Group Title: Pleistocene avifauna of the Talara tar seeps, northwestern Peru
Title: The Pleistocene avifauna of the Talara tar seeps, northwestern Peru
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Title: The Pleistocene avifauna of the Talara tar seeps, northwestern Peru
Physical Description: x, 227 leaves. : illus. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Campbell, Kenneth Eugene, 1943-
Publication Date: 1973
Copyright Date: 1973
 Subjects
Subject: Paleontology -- Peru -- Piura (Dept.)   ( lcsh )
Florida -- History -- 1821-1865   ( lcsh )
History -- Florida -- 1821-1865   ( lcsh )
Zoology thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Zoology -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Thesis: Thesis -- University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 213-217.
Additional Physical Form: Also available on World Wide Web
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
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Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000582529
oclc - 14120308
notis - ADB0904

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THE PLEISTOCENE AVIFAUNA OF THE TALARA TAR SEEPS,
NORTHWESTERN PERU









By




KENNETH EUGENE CAMPBELL, JR.


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1973














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I would like to thank the members of my supervisory committee,

Dr. Pierce Brodkorb, Dr. David Johnston, and Dr. Richard Edwards, for

their help and encouragement during the progress of this research and

the preparation of this dissertation. I would especially like to

thank the chairman of my supervisory committee, Dr. Pierce Brodkorb,

for his guidance and critical evaluation of my research and the pre-

paration of this manuscript. His continued interest in my progress

has been an invaluable contribution to this study.

I wish to thank the collector of the fossil material, Dr. A.

Gordon Edmund of the Royal Ontario Museum, Ontario, Canada, for the

opportunity to study the collection. Professor Gustav Orc6s of the

Institute Polyt6chnico, Quito, Ecuador, kindly permitted me to study

the fossil material from La Carolina, Ecuador, and extended many

courtesies to me while I visited his country. Peruvian officials,

particularly Ing. Eduardo Izquierdo C., were most cooperative in

allowing me to collect comparative material. Sr. Max Cerro provided

a welcome base of operations during field work in northwestern Peru.

The following individuals and institutions generously loaned

many specimens for comparative purposes: Dr. Dean Amadon, American

Museum cf Natural History; Dr. N. Philip Ashmole, Yale Peabody

Museum; Dr. Robert M. Mengel, Natural History Museum, University of

Kansas; Dr. Robert W. Storer, Museum of Zoology, University of Mich-

igan; Dr. Glen Woolfenden, University of South Florida; and Dr.








Richard Zusi, United States National Museum.

Special acknowledgment is due the Organization for Tropical

Studies, Inc., for providing field research funds under OTS Pilot

Research Grant N69-23. The Frank M. Chapman Fund, American Museum

of Natural History, and Sigma Xi also provided field research funds.

Without their support this study would be very incomplete.

Special acknowledgment is also due my wife, Terrie, for her

enduring patience and enthusiasm.

To all of these people and many more, I am deeply grateful.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

AKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................. ii

LIST OF TABLES................................................... v

LIST OF FIGURES................................................ vii

ABSTRACT .................................. ...................... viii

INTRODUCTION..................................................... 1

MATERIALS AND METHODS ........................................... 5

GEOLOGY......................................................... 6

SYSTEMATIC LIST................................................. 10

ECOLOGY.......................................................... 188

Recent Avifauna............................................. 189
Paleoecology............................................... 190

CLIMATOLOGY OF NORTHWESTERN PERU................................ 194

Neoclimatology............................................. 194
Atmospheric Circulation ............................... 194
Oceanic Circulation.................................. 195
Climatological Effects of the Atmospheric and
Oceanic Circulations............................. 197
El Nifno............................................... 199
Paleoclimatology........................................... 202

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ...................................... 205

The Equatorial Arid Fauna.................................. 205
Origin of the Equatorial Arid Fauna ................... 205
Speciation Within the Equatorial Arid Fauna........... 207
Dating Some Extinct Species................................ 208
Comparison of Avifaunas of Talara Tar Seeps and
Rancho La Brea ........................................ 209
Dating the Marine Terraces................................. 210
Correlation of Talara Tar Seeps with La Carolina
of Ecuador............................................ 211

LITERATURE CITED ................................................ 213

APPENDIX......................................................... 218

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................. 227

iv














LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 List of non-passerine species known from the Talara
Tar Seeps, with number of elements and least number
of individuals of each indicated......................... 11

2 Measurements of the scapula, humerus, radius, femur,
tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus of Eudocimus n. sp.
and Recent E. albus, and of the scapula, tibiotarsus,
and tarsometatarsus of E. albus from the Talara Tar
Seeps (in mm) ................... ...................... 30

3 Measurements of the scapula, coracoid, humerus, radius,
ulna, carpometacarpus, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarso-
'metatarsus of Tadorninae, n. gen. n. sp. and Lophonetta
specularioides (in mm)................................... 42

4 Measurements of the scapula, coracoid, humerus, radius,
ulna, carpometacarpus, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarso-
metatarsus of Anas n. sp. 1 (excluding femur), Anas
n. sp. 2, Anas n. sp. 3 (coracoid, humerus, tibio-
tarsus, and tarsometatarsus only), A. leucophrys,
A. brasiliensis, A. cyanoptera, and A. crecca carolin-
ensis (in mm) ............................................ 58

5 Measurements of the scapula, coracoid, humerus, radius,
ulna, carpometacarpus, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarso-
metatarsus of Gymnogyps californianus, Recent Vultur
gryphus, V. gryphus from the Talara Tar Seeps (exclud-
ing scapula, humerus, and carpometacarpus), Gymnogyps
n. sp. (excluding carpometacarpus and femur), and
Vulturidae, n. gen. n. sp. (excluding scapula) (in mm)... 81

6 Measurements of the scapula, coracoid, humerus, radius,
ulna, carpometacarpus, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarso-
metatarsus of Geranoaetus n. sp., Recent G. melano-
leucus, G. melanoleucus from the Talara Tar Seeps
(excluding scapula), Harpyhaliaetus solitaria; and
of the coracoid, carpometacarpus, tibiotarsus, and
tarsometatarsus of Buteoninae?, n. gen. n. sp. (in mm)... 100

7 Measurements of the scapula, coracoid, humerus, radius,
ulna, carpometacarpus, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarso-
metatarsus of Milvago n. sp., M. chimachima, and M.
chimango (in m) .............. .... ... ................... 129









Table Page

8 Measurements of the humerus, coracoid, and femur of
Belonopterus chilensis, B. resplendens, and Hoplox-
ypterus cayanus; of the humerus and femur of Belon-
opterus n. sp.; and of the coracoid of Vanellinae,
n. gen. n. sp. (in mm)................................... 139

9 Measurements of the coracoid and tarsometatarsus of
Tringa n. sp., Recent T. solitaria, and T. solitaria
from the Talara Tar Seeps (in mm)......................... 149

10 Measurements of the femur of Steganopus n. sp.,
Recent S. tricolor, and S. tricolor from the Talara
Tar Seeps (in mm)....................................... 166

11 Measurements of the humerus of Thinocorus n. sp.,
Recent T. rumicivorus, and T. rumicivorus from the
Talara Tar Seeps (in mm) ................................. 171

12 Measurements of the coracoid and carpometacarpus of
Caprimulgus n. sp., C. cayennensis, C. longirostris,
and C. parvulus (in mm) .................................. 187















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


Plate Page

I View of the Talara Tar Seeps, northwestern Peru,
looking north........................................... 4

II Two views of the Talara Tar Seeps........................ 9

III Holotypes of Eudocimus n. sp., Theristicus n. sp.,
Syrigma n. sp., Tadorninae, n. gen. n. sp., and
Anas n. sp. 1........................................... 220

IV Holotypes of Vulturidae, n. gen. n. sp., Sarcoramphus?
n. sp., Anas n. sp. 2, Anas n. sp. 3, and Milvago n. sp. 222

V Holotypes of Gymnogyps n. sp., Belonopterus n. sp.,
Tringa n. sp., and Buteoninae?, n. gen. n. sp ........... 224

VI Holotypes of Geranoaetus n. sp., Vanellinae, n. gen.
n. sp., Scolopacidae, n. gen. n. sp., Thinocorus n. sp.,
Steganopus n. sp., and Caprimulgus n. sp................ 226














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the
Graduate Council of the University of Florida in Partial
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


THE PLEISTOCENE AVIFAUNA OF THE TALARA TAR SEEPS,
NORTHWESTERN PERU


By

Kenneth Eugene Campbell, Jr.

June, 1973


Chairman: Dr. Pierce Brodkorb
Major Department: Department of Zoology

The Talara Tar Seeps are a series of fossil-bearing deposits

located in northwestern Peru. They have been dated at approximately

14,000 years B.P. and lie directly on a marine terrace thought to be

Sangamon in age.

The avifauna is known from 6200 elements representing a minimum

of 742 individuals of 13 orders, 24 families, 66 genera, and 88 species.

Five new genera and 20 new species are described. The following

families are represented, with the number of identified species for

each (numbers of new species in parenthesis): Tinamidae, 1; Podici-

pedidae, 2; Phalacrocoracidae, 2; Ardeidae, 5 (1); Ciconiidae, 2;

Plataleidae, 5 (2); Anatidae, 9 (4); Vulturidae, 6 (3); Accipitridae,

7 (2); Falconidae, 6 (1); Cracidae, 1; Rallidae, 1; Charadriidae,

7 (2); Scolopacidae, 13 (2); Phalaropodidae, 3 (1); Burhinidae, 1;

Jacanidae, 1; Thinocoridae, 3 (1); Laridae, 2; Columbidae, 4;

Psittacidae, 1; Tytonidae, 1; Strigidae, 3; Caprimulgidae, 2 (1).








Diagnostic osteological characters are given in all cases where

necessary to justify species identification.

The coast of northern Peru where the Talara Tar Seeps are located

is desert today. Very rare unpredictable rains occur during the

summer, and a continuous cloud cover with no precipitation prevails

during the winter. The paleoavifauna indicates that during the Wis-

consin glaciation northwestern Peru was a savanna woodland or a

savanna with extensive riparian forests. During the summer months

regular heavy monsoon rains occurred, followed by a winter dry season

with continuous cloud cover similar to the present winter season.

The explanation of the Pleistocene summer rains is found in the

higher zonal index resulting from increased polar activity during the

periods of glaciation. During this time the intertropical front was

located at or south of the equator. This allowed northern hemisphere

winds to cross the equator and become northwesterly winds that covered

the normally cold coastal waters with warm equatorial water, establish-

ing the necessary conditions for rainfall on land.

The two oldest marine terraces in the region, the Mancora and

Talara Tablazos, with molluscan faunas indicating a cool water environ-

ment, are similar in age and were formed during the Sangamon inter-

glacial. At this time the intertropical front was located well north

of the equator. The similarity of the molluscan fauna of the Lobitos

Tablazo to that of the modern beach indicates a rather recent age,

probably late or post-Wisconsin.

Most of the Equatorial Arid Fauna of Chapman is thought to have

originated during the glacial periods when the intertropical front was

probably located near the equator. Climatic conditions then existed

that restricted rainfall along the western coast of Colombia. The








drier coastal areas provided an avenue for the passage of arid and semi-

arid species from Central America south to the coast of Ecuador and

Peru.

Numerous distinctive subspecies of the Equatorial Arid Fauna

have evolved in southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru since the

Wisconsin. Divergence between populations of species of the Equatorial

Arid Fauna occurring in the coastal areas and those found in the

Maranon Valley of Peru is thought to have taken place during glacial

periods. Increased vegetation on the western slopes of the Andes

Mountains during the glacial periods would have effectively isolated

the two drier habitats.

Many of the extinct species probably evolved after the beginning

of the Wisconsin glaciation and became extinct at the end, thus

having a lifespan of approximately 50,000 years.

The Carolinian faunas of southwestern Ecuador are thought to be

either very early Wisconsin or Late Wisconsin based on their similar-

ities with the Talaran faunas and postulated climatic events.

The similarly aged Rancho La Brea avifauna includes 98 non-

passerine species, compared with the 88 non-passerine species found

in the Talara fauna. Sixteen species occur in both localities.

Twenty-three per cent of the non-passerine species of the Talara

avifauna are extinct, in contrast with 17 per cent of the non-

passerine species from Rancho La Brea.














INTRODUCTION


During January and February 1958, Dr. A. Gordon Edmund and Mr.

R. R. Hornell of the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada, recovered

an extensive sample of plant, invertebrate, and vertebrate remains

from numerous surface tar seeps in the La Brea-Pariflas oil field, near

Talara, Peru (PI. I). These deposits are known as the Talara Tar

Seeps to avoid confusion with the similar deposits at Rancho La Brea,

California. This report is the first on the avian remains of the

deposit and is concerned with the non-passerine portion of the avifauna.

Additional work needs to be completed before the passerine species are

satisfactorily identified.

The Talara Tar Seeps are located just west of the Pan American

Highway, kilometer 1125, approximately 6 miles west of the Amotape

Mountains and 20 miles due east of the Pacific coast at Punta Parinas,

the westernmost point of South America. The site is marked on maps as

La Brea, but only a cemetery remains of the town. The tar seeps were

first worked by the Indians, who used the material in their road

construction program, and later the Spaniards made extensive use of

the pitch, developing it into a considerable economic resource. The

first oil well in South America was drilled at the site in 1862.

Most of the fossil bones are well preserved, and in numerous

cases broken specimens could be pieced back together, even though

the pieces may have been separated at the time of collection. The

species represented by the most elements is Anas bahamensis, of which





2


there are 2864 bones from a minimum of 243 individuals. Several

species are represented by only one element. Individual specimens

range in size from complete humeri of condors to those of swallows.

Numerous skulls of various species are also present.

























Plate I

View of the Talara Tar Seeps, northwestern Peru, looking north.











































:._I,;~~~L'~.- L_;~-














MATERIALS AND METHODS


The fossil specimens were studied under loan from the Royal

Ontario Museum, Ontario, Canada. At the termination of this study the

specimens will be cataloged and housed in that institution.

Except in a few instances only skeletons prepared by maceration

were used for the osteological diagnosis. Skeletons that have been

cleaned only by bugging are not free of all tendinal material and are

unsatisfactory for exact osteological description.

Osteological terminology was taken primarily from Howard (1929).

Additional anatomical works used were those of Fisher (1946), Fisher

and Goodman (1955), and Owre (1967).

All measurements were taken with vernier dial calipers accurate

to 0.05 mm. The following abbreviations are used in the table and

text: M, mean; N, number of specimens measured; OR, observed range.














GEOLOGY


The geology of northwestern Peru has been discussed by Bosworth

(1922), Iddings and Olsson (1928), Travis (1953), and Lemon and

Churcher (1961). Additional information is presented by Sheppard

(1937). The following is a brief summary of the geology of the

Talara region based on these works.

The major oil-producing area of Peru is known as the La Brea-

Parihas oil field, which straddles the 4th parallel. The oil field

occupies the westernmost part of the South American continent, and

lies between the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Amotape Mountains,

a small outlier of the Andes Mountains, to the east. The Amotape

Mountains and basement rocks of the coastal area consist of Penn-

sylvanian quartzites, graywackes, argillites, and shales. Directly

upon these lie a series of Cretaceous rocks in excess of 9000 feet

in thickness. The Cretaceous sediments consist of a lower series

of limestone rocks and an upper series of shales, sandstones, and

conglomerates.

The main oil-producing rocks are Eocene in age, and consist of

approximately 15,000 feet of marine elastic sediments. Shales, sands,

and a few conglomerates are present in these sediments that originated

during the orogenic uplift of the Andes Mountains directly to the east.

These sediments are highly faulted and of complex structure as a

result of subsequent orogenic movement.

Early, or perhaps Middle, Pleistocene to Recent marine deposits








overlie the Eocene rocks and consist of well stratified marls, lime-

stones, calcareous sands, coquinas, and pebble beds. These deposits

occupy three terraces, named the Mancora Tablazo (highest and oldest),

the Talara Tablazo (middle terrace and not much younger than the Mancora

Tablazo), and the Lobitos Tablazo (lowest and youngest). The terraces

represent periods of marine encroachment followed by orogenic uplift,

which was greater in the north than in the south, giving the terraces

a southward tilt. The deposits are thickest in the north and thin

southward, ranging only up to 50 or 80 feet in thickness. The Talara

Tar Seeps rest on the Mancora Tablazo. Recent deposits consist of

large alluvial breccia fans from the Amotape Mountains, valley

terraces, sand dunes, and Recent marine deposits.

The bone-bearing deposits occur as lenses or horizontal beds,

a few to several feet in thickness and of varying lengths (Pl. II,

Fig. A). The lenses closely resemble sand or gravel deposits that

form in normal stream deposition, or they may represent pools of tar

that filled with sands or gravels. Probably both types of deposits

are represented, for although the area is now desert, dry stream

beds and extensive gulleying indicate that the area was consider-

ably wetter during the Wisconsin glaciation. Oil and water currently

escaping from abandoned oil wells attract both vertebrate and inverte-

brate animals and act as active traps (P1. II,Fig. B). Windblown sand

usually forms a crust over most of the recent seeps. Persistent large

pools of pitch occur only in areas where man has excavated the natural

asphalt for road material or museum collections.






























Plate II

Two views of the Talara Tar Seeps


Fig. A. Close-up view of the deposit, showing lensing type of
deposition and abundance of fossil material.

Fig. B. View of Phalacrocorax olivaceus recently entombed in
surface layer of tar.






































Fig. A


Fig. B














SYSTEMATIC LIST


The following systematic list details the non-passerine species

known from the Talara Tar Seeps, as summarized in Table 1. Nomencla-

ture used is primarily that of Brodkorb (1963, 1964, 1967, 1971).

Except where otherwise noted species distributions are taken from

Meyer de Schauensee (1966).

In some instances specimens are thought to represent immature

individuals. This conclusion is based on the pitted appearance of the

surface of the bone and incomplete ossification in the articular areas.



Order Tinamiformes (Huxley)

Family Tinamidae Gray

Genus Crypturellus Brabourne & Chubb

Crypturellus cf. transfasciatus (Sclater & Salvin)

Pale-browed Tinamou

Material. Proximal end of 1 right humerus.

Remarks. At the present time C. transfasciatus occurs from the

equator in western Ecuador south to northwestern Peru in Tumbes and

Piura. It is the only species of tinamou found in the dry deciduous

forests that surround the semi-arid and arid regions of southwestern

Ecuador and coastal Peru. The fossil specimen corresponds in size

with C. transfasciatus, but as no skeletal material was available for

comparison the specimen is only tentatively identified.









Table 1. List of non-passerine species known from the Talara Tar
Seeps, with number of elements and least number of individuals of
each indicated.

Number of Least Number
Elements of Individuals

Tinamiformes
Tinamidae
Crypturellus cf. transfasciatus 1 1

Podicipediformes
Podicipedidae
Podiceps dominicus 4 2
Podilymbus podiceps 4 2

Pelecaniformes
Phalacrocoracidae
Phalacrocorax olivaceus 133 15
P. bougainvillii 1 1

Ardeiformes
Ardeidae
Ardea cocoi 6 2
Casmerodius albus 11 4
Egretta thula 7 2
E. caerulea 1 1
Syrigma n. sp. 1 1
Nycticorax nycticorax 53 10
Ciconiidae
Jabiru mycteria 47 5
Mycteria americana 1 1
Plataleidae
Theristicus n. sp. 1 1
Eudocimus n. sp. 9 2
E. albus 10 3
Ajaia 'ajia 1 1

Anseriformes
Anatidae
Dendrocygna autumnalis 299 33
Tadorninae, n. gen. n. sp. 112 10
Chloephaga melanoptera 91 7
Cairina moschata 33 4
Anas n. sp. 1 13 2
Anas n. sp. 2 29 5
Anas n. sp. 3 5 1
A. bahamensis 2864 243
Nomonyx dominicus 1 1









Table 1. Continued.

Number of Least Number
Elements of Individuals

Accipitriformes
Vulturidae
Vulturidae, n. gen. n. sp. 28 4
Gymnogyps n. sp. 30 4
Vultur gryphus 17 3
Sarcoramphus? n. sp. 3 1
Coragyps cf. atratus 72 6
Cathartes aura 26 3
Accipitridae
Buteoninae?, n. gen. n. sp. 8 2
Geranoaetus n. sp. 52 7
G. melanoleucus 31 4
Buteo polyosoma 30 4
Buteo sp. 1 4 2
Buteo sp. 2 10 4
Parabuteo unicinctus 30 4
Falconidae
Falco peregrinus 32 3
F. femoralis 7 2
F. sparverius 47 6
Falco sp. 6 1
Polyborus plancus 293 27
Milvago n. sp. 160 17

Galliformes
Cracidae
Penelope cf. purpurascens 4 1

Ralliformes
Rallidae
Porzana carolina 3 1

Charadriiformes
Charadriidae
Vanellinae, n. gen. n. sp. 1 1
Belonopterus n. sp. 3 2
Pluvialis dominica 32 6
Squatarola squatarola 3 1
Charadrius vociferous 7 2
C. collaris 3 1
C. semipalmatus 1 1
Scolopacidae
Tringa solitaria 21 5
Tringa n. sp. 2 1
Totanus flavipes 69 17
T. melanoleucus 11 2
Actitis macularia 1 1
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus 16 4









Table 1. Continued.

Number of Least Number
Elements of Individuals

Erolia minutilla 28 12
E. melanotos 220 57
Ereunetes mauri 16 3
Micropalama himantopus 1 1
Arenaria interpres 2 1
Numenius cf. borealis 1 1
Scolopacidae, n. gen. n. sp. 3 1
Phalaropodidae
Lobipes lobatus 2 2
Steganopus tricolor 65 11
Steganopus n. sp. 1 1
Jacanidae
Jacana spinosa 1 1
Burhinidae
Burhinus superciliaris 29 4
Thinocoridae
Thinocorus n. sp. 1 1
T. rumicivorus 1 1
cf. Attagis sp. 1 1
Laridae
Larus atricilla 31 8
L. pixcan 95 17

Columbiformes
Columbidae
Zenaida auriculata 102 13
Z. asiatica 7 2
Columbina talpacoti 3 2
C. cruziana 578 68

Psittaciformes
Psittacidae
Forpus coelestis 1 1

-Strigiformes
Tytonidae
Tyto alba 83 8
Str gi-ae
Bubo virginianus 101 11
Speotyto cunicularia 6 1
Asio lammeus 12 2

Caprimulgiformes
Caprimulgidae
Chordeiles acutipennis 6 1
Caprimulgus n. sp. 2 1

Total 6200 742








Order Podicipediformes (Furbringer)

Family Podicipedidae (Bonaparte)

Genus Podiceps Latham

Podiceps dominicus (Linnaeus)

Least Grebe

Material. One complete right coracoid, 1 nearly complete left

femur, proximal end of 1 left femur, proximal end of 1 left tarsometa-

tarsus. The 4 specimens represent a minimum of 2 individuals.

Characters. Easily identified by their small size, the fossil

specimens display characters well within the range of variation

found in Recent specimens.

Remarks. The present range of P. dominicus includes northwestern

Peru.


Genus Podilymbus Lesson

Podilymbus podiceps (Linnaeus)

Pied-billed Grebe

Material. Proximal end of 1 right humerus, 1 nearly complete

right femur, proximal end of 1 right femur, 1 complete left tarsometa-

tarsus. The 4 specimens represent a minimum of 2 individuals.

Characters. The fossil specimens vary within acceptable limits

from Recent specimens examined.

Remarks. The present range of P. podiceps includes northwestern

Peru, and I would expect to find this grebe on almost any body of

fresh-water in coastal Peru, although not in large numbers.


Order Pelecaniformes Sharpe

Suborder Sulae Sharpe

Family Phalacrocoracidae (Bonaparte)








Genus Phalacrocorax Brisson

Phalacrocorax olivaceus (Humboldt)

Olivaceous Cormorant

Material. Two maxillae, distal halves of 2 right and 2 left

mandibles, 5 right and 2 left scapulae, 5 complete right and 11

complete left coracoids, humeral ends of 1 right and 3 left coracoids,

sternal ends of 2 right and 4 left coracoids, 2 complete left humeri,

proximal ends of 2 right and 4 left humeri, distal ends of 7 right and

6 left humeri, proximal ends of 3 right and 2 left ulnae, distal ends

of 5 right and 2 left ulnae, proximal ends of 5 right and 2 left radii,

distal ends of 4 right and 1 left radius, 3 complete right and 1

complete left carpometacarpus, proximal ends of 1 right and 1 left

carpometacarpus, 4 complete right and 4 complete left femora, proximal

end of 1 left femur, distal ends of 1 right and 1 left femur, 2

complete right and 1 complete left tibiotarsus, proximal ends of 1

right and 2 left tibiotarsi, distal ends of 1 right and 3 left tibio-

tarsi, 8 complete right and 8 complete left tarsometatarsi, proximal

ends of 1 right and 2 left tarsometatarsi, distal ends of 3 left

tarsometatarsi. The 133 specimens represent a minimum of 15

individuals.

Characters. With the exception of certain cranial elements,

elements of P. olivaceus are generally smaller than elements of P.

gaimardi, although size ranges of the two species overlap. They are

much smaller, especially more slender, than elements of P. bougainvillii.

P. olivaceus differs from P. bougainvillii and P. gaimardi by

having premaxillary and mandible with (1) size large (small in P.

bougainvillii and P. gaimardi).







Scapula with (1) glenoid facet distinctly triangular (more

rounded in P. bougainvillii and P. gaimardi); (2) acromion wide

and moderately long (wide and long in P. bougainvillii, narrow and

moderately long in P. gaimardi); (3) protrusion on lateral surface

of shaft distal to glenoid facet round and prominent (elongated and

only slightly raised, if any, in P. bougainvillii and P. gaimardi).

Coracoid with (1) shaft very slender (very robust in P. bougain-

villii, slender in P. gaimardi); (2) bicipital attachment narrow and

deeply concave (wide and moderately to slightly concave in P. bougain-

villii and P. gaimardi); (3) procoracoid short and rounded (moderate

to long, stouter, and more angular in P. bougainvillii and P. gaimardi);

(4) attachment of Lig. humero-coracoideum anterius superius deep

(superficial in P. bougainvillii and P. gaimardi); (5) humeral end

narrow (wide in P. bougainvillii and P. gaimardi).

Humerus with (1) pneumatic fossa moderately excavated (deeply

excavated in P. bougainvillii and P. gaimardi); (2) deltoid crest

small, smoothly rimmed (larger and locally angular in P. bougainvillii

and P. gaimardi); (3) attachment of M. extensor metacarpi radialis

inset in shallow depression (attachment located on raised platform in

P. bougainvillii; attachment inset in depression in P. gaimardi, but

bordered distally by large ectepicondylar prominence); (4) attachment

of anterior articular ligament with moderate slope (lesser slope in

P. bougainvillii, greater slope in P. gaimardi).

Ulna with (1) internal cotyla narrow (wider in P. bougainvillii

and P. gaimardi); (2) external cotyla wide and moderately long (long

and narrow in P. bougainvillii, short and narrow in P. gaimardi);

(3) external condyle of moderate width and length (narrow and long in

P. bougainvillii, moderately wide and short in P. gaimardi); (4)








carpal tuberosity moderately large (larger in P. bougainvillii and

P. gaimardi).

Radius with (1) insertion of M. biceps moderately deep (very deep

in P. bougainvillii and P. gaimardi); (2) projection extending from

lateral end of carpal facet sharp and pointed (only slightly developed

in P. bougainvillii and P. gaimardi).

Carpometacarpus with (1) external rim of carpal trochlea small

(much wider in P. bougainvillii, slightly wider in P. gaimardi); (2)

process of metacarpal I narrow (broad in P. bougainvillii and P.

gaimardi); (3) pollical facet wide (narrower in P. bougainvillii and

P. gaimardi).

Femur with (1) iliac facet small (larger in P. bougainvillii and

P. gaimardi, even though the femur is shorter in P. gaimardi); (2)

internal condyle slightly angular distally (more rounded, and rotated

posteriorly, in P. bougainvillii and P. gaimardi); (4) shaft slender

(much heavier in P. bougainvillii and P. gaimardi).

Tibiotarsus with (1) outer cnemial crest wide and short (wide

and long in P. bougainvillii, narrow and short in P. gaimardi); (2)

shaft slightly to moderately concave distal to internal articular

surface (deeply concave in P. bougainvillii, slightly to moderately

concave in P. gaimardi); (3) internal condyle short and moderately

wide (long and wide in P. bougainvillii, long and narrow in P.

gaimardi); (4) size very small.

Tarsometatarsus with (1) internal cotyla short, narrow, and

moderately concave (longer, wider, and more concave in P. bougain-

villii and P. gaimardi); (2) inner extensor groove wide (narrow in P.

bougainvillii and P. gaimardi); (3) external trochlea narrow (wide in

P. bougainvillii and P. gaimardi); (4) distal foramen moderately








sized (smaller in P. bougainvillii, much larger in P. gaimardi).

Remarks. P. olivaceus is generally distributed throughout

South America, and is common in coastal lagoons, marshes, lakes,

and rivers.


Phalacrocorax bougainvillii (Lesson)

Guanay Cormorant

Material. Distal end of 1 right humerus.

Remarks. P. bougainvillii is a marine species that breeds on

offshore islands and comes ashore only rarely, and then usually only

during times of distress (Murphy, 1936). The population of this

species numbers in the millions, and it undergoes wide fluctuations.

At times when the population crashes the beaches are literally

covered with corpses. This happens whenever the warm current known

as El Nino appears. The single specimen in the collection can be

regarded as a rare straggler.


Order Ardeiformes (Wagler)

Suborder Ardeae Wagler

Family Ardeidae Vigors

Genus Ardea Linnaeus

Ardea cocoi Linnaeus

White-necked Heron

Material. One right scapula, proximal ends of 1 right and 1

left carpometacarpus, distal ends of 2 left carpometacarpi, distal end

of 1 right tarsometatarsus. The 6 specimens represent a minimum of

2 individuals.

Characters. As A. cocoi is the largest living South American

heron its elements are readily recognized on size.








Remarks. Generally distributed over all of South America, A.

cocoi is found in coastal marshes and lagoons in Peru, although only

in small numbers.


Genus Casmerodius Gloger

Casmerodius albus (Linnaeus)

Common Egret

Material. Two complete right and 2 complete left coracoids,

humeral ends of 2 right coracoids, 1 right scapula, 1 complete left

carpometacarpus, proximal end of 1 left carpometacarpus, distal end

of 1 right tibiotarsus, distal end of 1 right tarsometatarsus. The

11 elements represent a minimum of 4 individuals.

Characters. Intermediate in size between Ardea and Tigrisoma,

Casmerodius is easily distinguished on size.

Remarks. Generally distributed over all of South America,

C. albus is found commonly in coastal marshes and lagoons of Peru.


Genus Egretta T. Forster

Egretta thula (Molina)

Snowy Egret

Material. Two right scapulae, 2 complete right coracoids,

proximall end of 1 left humerus, 1 complete right femur, proximal

end of 1 right femur. The 7 specimens represent a minimum of 2

individuals.

Additionally, the following specimens are identified to genus

only: 1 complete right and 2 complete left carpometacarpi, distal

ends of 3 left tibiotarsi, proximal end of 1 right tarsometatarsus,

distal ends of 3 right and 5 left tarsometatarsi.

Characters. The three species of Egretta, E. thula, E.








(Hydranassa) tricolor, and E. (Florida) caerulea, are extremely

difficult to separate osteologically. Characters used to identify the

fossil specimens of E. thula are given below, but intraspecific

variation is so great that even these characters may prove to be

invalid if sufficient series are examined.

Scapula with (1) thickness between acromion and coracoidal

articulation moderate, but variable (similar in E. caerulea, slightly

thicker in E. tricolor); (2) length of acromion base moderate (less

in E. caerulea, greater in H. tricolor).

Coracoid with (1) curvature of coracohumeral surface slight to

moderate as traced by central groove (similar in E. caerulea, very

slight in E. tricolor); (2) angle between internal edge of furcular

facet and triosseal canal slightly more than 90 (much larger in E.

caerulea, and the area is well rounded; slightly larger in E. tricolor).

Humerus with (1) distal end of attachment of M. proscapulo-

humeralis surrounded by attachment of M. triceps, external head (not

surrounded in E. caerulea, roughly similar in E. tricolor); (2)

external attachment of M. supracoracoideus short and deep (short

and shallow in E. caerulea, long and shallow in E. tricolor).

Carpometacarpus with (1) intermuscular line between pollical

facet and pisiform process lying near pollical facet (similar in E.

caerulea, positioned posteriorly in E. tricolor). No characters

were found that reliably separated the carpometacarpi of E. thula

from those of E. caerulea. The three fossil specimens could thus be

separated from E. tricolor, but assignment to either E. thula or E.

caerulea was not possible.

Femur with (1) iliac facet narrow antero-posteriorly (narrow to

moderate width in E. caerulea, broader in E. tricolor); (2) external








condyle flat dorsally (similar in E. caerulea, extending farther

dorsally in E. tricolor); (3) distal end broad (narrow in E. caerulea,

broad in E. tricolor).

Tibiotarsus with (1) rotular crest low (low in E. caerulea,

higher in E. tricolor); (2) external condyle slightly undercut

dorso-proximally (not undercut in E. caerulea; slightly, or not,

undercut in E. tricolor); As no characters were found that could

reliably be used to separate the tibiotarsi of E. thula and E.

tricolor, the specimens are simply referred to the genus.

Tarsometatarsus. No reliable characters were found that could

be considered valid for separating tarsometatarsi of the three

species of Egretta. For this reason the specimens are simply referred

to the genus.

Remarks. Generally distributed over almost all of South America,

E. thula is common in coastal lagoons and marshes of Peru.


Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus)

Little Blue Heron

Material. One complete left coracoid.

Remarks. Generally distributed over almost all of South America,

E. caerulea is found in coastal lagoons and marshes of Peru, but not

in such large numbers as E. thula.


Genus Syrigma Ridgway

Syrigma n. sp.

Holotype. Complete left coracoid. (PI. III, Fig. C)

Diagnosis. Agrees with Syrigma and differs from all other genera

of South American herons by having (1) head broad and slightly peaked

in medial view (subangular to subrounded); (2) brachial tuberosity








prominent and angular; (3) triosseal canal very deep adjacent to glenoid

facet; (4) attachments of M. coracobrachialis anterior and Lig. humero-

coracoideum anterius superius deep, elongated, and notched; with center

of latter lying parallel, and roughly in line with, anterior edge of

shaft; (5) protrusion internal to glenoid facet large, bordering ventral

side of triosseal canal; (6) external side of shaft with slight ridge

running ventrally from middle of head.

Differs from Syrigma sibilatrix (Temminck) by having (1)

coracohumeral surface short (displaces dorsal-most point of head

posteriorly); (2) furcular facet larger; (3) brachial tuberosity

larger; (4) proximal end with medial side flatter (locally more

convex and concave in S. sibilatrix); (5) protrusion internal to

glenoid facet smaller; (6) head thicker between attachment of Lig.

humero-coracoideum anterius superius and anterior furcular facet; (7)

glenoid facet rotated posteriorly, lengthening distance from external

edge of glenoid facet and anterior edge of shaft; (8) external sternal

facet much higher. Measurements of the holotype, with those of one

male specimen of S. sibilatrix in parenthesis, are as follows: length,

42.3 (41.6); head to scapular facet, 13.3 (13.5); proximal depth, 9.5

(9.2); least depth of shaft, 4.2 (4.3).

Remarks. The genus Syrigma is represented by one living

species in South America, S. sibilatrix, and it occurs only east of

the Andes. The presence of a second, extinct species west of the

Andes suggests that perhaps the climate west of the Peruvian Andes

was more equitable during the late Pleistocene than it is today.

Syrigma n. sp. is the first paleospecies of the genus to be

described.







Genus Nycticorax T. Forster

Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus)

Black-crowned Night Heron

Material. Middle third of 1 left mandible, 1 right and 3 left

quadrates, 4 right and 3 left scapulae, 1 complete right coracoid,

humeral ends of 9 right and 4 left coracoids, proximal end of 1 left

humerus, proximal end of 1 right ulna, distal ends of 2 right and 3

left ulnae, distal end of 1 left radius, proximal end of 1 left

carpometacarpus, 1 complete right femur, proximal end of 1 right and 1

left femur, distal ends of 3 right and 5 left tibiotarsi, 1 complete

right and 1 complete left tarsometatarsus, proximal end of 1 right

tarsometatarsus, distal ends of 1 right and 3 left tarsometatarsi.

The 53 specimens represent a minimum of 10 individuals.

Characters. All elements of Nycticorax examined are separable

from those of Egretta by size, those of Nycticorax being either much

longer, shorter, wider, or stouter than corresponding elements of

Egretta. Nycticorax differs from Nyctanassa Stejneger and Tigrisoma

Swainson by having scapula with (1) coracoidal articulation large

(large and subrounded in Tigrisoma, smaller in Nyctanassa); (2)

glenoid facet oval (broad oval in Tigrisoma, narrow oval in Nyctanassa);

.(3) acromion deflected moderately externally (less in Tigrisoma,

more in Nyctanassa).

Coracoid with (1) triosseal canal moderately inset (slightly

inset, if any, in Trigrisoma and Nyctanassa); (2) glenoid facet large

(much smaller in Tigrisoma, of similar size in Nyctanassa); (3)

dorsal surface of head notched by deep concavity in medial view

(rounded in Tigrisoma, notched and more angular in Nyctanassa);

(4) anterior end of head rotated moderately externally (rotated less







in Tigrisoma, much more in Nyctanassa).

Humerus with (1) attachment of M. proscapulohumeralis elongated

and moderately inset (oval and inset only slightly in Tigrisoma and

Nyctanassa); (2) pneumatic fossa very shallow (moderately deep in

Tigrisoma and Nyctanassa); (3) dorsal edge of attachment of external

head of triceps curving away from capital shaft ridge distal to

attachment of M. latissimus dorsi posterioris (extends farther

proximally on capital shaft ridge in Tigrisoma and Nyctanassa).

Ulna with (1) olecranon narrow (broad in Tigrisoma, similar in

Nyctanassa); (2) external cotyla large, with small ridge leading

distally (smaller, without ridge in Tigrisoma and Nyctanassa); (3)

external condyles long (short in Tigrisoma, moderate in Nyctanassa);

(4) carpal tuberosity moderately long (long in Tigrisoma, short in

Nyctanassa).

Radius with (1) palmar surface of distal end moderately excavated

(slightly excavated in Tigrisoma, greatly excavated in Nyctanassa);

(2) tendinal groove broad and deep (narrower and not as deep in

Tigrisoma and Nyctanassa); (3) carpal facet broad (narrow in Tigrisoma

and Nyctanassa).

Carpometacarpus with (1) internal ligamental attachment of

pisiform process and ligamental attachment of ulnare confluent

(separated in Tigrisoma and Nyctanassa); (2) corner on distal end

of internal rim of carpal trochlea small (large in Tigrisoma, absent

in Nyctanassa); (3) carpal trochlea moderately wide (wider in

Tigrisoma, similar in Nyctanassa); (4) process of metacarpal I

slender (stouter in Tigrisoma and Nyctanassa).

Femur with (1) proximal lateral face curving medially (curvature

slightly less in Tigrisoma, much less in Nyctanassa); (2) concavity








distal to iliac facet posteriorly deep (moderate concavity in Tigrisoma,

slight concavity in Nyctanassa); (3) posterior intermuscular line

curving medially to base of internal condyle (lies more in center of

shaft and does not curve in Tigrisoma, does not curve as far internally

in Nyctanassa); (4) gap between external condyle and origin of M.

gastrocnemius, pars externa, wide (ridge present between the two in

Tigrisoma, slight gap in Nyctanassa).

Tibiotarsus with (1) internal articular surface large (similar

in Tigrisoma, smaller in Nyctanassa); (2) inner cnemial crest short

and thick (long and of moderate width, tapering distally, in

Tigrisoma and Nyctanassa); (3) ridge leading to postero-most corner of

internal articular surface absent (present in Tigrisoma, absent in

Nyctanassa); (4) internal condyle undercut dorsally (not undercut

in Tigrisoma and Nyctanassa); (5) internal condyle flaring extensively

internally (much less in Tigrisoma and Nyctanassa).

Tarsometatarsus with (1) shaft large (more slender in Tigrisoma,

much more slender in Nyctanassa); (2) cotylae and trochleae wide

(narrow in Tigrisoma and Nyctanassa); (3) internal edge to shaft

angular rounded in Tigrisoma and Nyctanassa).

Remarks. N. nycticorax is generally distributed throughout

South America, including coastal rivers, swamps, and lagoons of Peru.

On the basis of osteological comparisons listed above I believe

Nycticorax is generically distinct from Nyctanassa.


Suborder Plataleae Newton

Family Plataleidae Bonaparte

Subfamily Threskiornithinae (Richmond)

Genus Theristicus Wiagler








Theristicus n. sp.

Holotype. Complete left coracoid. (P1. III, Fig. B)

Diagnosis. Agrees with Theristicus and differs from all other

genera of South American ibises (with possible exception of Harpiprion

Wagler and Cercibis Wagler which were not available for comparison), by

having (1) head long and subangular in medial view; (2) attachment of M.

coracobrachialis anterior moderately deep, long, with a narrow posterior

section and a much wider anterior section; (3) attachment of Lig.

humero-coracoideum anterius superius shallow and confluent with anterior

section of attachment of M. coracobrachialis anterior; (4) coracohumeral

surface broad, of almost uniform width; (5) head very wide, with external

and internal sides roughly parallel; (6) brachial tuberosity large, well

rounded; (7) glenoid facet large, with widest area immediately dorsal

to scapular facet; (8) shaft with anterior edge immediately dorsal to

sternal facet flattened and rotated slightly internally; (9) anterior

external sternal facet with large protrusion posteriorly.

Differs from Theristicus caudatus (Boddaert) by having (1)

coracohumeral surface much shorter, giving a more rounded head with

lower profile in medial view; (2) attachments of M. coracobrachialis

anterior and Lig. humero-coracoideum anterius superius shallower; (3)

procoracoid deeply concave internally; (4) shaft with anterior edge

immediately dorsal to sternal facet more flattened and rotated less

internally; (5) external sternal facet and external distal angle much

shorter; (6) concavity between external sternal facet and flattened

anterior edge of shaft shallow. Measurements of the holotype, with

those of three male specimens of T. caudatus in parenthesis are as

follows: length, 50.5 (52.0-54.3; mean, 52.8); head to scapular facet,

19.9 (20.8-21.1; mean, 20.9); proximal depth, 12.9 (13.7-14.1; mean,







13.8); least depth of shaft, 8.5 (9.0-9.1; mean, 9.1).

Referred Material. Fragmentary proximal end of 1 right humerus.

Characters. Agrees with Theristicus and differs from all other

examined genera of South American ibises by having (1) pneumatic fossa

shallow; (2) internal tuberosity short; (3) median crest very prominent.

Differs from Theristicus caudatus by having (1) internal tuberosity

shorter; (2) attachment of M. coracobrachialis posterior rotated

toward axis of shaft; (3) median crest more prominent; (4) attachment

of Lig. humero-coracoideum anterius inferius positioned more anconally.

The specimen is too broken to yield accurate measurements.

Remarks. Theristicus is represented by one living species in

South America, T. caudatus, that occurs over almost the entire

continent, including cultivated areas of coastal Peru (Koepcke, 1970).

No significant differences were seen between specimens of T. c. caudatus

and T. c. branickii examined. Although no specimens of T. c. melanopis

were available, I doubt that it would vary significantly from T. c.

caudatus or T. c. branickii.

Theristicus n. sp. is the first described paleospecies of the

genus.

Genus Eudocimus Wagler

Eudocimus n. sp.

Holotype. Complete left tarsometatarsus. (PI. III, Fig. A)

Paratype. Distal end of 1 left tarsometatarsus.

Diagnosis. Agrees with Eudocimus and differs from all other

genera of South American ibises (with possible exception of Harpiprion

and Cercibis which were unavailable for comparison) by having (1)

shaft long, moderately stout; (2) cotylae, trochleae, and hypotarsus

moderately compressed.








Differs from Eudocimus albus Wagler by having (1) shaft with

channeling of anterior face very shallow, deepest on external side,

with proximal ligamental attachment raised to level of sides of shaft

(shaft with anterior face deeply channeled, deepest on internal side,

with proximal ligamental attachment lying below level of sides of

shaft in E. albus); (2) intercotylar prominence larger, rounder,

and rotated dorsally; (3) proximal end wider and distal end narrower

(when compared with specimen of E. albus of same, or greater, length);

(4) cotylae slightly longer and wider; (5) groove between intercotylar

prominence and external cotylae distinct; (6) hypotarsal ridges

extend farther distally and forming "V"; (7) external side of hypo-

tarsus and shaft anterior to internal side of hypotarsus more excavated;

(8) attachment of external ligament strong, positioned posteriorly;

(9) convexity at anterior end of internal trochlea slightly developed;

(10) depth of middle trochlea less; (11) external trochlea with

external face large, extending less posteriorly.

For measurements see Table 2. Measurements of the holotype

are as follows: length, 100.8; proximal width, 13.7; distal width,

12.7; least width of shaft, 5.3; width of middle trochlea, 4.9.

Referred material. One right scapula, distal end of 1 left

humetus, proximal end of 2 radii, 1 complete left femur, proximal

end of 1 right femur, 1 complete right tibiotarsus (immature), distal

end of 1 right tibiotarsus. The 10 specimens, including holotype and

paratype, represent a minimum of 2 individuals.

Characters. Scapula with (1) distal end of glenoid facet

slightly elevated above surface of shaft, and rotated ventrally only

slightly (more elevated and rotated ventrally in E. albus).

Humerus with (1) attachment of anterior articular ligament







broader, extending less distally; (2) attachment of M. pronator

brevis located farther distally; (3) internal condyle projecting

less distally, more palmarly; (4) intercondylar groove shallower.

Radius with (1) capital tuberosity larger; (2) ligamental

papillae smaller; (3) bicipital attachment a very deep pit; (4)

ulnar facet larger.

Femur with (1) anterior intermuscular line straight, lying near

external side of shaft (curved and positioned medially in E. albus);

(2) iliac facet shorter; (3) concavity distal to posterior edge of

iliac facet shallower; (4) trochanter projecting less anteriorly; (5)

internal flexure of shaft proximal to internal condyle greater; (6)

ridge leading to posterior corner of internal condyle much smaller,

with more curving edge; (7) external condyle smaller, less rounded.

Remarks. E. ruber differs more from E. albus and Eudocimus n. sp.

than the latter two do from each other, thus a detailed comparison

with E. ruber is not considered necessary.

Eudocimus n. sp. is the first paleospecies of the genus

described from the New World. Its presence in the same deposit as

E. albus, which does not quite reach so far south as the fossil

site today, poses the interesting question of whether the two species

were sympatric or merely had seasonally overlapping ranges. Neither

of the two species occur in very large numbers in the collection.


Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus)

White Ibis

Material. One complete left coracoid, humeral ends of 2 left

coracoids, distal end of 1 right ulna, 1 complete right carpometa-

carpus, distal ends of 2 left tibiotarsi, proximal end of 1 right













Table 2. Measurements of the scapula, humerus, radius, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus
of Eudocimus n. sp. and Recent E. albus, and of the scapula, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus of
E. albus from the Talara Tar Seeps (in mm).


Eudocimus n. sp.





11.9

1

3.5


Eudocimus albus
Talara Tar Seeps




11.0

1

3.7


17.2

1

8.9

1



5.6-5.9
5.8
2


Scapula
Proximal
Height


Proximal
Width



Humerus
Distal
Width


Depth of
External
Condyle


Radius
Proximal
Width


Recent




9.3-11.8
10.9
5

3.1-4.1
3.7


14.6-17.8
16.3
5

7.9-9.9
8.9
5



4.3-5.4
4.9
5










Table 2. Continued.


Eudocimus n. sp.


Eudocimus albus
Talara Tar Seeps


59.0

1


11.9-12.2
12.1
2


12.6

1


141.0


10.6-11.0
10.8
2


9.5-10.4
9.9
2


Femur
Length


Proximal
Width


Recent


Distal
Width


Least
Width of
Shaft


Tibiotarsus
Length



Distal
Width


56.1-67.1
62.9
S

10.8-13.5
13.2
5

11.1-13.8
12.4
S


5.0-6.5


102.3-141.8
127.3
5


8.5-10.6
9.8
5










Table 2. Continued.


Eudocimus n. sp.


Least
Width of
Shaft

Depth of
Internal
Condyle


Tarsometatarsus
Length



Proximal
Width


Distal
Width


Least
Width of
Shaft

Width of
Middle
Trochlea


Eudocimus albus
Talara Tar Seeps


5.2-5.4
5.3
2


11.3-11.7
11.5
2


10.0-11.8
10.9
2


100.8


13.7

1

12.7

1


12.4

1

11.2

1


4.6-4.9
4.8
2


Recent


4.4-5.4
5.0
5

9.2-12.1
10.8
5



73.0-103.8
92.7
5

10.2-12.8
11.8
5

10.4-13.3
12.1
5


4.6-5.4
4.9
5

4.0-5.0
4.6
5








tarsometatarsus, distal end of 1 right tarsometatarsus. The 9

specimens represent a minimum of 3 individuals.

Remarks. E. albus occurs today in the northernmost part of

coastal Peru, western Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela.


Subfamily Plataleinae Bonaparte

Genus Ajaia Reichenbach

Ajaa ajaja (Linnaeus)

Roseate Spoonbill

Material. Proximal end of 1 right carpometacarpus.

Characters. Carpometacarpus with (1) metacarpal I long and

slender; (2) posterior carpal fossa elongated and very deep; (3)

pollical facet moderately wide; (4) size large.

Remarks. A. ajaja is widespread in South America, and has

been recorded from northwestern Peru.


Suborder Ciconiae Bonaparte

Family Ciconiidae (Gray)

Subfamily Ciconiinae Gray

Genus Jabiru Hellmayr

Jabiru mycteria (Lichtenstein)

Jabiru

Material. One cranium, 1 sternal fragment, proximal ends of 2

left scapulae, symphyseal area of 1 furculum, portions of 3 right and

4 left coracoids, distal ends of 1 right and 1 left humerus, proximal

ends of 2 left ulnae, distal ends of 2 right and 2 left ulnae, distal

ends of 2 right and 1 left radius, proximal end of 1 left carpometa-

carpus, distal ends of 2 right carpometacarpi, 5 right and 1 left

carpal digits, proximal end of 1 left tibiotarsus, distal ends of 3








right and 4 left tibiotarsi, proximal ends of 1 right and 2 left

tarsometatarsi, distal ends of 3 right and 1 left tarsometatarsi.

The 47 elements represent a minimum of 5 individuals.

Remarks. J. myctera has been recorded on the coast of southern

Peru, but only as isolated individuals, and these are regarded as

trans-Andean vagrants. The specimens represented here may also

represent trans-Andean vagrants, or they may represent individuals

that moved southward from the moister coastal regions of southern

Ecuador. Although there are no Recent records of Jabiru in Ecuador,

I see no reason why it may not have been there in the past, or why

it may not be there now.


Subfamily Mycteriinae American Ornithologists' Union

Genus Mycteria Linnaeus

Mycteria americana Linnaeus

Wood Stork

Material. Proximal end of 1 carpometacarpus.

Remarks. Although M. americana has been recorded from north-

western Peru, it has not been recorded from the remainder of coastal

Peru. The scarcity of M. americana may indicate that there were no

large wet areas near the fossil site. The single specimen must

represent a very rare vagrant.


Order Anseriformes Wagler

Suborder Anseres Wagler

Family Anatidae Vigors

Subfamily Dendrocygninae Reichenbach

Genus Dendrocygna Swainson







Dendrocygna autumnalis (Linnaeus)

Black-bellied Tree Duck

Material. Portions of 2 crania, 1 frontal, 4 right and 7 left

quadrates, 1 right and 2 left articulars, 1 right and 5 left man-

dibular fragments, 15 right and 14 left scapulae, 13 complete right

and 21 complete left coracoids, humeral ends of 5 right and 4 left

coracoids, sternal ends of 2 left coracoids, 2 complete right and 2

complete left humeri, proximal ends of 14 right and 12 left humeri,

distal ends of 17 right and 12 left humeri, 2 complete right and 1

complete left ulna, proximal ends of 6 right and 6 left ulnae,

distal ends of 8 right and 7 left ulnae, 1 complete left radius,

proximal ends of 5 right and 4 left radii, distal ends of 9 right and

8 left radii, 12 complete right and 10 complete left carpometa-

carpi, proximal ends of 7 right and 7 left carpometacarpi, 7 complete

right and 4 complete left femora, proximal ends of 4 right and 5

left femora, distal ends of 1 right and 1 left femora, distal ends

of 14 right and 4 left tibiotarsi, 1 complete right tarsometatarsus,

proximal end of 1 right and 1 left tarsometatarsus, distal ends of

4 right and 5 left tarsometatarsi. The 299 specimens represent a

minimum of 33 individuals.

Characters. The larger size of D. autumnalis serves to distin-

guish its elements from those of D. viduata (Linnaeus). Although D.

bicolor (Vieillot) is usually smaller than D. autumnalis, the two

species overlap in size. Characters of D. autumnalis used to separate

it from D. bicolor are listed below. For the scapula, radius and ulna,

elements not utilized by Woolfenden (1961), generic characters are

also given.

Scapula of Dondrocygna with (1) glenoid facet long and narrow,







lacking an antero-ventral projection. Scapula of D. autumnalis

with (1) acromion longer; (2) glenoid facet longer and more elevated.

Coracoid with (1) angle between furcular facet and edge of

triosseal canal much smaller; (2) brachial tuberosity less rounded;

(3) head more rounded in medial view; (4) attachment of Lig. humero-

coracoideum anterius superius larger.

Humerus with (1) proximal and distal ends much wider; (2)

deltoid crest longer and more flaring; (3) internal tuberosity much

larger; (4) ectepicondylar prominence more rounded; (5) attachment of

anterior articular ligament higher; (6) entepicondyle much larger.

Ulna of Dendrocygna with (1) external cotyla large; (2)

bicipital attachment large and prominent; (3) carpal tuberosity very

large. Ulna of D. autumnalis with (1) olecranon much thicker; (2)

internal cotyla larger; (3) distal end of external cotyla more rounded;

(4) external condyle longer; (5) carpal tuberosity larger.

Radius of Dendrocygna with (1) shaft immediately posterior to

head very narrow; (2) ulnar facet narrow and U-shaped; (3) capital

tuberosity large; (4) carpal facet narrow, with distinct anconal

projection centrally located. Radius of D. autumnalis with (1)

capital tuberosity smaller, but more prominent shaft flaring more

abruptly to meet a wider distal end.

Carpometacarpus with (1) process of metacarpal I larger; (2)

lobe at end of external rim of carpal trochlea more prominent; (3)

area of fusion between metacarpal II and metacarpal III longer;

(4) internal rim of carpal trochlea larger.

Femur with (1) head rotated dorsally, and concavity between

iliac facet and head greater; (2) iliac facet larger and more

irregularly shaped; (3) trochanter larger and more prominent; (4)








distal end wider; (5) ligamental attachment at base of fibular condyle

more prominent; (6) condyles larger; (7) rotular groove deeper.

Tibiotarsus with (1) shaft reasonably straight and stout (in

D. viduata and D. bicolor there is a greater internal concavity and

distal third of shaft has larger posteriorly directed convexity);

(2) inner cnemial crest larger; (3) condyles not reflected anteriorly.

Tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar prominence less prominent;

(2) cotylae large; (3) external edge of hypotarsus longer, positioned

proximally; (4) external trochlea slightly narrower, but middle and

internal trochleae wider; (5) internal trochlea projecting less

distally.

Remarks. D. autumnalis is recorded in western Ecuador south

to the southernmost coastal province (Chapman, 1926), and occasionally

on the coast of Peru (Koepcke, 1970). However, it was not recorded

by Marchant (1958) on the Santa Elena Peninsula of Ecuador. The

presence of this species may indicate an abundance of vegetation

surrounding the fossil site because of the species preference for

quiet waters surrounded by forests (Delacour, 1954).


Subfamily Tadorninae Reichenbach

"Humerus with (1) fairly prominent capital shaft ridge directed

toward external tuberosity; (2) area of origin of external head of

triceps relatively narrow; (3) deltoid crest relatively large and

flaring, and in lateral view more rounded, or if an abrupt bend

occurs, it lies more posteriad; (4) deltoid crest extending farther

distad; (5) head rotated so that external tuberosity is higher."

(Woolfenden, 1961, p. 108)








Tadorninae, n. gen.

Holotype. Tadorninae, n. gen. n. sp.

Diagnosis. Humerus resembles that of Lophonetta Riley and

differs from Chloephaga Eyton and Neochen Salvadori by having (1)

head more rounded in anconal view; (2) external tuberosity reduced

and elongated; (3) external head of triceps only slightly, if any,

undercutting head; (4) deltoid crest shorter and less flaring; (5)

capital groove rotated internally, reducing size of internal tuberosity

and increasing size of head; (6) attachment of anterior articular

ligament less elevated; (7) shaft flaring less to meet ectepicondyle;

(8) internal condyle elongated, less bulbous.

IIumerus differs from that of Lophonetta by having (1) attachment

of M. supracoracoideus on external tuberosity proportionately more

elongated; (2) capital groove narrower and straighter; (3) deltoid

crest shorter and less flaring,.with sharp angle at its midpoint;

(4) bicipital crest shorter and more rounded; (5) pneumatic fossa

completely rimmed by heavy bone, such that distal edge is elevated

above floor of bicipital crest; (6) pneumatic fossa with highest

point located under tip of internal tuberosity (under median crest in

Lophonetta); (7) shaft with greater palmar flexure in distal quarter,

such that line drawn along anterior edge of shaft would almost bisect

distal-most point of ectepicondyle (bisects anterior edge of ectepicon-

dyle in Lophonetta); (8) ectepicondylar prominence smaller, with

narrow ridge along proximal portion; (9) ectepicondyle less rounded

and more V-shaped, extending farther distally; (10) attachment of

anterior articular ligament wider than it is long (longer than wide

in Lophonetta), less elevated, and located farther distally; (11)

entepicondyle more prominent and rounded, not as large, with larger








entepicondylar prominence and external curvature to anconal side;

(12) condyles more rounded, giving deeper and narrower intercondylar

groove; (13) external condyle shorter, retaining internal flexure

found in Lophonetta. but lacking distinct ridge leading internally

from tip of condyle; (14) shaft widening more gradually toward distal

end.


Tadorninae, n. gen. n. sp.

Holotype. Complete right humerus. (P1. III, Fig. D)

Paratypes. One complete right and 3 complete left humeri,

proximal ends of 6 right and 5 left humeri, distal ends of 2 right

and 7 left humeri.

Diagnosis. As for genus. For measurements see Table 3.

Measurements of the holotype are as follows: length, 68.6; proximal

width, 14.7; distal width, 11.0; least width of shaft, 5.2.

Referred material. Three right and 4 left scapulae, 8 complete

right and 7 complete left coracoids, humeral ends of 2 right and 1 left

coracoid, 4 complete right and 3 complete left ulnae, proximal ends of

5 right and 3 left ulnae, distal ends of 5 right and 3 left ulnae,

2 complete left radii, proximal ends of 3 left radii, distal end of

1 right radius, 3 complete right and 2 complete left carpometacarpi,

proximal ends of 2 right and 6 left carpometacarpi, 2 complete right

and 2 complete left femora, proximal end of 1 right femur, 1 complete

left tibiotarsus, distal ends of 4 right tibiotarsi, 4 complete right

and 5 complete left tarsometatarsi, proximal end of 1 left tarso-

metatarsus. The 112 specimens, including holotype and paratypes,

represent a minimum of 10 individuals.

Characters. All elements of Tadorninae, n. gen. n. sp. agree








with the humerus in resembling Lophonetta more than Chloephaga or

Neochen. Tadorninae, n. gen. n. sp. differs from Lophonetta

specularioides by having scapula with (1) coracoidal articulation

proportionately more prominent, confluent with glenoid facet; (2)

intermuscular line between attachments of M. rhomboidius superficialis

and M. subscapularis better developed; (3) glenoid facet rotated such

that it faces more anteriorly and distal end is displaced dorsally.

Coracoid with (1) head projecting less anteriorly; (2) head

with width much greater; (3) glenoid facet flaring less laterally;

(4) scapular facet larger.

Ulna with (1) attachment of anterior articular ligament more

oval and less elongated; (2) external cotyla shorter but wider; (3)

external condyle longer but less prominent; (4) carpal tuberosity

more prominent.

Radius with (1) capital tuberosity more prominent, and shaft

more constricted immediately distal to it; (2) carpal facet less

curved; (3) shaft with internal flexure at distal end.

Carpometacarpus with (1) attachment of M. flexor carpi ulnaris

brevis deeper; (2) external scapho-lunar ligamental attachment small,

lying proximal to ridge extending from external cuneiform ligamental

attachment to proximal fornix, and lying very close to external

cuneiform ligamental attachment (the large size and posterior position

of this attachment in other genera of the subfamily Tadorninae is

listed as a subfamilial character by Woolfenden (1961)); (3) lobe

at end of external rim of carpal trochlea, beginning at notch in rim,

very long and prominent; (4) internal rim of carpal trochlea more

prominent, giving more rounded proximal end in internal view; (5)

internal ligamental fossa deeper; (6) area of fusion of metacarpal I








and metacarpal II much shorter both proximally and distally.

Femur with (1) neck more constricted; (2) area between anterior

corner of trochanter and head more concave but similarly curved,

not angular; (3) ridge on posterior surface of shaft leading to

external condyle more prominent; (4) fibular condyle similar in

shape, but less produced proximally; (5) external condyle well

rounded where joined by fibular condyle (pointed in L. specularioides);

(6) pit for M. tibialis anticus positioned more distally; (7) ridge

on shaft leading distally to internal condyle, as traced by inter-

muscular line, less developed; (8) lip of internal condyle larger.

Tibiotarsus with (1) rotular crest forming straight line

(curved in L. specularioides); (2) outer cnemial crest thickened on

distal side; (3) intermuscular line curving internally proximally

to approach attachment of M. flexor digitorum longus (curves less

internally in L. specularioides); (4) external ligamental attachment

elliptical (similar in L. specularioides), but positioned more

proximally.

Tarsometatarsus with (1) anterior lip of internal cotyla more

undercut; (2) intercotylar prominence with greater anterior, but

smaller dorsal component; (3) posterior border of internal cotyla

with more distinct lip; (4) trochleae very spread (similar in L.

specularioides), but internal and external trochleae turned slightly

more medially; (5) external rim of external trochlea less elongated;

(6) internal side of middle trochlea lacking prominent internally

directed ridge.

Remarks. Tadorninae, n. gen. n. sp. is the smallest represent-

ative of the subfamily known to date, and it is considerably smaller

than related living South American species. Agreement of humeral









Table 3. Measurements of the scapula, coracoid, humerus, radius,
ulna, carpometacarpus, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus of
Tadorninae, n. gen, n. sp. and Lophonetta specularioides (in mm).


Tadorninae
n. gen. n. sp.


Scapula
Proximal
Height


Proximal OR
Width M
N


Coracoid
Length



Head to
Scapular
Facet


Proximal OR
Depth M
N


Least
Depth of
Shaft

Length of
Sternal
Facet


Humerus
Length


Proximal OR
Width M
N

Distal OR
Width M
N


8.2-9.0
8.6
7

2.5-2.8
2.6
7


34.3-36.4
35.4
14

11.8-13.0
12.3
18

6.2-7.6
6.9
18

3.5-4.0
3.8
15

13.4-14.9
14.2
4



61.9-68.6
65.0
4

13.9-14.7
14.5
16

9.9-11.0
10.5
14


Lophonetta
specularioides



11.9-12.9
12.5
3

3.6-3.8
3.7
3



45.4-51.0
49.1
3

16.7-19.2
18.2
3


9.5-10.1
9.8
3

5.1-5.7
5.5
3

17.7-20.3
19.4
3



95.3-101.8
99.5
3

19.0-22.4
21.1
3

14.5-15.7
15.3
3









Table 3. Continued.


Tadorninae
n. gen. n. sp.


Least
Width of
Shaft


Radius
Length


Proximal OR
Width M
N


Distal
Width


Ulna
Length


Proximal OR
Width M
N

Distal OR
Depth M
N


Least
Width of
Shaft


Carpometacarpus
Length OR
M
N

Height OR
Through M
Metacarpal I N


4.6-5.2
4.9
11



51.5-52.9
52.2
2

3.5-3.9
3.6
5

4.8-5.2
5.0
3


54.7-58.0
56.3
4

7.1-7.7
7.4
11

6.3-7.6
7.0
14

3.4-4.0
3.7
7



38.4-41.2
40.3
5

9.2-9.9
9.5
12


Lophonetta
specularioides


6.1-6.5
6.3
3



82.6-86.8
85.1
3

4.9-5.2
5.0
3

6.1-7.3
6.9
3


89.3-94.7
92.1
3

10.0-11.8
10.9
3

9.5-10.8
10.2
3

4.8-5.6
5.1
3



57.1-60.7
59.1
3

12.9-15.0
14.2
3









Table 3. Continued.


Tadorninae
n. gen. n. sp.


Lophonetta
specularioides


Proximal OR
Width M
N


Least
Width of
Shaft

Length of
Distal
Fornix


Femur
Length


Proximal OR
Width M
N

Distal OR
Width M
N


Least
Width of
Shaft


Tibiotarsus
Length


Proximal OR
Width M
N


Distal
Width


4.1-4.6
4.4
12

3.3-4.6
3.6
5

4.9-5.3
5.2
5


36.9-37.3
37.1
3

7.5-8.0
7.7
5

8.0
8.0
3


3.2-3.3
3.2
5


5.9-6.7
6.4
3

3.9-4.8
4.5
3

8.9-9.1
9.0
3



52.6-59.1
56.1
3

9.9-11.2
10.5
3

11.7-12.9
12.5
3

4.8-5.8
5.3
3



85.7-95.4
92.1
3

9.6-10.4
10.0
3

9.4-10.4
10.0
3


6.5-6.9
6.6
5









Table 3. Continued.


Tadorninae
n. gen. n. sp.


Least
Width of
Shaft

Depth of
Internal
Condyle


Tarsometatarsus
Length OR
M
N

Proximal OR
Width M
N


Distal
Width


Least
Width of
Shaft

Width of
Middle
Trochlea


7.2-7.3
7.3
5



33.6-38.5
35.3
7


6.8-7.4
7.1
9

7.2-7.8
7.5
7

3.5-3.8
3.6
10

2.8-3.3
3.1
9


Lophonetta
specularioides


4.3-4.7
4.4
3

10.5-11.0
10.8
3



51.0-56.9
54.3
3


10.3-10.9
10.7
3

10.4-11.0
10.8
3

4.0-4.5
4.3
3

4.6-5.0
4.8
3







characters with those of the subfamily as listed by Woolfenden (1961)

indicate that it is placed in the correct subfamily, despite its

small size and variance with a few other subfamilial characters in

other elements.


Genus Chloephaga Eyton

Chloephaga melanoptera (Eyton)

Andean Goose

Material. One right quadrate, 1 right and 2 left scapulae, 4

complete right and 2 complete left coracoids, humeral ends of 1 right

and 3 left coracoids, 1 complete left humerus, proximal ends of 1

right and 4 left humeri, distal ends of 1 right and 5 left humeri,

1 complete right ulna, proximal end of 1 right ulna, distal ends

of 5 right and 4 left ulnae, proximal end of 1 right and 1 left

radius, distal ends of 2 right and 1 left radius, 4 complete right

and 1 complete left carpometacarpus, proximal ends of 4 right and 2

left carpometacarpi, 1 complete pelvis, 2 complete right and 1

complete left femur, proximal ends of 2 right and 4 left femora,

distal ends of 4 right and 4 left femora, proximal end of 2 left

tibiotarsi, distal ends of 3 right and 6 left tibiotarsi, 1 complete

left tarsometatarsus, proximal ends of 2 right and 2 left tarsometatarsi,

distal ends of 2 right and 1 left tarsometatarsus. The 91 specimens

represent a minimum of 7 individuals.

Characters. The large size of Chloephaga readily separates it

from other genera of the subfamily Tadorninae found in South America,

and indeed, in size of individuals it is the largest genus of the family

in South America. As the fossil specimens did not differ from the C.

melanoptera available for comparison, and C. melanoptera is the only







species of the genus occurring in Peru today, the material is referred

to that species.

Remarks. C. melanoptera is primarily resident in the high Andes,

living up to the snow line. It does, however, migrate to lower

altitudes during the non-breeding season. It has not been recorded

in the Andes closer than 100 miles south of the fossil site (Koepcke,

1970). Because this species feeds almost exclusively on grass and is

seldom seen on water (Delacour, 1954), the presence of an abundant

ground cover of vegetation near the fossil site would seem to be more

likely to attract this species than a body of water surrounded by

sparse vegetation.

A number of the specimens appear to represent immature individuals.


Subfamily Anatinae (Vigor)

"Humerus with (1) capital shaft ridge obsolete; (2) pneumatic

fossa opening, containing bony struts; (3) ectepicondyle typically

equal or subequal in height to entepicondyle." (Woolfonden, 1961,

p. 109)

Genus Cairina Fleming

Cairina moschata (Linnaeus)

Muscovy Duck

Material. One right articular, 4 left scapulae, 2 complete

right coracoids, humeral end of 1 right coracoid, proximal ends of

2 right humeri, distal ends of 2 right and 1 left humerus, 2 complete

right ulnae, proximal end of 1 left ulna, distal ends of 1 right and 3

left ulnae, proximal ends of 1 right and 1 left radius, distal ends

of 1 right and 1 left radius, 1 complete left carpometacarpus,

proximal ends of 1 right and 1 left carpometacarpus, distal end of








2 right tibiotarsi, 1 complete left tarsometatarsus, proximal end of

1 left tarsometatarsus, distal end of 2 left tarsometatarsi. The 33

specimens represent a minimum of 4 individuals.

Characters. Cairina is easily separated from Sarkidiornis, the

most closely related genus present in South America.

Remarks. C. moschata, a forest duck, occurs on the arid coast

of Peru only by accident today. It has been recorded only once, near

Lima. Marchant (1958) did not report it from the arid Santa Elena

Peninsula of Ecuador. Chapman (1926) reported this species near the

coast only 20 miles north of the Peru-Ecuador border, and less than

120 miles from the fossil site, but in a completely different type of

habitat.

The sedentary habits of this species would seem to indicate that

either its range extended much farther south than today, increasing

the number of stragglers, or that it was in residence. If Cairina was

in residence its preference for water surrounded by forests would

indicate a considerable amount of vegetation in the area.


Genus Anas Linnaeus

Anas n. sp. 1

Holotype. Complete left humerus (internal tuberosity and

bicipital crest broken). (P1. III, Fig. E)

Diagnosis. Agrees with Anas and differs from other genera of

subfamily Anatinae by having those characters of the genus as

described by Woolfenden (1961).

Differs from living species of Anas by having (1) head of humerus

small, profile rounded in palmar view, and projecting more anconally

than distally (similar in Anas (Callonetta) leucophrys Vieillot; head








large, subrounded, and projecting more distally than anconally in

Anas (Amazonetta) brasiliensis Gmelin, A. crecca Linnaeus, and A.

cyanoptera (Vieillot)); (2) head without inflection (similar in A.

leucophrys, A. crecca, and A. cyanoptera; head inflected in A.

brasiliensis); (3) internal tuberosity broken, but appearing

prominent (similar in A. brasiliensis, A. crecca and A. cyanoptera;

reduced in A. leucophrys); (4) attachment of M. coracobrachialis

posterior forming short, broad shelf, not extending down median crest

(moderate to long, broad, usually not forming shelf, and usually ex-

tending down median crest in A. leucophrys, A. brasiliensis, A.

crecca, and A. cyanoptera); (5) median crest prominent (similar in A.

leucophrys and A. brasiliensis; slender to moderately prominent in

A. crecca and A. cyanoptera); (6) pneumatic fossa elongated, not

entering into internal tuberosity (moderately elongated, not entering

into internal tuberosity in A. brasiliensis; slightly elongated and

entering into internal tuberosity in A. leucophrys, A. crecca, and

A. cyanoptera); (7) deltoid crest not flaring, with depression at

distal end (similar in A. crecca; flaring, without depression in A.

leucophrys and A. brasiliensis; not flaring, without depression, and

reduced in size in A. cyanoptera); (8) attachment of M. pectoralis

superficialis rotated palmarly (similar in A. brasiliensis; not

rotated in A. leucophrys, A. crecca, and A. cyanopteral; (9) shaft

with moderate internal curvature immediately distal to bicipital

crest, giving moderately sigmoid shaft (similar in A. leucophrys;

sharp internal curvature in A. brasiliensis, giving strongly sigmoid

shaft; slight internal curvature in A. crecca and A. cyanoptera,

giving weakly sigmoid shaft); (10) impression of M. brachialis anticus

relatively deep, oriented at small angle to axis of shaft (deep in







A. brasiliensis; shallow in A. leucophrys, A. crecca, and A. cyanoptera;

oriented at large angle to axis of shaft in all); (11) attachment of

anterior articular ligament longer than wide (width roughly equal to

length in A. leucophrys, A. brasiliensis, A. crecca, and A. cyanoptera);

(12) entepicondyle rotated so internal side faces antero-distally

(rotated strongly anteriorly in A. leucophrys and A. brasiliensis;

rotated slightly to moderately anteriorly in A. cyanoptera; not

rotated in A. crecca); (13) entepicondyle rounded distally, not

produced (subrounded distally and very produced in A. leucophrys;

subangular distally and moderately produced in A. brasiliensis;

angular to subangular distally and moderately produced in A. crecca

and A. cyanoptera); (14) internal tip of external condyle broken

(undercut in A. leucophrys, A. brasiliensis, A. crecca, and A.

cyanoptera); (15) olecranol fossa long (similar in A. loucophrys and

A. cyanoptera; short in A. brasiliensis and A. crecca).

For measurements see Table 4. Measurements of the holotype are

as follows: length, 56.4; proximal width, 13; distal width, 9.2;

least width of shaft, 4.3.

Referred material. One right scapula, 2 complete right coracoids,

1 complete right and 1 complete left ulna, distal end of 1 right

ulna, proximal end of 1 left radius, distal end of 1 right radius,

proximal end of 1 right carpometacarpus, distal end of 1 right and 1

left tibiotarsus, 1 complete left tarsometatarsus. The 13 elements,

including holotype, represent a minimum of 2 individuals.

Characters. Scapula with (1) acromion of moderate length,

narrow, with strong anterior curvature (wide, of similar length and

curvature in A. leucophrys; short and wide, with very slight anterior

curvature in A. crecca; long and wide, with moderate anterior curvature








in A. cyanoptera); (2) glenoid facet of moderate length and narrow,

lacking strong projection to antero-ventral corner (similar, but long,

in A. leucophrys; long and wide, with prominent antero-ventral corner

in A. brasiliensis, A. crecca, and A. cyanoptera); (3) attachment of

Lig. furculo-scapulare dorsale oval, located dorsal to midline of shaft

(similar in A. leucophrys, A. brasiliensis, and A. crecca; elongated

and situated ventral to midline of shaft in A. cyanoptera).

Coracoid with (1) coracohumeral surface long, relatively wide,

not widening markedly anteriorly, with moderate curvature, and

positioned internally to edge of triosseal canal (short, narrow, not

widening markedly anteriorly, of moderate curvature, positioned

slightly internally in A. leucophrys; long, wide, widening markedly

anteriorly, of slight curvature, and positioned internally in A.

brasiliensis; long, narrow, moderate to marked widening anteriorly,

of slight to moderate curvature, not positioned internally in A.

crecca and A. cyanoptera); (2) attachment of Lig. humero-coracoideum

anterius superius slightly elevated (similar in A. leucophrys and A.

brasiliensis; not elevated in A. crecca and A. cyanoptera); (3)

scapular facet small and elongated (similar in A. leucophrys and A.

brasiliensis; large oval in A. crecca and A. cyanoptera).

Ulna with (1) distal lip of external cotyla broad, extending

moderately distally (similar in A. brasiliensis; internal side of

external cotyla extends distally much farther than external side in

A. leucophrys, A. crecca, and A. cyanoptera); (2) ridge leading to

shaft from carpal tuberosity large (similar in A. crecca; slight to

moderate ridge in A. leucophrys, A. brasiliensis, and A. cyanoptera).

Radius with no distinguishing characters other than size.

Carpometacarpus with (1) process of metacarpal I low and of







moderate length (low, with distal edge sloping sharply proximally in

A. leucophrys; high and short in A. brasiliensis; of moderate height

and length in A. crecca and A. cyanoptera); (2) proximal edge of

metacarpal I sloping sharply proximally (similar in A. leucophrys

and A. cyanoptera; moderate slope in A. crecca; slight slope in A.

brasiliensis); (3) internal face of metacarpal I slightly excavated

(similar in A. crecca; moderately to deeply excavated in A. leucophrys,

A. brasiliensis, and A. cyanoptera); (4) proximal area of fusion of

metacarpal II and metacarpal III very long (long in A. leucophrys

and A. brasiliensis; short in A. crocca and A. cyanoptera); (5)

external rim of carpal trochlea rounded proximally (subangular to

angular in A. leucophrys, A. brasiliensis, A. crecca, and A. cyanoptera);

(6) area covered by external cuneiform ligament markedly convex (similar

in A. leucophrys; slightly convex in A. brasiliensis; flat in A.

crecca and A. cyanoptera); (7) posterior carpal fossa of essentially

uniform width (similar in A. leucophrys and A. brasiliensis; wide

distally, narrowing gradually proximally in A. crecca; wide prox-

imally and distally with central constriction in A. cyanoptera).

Tibiotarsus with (1) external face of distal end flat (similar

in A. leucophrys, A. brasiliensis, and A. crecca; flat or slightly

concave in A. cyanoptera); (2) internal condyle flaring medially

(not flaring in A. leucophrys, A. brasiliensis, A. crecca and A.

cyanoptera).

Tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar prominence broad (similar

in A. leucophrys, A. brasiliensis, A. crecca, and A. cyanoptera); (2)

shaft narrowing sharply immediately distal to internal cotyla

(similar in A. leucophrys, A. brasiliensis, and A. crecca; narrows

gradually in A. cyanoptera); (3) hypotarsus short (similar in







A. leucophrvs and A. crecca; long in A. brasiliensis and A. cyanoptera);

(4) anterior face of shaft straight in lateral view (similar in A.

cyanoptera; slight concavity in A. brasiliensis and A. crecca;

moderate concavity in A. leucophrysl; (S) internal trochlea projecting

distally without turning externally (similar in A. leucophrys, A.

brasiliensis, and A. cyanoptera; turned slightly externally in A.

crecca).

Remarks. Anas n. sp. 1 and the following two new species of

Anas are compared with A. leucophrys, A. brasiliensis, A. crecca,

and A. cyanoptera because the fossil species are all small and the

four living species represent the smallest forms of the genus.

Although A. crecca does not reach South America it was used rather

than A. discors, which does reach South America, because the two

species are extremely difficult to separate osteologically, and of

the two the former has smaller individuals.

The numbers under each element correspond in the comparisons of

all three of the new species.


Anas n. sp. 2

Holotype. Complete left humerus. (P1. IV, Fig. D)

Paratypes. One complete right and 1 complete left humerus,

proximal ends of 3 right and 1 left humerus, distal ends of 2 right

and 1 left humerus.

Diagnosis. Agrees with Anas and differs from other genera of

the subfamily Anatinae by having those characters of the genus as

described by Woolfenden (1961).

Differs from other species of Anas by having (1) head large,

profile subrounded in palmar view, and projecting more anconally than

distally; (2) head not inflected; (3) internal tuberosity reduced;








(4) attachment of M. coracobrachialis posterior moderate to long,

broad, forming slight shelf, extending down median crest; (5) median

crest prominent; (6) pneumatic fossa round, entering moderately into

internal tuberosity; (7) deltoid crest long, very flaring, without

depression at distal end; (8) attachment of M. pectoralis superficialis

not rotated palmarly; (9) shaft with sharp internal curvature

immediately distal to bicipital crest, giving strongly sigmoid shaft;

(10) impression of M. brachialis anticus extremely shallow, oriented

at large angle to axis of shaft; (11) attachment of anterior articular

ligament high and very small; (12) entepicondyle rotated moderately

anteriorly; (13) entepicondyle rounded distally, not produced; (14)

internal lip of external condyle not undercut, but with slight ridge

leading internally; (15) olecranol fossa short.

For measurements see Table 4. Measurements of the holotype are

as follows: length, 65.2; proximal width, 14.1; distal width, 9.7;

least width of shaft, 4.5.

Referred material. One left scapula, 2 complete right and 4

complete left coracoids, 1 complete right ulna, proximal ends of 2

left radii, 1 complete left carpometacarpus, proximal ends of 1 right

and 1 left carpometacarpus, proximal end and shaft of 1 right femur,

distal ends of 5 right and 1 left tibiotarsus, 1 complete left tarso-

metatarsus. The 29 specimens, including holotype and paratypes,

represent a minimum of 5 individuals.

Characters. Scapula with (1) acromion long and wide, with

moderate anterior curvature; (2) glenoid facet long and wide, with

antero-ventral corner not projecting; (3) attachment of Lig. furculo-

scapulare dorsale round, located on midline of shaft.

Coracoid with (1) coracohumeral surface wide and of moderate







length, with moderate to marked widening anteriorly, moderate to

marked curvature, and positioned slightly internally; (2) attachment

of Lig. humero-coracoideum anterius superius elevated; (3) scapular

facet large oval.

Ulna with (1) internal side of external cotyla extending much

farther distally than external side; (2) ridge leading from carpal

tuberosity to shaft very small.

Radius with no distinguishing characters other than size.

Carpometacarpus with (1) process of metacarpal I long and low;

(2) proximal edge of metacarpal I sloping slightly proximally; (3)

proximal area of fusion of metacarpal II and metacarpal III long, and

distal area of fusion short (distal area short in A. leucophrys; long

in A. brasiliensis and A. crecca; very long in A. cyanoptera); (4)

internal face of metacarpal I slightly excavated; (5) external rim

of carpal trochlea subangular proximally; (6) area covered by

external cuneiform ligament markedly convex; (7) posterior carpal

fossa wide distally, narrowing abruptly proximally.

Femur with (1) head large, projecting medially (small to

moderate sized head projecting medially in A. leucophrys, A. crecca,

and A. cyanoptera; very large head projecting equally dorsally and

medially in A. brasiliensis); (2) attachment of M. ilio-trochantericus

medius very long (long in A. leucophrys; of moderate length in A.

brasiliensis and A. crecca; short in A. cyanoptera); (3) iliac facet

curving sharply medially posteriorly (moderate curvature in A.

leucophrys and A. brasiliensis; slight if any curvature in A. crecca

and A. cyanoptera).

Tibiotarsus with (1) external face of distal end markedly

concave; (2) internal condyle not,flaring medially.








Tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar prominence broad; (2)

shaft narrowing sharply immediately posterior to internal cotyla;

(3) hypotarsus long; (4) anterior face of shaft straight in lateral

view; (5) internal trochlea moderately turned externally.


Anas n. sp. 3

Holotype. Complete left humerus. (PI. IV, Fig. E)

Paratypes. Proximal end of 1 right humerus, distal end of 1

right humerus.

Diagnosis. Agrees with Anas and differs from other genera of

the subfamily Anatinae by having those characters of the genus as

described by Woolfenden (1961).

Differs from other species of Anas by having (1) head large,

profile rounded in palmar view, and projecting more distally than

anconally; (2) head not inflected; (3) internal tuberosity reduced;

(4) attachment of M. coracobrachialis posterior short broad shelf, not

extending down median crest; (5) median crest moderately prominent;

(6) pneumatic fossa slightly elongated, entering only slightly into

internal tuberosity; (7) deltoid crest long, moderately flaring,

without depression at distal end; (8) attachment of M. pectoralis super-

ficialis not rotated palmarly; (9) shaft with moderate internal curva-

ture immediately distal to bicipital crest, giving moderately sigmoid

shaft; (10) impression of M. brachialis anticus shallow, oriented at

large angle to axis of shaft; (11) attachment of anterior articular

ligament as wide as it is long; (12) entepicondyle rotated moderately

anteriorly; (13) entepicondyle rounded distally, not produced, very

small; (14) internal tip of external condyle not undercut, but with

slight ridge present leading internally; (15) olecranol fossa short.








For measurements see Table 4. Measurements of the holotype are

as follows: length, 57.7; proximal width, 12.3; distal width, 9.1;

least width of shaft, 4.4.

Referred material. One complete left coracoid, distal end of 1

left tibiotarsus, 1 complete right tarsometatarsus. The 5 specimens,

excluding holotype but including paratypes, represent a minimum of

1 individual.

Characters. Coracoid with (1) coracohumerual surface short,

narrow, widening moderately anteriorly, of moderate curvature, and

not positioned internally; (2) attachment of Lig. humero-coracoideum

anterius superius elevated; (3) scapular facet large oval.

Tibiotarsus with (1) external face of distal end flat; (2)

internal condyle flaring medially.

Tarsometatarsus with (1) intercotylar prominence slender;

(2) shaft narrowing sharply immediately posterior to internal

cotyla; (3) hypotarsus short; (4) anterior face of shaft markedly

convex in lateral view; (5) internal trochlca strongly turned

externally.

Remarks. The holotype of Anas n. sp. 3 is from La Carolina,

Ecuador, not the Talara Tar Seeps. The Ecuadorian specimen was

chosen for the holotype because of its completeness and the lack of

a complete specimen in the Talara material. The paratypes and

all referred material are from the Talara Tar Seeps.


Anas bahamensis Linnaeus

Bahama Pintail

Material. Portions of 14 crania, 5 frontals, 9 right and 11

left quadrates, 3 right and 3 left articulars, 5 right and 7 left









Table 4. Measurements of the scapula, coracoid, humerus, radius,
ulna, carpometacarpus, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus of
Anas n. sp. 1 (excluding femur), Anas n. sp. 2, Anas n. sp. 3
(coracoid, humerus, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus only), A.
leucophrys, A. brasiliensis, A. cyanoptera, and A. crecca
carolinensis (in mm).


Anas
n. sp. 1


Anas
n. sp. 2


Anas
n. sp. 3


Scapula
Proximal
Height


Proximal OR
Width M
N


Coracoid
Length



Head to
Scapular
Facet

Proximal
Depth


Least
Depth of
Shaft

Length of
Sternal
Facet


Humerus
Length



Proximal
Width


2.4

1



31.7

1

10.9

1

6.4

1

3.2-3.7
3.5
2


56.4

1

12.7

1


32.9-33.7
33.4
3

10.7-11.6
11.2
4

5.9-6.5
6.3
4

3.4-3.9
3.6
6

12.2-13.5
12.9
2



61.1-65.2
63.1
2

13.2-14.1
13.5
4


57.7

1

12.3-13.1
12.7
2









Table 4. Extended.








Anas Anas
leucophrys brasiliensis


7.1

1

2.0

1



32.8

1

11.2

1

6.6

1

4.3

1

12.4

1



59.8

1

13.5

1


9.5

1

3.0

1



41.1

1

13.8

1

8.3

1

4.7

1

16.4

1



74.8

1

17.0

1


Anas
cyanoptera



7.5-9.6
8.3
5

2.4-2.7
2.5
5



32.6-39.8
35.1
5

10.8-13.5
11.8
5

6.2-7.5
6.7
5

3.3-4.1
3.7
5

12.7-16.0
13.7
5



61.0-71.5
64.6
5

12.7-15.7
13.6
5


Anas
crecca



7.3-8.1
7.7
8

2.5-3.0
2.7
8



31.5-34.1
32.6
8

10.8-11.5
11.1
8

6.1-7.0
6.3
8

3.2-4.0
3.6
8

12.8-14.4
13.6
8



55.9-59.5
57.9
8

12.5-13.2
12.8
8









Table 4. Continued.


Anas
n. sp. 1


Distal
Width


Least
Width of
Shaft


Radius
Length


Proximal OR
Width M
N

Distal OR
Width M
N


Ulna
Length OR
M
N

Proximal OR
Width M
N


Distal
Depth


Least
Width of
Shaft


Carpometacarpus
Length


Anas
n. sp. 2


9.6-10.1
9.8
5


Anas
n. sp. 3


9.1-9.4
9.2
2


4.3-4.8
4.6


3.6-3.7
3.7
2


56.0

1

7.6

1

7.6

1

3.8

1


53.0-53.6
53.3
2

6.8

1

6.5-6.7
6.6
3

3.2-3.5
3.4
2









Table 4. Extended.


Anas Anas Anas Anas
leucophrys brasiliensis cyanoptera crecca


9.7 12.6 9.1-11.7 8.3-9.7
9.9 9.3
1 1 5 8

4.7 5.8 4.4-5.1 4.2-4.7
S- 4.6 4.4
1 1 5 8



50.7 61.5 46.8-56.7 44.2-46.6
50.5 45.8
1 1 5 8

3.3 4.3 3.1-4.0 3.1-3.3
3.4 3.2
1 1 5 8

4.6 5.7 3.9-5.3 4.2-4.5
4.6 4.3
1 1 5 8



54.7 66.3 50.6-61.1 48.3-51.1
54.4 50.2
1 1 5 8

6.8 8.9 6.6-8.5 6.2-6.9
7.1 6.6
1 1 5 8

6.9 8.6 6.7-8.2 6.6-7.0
7.1 6.8
1 1 5 8

3.4 4.4 3.3-3.9 3.3-3.6
3.5 3.4
1 1 5 8



37.6 46.0 36.0-43.9 34.5-37.1
38.9 36.2
1 1 5 8









Table 4. Continued.


Anas
n. sp. 1


Proximal OR
Width M
N

Height OR
Through M
Metacarpal I N

Least OR
Width of M
Shaft N

Length of OR
Distal M
Fornix N


Femur
Length OR
M
N

Proximal OR
Width M
N

Distal OR
Width M
N


Least
Width of
Shaft


Tibiotarsus
Length


Proximal OR
Width M
N


6.3-6.5 6.
6.5
6 1


Anas
n. sp. 3


Anas
n. sp. 2


4.3
4.3
3

8.9
8.9
2

3.0-3.3
3.1
2


Distal
Width


6.1-6.5
6.3
2










Table 4. Extended.


Anas
leucophrys


3.9

1

8.3

1

3.2

1

4.9

1 .



33.6

1

7.1

1

7.4

1

2.9

1



55.1

1

6.1

1

5.8

1


Anas
brasiliensis


4.9

1

11.0

1

3.8

1

7.2

1



43.4

1

9.3

1

9.1

1

3.4

1



67.7

1

7.4

1

7.5

1


Anas
cyanoptera


3.9-4.7
4.1
5

8.7-10.2
9.2
5

2.8-3.7
3.3
5

4.9-6.8
6.1
5



31.5-38.3
34.8
5

6.1-7.5
6.7
5

6.5-8.4
7.2
5

2.8-3.2
2.9
5



53.1-64.5
57.7
5

5.2-6.9
6.1
5

5.4-6.7
5.9
5


Anas
crecca


3.8-4.1
3.9
8

8.4-9.0
8.7
8

2.8-3.3
3.1
8

4.5-5.3
5.1
8



31.9-33.6
32.9
8

6.1-6.8
6.6
8

6.7-7.3
6.8
8

2.6-3.0
2.8
8



52.7-56.5
54.4
8

5.5-6.0
5.7
8

5.3-5.8
5.5
8


u









Table 4. Continued.


Anas
n. sp. 1


Least
Width of
Shaft

Depth of
Internal
Condyle


Tarsometatarsus
Length



Proximal
Width


Distal
Width


Least
Width of
Shaft

Width of
Middle
Trochlea


Anas
n. sp. 2


2.9-3.2
3.0
3

6.7-7.3
7.0
4


35.6

1


Anas
n. sp. 3


29.5

1









Table 4. Extended.


Anas
leucophrys


2.7

1

6.6

1



29.9

1

6.5

1

6.5

1

3.0

1

2.9

1


Anas
brasiliensis


3.5

1

8.9

1



38.4

1

7.8

1

7.7

1

3.9

1

3.7

1


Anas
cyanoptera


2.5-2.9
2.7
5

6.3-7.8
6.8
5



31.3-35.5
32.8
5

6.1-7.0
6.3
5

5.5-6.7
6.2
5

2.7-3.3
3.1
5

2.6-3.3
2.7
5


Anas
crecca


2.4-2.8
2.6
8

6.0-6.6
6.3
8



28.1-31.8
29.6
8

5.7-6.2
5.9
8

5.7-6.0
5.8
8

2.5-3.0
2.8
8

2.5-2.9
2.7
8








mandibular fragments, 122 right and 106 left scapulae, 172 complete

right and 128 complete left coracoids, humeral ends of 71 right and

87 left coracoids, 35 complete right and 34 complete left humeri,

proximal ends of 86 right and 104 left humeri, distal ends of 103

right and 110 left humeri, 71 complete right and 64 complete left

ulnae, proximal ends of 69 right and 61 left ulnae, distal ends of

87 right and 78 left ulnae, 14 complete right and 19 complete left

radii, proximal ends of 83 right and 61 left radii, distal ends of

52 right and 41 left radii, 135 complete right and 103 complete left

carpometacarpi, proximal ends of 73 right and 73 left carpometacarpi,

29 complete right and 21 complete left femora, proximal ends of 22

right and 25 left femora, distal ends of 11 right and 7 left femora,

5 complete right and 4 complete left tibiotarsi, proximal ends of 26

right and 15 left tibiotarsi, distal ends of 102 right and 91 left

tibiotarsi, 60 complete right and 65 complete left tarsometatarsi,

proximal ends of 17 right and 19 left tarsometatarsi, distal ends of

24 right and 21 left tarsometatarsi. The 2,864 specimens represent

a minimum of 243 individuals.

Characters. Only two species (A. bahamensis and A. discors

Linnaeus) of the subfamily Anatinae have been previously recorded

from northwestern Peru, although I have seen A. cyanoptera (subspecies

not determined) near Ciudad de Piura, Departemento de Piura (4 October

1971). A. bahamensis is easily separated on size from these two

species, including the largest subspecies of A. cyanoptera, A. c.

orinomus.

Anas flavirostris Vieillot, A. georgica Gmelin, A. puna Tshudi,

and A. platalea Vieillot also occur in Peru today, but not in the

northwestern section. A. bahamensis is readily separable from A. puna








and A. platalea by numerous osteological characters, and from smaller

A. flavirostris by size. Elements of A. bahamensis are usually smaller

than those of A. georgica, the most closely related species, but the

two species overlap in size. A. bahamensis differs from A. georgica

by having scapula with (1) concavity dorsal to proximal end of

glenoid facet deep; (2) acromion longer.

Coracoid with (1) coracohumeral surface narrower and shorter;

(2) head more rounded in medial view; (3) procoracoid projecting

farther dorsally.

Humerus with (1) capital groove narrower; (2) internal tuberosity

projecting less anconally; (3) attachment of Lig. humero-coracoideum

anterius inferius smaller and positioned anconally on internal

tuberosity; (4) concavity immediately external to attachment of M.

proscapulohumeralis much narrower; (5) ectepicondylar prominence

larger; (6) entepicondyle smaller; (7) external condyle narrower.

Ulna with (1) olecranon longer; (2) external cotyla smaller, with

distal projection smaller; (3) internal cotyla more concave.

Radius with (1) capital tuberosity smaller; (2) ligamental

prominence narrower, more distinct, and situated more laterally.

Carpometacarpus with (1) process of metacarpal I slightly longer

and more rectangular, lacking a sharp anterior curvature; (2)

posterior carpal fossa larger; (3) internal scapholunar ligamental

attachment on proximal end of metacarpal III usually positioned

proximally; (4) proximal area of fusion of metacarpal II and metacarpal

III shorter.

Femur with (1) head smaller; (2) iliac facet narrower; (3)

internal condyle not as deep; (4) external condyle not as deep,

more rounded, and extending farther proximally.








Tibiotarsus with (1) concavity between internal articular

surface and rotular crest shallower; (2) area between proximal

internal ligamental attachment and flexor attachment slightly

convex (very convex in A. georgica); (3) condyles less deep.

Tarsometatarsus with (1) cotylae smaller; (2) external ligamental

attachment positioned proximally; (3) trochleae less compressed;

(4) middle trochlea extending less proximally.

Remarks. A. bahamensis is widespread throughout tropical and

subtropical South America, and is capable of rapidly colonizing

impermanent bodies of water in large numbers, even in very arid areas

(Marchant, 1958). It is very characteristic of coastal lagoons and

where found is present in large numbers.

The large number of specimens of this species represents almost

a third of the collection of fossil birds from this site.

I believe material referred to Archeoquerquedula lambrechti

by Spillman (1942) is in actuality Anas bahamensis. Although I have

not seen his material, I do have considerable material from the

same site as that cited by Spillman and it agrees with Anas bahamensis.

Spillman did not describe any of the elements referred to Archeoquer-

quedula lambrechti, but he did figure a skull. From his figure it

is possible to determine that the length of the orbit is greater than

the distance from the posterior edge of the orbit to the parietal.

Of the species of Anas found in South America this condition is

found only in Anas bahamensis. In all other species the distance from

the posteior edge of the orbit to the parietal is greater than the

length of the orbit.








Subfamily Oxyurinae Phillips

Genus Nomonyx Ridgway

Nomonyx dominicus (Linnaeus)

Masked Duck

Material. One complete left humerus.

Remarks. N. dominicus has been recorded as far south in western

Peru as Lambeyeque, and Marchant (1958) reported it as scarce on the

arid Santa Elena Peninsula of Ecuador. It is sedentary in habits,

but strays great distances. It would appear from the singe specimen

that N. dominicus was not a regular resident at or near the fossil

site.


Discussion of Family Anatidae

The nine species of waterfowl found in the Talara Tar Seeps

avifauna represent almost 10 per cent of the non-passerine portion of

the avifauna and give a good indication of what the habitat was like

at the time of their fossilization. Although some of the species

are well known colonizers of temporary ponds (A. bahamensis) or

widely wandering species (Nomonyx dominicus), others indicate the

presence of abundant grasses (Chloephaga melonoptera) or forests

(Dendrocygna autumnalis and Cairina moschata).

The most interesting species are of course the four that are

extinct, and perhaps special noteshould be made that all of them are

of very small size. The relatively large number of elements repre-

senting each of the four species is large enough to remove any doubt

that they are indeed separate species, especially considering the

possibility of confusion in the three new small species of Anas.

The fact that the four extinct species are all small suggests







that although there was adequate water present there may have been

annual periods of stress resulting from dry periods. If there were

such annual periods of stress smaller sized individuals would allow

for a greater density of each species than larger individuals. Of

course there is the possibility that the four species were derived

from similarly sized ancestral species.

That the four species became extinct suggests that they were

endemic to at least northwestern Peru, and southwestern Ecuador in the

case of Anas n. sp. 3, and that there must have been a sufficient

period of stability for them to evolve as endemics. This would require

a long period of adequate water supply, which recently disappeared,

making the habitat uninhabitable. The speciation of the four species

may have occurred much as it is currently occurring in Anas cynopptera,

where one finds three allopatric subspecies of quite different

size ranges in northern South America.

The three new species of Anas tend to fill in some of the larger

gaps in osteological characters between Anas and Anas (Callonetta)

leucophrys and Anas (Amazonetta) brasiliensis noted by Woolfenden

(1961). For this reason I have considered the latter two species

and the three new species of the subfamily Anatinae as members of a

larger, more inclusive genus Anas rather than proposing new genera

for the new intermediate forms.


Order Accipitriformes (Vieillot)

Suborder Sarcoramphi (Ridgway)

Family Vulturidae (Illiger)

Vulturidae, n. gen.

Holotype. Vulturidae, n. gen. n. sp.








Diagnosis. Tarsometatarsus agrees with that of Vultur Linnaeus

and Gymnogyps Lesson by having (1) intercotylar prominence large; (2)

anterior metatarsal groove very deep with large attachment of M.

tibialis anticus located immediately distal to proximal foramina;

(3) hypotarsus flattened, roughly triangular in shape, with central

ridge leading distally; (4) shaft robust, rectangular, widening

proximally and distally to meet articular surfaces; (5) external and

internal trochleae much smaller than middle trochlea and turned

slightly toward midline of shaft; (6) size large.

Tarsometatarsus differs from that of Vultur and Gymnogyps by

having (1) intercotylar prominence very high and narrow (low and broad

in Vultur, high and of moderate width in Gymnogyps); (2) internal

cotyla very deep, narrow, with very high, almost straight internal

edge (deep, wide, internal edge moderately curved in Vultur; deep,

of moderate width, with internal edge rounded in Gymnogyps); (3)

external cotyla round, with articular surface extending onto external

anterior metatarsal ridge (very elongated with articular surface

restricted in Vultur, oval with articular surface restricted in

Gymnogyps); (4) hypotarsus narrow, deeply grooved, moderately notched

externally, with central ridge leading distally narrow (broad, very

deeply grooved, deeply notched externally, with central ridge

broad in Vultur; of moderate width, moderately grooved, moderately

notched externally, with central ridge broad in Gymnogyps); (5)

anterior metatarsal groove of moderate width and appears slightly

pneumatic proximal to attachment of M. tibialis anticus (wide and

highly pneumatic in Vultur, narrow and moderately pneumatic in

Gymnogyps); (6) attachment of M. tibialis anticus very large with

length equal to or exceeding length of anterior metatarsal groove







proximal to it (of moderate size, wider than long, much shorter than

proximal portion of anterior metatarsal groove in Vultur; of moderate

size, length greater than width, much shorter than proximal portion

of anterior metatarsal groove in Gynnogyps); (7) attachment of M.

extensor hallucis longus located approximately halfway between base of

anterior metatarsal groove and top of internal metatarsal ridge

(located near top of internal metatarsal ridge in Vultur and Gymnogyps);

(8) external anterior metatarsal ridge broad and rounded and internal

anterior metatarsal ridge of moderate width but with sharp proximal

edge (broad, rounded external and narrow, moderately rounded internal

anterior metatarsal ridge in Vultur; both internal and external

anterior metatarsal ridge broad and rounded in Gymnogyps); (9)

shaft moderately depressed external to hypotarsus (slightly, if any,

depressed in Vultur, moderately to deeply depressed in Gymnogyps);

(10) shaft transversely concave posteriorly at midpoint of shaft

(flat to rounded in Vultur; flat to slightly concave in Gymnogyps);

(11) shaft widens slightly to moderately to meet internal cotyla,

widens abruptly to meet external cotyla (widens abruptly to meet both

external and internal cotylae in Vultur, widens moderately to abruptly

to meet internal cotyla and abruptly to meet external cotyla in

Gymnogyps); (12) shaft widens much more to meet internal trochlea

than it does to meet external trochlea, placing middle trochlea off

center (widens equally to both internal and external trochleae,

placing middle trochlea near midline of shaft in Vultur; similar in

Gymnogyps); (13) internal trochlear surface small (large in Vultur;

moderate to large in Gymnogyps); (14) internal trochlea extending

distally to almost reach distal-most point of middle trochlea (does

not project as far distally in Vultur and Gymnogyps); (15) internal







trochlea with rounded posterior edge (posterior edge arrow-shaped,

directed posteriorly in Vultur; arrow-shaped, directed postero-

proximally in Gymnogyps); (16) middle trochlea short (moderate to

long in Vultur and Gymnogyps); (17) external trochlear surface large,

not delimited sharply antero-proximally (moderate, sharply delimited

antero-proximally in Vultur; moderate to large, moderately delimited

antero-proximally in Gymnogyps); (18) external trochlea with distinct

postero-proximal corner to posterior edge (rounded in Vultur; rounded

to prominent proximal projection in Gymnogyps); (19) external trochlear

notch moderately wide (very wide in Vultur; moderately wide in Gymnoyps).


Vulturidae, n. gen. n. sp.

Holotype. Complete right tarsometatarsus. (PI. IV, Figs. A & B)

Paratypes. Complete right tarsometatarsus and distal end of 1

right tarsometatarsus.

Diagnosis. As for genus. For measurements see Table 5.

Measurements of the holotype are as follows: length, 121.8; proximal

width, 25.4; distal width, 29.0; least width of shaft, 13.8; width of

middle trochlea, 10.9.

Referred material. Portions of 2 sterna, 1 complete left

coracoid, 2 left coracoids lacking head, humeral end of 1 right

coracoid, sternal end of 1 left coracoid, shaft and distal end of

1 left humerus, proximal end of 1 right humerus, distal end of 1

right humerus, proximal end of 1 left ulna, distal end of 1 left ulna,

proximal ends of 1 right and 1 left radius, distal ends of 1 right

and 2 left radii, proximal end of 1 right carpometacarpus, distal

end of 1 left tibiotarsus, proximal ends of 4 right femora, distal

ends of 2 right femora. The 28 specimens, including holotype and







paratypes, represent a minimum of 4 individuals. In addition the

following elements are tentatively referred to the species, but

cannot be assigned with certainty: 2 left articulars, 1 left quadrate,

portion of 1 cranium.

Characters. Sternum with (1) ventral lip of coracoidal sulcus

markedly concave along ventral edge, matching short external anterior

sternal facet of coracoid (not concave in Vultur and Gymnogyps); (2)

carinal apex situated very far distally (situated short distance

distally in Vultur, moderate distance in Gymnogyps); (3) carina

large (of moderate size in Vultur and Gymnogyps); (4) ventral

manubrial spine very broad (broad in Vultur, narrow in Gymnogyps).

Coracoid with (1) coracoidal fenestra lacking (present in Vultur

and Gymnogyps); (2) shaft leading distally from external corner of

glenoid facet forming large ridge (slight to moderate in Vultur, very

slight in Gymnogyps); (3) shaft very concave between procoracoid and

anterior sternal facet (not as concave in Vultur and Gymnogyps); (4)

external portion of anterior sternal facet short, distinctly set off

from base of shaft distally (long, not distinctly set off in Vultur

and Gymnogyps); (5) procoracoid directed internally along plane of

glenoid facet (directed more anteriorly in Vultur and Gymnogyps).

Humerus with (1) head narrow (wide in Vultur, narrow in Gymnogyps):

(2) capital shaft ridge dropping off sharply on both sides (shaft

more rounded in Vultur and Gymnogyps); (3) attachment of M. proscap-

ulohumeralis brevis elevated (not elevated in Vultur, elevated or

not elevated in Gymnogyps); (4) pectoral attachment very prominent

(less prominent in Vultur, more similar in Gymnogyps); (5) deltoid

crest flaring distally (not flaring as much in Vultur and Gymnogyps);

(6) shaft ventral to M. pectoralis superficialis not depressed







(depressed in Vultur, not depressed in Gymnogyps); (7) external

condyle wide and short (narrow and long in Vultur and Gymnogyps); (8)

internal condyle short (very long in Vultur, moderately long in Gym-

nogyps); (9) ectepicondylar prominence long, moderately produced prox-

imally (of moderate length, not produced distally, greatly produced

and angular proximally in Vultur; short, greatly produced and rounded

in Gymnogyps); (10) internal condyle moderately rotated anteriorly,

giving moderately flexed distal end (greatly rotated in Vultur,

moderately rotated in Gymnogyps); (11) impression of M. brachialis

anticus moderately deep (very deep in Vultur and Gymnogyps).

Ulna with (1) olecranon of moderate size (very large in Vultur,

small to moderate in Gymnogyps); (2) attachment of anterior articular

ligament small, not extending far distally (large, extending very

far distally in Vultur; large, extending far distally in Gymnogyps);

(3) area between external and internal condyles flat in external

view (internal condyle projects slightly farther distally in Vultur

and Gymnogyps); (4) carpal tuberosity large, joins shaft abruptly

(large in Vultur, small in Gymnogyps, merges more gently with shaft

in both).

Radius with (1) bicipital attachment large (small in Vultur and

Gymnogyps); (2) bicipital tubercle large (large in Vultur, very

small in Gymnogyps); (3) capital tuberosity bordered internally by

deep notch, pierced by large nutrient foramina (shallow in Vultur,

moderate in Gymnogyps, nutrient foramina small to moderate in both);

(4) external corner of distal end rounded (flattened so angle is

formed at external end of carpal facet in Vultur more rounded in

Gymnogps; ; (5) tendinal groove bordered externally by high ridge

(very slight in Vultur, moderate ridge in Gymnogyps); (6) distal end








with external edge curving sharply palmarly (almost straight in

Vultur and Gmnogs) .

Carpometacarpus with (1) process of metacarpal I low, curving

sharply proximally (high, with moderate proximal curvature in Vultur;

moderately high, with slight proximal curvature in Gymnogyps); (2)

external ligamental attachment a small deep pit bordered posteriorly

by raised area (of moderate size, lying in a pit, with no raised

area posteriorly in Vultur and Gymnogyps).

Femur with (1) trochanter of moderate size, subrounded (large,

well rounded in Vultur; of moderate size, subrounded in Gymnogyps);

(2) attachment of M. obturator externis deep (larger, not as deep,

positioned similarly in Vultur; similar size, not as deep, located

more posteriorly in Gymnogyps); (3) attachments of M. ilio-trochan-

tericus medius and M. iliacus confluent and with surface ribbed

(separate and not ribbed in Vultur and Gymnogyps); (4) concavity

immediately distal to iliac facet posteriorly deep, bordered extern-

ally by large protuberance (shallow, very small protuberance in

Vultur; very deep, moderate sized protuberance in Gymnogyps); (5)

distal end of internal condyle subrounded in medial view (more

rounded in Vultur; less rounded in Gymnogyps); (6) rotular groove

moderately undercut distally (deeply undercut in Vultur, moderately

undercut in Gymnogyps).

Tibiotarsus with (1) internal condyle short antero-posteriorly

(long in Vultur and Gymnogyps); (2) distal internal ligamental

attachment very deep (deep in Vultur, moderately deep in Gymnogyps).

Remarks. The tarsometatarsus is traditionally made the holotype

of fossil species when available, particularly in the case of

falconiform species, and the sum of many tarsometatarsal characters







of Vulturidae, n. gen. n. sp. establishes it as a distinctive genus

and species, although from the above diagnosis it is apparent that it

resembles Gymnogyps more than Vultur. Additional very apparent

large differences found in other elements strengthens this belief,

i.e., the shape of the sternum and the manner of articulation with

the coracoid, the absence of a coracoidal fenestra, and the confluent

ribbed attachments of M. ilio-trochantericus medius and M. iliacus

of the femur.


Genus Gymnogyps Lesson

Gymnogyps n. sp.

Holotype. Complete right tarsometatarsus. (P1. V, Figs. A & B)

Paratypes. One complete left tarsometatarsus, proximal ends of

2 right and 3 left tarsometatarsi, distal ends of 1 right and 3 left

tarsometatarsi.

Diagnosis. Agrees with Gymnogyps and differs from Vultur and

Vulturidae, n. gen. by having those characters of Gymnogyps listed in

description of Vulturidae, n. gen. n. sp.

Differs from Gymnogyps californianus (Shaw) and G. amplus L.

Miller (Collection of Pierce Brodkorb no. PB498, Reddick, Florida) by

having (1) intercotylar prominence with prominent concavity on

external side (slight to deep groove present in G. californianus and

G. amplus); (2) internal cotyla with moderately curved posterior

rim (moderately to sharply curved in G. californianus and G. amplus);

(3) hypotarsus extending internally to at least middle of internal

cotyla (does not extend as far internally in G. californianus and G.

amplus); (4) posterior projection of external cotyla large (small to

large in G. californianus and G. amplus); (5) ridge leading distally







from hypotarsus very prominent, extending distally for more than

third of length of bone, with deep depression of shaft on both sides

(moderately prominent, extending distally for less than third length

of shaft, with depression internally greater than that externally in

G. californianus and G. amplus); (6) anterior metatarsal groove with

marked concavity distal to attachment of M. tibialis anticus (no

noticable concavity to marked concavity in G. californianus and G.

amplus); (7) anterior metatarsal ridges well rounded and approximately

equal in size (external anterior metatarsal ridge larger and more

rounded than internal anterior metatarsal ridge in G. californianus and

G. amplus); (8) internal anterior metatarsal ridge continues distally

and forms a marked corner to shaft that ends at base of internal rim

of middle trochlea (is not traceable as a distinct corner in G. cali-

fornianus and G. amplus); (9) internal trochlea long, large,rotated

posteriorly, with longest part of postero-internal edge directed

postero-proximally (short, small to large, not rotated as much

posteriorly, with sharp to rounded postero-internal edge directed

more posteriorly than proximally in G. californianus and G. amplus);

(10) middle trochlea very long, lying parallel to main axis of shaft,

rims straight, and ending posteriorly in gradual taper (short, distal

end turned slightly inward from main axis of shaft, rims flaring and

terminating more abruptly posteriorly in G. californianus and G. amplus);

(11) external trochlea short, not extending as far distally as internal

trochlea, rotated slightly posteriorly, trochlear surface very long

anteriorly, with posterior edge well rounded and directed posteriorly

(long, extending as far distally as internal trochlea, rotated

slightly, if any, posteriorly, trochlear surface short, with posterior

edge directed posteriorly or proximally in G. californianus and








G. amplus.

For measurements see Table 5. Measurements of the holotype are

as follows: length, 122.0; proximal width, 26.9; distal width, 30.2;

least width of shaft, 13.5; width of middle trochlea, 11.1.

Referred material. Portion of 1 sternum, 1 left scapula, 1

complete right coracoid, 1 right coracoid lacking head, 1 complete

right and 1 complete left humerus, shaft and distal end of 1 right

humerus, proximal end of 1 left humerus, distal ends of 1 right and

2 left humeri, proximal ends of 1 right and 1 left ulna, distal ends

of 1 right and 2 left ulnae, distal end of 1 right radius, distal

ends of 2 left tibiotarsi. The 30 specimens, including holotype and

paratypes, represent a minimum of 4 individuals.

Characters. Sternum with (1) ventral manubrial spine narrow

(wider in G. californianus); (2) ventral lip of coracoidal sulcus

curved along ventral edge (less curvature in G. californianus,

straight in Vultur).

Scapula with (1) internal surface very concave anteriorly (less

in G. californianus, similar in Vultur); (2) distal end of dorsal

acromion edge greatly elevated above shaft (similar, but not quite

as sharply set off in G. californianus; moderately elevated, merging

gradually with shaft in Vultur).

Coracoid with (1) anterior sternal facet with small dorsal

slope (moderate in G. californianus, great in Vultur); (2) scapular

facet moderately elevated above shaft (slightly elevated in G.

californianus, greatly elevated in Vultur); (3) head narrow (similar

in G. californianus, wide in Vultur).

Humerus with (1) head narrow (slightly wider in G. californianus);

(2) attachment of M. proscapulohumeralis brevis elevated (not elevated







.in G. californianus); (3) capital groove divides base of median crest

and capital shaft ridge (does not extend as far distally in G.

californianus); (4) internal tuberosity moderately prominent

(very prominent in G. californianus); (5) deltoid crest small, with

anconal side very concave (larger, with anconal side less concave in

G. californianus); (6) shaft moderately robust (very robust in G.

californianus); (7) internal condyle small (large in G. californianus);

(8) external condyle moderately produced distally (very produced in

G. californianus); (9) cctepicondylar prominence short, distinctly

set off from shaft distally (long, not distinctly set off from shaft

in G. californianus); (10) entepicondyle moderately produced (more

produced in G. californianus); (11) impression of M. brachialis

anticus deep (very deep in G. californianus).

Ulna with (1) olecranon of moderate size (short, narrow, but

deep in G. californianus); (2) attachment of anterior articular

ligament long, elevated, and terminating abruptly (long, not elevated,

terminating gradually in G. californianus); (3) internal condyle

projecting slightly distal to external condyle (projects moderately

distal to external condyle in G. californianus); (4) carpal tuberosity

long (shorter in G. californianus).

Radius with (1) ulnar depression moderately deep (shallow in

G. californianus); (2) shaft widening very abruptly internally for

carpal facet (widens more gradually in G. californianus).

Tibiotarsus with (1) distal internal ligamental attachment

moderately deep (moderately deep in G. californianus, deep in Vultur);

(2) internal condyle not flaring internally at antero-proximal end

(similar in G. californianus, flares internally in Vultur).

Remarks. The appearance in the fossil record of a South American









Table 5. Measurements of the scapula, coracoid, humerus, radius,
ulna, carpometacarpus, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus of
Gymnogyps californianus, Recent Vultur gryphus, V. gryphus from the
Talara Tar Seeps (excluding scapula, humerus, and carpometacarpus),
Gymnogyps n. sp. (excluding carpometacarpus and femur), and
Vulturidac, n. gen. n. sp. (excluding scapula) (in mm).


Gymnogyps
californianus


27.2

1

8.1

1



102.6

1

46.9

1


Scapula
Proximal
Height


Proximal
Width



Coracoid
Length



Head to
Scapular
Facet

Proximal
Depth


Least
Depth of
Shaft

Length of
Sternal
Facet


Humerus
Length



Proximal
Width


Gymnogyps
n. sp.


16.4

1

38.6

1



273.0

1

55.7

1


96.2

1

43.2

1

25.5

1


14.8-18.1
16.4
2


256.0-265.0
260.5
2


52.5-54.3
53.4
2









Table 5. Extended.


Vultur gryphus
Recent Talara Tar Seeps



28.6-30.5
29.5
2

7.4-9.6
8.5
2



98.2-98.8 103.1
98.5
2 1

50.5-51.3 52.0
50.9
2 1

29.8-30.3 30.0
30.1
2 1

16.6-18.0 16.9
17.3
2 1

43.3-44.1 42.5
43.7
2 1



265.0-292.0
278.5
2

62.6-63.4
63.0
2


Vulturidae
n. gen. n. sp.














89.4

1

44.0-51.9
47.9
2

25.7-28.2
26.9
2

13.9-14.9
14.4
3












55.7

1









Table 5. Continued.


Distal
Width


Least
Width of
Shaft


Radius
Length



Proximal
Width


Distal
Width



Ulna
Length



Proximal
Width


Distal
Depth


Least
Width of
Shaft


Carpometacarpus
Length


Gymnogyps
n. sp.


46.4-49.0
47.6
5

18.2-19.6
19.1
3


29.3-31.9
30.6
2

23.6-25.3
24.5
2


Gymnogyps
californianus


51.1

1

23.0

1



304.0

1

14.1

1

22.8

1



319.0

1

33.5

1

24.7

1

13.5

1



139.0

1









Table 5. Extended.


Vultur gryphus
Recent Talara Tar Seeps


55.1-55.6
55.4
2


21.2-21.8
21.5
2



298.0-328.0
313.0
2

15.6-15.7
15.7
2

24.3-24.4
24.4
2



313.0-341.0
327.0
2

33.7-36.3
35.0
2

26.7-28.8
27.7
2

14.3-15.4
14.9
2



132.2-140.3
136.2
2


14.6

1

24.1

1


Vulturidae
n. gen. n. sp


48.5

1


13.2-13.4
13.3
2

22.7-24.3
23.4
3


33.5-34.0
33.8
2










Table 5. Continued.


Gymnogyps
n. sp.


Proximal
Width


Height
Through
Metacarpal I

Least
Width of
Shaft

Length of
Distal
Fornix


Femur
Length



Proximal
Width


Distal
Width


Least
Width of
Shaft


Tibiotarsus
Length



Proximal
Width


Distal
Width


Gymnogyps
californianus


13.2

1

14.4

1



137.7

1

32.3

1


214.0

1

28.7

1


24.2-25.3
24.8
2










Table 5. Extended.


Vultur gryphus
Recent Talara Tar Seeps


17.2-17.4
17.3
2

36.3-38.9
37.6
2

13.0-14.6
13.8
2

18.1-20.5
19.3
2



143.6-158.3
150.9
2

37.6-38.5 37.3
38.0
2 1

37.9-41.1 37.9
39.5
2 1

18.0-19.5
18.7
2



216.0-242.0 213.0
229.0
2 1

28.6-30.6 30.0-31.1
29.6 30.6
2 2

25.1-27.1 23.9-26.1
26.1 25.0
2 4


Vulturidae
n. gen. n. sp.


15.4

1

32.6

1

















31.7-32.8
32.2
3

34.1-34.7
34.4.
2
















24.1

I




87



Table 5. Continued.


Gymnogyps
n. sp.


Least
Width of
Shaft

Depth of
Internal
Condyle


Tarsometatarsus
Length



Proximal
Width


Distal
Width


Least
Width of
Shaft

Width of
Middle
Trochlea


Gymnogyps
californianus


14.7

1


22.8

1


118.5-122.0
120.3
2

25.8-29.9
27.0
7

29.5-34.0
31.3
4

13.4-13.5
13.5
2

10.6-12.1
11.3
6


117.8

1

26.7

1

29.8

1

14.0

1









Table 5. Extended.


Vultur gryphus
Recent Talara Tar Seeps


13.9-15.3 14.1
14.6
2 1

24.9-26.2 22.9-24.6
25.6 23.9
2 4



118.8-134.7
126.7
2

27.5-29.8 30.0
28.7
2 1

30.7-33.6
32.1
2

13.7-14.7
14.2
2

12.1-12.9
12.5
2


Vulturidae
n. gen. n. sp.






22.5

1



121.8-124.5
123.1
2

25.4-26.3
25.8
2

29.0-30.0
29.5
2

13.8
13.8
2

10.6-11.6
11.0
3








species of Gymnogyps poses the question of its relationships with the

G. amplus-G. californianus line of North America. The continent of

origin of the genus must remain uncertain until specimens of an

earlier period are found.


Genus Vultur Linnaeus

Vultur gryphus Linnaeus

Andean Condor

Material. One complete right coracoid, distal end of 1 right

humerus, proximal end of 1 right and 1 left ulna, distal end of

1 right ulna, proximal end of 1 left radius, distal end of 1 left

radius, proximal end of 1 left femur, distal ends of 3 left femora,

1 complete right tibiotarsus, proximal end of 1 right tibiotarsus,

distal ends of 2 right and 1 left tibiotarsus, proximal end of 1

left tarsometatarsus. The 17 specimens represent a minimum of 3

individuals.

Characters. See diagnosis for Vulturidae, n. gen. n. sp. and

Gymnogyps n. sp.

Remarks. V. gryphus is found almost throughout the Andes of

South America and often on the Pacific coast.


Discussion

In addition to the two species of living condors, seven large

extinct vulturid species have been named from the Pliocene and

Pleistocene, one each in the two living genera and the other five in

extinct genera. The possibility of one or more of these extinct

North American species being identical to an extinct form from the

Talara Tar Seeps requires a discussion of their characters.

In the subfamily Vulturinae [Illiger) two extinct monotypic




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