THE PROPHETIC QUALITIES OF RUDYARD KIPLING'S WORK
ESTHER MARIAN GREENWELL SMITH
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Esther Marian Greenwell Smith
I wish to acknowledge the unfailing courtesy and
generous resources of the University of Florida, most
especially in the persons of Dr. Edwin C. Kirkland
and Dr. Paul T. Thurston.
Rudyard Kipling, born in 1865, began writing for
publication before he was twenty and continued doing so
until near his death at sixty. From the year of his
triumphant literary conquest of London, 1890, to the
present, his work--partly by its quantity but more espe-
cially by its variety--has aroused a wide spectrum of
critical reaction, from enthusiastic approval to virulent
condemnation, and it still perplexes many appraisers. It
is true that since Charles Carrington's careful biography
(1955)1 dissipated the distorted psychological theses, and
since such critics as Bonamy Dobree (1929), Thomas Stearns
Eliot (1941),3 J. M. S. Tompkins (1959), and Randall
Jarrell (1961) have conceded him what may never have been
1The Life of Rudyard Kipling.
2The Lamp and the Lute.
A Choice of Kipling's Verse.
4The Art of Rudyard Kipling.
5Introduction to The Best Short Stories of Rudyard
in doubt--major literary rank, there has been a general
toning down of the stridently derisive criticism of
Nevertheless, critics still tend to seek to come to
terms with him through Procrustean theories that omit much
and distort more. Thus, J. I. M. Stewart compares Kipling's
novel The Light That Failed to Thomas Hardy's Jude the Ob-
scure and D. H. Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover, calling
them all the works of geniuses but "sick" men.6 C. S. Lewis
is sure "that Kipling is a very great artist," but he finds
the informing thesis of nearly all of Kipling's work a
"master passion" for "the intimacy of the closed circle."7
And Noel Annan tries to force Kipling into a sociological
framework that equates Kipling's "Law" with the anthropolo-
gists' culture, and cuts off a major portion of his writing
by claiming Kipling considers "the truth of religion irrele-
vant." Even Dobree, usually cited not only as the first
critic to discuss a significant body of Kipling's work and
6Rudyard Kiplinq, p. 93.
7"Kipling's World" from They Asked for a Paper.
Delivered as a Lecture in 1948 and first published in The
Kipling Journal, XXV, Nos. 127, 128 (September, December,
1958), 8-16, 7-11; No. 128, 8.
"Kipling's Place in the History of Ideas," Victorian
Studies, III (1959-60), 327.
to treat Kipling as a major artist, but also as the critic
who has placed the greatestemphasis on Kipling's mythical
or other-than-realistic quality, fails to establish a
logical connection among his many brilliant insights into
Kipling's themes because the frame of reference is too
limited. That Kipling conceived of the universe as "indif-
ferent" and yet governed by a God of grace and compassion,
Whose chief concern is that "His banished be not expelled
from him,"0 is a confusion of viewpoints only partially
and incorrectly explained by the theory that Kipling was
irreligious at the beginning of his career and religious
in the latter half of his life when suffering destroyed his
confidence.1 It is, unfortunately, typical of critics who
believe that the God (or goddess) Kipling worshipped was
Britannica, or that "his subtilized Jehovah" was an out-
moded concept that he made serve in place of a better name
for the Source of his craftmanship.12
The God Rudyard Kipling found in countless experiences
and to Whom he dedicated his art is not incompatible with
Rudyard Kipling, Realist and Fabulist, p. 6.
0Ibid., p. 24.
1Richard Le Gallienne, "Kipling's Place In Litera-
ture," Munsey's Magazine, LXVIII (November, 1919), 245.
Dobree, The Lamp and the Lute, p. 63.
the Judeo-Christian understanding of God in the fullest
implications of Biblical teaching about Him. He is
Creator, not just of the Garden of Eden but of all things
and all men; He is Eternal; He is the Designer of History;
His Law governs Man, His Love redeems Man; He is the only
One worthy of adoration and praise; His ultimate purpose
is to fit Man for His company. Each major figure in the
Bible, from Abraham to St. Paul, had as his life purpose
the discovery and communication of some facet of Man's
growing understanding of this God, although most of these
figures were to their contemporaries unorthodox.
It is the thesis of this study that Kipling, seen
through his work, fulfills a prophetic role, from the agony
of lonely commitment to the authority of an inspired mes-
sage. Furthermore, he uses the language and material of
the Bible and other religious resources as an essential
idiom of his art, and he establishes the framework for his
artistic themes on a God-oriented structure of Divine Law
for the universe, Divine Love for all creatures, Divine
Concern with all Reality, and Divine Source for all Truth.
Recognition of this divinely ordained and controlled frame-
work clarifies Kipling's intent, enriches his artistry, and
resolves the inconsistencies of lesser bases of analyses.
The term prophetic is used, then, in its Scriptural
sense: the work of men under divine mandate who look at
their world with spiritually heightened insight and pre-
sent messages of judgment and mercy. No attempt will be
made to re-evaluate his literary greatness, nor is the
identification of his central purpose intended to negate
the validity of interpretations of his varied interests.
While occasional reference will be made to contradictory
or corroborating evidence outside the poems, stories,
novels, speeches and other writing of Kipling, the chief
emphasis will be placed on a wide selection of individual
works, with the intent that both the quantity and the con-
sistency of the prophetic qualities may be revealed.
Kipling's statements of his own prophetic "call" and God-
given'message," and his complex uses of prophetic character-
istics in his art will be explored for the purpose of dis-
covering a literary--and if the artist is judged sincere,
a personal--philosophy comprehensive enough to serve as a
key to his total work.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . .
PREFACE . . . .
ABSTRACT . . .
A PROPHETIC VOCATION.
His Call . . .
His Message. .
A PROPHETIC LANGUAGE. .
Definition . .
PROPHETIC THEMES. . .
Basis of His Art
God's Love .
God's Reality. .
God's Truth. . .
BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . .
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .
. . . . . . . 189
Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE PROPHETIC QUALITIES IN RUDYARD KIPLING'S WORK
Esther Marian Greenwell Smith
Chairman: Dr. Edwin C. Kirkland
Major Department: English
Rudyard Kipling's work is permeated with material from
the Bible and other religious sources. It also exhibits a
tone of authoritative insight similar to that of the
Biblical prophets. While many critics have commented on
either his Biblical language or his prophetic tone, the
significance of these qualities has not previously been
systematically explored in order to ascertain his major
frame of reference. Defining a prophet as one who under-
stands his vocation as a mandate under God, with a message
based on God-given insights, this study traces Kipling's
statements of prophetic call, dedication and message
throughout a wide selection of his writing, in all its
genres and periods, to verify his prophetic point of
view as the comprehensive frame of reference necessary
to understanding individual works.
Kipling identifies his "vocation" as a prophetic
mandate in a variety of ways. For example, in the poem
"The Explorer" he repeatedly claims that his work is under
God's guidance and fulfills a part of God's design for
history, alluding to the annointing of Saul as the first
king of Israel to establish his Biblical view of history.
"My New-Cut Ashlar," a prayer-poem rich in artistic sym-
bolism and Biblical allusion, asserts that his prophetic
message is based on a God-given vision prefigured in the
experience of the Apostle Peter. In "To the True Romance"
the Spirit Kipling serves is given the attributes of the
Holy Spirit. The record of awesome spiritual experiences
such as mystics report is implied in "The Prayer of Miriam
Cohen"; Kipling acknowledges having had some form of
mystical experience from childhood, mentioning these
"fortunate hours" in a number of his stories and in his
autobiography. There is much other evidence that Kipling
dedicated his talents in the manner of religious pro-
phet; among others who recognized this are T. S. Eliot,
Charles E. Carrington (his official biographer), and
his sister, Mrs. Alice Fleming.
From this point of view, his pervasive use of Bib-
lical and other religious material becomes integral to
his art, expressing not only his meaning but relating
him to the prophetic tradition. In his frankly religious
or prophetically denunciatory selections, of which there
are considerably more than those generally known, Biblical
allusions and traditional religious concepts not only in-
tensify the artistic effectiveness of the work but iden-
tify Kipling's larger design. This use of prophetic lan-
guage is even more striking in his many apparently non-
religious selections, in which Biblical allusions often
furnish the key to an adequate interpretation by pin-
pointing the chief emphasis desired or placing the specific
incident against a spiritual, universal and God-centered
frame of reference. Even his occasional seemingly ir-
reverent use of Biblical or other religious material
reveals both a knowledge of these sources and a concern
with presenting them with fresh validity.
In the light of his acknowledged prophetic vocation
and his artistically responsible use of prophetic lan-
guage, his major themes of Law, Love, Reality and Truth
become expressions of his prophetic conviction that the
world was created and is sustained by an omnipotent
God whose ultimate purpose is to continuously establish
a divine-human partnership, effective in this life and
perfected in immortality. The conviction was based
on his prophetic vision--that God is concerned with
all of His creation and that nothing touched by His
Grace is "unclean." Such a frame of reference compre-
hends Kipling's many interests, identifies the source
of his values, and enriches the artistry of his work.
A PROPHETIC VOCATION
There are qualities in the work of Rudyard Kipling--
qualities of cosmic concern, passionate involvement and
religious orientation--that can best be explained by the
concept of a Biblical prophet. Evidence that Kipling so
understood his work, as a vocation under God, as a pro-
phetic mandate, is found in a wide selection of his writing,
in all its genres and periods. Sometimes the statement of
his prophetic role--from call to fulfillment--is complete
in one work, as in the poem "The Explorer." Sometimes it
is evident from the tone of the selection, a tone of
thundering denunciation of his nation's sins, as in "The
Islanders," or a tone of challenge to total commitment to
an idealistic destiny, as in "A Song of the English," or a
tone of divine compassion, as in "The Supports." Again it
may be the use of religious allusions or quotations as key
lines in a story, as in "Madonna of the Trenches," or it may
be the exploration of the complexities of traditional
religious concepts, as in "On the Gate: A Tale of '16."
Even more significant than these isolated examples are the
many related and supporting selections and the total
cumulative evidence of his religiously oriented insights
and expressions, all of which argue persuasively that he
was not simply writing in the language of his day nor for
the religiously sympathetic market, but in language appro-
priate to his prophetic intent.
His searching vision and his courageous idealism2
have often suggested to critics and commentators the label
"prophetic": "'Poet and prophet for all the human race'";
"a Seer, a Prophet, a Visionary, with all his realism";4
"Kipling was something rarer than a philosopher, he was a
prophet." But the religious orientation of his prophetic
1Robert Lynd, Books and Writers, p. 92.
Victor Bonney, "Some Aspects of Kipling's Greatness,"
The Kipling Journal, No. 38 (June, 1936), pp. 49-50. The
Kipling Journal began using volume numbers with the March,
1939, issue, No. 49, volume V.
3L. C. Dunsterville, "Message to the English Speaking
Union," The Kipling Journal, No. 39 (September, 1936),
4Gerard E. Fox, "Rudyard Kipling the Tribal Singer,"
The Kipling Journal, XIV, No. 82 (July, 1947), 8.
T. S. Eliot, "The Unfading Genius of Rudyard
Kipling," The Kipling Journal, XXVI, No. 129 (March, 1959),
nature has rarely been understood, in part because both
his friends and his enemies have seen him as the prophet
of British traditions and imperialism: "His imperialism
is the healthy kind which our race held before itself as an
ideal"; "He appeals strongly to the spirit of adventure
and achievement which lies deep at the roots of the British
character";7 "We think of Kipling most of all as the poet
Laureate of the Army and the Navy and the Empire, of India
and the Jungle and Public School"; "Loving his country and
countrymen, with a proud and passionate love, yet flaying
them with whips of scorpions, like a prophet of old, when he
thinks they are not living up to the sturdy traditions passed
on by their rough forefathers."
While critics have found it difficult to avoid the
label "prophet," they tend to explain the source and dedi-
cation of Kipling's prophetic qualities according to their
own interests or convictions. In addition to the familiar
"Kipling the Interpreter! How a South African Sees
Him," The Kipling Journal, No. 18, (June, 1931), p. 60.
7Robert Stokes, "Kipling and the Spirit of the Age,"
The Kipling Journal, No. 26 (June, 1933), p. 40.
8Sir Francis Goodenough, "The Humour of Kipling," The
Kipling Journal, No. 37 (March, 1936), p. 26.
A. E. G. Cornwell, "The Apostle of Work and Service,"
The Kipling Journal, No. 48 (December, 1938), p. 131.
bias of Empire or British traditions just cited, artistic
inspirations or hereditary inclination may be emphasized.
Thus, H. Crichton-Miller, making "Some Psychological
Observations on Kipling's Writings," points out that the
inspiration of "The Explorer" comes by "direct intuition"
which is the mark of "the true prophet," but he dilutes
the whole experience to a fulfillment of the creative
quest.0 And Hilton Brown finds Kipling explained by his
ancestry, "a long line of Yorkshire Nonconformists, crossed
by a Scottish Highland strain also given to religion as a
form of self-expression,"l and deprecates Kipling's preacher-
and prophet-like "certainty of revealed knowledge," by
charging that both the prophets of Israel and Kipling often
made "hasty generalizations, and hastier moral judgments."12
Furthermore, the irregularity of his "creed" confused
many. Kipling often criticized the conventionalized reli-
gious practices or practitioners of his day. So, of
10The Kipling Journal, XIV, No. 84 (December, 1947), 7-8.
Rudyard Kipling, p. 85.
Ibid., pp. 87-88.
13"Kaspar's Song in 'Varda,'" Traffics and Discoveries,
VII, 193: "Lispeth," Plain Tales from the Hills, I, 1-8,
Kim, XVI; "Jobson's Amen," Diversity of Creatures, IX, 207-
208. All references to Kipling's works will be cited by the
original book title and the volume and pages in The Burwash
Edition of the Complete Works in Prose and Verse.
course, have most prophets: Also, he sometimes used and
approved such "unorthodox" material as bits and pieces of
the teachings or traditions pf Hinduism and Mohammedanism.4
This, too, is not unlike prophets who have presented an
interpretation of God bigger than that of denominational
or racial dogma.15 And he often wrote on "shocking" or
unreligiouss" subjects, for he found nothing God had made
"common or unclean."17 Roger Lancelyn Green decided "He
must be claimed as a convinced Theist rather than a con-
vinced Christian,"8 but Sir George MacMunn insisted that
one "cannot read Kipling's works, especially his verse,
without realizing that he was a very sincere Christian."19
Certainly Kipling's use of Biblical material is proportional
14"The Miracle of Purun Bhagat," The Jungle Books, XI,
291-309; the poem "The Captive," Traffics and Discoveries,
VII, 3; Kim, XVI.
Souvenirs of France, XXIV, 322; Amos, Jonah, etc.
16"'Love-o'-Women,'" Many Inventions, V, 325-354; many
of the Plain Tales from the Hills, I, and Departmental Dit-
ties and Barrack-Room Ballads, XXV.
1Acts 10:14; "My New-Cut Ashlar," Life's Handicap, IV,
413-414. All Biblical references to Oxford University Press
edition of Authorized King James Version of The Holy Bible.
Kipling and the Children, p. 120.
19"Kipling and the World's Religions," The Kipling
Journal, XV, No. 85 (April, 1948), 3.
to the size of the Old Testament and the New. And while on
one occasion he expressed unwillingness to accept the
divinity of Christ, his dominant tone and themes endorse
the basic Judeo-Christian concepts. Therefore, this study
will assume that his Biblical allusions and other religious
material may be understood ip their generally accepted
sense unless specific reasons are present for doing other-
Kipling understood the dedication of his talents to
a religiously oriented or prophetic vocation as a response
to a "call," the Source and Overseer of which was God and
the Nature of which was spiritual and comprehensive.
Identification of the Source is stated or implied in at
least one extant letter, in a number of poems and stories,
in speeches, and by a member of his family. In 1897,
Kipling wrote to C. E. Norton: "'I am daily and nightly
perplexed with my own responsibilities before God.'"21 In
"The Explorer," which is the most complete poetic state-
ment of his prophetic vocation, the poet, speaking through
20Carrington p. 138.
2Carrington, p. 248.
22The Five Nations, XXVI, 200-204.
the poem's persona, says: "Then I knew, the while I
doubted--knew His Hand was certain o'er me." As he strug-
gles to decide whether or not to choose an easier way, he
recognizes that God knows the terror that he is experiencing.
The identification of God as the One Who sent the "Whisper"
that drove him forth is reinforced by the allusion to the
Biblical story of the annointing of Saul, with all this
event's overtones of divine mandate, personal reluctance,
and prophetic significance:
Saul he went to look for donkeys, and by God
he found a kingdom!
But by God, Who sent His Whisper, I had struck
the worth of two!
And concluding his wry recital of who will get the credit
for his exploration ("Came, a dozen men together . .
They'll be called the Pioneers!"), he identifies the One
behind the entire enterprise as "my Maker." For, like the
Biblical prophets, Kipling saw all history as the unfolding
of God's design, with his personal role coming at the in-
tended moment in that design:
God took care to hide that country till He judged
His people ready,
Then he chose me for His Whisper, and I've found
it, and it's yours:
Other evidence that Kipling thought of the Source of
his prophetic call as God is found in the implications of
"To the True Romance."23 The framework of this poem is a
knight's chivalric commitment to his lady, but the "Thee"
of the poet's allegiance is a Spirit so creative and power-
ful that it can hardly be less than that manifestation of
the Triune God known as the Holy Spirit.24 Affirming this
interpretation of Kipling's dedication of his talents is a
statement made by his sister, Mrs. Alice Fleming, in 1937,
the year after Kipling's death: "Critics to-day are apt
to forget that Rudyard Kipling felt from the beginning that
the word of the Lord was laid upon him, and that he had to
do that for which he was sent."
In addition to recognition of a Divine Source for his
initial commitment, Kipling understood God as the constant
Overseer of his career. This is most clearly presented in
the poem "My New-Cut Ashlar,"26 which is a prayer addressed
to "Great Overseer." The poet, here speaking in the person
of a stonemason working on a temple, confesses that what-
ever "good"he has accomplished was "compelled" by the
Master's Hand, and that hd is to blame for any failure "to
3Many Inventions, V, xi-xiv.
2Job 33:4; Ps. 139:7-13; Isa. 11:2; John 14:26;
Rom. 15:19; I Cor. 2:10, etc.
"The Annual Luncheoh," The Kipling Journal, No.
42 (June, 1937), p. 63.
26"L'Envoie" to Life's Handicap, IV, 413-414.
meet Thy Thought." He pleads that the "depth and dream"
of his desire and the bitterness of his paths are fully
known to the One "Who . nade the Fire .[ and ]. the
Clay." He proudly claims the divine-human kinship for all
true craftsmen as part of God's eternal design, but he in-
sists that he has a special part to play in building "that
dread Temple of Thy Worth." And he asks that whatever
happens, he may be permitted to keep his special relation-
ship to God, his "vision," that he may thereby remain free
of men's influence--the better to serve them, as God directs.
The religious implications of this poem are strengthened by
its language and allusions. While the term ashlar is found
in Masonic ritual rather than the Bible, and its definition27
makes it a symbol of artistic craftmanship, the basic
metaphor of the poem, the building of a temple dedicated to
God, alludes to both the Hebrews' concern with such a temple,
from Moses to the time of Peter and Paul, and to the New
Testament concept of a living temple of true worshippers,28
most strikingly presented by Peter when he called each
Christian a "lively stone" and Christ the "chief corner
27A squared stone building block finished to a
degree that makes possible the use of little or no mortar.
28I Cor. 3:16; 6:19; II Cor. 6:16; Rom. 12:1.
stone." That Kipling had this reference in mind is
suggested by the poem's line "nought common on Thy Earth,"
which is an echo of "What God hath cleansed, that call not
thou common," the thrice-repeated command of God to Peter
in his vision on a housetop in Joppa.30
That Kipling consistently experienced God's oversight
of his work is the purport of the statement in the letter
to C. E. Norton already cited, a statement which emphasizes
the continuing ("daily and nightly") nature of his commitment
to God-assigned tasks. This divine direction is expressed
fictionally in the words of the artist-protagonist of The
Light That Failed: "you must sacrifice yourself, and live
under orders."31 In the fourth chapter of his autobiography,
in which he explains how he arrived at his choice of the
Empire as one of the major symbols of his work, Kipling admits
that the unusual experiences that fitted him for this choice
were so beyond his choosing, yet so appropriate, that they
could only be explained as "fantastic" and arranged by
"Fate." That his choice of the term fate is not intended
I Peter 2:4-7.
32 of Mself, XXIV 409.
Something of Myself, XXIV, 409.
to belie his religious meaning is indicated by the fact
that as soon as he explained to his family his "notion"
of trying to "tell to the English something of the world
outside England--not directly but by implication," it was
pointed out to him that he sounded like his grandfathers,
both of whom had been Wesleyan Ministers. Furthermore, it
should be noted here, that his "vast, vague conspectus" was
to be an explanation not of imperialism but "of the whole
sweep and meaning of things and effort and origins through-
out the Empire."33 Hilton Brown catches some of this
religious (rather than merely patriotic) sense of vocation
when he writes: "If, as Kipling fervently believed .
the Empire was not only a duty and a responsibility but a
direct and God-sent means of [national] salvation, then it
was time[ for him] to assume the mantle of Jeremiah and
Certainly it was Kipling's conviction that God directed
his work that explains both the tone and the message of his
most prophetic works. His tone of authority in such denun-
ciatory works as "The Islanders," "The City of Brass," and
"Justice," and of pious remonstrance in such poems as
34Brown, p. 106.
Brown, p. 106.
"Recessional," "The Covenant," and "'Non Nobis Domine'"
would be, as some critics have so charged him,35 unaccept-
able presumption or hypocrisy unless he was writing under
the conviction that his insights were truly prophetic. The
introductory poem of his great song of Empire, "A Song of
the English," clearly indicates this point of view. He
calls his people to humble themselves before "the Lord our
God Most High," Who opened the paths to the building of
empire and Who holds His "chosen" people responsible for
effective service that will "let men know we serve the Lord:"
In the final stanza of this prologue he pleads that his
audience will see through his imperfect art "the truth"
which God has shown him "in the ends of all the Earth:"
Allusions to God's making a dry path through the Red Sea for
his chosen people, the Israelites, to the singleness of
of heart with which the Lord must be served, and to the
establishment of a peace acceptable to God, strengthen the
3Richard LeGallienne, Rudyard Kipling: A Criticism,
p. 129; Stewart, p. 52.
3The Seven Seas, XXVI, 3-4.
religious implications of this statement of the nature of
his work. This prophetic viewpoint (that of a man working
under the direction of God) is discoverable, to a greater
or lesser degree,in nearly everything he wrote. As T. S.
Eliot noted: "beyond" his remarkable talents and his "mask
of the entertainer" there was "a queer gift of second sight,
of transmitting messages from elsewhere, a gift so discon-
certing when we are made aware of it that thenceforth we are
never sure when it is not present."40
Consistent with Kipling's understanding of God as the
Source of his "call" and as the Overseer of the "vocation"
to which that call led is his indication that the calls was
spiritual in nature. In "The Explorer,"41 the callwas "a
voice, as bad as Conscience," and "everlasting Whisper,"
"His Whisper." In "My New-Cut Ashlar"42 it is "Thy Thought,"
"dream," "vision." In "The Prophet and the Country,"43 a
story which clearly reflects some of Kipling's own experi-
ences, the American "Prophet"-protagonist considers his
message a "revelation" which he received as a "vision." He
4A Choice of Kipling's Verse, p. 22.
The Five Nations, XXVI, 200-204.
Life's Handicap, IV, 413-414.
43Debits and Credits, VIII, 129-148.
Debits and Credits, VIII, 129-148.
foresees the judgment of his people with all the fervor and
awe of a "Fundamentalist," and he feels his suffering is
akin to that of "ancient prophets an' martyrs."44 There is
evidence that in this story Kipling is both the narrator and
the voice behind his protagonist. The narrator uses first
person and refers to the semi-mystical experiences that
Kipling acknowledged having had since the age of twelve.45
Despite the eccentricities and limited education of the
story's prophet, Mr. Tarworth, Kipling asserts his sympathy:
"I had no desire to laugh."46 Mr. Tarworth's message--
"Protect any race from its natural and god-given bacteria
. [and] you automatically create the culture for its
decay, when that protection is removed." --is one facet of
Kipling's own "message," a notable example being the story
"Thrown Away." And his closing description of Mr. Tarworth
attributes to him "a child's awed reverence," not only
recalling Christ's admonition that unless men become "as
little children," they cannot enter the kingdom of heaven,"49
45Something of Myself, XXIV, 367.
46Debits and Credits, VIII, 136.
48Plain Tales from the Hills, I, 17-28.
but also reflecting Kipling's own consistent humility
One of the strongest affirmations of the spiritual
nature of Kipling's call and vocation is the descriptions
of his "fortunate hours." In the beginning of the story
just mentioned, "The Prophet and the Country," he says:
It was long since I had spent a night in the
open, and the hour worked on me. Time was when
such nights, and the winds that heralded their
dawns, had been fortunate and blessed but those
Gates, I thought, were for ever shut.
And the story ends with the fulfillment of this "fortunate
. and the wind which runs before the actual
upheaval of the sun swept out of the fragrant
lands to the East, and touched my cheek--as many
times it had touched it before, on the edges, or
at the ends, of inconceivable experiences.5
When he uses a similar incident in "The Vortex,"52 despite
the Rabelaisian humor the story develops, he gives this
"fortunate hour" quite specifically religious implications:
To me, as I have often observed elsewhere, the
hour of earliest dawn is fortunate, and the wind
that runs before it has ever been my most comfort-
able counsellor. . I went to bed at
peace with God and Man and Guest . .
50Debits and Credits, VIII, 134.
52A Diversity of Creatures, IX, 289-292.
C. A. Bodelsen feels that in Kipling's fortunate hours "a
veil is drawn apart; reality assumes sharper outlines and
brighter colours, and is experienced with an intensity
beyond that of everyday life." Such experiences, he points
out, are "outside the scope of normal perception," and are
therefore "incommunicable" except in such implications as
the writer can put in the art form he chooses.5 Other
hints Kipling gives of the spiritual nature of his vocation
suggest that these "incommunicable" experiences were some-
times considerably more than pleasant premonitions of coming
events. In "To the True Romance"55 the Spirit he serves
is such that he realizes he cannot know it fully until
he dies; for the present it is "Enough for me in dreams
to see/ And touch Thy garments' hem"56 for "Thy feet have
trod so near to God/ I may not follow them:" This Spirit
teaches "Life all mystery"; it was before Creation, "A
whisper in the Void." His descriptions of heaven and hell
suggest imaginative spiritual experiences that strain even
his talents with language:
54Aspects of Kipling's Art, p. 6.
55Many Inventions, V, xi-xiv.
Beyond the path of the outmost sun through utter
Farther than ever comet flared or vagrant star-
The three nosed-dived at that point where In-
finity returns upon itself, till they folded
their wings beneath the foundations of Time
and Space, whose double weight bore down on
them through the absolute Zeroes of Night and
But the strongest description of his awesome moments of
spiritual awareness--experiences of God's nearness so vivid
as to be painful--is found in the last three stanzas of
"The Prayer of Miriam Cohen":59
Hold us secure behind the gates
Of saving flesh and bone,
Lest we should dream what Dream awaits
The soul escaped alone.
Thy Path, Thy Purpose conceal
From our beleaguered realm,
Lest any shattering whisper steal
Upon us and o'erwhelm.
A veil twixtt us and Thee, Good Lord,
A veil twixtt us and Thee,
Lest we should hear too clear, too clear,
And unto Madness see.
5"Dedication," Barrack-Room Ballads, XXV, 161-162.
58"Unconvenanated Mercies," Limits and Renewals, X,
59Sons from Books, XXVII, 130.
Songs from Books, XXVII, 130.
Not only was the prophetic vocation to which he was
called spiritual in nature; it was comprehensive--
comprehensive with regard to his life, his career, his
art. The poem that most completely states Kipling's
prophetic vocation, "The Explorer," touches each of the
acknowledged characteristics of the prophetic experience:
the prophet must believe in a divine Creator and Controller
of all things, both Friend and Lawgiver of His people; he
must see his fellowmen realistically, with the heightened
spiritual insight that isolates the seer; he must suffer
the agonizing tensions between states of doubt-fear-despair
and hope-discovery-exaltation; he must proclaim the message
his Voice has given him; and while those to whom he speaks
may be blind or stubborn, he must persist, sometimes being
rewarded by a spiritual fulfillment that justifies his
suffering, whether or not he lives to see his insights
vindicated by history.61 The poem relates how, having
listened to God's Whisper but being wary of trying to per-
suade any of his neighbors of its validity, the Explorer
set out on his lonely adventure. Very shortly his sense
60The Five Nations, XXVI, 200-204.
61Dr. Delton L. Scudder, class notes on "Characteris-
tics of Mysticism."
of "call" was tested, when his plains-bred ponies were.
killed by "the Norther," just as persistence (not
miraculous "faith that moveth mountains") had led him
to the pass. Then came the real test, the inner struggle:
"Still--it might be self-delusion--scores of better men
had died--/ I could reach the township living, but . .
I didn't." Even after he chose to go "down the other
side," he had to fight his way through mountain wilderness
and across a desert that drove him crazy and turned his
"toes all black and raw." Reaching the "kingdom" he'd
been sent to find, he surveyed, took samples, estimated
methods of development, then worked his way back over the
same difficult trail. When he presented the news of his
"find," he not only saw others get the credit but realized
that few if any could understand either the physical or
the spiritual experiences he had had. Nevertheless, since
God had judged "His people ready," it was right that they
should inherit this rich new land, God's present to them.
Finally, the Explorer experienced the illuminating realiza-
tion of the meaning of all this to him--the supreme ful-
fillment of his individuality, the establishment of his
spiritual worth in that he had fulfilled the role God had
chosen for him. Kipling's known experiences parallel this
fictitious drama closely enough to strengthen the
interpretation of it as a poetic statement of his total
commitment to a "called" vocation. Early in his life he
recognized the special factors (talents, insights, unusual
experiences) that marked him for a special vocation.62 He
early decided he could explain his "call" (whisper, voice,
vision) only by implication.63 England's physical and
ideological climate (the "Norther") was almost too much
for him, both physically and spiritually. But he chose
to obey his call, to depend upon God rather than men, to
keep going, to present his "findings," and to reaffirm his
faith in God's control of history. In 1897, when he
wrote this poem, the bitterness of Dick Heldar's reaction
to London, in The Light that Failed (1890), had matured
into the prophetic remonstrance of "Recessional" (finishing
"The Explorer" interrupted his completion of "Recessional"66).
Part of the explanation may be found in the passionate
affirmation of his prophetic role revealed in the closing
lines of "The Explorer":
62Something of Myself, XXIV, 409.
6Carrington, p. 157; "In Partibus," "Letters on
Leave," "The Adoration of the Mage," "A Death in Camp,"
Abaft the Funnel, XXIII, 173-210.
65Carrington, pp. xix-xx.
66Ibid.. p. 264.
God took care to hide that country till He judged
His people ready,
Then He chose me for His Whisper, and I've found
it, and it's yours.
Yes, your "never-never country"--yes, your "edge
And "no sense in going further"--till I crossed
the range to see.
God forgive me' No, I didn't. It's God's present
to our nation.
Anybody might have found it but--His Whisper came
The comprehensive nature of the true prophetic vocation--
from the initial dedication, through the costly struggle of
discovery and presentation of the given truth, to the reward-
ing spiritual exaltation--is presented, with varying com-
pleteness and emphases, in a number of other selections.
"My New-Cut Ashlar"67 is a prayer rather than a dramatic
lyric. Its tone is not that of an unprofessional explorer
speaking to frontier people but that of an artist in lonely
communion with his Maker. Here is the expression of that
true humility that only the prophetic--the "chosen"--can
know. The poet knows that he has been given a vision, that
he has been chosen to contribute to the "Temple of [God's]
Worth," and that he is capable of producing the nearly per-
fect work called for. Nevertheless, he knows that his "good"
67Life's Handicap, IV, 413-414.
work was accomplished under the guidance of the Master
Hand, that he must accept the responsibility for all the
poor work, and that his special role in God's purposes does
not protect him against the "bitter paths" into which his
human "Fire" and 'Clay" lead him. His prayer acknowledges
that it is God's Grace that illuminates everything for him,
and he pleads that he may keep both his vision and his inde-
pendence of men--dependence upon God--so that he "may help
such men as need." Again, in "The Prophet and the Country'69
the prophetic experiences are recorded, from the revelation
of a spiritual truth, through the years of total commitment
of time and resources, to the painful rejection by those who
should have understood, the confession of frustrated feelings
and the final experience of a new and rewarding awareness of
the divine-human relationship. In the story "The Knife and
the Naked Chalk" the protagonist knows that he has special
spiritual obligations, laid upon him by his training and his
clear understanding of his people's need (expressed in the
Biblical terms "The sheep are the people."); he undertakes
the necessary but terrifying adventure, alone; he suffers
6Debits and Credits, VIII, 129-148.
Rewards and Fairies, XIII, 351-372.
nearly unto death and sacrifices one of his eyes for the
instrument of their salvation; they accept his gift by deny-
ing his humanity; the loss of human fellowship forces him to
a greater commitment to his religious role. In "The White
Seal,"71 since the characters are animals, there is no direct
mention of God or religion; nevertheless, the White Seal is
"chosen" by something beyond his will since he is born
different from the other seals; he spends a long period alone
discovering knowledge his fellow seals need; he has to argue
and then fight until he is bloody, to get them to listen to
his "truth"; then he must accept the slowness with which
most of them act upon his message.
In addition to describing in these selections something
of his sense of the completeness of his prophetic dedication
of his life, Kipling has left here and elsewhere evidence
of his understanding of the completeness with which he was
to dedicate his entire career. He was to use his art pro-
phetically, not just for a few public hours of exalted
patriotism or national suffering, but from the beginning to
the end of his career, touching every subject that interested
him, and using every means appropriate to his talent. His
career began early: Schoolboy Lyrics was privately printed
7The Jungle Books, XI, 265-288.
in India in 1881; he began working on the Civil and Military
Gazette, in Lahore, before he was seventeen; he had work
accepted by Mowbray Morris, editor of Macmillan Magazine,
in London, before he was twenty-four.72 Kipling has not
left a record of any single moment or hour that he would
henceforth point to as the beginning of his prophetic voca-
tion, although he does state that his mystical "fortunate
hours" began in his twelfth year.73 Among the Schoolboy
Lyrics there is an "Argument" and a fragment of a "Projected
Poem to be called 'The Seven Nights of Creation,'"7 evi-
dence that in his early teens he was interested in using his
talent on a profound religious subject. Other early works
include the witty attack on religious liberalism "'O Baal,
Hear Us'"75 and the passionate denunciation of man's
propensity to look for substitutes to God's Law "'New Lamps
for Old:'"76 "A Song of the English," the acknowledged
expression of his manifesto of dedication, was published
7Something of Myself, XXIV, 409-410.
75Other Verse, XXV, 71-76.
in 1893 but conceived at least as early as 1889, according
to Carrington.77 His statement of the sacrificial nature
of worthwhile art, put in the mouth of the semi-autobio-
graphical protagonist of The Light that Failed, was written
in 1890, the year of his literary conquest of London. This
is also the year in which he sent to his parents the telegram
bearing simply Genesis 45:9, appropriating by allusion
not only the triumphs but also the "chosen of God" status of
the Biblical Joseph (Rudyard Kipling's rarely used first
name was Joseph). Among the other works already cited as
significant statements of his sense of prophetic vocation,
"My New-Cut Ashlar," with its remarkably mature understand-
ing of the nature of his work and the price he must pay
for its completion, is the "L'Envoi" of Life's Handicap,
published in 1891; "To the True Romance," with its complex
interpretation of the nature of God's relationship to
creativity and of his own special relationship to this side
of God, and that revelation of awesome mystical experience
"The Prayer of Miriam Cohen" are both dated 1893; and the
dramatically comprehensive prophetic lyric "The Explorer"
was finished in 1897.
7Carrington, p. 210.
78Ibid., p. 158.
Although the evidence of the chronologically compre-
hensive nature of his prophetic vocation for the years be-
tween 1897 and 1930 is found chiefly in the tone with which
he denounced, reassured, or enlightened his readers on
subjects ranging from Biblical incidents to modern warfare
to science fiction, there are selections that reveal facets
of his personal prophetic commitment. "The Palace" and
"Sussex" are both dated 1902. The first poem, faintly
suggesting King David's disappointment at being forbidden to
build the Temple, strongly implies the poet's sense of
his place in a larger Design. While "Sussex" extols the
place that Kipling lived from 1902 until his death and that
he came to love above all other spots, its theme of God's
Design (benign, inclusive, and creative) is not only the
central theme of Kipling's prophetic message but the basic
conviction of his own prophetic vocation. "The Knife and
the Naked Chalk," already cited as a fictional statement
of the comprehensive nature of his sense of prophetic
vocation, is part of pewards and Fairies,1 published in
79The Five Nations, XXVI, 211-212: 213-216.
0II Sam. 7:3-5; I Chron. 28:11.
1910. "The Pilgrim's Way" is an undated poem near the end
of The Years Between,82 which includes a few early poems
but chiefly those of the War years, 1914-18. The poem is
an informal prayer, frankly in the voice of the poet, asking
God's assistance in helping his fellowmen to understand
God's love. "The Prophet and the Country,"83 with its
reference to Kipling's "fortunate hours" and his sympathe-
tic portrayal of another "Prophet," was published in 1924.
In 1930 he wrote a story about St. Paul and followed it with
a poem, "At His Execution,"84 the tone of which so strongly
resembles the tone of "My New-Cut Ashlar" and "To the True
Romance" that the poet's sympathy with St. Paul seems
founded on, or at least intensified by, his own experience.
The poem is based on I Corinthians 9:22 ("I am made all
things to all men, that I might by all means save some."),
alludes to "the great Light and Word" which converted Saul
the zealous Pharisee into Paul the dedicated Apostle, and
concludes with the request that the "self" he had sacri-
ficed to the Lord might in the end, when his course is
8Debits and Credits, VIII, 129-148.
84"The Manner of Men," Limits and Renewals, X, 195-
done,86 be restored to him. "'Non Nobis Domine"'"87 Kip-
ling's poem for the Pageant of Parliament in 1934, speaks
for his nation but in a tone of deep personal affirmation
of faith in the "Power by Whom we live--/ Creator, Judge,
and Friend." The consistent awareness of his prophetic role
that these chronologically comprehensive selections imply
is affirmed by Kipling when, in the last chapter of his
autobiography, published posthumously in 1937, his advice
to young writers reveals his own spiritual commitment
throughout his life: "All your material is drawn from the
lives of men. Remember, then, what David did with the
water brought to him in the heat of battle." What David
did was pour "it out unto the Lord."89
Just as Kipling believed that his prophetic vocation
or dedication was comprehensive for his life and for his
career, he believed that it was comprehensive for his art--
both its form and its content. The prophetic viewpoint
was to illuminate, or at least touch, every subject and
every art form he used. That it did so is the implication
II Tim. 4:6-8.
87Miscellaneous, XXVIII, 291.
88Something of Myself, XXIV, 509.
89 Sam. 23:16.
II Sam. 23:16.
of T. S. Eliot's comment already quoted, and such comments
as that of Mrs. Oliphant: "our souls are penetrated not
by the sense of failure, but of the terrible and spendid
warfare of everlasting good against overwhelming yet
temporary evil";90 or that of F. York Powell: "He is an
artist born, but also a born preacher. .. He preaches
Faith, Hope, and Charity. He has enforced, again and again,
the necessary lesson of sympathy with everything that
lives." Authorized editions of Kipling's work published
during his lifetime include five novels, "two hundred and
fifty short stories, a thousand pages of verse, and several
volumes" of speeches, letters, etc.92 Furthermore, he gen-
erally adhered to the artistic rule of never doing the
same thing twice.93 Consequently, within the various
genre of the above list may be found an incredible range
of verse forms and some true poetry; short stories in
the manner of the Latin masters; stories rising from the
9Review of Life's Handicap under "The Old Saloon,"
Blackwood's Magazine, CL (November, 1891), 728-735.
"Rudyard Kipling," English Illustrated Magazine,
XXX (December, 1903), 295-298.
9Carrington, p. xx.
93Something of Myself, XXIV, 503.
94Eliot, A Choice of Kipling's Verse, pp. 8-9.
pages of the Bible; stories in the language and tone of
Muslim thought and lore: stories from the heart and tongue
of the Soldiers Three; satiric tales from "naughty" Simla;
romantic tales of heroic and/or charming Indians, Anglo-
Indians, Americans, and Englishmen; terrifying tales of
Eastern mystery and Western degradation; tales of animals,
machines, prehistory; parables, allegories, fables, and much
more; a picaresque novel, three very different romances,
and a novel of craft. That Kipling intended all of this to
serve God--"one stone the more . in . the Temple
of Thy Worth"--and men--"that I may serve such men as
need"--because God's Grace had shown him "nought common" or
unworthy such use is clearly stated in "My New-Cut Ashlar.'95
That he recognized many would not understand how this could
be is the purport of a letter written to a boy of sixteen
who had written to thank him for stories and poems he liked:
"'If you have found out from my tales that wickedness of
any kind does not pay, you've learned something I have
tried to teach very hard. Of course, I can't go about and
cram a sermon into a tale but I try to get at the same
point obliquely--and so far no one has found me out.'"96
95Life's Handicap, IV, 413-414.
96'Letter to unnamed member of a Thepney Club," The
Kipling Journal, No. 77 (April, 1946), pp. 5-6.
And just how persuaded he was of his prophetic principle
that all forms of art could serve God's purposes is ex-
pressed in the closing lines of "A Recantation'97 (a 1917
tribute to a music hall singer whom his son John and many
other young servicemen "adored" and who sang as usual, for
their sakes, on the night news came of the death of her
Yet they who use the Word assigned,
To hearten and make whole.
Not less than Gods have served mankind,
Though vultures rend their soul.
The comprehensiveness of Kipling's prophetic dedication
is reflected in his message. Just as he understood God as
the Source of his prophetic call and the Overseer of the
prophetic vocation to which that call led, a prophetic vo-
cation both spiritual and comprehensive, he consistently
sought to present the message that God was in Reality, the
original and continuous Creator, Designer, and supreme
Power in the universe, and that God's Purpose was Creativity,
the Revelation of Himself, and the Establishment of the
divine-human partnership. Each of these phrases is an
attempt to explain the essentially unexplainable, to express
9The Years Between, XXVI, 360-361.
in ordinary language a spiritual concept that even religious
language has never fully expressed. This concept, a central
theme of all Judeo-Christian prophets, is that the Supreme
Being is as real as, if not more real than the phenomena
men call reality, and that this omnipotent, omniscient,
omnipresent One continually re-establishes the meaning
of life through His Creative Design, i.e., His continuous
creativity, His eternal plans, and His supreme power. It
is this concept that Kipling was convinced God had called
him to reiterate in modes that would reach an audience no
longer (to some extent never) reached by strictly religious
teaching. The truth of his message--"the whole sweep and
meaning of things and effort and origins" as he found it
"in the ends of all the Earth." --was, in simple terms,
that God is concerned with all facets of life. Hence,
Kipling's great range of subject material and artistic
techniques is integral to his prophetic message. Moreover,
his persistent introduction of spiritual overtones and
religious language in artistic or prosaic comment on
subjects often thought inappropriate for such treatment is
likewise integral to his message. That Kipling was deeply
98Something of Myself, XXIV, 418.
"A Song of the English," The Seven Seas, XXVI, 3.
convinced of the importance of this comprehensiveness is
vehemently presented in the short poem "Kaspar's Song in
'Varda.'"100 This poetic parable describes the "children's"
futile efforts to catch a "Psyche" (symbol of both the but-
terfly and the soul); finally, bruised and discouraged,
they listen to their "father," who tells them to "gather
out of my garden a cabbage leaf," under which they would
find "dull grey eggs that, properly fed/ Turn, by Way of
the worm to lots of/ Radiant Psyches raised from the dead."
In the last stanza, the poet bitterly denounces those
spokesmen for institutional religion who would deny God's
concern with cabbages and worms:
"Heaven is beautiful, Earth is ugly,"
The three-dimensioned preacher saith,
So we must not look where the snail and the slug lie
For Psyche's birth .. And that is our death:
A more complete statement of Kipling's prophetic
message--that God is concerned with all facets of life
because He is both the original and the continuing
Creator, because His Design is eternal, and because He is
the supreme Power in the universe--is found in the prayer-
poem "My New-Cut Ashlar."101 In this poem Kipling asserts
1Traffics and Discoveries, VII, 193.
101Life's Handicap, IV, 413-414.
the continuous nature of God's creative relation to life
in the allusion to Eden as a concept essential to all
craft; he implies the centrality of God's design in
the controlling metaphor of the poem, the building of a
temple, and in his identification of his work as one more
"stone" "In that dread Temple of Thy worth"; and he ac-
knowledges God's omnipotence when he calls Him "Great
Overseer," and insists that it is His hand that compels
all achievement. But the capstone of this poetic statement
of the comprehensiveness of God's concern is the Biblical
allusion which identifies his "vision" or message. The
lines "It is enough that, through Thy Grace,/ I saw nought
common on Thy Earth./ Take not that vision from my ken--"
not only add the religious significance of a direct command
of God ("What God hath cleansed, that call not thou
common." 03) to one of the greatest Apostles (Peter), at
a crucial point in Christianity's development (its expansion
to include Gentiles), but they also clearly state that
nothing God has created is beneath His or His prophet's
concern. Again, the inclusiveness and creative nature of
God's concern with what men pall reality is the meaning of
the opening and closing lines of the poem "Sussex":
God gave all men all earth to love
That, as He watched Creation's birth,
So we, in godlike mood,
May of our love create our earth
And see that it is good.105
In "The Necessitarian"106 a special facet of God's compre-
hensive concern is presented. The poet first questions
"Whose hands . empty upon earth . the very Urns
of Mirth," then concludes "it must be . the selfsame
power as went to shape His Planet or His Rose." In the
story "The Conversion of St. Wilfrid,"107 still another
facet of God's relationship to men's reality must be learned
by Eddi, Wilfrid's chaplain, who first fears Meon's clever
pet seal, Padda, as a demon, then acknowledges that God
can and does use even animals in His holy purposes. In
"The Church that Was at Antioch,"08 Kipling has the
Apostles Peter and Paul learn that God has not left
Himself without witnessl09 even in the pagan faith of
106Traffics and Discoveries, VII, 161.
107Rewards and Fairies, XIII, 439-460.
1Limits and Renewals, X, 77-99.
Mithras, an historically "real" expression of the ideas
and ideals of many Roman soldiers.
Kipling's conviction that God was to be discovered
in and understood through Reality he puts in a presumed
quotation used as an introduction to two of his longer
short stories, "On the Gate: A Tale of '16"110 and
"Uncovenanted Mercies" : "If the Order Above be but
the reflection of the Order Below: as the Ancient affirms
who has had experience of the Orders ." Both stories
develop situations that argue that life-after-death is a
continuation of life-before-death and that God's compas-
sionate concern is not limited to the noble and the righteous
but includes such "real people" as ordinary war casualties,
a pair of illicit lovers, and a self-pitying coward.
Kipling was also, in true prophetic fashion, very sure that
God was concerned with governments and cultures, and that
no peoples could ignore His eternal Design or His Power.
In the denunciatory poem "The City of Brass" he outlines
the history of a people who forgot that their "Fates were
made splendid by God," and drunk with pride, "ran panting
Debits and Credits, VIII, 227-249.
Limits and Renewals, X, 323-346.
112The Years Between, XXV, 415-418.
The Years Between, XXVI, 415-418.
in haste to lay waste and embitter forever/ The wellsprings
of Wisdom and Strength which are Faith and Endeavor."
Such people, according to Kipling, are punished by God,
Who grants them what they strove for, "the heart of a
beast in the place of a man's heart," and then removes
them from "the roll of the Nations."
God's working in and through Reality, fulfilling His
creative, eternal Design, is the message of "The Explorer."
An outwardly ordinary man builds his barns and strings his
fences in a "little border station where the trails run
out and stop" and his neighbors assure him there is "no
sense in going further." But when God "judged His people
ready" to develop a new realm, He put this man's spiritual
and physical resources to work preparing the way. While
the Explorer heard God's Whisper, the "people" understood
only "ores," "wood and cattle," "water-transit," and the
like. Nevertheless, this preoccupation with "reality" does
not invalidate God's plan to give them this rich new coun-
try. The poem's allusion to the annointing of Saul adds
to this apparently realistic narrative of American westward
expansion the symbolic significance of the relationship of
God to His prophet and to His people in that moment in
3The Five Nations, XXVI, 200-204.
Hebrew history in which the Children of Israel demanded a
visible king like other nations, and over Samuel's protests,
God granted their wish. And although the Explorer heard a
divine voice, had visions of future cities, and heard
mysterious rivers, he had to walk every step of the way
through mountains, desert, and wilderness, and back again.
So sure was Kipling that God was constantly and creatively
concerned with all facets of life, he had only contempt
for those who saw religion as pious disengagement from
reality. In the poem "The Sons of Martha"114 he praises
those who back their faith-that-moveth-mountains with
appropriate effort, and mocks those who "preach that their
God will rouse them a little before the nuts work loose .
for] teach that His Pity allows them to drop their job
when they dam'-well choose." As his Explorer points out,
God takes reality seriously and He expects His followers to
do so, a principle Kipling developed into one of his major
themes, God's Law, a theme to be discussed more fully
later. But Kipling also saw God using reality--as the
Creator, Designer and Sustainer of that reality has a right
1The Years Between, XXVI, 372-374.
to do. In the beautiful little poem "The Answer"6
Kipling presents a God Who graciously responds to the
complaint of a fallen rose, a God "Who hears both sun-
dried dust and sun," but a God Who, at the same time,
asserts His role as Creator, Designer and Sustainer of
"Sister, before We smote the Dark in twain,
Ere yet the stars saw one another plain,
Time, Tide, and Space, We bound unto the task
That thou shouldst fall, and such an one should ask."
And in "The Legend of Mirth" the cosmic imagery and
immortal themes blend perfectly, as Kipling's prophetic
message indicates they should, with the mundane duties
of the Four Archangels, Raphael, Gabriel, Michael, and
Azreal, ministering to "The tedious generations of man-
kind . gross, indifferent, facile dust." The point of
the poem is that the Seraph Mirth was sent by God to teach
the Four, chief ministers of His will, to look upon reality
--"tales of the shop, the bed, the court, the street,/
Intimate, elemental, indiscreet"--with a saving sense of
This divine concern with all facets of life is, after
all, the logical concern of the Designer, Creator and
6The Seven Seas, XXVI, 53.
17A Diversity of Creatures, IX, 289-292.
Sustainer of life or reality it is also the direct ex-
pression of God's Purpose, which is creativity, revelation
of Himself, and establishment of the divine-human relation-
ship. While orthodox Christianity tends to emphasize the
Edenic Fall and the re-establishment of a Father-child
relationship through Christ's redemptive sacrifice,
Kipling tends to emphasize the creative divine-human
partnership of Eden and of all creative moments since.
It should not seem strange that an artist would understand
Truth in these terms, and, as subsequent exploration of
Kipling's major themes will show, this creative viewpoint
does not deny Man's propensity to disobedience or the
importance of God's redeeming love. Kipling clearly
identifies God's Purpose in such lines as the following:
Who, lest all thought of Eden fade,
Bring'st Eden to the craftsman's brain--
Godlike to muse o'er his own Trade
And manlike stand with God again.:18
Again, in the opening and closing lines of "Sussex":1
That, as He watched Creation's birth,
So we, in godlike mood,
May of our love create our earth
And see that it is good.
he is emphasizing God's joy in creativity and His desire
to reveal Himself and establish the human-divine relationship
118"My New-Cut Ashlar," Life's Handicap, IV, 413-414.
119The Five Nations, XXVI, 213-214.
in and through Man's acts of creativity. Kipling felt
that too many interpretations of Eden forgot that "Adam
was a gardener, and God who made him sees/ That half a
proper gardener's work is done upon his knees."20 And
too many interpretations of heaven seemed to have missed
the creative nature Kipling saw in it: "And oft-times
cometh our wise Lord God, master of every trade,/ And tells
them tales of His daily toil, of Edens newly made";
or "When Earth's last picture is painted . We shall
rest . Tell the Master of All Good Workmen shall put
us to work anew. That God's Purpose was creativity
is the essence of Kipling's description of the Spirit he
served in "To the True Romance":
Since spoken word Man's Spirit stirred
Beyond his belly-need,
What is is Thine of Fair design
In Thought and Craft and Deed.
Each stroke aright of toil and fight,
That was and that shall be,
And hope too high wherefore we die,
Had birth and worth in Thee.
120"The Glory of the Garden," Later Songs from Books,
XXVII, 292-293; Gen. 2:15.
121"Dedication," Barrack-Room Ballads, XXV, 161-162.
122"When Earth's Last Picture Is Painted," The Seven
Seas, XXVI, 157.
123Many Inventions, V, xi-xiv.
Kipling further declares that this creative Spirit "did'st
teach all lovers speech/ And life all mystery." The
Spirit's Power is that of the divine Creator: "Time hath
no tide but must abide/ The servant of Thy will." It is
also that divinely self-limited power that works through
men: "And Captains bold by Thee controlled/ Most like to
Gods design." In this same complex poetic statement of
Kipling's understanding of the One he served, it is clear
that that One desires to reveal Himself to men, for those
who love Him "prove" His "excellence august" and "discover"
that He is "perfect, wise, and just." Further, He is
"Pure Wisdom," "the Voice" that gives courage to men and
comfort to those who fail; in fact, He is the "Charity,"
"Faith," and "Truth" that men discover in all the signifi-
cant moments of life.
Identifying God's Purpose as revelation of His creative
nature and His desire to maintain a partnership with man is
the intent of Kipling's frequent use of the Eden image. He
is fully in the Christian tradition, especially from the
Renaissance on, when he sees the Garden of Eden as the
prototype of the perfect divine-human relationship: God
walks and talks with Man and Woman, who acknowledge His
supremacy but know themselves as His co-workers. It is
this divine-human partnership ("Godlike to muse o'er his
own Trade/ And manlike stand with God again:") that the
craftsman discovers when he thinks of his work in Eden
terms ("lestall thought of Eden fade,/ Bring'st Eden to the
craftsman's brain.").124 And it is the refusal to maintain
this Edenic relationship, substituting human for divine
supremacy ("We have fashioned a God Which shall save us
hereafter./ We ascribe all dominion to man"), that
destroys nations. In "New Lamps for Old"126 it is the
"Lying Spirit" under the "Eden-tree" that first tempted man
to try substitutes for obedience to God and that tempted
him to all subsequent choosing of false "lamps" that light
"the Path of Toil that runs to the Gate of Death." In "The
Enemies to Each Other,27 a witty, pseudo-Islamic story of
Eden, the first man and the first woman destroy their
paradise by worshipping themselves. And in The Jungle Book
story "How Fear Came" the Creation and the Fall are
retold in terms appropriate to a Jungle Eden as an ex-
planation to Mowgli and all the animals present of how
"My New-Cut Ashlar," Life's Handicap, IV, 413-414.
"The City of Brass," The Years Between, XXVI,
126Departmental Ditties and Other Verse, XXV, 114-117.
1Debits and Credits, VIII, 1-17.
disobedience to the "Lord of the Jungle"--disobedience
rooted in careless egotism--led to the imperfections of
Basic to Kipling's prophetic message that God is
creatively present in man's reality, seeking to re-establish
the divine-human relationship that man's ego and foolishness
have destroyed, is the philosophy that argues that the
spiritual world ("the Order Above") is understandable from
the physical world ("the Order Below"). "On the Gate: A
Tale of '16,"29 which argues this position, is hopeful,
affirmative, even gaily witty in tone, for Kipling sees
God's Purpose of re-establishing the divine-human relation-
ship as an expression of God's Love. All the saints and the
waiting just-deceased souls at the Gate of Heaven rejoice
when St. Peter recalls "Samuel Two, Double Fourteen":
"Yet doth He devise means that His banished be not expelled
from Him." It is unfortunate that so sensitive a critic as
J. M. S. Tompkins sees only the "darkness" of the Abyss130
in Kipling's admission that God's revelation of Himself
is limited to even His "chosen," in this life. Tompkins
quotes Rider Haggard's account of a conversation, between
129Debits and Credits, VIII, 227-249.
130The Art of Rudyard Kipling, p. 196.
Kipling and himself on this subject, in which Kipling
acknowledged occasional experiences of the nearness of
God but that he had found these moments of mystic com-
munion hard to maintain. It was his feeling that this
was meant "'to be so; that God does not mean we should get
too near lest we should become unfitted for our work in
the world.'" How fully Kipling understood too vivid an
awareness of God's presence would be more than human flesh
could stand is the burden of "The Prayer of Miriam Cohen,"132
which closes with the request that there be "A veil twixtt
us and Thee, God Lord . Lest we should hear too clear
. . And unto madness see:" This same need of a limited-
revelation is found in "To the True Romance," which not
only echoes the above line with "A veil to draw twixtt God
His Law/ And Man's infirmity," but points out that he
cannot follow "feet" that trod too "near to God" or "know"
the Spirit he serves until he dies. Nevertheless, Kipling
is sure that such revelation as God wisely permits trans-
forms both "devil and brute . To higher, lordlier
show," and that "Who holds by Thee hath Heaven in fee"
131Lilias Rider Haggard, The Cloak that I Left, pp.
132Songs from Books, XXVII, 130.
1Many Inventions, V, xi-xiv.
and "possess in singleness/ The joy of all the earth."
It is, after all, the realization that God has revealed
Himself ("His Whisper") and used him as a partner in His
eternal Design (when "He judged" the time was ripe, "He
chose me") that brings to "The Explorer" the exaltation
that ends this poetic statement of Kipling's prophetic
The evidence so far cited supports the conclusion that
Kipling understood his career as a prophetic vocation; that
is, the work of one under a divine mandate to interpret his
personal experiences and his times in the light of universal
spiritual truths. He believed the Source of his "call" to
dedication was God, and he acknowledge God as the guiding
Hand in all that he did worthily. He believed that the
nature of his "vocation" was spiritual and comprehensive,
intended to use all of his experiences, his talents, his
insights to present a God-given message that was likewise
spiritual and comprehensive. The message was that God was
vitally involved in all experience, individual and
universal--involved as the original and continuous Creator,
as the eternal Designer, and as the supreme Power of Life.
Furthermore, God's Purpose was to be understood as
Creativity and the Revelation of Himself that He might
continually re-establish the divine-human relationship.
This initial argument for the thesis of this study--that
recognizing the prophetic qualities in Kipling's work
clarifies his intent, enriches his artistry, and resolves
the inconsistencies of lesser bases of analysis--will be
reinforced by an exploration of his use of prophetic
language. Kipling, noted as an artist for his almost-too-
great-concentration and his "passionate exactness of
language,35 found it right to use the language and thought
of the Bible to an extent seldom realized by modern readers
and often slighted by modern critics. A survey of his ex-
tensive and appropriate use of religious material is the
purpose of the next chapter.
Carrington, pp. 370-371; also, Lewis, No. 127, pp.
G. S. Fraser, The Modern Writer and His World,
A PROPHETIC LANGUAGE
One of the means of determining an author's chief
characteristics is identifying his language. In the broad-
est sense that the term language may be understood with
regard to literature, that is, as the entire artistic media
of a writer, Kipling's language is strongly prophetic. This
is not surprising when he is dealing with religious subjects,
such as prayers and hymns, or the re-creation of Biblical
situations, or the creation of parallels to Biblical ma-
terial. However, the frequency with which he dealt with
these subjects is a surprise to many and is significant in
determining his religious or prophetic viewpoint. More
surprising and significant, by sheer weight of evidence,
is the consistency with which his artistic insights into
public events, common human experiences, and his own
personal experiences are spiritual insights, insights best
expressed in prophetic language. Identifying the prophetic
qualities in Kipling's language becomes, then, more than a
tabulation of the number of times he uses names and quota-
tions from, or allusions to, the Bible or other religious
material. These elements of his language are, of course,
important, and their number is impressive. But the crucial
element in evaluating the prophetic qualities of his
language is recognition of his purpose, for the purpose
establishes the tone and the importance of the religious
language in each individual work. The following survey
of his works will be concerned with both the amount and the
meaning of this prophetic language; it will also reveal
that Kipling used this language throughout his career.
Kipling's use of Biblical and other religious ma-
terial is rather generally acknowledged. William Lyon
Phelps commented that anyone who knew the Bible well could
hear it in everything Kipling wrote. At the same time,
this notable characteristic is usually misunderstood.
R. Thurston Hopkins attributed Kipling's "love of Biblical
language" to his artistic search for "sonorous expres-
sions." Major-General Ian Hay Beith attributed "his
constant employment in all his writings of the language of
the Bible" to his inherited Puritanism. W. Somerset
"As I Like It," Scribner's Magazine, XCII, No. 2
(August, 1932), 109.
2Rudyard Kipling: A Character Study. Life, Writings,
and Literary Landmarks, p. 73.
"Rudyard Kipling," The Kipling Journal, XVI, No. 89
(April, 1949), 4.
Maugham praised Kipling's use of "the whole language" (the
language of the Bible as well as the language of the
streets), but, blinded by his won philosophical viewpoint,
he insisted that Kipling improved when he discarded "his
unseemly addiction to Biblical phrases." Actually, Kipling
never discarded his religious language or the thought it
so aptly expressed. In his autobiography, which he wrote
near the end of his life (it is unfinished and was published
posthumously), while discussing the power of his Daemon, he
writes: "If ever I held back, Ananias fashion, anything of
myself . I paid for it by missing what I then knew the
tale lacked." The Ananias alluded to is that tragic
Ananias who thought to fool Peter (and God) by secretly
withholding a portion of his possessions when the Early
Church decided to have all its property held in common.
Ananias dropped dead as Peter denounced him--not for his
economic caution but for his attempt "to lie to the Holy
Ghost." Again, discussing whether or not he was
"psychic," which he denies, Kipling alludes to "the road
to Endor." This is a reference to Saul's pathetic recourse
Maugham's Choice of Kipling's Best, p. xxviii.
5Something of Myself, XXIV, 502.
to a "witch" at Endor (despite his own decree banning such
practices) when, after Samuel's death, he felt utterly cut
off from God's guidance. Kipling had earlier developed
this situation into a compassionate remonstrance to be-
reaved mothers and widows, in the poem "En-Dor." And in
his advice to young writers, the allusion to David's act
of pouring out the water from the well at Bethlehem has
already been cited in chapter one as evidence of Kipling's
total prophetic commitment. Furthermore, his last collec-
tion of short stories, Limits and Renewals, published in
1932, contains two stories based directly on Biblical ma-
terial, "The Church That Was at Antioch" and "The Manner of
Men"; a story dealing with a little French Catholic church
and its admirable cure, "The Miracle of Saint Jubanus";
a story of Satan, Archangels, and spirits in Hell, "Un-
covenanted Mercies"; and a number of "religious" poems.
These and many other selections will be examined for their
prophetic language and thought in the subsequent survey of
those works that have religious subjects and those works
that have non-religious subjects but spiritual insights.
I Sam. 28:3-25.
8II Sam. 23:16; Something of Myself, XXIV, 510.
A survey of Kipling's use of prophetic language begins
most readily with his frankly religious selections:
prayers and hymns, Biblical re-creations, and selections
that use Biblical characterers or situations as a starting
point to develop modern parallels. Of the hymns the most
famous is "Recessional," written as a postscript to the
Imperial Jubilee of 1897. Included in many hymnbooks and a
favorite on occasions of solemn national significance,
"Recessional" calls upon rulers (at the time it was written,
the rulers of history's greatest empire) to remember "Be-
neath whose awful Hand" they hold dominion, and to remember
that their only acceptable offering is "An humble and a
contrite heart," a quotation from Isaiah 57:15. The re-
peated phrase "Lord God of Hosts," which has many possible
sources in the Bible, recalls both the history and the
theocratic viewpoint of the Old Testament. The lines "Lo,
all our pomp of yesterday/ Is one with Nineveh and Tyre:"
carry strong prophetic overtones. Isaiah used the word
pomp to pronounce "woe" upon an apostate Israel ("and
their glory, and their multitude, and their pomp .
The Five Nations, XXVI, 316-317.
10Hos. 12:5; Amos 9:5; II Sam. 5:10; Ps. 80:7; etc.
shall descend into [Hell] ")11 and, later, upon their
enemies ("Thy pomp is brought down to the grave.").12
Ezekiel used pomp as a mark of shame four times. In
the New Testament, "great pomp" is used to describe the
worldly glory of King Herod Agrippa II, before whom Paul
as a prisoner plead the cause of Christ; the story ends
with tragic irony when Agrippa is "almost" persuaded but
retreats from religious decision to routine administrative
matters. Of course the allusions to Nineveh and Tyre
recall the prophetic dooms pronounced upon these two proud
cities; also pertinent is Christ's denunciation of cities
that failed to repeat before His work: "Woe unto thee,
Chorazin: woe unto thee, Bethsaida: for if the mighty
works, which were done in you, had been done in Tyre and
Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sack-cloth and
ashes." Few readers can be expected to recall all the
specific Biblical references behind each of the religious
terms in this poem, but most readers are strongly aware
1Ezek. 7:24, 30:18, 33:28, 32:12.
of its prophetic tone. By assuming the point of view that
recognizes God as the Lord of history, of power, of the
ethical law of the universe, and of men's devotion, and
by using the form of a hymn and diction that "sounds"
like the Bible or that actually alludes to Biblical
material, Kipling is using prophetic language--language
that is appropriate to his intent and that enhances his
Another notable poem-hymn or prayer illustrating Kip-
ling's use of prophetic language is "'Non Nobis Domine!'6
written thirty-seven years after "Recessional," for the
Pageant of Parliament, in 1934. This poem uses few if any
specific allusions to Bible verses (the first line of the
last stanza, "O Power by Whom we live--" may echo Acts
17:28, "For in him we live, and move, and have our being"),
but uses throughout traditional religious language: from
its Latin title, repeated in the opening and closing lines
and their translation ("Not unto us the Praise!"), to such
familiar terms as "Judgment," "confess," "godless," "for-
give," "Creator, Judge, and Friend." The poem is a fine
example of Kipling's ability to unite traditional religious
language with his own particular prophetic message, in this
16Miscellaneous, XXVIII, 291.
case his central theme--that God is vitally concerned with
both the physical and the spiritual worlds. The tone of the
poem is also prophetic in that Kipling confesses and peti-
tions for his nation but does so, like a Jeremiah or a
Paul,8 through his own convictions and feelings. The
emphasis of the poem is the honesty and humility Kipling
always felt before God; it also reflects his consistent
concern with achievement or creativity. The "Lest we for-
get" of the earlier national prayer, "Recessional," has be-
come the confession that "we" have forgotten--holding "too
high" the "noise which men call Fame" and the "dross which
men call Gold," and undergoing "hot and godless days"
despite heart-knowledge that only God can crown "All
knowledge or device/ That Man has reached or wrought."
And the awesome power of the "Lord God of Hosts" and the
unspecified threat of the "Lest we forget" of the earlier
poem have been mitigated by identifying the "Power by Whom
we live" as "Creator, Judge and Friend," One who will for-
give, sustain, and lead Men to understand to Whom the
Praise for all achievement really belongs. Another
striking example of Kipling's use of prophetic language
1The Lamentations of Jeremiah.
(traditional religious diction, Biblical allusion and
in this instance, the form of a hymn) is "The Children's
Song."9 The first and last stanzas of this thirty-two-
line poem are pledges of allegiance to "The Land of our
Birth"; the intervening six quatrains make it quite clear
that men serve their country best by serving God. The
opening line of the second stanza, "Father in Heaven Who
lovest all," (The title under which four stanzas of the poem
appear in many hymnbooks20), is an echo of the Lord's Prayer
and that most familiar of all New Testament verses, John
3:16. "For God so loved the world . ." The third
stanza begins, as do the next four stanzas, with "Teach
us," recalling the Disciples' request of the Master, "Lord,
teach us to pray." Other allusions are made to bearing
the yoke, making of one's life a worthy sacrifice,
walking with God, and forgiving and loving "all men
neathh the sun"25 Kipling's well-known emphasis on
19Songs from Books, XXVII, 93-94.
2Music by Timothy R. Matthews.
24Mic. 6:8, and the entire pattern of discipleship
during Christ's earthly ministry.
25 6:12; Acts 17:26.
Matt. 6:12; Acts 17:26.
manliness is here clearly related to its religious signifi-
cance: youth should learn "steadfastness and careful truth,"
that they may, through God's Grace, lead their Nation to
"The Truth whereby the Nations live"; and they should learn
to "rule" themselves, "Controlled and cleanly," that they
may bring, "if need arise,/ No maimed or worthless sacri-
fice."26 To this message of God's Grace and Truth as cen-
tral to individual and national well-being, he adds his own
high ideal of dedication: that one should look to God
rather than friends for judgment of his achievements and
learn to walk with God, "uncowed/ By fear or favour of the
crowd." Then he reminds his hymn-singers that strength
must be matched with compassion and that "Mirth that has
no bitter springs" is essential to loving and forgiving
others. While the tone of this poem reflects its intent--
instruction of children rather than the admonition of a
nation--it demonstrates, as do the other hymns cited, the
appropriateness and effectiveness of Kipling's prophetic
Kipling wrote a number of other poems that are
identified by their titles and/or their form as selections
which might be expected to use prophetic language. "Hymn
Before Action"27 is a prayer and a hymn to be used by
military men before going into battle. In language
reminiscent of Old Testament battle accounts, it describes
the approaching clash, then prays "Jehovah of the Thunders,/
Lord God of Battles, aid:" These titles for God are slight
variations of the familiar descriptions the "Lord of Hosts"
and the Lord who sends thunder or speaks through the thun-
der. Confessing their previous negligent or rebellious
attitudes, the petitioners beg God's mercy, not only for
themselves but also for the benighted heathen who have
answered their call for assistance, men who kneel "At
altars not Thine own,/ Who lack the lights that guide us,/
Lord, let their faith atone." In realistic knowledge of
themselves and warfare, the men pray to be kept from such
evils as "panic, pride and terror/ Revenge that knows
o i 29
no rein--"29 and that they may steadfastly choose "To
taste the lesser death."30 One stanza uses Catholic
tradition to appeal for the gracious intervention of the
2The Seven Seas, XXVI, 70-71.
28Ex. 9:23; I Sam. 7:10, 12:17-18; II Sam. 22:14;
Ps. 18:13, 24:8, 77:18, 71:7, 104:7; Isa. 29:6; John 12:29.
I Sam. 13:6.
Virgin Mary; the final stanza suggests a modern version of
the Children of Israel facing their enemies under the
leadership of Samuel.31 Like many Old Testament prophets
and the Militant Christian Church, Kipling believed that God
was involved in the battles of his people; he also believed
that God was concerned for individual men and that His re-
sponse was dependent upon the spiritual attitudes of those
who sought His aid. Consequently, his prophetic language
is appropriate and effective, Another traditional form of
religious poetry, Christmas'carols, gives both language
and meaning to "A Carol." This poem, in the manner of an
old English carol, follows the story "The Tree of Justice,"
one of Kipling's re-creations of history. In keeping with
its "setting," it reflects the harshness of peasant life
as well as the simplicity of peasant religious concepts.
The first stanza:
Our Lord Who did the Ox command
To kneel to Judah's King,
He binds His frost upon the land
To ripen it for Spring,
To ripen it for Spring, good sirs,
According to His Word.
Which well must be as ye can see--
And who shall judge the Lord?
3I Sam. 12:24, 13:5.
32and Fairies XIII, 543-544.
Rewards and Fairies, XIII, 543-544.
sets the pattern for the rest of the poem; the last stanza
includes a request for God's blessing upon the house before
which the carollers sing, and upon all who "walk in
honesty . ./ Of thought and deed and word:" While the
poem uses no Biblical allusions, it is throughout a blending
of the practical and spiritual that is characteristic of
Kipling's prophetic message and language; for example:
"God . guard the fens from pirate folk,/ And keep us
all from sin." One other example of Kipling's writing for
religious music, this time a Te Deum, is "The Supports."33
The sub-title, "Song of the Waiting Seraphs," indicates
the presumed setting, Paradise, and dramatizes the message,
that God is to be thanked for "the burden on our backs, the
weather in our faces. . the petty creeds/ That prescribe
in paltry needs/ Solemn rites to trivial deeds and, by small
things, save us'" The seraphs are Powers, Glories, Toils,
Gifts, Services, Patiences, Faiths, Hopes, and Loves; they
sing "To Him Who bade the Heavens abide, yet cease not from
their motion." Once again, by his use of a recognized
religious form, by his use of religious language (there is
only one specific Biblical allusion, to the miracle of
Debits and Credits, VIII, 251-253.
loaves and fishes ), and by his consistent presentation of
a spiritual message, Kipling has united his art and pro-
Another group of poems that contain elements of
prayer use prophetic language to deepen their sincerity as
well as identifying the religious point of view of their
author. "My New-Cut Ashlar" and "The Prayer of Miriam
Cohen" have already been cited as revelations of the
poet's prophetic dedication. The first poem includes the
traditional elements of Christian prayer: acknowledgment
of God's supremacy, confession of personal inadequacies,
gratitude for blessings, petition for continued guidance.
It uses the metaphor of a stone mason praying over his work
on a temple. Since the temple is identified as "that dread
temple of Thy Worth" and the prayer is addressed to "Great
Overseer," "Master" and "Thou . Who . made the
Fire . [and] the Clay," the temple is clearly not a
pagan one but one reminiscent of Biblical temples--real
34Matt. 14:15-21; Mk. 6:30-44t Lk. 9:10-17, John 6:1-
Life's Handicap, IV, 413-414.
3Songs from Books, XXVII, 130.
and figurative --as well as symbolic of God's eternal
Design for history. Allusion is made to the divine-human
relationship of Eden and its pattern for all subsequent
creativity. The "vision" which this artist-craftsman-
prophet cherishes was made possible by God's "Grace" and is
described by allusion to Peter's vision on the housetop
in Joppa.8 The second poem, "The Prayer of Miriam Cohen,"
is addressed throughout to "Good Lord" and requests pro-
tection against too vivid an awareness of divine activity.
Aside from the otherwise unidentified Miriam Cohen of the
title, the poem suggests that Kipling himself had had ex-
traordinary mystical experiences that could only be ex-
pressed in such comprehensive religious concepts as "Thy
Works," "Thy Path, Thy Purpose," and such poetic images
as "straining skies" and "trampling stars." References to
the martyrs (who had faced "the wrath of Kings/ The faggot
and the sword"), to life after death ("what Dream awaits/
The soul escaped alone"), and to the awesome experience of
hearing a divine voice ("shattering whisper"), and the
passionate appeal for "A veil twixtt us and Thee, Good
37The Temple at Jerusalem, center of Hebrew faith;
the "spiritual house" of which each Christian is a living
stone and Christ the corner stone, I Pet. 2:4-8.
Lord . Lest we should hear too clear . And unto
madness See!" all add up to prophetic language--the diction,
feeling and meaning necessary to express the experiences of
one uniquely under divine mandate. Two other peoms that
reflect prophetic commitment in their intent and language
are "A Pilgrim's Way"39 and "Hymn of Breaking Strain."40
The first of these peoms, "A Pilgrim's Way," despite its
witty, conversational tone ("I do not look for holy saints
to guide me on my way,/ Or male and female devilkins to
lead my feet astray."), is a prayer of commitment. It
includes humble confession:
( . none are more amazed than I when I
by chance do right),
And I will pity foolish men for woe their sins
(Though ninety-nine percent of mine I brought
on my own head).41
and affirmation of belief:
But when I meet with frantic folk who sinfully
There is no pardon for their sin, the same I
will not spare
Till I have proved that Heaven and Hell which
in our hearts we have
Show nothing irredeemable on either side the
39The Years Between, XXVI, 396-397.
4Miscellaneous, XXVIII, 298-299.
The poet asks to be purged of "all heresies of thought and
speech and pen" that would cause him to "judge" others
other than as he himself is judged and that he "may sing
of Crowd or King or road-borne company" with the "single
faith in Life and Death and to Eternity: 'Thy people,
Lord, Thy people, are good enough for me'"44 The poem's
concern with such realistic matters of human relationship
as boredom, attempts to impress others, doing "random
wrong" or "random good," and hate, pride and judgment should
not obscure its intent, a prophetic reiteration of the First
and Second Commandments. In like manner, the wry tone of
the beginning of "Hymn of Breaking Strain" may obscure the
passionate prayer with which it closes. Dated 1935, the
poem may reflect Kipling's suffering from the ailment that
marred his last years; what it surely reflects is his life-
long habit of uniting the realistic and the spiritual and
using prophetic language to express his conclusions. The
poem ruefully comments that the breaking point is carefully
determined and recorded for steel and other building
materials, but not for Man. Nevertheless, since Man is the
only part of Creation that fails and knows he fails, this
dear-bought knowledge is a precious link with the Power
Whose paths Man seeks, is proof that God's "ways are true,"
and is the measure of Man's humanity, because, "In spite of
being broken," he builds anew. While the opening stanzas
speak of textbooks and "Gods" who have no "feeling/ Of
justice toward mankind," the tone is increasingly religious,
building from the somewhat irreverent "Sons of Adam,"
through allusions to God's command to Adam and Eve to subdue
the earth and exercise dominion over all living things and
confession of Man's blindness to "each new miracle" this
God-given power achieves, to the supplication of the final
stanza to "the veiled and secret Power" Who can sustain man
in his "hour/ Of overthrow and pain," and illuminate the
experience so that he has the courage to build again.
Three other poems that reveal themselves as prayer-
poems illustrate Kipling's use of prophetic language:
"The Settler,"47 "McAndrew's Hymn,48 and "To the True
Romance."49 The first of these was written to commemorate
4The Five Nations, XXVI, 271-273.
48The Seven Seas, XXVI, 23-31.
49Many Inventions, V, xi-xiv.
Many Inventions, V, xi-xiv.
the end of the South African War, in May, 1902, and is a
pledge of reconciliation and peacemaking,50 with the last
two stanzas being a prayer for God's blessing upon these
efforts. The most familiar marks of prophetic language,
Biblical diction ("atone," "love," "shall redeem," "sin")
and Biblical allusion ("The dead must bury their dead,"5
"the bread we eat in the sweat of our brow," and "Bless
to our use the rain and the sun" ) are used throughout
the poem. The emphasis is upon the natural forces of seed-
time and harvest, the enemies of these processes (hail,
locust, murrain, flood), and God's intention that man and
the land should find healing in working with these forces
to "feed with our land's food/ The folk of all our lands:"
"McAndrew's Hymn" is a long dramatic monologue between
the Scotch engineer and his Calvinistic but approachable
Lord, Who not only guides McAndrew's machines but McAndrew
himself. McAndrew has time during the "middle watch" to
discuss with the Lord his memories, his irritation with
those who don't understand the spiritual nature of machines,
and his faith in the divine-human creative partnership. In
addition to the frequent addressing of his remarks to the
Lord, McAndrew finds it as natural to describe his machines
as "singin' like the Mornin' Stars for the joy that they
are made," or to describe his passengers as travelling
"from Grace to Wrath--to sin by folly led" as he does to
speak of "coupler-flangs" or "spindle-guide" or to call one
who sees no "romance" in steam "Damned ijjit:" This poem
is a well-known example of Kipling's successful blend of
the physical and the spiritual, of crafts and people, of
art and message--a notable illustration of his prophetic
language. "To the True Romance" has already been cited as
a poetic statement of Kipling's prophetic vocation. While
it poses as a chivalric pledge of a knight to his "lady,"
the language reveals the poet's object of allegiance to be
the Spirit identified in the Bible as the Holy Spirit, part
of the Triune God. This identification is accomplished by
the prophetic language. Some of the allusions are to
touching Jesus' garment hem,54 the child-like spirit,55
5Matt. 9:20-21, 14:36; Mk. 5:27; Lk. 8:44.
Mk. 10:15; Lk. 18:17.
singleness of heart,56 Charity,57 Faith,58 and Comforter.59
The Spirit existed before Creation, "or yet the Lights
were set,/ A whisper in the Void."60 Time and tide are
subject to Its will,61 and under Its guidance men "fashioned
Heaven and Hell:"62 It not only taught "all lovers speech/
And Life all mystery," but It rules all schools and communi-
cates to "The children wise of outer skies" news of men's
activities. And It is the "veil" that must exist between
"God His Law/ And Man's infirmity."64 The Spirit is Master
of all "fair design/ In Thought and Craft and Deed"; to
deny It is to blaspheme, while those who "adore" It find It
"perfect, wise and just." In this work prophetic language
is not only appropriate, it is the key to the poem's meaning,
5Acts 2:45; Matt. 6:22; Lk, 11:34; Eph. 6:5; Col.
57I Cor. 13.
establishing it as a prayer of adoration and commit-
Selections other than hymns and prayers that naturally
make use of prophetic language are Kipling's re-creations
of Biblical or other religious situations. An outstanding
example of his re-creation of a Biblical situation is "The
Church That Was at Antioch,"65 based on Acts 11:19-30 and
Galations 2:11-16. The story is told chiefly in the dia-
logue of Lucius Sergius, Prefect of Police of Antioch, and
his fine young nephew, Valens, who has recently arrived
from Constantinople to serve under him. Both are high-
born Romans who make ideal administrators; both must of-
ficially render service to the Latin Trinity, Jupiter,
Juno, and Minerva, but find this religion unsatisfying
and are secret followers of Mithras, "a soldier's religion."
A hasty reading of this story might lead one to conclude
that Kipling is attacking Christianity through Valens'
assertion that every ceremony and symbol of the Christians
was "stolen from the Mithras ritual." But the sympathetic
portrayal of Peter and Paul and their argument over separate
churches (for Jew and Gentile) or "one Church" not only
creates a realistic interpretation of Paul's "But when
65Limits and Renewals, X, 77-99.
Limits and Renewals, X, 77-99.
Peter was come to Antioch, I withstood him to the face,"66
but clearly identifies the theme of the story as "God hath
made the world and all things therein . And hath made
of one blood all nations of men . That they should seek
the Lord, if apply they might feel after him, and find him,
though he be not far from every one of us,67 the central
theme of Paul's sermon on Mars' hill--also Kipling's chief
prophetic theme. Kipling puts in Valens' mouth such
pregnant lines as "Gods do not make laws, They change
men's hearts. The rest is the Spirit."68 There are
allusions to Peter's denial of Jesus, to Paul's conver-
sion, to his journeys, to his work as a tent maker,72
and to Christ's words upon the cross: "Forgive them for
they know not what they do."73 The closing lines recall
"The Church That Was at Antioch," Limits and
Renewals, X, 88.
71Acts 13, 14, 15:36-41.
Peter's housetop lesson in God's redemptive work, already
cited (in the discussion of "My New-Cut Ashlar") as a key
to Kipling's prophetic message. Kipling has used prophetic
language to effectively unite his artistic talent for creat-
ing realistic detail and convincing humanity with his inter-
est in Biblical "prophets" and their messages. A second
story reflecting his interest in Paul is entitled "The
Manner of Men" and quotes under its title "If after
the manner of men I have fought with beasts," part of
I Corinthians 15:32. The story itself is based quite
closely on Acts 27:1-28:11, the account of Paul's adventures
enroute to Rome by ship, including shipwreck on Malta, but
all is seen through the eyes of three seamen: the former
captain of the ship that was wrecked, now a Roman port in-
spector; the second-in-command on the doomed ship, now
commander of a port guard-boat; and the young Spanish
captain of a grain ship approaching Marseilles, to whom
the other men tell Paul's story. Despite their persistent
reference to Paul's faith as "philosophy," both men
acknowledge Paul's courage, and the commander of the
guard-boat, whom Paul nursed through dysentery while they
7Limits and Renewals, X, 197-216.
were on Malta, confesses to a deeper respect. Allusion is
made to Paul's many afflictions (stripes, stonings, im-
prisonments, etc.)76 and, obliquely, to his tentmaking,77
but the emphasis is upon his fearlessness before the
threat of "Beasts" (the allusion of the title), and the
intent of the story seems to be an exploration of the im-
pact of one of God's prophets upon the realistic world
outside the church--the "congregation" for which Kipling
felt his message was intended. With less sympathy, in fact
with ironic detachment, Kipling creates another of Paul's
encounters with the worldly-wise-but-spiritually-foolish
in "Gallio's Song,"78 which quotes Acts 18:17 under the
title: "And Gallio cared for none of those things." What
Gallio could not bother with was the Gospel; he also ignored
such "trifles" as "the Greeks took Sosthenes, the chief
ruler of the synagogue, and beat him before the judgment
seat." Kipling repeats the damning line: "I care for none
of these things," and suggests the issues with "Whether the
God descend from above/ Or the Man ascend upon high," and
"touching your clamour of 'Conscience' sake." As in the
76II Cor. 11:23-27.
7Actions and Reactions, VIII, 531-532.
Bible account, Paul is not allowed to speak, but the
language is prophetic both in its dependence upon a Bible
situation and in its denunciation of those, particularly
in public office, who ignore religion.
Kipling used prophetic language with obvious appropri-
ateness in re-creations of other religious material. "Our
Lady of Sackcloth"79 is a poem, identified as an Ethopian
tale "founded on Brit. Mus. MS. Orient No. 652, Folio 9,"
about an aged priest, "Tongue-tied, feeble, and old,"
whose congregation's complaints about his mumbling result
in his isolation from the adoration of Mary that makes his
life meaningful. His faith and suffering earn him
miraculous service and honor from the Virgin, appearing as
a desert-dweller. The poem's language reveals Kipling's
sympathy with any man sincerely in search of spiritual
values and his prophetic conviction that God is likewise
compassionately responsive to human spiritual need in the
terms of the individual's real situation. This same
prophetic conviction determines the satiric tone of
"Tomlinson," the optimistic tone of "On the Gate: A
Tale of '16," and the fabular manner of "How Fear Came."
7Miscellaneous, XXVIII, 300-303.
"Tomlinson"80 is a long dramatic poem relating the con-
frontation of Tomlinson with St. Peter at Heaven's Gate and
the Devil at Hell's Gate. Both gate-keepers refuse to
admit Tomlinson because he has never done anything, good or
bad: all his experience is vicarious. While much of the
poem's dialogue involves such ironic wit as the Devil's
thoughtful balancing of "Holy Charity" (for Tomlinson's
shivering spirit) and "his own good name," the last line
identifies the poem's prophetic point, that "the God" one
takes "from a printed book" is inadequate for anyone with
a soul. "On the Gate: A Tale of '16"81 is based on the
same religious tradition--that St. Peter guards Heaven's
Gate--but the language is more comprehensively prophetic
and the key to the story is a verse of Scripture: "Samuel
Two, Double Fourteen," as Peter calls it, which ends "Yet
doth He devise means that His banished be not expelled
from Him:" Allusions are made to Peter's denial of his
Lord,82 to Judas' betrayal of Jesus,3 to "the Importunate
80Barrack-Room Ballads and Other Verse, XXV, 300-306.
8Debits and Credits, VIII, 227-249.
8Matt. 26:47-50, 27:3-10.
Widow," to Calvin's Institutio, and to Jesus' promise
of "many mansions";86 and the "pickets" assisting Peter
with the overwhelming numbers of war-dead include John
the Beloved Disciple, Luke, Mary Magdalene, a redeemed
Judas Iscariot, John Calvin, Joan of Arc, and Shakespeare,
while the theme of universal hope of salvation is poignantly
dramatized in the response of the celestial being Azreal--
Death--who alone of all living spirits is doomed to eternal
death. Although the story begins with pointed satire of
traditional, middle-class funerals, its prophetic language
is not only effectively used but the key to understanding
its serious intent. "How Fear Came"88 illustrates both
Kipling's persistent interest in religious themes and
his artistic ability to clothe them in different forms
of prophetic language. The frame tale of this Jungle Book
story presents Mowglie and his friends at the almost dry
Waingunga River. When the outlaw Shere Khan pollutes the
water with the blood of his last kill--man--Hathi, the
85John Calvin, Christianae reliqiouis institution
I Cor. 15:26; Rev. 21:4.
8The Jungle Books, XI, 63-83.
elephant, tells a jungle version of the major events in
Genesis 2:8-4:15: Creation, the Fall, and the first murder.
A jungle Adam (the First Tiger, who is herbivorous) is left
in charge of the jungle Eden by the "Lord of the Jungle";
his undisciplined actions introduce death and fear; he flees,
to hide from his "Lord": when he returns, stripes (the Mark
of Cain) are placed on him, but he is promised that his
punishment will not be more than he can bear; nevertheless,
from then on there is enmity between man and beast. Thus,
prophetic language addresses itself successfully to telling
children a Bible "truth" in terms of its universal applica-
There are a great many examples of Kipling's use of
prophetic language in poems and stories that present a
modern situation in terms of a Biblical parallel. Some of
these selections identify their prophetic nature in the
title. For example, "The Story of Uriah89 and "Delilah"90
are poems relating Simla versions of these age-old stories
of betrayal, In the first, Jack Barrett was sent to
unhealthy Quetta, in September, and predictably died within
a month. His wife was left in Simla, where she mourned his
Departmental Ditties, XV, 13-14.
death for "Five lively months at most." The poet comments
that "when the Last Great Bugle Call" sounds, he would not
like "to be the man/ Who sent Jack Barrett" to his death.
The poem is based upon the story of David's taking of
Bathsheba and having her husband, Uriah, killed;91 it quotes
under its title the beginning of the prophet Nathan's de-
nunciation of David's sin: "There were two men in one city;
the one rich and the other poor,"92 not only recalling all
that God's displeasure meant to David, but also clearly
establishing the poet's prophetic viewpoint. The second
poem gives the name of Samson's deceptive mistress to a
Simla "lady," Delilah Aberyswith, "not too young . With
a thirst for information and a greater thirst for praise."
Since much of the poem deals with how a certain "depraved"
Ulysses Gunne, who earned his money writing for papers,
gave this Delilah the attention she craved and coaxed from
her a viceroy's secret, the poet is giving the Biblical
story a prophetic interpretation that does not lessen the
foolishness of the Samson-Viceroy, but suggests that both
Delilahs were victims of their own evil ways. Two other
9II Sam. 11.
92II Sam. 12:1.
poems portray modern versions of Bible stories but comment
satirically on the too shallow piety that approves the
Biblical conclusion in words but not in practice. "Cain
and Abel,"9 sub-titled "A Cattle Song," retells the
Genesis story of the first fratricide95 in terms of cattle
rather than flocks, and "corn" (British term for grain)
rather than "fruit of the ground." The issue of the fatal
conflict is not ritual sacrifice but water rights during
drought. Since Abel's cattle destroyed Cain's crops (there
really wasn't water enough for both), and Abel was as ready
to strike as Cain, the poet questions the fairness of the
final judgment--revealing to the reader his own mixed
values. "The Prodigal Son"96 is, according to its sub-
title, a "Western Version" of the parable Jesus told the
Pharisees, obviously denouncing their "older brother" role
of unloving self-righteousness.97 Kipling's Prodigal
rejects his reinstatement into the security and refinement
of his home because he prefers his hard-won independence
and the exercise of his new skill in the "Yards" to the
9Miscellaneous, XXVIII, 292-293.
96Songs from Books, XXVII, 100-101.
gloomy advice of his father, the prying concern of his
mother, the sullen resentment of his brother, and the
hypocritical comments of the servants. Considerably further
from the original story for which it is named is Kipling's
story "Naboth," which he clearly states at the beginning
is "an allegory of Empire." The poor native trader named
in the title actually takes advantage of the kindness
extended to him by the Anglo-Indian narrator, usurping his
garden, demoralizing his servants, polluting the area with
sewage, and fatally injuring the narrator's horse. In
addition to the obvious argument against Liberal misin-
terpretations of the administration of empire, there is an
implication that the Biblical Naboth's adherence to tra-
dition may have been a courteous mask for other-than-
admirable motives. One of Kipling's consistent prophetic
emphases was honest recognition of the complex nature of
Prophetic language heavily dependent upon Biblical
incident was a favorite medium for Kipling to express his
denunciation of modern events or people. "Gehazi,"100
98I Kin. 21:1-24.
9Life's Handicap, IV, 396-402.
10The Years Between, XXVI, 393-394; II Kin. 5.
by its title and internal references, re-creates for a
corrupt English judge0 the bitter end of the story of
Naaman, Captain of the Hosts of Syria, and his healing from
leprosy under the instruction of Elisha. Elisha refused
all payment, but his covetous servant, Gehazi, deceitfully
secured two talents of silver and two changes of raiment,
for which conduct he received, at Elisha's sentencing, the
leprosy of Naaman. With this implied prophetic authority,
Kipling condemns his "Gehazi" with the last words of II
Kings 5: "a leper white as snow." Kipling's prophetic
judgment of the Catholic Church's "sins" during World War I
he clothes in a parallel to Peter's denial of Christ,1
entitled "A Song at Cock-Crow.03 First recalling the
Fisherman Peter's perfidy--out of fear--the poem moves to
the Peter who is "Fisher of Men . With the Crown on his
brow and the Cross on his shoe," whose manifold denials of
his Lord are wickedness for which "The Father took from him
the Keys and the Sword,/ And the Mother and Babe brake his
Kingdom in two." His reaction to the foolish liberalism
1Rufus Isaacs, Carrington, p. 410.
1The Years Between, XXVI, 402-403.
represented by the news items: "An attempt should be made
to prepare a moral text-book based upon the fundamental
principles of natural religion, such as may be taught in
all Government and non-Government colleges" (Resolution
of the Indian Government), he clothed in a devastatingly
satiric masque, "'0 Baal, Hear Us''05 Appropriate allusions
are made to Dagon, idol-god of the Philistines, who was
humiliatingly thrown on his face when his followers dese-
crated the Arc of the Covenant, as well as to such
modern heresies as Robert Elsmere (1888), Mrs. Humphry
Ward's popular novel about a clergyman's loss of faith in
the divinity of Christ. Mrs. Ward was the niece of Matthew
Arnold, poet and critic who popularized the term Philistines
for those who pretend to culture; Arnold also was convinced
that all mankind needed, in place of the traditional dogma
of Redemption, was the "sweetness and Light" of Culture.107
Other heretical intellectuals the masque mocks for offering
men a substitute for religion are listed in the following
1Departmental Ditties and Other Verse, XXV, 71-76.
I061 Sam. 5:3-4.
1Matthew Arnold, Culture and Anarchy (1869).
Take a little Rabelais--just a garlic hint;
Out of Locke and Bacon steal something fit to print.
Grind 'em down with Butler, add morsels of Voltaire;
Don't forget the 'Precious Fools' sketched by Moliere'
Robert Elsmere, Mallock, Hume, Gibbon (on his knees).
Knock the Ten Commandments out if they fail to please;
Substitute the Penal Code--sections underlined.
There you have a perfect book to form the infant
This selection not only argues for Kipling's basic orthodoxy
but illustrates the comprehensiveness of his prophetic
language. German atrocities during the War Kipling casti-
gated in the story "'Swept and Garnished,'"108 based on
Christ's parable on the worthlessness of self-reformation.
Frau Ebermann's delirious attempts to sweep and garnish her
room that "Our dear Lord when He came might find everything
as it should be" suggest a number of references, all
demanding a sincerity of faith Frau Ebermann does not have.
And to admonish Americans against boasting of their part
in World War I, Kipling retells the parable of the laborers
in "The Vineyard," found in Matthew 20:1-16. This poem
demonstrates the blending of Biblical language and poetry
that is such an outstanding characteristic of Kipling's
Diversity of Creatures, IX, 361-372.
109Matt. 12:43-45; Lk. 11:24-28.
ll0Lk. 19:1-10; John 14:24; Rev. 3:20.
illDebits and Credits, VIII, 43.
language. Here are verses 6, 7, 11, and 12, and the first
stanza of the poem:
And about the eleventh hour he went out, and
found others standing idle, and saith unto them,
Why stand ye here all the day idle? They say
unto him, Because no man hath hired us. He
saith unto them, Go ye also into the vineyard;
and whatsoever is right, that shall ye receive.
. And when they [that had been first hired)
had received it, they murmured against the good-
man of the house, Saying, These last have wrought
but one hour, and thou hast made them equal unto
us, which have borne the burden and heat of the
At the eleventh hour he came,
But his wages were the same
As ours who all day long had trod
The wine-press of the Wrath of God.
The poem also illustrates the courage with which Kipling
added new dimensions to traditional interpretations of
Scripture by applying old truths to new situations: the
Biblical parable was told by Jesus to rebuke all status-
seeking among his disciples; Kipling's message is that while
the Lord rebuked the complaints of those who sought special
recognition in that they had labored all day, His instruc-
tion in spiritual honesty applies equally to those who
have labored only an hour.
These examples of Kipling's use of prophetic language
with religious subjects are important to establish the
frequency with which he expressed his talent and his message
in a traditionally prophetic manner; more significant in
establishing his total prophetic orientation are the many
examples of his use of prophetic language to express his
artistic insights--thereby making them spiritual insights--
into public events, common human experiences and his per-
sonal experiences and convictions. Several of the selec-
tions already cited reveal his consistent reaction to
public events as spiritual and prophetic: "Recessional,"
"'Non Nobis Domine:'" "Gehazi," "The Settler," "The Vine-
yard," etc. The distinction is not easily made between a
religious subject seen in terms of public events and public
events seen in terms of a religious point of view. Further-
more, his use of prophetic language in his response to pub-
lic events varied from selections rich in allusion and
religious metaphor to works depending upon form or a single
religious reference to establish the work's prophetic
Outstanding examples of his comment on public events
in prophetic language are "The Islanders," "The City of
Brass," "The Choice," and "The Covenant." "The Islanders"2
is famous (or infamous, depending upon one's point of view)
112The Five Nations, XXVI, 258-262.
The Five Nations, XXVI, 258-262.
for its attack on the smug insularity of England's ruling
classes and the people's unrealistic concepts of empire.
Along with his own freshly created and unforgettable lines,
such as "Then ye returned to your trinkets; then ye con-
tented your souls/ With the flannelled fools at the wicket
or the muddied oafs at the goals," the poem bristles with
allusions that carry the weight of history and prophetic
judgment: "Ye forced them glean in the highways the straw
for the bricks they brought"; "Then were the judgments
loosened"; "Yet ye were saved by a remnant";1 "Also
your gods are many; no doubt but your gods shall aid./
Idols of greasy altars built for the body's ease;/ Proud
little brazen Baals ."116 He closes the poem with an
allusion to Paul's condemnation of the unresponsive Jews
And when they opposed themselves, and blasphemed,
he shook his raiment, and said unto them, Your
blood be upon your own heads, I am clean: from
henceforth I will go unto the Gentiles. (Acts
"The City of Brass"7 scathingly castigates the element of
114Jer. 23:5; Amos 5:24; Matt. 12:20; John 12:31;
Heb. 9:27; Rev. 14:7.
115Jer. 44:28; Ezek. 6:8, Isa. 1:9; etc.
116I Kin. 18:25-41.
117The Years Between, XXVI, 415-418.
democratic rule which Kipling abhorred, the element that
panders to mobs and demagogues who recognize no law but
their own appetites. After asserting that all national
splendor is due to God, Kipling describes a people drunk
with pride, who chose new "prophets and priests" who would
do their bidding,8 turned their defenses into playgrounds
and replied to "their well-wishers' fears" and "their ene-
mies' laughter" that they had fashioned a new "God that
would save them. "When they were fullest of wine and
most flagrant in error," for them, as for Belshazzar,
"Out of the sea rose a sign--out of Heaven a terror"20
for "The tares they had laughingly sown were ripe to the
reaping," 21 and this nation disappeared "from the roll of
the Nations." "The Choice22 is supposed to be spoken by
The American Spirit when, in 1917, the United States en-
tered the War. Its first stanza sets its tone:
To the Judge of Right and Wrong
With Whom fulfilment lies
Our purpose and our power belong,
Our faith and sacrifice.
18 Kin. 22:13-28; Rev. 14:20.
1 Matt. 13:24-30.
122The Years Between, XXVI, 346-347.