

boys. No significant differences in IQ scores were found under the Black or

the White examiner. The investigators noted that 13 of the 15 subjects had

lower IQ scores on the second test, regardless of examiner race.

Solkoff (1971) reported the first study which used the WISC as an evalua-

tion instrument to assess the effect of examiner race on intelligence test

scores. In addition, he administered a test-anxiety scale to assess whether

test anxiety scores would differ contingent on the race of the examiner.

Each of the four Black and four White female examiners administered the

anxiety scale and the WISC to 14 Black and 14 White children, ages 8-11.

Solkoff found no significant interaction between race of examiner and race of

child. No significant effects were obtained for the anxiety scale.

In a study which investigated examiner race as well as examiner expec-

tancy, Jacobs and DeCraff (1972) employed 16 Black and 16 White psychologists

t E core video-taped WISC tests of a White boy and a Black boy. Half the

- .liners were presented fictitious referral forms which indicated the boys

.r- of superior intelligence and achievement and half were pr.i5nr-. refer-

rjl forms which indicated the boys were of inferior intelligence and achieve-

-rn.c. They found that examiner expectancy .n oiif.-:in I affected WISC scores

nd ri.c bi -s ... i rrij:rr 3 ti n EliJ ack iiri-rir rtd rho illjit .utj'cr and

11i L --.srFi ner- r aced Lh, Wii t. ubj c E.

:3. acE 1, l 2 co;r..auci d a " :- 'i 2L-hi bl ck and '*irl C c hildlr=r, i,

lce f r: t LitrO 3ii, L tI h i 1 r i.J in ii =C. ri C L:C t id a dlnorli,-.rt :-p CL, =:Ch.; ) l

rE gii.- rii i Li-i ock DE.ain nd fDigi- njn p bci [r or f Lr-i.- I.i bL, 10' Elica.

1i.- I i w-0riti aiT n rfl rE. Ie tfourd ignifLircan diff-r.o:nc- rc.r biLac chiidr-.i

E- ic J_ b Lia'.k va, .n-ri,.r .:n Ll..*.L. bi i ., batL Oi..- o Cc ['IpgI .* -.. Th ,: Ethor

rp.'.rc d [lirt Piaci fir[lst-a- ad. : t in .'-,E rerCc. 3d :. 1 ;:.i- -.orid dtouI t half

S ,: ,i C ,a I d -:.*r- pclr.[: ,:-ri Lb :-c ili_ g,,i Wh.ii, C- d t: s cir .i ia ner.,

[ whc' LE _i D j E .lac t : e" ii rf.

.,1 r i'J C tO tl-F F 3l- ar 3J L Ju c3 ic3 1 31 i ou c r rr.iE i.:.. C -Cci- r,

1 r. 3 F..-,-, Fi1.r1i f:r 3 1'-0TF.uL-r Ei.rch ic f EfiC docc-i.Ti.n rlE-'3rjn, .:r cr h

pr.s cirt r ud j im lcEd r:rl or j3dd- L rion31 n'i'i lc ion. FC-.r,; r.. i1-'4 i

ja ici d ch --f -CL; .: -i c. iTrLi rai c b.j. i CC r c jnd it d [p i.iPfr .:

SC-i n g'. r ii h a "roup t -" bijc :,. ird l'l hit., ulb3ej c -. E nr'--.lle i i a or'-

cradrr--.r rro.rais. r ubiecci .. ,cr rarJoil .L.' a iioncd Cc' l ur r c allI Lpr

r ted gr.-.up . 1 .lack ZrCi. a w3 i-, c, .. r i r di mi t.i : rel -1 batEtr" of

-- ir -r:port ..r,: i=ur.- ECr w.: ,i r [h f r:'.,r- urh.J r 3 riteu cr l ..1 id t i ..-n. Th.

:.l-.: [w.-. r,:.'p- rare c-ld crh [ ':-r u4 -c .r ji. ptie.i enLr The in'.',:cLi-

it.. r: h'pothCsizZ:d Etit urdJcr chi jot-plc-'-'nt-tLE-:t ,-c.iditi, o, -:mi lrtr,

of *fnik.- ca'c -'Juld rtprec1at a "Lrirra' d: Ehi iC i i ubi-Crc ahich d .-uoild re -iLt

in .i *.--c f-fa riri bh as. 1rh1 r-sulct -hcO.-d chEic the s- f-ri.orrLn i.i a

occ.urr fc.r illj -,tjr :C-- r c rdl-rj s .:f ':ariri r rac.,.

Li. cll ( iir', r.- i.-;ed r.-c ri-earch Literacurei fror I .0'-19r..0 w i.:-i

h-d us.jd Lh i;r.c int-C 11 igen- l Scali. f.r Children. tl mcude c h

'Jg:cl i -iir or furth.-r r:Ec arch:

Much more systematic attention : .. 1. r c. r ,. I,' -- i : i.i,;
of the many practical problems -.' .:i. i 11-r, u-: r E.! ir.-= l;,
as a measuring device. There a-.pp r: c...- 1:: Lr.-:,r. r.j:-.:.r*n Ch
WISC scores are affected systemric11 i =.aan .ariabic.: ,r.rI-r
than intelligence but little, c ..: - t..:ut L ,:. .[.r-
of these variables anrj [i, r IJL*.:ri; I-1 .i Ln ..!1 j j. jE Ijb ..
Especially in need -.:f : Lu-I; I. r Z: i...- c I r.L ..., i Lh .- .i.:r. ,:.
WISC scores by (a) '. rr =t-~. ir, I-,. r, i r i:.r.i l t -..- L-C-, i. r.., r
and examinee, (b) the circumsta-:...: :t cl..: jsr.~~iac n, n.- j .:
Ti-rm C LE i jo. ,r.i CE r Ei :A' of the jI- i- .

r. j ri'.'iiw : LV- L ii': literate r: 'r-...- l'",' -1'-' 1ir.-. r,.. r ai.-i Woo-Sam

(1972) indicated that the research questions posed by Little had not been


Hammond (1954) has pointed out the methodological weakness of studies

which employ one examiner of each race to investigate the effect of race on

subject performance. He stated that no valid, generalizable conclusions can

be jra-.. from these studies any more than valid, generalizable conclusions

can be drawn from a study using one subject. Using Hammond's criteria to

.i-i.: rii- studies which have used race of the experimenter as an independent

. ri l- i. i=.rl, .i.:-bs and DeCraff (1972), Kennedy and Vega (1966), Pelosi

il" i ". I ,. 1'V-2), and Solkoff (1971) have used more than one examiner

i,-. .jr, raci.i C:aLgory. Although Pelosi has controlled this variable, the

Lubct,.Em lit, ..- -. eriment were volunteers and may not have been representative

:.if Eh re.eul-L:._r. *=.:f Black male youths in work-training programs. Also, he

,i,- - .i .lilc. :.utjects. Jacobs and DeCraff have controlled the examiner

"ari .!:. .ut uid. a subject population of one in each racial category. Only

L.j- r.-n at r: of Savage ar.J .--L .-[[ r li. Lr,-rr, i a -p1i c.,:rr.-I jii11

- j.firin J b. I n.f:; ell and SZEii- ii '': .

I .: r cL'urE tirc-.ining c. E imi r- :1 iiree VFri tlu -- -i -.. IJ hih r x :a 1- C.

3 r :..-r ,and .li a-r.J 11'9? j J-d inni c=r' jd tri- .C .L ,JI r E ,L.1- uE : -i r., Co -

Ci r-il- -: rpp -tn c i -i iior n: i:r- t u a i:t i- -.j gtutir I-n td -:d.= rn alr

i il: c r :lo ri r= L t.J iL : i-hi. a it:-=n .rc-up, d 3 .uw- ,an ou r r'. wh-
rln l .u b _. m .. : 11-clu,1 a 3. .% : Ia T' E r- t ,lL5 i -:i' c.1 Lh- l :'-- L,_-1 mr' i

b' t C r. l-r. r. i--' i P c-.- ir-1r ri C C il-p- I. -t l ir I C. I

al, d ior- rh : i-r ti r.: ,a -i -_: aritrl_: l: -rr- E I.,E r ni A itzr.-- -,r r Ir

et. a in l r app-.-rt on .i v tury i. r.i- :-ct o f Em' h p ai r E-A ur d-' r

Si-i ij -r al l t r lr.-i. iric r.: n a ri li= *i ;ril Eu. i I. '. ti l-i d ind i --a "rt,-u *-3i

IL-: i ri c I n r. h- :c i e-J .. -:. 1 h: :r C i Ck i E a i n r t.: i c .' :r- f i
hle r for- t ria-n.: C ri- j I:i E :iIr, C d -r 1 ., a n. i rr. .L dL ..1fT ric.r-L re

EZ I P. d 1' 1 I i- I,'- j i in LLE 1ale e.S" r e :E 4o ; 'ir*ir r r th.E W! :*.

c c 1:r J-r ir* cj: i j E. c.j c C 11 I ri'r A rid m 4 A ii-:. Ch I *: h rL d i p ipr 1c -

.: 3i.ui cr -:.J E- *- :r lt t -- a [ i.-uc L* ''w nsrni *-:.- cor nyt- Hc t. Hl -

rL porL c r [j c t,,I:tr, 9 ,.P -- f : b-j i: 3 Ec. .-.d .' b chu hitcr,-3,ir. c, .10, M a, .- r

r E r ,.I r-.,J 3 gni i C: ant et .=r ,:,n t '..cert.- l : ale ch an 1 1ubj -:- L L -E d L. En

le -arlu x.:u. .ararne- r Thr, n.: re n -- I c "-ift :-C'E ,iff r ..Er-. o chr t.- r r r'or jar.:e

I[IarI L I ii l n iir cIL d E i'Va E_- f rt I- "%.r31r" nd "cold" -j.b :c-:E .in

Ith. ori g f L, be rtor aTc n. i-om,_ I -:. r., r-..j tLi, 1 3rlt i. : "U *L t i :f

c-, c I'c ll r .*JulIE 1_;.E 1 i _',-,,r i f E : i. Tr,. C=- EU.ubjcCL.: --r*- Ecudinc r. :,:,,O -

cli.: 1 ir.,: va .Ec Tr ,:r iz d r, pona t c. ,a.:r. exa ar.i r. Li .-- r. n irmr 5

Jd'7 in 1 m tEr d trre c n r eSubLE c E :**n "C. r v nJa nJ "clm" -= i. C: r E. HE

C 1Ct..J-L d .

The results indicated that in scorine the responses, the examiners
tended to be more lenient to tr. i, ,l-.i.:r than the cold. The
examiners also tended to use more reinforcing comments and to give
more opportunity to clarify or correct responses to the warm sub-
jects.....The interaction also affected the examiners' "objective"
judgement of relatively "objective" material. Even though they
had the Wechsler manual available, a response given in the warm
condition tended to be given greater credit than the identical
response given in the cold condition. (pp. 43-44)

Miller, Chanskey, and Gredler (1970) used 32 graduate psychology students

to investigate discrepancies between raters on a fabricated WISC protocol.

The range of Full Scale IQ's for the one protocol was 76-93. The Vocabulary

and Comprehension subtests showed the most variability in scoring. In

addition, he found a mean of 2.12 clerical errors per rater.

Tyson (1969) investigated the effect of prior examiner-examinee contact

on WISC test scores. A group of 50 subjects was divided into four groups:

those who had no previous contact with the examiner; those who had limited

contact; those who had warm contact (examiner gave cookies and praise); and

those who had cold contact. No significant differences were found among the


Littell (1960) concluded from his review of the literature with the

TITC cbE3:

Tii, p,.- iL..=. effects of differences in the examiner's technique
.:.' j4.n.- :ration is another problem area which has not received
r.n arLLrn. :n it merits, as is the whole field of possibilities
arizii fircr: the relation between the examiner and the child and
cii ir*:i-:.cances of the examination. This is surprising as the
ir f:-rcan .: f these variables appears to be generally assumed.

Sur;,ar. *.: r. r-r.- view of the Literature

C...j.: r-' lewed in this section have shown that examine, examiner,

[ r.-c:.=rai, ar.J ituational variables may affect scores on psychological tests

i-i eni,- rc n:r c-. The amount :.f r ,i r.:l a :il 1 [ i.- pac ECr. c ,i .- ,: j

i-rnjerii, jrJ thus control tr-:-: ,rnjfi- ii- In 3ii i C a :t h-i' r : *-i:r .


r E 1:* rur n .:. l wue ir, e 4-if ii i .. r..: u :.:- iL.:ur cr~c cf t or r1.-,. fri i ahjl E

.. t.r,, ril a-.d tr- I i f:t -xa. tr. ra.c in rarticulIr arc r.iE .EE





The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children ('TCI is an individually

administered instrument which yields a Verbal IQ, a Performance IQ, and a

Full Scale IQ. The six subtests which contribute to the Verbal IQ are Infor-

mation, Comprehension, Arithmetic, Similarities, Vocabulary, and Digit Span.

The six subtests which contribute to the Performance IQ are Picture Comple-

tion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design, Object Assembly, Coding, and Mazes.

The Verbal IQ and the Performance IQ are combined to derive a Full Scale IQ.

The sixth, alternate subtests, Digit Span, and Mazes, were not used in this


The WISC was chosen as the testing instrument for this study because of

its widespread acceptance as a valid and reliable test of intelligence of

school age children (Fraser, 1959; Burnstein, 1965; Littell, 1960; Zimmerman

and Woo-Sam, 1972). Reliability coefficients quoted for the WISC are:

.' t '.. .r. t 10 and 13 for the Verbal Scale; .86 at 7, .89 at 10,

r.i .":' at '-.: f:.r the Performance Scale, giving overall coefficients of .92,

.95. nr. .9- at those ages for the Full Scale (Fraser, 1 i.'

Fr. a~JLc:r.o to providing the necessary data for this study, each sub-

jc' ,r..r ji r L abil i E r- ,.3ur ., r:. t uc*. C ,:i E ijIi j lt.l U i r-

itc!.-. -I|*:r r. tLe usedi ( .r Ld *-r r r ;pr:..c.Ta-.


Alachua Elementary School and A. L. Mebane Middle School were selected as

sites for the present study. Both schools served the rural community of

Alachua, Florida. A large per centage of the students at both schools were

disadvantaged students whose parents worked on the farms in the area. The

elementary school had 600 students in kindergarten through fourth grades,

47 per cent of whom were Black students. There were 27 on the administrative

and teaching staff of the school, 7 of whom were Black. The middle school was

an ungraded school which had 520 students in fifth through eighth grades, 51

per cent of whom were Black students. (Although the school was completely

ungraded and students of all grade levels were found in any one classroom,

grade classifications were retained on the cumulative folders.) There were

25 on the administrative and teaching staff, 5 of whom were Black. Both

schools have been racially integrated since February, 1970.

The testing was completed within the period from April to June, 1972,

and was carried on simultaneously at both schools. Each test was conducted

in a private room at the schools with only the examiner and the subject present.


To obtain the sample for this study the investigator asked the Assistant

Principal for Curriculum at Alachua Elementary School to refer 24 Black and

24 White second and third grade students as subjects in the elementary grade-

level group. The Guidance Counselor at A. L. Mebane Middle School was asked

to refer 24 Black and 24 White seventh and eighth grade students as subje-:c:

in the middle grade-level group. Each administrator was asked to refer a.i,

L i . u -I ..- ..r-z ir,, .. IT : r r i ci-

E i i r- r r J1 -- 1 a .I .J r j -. J [: H .pl i c = c c-s: ..i c ei-dr ie

E* 2tr., lics ln el or to * -- Eh- rc o....r. *1 i -, a -iL .- p -r c t-i. j', r

ability level. Approximately equal numbers of boys and girls were referred

as participants in both racial categories and at both grade levels.


Three Black and three White female examiners were employed to administer

the tests. Each of the examiners had had at least one graduate level course

in the administration of individual intelligence tests and had had supervised

experience in the administration of the WISC. All examiners met the criteria

used by the Alachua County School System to select personnel to administer

intelligence tests within the public schools. Four of the examiners were

graduate students in the Department of Special Education at the University of

Florida. The other two held masters degrees in educational counseling.


The design of the study provided that each of the 96 subjects would be

given the complete Wechsler Scale (10 subtests) by both a Black and a White

examiner with a seven-day interval between test administrations. Each of the

Black examiners was paired with a White examiner so that each of the three

examiner pairs administered 64 tests to 32 students, half Black and half

White, 16 at the elementary grade level and 16 at the middle grade level. In

order to distribute retest effects between races and among examiners, each

examiner alternated testing Black and White students first and second so that

at the conclusion of the study each examiner had tested equal numbers of Black

jia*nl lte -tudents first and second at both grade levels.

I l r. jt..j- of the Study

ir,? childrenn included in this sample had a mean age of 8.6 in the elemen-

[ar i-h.:-:- group and a mean a4.- of I3.4 in r.; --iJJli :1 .:. :.c r-:p. li.-

Ifri.'n;- *:- this study many nri: -nrsia.l cc. .:- cr a: ;r.:~up.

Aiii. cre pretenr sample micht n.-c hjr, bEn repr-sentari --' ii h he gene-

ral [.:pulI P 0 ,r. : ,: ..i .-h idrcr. irn. ct.h. aJd thir.i un- .E .enc-r a-nd

I E .1 E it n r.irl :1 i '. ir, .

,1rl a,[-r. E.i- ,ub'-. E. ir r inid:l a.i r .-ed LO .i-nrLine r raiL.r tEr.

i ci n rc r jn-I.e, le:cd atnd tn- hadicxr.i t r at-r ait [he cE ch(:l= mr

l a r r orlr imt .1e'c t w ii:. r reri in r- .:r: 'C r. r. th. gr c ceral F pu-

SL L-Ti, -1 .I Lu. c.r.L z .

Fl 1H 1icac a n E n t unJ inP i ci.mpl>: -C tiLcicaJ pr.e..ndur winh a rIla-

r'i -i -a-ll plpe i subje.ctz an i Ie I *sr crhE ifiJdePErJi-erL riic ie ar-

rt-:- zni:ed.

uti l p-th. h c : i

,-: 'Th.-r.- i n .:- i.S cricnc r-, bretieen ti-E irndivi du-l incmtl-

li-irce iest c:-r.c ci Ii l. ud..0rs c trp s arni third qr ide; ier-c

E. :L.d by E-lad and whicc :. -:-.incr-

.ull i.prche-si i1

11.: The-r Is 1 C ;iscr.Lcllni2 C dLtffEr..nct bEt-H.c. rie iErlilirul i.Cel-

lincnci czE- -c. re.a f tich -tud-en In th.e secenrin, adJ ighch graij- iphen

[E -t d I., 1 ck and I lr.i e:.i'jnin--r .

l;. l li p.the- =i i ii

HO-c: ..hre_ 1i P- infic, anE di ffrence LEAnc'.,Tn LhE ndi,. Jt-. tr n,-

lienrice. mcireC of Whice crudentu in the uscnnd and third gradBs when ts tnd

b-1 Llack and WhitE

Null Hypothesis IV

Ho: There is no significant difference bei- n cth. Lnjl i.,.L intel-

ligence scores of White students in the seventh ~an . rr, grtj.3z L.llen tested

by Black and White examiners.

Data Analysis

Analysis of variance techniques using a factorial with replications

design were employed to test the hypotheses. The analysis was performed by

the University of Florida Computing Center using the Bi-Med 08V program.

The .05 level of significance was used to test all hypotheses.


i E': L L 1',

Tli- a r.I- r,* Eh:- pre.e- iE r [ .E E.- : f .' Lrct rnd Wi-iiEE. chi L-

rer. hrh th i-:cr..d and ilt.] gra = irnd -. ElC1:k n.J ? 'hi hil dr:n ir. chti

a--. -- tl'. ai r h. C ri d .

Taie- I iri-i-niC Ehe !.Cn j-s5 jnd riandjrd dji ijA-jr- rior l ict jnd

mir iC l t;.-. : L = j aj . -. 1- Eif l3 w ._ 1 m..h::l l i la clh-e m .odd .le .; t-,--- lr a.I I l.


? Ji. rA.-.E I'F SiCruCiiTS

II :, L l ..: r.-" r : 'j,.L -,,.j- c .- E
Sj.... ,..h E E: : ubj E-i C

- n.r.c. h=. = .. .-:-r rl--

Erl l l -3.3lc wrh '- ,liJil

= 1 :. e r.- .. = -i ." '.*'*-jr -
r = '<. 1 .. '.'n U 1 = 1 .1 -,'.chE

Titi 2? r-:-r.E' E2' r. i,: .:,f jri ir hiui ru.. t ijbi E .r Ern *3 L 3i.

P r' r .-r-r.e c E cd-t E[ i I. .i- E 1 c r- E M .. A r .:cE, E-,cjj ni r a.-, hia an F iEc ,

cr i..i)r., *.hilh a L i-gni fi a rC iE t' .'15 ) \i: T1 zhi --ull t J-i E*- CLE l

in .i- ofr Fr,'.-ous re r.I. rii- preernC n Fc il 3 i3 OE *1- iegnid Eo Erc

dLif riric.i: in iQ suOur- bctw---r.i Elct. iaii tAhhtc Subj-: t.




1. Examiner pair

2. Order

3. Student race

4. Grade level

5. Examiner race

6. Examiner Pair
x order

7. Examiner Pair
x student race

8. Order x
student race

9. Examiner Pair
x grade level

10. Order x
grade level

11. Student race x
grade level

12. Examiner pair x
Examiner race

13. Order x
Examiner race

1-. r.jjd L rare x
Sa.Jr-n r race

I:.. c 1-.- x
LE --n.ri r rce

r* j r
r xr,


























2 1351.44

















3120.18 76.7795*



79.07 .1499

158.14 2

S :.r.-

17. E/B ilr.1 r pair
*3rd.r A
o s r e 3 l1

ir. i...i..r pair p
ir.udJnr r.; /

': rad.JI. l ', l

". -. m .r, ., r pair l
.r e 1,,"E 1
sn .cr riac r

.' LE .r, r pair .
L. r r ace

'2. riler
EI ..1 l r i 'i
Ej 3a-" r,i r r ac

2 E. E/ 3Tn..r pair x
:r ;..i. .% I -
La'".Lne r ra.-.

... *.'a .r .r

. ( iJeiL rae .

2.. EL -i tr. r pair a.
*r '..1 r ,-
ar j.Jr-r rc-- a
*' r1.- He-i

'. L1.a1i..-. r pair

SLd.: r r

Larnifbr rac*

I'rdur X
*rai l--c;l x
Eaj.rer race

ESj i'T MS

9):, .Q


I'S. 12

y.. -.

5a. 59

113.' I

IRS. r.3

* i .eru

1.. 19

2. C' S

.'- Ii',,



3.. 226'

r 7. 68

2522. U

- 1-6.1. 35

2. J90


0.5.9 .3-.91



Sr SS ,F tl F

29. pa r x
Student race x
Grade level x
Examiner race 382.20 19l.i' ".,*

30. Order x
Student race x
Grade level x
Examiner race 56.33 1 'i.. ". "L

31. Cl) pair x
,,rder ,
Student race x
Grade level x
,niner race 14.30 2 7.15 .2625

Sp .05

** p .01

Table 2 shows an F-ratio of 3.206 for the interaction, examiner pair X

examiner race, which is significant at the .05 level. Table 3 presents the

fear. 1Fill cal. Eii:r: -f E!lait anj rrit: :ut-jects tested by the Black and the

i r. -t -, E rir,. r icr. ir, facr. *,ir. -[,. -,I-.i: -tests comparing means showed no

:iLCiLr r,1 diff.rriince t-cr.lcn cth: :[.jlc :-r the White examiner in each pair.

11Ji FULL :-,-E Di' O:. C: :.r BLACK AND WHITE
.l[,.:i W i. L .AIlilCf PAIRS

Sjir i ". .' 1L r.=.." l

r i r ii 1, r 1j. j J. r,'''

p '. -l: 2.92'J fl- .'2 f. r c jCl i .:3i..

Pi..L r .- [-E bl I i h.h:.- an F-rCau t L, f r.l "Lf t..r ll i r- a .:L .'ii.

.:-rd.- L' c. '.u:r i'..- a t1 iL. r Is --i *ali at r E C. .r 1' =1r. i j -b : i pr. -

Since ch. = ^1 Fulal r?,al *; :- a J E C i d a rd J- L a L .: ..- ..r A i --u .b--c

L ;: -i .J ilr k t I' Lfi a Bi ). .n id I* i-.- l tiEE -. a r. i- r ii *r.- i I--dI. ii.- l a.:k

dii '1i-- r--. rr .- L 1al i1 buI.- an r a 11 r* r a-.- crf ajr-r*.: .'aCl I.

r it L i in E I-i. iC [-- :i r-; 11 -l Eubji.: rc.gmrdl of -v rin-r r C..


iF,'. FI.LL : L ilQ ':'COPiEl '.* ALL -iI.R'ECT:
.'! i .i.,ti tIl T t'.1100 R A E.i TLlL[ i- f!.-E

F1iCr ii '.: -. r.,3 TI

l :l E .^ r-i r I'll L E m). rn-r

93.7 1 i. .i:
*rl = 1 l :il : :

r :t e r: -l 5. .i '

= .''. = 1i.11

LTat- i -..-- i i i- i -.- C ai-a .(. ,:. a 3 al .C. A i-iL i.3) .* radIi

' 3- M = L . r r ac-" liJa a .. r -ri I- ; r .a -.c il i i. ni- fi c -r. r ac cEl'-

. .1 V-i LO 1 L'u L o >: :iple-- t t E *:- r- r L 1 c i 0 of t' rch- c r -- r IrE--r-

SL.1: -i-, l-. j C ini tt. l t :.p 1 J r -, *Li i L* j.- f-Ci .i ri l ; I.

L'L :.i: '.- r. r f .--JJ e b-'" H.P C-iL ': :

'.il H'. 3 llE-h i. 1

Hi.i: i lf i m id f t E I r- na .: i nlit car d i r rt- cii e be L E un h --

Er- c ll-i rm : t -:s. 0r EF1 i ui c i t: G 0 L' i l, d daild E[ ird i di r .ac ilin-i.

L ,; C -.1 Lt F d.: al rd i l-li-c r tiiflr r b 'o r. 1 n L i a L d rif c;r.:r, wa. I'w undr,

ECni r- :rto c .--, tr, rul l-, ,po-,heil .0._ im a ccept d.

Null Hypothesis II

Ho: It was stated that there is no significant difference between the

intelligence test scores of Black students in the seventh and eighth grades

when tested by Black and White examiners. No significant difference was

found: therefore, the null hypothesis was accepted.

Null Hypothesis III

Ho: It was stated that there is no significant difference between the

intelligence test scores of White students in the second and third grades

when tested by Black and White examiners. No significant difference was

found: therefore, the null hypothesis was accepted.

Null Hypothesis IV

Ho: It was stated that there is no significant difference between the

intelligence test scores of White students in the seventh and eighth grades

when tested by Black and White examiners. No significant difference was

found: therefore, the null hypothesis was accepted.

The analysis of variance summary table presented in Table 2 shows an

F-ratio for student race X grade level X examiner race was .3542 which is

not significant at the .05 level.

Table 5 shows the mean Full Scale scores of Black and White subjects at

[r.. elementary and middle school grade levels. Post-hoc t-tests performed

with each of the pairs of means failed to reveal significant differences be-

tween scores of Black second and third grade students when tested by Black and

White examiners; between Black seventh and eighth grade students when tested

n silck and White examiners; between White second and third grade students

'.r.:. rested by Black and White examiners; and between White seventh and eighth

graii students when tested by Black and White examiners.

Therefore, Hypotheses I, i, Iii, snj ih ..r- ,_i._~.-p. .




Black Subjects

Black Examiners White Examiners t

Elementary 87.291 85.583 t = .4285

Middle 86.458 88.291 t = .4611

White Subjects

Black Examiners White Examiners t

Elementary 103.791 103.166 t = .1566

Middle 101.541 99.700 t = .4614

p ) .05 = 2.920



The findings of this study have shown that the individual intelligence

scores of Black and White children in the present sample were not signifi-

cantly affected by examiner race. Although the subjects were rural children,

these results support the evidence provided by Solkoff (1971) that examiner

race did not significantly affect IQ scores of urban school children. The

evidence also supports the conclusions of Pelosi (1968) that examiner race,

sex, or style did not affect the scores of Negro males on a variety of

psychological tests. The results do not support the findings of Savage

(1972) that examiner race significantly affected the scores of Black chil-

dren on the Block Design subtest of the Wechsler Scale. However, the

present study focused on Full Scale scores and did not attempt to assess

examiner race effects on particular subtests within the WISC.

The statistically significant difference in IQ scores of Black and White

subjects was expected in view of the hundreds of research reports which have

found that as a group Negroes score lower than Whites on intelligence tests.

t.inni.d, t jAl. 11i61) concluded:

l.jc i. needed, therefore, is not further evidence of
*?iEr-=nr:e Letween sample population scores, but broad
r.,~ 1 Jjda t on a Negro sample to make intelligence test
r--ir.i Ir. rl is group more meaningful. (p. 42)

l., a--rn FAul Scale scores for the Black subjects and for the White sub-

j-=C.r i-. rni j.nple were 86.90 and 102.05, respectively. Since no Negroes

i..*:r iilue. it, rne standardization sample .:; te 'ri:C. it is difficult to

.r." r r1: ch .: 1 1 t r .:: i .nr.-:, ; jL i liA i i j.i rjirdi.4 r.- r: i -

E P, c -" r i- 1 1C .- -: E 3c.- P i I ri r..: v. c ir .l ih Lc r :ii a r.I i i l :

itl=ar. 1,:.rJ-.1: .1 a1.7 li- .r. '.. J 3rLI On E j I i .5.*ir. np g r ch. Lr .1r' l r ._. rC..:

S.. [ ,r IE a ar .3 : d . C.r. Ir -' .:.r I *.r Ln -L .: .r J i C jL Lh .i.. : iT.i l.

-l:il 7 E -' u .i -. it CJ. E .h : 4. C--.: r ; :. C :.-. : I r I-.: J :
.: 0i, c ror .- ir c r:. r r. .-: r i r ,:,-, : : r r .
,L' i [ ,,O,: Fi:rI -i -1c, : ,- c _-: : r, i ,:ha cr- -,,J i c, i',, r r.:,

ci, .1 I- i r.. I j c.m r .-1 t-i Ch-- P- .an *1-.:1 i:f Ch
L.5- *ar r- .uf f r . ( i ..- ;

r. .p3r ,fr :- il... .'2' rr1 Or j ...1 bE C t. Lr.a rn C a I.l

j- r. :.:.r.r..l. ii. I'.j 11, : li. a[ rd-..frri.L c 3 : r. ,dir ra :,: r,.J Ec:*

jr,:, -: : Ei .:. rd irrl- c.i c :r. i i r.n, n 12 ..; r= .: =;.. Th,: fi...ur.-

il. [\ .: ,fl. r, i, r i-,i .it -_,- .Or,-: SL i.c I-h =L.; 1.c.-.:. The, -: 1r...=-

Il. ,.r.. C -il -[E C*. 1 i, ,r v Cr- A hC i .. ti.j I h. r. Ir..E L -
CI: i L or i 1 E | r f- Eh,: : t r. a E C r.- A u r- Lhrr

,l' lr ,l. :: C i c. -I r. ci r r . r,.:.. r.L l- I nc'.: .3

TI,: l r ir1 : ,nir-,: Oh Clr, i r, i,- fr.:,. Lt1 I. 1 m i :: I I- r.r,. f3.:E C- C

C-, r r 1t.L r., ir, -.:,r ,-,y I;- .= [ _a_. =t-i "-h, c.E r, x 2|T.j r r cr rr: -r. .
LI I r t- i- Ir 1. -a-.r.. I L s..-r- -si "cir- e4-i E, r.r LC.,.

Wh.c i-ir r r iz c L.a cit rr = i-.. gir i-cc, buch Fla.. "a. ibl[a t u1 j -

Ic ll I: .: I : r l : l -. : r.. t i-, l r .; r roup- or rn-

J: : aC i r '. r c r. I, J i,: i'J r.Ld .. .r, haL m 1,-l: -irn *..: 3 Eicrr

I.i "i,- Oi.C.--S'- *.- j -.:t- i'E F r.'., i.L pi 'rC IflL .u,: i :LC-n3 n.ild *.:* Lic.r, l

d.: 1 a:r.- .r cn.l. a chi hiii. l..r.aI i m.-.l on. ch. b :1 :-r CF. r-;=ula o.

p:.. r1-:_iL i C-CS .

This study was coarnrnrd only with the Ful i.:31ji- ..:.r-= i. e=.:h r.:Aul

group. Research investigating the effects of e *.ar..-r ra.:-- j.1 Lr.t !itrtrc-

tions of examiner race with subject race and sex on c.:n :.,'ritcE within the

WISC Scale would be fruitful. In addition to providing infrojr,.u:, about the

types of intellectual tasks which might be affected by examiner-examinee race,

this type of investigation would provide valuable information for educational

3ai-nitr3tor3 who employ Black and White teachers to implement curricula in

LrrE at- .: lassrooms.

APP E iL- X:



Black Examiner

First Test

White Examiner

Second Test


Subject V P FS

1 105 113 109

2 81 55 66

3 76 58 64

4 95 76 85

5 63 65 61

6 124 100 114

7 92 79 85

8 87 86 85


86 89

101 89

99 87

1: 104 108 107


123 97 112

60 60 56

75 75

90 107


67 44 52

142 125 137

95 78 85

75 79 75

95 94 94

104 111 108

106 99 103

97 125 112

Sth! L

Vci i L. P'EF '.[:L'IJLCE, .'.T' FULL :i .iE I"'if EL:
:'F 1i.'- I 'llEI'L 'i:,iHO L :31l.ijLC TIL IEi
F .L EU o ht. i E*-L2ll i.riU. AND
': ":'.'n1 wnltlE EC*.VlllLE._

Fir-r Te:



I, .

91 n.

tnii II

'.%iR iil

- 1 :9

Illn 113 lI'1

iii jIr...

*~ ii*5 L'

M-i LI- I''


Si ici '

C4 -. i

i c-i .ij T r



Black Examiner

First Test

White Examiner

Second Test







101 108 105

79 78 76

104 94 99

28 89 85 85

29 123 142 135

30 101 108 105

31 86 97 91

32 99 115 107

33 119 106 114

34 100 114 107

35 103 107 105

36 140 133 141




94 94 93

77 76 75

118 87 104

105 93 99

139 150 149

120 122 123

110 118 115

116 122 121

108 107 108

104 128 117

110 104 108

119 135 129

T.-ELE -

'.'[ I l. F T'.t ., Fl.'J .V;. tt LL .'Lt. b'. ":.-ORt.
OF l'TlllE[ IIL'LE I CiiOCIL 'I.ICJ[ TELtE -li
F it.1 I B LACi E.,Lr.IrF .[Lujr
;.:f[IE. 6'] VAITE E:D-UlliEF

tla.l E T..-r

ri- Ti--c

rT41R 1

Ty r'

*ti i 1S F

'* ~ ;'1 "r.

i'. i Ii

-1 *- ;

S i1 ii3 ile

92 J s2

P'! i'R iiI

., LI 9

94I 10 '95

9J :i *

. P F"

12- 11" 125

l' 1-3 15.

t. ij. 12.,

12') I2. 12:

E 00 93

'10' IN. 112

9 it. 93

. .W-i E% --T...r

--.:0,J 7i-

VERBAL, PERFORMANCE, AND i.ILL '-l-:1 I,' i:i-'i
FIRST BY WHITE E-lilIIlr,: \%Jid



5- 63

- 74

5 106


Black Examiner

Second Test


100 94 97

77 76 75

82 92 85

90 82 85

81 78 77

103 87 95

94 101 97

82 80 80

70 74 69

66 79 70

115 110 114

96 106 101

White Examiner

First Test




White Examiner

First Test

Black Examiner

Second Test








.- ,, t.

eA L i- ill

, ,) '4 ', '+ L

"i' t2 5, "'

I c- -

-.*-*I K' L

?IL ..1 1

f:,; f:, ).r 1



White Examiner

First Test

Black Examiner

Second Test



99 108 104

80 71 73

118 114 117

86 83 83

85 78 80

123 118 123

105 94 100

85 113 98

105 107 107

91 96 93

71 65 65

96 89 92




99 129 115

81 93 85

121 131 128

101 106 104

87 82 83

131 121 129

86 101 93

82 110 95

108 104 107

110 113 112

80 67 71

97 100 99

Subj ect






VE Fr.L, Pin.f f LJi.:E. J;l FILL ,iLE iQ S.PES
..t uHI l. I[,LDI.E iH:.iL .i.ib.ii'U i :i EL L'
N Ei T EL LiiL Ti ; X E R. ii'-
4Er-,*.Gi E. ELi[,:t E7, UNE S.5

FLr-: T- E

:econl iT r
7*-:uni Ic it

jr i rl I

V_ P

,. "- "5

In.1- 1 1'-11-
';I ,I,

11,., 110. ,'

h.'ll 111 I_,

F[.i 11

'ij K

.i 5 a': r


i. ll1

111 11- 11-

' 115 1't

-,. .'," *t

L11 i'

ii. i3: i :

*'1 *'**'j e.

i9 iu i

11' 118 11''


PVniF l il


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'l-c ll-" I I.. 1. a. (, rt r, "_ h i Jl.: i.:.r, -nl C I t r1 :. I''Iar-.a L f

F cr. ir,_ . rt . .c r ._rt .. . 1_ , '. c r. l C .

c: r 1" Ir 'r L. L a r.- CC IJ r I L'J .. I : .. ..- ." h.. .l ::.: l 1 [ .-
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l *rsJ -,. A F-: iL: i.-l-, 1,'r T .' E C. ,J r ItE |Cw.-5.1lCc = 5 -,!- r 1 -
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.' .-r. :r, L. Fer l r.-: 1 :r. i.r .tp itlrt i.-.n Eo Inr.i l if r..:, ar.! h .la; ic,
.i:nl- .* i r.E of 1 ;:rc. sr. WfhiL Firi L i fJ e Pq.1ii 3 1ii Ln L- r adr. i e :.
.inlt r :1 *:r Fl.:-r il "ri-

Oi r, c a r.i iriL li= .cr : r*:ru ar- .- C ird 1. :..L r n 1 I t r r, -
p,. .: ,1r. r lL r s :'. '0--22.

i:.crr . F..:)ci l dli f r n.:c i i t, L r -:r...,.Lt. anJ r ch.:.:. :l-i- 'i f L:
," l_,: L2 r dj ,3l ur.,j. l,:-, : l '.,- I f ,:.r( :, L' .., 7, 2J.i-" .

F:a ,,inii iC I i.3 Ij btll:,:h, l. t=rl, lin' u,=,. b.. e h IL r r ri., ;Jr. : r,-. ,: 1, 1.[ r-r.
anr chI L -Lic. o i rE: 11l r..-:C jo. urni of .rinirmTl jr.a loc a l F:i cri,.-oal,
1 in ., 1--U .

i- [ ... 1. '. L-a-J *: L h LftL -.t: f Irt jiil .r tF : ., .. r..j 1 1.- E ),r TEi~
t.ili.* I. ;; FF'i ., E *-F= FItr ? .-a ill: f -F f1Lri I i (F .Ij.y

.-r ,. .i.:.urr.=- .:-. '- r L1 c... . i-u ,, 1 3, F--:..

iFC r.1 r iT. z :>, ..i -E i lI, :5 r.r in ir r.1 r. c.n- L pi itr-i i.l.u1-1
.: !. i -. ., i-. ,: *,' rEcrl 1 h. 11, lC)-21..

f r : i L. ar. J T. E- r, . . : .: C i m.s-r. F :.- r J aF.n i Ihi LL : 1 r.-,
L, ,-an-ir: c. r..up a l-E .:, irr, i -l .er,:. .:..jrr.a : ,- 1lieJ F ,, I :,:.2 .
1,1''. 3, .-1 ?- .

r.jr r r. i P E. ,i .l lC ll. r T. '. l ar.iC r. r. = ,.r,: .., r -rd. hic
S-.Tir.-r: .iu-mEr,- .. -F..:.r..rl jrI :--:i1 L :ii IFl 1'aF, I1 31.'-j .i

r.:-.c.r.i P. L .,A: Ir. ti1 L ti EE l i .hi.-r ai r i r !E.. r.:
,', C p l[: i;,:,r -,: e L .' -C r-. ,c I 1 r*0 .
qple f e L- I

I.:,- r.i- ia 3- Fia c J ,.t-s-:n. L. Te chrlir e ip r. EaP C i-. rLr rL' f.2n n[ c f
pp .' i ",. a-r, -. F' h 1 .'al .r s, I t 11'-- ll..

F L. J PD -.- IH. C iri-. o-ir.ri, j. C.n: L F -i. : tp.,: i al
*id i.: pIC iriC jri- LL.r .- E, PL F n,7i r.: 1 1: .r-r I'- 'I, F 3, .'--L.

a.:i i, L. lrc-, ll ,rer,.:- '.,:r.- 3-: t',jn L ri:.r., .- ._- rlra r._ e:c-r E :r, ,-d
:.cijl I 1 o.rac i.r ip- r ci--- r. chi 1 ar.] r .r'lr.uirr. J. urri r Arr.t r- v3-ji ,r.
-- P -- cu..:.1-- l-- ; J -3 .'.

Lar ?-.-. _,. ,arl ,i II air !, j T.=[ r,-let,. ?' r-. r- .n -c1l. in r car-.:ui.: -r
L i' L h _" [ t >J _l [ i nt c 1 1 1 : .- ni L C :, .: a i. J .: u r nl 3 r :Er iJri c E[E nrl E n: L tr E II
L9-', C Jl L f t *1. Ccr I f Ld-C E on3-':'- c.

*Iac l.r, J. al. L:(L1i.c: il r,: ail,': o, (of L A'in.J" T e f tcc r ppor r
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, i. :.n. .i. L CL-..r r. Eri r. i-ce ri ,t -,i .Jr-., '. Itri-, i (... E 1 r.. r L. iE,_
iN 5 L ., :,,.-c,,' _'r. .,C rr,. rcr.:n ,,: nn _l:..r: i p.I r: r.r y ,I,: .: . LF c, it'7,.

'i d= I r.d iart 1 I 1. TiL r.-.J ii d : :u-s r, r. r. il e nc : F= c
Ji i tii r..-n : i -..irr.'l .*r L.1u act.-.rral P .:^* I 1*-, I-. E .-^ c .c.

' '1.-- ', II. a r.* 1 'r1s .C. H I. P hulr r-k E -ELLiV z 11 lf -r -.:.i-e 1* r r'Jr 3 1
1 n:h. I- i, ti., i"c.l,. r i i Ir. 11..2'f',. 1,.- 1or Children. .-rn 1 f

~..: L j. *J. r.- -!: tc.: It Iike ih : i itif r. t .. ai. I'.... I -: .,
VIi Y", I.-'.'.

:11. .n,. i. L. an' :-, --- ar. .a:.. ch. i.- = -r lr. Il .. '..:h
Ca, ..r Cm hildcr : Lr..i- ,i. : ir. r J l of Cirinci 'E i,-.I. ., .ulFplrr' c.1t
I:. 3, o ril, 13 ,, .

The author was born in Louisville, Kentucky o:-n Jan, r. 1, 1937. Her

undergraduate training began in 1954 at Centre Colle=y in Danville, Kentucky

and was completed in June, 1968, when she was awarded a Bachelor of Arts

degree in psychology from the University of Florida. In August, 1968, she

L. a 3. ard.J an NDEA fellowship to pursue graduate study in the field of

1:irrnn~l disabilities, Department of Special Education, at the University

:t Fl:rti. She was awarded a Master of Arts degree in August, 1969.

During the 1969-1970 school year she taught educable mentally retarded

c:bldri, ic J. J. Finley Elementary School in Gainesville, Florida, and be-

a.a i d.croral program in the field of mental retardation at the University

*.:f F!.:riJ. In August of 1970 she was awarded a Graduate School fellowship

f:r i.Jll-rtme graduate study during the academic year 1970-1971. She taught

.j.l:jatl -e.n.cill, r 'aried children at A. L. Mebane Middle School during the

' 'I-l'< 2: :hl..l ,r.

Tr.1 ULlr I: -airired to Charles G. Wellborn, Jr., Associate Professor,

Ci-il-'-: of .:=rnai Ls =nd Communications, University of Florida. They have

hr .- cliildr:n. bill, ficky, and Linda.

Bi.ll-r,'1J n ,:..L SIE. LIj

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms
to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

R. Reid, Chairman
Professor of Special Education

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms
to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

Cary E. Reichard, Co-chairman
Assistant Professor of Special Education

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms
to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

Myron A. Cunningham /
Professor of Special Education

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms
to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in
scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

sJaes E. Whorton
distant Professor of Special I -3j :-r.

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it c.: .nri:c.:
to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequac-, r-
scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Phil*--:;rf.

.r.C L- 3 r -,
k .!:li:: f :r I :- '

Thi J i i rca i.:.r. ,.- L utr.Itrl:t J E: trh- De n .of rh- C(. 1lEg. o- f Educaci-:n and
:* i. *r rjduae .' 'r : 1 1, i, .j c-* a jc i pc d a r[arn il ul ll. .- nr oit rhe
re ulrut ir i n :,[ ti d .cnr Ei f 'c [ :r o[ hi I .' C' :,.

.\. al f 1 E 0

DIcar., 1.1ilg. if Edfc ca icr,

'4ad,. ,rdualde 'SJCh:*ol>

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