Group Title: nonrecursive simultaneous-equation model for problem drinking
Title: A nonrecursive simultaneous-equation model for problem drinking
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Title: A nonrecursive simultaneous-equation model for problem drinking
Physical Description: viii, 125 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Martin, Clair Eugene, 1944-
Copyright Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Alcoholism -- Psychological aspects -- Mathematical models   ( lcsh )
Alcoholism -- Mathematical models   ( lcsh )
Sociology thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Sociology -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 101-116.
Additional Physical Form: Also available on World Wide Web
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by Clair Eugene Martin.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00097532
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000208707
oclc - 04119789
notis - AAX5513

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A NONRECURSIVE SIMULTANEOUS-EQUATION MODEL
FOR PROBLEM DRINKING












BY

CLAIR EUGENE MARTIN


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1975













ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I have read with incredulity the proclamations of grati-

tude that preface other disserations. Now that I have com-

pleted this manuscript, I am a believer! Words do not ade-

quately describe the debt incurred to those who have made the

completion of this task possible.

It is difficult for me to imagine a more supportive and

constructive committee than the one wnich has directed my

doctoral study. I am especially indebted to my chairman,

Dr. Gerald R. Leslie, whose scholarship has served as a model

to me throughout my doctoral study and whose suggestions

and comments have contributed immensely to the substance and

style of this manuscript.

Dr. Felix Berardo and Dr. George Warheit have taught

me much of the sociology that I know. Both have offered

support and constructive suggestions in the process of com-

pleting this study. Dr. Alan Agresti has desensitized me

from my fear of statistical analysis. He has taught me that

statistics is a valuable tool that can be mastered by the

researcher rather than vice versa. I am also grateful to

Dr. Pauline Barton, whose empathy and support have assisted

me in my efforts to combine sociology and nursing in a mean-

ingful way.








I am indebted to Dr. George Warheit, Director of the

Florida Health Study, and Dr. Roger Bell, Director of the

Southern Family Life Studies, for their enthusiastic con-

sent to utilize the data obtained in their studies.

Mr. Charles Holzer III is not only a respected col-

league who has offered substantive suggestions during this

research, but his ability to talk to the computer has proved

to be invaluable assistance in the analysis of these data.

I am not only grateful for his assistance but envious of

his abilities.

Analysis of these data was facilitated by the financial

assistance of the Computer Committee of the College of Arts

and Sciences. Typing and copying the dissertation was made

easier by the financial assistance of Alpha Theta Chapter,

Sigma Theta Tau.

Mr. Dennis Carter gave valuable assistance in helping

me to understand the statistics from the field of econo-

metrics. Dr. Kenneth Hodge provided needed consultation

and inspiration.

Special recognition is due Ms. Sue Kirkpatrick for her

careful typing of the manuscript in its present form.

Finally, my wife, Guenn, and daughter, Sonja, deserve

a special thank you. ,Their assistance and support have

been most valued of all.


iii















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


AKNOWLEDGMENTS . . .

ABSTRACT . . . .

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION . .

The Problem . . .
The Data . . .
The Method . . .
Value of the Research . .

CHAPTER II. LITERATURE REVIEW .


Drinking Behavior in the United States
Abuse of Alcohol as Deviant Behavior
Propositional Review of the Literature
Summary . . . .


CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY . .

Theoretical Specification . .
Operationalization of the Concepts
The Instrument . . .
The Sample . . .
Data Collection . . .
Data Analysis Techniques . .
Assumptions . . .
Summary . . . .

CHAPTER IV. DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

Introduction . . .
Characteristics of the Sample .
Psychosocial Characteristics of the
Drinking Patterns of the Sample .
The Theoretical Model . .
Identification of the Model ..
The Reduced-Form Model . .
The Structural Model . .
The Path Model . . .
Summary . . . .


. . 47


S. 48
S. 52
S. 58
S. 60
S. 61
S. 61
. 64
. 70


. 72


Sample .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .


72
73
77
78
S 79
80
81
S 82
84
92


. . ii


11


j I 1 I i










CHAPTER V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS .

The Problem Statement . .
The Theoretical Foundation .
The Data and Data Analysis ..
Findings . . . .
Strengths and Limitations .
Recommendations for Further Study

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . .

APPENDIX . . . .

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . .


Page

S 93

S 93
S 93
S 94
S 95
S 96
S 99

S 101

S 117

124













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

A NONRECURSIVE SIMULTANEOUS-EQUATION
MODEL FOR PROBLEM DRINKING

By

Clair Eugene Martin

June, 1975

Chairman: Gerald R. Leslie
Major Department: Sociology

The purpose of this dissertation is to describe, explain,

and predict the conditions under which adult residents of

four central Florida counties experience problem drinking

as measured by a problem-drinking index. For heuristic

purposes a multivariate causal model is constructed. This

model includes feedback loops from problem drinking to each

of the endogenous variables with which it is reciprocally

related. While problem drinking is the major dependent

variable it is considered to be both cause and effect of

perceived value-access disjunction, general psychopathology,

and anxiety. The predetermined, independent variables in

the model are age, sex, marital status, residential mobility,

total family income, occupational prestige, and education.

In order to identify the equations, race and residence are









considered to be predetermined independent variables in the

estimation equations for perceived value-access disjunction,

general psychopathology, and anxiety. These variables are

selected for inclusion in the model on the basis of social

integration theory, current research findings in the area

of problem drinking, and the available data.

This study focuses upon one aspect of an extensive

social psychiatric epidemiological survey. A comprehensive

317-item structured interview schedule was administered by

trained interviewers to respondents who were randomly

selected by use of a multistage cluster sampling technique.

Usable interviews were obtained from 3,674 persons, 86 per

cent of the sample.

Two-stage least-squares is the technique used for data

analysis. This technique is selected because several of

the variables in the proposed model are assumed to be re-

ciprocally related. In this case, multiple regression

produces a biased estimate of the parameters and is there-

fore an inappropirate data analysis technique. The two-

stage least-squares technique provides an estimate of the

parameters that is purged of this error. The estimated

standardized beta coefficients are plotted on a path dia-

gram.

The findings support the existing theoretical formula-

tions and clarify the reciprocal relationship among problem


vii








drinking and the other endogenous variables in the model.

Fifteen per cent of the variance in the problem-drinking

score is explained by 8 of 10 variables described above.

When total family income is included in the model, occupa-

tional prestige and education are not significantly asso-

ciated with the problem-drinking score. In each case the

standardized beta coefficient of the feedback loop from

problem drinking to the variables with which it is recip-

rocally related--general psychopathology, anxiety, and

perceived value-access disjunction--is greater than the

standardized beta coefficient leading from that variable to

problem drinking.

These findings verify the importance of personal and

social integration in influencing drinking behavior. They

also suggest that when an individual becomes a problem

drinker it is likely that personal and social integration

will be dramatically decreased.


viii














CHAPTER I


INTRODUCTION



One of the major tasks of the social researcher is to

describe the conditions under which a social phenomenon may

be explained and predicted. Researchers from many fields,

as well as journalists, philosophers, reformers, and moral-

ists, have focused their attention on the use and abuse of

alcohol. Nevertheless, while there exists a plethora of

assumptions and theories regarding this problem,2 there is



The extensive interest in alcohol use is documented
by the existence of national organizations such as Alco-
holics Anonymous, the National Council of Alcohol Abuse and
Alcoholism, The National Council on Alcoholism, and The
Alcohol and Drug Problems Association of North America.
National publications concerned solely or primarily with
alcohol include The Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alco-
hol, The British Journal of Addiction, The International
Journal of Addictions, and Alcohol and Health Notes. In
addition, numerous articles and monographs have been writ-
ten on alcohol, its use and abuse. Medline lists 4,859
articles in its file. Cahalan reports more than 70,000
professional writings on file at the Rutgers Center of
Alcohol Studies. See Don Cahalan, Problem Drinkers (San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1970),p. 1.

Siegler et al. describe eight models and related
assumptions which have been applied to the study of alco-
holism in the literature. See Miriam Siegler, Humphrey
Osmond, and Stephens Newell, "Models of Alcoholism,"
Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol 29 (September,
1968), 571-591.








limited consensus and less empirical verification for most

generalizations.


The Problem

The purpose of this research is to describe, explain,

and predict the conditions under which problem drinking

occurs among the adult residents of four counties in Florida.

It is assumed that an understanding of problem drinking may

be facilitated by constructing a model in which the inter-

dependent reciprocal relationships among variables are ex-

plored rather than by assuming one-way causality.

Research begins and ends with existing theory and re-

search findings. The literature review reported in Chapter

II discusses the appropriate concepts for inclusion in the

proposed model and suggests their relationship one with the

other. The review of the literature assists in distinguish-

ing from among the variables those which are assumed to be

interdependent, reciprocal variables, termed endogenous

variables, and those which are assumed to be independent,

predictive variables, termed exogenous variables. Causal

relationships for the proposed model are assumed and ini-

tially justified primarily on the basis of the literature

review. The discussion of methodology in Chapter III



Selden Bacon, "The Process of Addiction to Alcohol:
Social Aspects," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol
34 (March, 1973), 1-27.









explores the necessary criteria for causal assumptions. The

simultaneous equation model is presented in Chapter III.


The Data

The data which are utilized as a test of the model were

collected in two separate but nearly identical epidemiologi-

cal surveys of social psychiatric impairment. The data for

the first survey were collected in 1970 and 1971, in a

county of north-central Florida. The second survey was con-

ducted in 1972 and 1973, in three counties of central

Florida. Households and respondents were randomly selected,

utilizing a systematic random sample and the Kish method.4

Members of the research team administered a comprehensive

structured interview schedule to the sample of 1,645

respondents in the first survey and 2,029 respondents in

the second. The schedule included items concerning the

respondents' demographic characteristics, health, and use

of alcohol. Chapter IV includes a more detailed descrip-

tion of the sample.


The Method

The review of the literature presented in Chapter II

suggests the variables to be included in the model proposed

in this study. Chapter III presents the methods of


4
Leslie Kish, "A Procedure for Objective Respondent
Selection Within the Household," Journal of the American
Statistical Association 44 (September, 1949), 380-387.








operationalizing these theoretical concepts, building in-

dices, and measuring the variables, as well as describing

data collection and selection of the sample. The final

section of Chapter III describes the methods of data anal-

ysis utilized. The descriptive characteristics of the

sample are presented in Chapter IV. The descriptive statis-

tics used are percentages, median, mean, range, and

standard deviation. The statistical measure of association

utilized is a method of simultaneous equations, the two-

stage least-squares technique of estimation, which provides

a "feedback loop" from one endogenous variable to another.

Duncan introduced sociologists to the method of path analysis

as a means of constructing causal models. The use of

simultaneous equations and the two-stage least-squares

technique may be viewed as an extension of the path model.6


Value of the Research

This research represents a potential contribution to

our understanding of a social problem, to the sociology of

deviance, to medical sociology, and to methodology.



5Otis Dudley Duncan, "Path Analysis: Sociological
Examples," American Journal of Sociology 72 (July, 1966),
1-16.

Otis Dudley Duncan, Archibald O. Haller, and Alejan-
dro Portes, "Peer Influences on Aspirations: A Reinter-
pretation," American Journal of Sociology 74 (September,
1968), 119-137.





5



Social Problem

The abuse of alcohol is unquestionably a social problem.

A 1970 report of the United States Comptroller General dis-

cusses the social costs of problem drinking in the United

States. Approximately 4 to 8 per cent of the work force are

estimated to have problem-drinking patterns resulting in a

cost to employers of approximately 25 per cent of the em-

ployees' annual salaries.7 In fact, Von Wiegand points out

that the abuse of alcohol at all levels interferes with

productivity and, consequently, 87 companies among the 500

largest companies in the United States listed in Fortune
8
magazine have employee alcoholism programs.

Alcohol is estimated to contribute to or be associated

with 50 per cent of the fatal auto accidents. In 1969, this

amounted to approximately 28,000 fatalities and 300,000 to

400,000 injuries. The report estimates that 33 per cent of

all arrests in 1969 were related to alcohol misuse, which

resulted in unestimable expense for arrest, incarceration,

and trial. The report also estimates that 30 per cent of

the patients treated by state mental health programs had a
9
pattern of problem drinking.



Comptroller General of the United States, "Substan-
tial Cost Savings from Establishment of Alcoholism Program
for Federal Civilian Employees" (Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1970), pp. 1-21.

Ross A. Von Wiegand, "Alcoholism in Industry (U.S.A.),"
British Journal of Addiction 67 (September, 1972), p. 183.

Comptroller General, 1970, pp. 1-21.








A Bureau of Indian Affairs publication states that 75

to 80 per cent of all suicides among American Indians are
10
alcohol related. While this represents an extreme cost

to the individual, the abuse of alcohol frequently results

in high personal cost, not only for the problem drinker,

but for family, friends, and the community as well.


Sociology of Deviance

Clinard defines deviant behavior as a "violation of

social norms."1 The use of alcohol is socially controlled

by norms concerning the acceptable quantity and frequency

of consumption in specific social situations. For instance,

drinking in moderation is acceptable and even desirable at

cocktail parties, business lunches, and so on. Drinking in

excess of the normative tolerance range or in proscribed

situations is considered to be deviant behavior, however.

The model presented in Chapter III has been deductively

formulated from theories and research findings on deviance.

The major theories include the disposition toward deviance

suggested in Merton's means-ends disjunction theory of



10Bureau of Indian Affairs, "Suicide, Homicide, and
Alcoholism Among American Indians: Guidelines for Help,"
(Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1973),
p. 4.

lMarshall B. Clinard, Sociology of Deviant Behavior,
(Third Edition; New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston,
Inc., 1968), p. 26.









anomie,12 and the restraint against deviance suggested in

Durkheim's treatment of suicide in which group attachment
13
reinforces norms which restrain deviant behavior. In

addition, the psychological variables of anxiety and psy-

chopathology have been associated with problem drinking in

the literature.14 The model proposed by this study is a

partial test of each of these competing theories of deviance.

The theoretical concepts are operationalized and variance in

problem drinking is predicted from each theory separately

and in combination.


Medical Sociology

The abuse of alcohol, in addition to being a form of

deviant behavior, represents a major health problem in our

society. The First Special Report to the U.S. Congress on

Alcohol and Health in 1971 labels alcohol as the most abused

drug in the United States.15 Problem drinking is considered



12Robert K. Merton, Social Theory and Social Structure,
(Enlarged Edition; New York: The Free Press, 1968), p. 229.
13Emile Durkheim, Suicide, translated by J. A. Spauld-
ing and George Simpson (New York: The Free Press, 1951),
pp. 171-216.

14Richard Jessor, Theodore D. Graves, Robert C. Hanson,
and Shirley L. Jessor, Society, Personality, and Deviant
Behavior: A Study of a Tri-Ethnic Community (New York:
Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc., 1968), pp. 24-25.

15Shirley Sirota Rosenberg, Editor, First Special
Report to the U.S. Congress on Alcohol and Health, from the
Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare (Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office: December, 1971),
p. viii.








to be an illness and therefore within the domain of diag-

nosis and treatment of health care practitioners. The con-

cepts, methods, and theories of sociology may be applied

to furthering our understanding and prediction of what are

basically problems with which health care practitioners are

concerned. This application of sociology fits into what

Straus suggests as a major division within medical sociol-

ogy, sociology in medicine.6 If the health care practi-

tioners are concerned with diagnosing and treating problem

drinking, sociologists in medicine legitimately may attempt

to describe, explain, and predict this problem.


Methodology

Given the extensive research literature on the use and

abuse of alcohol, it becomes not only legitimate but neces-

sary to question seriously the value to be derived from

additional research. The unique contribution of this re-

search is methodological. First, few studies have collected

data from the general population. Most gathered data from

persons who were caught and identified in one of the social

control nets of society--offenders of legal norms such as

persons arrested for public intoxication or driving while

intoxicated, mental health treatment center patients, or



6Robert Straus, "The Nature and Status of Medical
Sociology," American Sociological Review 22 (April, 1957),
200-204.









members of organizations such as Alcoholics Anonymous. This

study utilizes data from a random sample of the general popu-

lation.

Second, few existing cross-sectional studies have

gathered data from respondents who live in rural or small

communities. Since there is a positive relationship be-
17
tween rates of problem drinking and city size, most studies

have focused upon residents of urban areas. This study

focuses upon the residents of counties in which the largest

cities did not exceed 70,000 in population, at the time of

the survey.

Third, few studies have utilized multivariate tech-

niques of data analysis. Most research findings have been

couched in bivariate terms, which suggest single variables

found to be related to problem drinking. In only a few

cases did researchers introduce a third variable to test

whether this association was maintained. This study is

basically a test of a multivariate model which is deductively

constructed from a review of the literature.

Fourth, in models which assume one-way causality,

problem drinking is assumed to be the dependent variable.

There has been no research which examines the interdepen-

dent, reciprocal relationships which may apply between

problem drinking and other variables. This study utilizes



1Cahalan, p. 60.









a technique of data analysis which does not assume one-way

causality but which assumes that at least two of the vari-

ables in the model are reciprocally related.

Within the general theoretical context described above,

these four specific methodological characteristics of the

present study take on significance. Understanding and ex-

planation are enhanced by conceptual and methodological

advances in the study of a phenomenon. The value of this

study is largely dependent upon the impact of these four

methodological factors in verifying, clarifying, or refut-

ing the existing knowledge of problem drinking.

In addition to the above contributions to the under-

standing and explanation of problem drinking, a contribution

of this study is exploration of the utility of the two-stage

least-squares technique for examination of the reciprocal

effects of two or more variables.














CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW



Research indicates that whether a person drinks depends

largely on sociological and cultural factors rather than

psychological ones. Significant relationships can be found

between drinking and sociological variables such as sex, age,

socioeconomic status, region of residence, size of community,

and religion, while correlations between drinking and a num-

ber of psychological variables are low.1


Drinking Behavior in the United States

The consumption of alcoholic beverages is typical,

statistically normative behavior in the United States.

Cahalan et al. conducted a national survey of drinking prac-

tices of United States adults during 1964 and 1965. While

22 per cent of the respondents report that they never drink

alcoholic beverages, 68 per cent say they have drunk at

least once during the year. The remaining 10 per cent have
2
stopped drinking. Mulford reports that approximately 71



Don Cahalan, Ira H. Cisin, and Helen M. Crossley,
American Drinking Patterns (New Haven, Connecticut: College
and University Press, 1969), p. 200.

Ibid., pp. 184-185. This study is being used because
it is most recent and comprehensive. Its findings verify
previous research.









per cent of the adults he interviewed have drunk alcohol

during the year. A 1974 Gallup Poll indicates that 68 per

cent of people aged 18 and older drink alcoholic beverages.

According to the survey, the use of alcohol is influenced by

sex (although the discrepancy is narrowing), age, income,

region of residence, occupation, education, and religion.

Nearly 20 per cent of those polled report that they sometimes

drink more than they should and 12 per cent report that

liquor has caused trouble in their families.4 A Harris

survey done for the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and

Alcoholism indicates that one in five persons interviewed

reports that someone close to them--frequently a family

member--drinks too much.

Cahalan et al. classify 32 per cent of their respondents

as abstainers, 15 per cent as infrequent drinkers, 28 per

cent as light drinkers, 13 per cent as moderate drinkers,

and 12 per cent as heavy drinkers. Drinkers are classified

as escape drinkers if they report drinking for reasons such as



Harold A. Mulford, "Drinking and Deviant Drinking,
U.S.A., 1963," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol
25 (December, 1964), 634-648.

George Gallup, "Alcoholism Is a National Concern,"
Jacksonville Times-Union and Journal (June 9, 1974), p. A-15.

Shirley Sirota Rosenberg, editor, First Special Report
to the United States Congress on Alcohol and Health, from
the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare (Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, December, 1971), p.
vii.

Cahalan et al., pp. 184-185.









tension or nervousness. Thirty-two per cent of men drinkers

and 26 per cent of women drinkers are escape drinkers. Of

heavy drinkers, 64 per cent of women and 46 per cent of men

are considered escape drinkers.7

There is substantial demographic variation in drinking

patterns. Men (77 per cent) are more likely to drink than

women (60 per cent) and are more likely to be classified as

heavy drinkers (21 per cent to 5 per cent respectively).

Among men, the age cohort of 30-34 has the lowest percentage

of abstainers and a high rate of heavy drinkers. The age

cohort 45-49 also demonstrates a high rate of heavy drinkers.

The lowest percentage of heavy drinkers is found in the 65+

age cohort. Among women, the highest percentage of heavy

drinkers is found in the age cohorts 21-24 and 45-49, with a

rapid decline in heavy drinking after age 50.8

Respondents of higher socioeconomic status are much

less likely to be abstainers, and are less likely to be

heavy drinkers as well. This relationship is even more pro-
9
nounced for women than for men. Among the upper socio-

economic status groups, there are only slight differences

between men and women in the proportion of drinkers, while

the difference is pronounced among the lower socioeconomic



Cahalan et al., pp. 168-189.

8bid., p. 22.

Ibid., p. 25.
Ibid., p. 25.









groups. However, the difference between men and women who

are heavy drinkers is not consistent among the various socio-
10
economic groups. Men and women who are married are less

likely to be heavy drinkers than persons who are single or

divorced. Men raised by single parents tend to develop into

heavy drinkers relatively late in life.11

Respondents from the South are more likely to be ab-

stainers, but among those who drink the proportion of heavy

drinkers approximates that in other regions of the country.

The tendency for higher proportions of heavy drinkers to be

residents of urbanized areas holds for all age and sex
12
groups.

Among men, race does not greatly affect either absti-

nence or heavy drinking, but black women have considerably

higher rates of both abstinence and heavy drinking than do
13
white women. Religion also exerts an impact upon drink-

ing patterns. Jews and Episcopalians are most likely to be

drinkers when sex, age, and socioeconomic status are con-

trolled. Catholics have the highest proportion of heavy

drinkers, followed by liberal Prostestants. Conservative

Protestants have the smallest proportion of heavy drinkers,



1Cahalan et al., p. 27.
11
Ibid., p. 37.
12
Ibid., p. 39.
13 d., p. 48.
Ibid., p. 48.









10 per cent compared with 22 per cent of those who never

attend church.1

The proportion of drinkers is highest among those of

Italian origin (91 per cent), followed by those of Russian,

Polish, or Baltic (86 per cent), and Canadian origin (79

per cent). U.S. whites (of unknown origin) have the highest

proportion of abstainers (54 per cent), followed by those

of Scotch-Irish origin (50 per cent). The proportion of

heavy drinkers among drinkers is highest among those of

Latin American, Caribbean origin (30 per cent), among U.S.

non-whites (23 per cent), and among those of Italian origin

(22 per cent).15

Respondents who report active participation in inter-

personal recreational activities are more likely to drink

than the less active. Men under age 45 and of higher socio-

economic status who are socially active are also more likely

to be heavy drinkers.16

Respondents who drink are more likely to have parents

who drink and approve of drinking than parents who drink
17
infrequently or disapprove. Men and women drink more



14
1Cahalan et al., pp. 56-57.

5Ibid., p. 53.

6Ibid., p. 75.

7Ibid., p. 79.









frequently in their own homes or in friends' homes than in

bars or restaurants.1

More of the heavy drinking men and moderate to heavy

drinking women started drinking before age 18. Those of

highest socioeconomic status started drinking later than

others and have continued drinking later in life.19

Seventy-one per cent of heavy drinkers, men and women,

are more likely than other drinkers to report having a
20
drink to relieve depression and nervousness.2

More respondents drink distilled spirits (57 per cent)

than either beer (50 per cent) or wine (39 per cent). Heavy

drinkers are more likely to drink beer (62 per cent) than

spirits (49 per cent) or wine (5 per cent). However,

approximately 80 per cent of heavy drinkers report drinking
2]
both beer and spirits.21

Bales discusses three major factors which influence

group rates of problem drinking. The first of these is

termed the dynamic factors described as being those anxieties,

tensions, suppressed aggressions, or needs which provide the

motivation for problem drinking. These factors may be char-

acteristic of a society to a greater or lesser extent, but,

combined, they affect the likelihood that problem drinking


18
1Cahalan et al., p. 99.
19
Ibid., p. 123.

2Ibid., p. 150.

21Ibid., p. 65.









will occur. The second set of factors is labeled alterna-

tive factors, described as the culturally defined possi-

bilities of channeling or relieving needs, tensions, and

anxieties by adopting behavior other than excessive drink-

ing. The third set of factors is labeled orienting factors,

described as the normative attitudes of the group culture

toward drinking. Bales outlines four of these cultural

attitudes. These are: 1) utilitarian--drinking for per-

sonal reasons such as the reduction of anxiety, conflict,

and so on; 2) ritual--drinking restricted to religious,

dietary, or ceremonial occasions; 3) convivial--drinking to

symbolize and facilitate group interaction and solidarity;

and 4) abstinence--prohibition of the use of alcohol for

any purpose. Utilitarian attitudes are highly associated

with high rates of problem drinking. This model has been

demonstrated to have broad utility in explaining the incidence

of cross-cultural problem drinking.2


Abuse of Alcohol as Deviant Behavior

Although drinking alcoholic beverages is acceptable,

perhaps even desirable, and encouraged in many contemporary"

social situations, drinking in excess of the normative

tolerance range may be considered deviant behavior. Jessor

et al. report that the respondents of the tri-ethnic


22
2Robert F. Bales, "Cultural Differences in Rates of
Alcoholism," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol 6
(March, 1946), 480-499.









community they studied rate the immoderate use of alcohol

near the "very wrong" end of a scale, as contrasted to a
23
number of other non-normative behaviors. Blizard reports

that 34 per cent of his respondents would not like to live

next door to an alcoholic, 73 per cent report they would

not like to work with one, 33 per cent report they want no

contact with an alcoholic, while very few report they would
24
accept close and continuous contact with an alcoholic.

Simmons finds that 46 per cent of his respondents list abuse

of alcohol among responses to the question, "What is

deviant?"25

The primary theoretical foundation of this research

falls within the functionalist tradition of Durkheim and
26
Merton. Deviant behavior violates the socially con-

structed norms considered to be binding upon persons


23
2Richard Jessor, Theodore D. Graves, Robert C. Hanson,
and Shirley L. Jessor, Society, Personality, and Deviant
Behavior: A Study of a Tri-Ethnic Community (New York:
Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc., 1968), p. 41.
24
24Peter Blizard, "The Public Image and Social Rejection
of the Alcoholic in New Zealand," Quarterly Journal of
Studies on Alcohol 30 (September, 1968), 696.
25
J. L. Simmons, "Public Stereotypes of Deviants,"
The Substance of Sociology, edited by Ephraim H. Mizruchi
(New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1967), p. 272.
2This study deals with members of the community who
have not already been caught in a social control net and
labeled as "alcoholics" or "problem drinkers." Rather, it
deals with primary deviance, or those individuals who
deviate from the norms in their everyday functioning, but
who have not been assigned the deviant role. Therefore,
this discussion does not concern itself with labeling theory









occupying various positions within the social structure,27

and is likely to mobilize social control agencies into
28
corrective action.28 Furthermore, differential rates of

deviant behavior are assumed to be at least partially the

result of differences in the characteristics of the social

structure.2

Analysis of the impact of differences within the social

structure upon the occurrence of deviant behavior may be

facilitated by the heuristic division of the social struc-

ture into three component substructures: the opportunity

structure, the normative structure, and the social control

structure. The individual is assumed to occupy a position

within each of these substructures simultaneously. Relative

position within each of these substructures disposes or

constrains the individual with regard to deviant behavior.30


because labeling theory is most interested in the process
of secondary deviance. For further information see Edwin M.
Lemert, Social Pathology (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
1951), and Howard S. Becker, Outsiders: Studies in the
Sociology of Deviance (New York: The Free Press of Glencoe,
1963).
27
Robert K. Merton, "Social Problems and Sociological
Theory," Contemporary Social Problems, edited by Robert K.
Merton and Robert A. Nisbet (New York: Harcourt, Brace,
and World, 1961), pp. 723-724.
28
Kai T. Erickson, "Notes on the Sociology of Deviance,"
The Other Side: Perspectives on Deviance, edited by Howard S.
Becker (New York: The Free Press, 1964), pp. 10-11.
29
Robert K. Merton, Social Theory and Sccial Struc-
ture (Enlarged Edition; New York: The Free Press, 1968),
p. 229.

3The researcher is indebted to Jessor et al. for this
approach.









The Opportunity Structure

Merton constructs a middle-range theory to explain

rates of conformity and various types of deviant behavior.

This theory expands upon Durkheim's concept of anomie--a

condition in which the social structure does not provide

the individual with clear-cut guidelines for action. Behavior

differentials are produced by characteristics of the social
31
structure. Specifically, Merton's theory states that

there are socially patterned differences in:

1. exposure to culturally emphasized goals and norms

which define, regulate, and control the acceptable means of

reaching these goals;

2. acceptance of these goals and norms;

3. relative access or opportunity to achieve these

goals;

4. the degree of disjunction between the culturally

emphasized goals and access to legitimate means of achiev-

ing the goals;

5. the degree of anomie; and

6. the rate of aberrant or deviant behavior.32

Merton hypothesizes that deviant behavior is predisposed by

disjunction between culturally emphasized goals and aspira-

tions and a person's socially structured means of realizing



31Merton, Social Theory and Social Structure, pp. 224-229.

3Ibid., p. 229.









them. From a sociological point of view, deviant behavior

does not necessarily involve a violation of legal norms, nor

is it always dysfunctional for society.

The theory indicates a differential in the individual's

acceptance of the culturally emphasized goals or interests

and the regulatory norms which control legitimate means of

achieving those goals. Merton constructs a typology of five

modes of individual adaptation based upon this differential.

These modes of adaptation include retreatism and rebellion.

In retreatism, the culturally emphasized goals and means are

thoroughly assimilated by the individual, but legitimate

efforts do not produce success. Unsuccessful in using legit-

imate means and unwilling to use illegitimate means which

might be successful, the individual resolves the conflict

by escape, abandoning both goals and means. Much problem

drinking fits into this mode. In rebellion, the individual

rejects normative goals and means and replaces them with

substitute goals and means, which may include heavy drink-

ing.33

In his description of social stratification, Weber

presents the concept of differential life chances or life

fate, in which an individual's status determines opportuni-

ties to accomplish certain life goals.34 For instance, the



3Merton, Social Theory and Social Structure, pp. 241-
246.

Max Weber, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology,
edited by Hans H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (New York:









Dohrenwends' summarization of the literature on psychopath-

ology indicates that those persons of lower socioeconomic

status and from disadvantaged racial-ethnic minority groups

are less likely to be able to improve their situations and

demonstrate higher rates of psychopathology than persons of

more advantaged status.3

One's position within ". the opportunity structure

serves as an index of degree of instigation to the use of

illegitimate means in adapting to value-access disjuction."36


The Normative Structure

The normative structure constrains deviant behavior.

The individual's acceptance or internalization of the

socially constructed norms--standards and expectations of

what constitutes appropriate behavior in various social

situations--serves to dispose behavior toward conformity and

constrains deviance.

Durkheim, in his classic study of suicide, analyzes

the societal state of anomie in which regulatory norms be-

come inoperative and clear-cut guidelines fcr behavior no

longer exist. This state of deregulation is pronounced in

times of crisis and transition and following changes in


Oxford University Press, 1946), pp. 180-195.

3Bruce P. Dohrenwend and Barbara Snell Dohrenwend,
Social Status and Psychological Disorder: A Causal Inquiry
(New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1969).

36Jessor et al., p. 58.









social status, power, and wealth which accompany economic
37
disaster or prosperity.3

Klapp suggests that "consensus should be considered

as a dimension and measure of social integration, and in-

versely of anomie. ."38 In other words, the strength

of the normative system depends upon the existence of be-

liefs and expectations which are widely shared and strongly

held by members of the social group. An individual who is

well integrated into social groups which provide clear-cut

expectations of what is and is not appropriate will likely

conform rather than deviate from expectations.

Durkheim and Merton relate the normative structure to

the opportunity structure by pointing out that when behavior

deviates from the normative system but is successful, the

legitimacy and force of the institutional norms for self
39
and others are lessened or eliminated.


The Social Control Structure

The social control structure considers the individual's

differential access to illegitimate means and opportunity

to learn specific forms of deviance and the sanctions invoked


37
Emile Durkheim, Suicide, translated by J. A. Spaulding
and George Simpson (New York: The Free Press, 1951), pp. 246-
258.

3Orrin Klapp, "The Concept of Consensus and Its Impor-
tance," Sociology and Social Research 41 (May-June, 1957),
341.
39
3Durkheim; and Merton, Social Theory and Social Struc-
ture, pp. 224-229.









by deviant behavior. Association with persons who perform

deviant roles not only illustrates the possibility of per-

forming this behavior, but when models are "significant

others," the individual may develop a self-conception or

self-identity which incorporates the deviant model. Integra-

tion into the nuclear family, group, and organizational

network is assumed to increase the likelihood that one will

be rewarded for conforming behavior and punished for deviant

behavior. "The less effective the operation of the social

control structure, the greater the availability of oppor-

tunities to engage in deviance and, consequently, the higher

the deviance rates.40

These three overlapping substructures have been con-

structed, heuristically, in order to facilitate analysis

of the effects of the social structure upon behavior. It is

assumed that knowledge of the individual's position within

each of these substructures will provide a probabilistic

estimate of behavior.


Propositional Review of the Literature

The prevalence of problem drinking is unequally dis-

tributed among various segments and subgroups. Furthermore,

despite prohibitionist theories, drinking per se and problem

drinking do not appear to be closely associated, as some

population aggregates demonstrate high rates of drinking and

low rates of problem drinking.


40 or et al., p. 77.
Jessor et al., p. 77.









The purpose of this section is to describe the support

found in the literature for bivariate propositions suggested

by the preceding social theory of deviance. This review

of the literature will draw from studies on alcoholism

(studies of persons who have been identified or treated as

alcoholics) and on problem drinking (epidemiological studies

of people in the community who have not been institution-

alized). While this study deals with problem drinking,

studies on alcoholism are reviewed because they may suggest

significant variables to include in a model of problem

drinking.

The most sophisticated of the problem drinking studies

was done by Cahalan, who reports on the findings of the

second stage of a longitudinal study of drinking patterns.41

These data were collected in 1967, in 1,359 personal inter-

views with adults representative of the total United States

population.42

Approximately 75 items are combined into 11 specific

problem areas. These are:

(1) frequent intoxication, or exceeding what was
defined as a moderate level in a combined frequency and
amount-per-occasion measure, or getting intoxicated
fairly often; (2) binge drinking--being intoxicated
for more than one day at a time; (3) symptomatic



41Don Cahalan, Problem Drinkers (San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1970).

42These persons correspond to 72 per cent of the eli-
gible respondents selected to be interviewed in the first
stage of the study in 1964-1965. Ibid., p. 20.


-I









drinking behavior (symptomatic dependence upon alcohol),
as inferred from finding it difficult to stop drinking
once started, blackouts or memory lapses after drinking,
sneaking drinks, and so on; (4) psychological dependence
upon alcohol; (5) problems with current spouse or with
relatives related to one's drinking; (6) problems with
friends or neighbors over one's work or employment oc-
curring in relation to one's drinking; (9) health (for
example, physician advised respondent to cut down on
drinking); (10) financial problems connected with one's
drinking; (11) belligerence or fighting associated with
one's drinking.43

Each respondent is assigned a "current problem score"

based upon the respondent's experience with these 11 types

of drinking-related problems during the previous three years.

Fifteen per cent of the men and 4 per cent of the women--

9 per cent of the total--are judged to have a high score on

the index while 43 per cent of the men and 21 per cent of

the women--31 per cent of the total--report some problem in
44
the preceding three years.4

The following propositions are written in terms of

social and psychological variables and their relationship

with problem drinking. The propositions simply state that

there is a relationship between the variables,and the re-

view of the literature which follows describes the nature

of the relationship.


Proposition 1

There is a relationship between sex and problem drink-

ing.


43
SCahalan, pp. 26-27.
44
Ibid., pp. 26-27.








In a national survey of drinking patterns Cahalan finds

sex to be the most influential single factor in predicting
45
problem drinking.45 Encel et al., Room, Edwards et al.,

Jessor et al., and Mulford find support for this proposi-
46
tion. However, Edwards et al. find no difference in the

number of drinking problems between men and women who report

drinking the same quantity and frequency of alcohol.47

Between 5.5 and 6 times more men than women in this

country are alcoholics. In England, the ratio is approxi-

mately 1.5 males to one female, and Scandinavian countries
48
have a ratio of 12 to 1.4

Lawrence and Maxwell point out that most societies

are relatively intolerant toward female drunkenness while

the norms are likely to be more ambiguous for men, permit-

49
ting and encouraging deviance rates among men. Ullman


45
Cahalan, pp. 96-97.
46
S. Encel, K. C. Kotowicz, and H. E. Resler, "Drinking
Patterns in Sydney, Austrailia," Quarterly Journal of Stud-
ies on Alcohol Supplement #6 (May, 1972), 8; Robin Room,
"Drinking Patterns in Large U.S. Cities: A Comparison of
San Francisco and National Samples," Quarterly Journal of
Studies on Alcohol Supplement #6 (May, 1972), 47; Griffith
Edwards, Celia Hensman, and Julian Peto, "Drinking in a
London Suburb: III. Comparisons of Drinking Troubles Among
Men and Women," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Supplement #6 (May, 1972), 120-128; Jessor et al., pp. 181-
182; and Mulford, p. 640.

4Edwards et al., "Drinking in a London Suburb:III," p. 128.
48
Charles R. Snyder, "A Sociological View of the
Etiology of Alcoholism," Alcoholism, edited by David J.
Pittman (Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1959),
p. 32.
49oseph J. Lawrence and Milton A. Maxwell, "Drinking
Joseph J. Lawrence and Milton A. Maxwell, "Drinking









finds men more likely than women to become somewhat intoxi-

cated at the time of their first drinks and suggests that

men are more likely than women to experience their first

drinks as socially dissonant acts.50 This may be partly

because males start drinking at younger ages, when it is

less acceptable for them to drink. Wechsler and Thum, in

their study of teen-age drinking and drug use,find that at

the junior-high level many more boys than girls drink heavily,

while there is no sex differential at the senior high

level.51

Riley finds men more likely than women to drink for

personal rather than social reasons. This utilitarian or

affective drinking is more likely than social drinking to

lead to drinking problems.52 Rimmer finds that women alco-
53
holics start drinking at later ages than men, but Ullman


and Socioeconomic Status," Society, Culture, and Drinking
Patterns, edited by David J. Pittman and Charles R. Snyder
(New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1962),p. 144.

5Albert Ullman, "First Drinking Experience as Related
to Age and Sex," Society, Culture, and Drinking Patterns,
edited by David J. Pittman and Charles R. Snyder (New York:
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1962), p. 263.

5Henry Wechsler and Denise Thum, "Teen-age Drinking,
Drug Use, and Social Correlates," Quarterly Journal of
Studies on Alcohol 34 (December, 1973), 1223.
52
52John W. Riley, Jr., Charles F. Marden, and Marcia
Lifshitz, "The Motivational Pattern of Drinking," Quarterly
Journal of Studies on Alcohol 9 (December, 1948), 353-362.
53
5John Rimmer, F. N. Pitts, Jr., T. Reich, and G. Wino-
ken, "Alcoholism: II. Sex, Socioeconomic Status, and Race
in Two Hospitalized Samples," Quarterly Journal of Studies
on Alcohol 32 (December, 1971), 946.









finds that men and women start drinking at approximately the
54
same age. Child et al. find 53 of 189 societies to show

differences in rates of drinking and problem drinking between

men and women, showing men to have the higher rates of

problem drinking.5

In 1973, Fillmore did a follow-up study on a sample of

the respondents of the Straus and Bacon study of 1953. Re-

spondents were college students at the time of the earlier

study and were of upper-middle socioeconomic status in 1973.

In both studies, percentages of drinkers are similar for men

and women, but of those who drank, 42 per cent of men com-

pared with 11 per cent of women were problem drinkers in the

early study. In the follow-up study, 17 per cent of men and

12 per cent of women are problem drinkers. While men have

changed to moderate drinking patterns over the 20 years, the

percentage of women problem drinkers remains about the
56
same.

Knupfer and Room suggest that women might be more con-

cerned than men with the consequences of intoxication. For

example, sexual fidelity has been more rigidly expected of


54
Ullman, p. 263.
55
Irvin L. Child, Herbert Barry III, and Margaret K.
Bacon, "A Cross-Cultural Study of Drinking: III. Sex
Differences," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Supplement #3 (April, 1965), 60.

56Kaye Middleton Fillmore, "Drinking and Problem
Drinking in Early Adulthood and Middle Age," Quarterly
Journal of Studies on Alcohol 35 (September, 1974), 819-
840.









of women than men, but women who are intoxicated are more

likely to be vulnerable to sexual exploitation. They sug-

gest that loss of control "costs" the woman more than the

man, which has the effect of reducing problem drinking among
57
women. This may be changing, however. Kenyon points out

that emancipationin of the female'together with the move-

ment towards equal pay and the desire of the working wife to

obtain a better standard of living for the family have all

led to a significant increase in the proportion of female

to male alcoholics."58


Proposition 2

There is a relationship between age and problem drink-

ing.

Cahalan finds drinking problems among men to be highest

in the age cohort 21-29, dropping fairly sharply in the age

category 30-39, gradually through age 69, and sharply drop-
59
ping off after age 70.59 Mulford finds a sharp drop in heavy

drinking after age 60.60 Knupfer and Room support these

findings and suggest that older persons are more likely to



5Genevieve Knupfer and Robin Room, "Age, Sex, and
Social Class as Factors in Amount of Drinking in a Metro-
politan Community," Social Problems 12 (Fall, 1964), 228.
58
W. H. Kenyon, "About the Illness Alcoholism,"
Alcohol and Health Notes (December, 1972), 2.
59
Cahalan, pp. 41-45.

6Mulford, p. 640.








be concerned about their health and less likely to move in
61
social circles which permit or encourage problem drinking.

Encel et al. and Room find heavy drinking to decline with
62
age, although Edwards et al. find drinking problems to
63
increase with age. While earlier literature on alcoholism

viewed it as an ever-increasing, debilitating process, it

would appear from these recent studies that drinking pat-

terns shift to moderation with age.

The Fillmore study indicates that middle-class men who

are either problem drinkers or abstainers in the late teens

or early 20's shift toward moderate drinking patterns by

the late 30's and early 40's. Only about one-fourth of

abstainers in the early study remain abstinent, while approxi-
64
mately 90 per cent of drinkers are still drinkers.64 Fill-

more also points out that many of the younger persons who

drink moderate amounts of alcohol infrequently experience

drinking problems, while drinking problems in adults are

correlated with drinking large amounts in greater fre-
65
quency.

Cahalan finds women to have a later onset of problem

drinking than men, with relatively few problem drinkers


61
Knupfer and Room, "Factors in Amount of Drinking,"
p. 228.

6Encel et al., p. 11; Room, p. 40.

6Edwards et al., "Drinking in a London Surburb: II," p, 103.

64Fillmore, p. 824. 65Ibid., p. 829.








reported in the 20's, and a dramatic drop in the incidence
66
after age 50. Cahalan suggests that women are likely to

be introduced to heavy drinking by their men friends or

husbands, while men are more likely to be introduced to

heavy drinking by other men while they are quite young.6

Knupfer and Room and Encel et al. also find that women in

the age cohort 30-49 are more likely to have higher rates

of problem drinking.68


Proposition 3

There is a relationship between marital status and

problem drinking.

Mulford, Sadown et al., and Encel et al. find that

unmarried persons are more likely to have higher rates of

problem drinking than married people.69 Williams finds a

high percentage (68 per cent) of alcoholics in a treatment

center to be divorced. Edwards et al. does not find

marital status to be significant when age is controlled,


66
Cahalan, pp. 41-45.
67
Ibid.

68
Knupfer and Room, "Factors in Amount of Drinking,"
p. 228; Encel et al., p. 11.

6Mulford, p. 640; Roland Sadown, Giorgio Lolli,
and Milton Silverman, Drinking in French Culture (New
Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies,
1965), p. 108; and Encel et al., p. 11.

70James Williams, Characteristics of an Alcoholic
Sample (Avon Park, Florida: State of Florida Alcoholic
Rehabilitation Program, 1964), p. 3.








however.71 Lindbeck finds the incidence of divorce or

separation among female alcoholics to be higher than among

nonalcoholic women. These women describe marriage as a

72
painful and disappointing experience.72 Married persons

are likely to have greater social control over their drink-

ing patterns than the unmarried.

Bacon, Kinsey, and others produce research to support

this, but caution should be exercised in interpreting this

finding due to the interactive effect of the variables.

They indicate, however, that those who become alcoholic

tend to be disproportionately single, separated, or di-

vorced prior to the onset of symptoms.73


Proposition 4

There is a relationship between race and problem drink-

ing.

Maddox finds that twice as many black college students

drink heavily as did the respondents in the Bacon and Straus

study of college students.74 Viamontes and Powell studied



Edwards et al., "Drinking in a London Suburb: III,"
p. 105.
72
Vera Lindbeck, "The Woman Alcoholic: A Review of
the Literature," The International Journal of the Addictions
7 (March, 1972), 575.
73
Selden D. Bacon, "Inebriety, Social Integration, and
Marriage," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol 5 (June,
1944), 86-125; and Barry Kinsey, The Female Alcoholic: A
Social Psychological Study (Springfield, Illinois: Charles C.
Thomas, 1966), p. 109.
74
George L. Maddox and Jay R. Williams, "Drinking








demographic characteristics of black and white alcoholic

men and find that black men begin drinking at a younger age

than whites and lose control over drinking sooner. They

generally seek treatment at a younger age. A greater propor-

tion of black than white alcoholics are married.75 Cahalan

reports that black women have much higher rates of heavy

drinking, among those who drink, than do white women.76

Jessor et al. report that American Indians drink nearly

seven times as much alcohol as Anglos. They are more

likely to drink in order to solve personal problems, and have

six times as many drinking-related problems as other
77
groups.


Proposition 5

There is a relationship between religion and problem

drinking.

Mulford finds the heaviest drinking to occur among

Catholics, Lutherans, and Protestants of no specified de-
78
nomination.78 Encel et al. find Catholics to be heavier


Behavior of Negro Collegians," Quarterly Journal of Studies
on Alcohol 29 (March, 1968), 126-127.

75Jorge A. Viamontes and Barbara J. Powell, "Research
Note: Demographic Characteristics of Black and White Male
Alcoholics," The International Journal of the Addictions
9 (June, 1974), 489-494.
76
Cahalan, et al., p. 48.
77
Jessor, et al., pp. 182-183.
78Mulford, p. 640.
Mulford, p. 640.









79
drinkers than Anglicans or Presbyterians.79 Straus and

Baccn find least drinking problems among Jewish students

and the most among the Mormons, Protestants, and Catholics

who drink.8

Walters and McCord and McCord report that,if parents

are active church members, their children, when they drink,

are more likely to become alcoholic.81 Kinsey finds that

mothers of female alcoholics are religiously active and
82
fathers are inactive.82 According to Walters, mothers of

alcoholics are significantly more active religiously than

mothers of nonalcoholics.83


Proposition 6

There is a relationship between residential area and

problem drinking.

Cahalan finds higher rates of problem drinking among

those living in urbanized'areas. He suggests that younger

men and those of lower status tend to be attracted to large


79
7Encel et al., p. 11.
80
8Robert Straus and Selden D. Bacon, "The Problems of
Drinking in College," Society, Culture, and Drinking Pat-
terns, edited by David J. Pittman and Charles R. Snyder
(New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1962), p. 253.

8Orville S. Walters, "The Religious Background of 50
Alcoholics," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol 18
(September, 1957), 407; and William McCord and Joan McCord,
Origins of Alcoholism (Stanford, California: Stanford Univ-
sity Press, 1960),p. 52.
82
82Kinsey, p. 110.
83Walters, p. 408.
Walters, p. 408.








84
cities, increasing the effect of urbanization. Mulford

and Room support this finding.85 (In the United States, the

coastal cities have higher rates of problem drinking than
86
the interior cities. These cities are in the traditionally

"wet" areas of the country.) Wallace finds that in coun-

tries such as France and Italy where drinking has been a

long-term pattern over generations, urbanization does not

produce a higher rate of problem drinking.87


Proposition 7

There is a relationship between income and problem

drinking.

Mulford and Encel et al. find that those persons with

a low level of income are more likely to have higher rates

of problem drinking than those with a higher level of
88
income. Jessor et al. find lower rates of problem drink-
89
ing among higher income persons. Cahalan et al. find

higher rates of heavy drinking among the higher income


84
8Cahalan, pp. 56-57.

8Mulford, p. 640; and Room, p. 40.

8Room, p. 40.
87
87Jean G. Wallace, "Drinkers and Abstainers in Norway:
A National Survey," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol
Supplement #6 (May, 1972), 150.
88
8Mulford, p. 640; and Encel et al., p. 11.

89Jessor et al., pp. 182-183.









category and higher rates of problem drinking among the

lower income category.90


Proposition 8

There is a relationship between socioeconomic status

and problem drinking.

Cahalan finds that men of high status at all ages have

lower rates of problem drinking than those of low status.

After age 40, the higher-status men demonstrate a dramatic

decrease in problem drinking not shared by those in lower-
91
status positions. It should be noted that these data are

cross-sectional and, therefore, a competing explanation

could be the drift of high-status problem drinkers to lower-

status positions.

Mulford finds the heaviest drinking to be in the status

categories next to the lowest and next to the highest.92

Knupfer and Room find heavier drinking in higher socioeconomic

93
categories, regardless of age.93 Encel et al. find the

heaviest drinking among those of the highest and lowest
94
socioeconomic status. Edwards et al. report alcoholism


90
9Cahalan et al., pp. 28-29.

9Cahalan, pp. 45-49.

9Mulford, p. 640.
93
9Knupfer and Room, "Factors in Amount of Drinking,"
p. 228.
94Encel et al., p. 8.
Encel et al., p. 8.









to be highest among female professionals and unskilled
95
males. Lindbeck finds more identified alcoholics among

the upper-middle-class women than lower class but questions

whether this may simply be the result of upper-class per-

sons seeking treatment more readily.9 Jessor et al. find

the highest rates of problem drinking among lower socio-

economic status persons. They describe fewer constraints

and greater access to deviant drinking behavior as the

explanation of the greater rates of problem drinking among

97
the lower socioeconomic status persons.

Schuckit and Gunderson, in their study of alcoholism

and job type in the Navy, find that men who drink heavily

tend to have high-risk nontechnical jobs and come from

lower socioeconomic backgrounds.9


Proposition 9

There is a relationship between level of education

and problem drinking.

Cahalan et al. find no consistent relationship between

education and problem drinking, but report that men


95
9Edwards et al., "Drinking in a London Suburb: III,"
p. 89.

9Lindbeck, p. 568.
97
97Jessor et al., pp. 182-183.

9Marc A. Schuckit and E. K. Eric Gunderson, "The
Association Between Alcoholism and Job Type in the Navy,"
Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol 35 (June, 1974),
584.









and women who have completed high school or have gone to

college and have not graduated have higher rates of heavy
99
drinking. Encel et al. also find high school graduate men

and women who have attended college but did not graduate to

have the highest rates of heavy drinking.1


Proposition 10

There is a relationship between organizational integra-

tion and problem drinking.

Sadown et al. and Bahr find that persons who have

limited participation in community activities are more likely

to have higher rates of problem drinking than those with
101
higher levels of participation. Less involvement in the

activities of the community produces less involvement,

commitment, and response to the normative drinking patterns

of a community. Persons who are not responsive to the

community's normative drinking patterns are likely to be

excluded from the community activities. Blizard finds that

very few of his respondents would accept close and con-

tinuous contact with an alcoholic; 73 per cent would not



99
9Cahalan et al., p. 140.

1Encel et al., p. 11.

1Sadown et al., p. 114; and Howard Bahr, "Lifetime
Affiliation Patterns of Early and Late-Onset Heavy Drinkers
on Skid Row," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol 30
(September, 1969), 655.









like to work with one, and 34 per cent would not like to
102
live next door to one.

Kinsey finds that, with alcoholics, normal peer group

activities are either absent or require heavy drinking.1

Bacon finds significantly less social participation in the

surrounding culture, and social activities tend to be
104
solitary or with casual acquaintances.1 Singer et al.

find greater social isolation among alcoholics than non-

alcoholic patients.1

Kinsey reports that as loss-of-control-type drinking

occurs, there is a decrease in church participation and

social activities, accompanied by an increase in intra-

family conflict.106 Drinking groups change as efforts are

made to associate with those who approve of the current

drinking pattern, thereby reducing the individual-group

conflict.


Proposition 11

There is a relationship between value-access disjunc-

tion and problem drinking.



102Blizard, p. 696.

103Kinsey, pp. 138-189.

104Bacon, "Inebriety, Social Integration, and Marriage,"
pp. 114-120.

105Estelle Singer, Howard T. Blaine, and Richard
Kasschau, "Alcoholism and Social Isolation," Journal of
Abnormal and Social Psychology 69 (December, 1964), 681-685.
106Ki p 0, 137.
Kinsey, pp. 110, 137.








Jessor et al. construct an index of value-access dis-

junction which includes measures of age, marital status,

language spoken in home, occupation, education, intergenera-

tion mobility, religion, and social participation. They

report that, as the level of value-access disjunction in-

creases, problem drinking increases among their respondents

from a tri-ethnic community.1

Cahalan et al. report that heavy drinkers place

slightly greater emphasis upon goals of family life and

friends, and on desire for emotional security and happiness,

but they voice slightly lower levels of satisfaction in meet-

ing life goals than do lighter or nondrinkers. Female

heavy drinkers are more likely to express dissatisfaction

with their (or husband's) occupation, neighborhood, and
108
educational attainment, than other females.1

Wechsler and Thum's study of teen-age drinkers indi-

cates that heavy drinkers are less likely to be planning

to go to college, and tend to receive lower grades, thereby

cutting down their chances to attain the common status
109
goals in American society.1

Cahalan et al. and Encel et al. report that persons

who have gone to college but did not graduate have higher



107Jessor et al., p. 237.

1Cahalan et al., p. 192.
109Wechsler and Thum, p. 1224.
Wechsler and Thum, p. 1224.








rates of problem drinking.10 These persons apparently did

not attain their goal of graduating from college.


Proposition 12

There is a relationship between psychopathology and

problem drinking.

Kinsey finds that alcoholic women generally tend to

view self as inadequate and to define self in undesirable
111 112
terms. Gynther et al. also support this proposition.

Halpern, using the Rorschach, found that alcoholic-

prone persons have not sufficiently developed the usual

mechanisms against threat, at least to such an extent that

these mechanisms are effective.13 McCord and McCord

report that boys who consciously and openly express feelings

of inferiority become alcoholic significantly less fre-
114
quently than those who do not. This finding may suggest

the overuse of denial as a primitive mental mechanism

among alcoholic persons. Both Mowrer and the McCords find


110
Cahalan et al., p. 140; and Encel et al., p. 11.
111
lKinsey, p. 115.

112
2Malcom Gynther, Charles Presher, and Robert McDonald,
"Personal and Interpersonal Factors Associated with Alco-
holism," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol 20 (June
1959), 321-333.

Florence Halpern, "Studies of Compulsive Drinkers:
Psychological Test Results," Quarterly Journal of Studies
of Alcohol 6 (March, 1946), 468-479.
114McCord and McCord, p. 136.
McCord and McCord, p. 136.








that boys who become alcoholic have earlier engaged in

activities which are associated with masculinity, such as

smoking or visiting prostitutes, supporting the above
115
interpretation. Horton finds alcoholism rates to be

higher in societies where anxiety is high and few substi-

tute outlets are allowed for either anxiety or aggres-
116
sion.

Landis, using the Rorschach, finds that individuals

less able to express aggressive feelings and acts are more

likely to become alcoholic.17 McCord et al. and Palola

et al. find self-destructiveness to be related to alco-

holism.118 If self-destructive thoughts and tendencies are

interpreted as the internalization of thoughts and feelings

which are not acceptable to the individual to express



5Harriet R. Mowrer, "Alcoholism and the Family,"
Journal of Criminal Psychopathology 3 (July, 1941), 90-99;
and McCord and McCord, p. 154.

6Donald Horton, "The Functions of Alcohol in Primi-
tive Societies: A Cross-Cultural Study," Quarterly Journal
of Studies on Alcohol 4 (September, 1943), 199-320.
117
Carney Landis, "Theories of the Alcoholic Personal-
ity," Lecture 11, Alcohol, Science, and Society (New Haven,
Connecticut: Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Inc.,
1945), pp. 130-133.

W8illiam McCord, Joan McCord, and Jon Gudeman, "Some
Current Theories of Alcoholism: A Longitudinal Evaluation,"
Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol 20 (December, 1959),
727-749; and Ernest Palola, Theodore Dorpat, and William
Larson, "Alcoholism and Suicidal Behavior," Society, Culture,
and Drinking Patterns, edited by David J. Pittman and Charles
R. Snyder (New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1962),pp.
511--534.









externally, then the McCord and McCord research also sup-
119
ports this proposition.

Witkin et al., in a series of perceptual experiments,

find alcoholics to be more dependent upon external stimuli
120
than nonalcoholics.120 McCord and McCord support this by

identifying a cluster of behaviors which indicates unmet

dependency needs and resulting dependency conflict.1

Kinsey also finds a high level of dependency among female
122
alcoholics.

Wechsler and Thum find that teen-agers who drink

heavily are more likely to have used illegal drugs and to

have been involved in delinquent (antisocial) activities,

including trouble with the police, than light drinkers and

abstainers. These teen-agers also tend to rate themselves

as having "more personal problems" than their contempo-
123
raries.


Proposition 12

There is a relationship between depression and

problem drinking.


119
9McCord and McCord, p. 137.

1Herman Witkin, Stephen Karp, and Donald Goodenough,
"Dependence in Alcoholism," Quarterly Journal of Studies on
Alcohol 20 (September, 1959), 493-504.

121McCord and McCord, pp. 87-91.
122Kinsey, p. 183.

123Wechsler and Thum, pp. 1222-1225.








Overall, using the MMPI, finds the alcoholic profile

to be neurotic, depressive, anxious, passive, and depen-
124
dent. This finding, however, is based on profiles of

labeled alcoholics, and caution should be used in inter-

preting it as an independent variable.

Lindbeck says the alcoholic woman emerges from a

frustrating, depriving background which has contributed to

dependency, self-depreciation, insecurity in her sex role,

feelings of inadequacy and social ineptness, and sensitivity
125
to loss. This description is one of a depressed person.


Summary

The literature review serves the purpose of 1) placing

the present study in the context of relevant past research,

2) indicating the range of opinion and research findings,

3) suggesting hypotheses for the present study, and 4) speci-

fying the unique aspects of the present study.

The majority of the past research efforts have focused

upon description of alcoholics under treatment or comparison

of alcoholics with nonalcoholics. A few studies have focused

upon persons in the community who, while not publicly

labeled alcoholics, have problems as a consequence of drink-

ing. There is considerable similarity between the findings


124
24ohn Overall, "MMPI Personality Patterns of Alco-
holics and Narcotic Addicts," Quarterly Journal of Studies
on Alcohol 34 (March, 1973), 104-111.

125Lindbeck, p. 575.









of both types of studies, but there is also support for sig-

nificant differences. The etiology of problem drinking may

be understood as the result of the combined effects of

social structural variables and psychological factors.

The literature review further reveals that it is

neither logical nor reasonable to consider the relationship

between problem drinking and other variables as a simple

one-way causal model. Rather, some variables may be viewed

as simultaneously interdependent, exerting a reciprocal

effect one on the other. For example, the relationship

between perceived value-access disjunction or anxiety and

problem drinking may be considered as such a reciprocal

relationship in which a change in anxiety may be accom-

panied by a change in problem drinking, followed by a change

in anxiety and so on. The researcher knows of no research

in the area of problem drinking that examines the recipro-

cal relationship which applies among problem drinking and

other variables in the model.













CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY



The purpose of this study is to describe, explain,

and predict the conditions under which adult residents of

four central Florida counties experience problem drinking

as measured by a problem-drinking index. In pursuit of a

valid and reliable answer to this problem there are certain

assumptions and criteria which serve as guides to the re-

searcher. For various reasons these criteria may not always

be met.1 Violation of some of these criteria is more serious

than violation of others,and it is incumbent upon the re-

searcher to attempt to minimize error, to know the conse-

quences of nonfulfillment, and to know how to test whether

or not the criteria are satisfied and what methods are
2
available when the criteria are not satisfied. This chapter

describes the decisions, operations, and methods utilized in

the effort to make some valid and reliable statements about

the above problem.



Travis Hirschi and Hanan C. Selvin, Delinquency
Research: An Appraisal of Analytic Methods (New York:
The Free Press, 1967), p. 6.
2
J. Johnston, Econometric Methods (Second Edition;
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1972), p. 160.









Specifically, the researcher follows a clearly defined

series of activities which begins with an identification of

the relevant existing theory and research findings and ends

with a clarification, modification, support, or refutation

of these existing statements, based upon an empirical test.

The steps between these points include formulation of the

existing theoretical statements into a series of explicit

mathematical equations, operationalization of these theoret-

ical concepts so that observable measurements may be col-

lected, construction of an instrument for data collection,

selection of an appropriate sample to whom the instrument may

be administered, collection of the data, coding, scaling,

and measurement of these data, selection and implementation

of data analysis techniques, and report and interpretation

of the findings. A description of these methodological

activities follows.


Theoretical Specification

Research and theory are inextricably interdependent.

Land suggests that sociologists who rely upon cross-sectional

data may benefit from specifying the complex theoretical

assumptions of their research in mathematical models. By

specifying, for each dependent variable in the model, the

conditions under which its value changes, results may be



3Kenneth C. Land, "Formal Theory," Sociological Meth-
odology 1971, edited by Herbert L. Costner (San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1971), p. 179.









produced that correspond to those which would be observed

if the researcher were able to manipulate the conditions and

independent variables directly. The construction of such a

model is necessarily an oversimplified representation of

social reality; that is, a limited number of variables are

linked together in such a way that the inferred causal link-
4
ages are assumed to operate in the real world. The value

of specifying the theory in a mathematical model lies in its

ability to inform or make explicit the empirical research

assumptions and procedures. Knoke emphasizes the un-

certainty that remains in such model building, especially in

relation to causal ordering of the variables, but because of

its explicit formulation it is possible for subsequent re-

searchers to modify the model, based upon new knowledge and/

or improved measurement. The following set of mathematical

equations specifies the theory tested in this research.

Each equation identifies those variables assumed to di-

rectly affect the value of the dependent variable:

(1) Y=C1+B Y 4+B+BiX+BX3 +BIX5+B X7+B X +R



4
Kenneth C. Land, "Principles of Path Analysis,"
Sociological Methodology 1969, edited by Edgar P. Borgatta
(San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1969), pp. 3-4; and
David R. Heise, "Problems in Path Analysis and Causal In-
ference," Sociological Methodology 1969, edited by Edgar P.
Borgatta (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1969), pp. 39-44.

Land, "Formal Theory," p. 179.

David Knoke, "A Causal Model for the Political Party
Preferences of American Men," American Sociological Review
37 (December, 1972), 680.








(2) Y2=c2+BY4+B2X+B22+B2X3+B2X4+B2X6+B2X +B2X+Rb
=2 2 4 21 22 4 2 6 28 2 9 b

(3) Y3=C3+B3Y4B3X+B3X2+B3X3+B3X4+B3X5+B3X9+R

(4) Y4=C4+B4+B42+B43+B4X1+B X2+B4X5+B4X6+B4X7+

B4X8+B4X10+Rd'

Equation (1) states that, holding constant the values

of all other variables in the model, perceived value-access

disjunction (Y1) is a direct function of some constant (Cl)

problem drinking (Y4), age (X1), race (X3), total family

income (X5), education (X ), marital status (X ), and a

residual term (R ) that includes the effects of all unmea-

sured factors on perceived value-access disjunction.

Equation (2) states that, holding constant the values

of all other variables in the model, general psychopathology

(Y2) is a direct function of some constant (C2), problem

drinking (Y4), age (X) sex (X2), race (X3), rural resi-

dence (X ), occupational prestige (X6), marital status (X ),

residential mobility (X9), and a residual term (Rb) that

includes the effects of all unmeasured factors on general

psychopathology.

Equation (3) states that, holding constant the values

of all other variables in the model, anxiety (Y3) is a di-

rect function of some constant (C3), problem drinking (Y4),

age (X1), sex (X2), race (X3), rural residence (X4), total

family income (X5), residential mobility (X9), and a re-

sidual term (R ) that includes the effects of all unmeasured

factors on anxiety.








Equation (4) states that, holding constant the values

of all other variables in the model, problem drinking (Y4)

is a direct function of some constant (C4), perceived value-

access disjunction (Y1), general psychopathology (Y2),

anxiety (Y3), age (X1), sex (X2), total family income (X5),

occupational prestige (X6), education (X7), marital status

(X8), attendance at a church that formally prohibits drink-

ing alcoholic beverages (X10), and a residual term (Rd) that

includes the effects of all unmeasured factors on problem

drinking.

In addition, it may be noted that a reciprocal rela-

tionship applies among the four dependent endogenous vari-

ables inasmuch as problem drinking is both cause and effect

of perceived value-access disjunction, general psychopath-

ology, and anxiety. These reciprocal relationships are

assumed to be essentially simultaneous in their feedback

one to the other. Theoretically it is possible to expect

delayed feedback from problem drinking (the major depen-

dent variable) to other variables in the model such as atten-

dance at a church that formally prohibits drinking, occupa-

tional prestige, income, and marital status. This feedback

could be examined through the introduction of lagged vari-

ables into the model. The values of these lagged variables

could be obtained through the use of longitudinal data or

retrospective self-reports. These data are not available

in the present research.









Operationalization of the Concepts7

Problem Drinking

"Problem drinking is a repetitive use of beverage

alcohol causing physical, psychological, or social harm to

the drinker or to others." 8Problem drinking is measured

by combining the scores on a six-item index. The scores

range from 0 to 20. The mean index score is 1.7 and the

standard deviation is 2.5. The overall Cronbach's Alpha is
10
.70.10


General Psychopathology

General psychopathology is defined as general psycho-

social impairment of the individual. General psychopath-

ology is measured by scoring the eight items of an index of
11
psychopathology presented by Warheit et al. The scores

range from 0 to 16. The mean index score is 4.8 and the



See Appendix for a presentation of the items used in
the following measures.

Thomas F. Plaut, Alcohol Problems: A Report to the
Nation by the Cooperative Commission on the Study of Alco-
holism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967), pp. 37-38.

Harold A. Mulford, "Drinking and Deviant Drinking,
U.S.A., 1963," Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol 25
(December, 1964), 643-650; and Don Cahalan, Problem
Drinkers (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1970), present
measures of problem drinking.
10
0C. J. Cronbach, Essentials of Psychological Testing
(Second Edition; Harper and Brothers, 1960), p. 141.

George J. Warheit, Roger A. Bell, and John J. Schwab,
Planning for Change: Needs Assessment Approaches (Washing-
ton, D.C.: The National Institute of Mental Health, 1974),
p. 212.









standard deviation is 3.3. The overall Cronbach's Alpha

is .71.


Anxiety

Anxiety is defined as a high degree of tension that

interferes with the productive discharge of one's normal

role obligations. Anxiety is measured by scoring the 11

items of an anxiety function index presented by Warheit
12
et al. The scores range from 0 to 44. The mean index

score is 2.0, and the standard deviation is 4.3. The over-

all Cronbach's Alpha is .88.


Perceived Value-Access Disjunction

Perceived value-access disjunction is defined as the

discrepancy between the individual's perception of his cur-

rent status and his idealized status. Perceived value-

access disjunction is measured by scoring the respondent's

position on the Cantril Self-Anchoring Striving Scale.13

The scores range from 0 to 10. The mean score is 6.9 and

the standard deviation is 2.2.


Religious Proscription

Religious proscription is defined as the formal posi-

tion of the respondent's church on alcohol abstinence.


12
1Warheit et al., Planning for Change, p. 209.

13Hadley Cantril, The Pattern of Human Concerns
(New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press,1965),
p. 22.









Those churches with a formal position of abstinence include

Baptist, Church of Christ, Church of God, Holiness, Jehovah

Witness, Methodist, Nazarene, Pentecostal, Seventh Day

Adventist, United Church, and other conservative demonima-

tions. This variable is treated as a dummy variable. Those

who attend a church that formally proscribes alcoholic con-

sumption are assigned the value of 1, all others, 0. One

thousand four hundred eighty-six of the respondents attend

a church that formally proscribes alcohol consumption while

2,188 do not.


Residential Mobility

Residential mobility is measured by the number of times

the respondent moved in the past five years. The mean score

is 1.5 and the standard deviation is 3.1.


Residence

Residence is measured by the location of the respon-

dent's primary domicile in either a rural area or town.

This dichotomy is treated as a dummy variable; rural resi-

dents are assigned the value of 1, all others, 0.


Race

Race is measured by the respondent's stated racial

attribute, either white or nonwhite. This dichotomy is

treated as a dummy variable; nonwhites are assigned the

value of 1, all others, 0.









Education

Education is measured by the highest level of educa-

tional achievement reported by the respondent. Educational

achievement is classified into 12 categories: no formal

education,first grade, fourth grade or less, eighth grade

or less, tenth grade or less, high school graduate, one year

of college, two years of college, three years of college,

college graduate, some postgraduate work, and a postgraduate

degree. Missing values are assigned the median year of

school completed by black and white age cohorts reported by

the Bureau of the Census in 1970. Black respondents age

20 to 34 are assigned the value of high school graduate (12),

age 35 to 54 are assigned some high school (10), age 55 to

64 are assigned eighth grade (8), while age 65 and over are

assigned the value of fourth grade (4). White respondents

age 20 to 54 are assigned the value of high school graduate

(12), age 55 to age 64 are assigned some high school (10),

while those age 65 and over are assigned an eighth grade

education (8).14 Education levels of the respondents range

from 0 to 18 years. The median year completed is 12, the

mean, 12.3, and the standard deviation is 4.7.


Total Family Income

Total family income is measured by the total household


14
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
The Social and Economic Status of Negroes in the United
States, 1970 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing
Office, 1971), p. 79.









income reported by the respondent. Missing values are as-

signed the median total family income of Southern black and

white families as reported by the Bureau of the Census in

1970. Black families are assigned the value of $5,226,

while white families are assigned the value of $9,240.15

The mean total family income is $9,453, and the standard

deviation is $7,400.


Occupational Prestige

Occupational prestige is defined as the status evalua-

tion given an occupation by members of society based upon

the education, income, and other attributes associated with

it.16 This variable is operationalized by assigning the

195017 status scores constructed by Nam and Powers to the

occupations reported by the respondents. These prestige

scores are computed by

(a) arraying occupations (actually, occupation-
industry combinations) according to the median educa-
tional level of males 14 years old and over in the
experienced civilian labor force, (b) arraying



U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
p. 27.

1Charles B. Nam and Mary G. Powers, "Changes in the
Relative Status Level of Workers in the United States, 1950-
60," Social Forces 47 (December, 1968), 158.

1Verbal communication between Charles B. Nam and
Charles E. Holzer III on November 20, 1974, informs us that
the 1970 prestige scores have not yet been completed. How-
ever, a correlation coefficient of .96 is reported between
the 1950 and 1960 scores (Nam and Powers, p. 160). It is
reasonable to assume that minimal bias is introduced by
utilizing the 1950 scores.









occupations separately according to the median income
level of the same population, (c) using the number of
persons engaged in each occupation, determining the
cumulative interval of persons in each occupation for
each of the two arrays, and (d) averaging the midpoints
of the two cumulative distributions of occupants and
dividing by the total experienced civilian labor force
to get a status score for the occupation.18

Employed males and employed single females are allocated

present occupational status scores. Married female re-

spondents are assigned the status scores of their husbands'

occupations. Student respondents are assigned their fathers'

status scores and retired, disabled, or unemployed respon-

dents are assigned the status scores of their last full-time
19
jobs.9 Missing values are assigned a value of 33 as sug-

gested by Nam and Powers.2 The prestige scores have a

theoretical range of 0 to 99. The actual range of scores in

this study is 2 to 99. The median score is 51 and the mean

is 53.8 with a standard deviation of 27.3.


Sex

Sex is measured by the respondent's stated sexual attri-

bute. The attribute is treated as a dummy variable. Females



8Nam and Powers, p. 159.

19
9This allocation procedure follows that suggested by
Kenneth J. Hodge and Marjorie F. Spencer in an unpublished
paper, "Measures of Social Stratification: A Preliminary
Report for 'Evaluating Southern Mental Health Needs and
Services,'" National Institute of Mental Health #15900,
Gainesville, Florida: Department of Psychiatry, University
of Florida, pp. 15-16.

2Nam and Powers, p. 170.









are assigned the value of 1, males, 0. There are 1,588 male

and 2,086 female respondents.


Age

Age is measured by the respondent's stated age. The

respondents' ages range from 18 to 96. The mean age is

44.4 and the standard deviation is 18.5.


Marital Status

Marital status is measured by the respondent's stated

present marital status. The status is dichotomized into

married and nonmarried status and treated as a dummy vari-

able; married respondents are assigned the value of 1,

others 0. There are 2,385 married and 1,289 unmarried re-

spondents.


The Instrument

This study focuses upon one aspect of a more extensive
21
social psychiatric epidemiological survey.21 The items used

to measure the concepts described above are part of a 317-

item interview schedule. This interview schedule is de-

signed to elicit information concerning:

(1) demographic data and a comprehensive social his-
tory, (2) items concerning familial and other inter-
personal relations, (3) questions concerning life


21
2These data were collected as one aspect of the Florida
Health study "Evaluating Southern Mental Health Needs and
Services," NIMH Grant #15900-05 and of the "Southern Health
and Family Life Studies," NIMH Contract HSM 42-73-9 (OC)
and Community Mental Health Center and Winter Haven Hospital.








satisfactions, both interpersonal and other, (4) indices
concerning religion, racial distance, anomie, percep-
tions of social change and social aspirations, (5) a
medical systems review and detailed physical symptom
data, (6) a detailed inventory of mental symptomatology
and (7) a series of items concerning attitudes
toward and utilization of health services.22

A complex combination of theoretical and statistical

processes was performed in an effort to construct items and

indices that are reliable and valid. This process was ini-

tiated by pooling a large number of items from textbooks and

research literature on social psychiatric impairment. Clini-

cians rendered an expert judgment on whether these items were

significant in diagnosing and differentiating between spe-

cific types of social psychiatric impairment. These items

were then administered to a known patient population and to

a subsample of the general population.

Subsets of items were selected on the basis of face

validity from the pool as a measure of specific social

psychiatric impairment,such as psychopathology, anxiety

and depression. Factor analysis was utilized to generate

tentative subscales. Items which appeared in more than one

subscale were eliminated from one or both and questions

which appeared to be duplicates were eliminated.


22
2George Warheit, John J. Schwab, Charles E. Holzer III,
and Steven Nadeau, "New Data From the South on Race, Sex,
Age, and Mental Illness" (paper presented at the Annual
Meeting of the American Sociological Association, New York,
August 28-30, 1973), p. 5.









The Sample


The universe consists of the residents age 18 or over

in four central Florida counties. A sample of approximately

5 per cent was desired. Although essentially identical and

comparable, the study includes two multistage cluster sub-

samples. The sampling frame was provided by the electrical

utilities serving the counties. In each, the sampling frame

consisted of a listing of households. From each frame a

sample was selected. In subsample one, 2,315 households

were selected and in subsample two, 2,400 households were

selected.

Since a random sample was desired, the Kish technique

was used to select the respondent within each household.

A face sheet was assigned to each household. It contained

the address of the residence, interviewer's name, date,

time, and type of each attempt to secure the interview, date

and time that the interview occurred, time taken to complete

the interview, a form for listing household members,

separately for males and females in descending rank by age,

and a Kish table for selection of the respondent within the

household. A number was assigned to each adult age 18 and

over. The interviewer consulted the Kish table to determine

which adult in the household to interview.23



2Lynn Robbins, "Sampling Processes and Organization
of Field Work" (unpublished paper; Gainesville, Florida:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Florida, February,
1972).








The nonresponse rate in subsample one is 16.07 per

cent and in subsample two, 11.9 per cent. A comparison of

the major demographic variables with the 1970 census was

made and confirmed that the sample was representative.24


Data Collection

These data were collected between July, 1970, and

December, 1973. Person-to-person interviews were conducted

by trained interviewers. The respondents were notified of

the impending interview seven to ten days before the inter-

view. During the two-hour interview the interviewer re-

corded the respondent's answers on the preceded question-

naire. These data were then placed on IBM data cards for

data analysis. When the respondent was not at home the

interviewer made as many as three call-backs at different

times in an effort to interview the respondent.


Data Analysis Techniques

The literature review reveals a set of variables which

may explain and predict problem drinking. The major task

of the research is to construct a model based upon existing

substantive theory and research findings which makes expli-

cit the linkage of these variables in a valid, reliable


24
Charles E. Holzer III, "Social Status and Psycho-
logical Disorder: An Examination of Two Competing Hypothe-
ses" (unpublished master's thesis; Gainesville, Florida:
University of Florida, 1973), p. 15.









causal system. Duncan introduced path analysis into the

sociological literature as a technique which holds the prom-

ise of meeting this objective.25 This technique was devel-

oped by the geneticist Sewall Wright in 1921 and is well

integrated into the field of econometrics.2

The advantages of path analysis are interpretative and

do not add to the statistics of the regression model.

These advantages are as follows: (1) The model is an ex-

plicit, consistent expression of the underlying theory.

(2) The estimate of the parameters is a direct test of the

model. (3) The model is readily decomposed into the direct

and indirect effects of the independent variables.27

The structural equations of the path model permit

estimation of the parameters. The results of this empirical

test of the model either support the formulation or lead to

a reformulation of the model. Finally, the model may

either verify, clarify, modify, or refute the substantive
28
theory that originally provided the model.2

Despite the advantages of using path analysis to ac-

complish the above objective there are rather stringent


25
Otis Dudley Duncan, "Path Analysis: Sociological
Examples," American Journal of Sociology 72 (July, 1966),
1-16.

2Kenneth C. Land, "Principals of Path Analysis,"
Sociological Methodology 1969, edited by Edgar P. Borgatta
(San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1969), pp. 5-7.
27
2Duncan, "Path Analysis," pp. 1-16.
28
Ibid, pp. 3-4.








assumptions, the violation of which must be minimized to

reduce bias. Nygreen lists eight basic assumptions of the

path model. These are:

1. Interval scale measurement on all variables.
2. Homoscedasticity assumption.
3. Low multicollinearity assumption.
4. Effects between variables are linear and
additive.
5. One-way causation .
6. Residuals are uncorrelated with an independent
variable directly affecting the dependent
variable upon which it acts .
[7.] High degree of measurement reliability and
validity.
[8.] "Undebatable" rankings of the chosen variables
in terms of their causal priorities--that is,
a clearly defined causal scheme.29

Blau and Duncan observe that the researcher may fre-

quently be unable to know when the tolerance level has

been exceeded or what the consequences of violating the

assumptions may be.30 Nevertheless, Johnston states that

the researcher ought to know the consequences of violating

the assumptions, how to test whether the assumptions are

adequately met, and the alternative techniques available

when the assumptions are unmet.31 The following section

briefly addresses this problem for each of the above assump-

tions.


29
G. T. Nygreen, "Interactive Path Analysis," The
American Sociologist 6 (February, 1971), 41.
30
Peter M. Blau and Otis Dudley Duncan, The American
Occupational Structure (New York: John Wiley and Sons,
Inc., 1967), p. 116.

31Johnston, p. 160.









Assumptions

Interval Scale Measurement of All Variables32

Labovitz, Boyle, and Lyons note that the assumption of

equal intervals on some underlying scale of X is difficult

to meet in social research. The researcher may 1) assume

that the ordered categories conform in approximation to an

underlying monotonic scale; 2) decompose the ordered cate-

gories into dummy variables; or 3) create an effects-

proportional scale.33 Boyle shows that there is little dif-

ference between the regression and path coefficient when
34
these alternatives are applied to identical data.34 However,

the use of dummy variables may involve some loss of data,35

and the effects-proportional scale does not necessarily

apply when a third variable is introduced into the model.36

For these reasons it seems reasonable to treat ordered

categories as interval scale data by assuming that these


32
Nygreen, p. 41.

33Sanford Labovitz, "The Assignment of Numbers to Rank
Order Categories," American Sociological Review 35 (June,
1970), 515-524; Richard P. Boyle, "Path Analysis and Ordinal
Data," American Journal of Sociology 75 (January, 1970), 461-
480; and Morgan Lyons, "Techniques for Using Ordinal Mea-
sures in Regression and Path Analysis," Sociological Method-
ology 1971, edited by Herbert L. Costner (San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1971), pp. 147-171.
34
Boyle, pp. 476-479.

5Labovitz, p. 523.

3Lyons, p. 168.








ordered cateogries conform in approximation to an underlying

interval scale and to treat nominal attributes as dummy

variables in the regression model.


Homoscedasticity

Homoscedasticity is defined as equal variance of the

dependent variable, Y, for any given value of the independent

variable, X. Blalock states that the regression model is

robust, tolerating moderate departures from equality of
37
variances.37 Bohrnstedt and Carter demonstrate that sig-

nificance tests, estimates of the intercept and regression

coefficients remain unbiased regardless of the degree of

heteroscedasticity.38 When heteroscedasticity is extreme,

the use of transformations of the original variable will tend

to equalize the variances.39


Low Multicollinearity Assumption

This assumption states that the intercorrelation among

the independent variables is not high. In the case of

highly intercorrelated independent variables it is likely

that each explains the same portion of the variation in the



3Hubert M. Blalock, Jr., Social Statistics (Second
Edition; New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1972), p. 325.
38
George Bohrnstedt and T. Michael Carter, "Robust-
ness in Regression Analysis," Sociological Methodology
1971, edited by Herbert L. Costner (San Francisco: Jossey-
Bass, Inc., 1971), pp. 123-125.

3Blalock, p. 325.









dependent variable. Second, highly intercorrelated inde-

pendent variables cause the regression and beta coefficients

to be susceptible to sampling and measurement error. Large

samples and accurate measurement are essential when the
40
independent variables are highly related. Blalock notes

that in creating a new variable--the cross-product interac-

tion term--multicollinearity is an obvious result since the

new variable will be highly correlated with the two from
41
which it was constructed. lutaka advises that the unique

variance explained by each independent variable may be

determined by controlling the entry of each variable into a

stepwise regression model.42


Effects Between Variables Are Linear and Additive

Heise shows that when the relationship between variables

is not linear the use of mathematical transformations to

create a new variable will assist the researcher to meet

this assumption. The major problem involved is the inspec-

tion of the data and selection of the appropriate trans-

formation. In the case of interaction--the lack of ad-

ditivity--a new variable may be created by the cross products



4Blalock, pp. 456-458.

4Ibid., p. 464.

4Sugiyama lutaka, personal communication, November,
1974.









of the independent variables.43 However, as discussed

above, the problem of multicollinearity becomes pronounced

when cross products are used to create new variables.


One-way Causation (Recursive Model)

When there is reciprocal interdependence among the

variables--when the variables are both cause and effect of

each other--the estimate will be biased inasmuch as the

error term and the independent variables will be correlated.

In this case the multiple regression model is inappropriate.

In their paper on "Peer Influences on Aspirations"

Duncan et al. introduce sociologists to a technique for

analyzing the reciprocal influences which apply when two

or more dependent variables in a model are simultaneously
44
interdependent.44 This technique is called two-stage

least-squares and is an extension of the regression model

and path analysis. It is an appropriate technique to apply

in data analysis when the reciprocal influences have be-

come relatively crystallized such as when cross-sectional

data have been obtained.



43
Heise, p. 65.
44
4Otis Dudley Duncan, Archibald O. Haller, and Alejan-
dro Portes, "Peer Influences on Aspirations: A Reinter-
pretation," American Journal of Sociology 74 (September,
1968), 119-137; and Robert Mason and Albert N. Halter, "The
Application of a System of Simultaneous Equations to an
Innovative Diffusion Model," Social Forces 47 (December,
1968), 182-195.










Residuals Are Uncorrelated with Any Independent
Variables Directly Affecting the Dependent
Variable

When measurement errors are present in the

observed values, we guarantee that the disturbance terms

will be correlated with the independent variables and with

themselves. Further, this insures that our estimates of

the path coefficients themselves will be biased."45 The

problem is that we cannot be confident that the estimates

are either attenuated or increased. Bohrnstedt and Carter

present a series of equations for correcting the path

coefficients when random measurement error is present.46


Measurement Reliability and Validity

The most serious assumption concerns measurement error.

Random measurement error may be corrected but nonrandom

error introduces a serious potential bias into the findings.

As Bohrnstedt and Carter note, sociologists have been

little concerned with the problem of measurement error,

". yet it is measurement error which produces the most

serious distortions in our regression estimates."47 Heise

and Bohrnstedt state that "sociologists almost always rely



4Bohrnstedt and Carter, p. 139.

4Ibid., pp. 139-140.
47 ., pp. 142-143
Ibid., pp. 142-143.









on fallible measuring instruments in attempting to estimate

parameters.48


Causal Ordering of the Model

The construction of a causal model is never a completed

exercise. Seldom is the researcher able to completely and

unequivocally defend the causal inferences made in model

construction. However, the problem of causal order among

the variables must be faced. The necessary criteria for

reasonably inferring the existence of a causal relationship

are 1) concomitant variation; 2) temporal sequence; and
49
3) the elimination of spurious causal factors. In other

words, X may be inferred as a cause of Y when there is a

statistically significant relationship between the variables,

when X can be demonstrated to precede Y in occurrence and

when the association between X and Y persists when the

effects of variables temporally prior to both X and Y are

controlled. In this research the focus is upon multiple

factors which combine to "cause" a particular phenomenon,

problem drinking, with a particular probability.



48David R. Heise and George W. Bohrnstedt, "Validity,
Invalidity, and Reliability," Sociological Methodology
1970, edited by Edgar P. Borgatta and George W. Bohrnstedt
(San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1970), pp. 104.

49Claire Selltiz, Marie Johoda, Morton Deutsch, and
Stuart Cook, Research Methods in Social Relations (Revised
Edition; New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1959),
pp. 80-94.








It is obvious that the researcher who is able to manip-

ulate the independent variables in an experimental labora-

tory is in a more secure position in making causal infer-

ences than the researcher who analyzes cross-sectional survey

data. However, this research, as most social research, is

an analysis of cross-sectional survey data. Selltiz et al.

state that the inferences of causality drawn in nonexperi-

mental studies remain tenuous and the assumption of the

time order may rest primarily upon logical considerations.50

Heise states that model building without complete informa-

tion on the causal ordering to the variables may be justi-

fied as a method of summarizing present knowledge in order

to promote future research efforts.51


Summary

The research problem of this study is to describe,

explain, and predict the conditions under which adult resi-

dents of four central Florida counties experience problem

drinking. This study is one facet of a larger social psy-

chiatric epidemiological survey. Interview questions are

selected from textbooks and research literature on social

psychiatric impairment on the basis of face validity,

factor analyzed and Crombach's Alpha calculated to enhance

the validity and reliability of the measures. Respondents



0Selltiz et al., p. 423.

5Heise, p. 66.









were selected by utilizing a multistage cluster sample tech-

nique, and trained interviewers administered an extensive

interview schedule to the respondents. The data were coded

and placed on IBM tapes for data analysis. The existing

theory and research findings pertinent to this study are

specified in a series of mathematical equations which make

explicit the theoretical assumptions. The statistical

technique utilized for estimation of the parameters in this

study is two-stage least-squares, a technique which is

appropriate when two or more of the endogenous variables in

the model are interdependent. The findings of this analysis

are presented in the next chapter.














CHAPTER IV

DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS



Introduction


This study utilizes one aspect of a larger social

psychiatric epidemiological survey. The purpose of this

study is to describe, explain, and predict the conditions

under which adult residents of four central Florida counties

experience problem drinking as measured by a problem-drink-

ing index. Particularly, the researcher wishes to analyze

the reciprocal relationship that theoretically applies be-

tween four of the dependent variables. The respondents are

a representative sample of the adult residents of these

counties. Holzer compares the major demographic variables

of one of the counties in the sample with the 1970 U.S.

Census and confirms its representativeness.1

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the charac-

teristics of the sample and the findings of the data analy-

sis. This description provides the basis for the interpre-

tations and conclusions which follow in Chapter V.



Charles E. Holzer III, "Social Status and Psychological
Disorder: An Examination of Two Competing Hypotheses"
(unpublished master's thesis, Gainesville, Florida: Univer-
sity of Florida, 1973), p. 15.









Characteristics of the Sample

Those characteristics which may have an effect upon

rates of problem drinking as suggested in the review of the

literature are described in this section.

A majority of the respondents, 56.8 per cent, are

women, while 43.2 per cent are men. The literature review

suggests that women will experience a considerably lower

rate of problem drinking than men.

The majority of the respondents, 82.3 per cent, are

white, 17 per cent are black, 0.6 per cent are Oriental,

and 0.1 per cent report a racial identity other than white,

black, or Oriental. The literature review suggests that

nonwhites will demonstrate a higher level of problem drink-

ing than whites.

The majority of the respondents, 64.9 per cent, are

married, 13.4 per cent are single, 21.3 per cent are

widowed, separated, or divorced, and 0.4 per cent are mar-

ried under common law arrangements. According to the litera-

ture review, the 34.7 per cent who are not currently married

are more likely than married persons to experience problem

drinking.

Essentially all of the respondents, 3,668, reported

their ages. The median age is 43.1 years and the mean is

44.4 years, with a standard deviation of 18.5 years. The

general distribution of those who report their ages is as

follows: 5.2 per cent are younger than age 20, 13.1 per









cent are age 20 to 24, 10 per cent are age 25 to 29, 8.1

per cent are age 30 to 34, 7.6 per cent are age 35 to 39,

7.7 per cent are age 40 to 44, 7.4 per cent are age 45 to

49, 8.2 per cent are age 50 to 54, 6.1 per cent are age 55

to 59, 7.1 per cent are age 60 to 64, and 19.8 per cent are

over the age of 64. The literature review suggests a sharp

drop-off of problem drinking after the age of 60, and 26.9

per cent of the current sample fall within that group.

Nearly all the respondents, 3,657, report whether they

live in a rural area or in town. The majority, 79.7 per

cent, live in town, while 20.3 per cent report living in

rural areas. The literature review suggests that problem

drinking increases with the size of the city in which the

respondents live. However, none of the respondents live

in a large urban area, the largest city in the area studied

having a population of less than 70,000 at the time of the

survey.

A majority of the 3,674 respondents, 60.6 per cent,

presently attend church. Most of these persons, 52 per

cent, attend church at least once a week. However, most

of the respondents, 60 per cent, do not attend a church

that formally proscribes drinking alcoholic beverages.

The largest proportion of those who attend a church

that formally proscribes drinking alcoholic beverages

(15.2 per cent of the total sample), attend the Baptist

Church. The largest proportion of those who attend a church









that does not proscribe drinking (12.4 per cent of the total

sample), attend the Catholic Church; 0.7 per cent attend a

synagogue, while 3.5 per cent did not report their church

affiliation.

Nearly all of the respondents, 3,652, report their level

of educational achievement. The mean level of educational

achievement is 12.3 years, with a standard deviation of 4.7

years. Less than 7 per cent of the respondents have no

formal education, 17.5 per cent have an eighth grade educa-

tion or less, 60.7 per cent have at least some college credit,

31.6 per cent of the respondents have at least graduated

from college, and 12.2 per cent have some post college work

or a post graduate degree. It should be noted that the

high level of education reflects the presence of a major

state university in one of the counties. Heavy drinking

may be expected to be higher among those of higher educa-

tional levels, while problem drinking is expected to be more

prevalent among respondents with lower educational achieve-

ment.

The mean level of total family income is $9,453, with

a standard deviation of $7,400. A fairly large proportion

of the respondents, 15.9 per cent, did not provide informa-

tion on their total family income. Of those who reported

their total family income, 16 per cent have an income of

less than $3,000, 21.4 per cent have an income of between

$3,000 and $4,999, 24.1 per cent earn between $6,000 and









$9,999, 20.9 per cent earn between $10,000 and $14,999, and

17.6 per cent have a total family income over $15,000. The

research suggests that higher rates of heavy drinking may

be expected among lower income respondents.

A level of occupational prestige is also assigned each

respondent, on the basis of present job, husband's job for

married women, father's job for students, and past job if

retired, disabled, or unemployed. The mean prestige score

is 53.8, with a standard deviation of 27.3. Of the respon-

dents, 14.1 per cent rank in the range of 0 to 19, 3-0.4 per

cent in the range 20 to 29, 8.5 per cent in the range 40 to

59, 23 per cent in the range 60 to 79, and 24 per cent rank

over 80 in their relative occupational prestige. Occupa-

tional prestige can be expected to have the same general

effect on drinking patterns as the above two socioeconomic

variables.

This study examines the impact of these three separate

measures of socioeconomic status upon problem drinking. The

product moment correlation between education and total

family income is .09; between education and occupational

prestige it is .12; and between total family income and

occupational prestige it is .31. It is assumed that each of

these measures taps a different aspect of socioeconomic

status,and consequently they are treated separately rather

than in a composite socioeconomic status score.








Psychosocial Characteristics of the Sample

Three of the variables in the model, perceived value-

access disjunction, general psychopathology, and.anxiety,

are considered to be reciprocal in their relationship with

problem drinking. These four variables are the dependent,

endogenous variables to be explained.

The mean score on the measure of perceived value-access

disjunction is 6.9, with a standard deviation of 2.3. Cantril

reports a mean score on the Cantril Self-Anchoring Striving

Scale of 6.2 for American respondents in 1963, 6.3 for whites

and 5.2 for black respondents.2 The existing theory suggests

that the greater the perceived value-access disjunction, the

greater the disposition toward problem drinking and vice versa.

The mean score on the measure of general psychopathology

is 4.8, with a standard deviation of 3.4. The existing

theory suggests that the greater the level of general psy-

chopathology,the greater the disposition toward problem drink-

ing, and vice versa.

The measure of anxiety is highly skewed toward the upper

end of the index. The mean score is 2.0, with a standard

deviation of 4.4. It should be noted in subsequent analysis

that significance tests based upon this skewed measure are

subject to error. However, this error is minimized statis-

tically by the large number in the sample and,theoretically,

by the emphasis in this research on model building rather


Hadley Cantril, The Pattern of Human Concerns (New Bruns-
wick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1965), p. 43.








than hypothesis testing. A major suggestion for further

study is the construction of a less skewed measure of anxiety.


Drinking Patterns of the Sample

The measure of problem drinking is also skewed toward the

upper end of the index. The comment above concerning the

measure of anxiety applies to this measure as well. The

majority of the respondents report a low consumption of al-

cohol and no resultant problems. The mean score on the mea-

sure is 1.7 and the standard deviation is 2.5.

The drinking patterns of the respondents may be de-

scribed in the following way. A large proportion of the re-

spondents, 40.5 per cent, state that they do not drink

alcohol. This is a higher rate of abstinence than would be

expected in light of national surveys; Cahalan et al. and

the Gallup Poll report an abstinence rate of 32 per cent

of the adult population. Of the respondents, 13.6 per cent-.

drink often or every day, 23.5 per cent seldom drink, and

22.4 per cent drink sometimes.

Of those who drink, 66.7 per cent are never intoxicated,

while 1.0 per cent are drunk every week. Of those who drink,

33.3 per cent report being drunk at some time during the

previous year, and 3.9 per cent report being drunk at least


3
Don Cahalan, Ira H. Cisin, and Helen M. Crossley,
American Drinking Patterns (New Haven, Connecticut: College
and University Press, 1969), p. 200; and George Gallup,
"Alcoholism Is a National Concern," Jacksonville Times-
Union and Journal (June 9, 1974), p. A-15.








several times a month. The great majority of those who

drink, 97.8 per cent, never have too much to drink for

several days at a time, and 93.4 per cent of those who drink

have no problems as a result of drinking. Of those who

drink, 90.8 per cent don't think that they drink too much for

their own good. However, 10.5 per cent of those who drink

use alcohol to help face their problems and 5.1 per cent do

so to face their problems sometimes, often, or everyday.

This description suggests that the great majority of

the respondents consume alcohol in a controlled, normative

fashion. However, a significant portion of the sample drink

excessively, drink in a utilitarian manner, and get into

trouble as a result of drinking.


The Theoretical Model

The theory and research findings presented in the litera-

ture review were specified in a series of mathematical

equations in Chapter III. This set of equations follows:

(1) Y1=C1+B 4+BX -B X3+BX5+B X7+B X+R

(2) Y2=C2+B2Y4+B2X1+B2X2+B2X3+B2X4+B2X6+B2X8+B +R

(3) Y3=C3+B Y +B 3X+B X +B X +B X +B X +B3X9+R

(4) Y4=C4+B Y1+B4Y2+B4X3+B 4X+B4X2+B4X5+B4X6+B4X7


B4X+B4X10+Rd.

Multiple regression was considered as a possible data

analysis technique because of its relative power to make








use of all the available data in estimating the parameters.

However, the above model shows that Y4 is theoretically con-

sidered to be both cause and effect of each of the other

endogenous variables. In such cases, the use of multiple

regression is inappropriate because it produces a biased,

inconsistent estimate of the parameters inasmuch as the ex-

planatory exogenous variable will be associated with the
4
residual error term. Consequently, the technique of two-

stage least-squares was selected from the field of econome-

trics for use as an appropriate method for a relatively

unbiased estimation of parameters in a set of equations

where the assumed relationship is reciprocal rather than

unidirectional.


Identification of the Model

Prior to estimation of the parameters in the model, it

is necessary to ascertain whether or not sufficient con-

straints have been placed on the set of equations so that

the parameters can be identified. An equation may be con-

sidered just identified when the number of variables ex-

cluded from any equation is equal to one less than the num-

ber of equations in the model. An equation may be con-

sidered overidentified when variables excluded are equal to

more than one less than the number of equations. Both just



4J. Johnston, Econometric Methods (Second Edition;
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1972), p. 376.









identified and overidentified equations are identifiable

and present no problem in the next step of estimation of

parameters. The first three of these equations are over-

identified by this rule while the fourth equation is just

identified. The system may be estimated by two-stage

least-squares.


The Reduced-Form Model

In the first stage of two-stage least-squares, the

above theoretical model is transformed into reduced-form

equations where each endogenous variable (Y ) is expressed

as a function of all the exogenous variables (X, .

X10) in the system. Then, by using these coefficients and

the observed values of the exogenous variables, estimates of

the values of the endogenous variables are obtained. The

purpose of this first stage is to attempt to "purge" each

endogenous variable of the effects of all others with which

it is reciprocally related by estimating what the respon-

dent's score on that variable would have been if the other

variables had not had an opportunity to affect it.6 The

reduced-form model follows:



Robert Mason and Albert N. Halter, "The Application of
a System of Simultaneous Equations to an Innovative Diffusion
Model," Social Forces 47 (December, 1968), 183-195.

Melvin L. Kohn and Carmi Schooler, "Occupational
Experience and Psychological Functioning: An Assessment of
Reciprocal Effects," American Sociological Review 38
(February, 1973), 111.








(5) Yl=cl+blxl+bl2+bl3+b x+b +bx6+b x+blx8+

bix9+blXl0+Ra

(+bl+b +b X3+b +b +bX +b +bXg+
(6) Y2=c2+b2Xl+b2x2+b2x3+b2x4+b2x5+b2x6+b2x7+b2x8+

b2x9+b2x10+Rb

(7) Y3=c3+b3X +b3x2+b3x3+b3x4+b3x5+b3x6+b x+b3x8+
3 3 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 6 3 7 3 8

b3x9+b3x10+R

(8) y4=c4+b4l+b4x2+b4x3+b4x4+b4x5+b4x6+b4x7+b4x8+

b4x9+b4xl0+Rd

These equations can be estimated by the multiple re-

gression technique because there is only one endogenous

variable in each equation. The estimated values obtained

from the reduced-form equations provide an efficient and

relatively unbiased estimate of the endogenous variables.


The Structural Model

The original system of equations--(1), (2), (3), and

(4)--can now be estimated using multiple regression by in-

serting the values of the estimated endogenous variables,

91, 92 9 3, and y4 and using the observed values of the
exogenous variables. The structural equation model follows:

(9) 9=Cl+bl 4+bllx+bx 3+blx5+bx 7+bx8+Ra

(10) 2=c2+b2 4+b 2x+b2x2+b2x3+b2x+b2x6+b2x8+b2x9+Rb

(11) 3=c3+b3 4+b3xl+b3x2+b3x3+b3+b3x5 +b3x+R








(12) 94=c4+b4 1+b4 2+b43+b4xl+b4x2+b4x5+b4x6+bx7+

b4x8+b4Xl0+Rd'

These equations may be interpreted as an explicit formu-

lation of the existing theory. Equation (9) states that per-

ceived value-access disjunction y1 may be estimated as a

function of some constant cl, the estimated value of problem

drinking when not affected by the variables with which it is

reciprocally related, 94, age xl, race x3, total family in-

come x5, education x7, marital status x8, and a residual

error term R
a
Equation (10) states that general psychopathology can

be estimated as a function of some constant c2, the estimated

value of problem drinking when not affected by the variable

with which it is reciprocally related, 94, age xl, sex x2,

race x3, residence x4, occupational prestige x6, marital

status x8, residential mobility x9, and a residual error

term Rb'

Equation (11) states that anxiety can be estimated as

a function of some constant c3, the estimated value of

problem drinking when not affected by the variables with

which it is reciprocally related, 94, age xl, sex x2, race

x3, residence x4, total family income x5, residential

mobility x9, and a residual error term Rc

Finally, equation (12) states that problem drinking can

be estimated as a function of some constant cq, the estimated








value of perceived value-access disjunction 91, general

psychopathology 92, and anxiety 93, when these are not

affected by the influence of problem drinking, and age xl,

sex x2, total family income x5, occupational prestige x6,

education x7, marital status x8, religious proscription

xl0, and a residual error term Rd.


The Path Model

In the schematic presentation of the path model, it is

customary to use one-way arrows on a straight line leading

from each exogenous variable to the endogenous variable

dependent on it. Two-headed arrows on a curved line are

drawn between variables that may be related but which are

not analyzed in the model. These are the predetermined

exogenous variables. The path or beta coefficients are

written on the lines with one-way arrows and represent the

sign and the proportion of the standard deviation of the

endogenous variable for which a one standard deviation change

in the designated exogenous variable is directly responsible

when all other variables in the model including the resi-
8
dual term are controlled. A residual term (R ) is directly
a
linked to each endogenous variable.



Otis Dudley Duncan, "Path Analysis: Sociological
Examples," American Journal of Sociology 72 (June, 1966), 3.

Kenneth C. Land, "Principles of Path Analysis,"
Sociological Methodology 1969, edited by Edgar P. Borgatta
(San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1969), p. 9.









it may be helpful to think of the residual as a
dummy variable having unit variance and zero mean and
as representing all unmeasured variables which cause
variation in the endogenous variable. The residual
path coefficient, then, represents the proportion of
the standard deviation of the endogenous vari-
able that is caused by all measured variables outside
the set under consideration in the path model.9

The residual path coefficient may be computed by the formula
2 10
R =1-R2.
a
The simple correlation coefficients may be written on

the curved two-headed line.11 However, in this presentation

the correlation coefficients are presented in the zero-

order correlation matrix in Table 1, because the large num-

ber of variables would produce an unintelligible tangle of

curved lines.

The path model illustrated in Figure 1 indicates that

the variables in the model explain 15 per cent of the

variance of the scores on the problem-drinking index. As

anticipated,when all other variables in the model are con-

trolled, the most important single predictor is sex, with

males scoring higher on the problem-drinking index.

The second most important predictor is the respondent's

score on the general psychopathology index, r=.20. A break-

down of the relationship shows that, while there is a

gradual increase in the problem-drinking scores with an



Land, "Principles of Path Analysis," p. 12.

10Ibid., p. 13.

1Duncan, "Path Analysis," p. 3.















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increase in psychopathology, the most significant impact of

psychopathology is at the upper end of the index with those

who rate high on the psychopathology index ranking high on

problem drinking.

The third most important variable is age, r=-.16.

Compatible with other recent findings, young people are

found to rank highest in problem drinking,while there is a

gradual drop-off until age 60, after which problem-

drinking scores drop dramatically.

The fourth ranking variable is attendance at a church

that proscribes drinking. People who attend churches which

formally proscribe alcohol consumption are less likely to

experience a high degree of problem drinking.

Anxiety follows as the next most important variable,

r=.17. The pattern described above for the relationship

between genera] psychopathology and problem drinking applies

as well to anxiety and problem drinking. Those respondents

who rank high on the anxiety index are likely to rank high

on the problem-drinking index.

Total family income is the next most significant vari-

able, r=.ll. There is a gradual increase in the problem-

drinking score as the total family income increases. This

finding is at variance with the majority of existing re-

search, which indicates that problem drinking increases with

lower income levels and heavy drinking increases as income

increases. This finding may be explained by the dependence









of the present measure of problem drinking upon the quantity

and frequency of alcoholic consumption.

Marital status comes next in significance in predicting

the problem-drinking score. The unmarried person is more

likely than the married respondent to rank high on the

problem-drinking index.

Perceived value-access disjunction ranks next, r=.09.

Those who demonstrate high value-access disjunction are

likely to score high on problem drinking. Most of the vari-

ation in the relationship is at both ends of the index.

Occupational prestige and education are only slightly

related to problem drinking with an r=.07 and .05 respec-

tively. When the other variables in the model are con-

trolled, neither prestige nor education is significantly

associated with problem drinking.

One of the purposes of this study is to examine the

interdependent reciprocal relationships among the four

endogenous variables. In order to estimate the parameters,

it is necessary to construct an equation for each of the

endogenous variables.

The existing theory suggests that the relationship

between perceived value-access disjunction and problem

drinking is reciprocal. Analysis of the relationship re-

veals that when other variables in the model are controlled,

a one standard deviation change in the measure of perceived

value-access disjunction causes a .04 standard deviation









change in problem drinking, with a feedback of .09 standard

deviation change in perceived value-access disjunction.

The theory also suggests that the relationship be-

tween general psychopathology and problem drinking is re-

ciprocal. Analysis of this relationship reveals that a

one standard deviation change in psychopathology causes a

.16 standard deviation change in problem drinking with a

feedback of .20 standard deviation change in psychopathology.

Anxiety and problem drinking are assumed to be recipro-

cal in their relationship as well. A one standard deviation

change in the anxiety score causes a .09 standard deviation

change in problem drinking with a feedback of .17 standard

deviation change.

The test of the model verifies the existing theory that,

for the most part, those integrated into the social system

and socialized to norms of social control are less likely to

be problem drinkers. Females are more likely to be social-

ized to a norm of moderation in drinking, as this research

verifies. Older persons are more likely to be responsible

for families, businesses, and community affairs, which seems

to constrain them from excessive drinking. In all proba-

bility, the major reason for low to moderate drinking in the

age cohort 60-plus is health reasons. Attendance at a

church that formally proscribes drinking is a strong con-

straint on drinking, lending support to the general theoret-

ical formulation of the study.









Race and rural residence have little impact on the

rate of problem drinking, and,while the correlation between

the three socioeconomic variables is not high, whatever

variance is explained by total family income is essentially

the same as that part of the variance explained by education

and occupational prestige inasmuch as neither is signifi-

cant when introduced into the multiple regression model. The

relationship between perceived value-access disjunction and

problem drinking is low and suggests either the presence of

other significant unmeasured variables or inadequate opera-

tionalization of perceived value-access disjunction.

The model also demonstrates that personal integration

is a constraint against immoderate drinking. Those respon-

dents with high scores on the anxiety and psychopathology

measure are also likely to rank high on the problem-drinking

index. In both cases, it is interesting to note that the

feedback from problem drinking to the personal variable is

somewhat greater than the impact of that variable on problem

drinking; in other words, problem drinking has significant

implications for the social psychological state of the

individual. Certainly the social and psychodynamics of

problem drinking are complex and highly interrelated. How-

ever, this finding suggests that "drying out" the problem

drinker will have a significant impact on some of those

psychosocial factors considered to dispose one toward

problem drinking.








Summary

In this chapter, the characteristics of the sample are

described. It is noted that for the great majority of

respondents the use of alcohol is not problematic and

appears to be within normative bounds. Six and six-tenths

per cent of those respondents who drink report some problems

as a result of their drinking and 10.5 per cent of those who

drink report that they do so to help face their problems.

The data are analyzed using two-stage least-squares,

a technique suitable for estimation of the parameters when

two or more of the endogenous variables are interrelated.

As anticipated, the explained variance is rather low, 15

per cent. However, the most influential explanatory vari-

ables in the model are sex, general psychopathology, anxiety,

age, and religious proscription. An examination of the

reciprocal relationship between problem drinking and the

personal variables in the model reveals that problem drink-

ing has significant implications for the individual's psy-

chosocial state as well as the usually assumed influence of

psychosocial dynamics on problem drinking.




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